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Sample records for turkish soma lignite

  1. Production of metallurgical cokes from some Turkish lignites using sulphite liquor binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanik, J.; Saglam, M.; Yuksel, M. (Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-04-01

    Soma and Tuncbilek lignites were briquetted at 80{degree}C under 0-100 MPa, using varying amounts of sulphite liquor binders. The briquettes were then carbonized at 950{degree}C, and the resulting formed cokes were examined. The effects of the type and concentration of binders, and of the briquetting pressure, on the strength and porosity of the formcokes were investigated. As a result of these experiments, optimal briquetting conditions were established. It was also stated that formcokes made from both Turkish lignite samples under optimal briquetting conditions could be used for metallurgical purposes, particularly in non-ferrous metallurgy. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.

    2009-01-01

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 deg. C at a heating rate of 40 deg. C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management.

  3. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Dept., 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 C at a heating rate of 40 C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management. (author)

  4. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktur, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lowerrank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy.

  5. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktar, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lower-rank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash yield and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy. 38 references.

  6. An overview of underground coal gasification and its applicability for Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekpak, E.; Yoncaci, S.; Kilic, M.G. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Coal is expected to maintain its significance as an energy source for a longer time period than oil and natural gas. Environmental concerns have led to the development of clean coal technologies, such as coal gasification. Coal gasification can be used at either at surface or in underground coal gasification (UCG). UCG has several advantages over surface gasification and conventional mining such as rank low calorific value coals. Coal gasification also has the potential to contribute to the energy supply of a country. Most Turkish coals are lignite and UCG may enable diversification of energy sources of Turkey and may help decrease external dependency on energy. This paper presented a study that matched a UCG technique to the most appropriate (Afsin Elbistan) lignite reserve in Turkey. Two UCG techniques were presented, including the linked vertical well method, and the directional drilling-controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) method. The properties of coal seams and coal properties were also outlined. It was concluded that Cobanbey is the most preferable sector in the Elbistan Lignite Reserve for a pilot study, and that the linked vertical well method could be considered as a candidate method. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Hydropyrolysis of a Turkish lignite (Tuncbilek) and effect of temperature and pressure on product distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canel, M.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Science

    2005-08-01

    The hydropyrolysis of a Turkish lignite (Tuncbilek) in a swept fixed bed reactor connected with a thermo-balance was performed at a heating rate of 3 C/min up to 950 C under 0.5MPa, 1MPa and 10MPa hydrogen pressures. The formation rates of gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon oxides, water and tar were determined. The difference between the weight loss due to tar formation of the non-condensable total and the weight loss of the sample recorded continuously with the thermo-balance showed the corresponding curve of tar formation rate as a function of temperature. It was shown that the total conversion and the formation rate of the products during hydropyrolysis could be influenced by varying the pressure. On the other hand, the volatile matter evolved during pyrolysis was substantially increased in the presence of hydrogen and especially when elevated hydrogen pressure was used.

  8. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: a Turkish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykiri-Acma, H; Yaman, S

    2008-11-01

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA up to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (Rmax), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (T(R-max)), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, Rmax, and T(R-max), were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  9. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: A Turkish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykirl-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA tip to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (R{sub max}), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (TR{sub max}), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, R{sub max} and TR{sub max}, were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  10. Acid leaching of coal: to produce clean fuels from Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seferinoglu, Meryem [Mineral Research and Exploration Directorate (Turkey)], email: meryem_seferinoglu66@yahoo.com; Duzenli, Derya [Ankara Central Laboratory (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing concerns about the environment, energy producers and governments are looking at developing clean energy sources. However, Turkey has limited clean energy resources and is using low grade coal which has high sulphur content as an alternative energy source. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of generating clean fuel from Edirne Lignite and to get a better understanding of chemical mechanisms involved in coal leaching with hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions. Leaching was conducted on Edirne Lignite with HF solution at ambient temperature and the effects of parameters such as reaction time and concentration of acid solutions on the process were evaluated. The optimum conditions were found and it was shown that ash levels can be reduced from 28.9% to 10.5% and the calorific value increased by 500kcal/kg with the HF leaching method. This study demonstrated that the production of clean fuel from high sulphur lignite is possible.

  11. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  12. Lignite; Braunkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbach, Erwin; Maassen, Uwe [Debriv e.V., Berlin und Koeln (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The domestic lignite is the most important and in the foreseeable future, the only domestic energy resource that is available in large quantities and economically. It makes an essential contribution to secure and competitive energy supply and has a high regional as macroeconomic importance. The required guarantied capacity for the development of renewable energy, the lignite provides under competition conditions. The flexibility of the lignite power plants is in addition to security of supply and competitiveness, a strategic added value for a reliable power supply. [German] Die heimische Braunkohle ist die wichtigste und in ueberschaubarer Zukunft auch die einzige heimische Energieressource, die in grossen Mengen und wirtschaftlich zur Verfuegung steht. Sie leistet einen unverzichtbaren Beitrag zur sicheren und wettbewerbsfaehigen Energieversorgung und hat eine hohe regional- wie gesamtwirtschaftliche Bedeutung. Die fuer den Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien notwendige gesicherte Leistung stellt die Braunkohle unter Wettbewerbsbedingungen zur Verfuegung. Die Flexibilitaet des Braunkohlenkraftwerksparks ist neben Versorgungssicherheit und Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit ein strategischer Zusatznutzen fuer eine sichere Stromversorgung.

  13. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  14. Números reais e curiosidades das somas infinitas

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Priscila Klitzke

    2016-01-01

    Podemos encontrar muitas surpresas interessantes no estudo das somas infinitas de números reais (series). Nessa perspectiva, este trabalho traz um estudo sobre as somas infinitas e mostra algumas curiosidades sobre elas, em especial sobre a serie harmônica. Começamos nosso estudo sobre somas infinitas, considerando exemplos com interpretações geométricas que tornam o estudo de series mais atraente. Discutimos também propriedades aritméticas, comutativa e associativa, das somas ...

  15. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  16. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  17. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  18. Radioactivity of Yatagan lignites and their ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, F.; Mustafaev, I.; Aliyev, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of harmful factor of Environmental impact of coal combustion is radiation pollution of Environment. The natural radioisotopes - uranium, thorium and potassium and products of their radioactive destruction contains of radionuclides. These radionuclides in composition of fly ash are thrown to atmosphere from coal combustion furnaces. The concentration of radioisotopes in composition of coals changes in the wide ranges: from 3 up to 520 Becquerel per kilogram (Bq/kg) for Uranium-238 and from 3 up to 320 Bq/kg for thorium-232. The radioactive pollution degree of environment depends on radioisotopes content of initial fuels. In this connection at the estimation of outlook and exploitation of coal mines it is necessary to determine of radioisotopes concentration in coals. That is why investigation of radioisotopes concentration of Turkish lignites has great importance. In this work the radionuclide content of Yatagan lignites and their ash, taken from Gekova thermal Electro station have been studied. The total radiation background generated by these samples was investigated by using of dosimeters 8P-5, CRP-88H, PYB-OIP. Radionuclides content of samples was determined in the Institute of Geology Azerbaijan national Academy of Sciences by using of highly sensitivity gamma-spectrometer CAPU-2, designed by Special Constructor Buro G eophysika . The plant allows to determine the radioisotopes content of solid and liquid samples with highly reliability. It has been established that in sample of lignite uranium content (on the radium equivalent) is 68 Bq/kg, potassium-149 Bq/kg and thorium is absent. The total radioactivity of lignite sample is 79,7 Bq/kg. In the ash sample uranium content is 266 Bq/kg, potassium-188 Bq/kg, and total activity reach to 300 Bq/kg. The possibility of application of purification erection for radionuclides from smoke gases of coal combustion is discussed

  19. Neyveli lignite - a status overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-14

    The lignite mines of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation in Tamil Nadu in India are described: characteristics of the deposit; choice of mining method (surface mining); groundwater control; storm water control; overburden removal; mining equipment (bucket wheel excavators, belt conveyors and spreaders); generation of electric power; production of fertilizer; production of lignite briquettes and tar products. A second mine and thermal power plant are planned.

  20. Adsorption of an anionic dispersant on lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, R.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    2001-12-01

    Since coal is not a homogeneous substance but a mixture of carbonaceous materials and mineral matter, it has a variety of surface properties. Therefore, it is not easy to control the properties of coal suspensions by simply adjusting variables, such as pH and/or electrolyte. A chemical agent needs to be added to control the properties of the coal suspensions. The adsorption behavior of an anionic dispersant in the presence of a wetting agent using some Turkish lignite samples was investigated. The effects of dispersant concentration, temperature and pH on the dispersant adsorption were studied systematically, and the experimental results are presented. Pellupur B69 as a dispersant, commercial mixture of formaldehyde condensate sodium salt of naphthalene sulphonic acid, and Texapon N{sub 2}5 as a wetting agent, a sodium lauryl ether sulfate, have been used.

  1. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  2. Evaluation of lignite tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossedin, A

    1946-01-01

    Tar from the low-temperature (450/sup 0/) carbonization of lignite from Bouches-du-Rhone was hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst based on MoS/sub 2/ with a 3:1 H:N mixture. Processing (at 470/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) for maximum production of gasoline yielded 86 wt % of a product of boiling 55 to 186/sup 0/ and motor octane number 75. An alternative is to hydrogenate with a view to producing solvents and lubricants. For this purpose the tar was separated by distillation (at 20 millimeters, cutting at 220/sup 0/) into two fractions of equal volume. On hydrogenation (at 300/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) the light part yields a gasoline H/sub 2/O-soluble cut, a highly aromatic solvent fraction, a heavier cut (280/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/) suitable as a plasticizer, and a phenol fraction. The heavier part of the tar is hydrogenated (at 380/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) to give spindle oil and lubricating oil of medium eta (11.2 centistokes at 98.2/sup 0/), moderate eta index (64), good pour point (-7/sup 0/), and good oxidizing characteristics. The overall yield of products from the two portions is 86.9% (gasoline and solvent 32, light phenols 9.7, spindle oil 14.2, medium lubricating oil 25.7, wax, 5.3%).

  3. Recovery of uranium from lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium in raw lignite is associated with the organic matter and is readily soluble in acid (and carbonate) solutions. However, beneficiation techniques were not successful for concentrating the uranium or removing part of the reagent-consuming materials. Once the lignite was heated, the uranium became much less soluble in both acid and carbonate solutions, and complete removal of carbon was required to convert it back to a soluble form. Proper burning improves acid-leaching efficiency; that is, it reduces the reagent consumption and concentrates the uranium, thereby reducing plant size for comparable uranium throughput, and it eliminates organic fouling of leach liquors. Restrictions are necessary during burning to prevent the uranium from becoming refractory. The most encouraging results were obtained by flash-burning lignite at 1200 to 1300 0 C and utilizing the released SO 2 to supplement the acid requirement. The major acid consumers were aluminum and iron

  4. Overview of Neyveli lignite complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The growth and development of the Neyveli lignite complex in Tamil Nadu, India are discussed. A second lignite mine is being developed together with a second thermal power station and erection of transmission lines between Neyveli-Salem and Neyveli-Red Hills is under way. The contribution of power to Tamil Nadu has grown into an extremely valuable asset; exports have risen by 71% in the four years leading up to 1984 and company turn-over has increased 164% over the same period. Performance during 1983-84 is analysed in terms of production figures, productivity and capacity utilisation.

  5. Soma of the Rigveda and an attempt to identify it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S; Mehdi, F S

    1989-01-01

    Ephedra juice is used as the drink of longevity given even to the new born. This is an Aryan custom mentioned in Rigveda and followed even by the Romans. To trace the history of this custom would lead to identifying Soma = Ephedra. The original species of Ephedra or Soma proper would be Ephedra sinica, the Chinese plant. It is the one species with yellow stalks. This has been illustrated so that it confirms Rigveda speaking of Soma as "golden yellow." The name Soma is also a loan word from Chinese meaning "fire-yellow fibers of hemp." The plant Soma is described as "thousand boughs" and photographic evidence has been offered in support. Each stalk is rod-like resembling an arrow as Rigveda speaks of it. An illustration has been offered to show the plant with stalks which are straight and rod-like, comparable with an arrow.

  6. Expansion of Neyveli lignite mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes activities at Neyveli lignite mines in the Tamil Nadu region of India. The equipment used, in mining and materials handling is described. Problems encountered in the conveyor transport system are described, and the solutions finally adopted are presented.

  7. Macedonian lignite - upgrading and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musich, Mark A.; Young, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    Macedonian lignites have a high moisture content, low heating value, and are friable, generating fines and dust. Macedonia has an urgent need to use indigenous solid fuel resources for domestic and industrial heating as well as metallurgical applications. The goal of this project was to evaluate the potential for beneficiating Macedonian lignite and producing high-quality briquettes for metallurgical use as well as domestic/industrial heating. Laboratory studies have shown that treating the Macedonian lignite fines by two physical processes-cleaning and carbonization-followed by pelletizing. can generate acceptable lump fuels for heating applications. Carbonizing the float-sink-cleaned lignite to reduce the volatile matter content and pelletizing the resultant char with starch produced strong pellets, which could be used as a home-heating fuel, the char having a heat content of 13,400 Btu/lb (31.2 MJ/Kg). However, additional work is required at the pilot scale to determine optimum briquetting conditions and production costs. (Author)

  8. Powerful boost for Indian lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) of India has begun the first phase of an expansion program that will open a second mine and boost lignite production in Tamil Nadu to nearly five times its present level within the next 15 years. Mining conditions at Neyveli are particularly difficult. The harsh abrasive overburden strata present severe and strenuous conditions; sticky and marshy surface clays, the presence of groundwater aquifers, the cyclonic and monsoonal climate and high stripping ratios are other problems. The overburden is drilled and blasted; in areas of sticky topsoil, non-stick liners for the buckets etc. are used. Adequate safeguards and infrastructure are being developed to deal with differing strata conditions. The conveyor transport system features slow, wider belt conveyors, changeover from fixed type roller to freely hanging garland type, interlinking of benches and specially designed drive heads. The groundwater aquifers are continuously depressurized by grid pumping from a series of pumps; boreholes have been sunk to 120 m.

  9. Lignite mining in India - technology highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-01-01

    Figures for lignite production and its role in the Indian energy scene are presented. Lignite mining at Neyveli is described in detail, including: advance preparation of the overburden strata; modifications to bucket wheel excavators; tackling the sticky surface clays; ground water management; storm water control; tackling higher overburden-to-lignite ratios; materials handling; communications within the mine; the development of indigenous mining equipment; and ecology and environmental control.

  10. Treatment of lignite tars, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-08-07

    A process is described for treating tars such as lignite tar, shale tar, or peat tar, and similar tars, characterized by the fact that the tar is rectified to about 240/sup 0/C and the residue brought to a temperature above 50/sup 0/C after diluting with a product of the type of gasoline or ligroin at about 30/sup 0/C and treated with selective solvents preferably low-boiling phenols and eventually with water.

  11. THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNITE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Cao Xinyu; Cen Kefa

    2000-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of lignite blends were studied with a thermogravimetric analyzer (t.g.a.), at constant heating rate.The characteristic temperatures were determined from the burning profiles.It was found that the characteristic times of combustion reaction moved forward, the ignition temperature dropped and the burnout efficiency slightly changed when blending lignites.The characteristic parameters of blends could not be predicted as a linear function of the average values of the individual lignites.when blending with less reactive coal, the ignition and burnout characteristics of lignite turned worse.

  12. Lignite boost for North. [Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerkin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of lignite, estimated at around 500 million tonnes, have been discovered on the shores of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. The Government has granted a mining licence and planning permission to Burnett and Hallamshire Holdings to start work on the deposit. It is proposed to mine the lignite using opencast methods. Much of this deposit will be consumed in a purpose-built mine mouth power station with further reserves being dried in the approved processing plant to produce a range of industrial and domestic fuels. Carbonising the lignite may eliminate pollution. However, large scale investment will be required before Ireland's economy can switch to lignite.

  13. Evaluation of radioactive emissions of lignite-fired power plants in Turkey using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueke, Tayfun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive emissions of 13 lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these power plants, according to their radioactive emissions by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Control criteria are in particular 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 238 U emissions from the power plants. These control criteria are weighted according to the objective assessment. The calculations are repeated for three different objective assessments of control criteria namely the mortality risk coefficients for inhalation, ingestion, external exposure of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 238 U. It has been calculated that the Can lignite-fired power plant is ranking first while the Soma-B plant is ranking last according to the radioactive emissions of the power plants when the average of three different objective control criteria are used in the calculations. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of radioactive emissions of lignite-fired power plants in Turkey using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueke, Tayfun [Mugla Sitki Kocman Univ., Mugla (Turkey). Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering

    2013-11-15

    Radioactive emissions of 13 lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these power plants, according to their radioactive emissions by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Control criteria are in particular {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 238}U emissions from the power plants. These control criteria are weighted according to the objective assessment. The calculations are repeated for three different objective assessments of control criteria namely the mortality risk coefficients for inhalation, ingestion, external exposure of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 238}U. It has been calculated that the Can lignite-fired power plant is ranking first while the Soma-B plant is ranking last according to the radioactive emissions of the power plants when the average of three different objective control criteria are used in the calculations. (orig.)

  15. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  16. French pollution and German lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that the German energy transition is based on a complete shutting down of nuclear power stations to replace them by renewable energy sources on the one hand, and by coal (lignite, i.e. the dirtiest coal) and gas on the other hand to compensate the intermittency of the former ones, this article notices that pollution peaks occurred in France when an eastern of north-eastern wind was blowing, and not in case of western wind. The author then wanders whether this pollution comes from Germany, and more particularly from the releases of lignite-fuelled power stations. Then, the author comments the high level of pollution associated with coal extraction and exploitation in Germany, causing thousands of deaths and resulting in lung diseases or cancers, myocardial infractions. The author then makes a parallel between, on the one hand, the ignorance of this German pollution and, on the other hand, evacuation measures around Fukushima for a radioactivity which the author considers as less dangerous in terms of life expectancy

  17. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  18. Production of rubbly culm coke from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Kohleverarbeitung; Kurtz, R [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Frechen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Verkokung und Chemie

    1977-08-01

    The article deals with the coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth, and describes the coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from lignite.

  19. Expansion of the Neyveli lignite mine, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S [Neyveli Lignite Corp. Ltd., Tamil Nadu (India); Streck, W [Gold (O.) G.m.b.H. und Co. K.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    After giving a picture of the difficult winning conditions at the Neyveli open-cast lignite mine, the author states the reasons for the expansions of the open-cast mine and describes the necessary measures and machinery.

  20. Ash content of lignites - radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Thuemmel, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of lignites is governed by the ash content varying in dependence upon the geologic conditions. Setup and function of the radiometric devices being used for ash content analysis in the GDR are briefly described

  1. Leading tip drives soma translocation via forward F-actin flow during neuronal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Zhang, Zheng-hong; Guan, Chen-bing; Xia, Di; Yuan, Xiao-bing

    2010-08-11

    Neuronal migration involves coordinated extension of the leading process and translocation of the soma, but the relative contribution of different subcellular regions, including the leading process and cell rear, in driving soma translocation remains unclear. By local manipulation of cytoskeletal components in restricted regions of cultured neurons, we examined the molecular machinery underlying the generation of traction force for soma translocation during neuronal migration. In actively migrating cerebellar granule cells in culture, a growth cone (GC)-like structure at the leading tip exhibits high dynamics, and severing the tip or disrupting its dynamics suppressed soma translocation within minutes. Soma translocation was also suppressed by local disruption of F-actin along the leading process but not at the soma, whereas disrupting microtubules along the leading process or at the soma accelerated soma translocation. Fluorescent speckle microscopy using GFP-alpha-actinin showed that a forward F-actin flow along the leading process correlated with and was required for soma translocation, and such F-actin flow depended on myosin II activity. In migrating neurons, myosin II activity was high at the leading tip but low at the soma, and increasing or decreasing this front-to-rear difference accelerated or impeded soma advance. Thus, the tip of the leading process actively pulls the soma forward during neuronal migration through a myosin II-dependent forward F-actin flow along the leading process.

  2. Turkish delight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodford, Julian

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the opening up of the Turkish energy markets to international investment in an effort to join the European Union. The implementation of the EU's Directive on internal electricity markets, the benefits gained by globalisation, the growth in the Turkish electricity market, the control of power supply and distribution, generating capacity, the infrastructure needed to satisfy demand, moves towards privatisation, and joint venture with local companies are discussed. Estimates of Turkey's power demand, its strategic location, and foreign companies interested in the power market are considered. (uk)

  3. Psychosomatic symptoms as biomarkers: transcending the psyche-soma dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-01-01

    Following the advancement in understanding dynamical systems, the author presents a novel metaphor of psychosomatic symptoms as low-dimensional biomarkers. This metaphor, which transcends the old binary of psyche-soma, resonates with classical psychoanalytic concepts and with Matte-Blanco's idea of repetition as indicative of dimensionality reduction. The relevance of this metaphor for explanation, diagnosis, and treatment is illustrated through a case study of a male patient suffering from hyperprolactinemia.

  4. Measurement of neuron soma size by fluorescent Nissl stain

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: James Cronk, Noel Derecki & Jonathan Kipnis ### Abstract This protocol describes how to measure neuron soma size by fluorescent Nissl stain. Mice are sacrificed, and fixed by PFA perfusion. Brains are removed, and further PFA fixed, followed by sucrose cryoprotection. They are then snap frozen, sliced by cryostat, and stained with fluorescent Nissl as floating sections. Confocal microscopy is used to take images of neurons, and a computer graphics tablet is used to calculate ...

  5. Characterisation of lignite as an industrial adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Qi; Andrew F.A. Hoadley; Alan L. Chaffee; Gil Garnier [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2011-04-15

    An alternative use of the abundant and inexpensive lignite (also known as brown coal) as an industrial adsorbent has been characterised. The adsorptive properties of two Victorian lignite without any pre-treatment were investigated using the cationic methylene blue dye as a model compound in aqueous solutions. Two commercial activated carbon products were also studied for comparison. The adsorption equilibrium of the four adsorbents was better described by the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacities of the two untreated lignite adsorbents, Loy Yang and Yallourn, calculated using Langmuir isotherms were 286 and 370 mg/g, respectively, higher than a coconut shell-based activated carbon (167 mg/g), but lower than a coal-based activated carbon (435 mg/g). Surface area results suggested that larger micropores and mesopores were important for achieving good methylene blue adsorption by the activated carbons. However, FTIR and cation exchange capacity analyses revealed that, for the lignite, chemical interactions between lignite surface functional groups and methylene blue molecules occurred, thereby augmenting its adsorption capacity. 63 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Lignite As Contributory Factor to Regional Development of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Kordas

    2006-01-01

    Lignite (brown coal) is Greece's most important energy mineral raw material. Lignite exploitation has made a highly significant contribution to the development of energy sector of Greece on past 50 years, and will, according to estimations, continue to supply energy for another 40 years. Greece is very rich in Lignite resources. The two main basins - from where Lignite is extracted by opencast mining - are a) in Western Macedonia (northen Greece) where is generated the 70% of the whole electr...

  7. Technology and use of lignite. Proceedings of the tenth biennial lignite symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kube, W. R.; Gronhovd, G. H. [comps.

    1979-01-01

    The symposium on the technology and use of lignite was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the University of North Dakota, and held at Grand Forks, North Dakota, May 30-31, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings of this tenth biennial lignite symposium have been entered into EDB and ERA and three also into EAPA. The papers discuss lignite deposits in the USA, mining plans, gasification and in-situ gasification, and combustion in fossil-fuel power plants. (LTN)

  8. Low-temperature carbonization plant for lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotsuki, Y

    1949-01-01

    The design and operational data of a low-temperature carbonization plant for Japanese lignite are described. The retort had a vertical cylinder with a capacity of about 10 tons per day. By continuous operation, in which a part of the gas produced was circulated and burned in the lignite zone, about 40 percent semicoke and 3 to 4 percent tar were obtained. From the tar the following products were separated: Low-temperature carbonization cresol, 18.3; motor fuel, 1.00; solvent, 9.97; cresol for medical uses, 11.85; and creosote oil, 32 percent.

  9. Combustion of uraniferous lignites in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, G.; Gasos, P.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper a description of the continuous fluid bed combustion pilot plant unit, installed in the Junta de Energia Nuclear facilities, is presented. Besides, this paper deals with some of the studies carried out in the pilot plant aimed at the recovery of uranium from lignites, high in sulfur and ashes, coming from Calaf basin (Barcelona). These studies include the recovery of the heating value of these lignites and the reduction of environmental effect of SO 2 . Based on these studies an application exercise is presented. 9 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  10. Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, A.; Roussos, D.; Menegaki, M.; Damigos, D.

    2014-01-01

    During the last three decades, several studies have been conducted in order to assess the external costs of electricity production from fossil fuels, especially coal and lignite. Nevertheless, these studies usually ignore the impacts generated by the upstream mining works. This paper contributes to existing literature and attempts to fill this gap by exploring the externalities of lignite mining owing to the emission of suspended particulate matter. To this end, a ‘bottom-up’ approach is implemented, using as case study the largest operational lignite surface mine at the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia (Greece). The results indicate that annual air pollution externalities of lignite mining are of the order of 3€/ton of lignite, which corresponds to around 5.0 €/MW h. The estimated costs are significantly lower, i.e. up to 80%, when dust deposition is considered in air dispersion models. In any case, these findings should be seen as a starting point for discussion owing to the lack of specific emission rates for Greek lignite mines. - Highlights: • Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions are 3 €/t of lignite. • Externalities of mining correspond to around 5.0 €/MW h. • Externalities are significantly lower, up to 80%, if dust deposition is considered. • There is lack of specific dust emission rates for lignite mining. • There are high discrepancies in existing dust emission rates for lignite mining

  11. Psyche and soma: New insights into the connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Yeragani, Vikram K

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of Psyche and Soma are well known and this interaction happens through a complex network of feedback, medication, and modulation among the central and autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine system, the immune system, and the stress system. These systems, which were previously considered pristinely independent, in fact, interact at myriad levels. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is an emerging discipline that focuses on various interactions among these body systems and provides the underpinnings of a scientific explanation for what is commonly referred to as the mind-body connection. This article reviews the relevant literature with an emphasis on Indian research.

  12. A brief account of the fractions of soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1990-04-01

    Soma was originally Sauma as the Sanskrit form of the Avesta name Haoma. It is a loan word from the Chinese term, Hao-Ma, fire coloured hempior fibrous items like hemp and also coloured yellow with a tinge of brown. The Aryans as hunters took its juice as anti-fatigue drink. It was extolled as panacea and even as drink of longevity. The plant and its stalks were crushed between stones to produce juice. There arose different fractions and these have been given in a regular chart here.

  13. Rapid restoration after lignite mining in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The 30th anniversary of the commencement of large scale lignite production by opencast mining in Hungary was celebrated in 1987. A process of rapid technical and biological reclamation without the use of humus has now been developed. The costs involved are only 5-10% of those of conventional methods and reclamation cycle is four years compared to ten years for conventional methods.

  14. The future path of lignite production in the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussios, E.; Koikouzas, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    The future development of the European Union and Balkan lignite industry is examined in this paper. Lignite in some countries represents for the last decade by far the most important fuel for electricity generation. The economically recoverable lignite reserves of the Balkans (21.36 x 10 9 t) and Greece (4.0 x 10 9 t) are sufficient to meet their energy demand for the next decades (50-100 years). The Balkan countries intended to increase their lignite production, in the near future, as result of the increase of their primary energy demand and their efforts to meet their energy requirements by using domestic resources. Greece also plans to increase lignite production. On the contrary, the remaining of the European Union countries intend to decrease their lignite production. Nevertheless, the countries of Balkan region which are presently in a transition period to the market economy, have to deal with a decrease of people employed in the lignite mining industry. However, Balkan region seems to be the most promising area for the future development of the lignite industry in the enlarged EU, after making the following alterations in the lignite sector: Rehabilitation of the lignite open-pit mines, closure of the most underground mines, privatization of the most prosperous mines, modification of the existing technology, introduction of the 'clean' coal technology, etc. New opportunities for the development and modernization of the lignite industry in Balkan countries arise, after their possible entrance into the European Union, considering also that lignite is one of their most important indigenous energy source. For the necessary modernization of the lignite industry, development of collaborations for the capital and know-how transferring is required. (Author)

  15. Sustainable Mining Land Use for Lignite Based Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Michal; Krysa, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    This research aims to discuss complex lignite based energy projects economic viability and its impact on sustainable land use with respect to project risk and uncertainty, economics, optimisation (e.g. Lerchs and Grossmann) and importance of lignite as fuel that may be expressed in situ as deposit of energy. Sensitivity analysis and simulation consist of estimated variable land acquisition costs, geostatistics, 3D deposit block modelling, electricity price considered as project product price, power station efficiency and power station lignite processing unit cost, CO2 allowance costs, mining unit cost and also lignite availability treated as lignite reserves kriging estimation error. Investigated parameters have nonlinear influence on results so that economically viable amount of lignite in optimal pit varies having also nonlinear impact on land area required for mining operation.

  16. Embracing First-Person Perspectives in Soma-Based Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Höök

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A set of prominent designers embarked on a research journey to explore aesthetics in movement-based design. Here we unpack one of the design sensitivities unique to our practice: a strong first person perspective—where the movements, somatics and aesthetic sensibilities of the designer, design researcher and user are at the forefront. We present an annotated portfolio of design exemplars and a brief introduction to some of the design methods and theory we use, together substantiating and explaining the first-person perspective. At the same time, we show how this felt dimension, despite its subjective nature, is what provides rigor and structure to our design research. Our aim is to assist researchers in soma-based design and designers wanting to consider the multiple facets when designing for the aesthetics of movement. The applications span a large field of designs, including slow introspective, contemplative interactions, arts, dance, health applications, games, work applications and many others.

  17. Environmental policy instruments towards lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A proposition is made that Turkey considers a pilot emission trading system for SO 2 , Nox and/or PM emissions from its coal and lignite fired power plant in the efforts to comply with the EU Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC), the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and the National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directives. Model calculations indicate that this could yield substantial cost savings compared to a traditional command and control approach. However, requirements in the IPPC Directive would be a major obstacle against emissions trading. The Turkish emission permitting system needs a major overhaul, including improving monitoring and enforcement practices to comply with the directives and to be able to implement and operate an emission trading system

  18. Environmental policy instruments towards lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A proposition is made that Turkey considers a pilot emission trading system for SO{sub 2}, Nox and/or PM emissions from its coal and lignite fired power plant in the efforts to comply with the EU Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC), the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and the National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directives. Model calculations indicate that this could yield substantial cost savings compared to a traditional command and control approach. However, requirements in the IPPC Directive would be a major obstacle against emissions trading. The Turkish emission permitting system needs a major overhaul, including improving monitoring and enforcement practices to comply with the directives and to be able to implement and operate an emission trading system.

  19. Production of heavy greases from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-03-18

    A process is described for the extraction of heavy greases and wagon greases and their equivalents, by separation from bitumins, resins, and waxes contained in lignite, peat, bituminous shale, fossil wax, paraffin, etc., characterized by the fact that for the extraction are used solvents of high boiling point, such as mineral oils, grease oils, tar oils, and other equivalents, which are not eliminated and at the same time constitute a part of the product obtained.

  20. Stoichiometric calculations of combustion of Lakhra lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lakhra coal field is largest productive coal field of Pakistan. About 1.5 millions tonne of this coal is, annually, mined and transported daily to various parts of the country in 500 trucks each of 10 tonnes of coal. The major consumers of this coal are brick kilns located in Sindh and Punjab. It is available at Rs. 500/- per tonne at mine head. A number of attempts were made for the production of power (electricity) by foreign companies. Feasibility studies were undertaken but no one set up power plant. It may be due to inferior quality of coal as it is lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur contents. This coal is also, very sensitive to spontaneous combustion. Spontaneous combustion is the auto-ignition of coal at ambient conditions. Hence there are storage problems. In spite of these drawbacks, a 3(50) Mega Watt (3 units of each 50 mega watt power generation capacity) power plant, based on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of coal technology (AFBC), was setup in early nineties. The performance of this plant remained poor. The main reasons might be poor quality of coal and limestone. Limestone is used with high sulfur Lakhra lignite, in fluidized bed combustor, to arrest sulfur of the coal, fixing sulfur as calcium sulfate to minimize hazardous emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Spontaneous combustion of Lakhra lignite is responsible for each fire of coal and conveyor belt etc. (author)

  1. Spike sorting based upon machine learning algorithms (SOMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, P M; Nicol, A U; Kendrick, K M; Feng, J F

    2007-02-15

    We have developed a spike sorting method, using a combination of various machine learning algorithms, to analyse electrophysiological data and automatically determine the number of sampled neurons from an individual electrode, and discriminate their activities. We discuss extensions to a standard unsupervised learning algorithm (Kohonen), as using a simple application of this technique would only identify a known number of clusters. Our extra techniques automatically identify the number of clusters within the dataset, and their sizes, thereby reducing the chance of misclassification. We also discuss a new pre-processing technique, which transforms the data into a higher dimensional feature space revealing separable clusters. Using principal component analysis (PCA) alone may not achieve this. Our new approach appends the features acquired using PCA with features describing the geometric shapes that constitute a spike waveform. To validate our new spike sorting approach, we have applied it to multi-electrode array datasets acquired from the rat olfactory bulb, and from the sheep infero-temporal cortex, and using simulated data. The SOMA sofware is available at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/pmh20/spikes.

  2. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a$1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community

  4. Revisiting Wasson's Soma: exploring the effects of preparation on the chemistry of Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    In 1968 R. Gordon Wasson first proposed his groundbreaking theory identifying Soma, the hallucinogenic sacrament of the Vedas, as the Amanita muscaria mushroom. While Wasson's theory has garnered acclaim, it is not without its faults. One omission in Wasson's theory is his failure to explain how pressing and filtering Soma, as described in the Rig Veda, supports his theory of Soma's identity. Several critics have reasoned that such preparation should be unnecessary if equivalent results can be obtained by consuming the raw plant, as is done with other psychoactive mushrooms. In order to address these specific criticisms over 600 anecdotal accounts of Amanita muscaria inebriation were collected and analyzed to determine the impact of preparation on Amanita muscaria's effects. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effects of Amanita muscaria were related to the type of preparation employed, and that its toxic effects were considerably reduced by preparations that paralleled those described for Soma in the Rig Veda. While unlikely to end debate over the identity of Soma, this study's findings help to solidify the foundation of Wasson's theory, and also to demonstrate the importance of preparation in understanding and uncovering the true identity of Soma.

  5. Future of lignite resources: a life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xueliang; Zheng, Xiaoning; Zuo, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Lignite is a low-quality energy source which accounts for 13 % of China's coal reserves. It is imperative to improve the quality of lignite for large-scale utilization. To further explore and analyze the influence of various key processes on the environment and economic costs, a lignite drying and compression technology is evaluated using an integrated approach of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs. Results showed that lignite mining, direct air emissions, and electricity consumption have most significant impacts on the environment. An integrated evaluation of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs showed that the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts and economic costs was the lignite mining process. The impact of transportation and wastewater treatment process on the environment and economic costs was small enough to be ignored. Critical factors were identified for reducing the environmental and economic impacts of lignite drying and compression technology. These findings provide useful inputs for both industrial practice and policy making for exploitation, processing, and utilization of lignite resources.

  6. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Ljubicic, B.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  7. Biosolubilization of raw and gamma irradiated lignite by trichoderma asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugoro, I.; Astuti, D.I.; Aditiawati, P.; Sasongko, D.

    2012-01-01

    Biosolubilization is a promising technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil by addition of microorganism. Aim of this research is to compare between gamma irradiated lignite (10 kGy) with raw lignite in biosolubilization by selected fungi Trichoderma asperellum. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T. asperellum) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T. asperellum) with sub-merged culture. There were two parameters observed i.e. biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and metal analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The highest biosolubilization will be analyzed by FTIR and GCMS. The results showed that biosolubilization of raw lignite (B) was higher than sterilized lignite (A) based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm . The metal of lignite was decreased after incubation. FTIR analysis showed that both of treatment had similar spectra on biosolubilization products. GCMS analysis showed that both of treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C 6 - C 35 (A) and C 10 - C 35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Both of treatment product had the potency as oil substituted but its recommended to deoxygenate for higher quality. (author)

  8. Characterization of North American lignite fly ashes. II. XRD Mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Johansen, D.M.; Thedchanamoorthy, A.; Steinwand, S.J.; Swanson, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C/sub 3/A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7-14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash

  9. Lignite mining in India - thirty years of rich experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-01

    Exploration of the huge deposits of lignite at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu commenced in 1961 by the opencast method by deploying continuously operating machinery such as bucket-wheel excavators, spreaders and high-speed belt conveyor systems. Adoption of this mining technology to suit the peculiar site conditions at Neyveli has led to many modifications in the equipment and has enriched the experience of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. This has also made it possible for NLC to formulate schemes for exploration and exploitation of lignite deposits occurring elsewhere in the country.

  10. Lignite mining in India - thirty years of rich experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-01

    Exploitation of the huge deposits of lignite at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu commenced in 1961 by opencast method by deploying continuously operating machinery such as bucket-wheel excavators, headers and high speed belt conveyor systems. Adoption of this mining technology to suit the peculiar site conditions at Neyveli has led to many modifications in the equipment and has enriched the experience of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. This has also made it possible for NLC to formulate schemes for exploration and exploitation of lignite deposits occurring elsewhere in the country.

  11. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F.; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignites irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000 degrees temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy doses to the normal conditions. Then differential thermal analysis was carried out both in original and the samples irradiated. Argon gas was used to make inert medium in the camera. T=200-8500 degrees temperature was selected. At the experiment done from 1000-1300 degrees temperatures too great endothermic reaction pick was begun to form by being observed thermal changings. At 3000-4200 degrees temperature exothermic reaction picks and at 7000 degrees parallel exothermic reaction picks were observed. Initial endothermic and exothermic reaction picks in five lignite samples were observed like a sharp curve. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated form exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weigh loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It has shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by

  12. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    As of September 28, 2001, all the major project tasks have been completed. A presentation was given to the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) and the North Dakota Division of Community Services (DCS). In general, the feasibility study has resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Municipal wood resources are sufficient to support cofiring at the NDSP. (2) Steps have been taken to address all potential fuel-handling issues with the feed system design, and the design is cost-effective. (3) Fireside issues of cofiring municipal wood with coal are not of significant concern. In general, the addition of wood will improve the baseline performance of lignite coal. (4) The energy production strategy must include cogeneration using steam turbines. (5) Environmental permitting issues are small and do not affect economics. (6) The base-case economic scenario provides for a 15-year payback of a 20-year municipal bond and does not include the broader community benefits that can be realized

  13. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignite's irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1 gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000C temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co-60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy, doses to the normal conditions. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated from exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weight loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It was shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by heat because of the chemical structure in comparison the original one.

  14. Microstructure and properties of lignite tar and pitch. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, H

    1954-01-01

    Photomicrographs reveal the presence of crystalline wax which affects the working properties in lignite tars and pitch. The crystals are large needles after slow cooling and small after rapid cooling. The crystals are paraffinic in character. All samples were nonhomogeneous. Thus the properties of lignite tar and pitch are varied by the source of the lignite and history of the specimen, neither softening point nor dropping point seems to satisfactorily characterize these tars. The samples exhibit thixotropic behavior characteristic of a structural viscosity and show hysteresis loops on varying the working rate. The variations have hindered use of lignite tars and pitches except where solubility in a solvent such as coal tar oil can be used to advantage.

  15. Role of Neyveli lignite in the energy map of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasaraghavan, S

    1984-08-01

    For more than two decades, about 35% of the energy demand of Tamil Nadu, a region of southern India, has been provided by Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC). NLC was founded as a company by the Indian government in 1956 and it comprises a lignite mine, a thermal power station, a briquetting and carbonisation plant; a fertilizer plant, a process steam plant, and a clay washing plant. The extent of the Neyveli lignite field, the production capacity of the three mines, and the linkage and utilisation of lignite are all considered. Future perspective plans beyond the seventh five year plan are reviewed. The use of coke and fertilizer by the chemical industries is outlined, and ecology and environmental control are discussed.

  16. Role of Neyveli Lignite in the energy map of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasaraghavan, S

    1984-08-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), a government undertaking, has played an important role in power generation in the southern region of India by contributing about 35% of the energy consumed in Tamil Nadu for over two decades. Performance at the Neyveli Thermal Power Station demonstrates that it is more advantageous to make additions to thermal generating capacity at Neyvili using lignite. Exploration and development of the mines can support this expansion and make the southern region a nucleus for industrial development. 2 tables.

  17. Lignite chemical conversion in an indirect heat rotary kiln gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzilyberis Kostas S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on the gasification of Greek lignite using two indirect heat (allothermal pilot rotary kiln gasifiers are reported in the present work. The development of this new reactor-gasifier concept intended for solid fuels chemical conversion exploits data and experience gained from the following two pilot plants. The first unit A (about 100 kg/h raw lignite demonstrated the production of a medium heating value gas (12-13 MJ/Nm3 with quite high DAF (dry ash free coal conversions, in an indirect heat rotary gasifier under mild temperature and pressure conditions. The second unit B is a small pilot size unit (about 10 kg/h raw lignite comprises an electrically heated rotary kiln, is an operation flexible and exhibits effective phase mixing and enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Greek lignite pyrolysis and gasification data were produced from experiments performed with pilot plant B and the results are compared with those of a theoretical model. The model assumes a scheme of three consecutive-partly parallel processes (i. e. drying, pyrolysis, and gasification and predicts DAF lignite conversion and gas composition in relatively good agreement with the pertinent experimental data typical of the rotary kiln gasifier performance. Pilot plant B is currently being employed in lime-enhanced gasification studies aiming at the production of hydrogen enriched synthesis gas. Presented herein are two typical gas compositions obtain from lignite gasification runs in the presence or not of lime. .

  18. Improved detection of soma location and morphology in fluorescence microscopy images of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayasandik, Cihan Bilge; Labate, Demetrio

    2016-12-01

    Automated detection and segmentation of somas in fluorescent images of neurons is a major goal in quantitative studies of neuronal networks, including applications of high-content-screenings where it is required to quantify multiple morphological properties of neurons. Despite recent advances in image processing targeted to neurobiological applications, existing algorithms of soma detection are often unreliable, especially when processing fluorescence image stacks of neuronal cultures. In this paper, we introduce an innovative algorithm for the detection and extraction of somas in fluorescent images of networks of cultured neurons where somas and other structures exist in the same fluorescent channel. Our method relies on a new geometrical descriptor called Directional Ratio and a collection of multiscale orientable filters to quantify the level of local isotropy in an image. To optimize the application of this approach, we introduce a new construction of multiscale anisotropic filters that is implemented by separable convolution. Extensive numerical experiments using 2D and 3D confocal images show that our automated algorithm reliably detects somas, accurately segments them, and separates contiguous ones. We include a detailed comparison with state-of-the-art existing methods to demonstrate that our algorithm is extremely competitive in terms of accuracy, reliability and computational efficiency. Our algorithm will facilitate the development of automated platforms for high content neuron image processing. A Matlab code is released open-source and freely available to the scientific community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Navigating neurites utilize cellular topography of Schwann cell somas and processes for optimal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fagundo, Cristina; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Ramchal, Talisha D.; Dingle, Yu-Ting L.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The path created by aligned Schwann cells (SCs) after nerve injury underlies peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed geometric bioinspired substrates to extract key information needed for axon guidance by deconstructing the topographical cues presented by SCs. We have previously reported materials that directly replicate SC topography with micro- and nanoscale resolution, but a detailed explanation of the means of directed axon extension on SC topography has not yet been described. Here, using neurite tracing and time-lapse microscopy, we analyzed the SC features that influence axon guidance. Novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) materials, fabricated via photolithography, incorporated bioinspired topographical components with the shapes and sizes of aligned SCs, namely somas and processes, where the length of the processes were varied but the soma geometry and dimensions were kept constant. Rat dorsal root ganglia neurites aligned to all materials presenting bioinspired topography after a 5 days in culture and to bioinspired materials presenting soma and process features after only 17 hours in culture. Key findings of this study were: Neurite response to underlying bioinspired topographical features was time dependent, where at 5 days, neurites aligned most strongly to materials presenting combinations of soma and process features, with higher than average density of either process or soma features; but at 17 hours they aligned more strongly to materials presenting average densities of soma and process features and to materials presenting process features only. These studies elucidate the influence of SC topography on axon guidance in a time-dependent setting and have implications for the optimization of nerve regeneration strategies. PMID:23557939

  20. Natural radioactivity releases from lignite power plants in Southwestern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, G.; Guer, F.; Cam, F.; Candan, O.

    2006-01-01

    The Mugla basin is one of the most productive lignite basins in Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Mining activities started in 1979 and total reserves were estimated during exploration at 767.5 million tonnes. Total mean annual lignite production of the Mugla basin is estimated at about 10 million tonnes per year. Most of the lignite production supplies three thermal power plants (Yatagan 630 MW, Yenikoey 420 MW, Kemerkoey 630 MW) with a total capacity of 1680 MW. It is well known that the lignite contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 4 0K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. The investigation reported here deals with the determination of the 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K concentrations in the lignite feeding 3 thermal power plants in Mugla region and in the product ash. Samples of lignite feeding the power plants and fly and bottom ashes produced in the same power plants were collected over a period of 1 year and therefore systematic sampling allowed for the determination of mean representative values for the natural radioactivity content of above materials and also estimation of the radioactivity releases to the environment. Furthermore, grid soil sampling within 10-15 km around the power plants allowed for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides. Dosimetric calculations from terrestrial gamma radiation for the population living around the power plants were performed based on the guidance of UNSCEAR 2000 report

  1. Selective coal mining of intercalated lignite deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, R [Kolubara-Projekt, Lazarevac (Yugoslavia)

    1991-01-01

    Describes selective coal mining in the Tamnava-Istocno Polje coal surface coal mine (Yugoslavia), designed for an annual coal production of 11.4 Mt. Until 1991, this mine exploited one thick lignite seam, without spoil intercalations, using a bucket wheel excavator-conveyor-spreader system both for coal mining and removal of overburden. In the future, several spoil intercalations of up to 1.0 m and thicker will appear with a total volume of 22 million m{sup 3}. These intercalations have to be selectively excavated in order to guarantee the calorific value of coal for the Nikola Tesla power plant. Computer calculations were carried out to determine the decrease in excavator coal production due to selective mining of spoil strata. Calculations found that the annual surface mine capacity will be lower by at most 9%, depending on thickness of spoil intercalations. The useful operation time of excavators will be reduced by 98 hours per year. The planned annual coal production will nevertheless be fulfilled. 3 refs.

  2. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eLuengo-Sanchez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by experts in neuroanatomy to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons more or less as an expert does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species.

  3. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species.

  4. Somaæstetisk blik på undervisningsiscenesættelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justiniano, Birgitte

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af skolers organisering og disses betydning for eleveres mulighed for udvikling af færdigheder, der modsvarer samfunds behov og forventninger. Afhandlingen anlægger et somaæstetisk didaktisk blik på undervisningsiscenesættelser, hvor ønsket er at indfange relatione...

  5. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species. PMID:26578898

  6. Use of INAA for investigation of emission of elements in combustion of Polish lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Loska, L.; Pohorecki, W.; Wagner, M.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied for the determination of trace elements content in samples of Polish lignite and its ash. Pairs of results, for lignite and ash, and respective ash contents were used for calculation of the percentage of element remaining in ash after the lignite combustion. (author)

  7. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  8. The thar lignite project in the Sindh province, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, L. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Mining Dept., Koeln (Germany); Dittrich, W. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Mechanical and Electrical Dept., Koeln (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    A prospective area of the known lignite deposit located in the Thar region was investigated with regard to the future development of an opencast mine. For this purpose, a bankable feasibility study was prepared that evaluates all relevant facts and additional exploration activities. The study includes among others: Geological report; Opencast mine planning; Equipment and infrastructure planning; Assessment of staff requirements; Conceptual design of the power station; Anticipation of environmental aspects; Bankable costing for lignite mining and power generation. In conclusion, the development of an opencast mine and the construction of a 1000 MW power station are feasible in technical and economic terms. For the mine, the shovel/truck method was proposed since it offers cost advantages. For the power station, a closed cooling circuit and pre-drying of the lignite was recommended due to water shortage in the Thar desert. The resulting prices for power generation are usual market costs in Pakistan. (orig.)

  9. Transformation of heavy metals in lignite during supercritical water gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guifang; Yang, Xinfei; Chen, Shouyan; Dong, Yong; Cui, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Xiqiang; Ma, Chunyuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The transformations of heavy metals during lignite SCWG were investigated. • The risks of heavy metals in lignite and residues after SCWG were evaluated. • The effects of experimental conditions on corrosion during SCWG were studied. - Abstract: Transformation characteristics of heavy metals during lignite supercritical water gasification (SCWG) were studied. A sequential extraction procedure (modified Tessier method) was used to selectively extract different fractions of Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Heavy metals transformed into more stable fractions after SCWG. For Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn, SCWG reduced the bioavailability and the risks posed by heavy metals in lignite. Under the experimental conditions, the conversion rates for Pb and Cd were 16.0%–25.2% and 16.3%–23.4%, respectively, whereas those for Mn, Cu, and Zn were much lower. Solid products enriched with Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were obtained after SCWG; the contents of these metals varied slightly in the liquid products under different experimental conditions. Excess Cr and Ni that did not originate from lignite were found in the residues, owing to reactor corrosion during lignite SCWG. Higher temperatures alleviated corrosion, whereas higher pressures and equivalence ratios (ER) had the opposite effect. None of the heavy metals were detected in the gas phase under the experimental conditions used in the present study. The correlation between the distributions of heavy metals and the experimental conditions were also studied. The transformation pathways of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn during SCWG were deduced according to the experimental results.

  10. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos J. Christopher; Sakiltzis Christos; Rovas C. Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: (a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, (b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and (c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of

  11. The Evaluation Of Waste Plastic Burned With Lignite And Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    DURANAY, Neslihan; YILGIN, Melek

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the combustion behavior of pellets prepared from binary and triple blends of waste plastic, biomass and lignite was investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system. Market bags as plastic waste and the furniture factory waste powder as a source of biomass and Bingöl Karlıova coal as a lignite were used. The effect of process temperature and the plastic mixing ratio on the combustion behavior of pellets was studied. Combustion data obtained from varied bed temperature...

  12. Degradation/solubilization of Chinese lignite by Penicillium sp. P6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.L.; Yang, J.S.; Wang, F.Q.; Chen, W.X. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Agro-Microbial Resource and Application, Ministry of Agrio, College of Biological Science

    2006-01-15

    Penicillium sp. P6, isolated from coal mine soil at the Qiantong colliery Liaoning Province, Northeast China, can degrade Chinese lignite in 36 h on a plate colony and in 48 h using a 4-day cultured cell-free filtrate. Results of elemental analysis and IR spectrometry indicated that solubilized products exhibited some alterations in comparison to the original lignite. The amount of fulvic acid extracted from the biodegraded lignite was high, and the molecular distribution of the humic acids from biodegraded lignite changed distinctively in comparison to which extracted from the control lignite, possibly due to the depolymerization associated with fungal biodegradation.

  13. Lignite mining and electricity generation in Poland: The current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widera, Marek; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Ptak, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This opinion paper presents the current state and future scenarios of Polish lignite mining. For many years, over 1/3 of domestic electricity, that is about 53–55 TWh, has been generated by lignite-fired power plants. Currently, with 63–66 million tons of extraction, Poland is the fourth lignite producer worldwide and the second in the European Union. There are three possible scenarios for the development of lignite mining in Poland by 2050. Unfortunately, despite the huge lignite resources, amounting to more than 23.5 billion tons, and great potential of the mining industry, the future of Polish lignite mining does not look optimistic from the economic point of view. This is associated with social and environmental problems, including the European Union's climate and energy policy. However, this may change in the event of a global economic crisis and unstable geopolitical conditions. Therefore, a new energy doctrine for Poland at least by 2050 is urgently needed. - Highlights: •Poland is one of the leaders in lignite production in the European Union. •Energy policy in Poland assumes a key role of lignite in energy mix. •Almost one-third of Polish electricity is currently generated from lignite. •For Polish lignite mining exist pessimistic, realistic and optimistic scenarios. •Extraction of lignite in Poland will gradually decrease in the coming decades.

  14. Determination of ash-forming elements in lignite coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wischnewski, C.; Werner, G.; Vogt, J.; Just, G.

    1990-01-01

    The most important methods are discussed suitable for the determination of ash-forming elements in coal. In this connection questions of the concentrations of elements in lignites, of the sample preparation, and of the selection of methods for the determination of ash-forming elements are addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different analysis techniques are shown using concrete examples. (author)

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of density-separated Greek lignite fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, lignite samples were collected from the Ptolemais region, northern Greece, homogenized, crushed to less than I nun, and separated in three density fractions using heavy media. The mineralogical investigation of the density fractions showed a predominance of pyrite in the light

  16. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  17. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  18. Trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming of lignite and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Anthony P. Roskilly [Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research

    2009-10-15

    A technical investigation of an innovative trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) of lignite and biomass is carried out using the ECLIPSE process simulator. The system includes an internal combustion engine, an AER gasifier, a waste heat recovery and storage unit and an absorption refrigerator. The whole system is operated in the following sequence: The AER gasifier is used to generate hydrogen using lignite and biomass; the hydrogen generated is used to run the engine which drives a generator to produce electricity. Additionally, the heat recovery unit collects waste heat from the engine and is used to supply hot water and space heating. Furthermore, the waste heat is used to operate the absorption refrigerator. The electricity, heat and cooling can be used to meet the energy requirements for the households in a village, a resident building or a commercial building, or a supermarket. Within the study, the effects of lignite mixed with three different types of biomass (straw, willow and switch grass) on the system performance are investigated and the results are compared. The results show that it is feasible to use an AER system to reform the low quality fuels lignite and biomass to generate a cleaner fuel - hydrogen to replace fossil fuels (diesel or natural gas) and to fuel an engine based trigeneration system; the system works with high efficiencies and with a potential of carbon capture from the sorbent-regeneration process that would benefit the environment. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Radon measurements concerning engineering-geological problems in lignite mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinicke, J

    1986-07-01

    Radon measurements have been carried out by the aid of solid-state track detectors at the highwall of a lignite mine in order to forecast the eventual course of a landslide. The measured radon distributions and their changes as a function of time indicated that the slope was geodynamically active, but it was not possible to forecast the rate of sliding.

  20. The indissociable unity of psyche and soma: a view from the Paris Psychosomatic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenstein, Marilia

    2006-06-01

    Depending on whether or not psyche/soma is seen as singular or dual, one may construct different systems explaining man and the world, life and death. In the author's view, the discoveries of psychoanalysis offer a perfectly cogent and unique solution to the famous mind/body problem. In transferring the duality psyche/soma on to the duality of drives, psychoanalysis places the origin of the thought process in the body. In Beyond the pleasure principle, Freud discusses the drastic effect of a painful somatic illness on the distribution and modalities of the libido. He provides a starting point for the Paris Psychosomatic School's psychoanalytical approach to patients afflicted with somatic illnesses. To illustrate the technical implications of this theory the author relates two clinical cases.

  1. Selfish genetic elements favor the evolution of a distinction between soma and germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise J

    2008-08-01

    Many multicellular organisms have evolved a dedicated germline. This can benefit the whole organism, but its advantages to genetic parasites have not been explored. Here I model the evolutionary success of a selfish element, such as a transposable element or endosymbiont, which is capable of creating or strengthening a germline-soma distinction in a primitively multicellular host, and find that it will always benefit the element to do so. Genes causing germline sequestration can therefore spread in a population even if germline sequestration is maladaptive for the host organism. Costly selfish elements are expected to survive only in sexual populations, so sexual species may experience an additional push toward germline-soma distinction, and hence toward cell differentiation and multicellularity.

  2. Lignite industry in Greece within a world context: Mining, energy supply and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouridis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Today coal covers 38% of global production and roughly 30% of the EU-25 power output. In 2005 domestic lignite with a share of 60.5% in power generation and accounting about 30% of primary energy consumption is currently the most important indigenous fuel of Greece. Greece, mining 70 Mt annually, is the second lignite producer in the EU and fourth in the world. Approximately 97% of the lignite used to supply the existing lignite-fired power plants of Greece is mined by Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC). Lignite as the base load fuel gives a competitive strength in PPC's and Greece's fuel mix. Due to lignite consumer prices in Greece are significantly below those in other comparable markets in EU-15. Extraction of lignite has a very long tradition. Significant achievements and large experience which has been gained during many years of mining operations place Greek lignite-mining industry in the leading position in Europe. The paper presents current state of Greek lignite industry, including operating mines, volume of production and other important production indicators as well as improvements in labor productivity and good results in industrial safety. The future of coal and specifically of Greek lignite will be crucially determined by environmentally compatible, i.e. low-CO 2 generation of electricity. Investment in modernization and renewal of the power plant fleet are the key to securing electricity supply and progress in preventing climate change

  3. Organic petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical features of the Achlada and Mavropigi lignite deposits, NW Macedonia, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Mesogeion Ave. 357-359, GR-15231 Halandri, Athens (Greece); Kalaitzidis, Stavros P. [Geological Services, BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance, Central Queensland Office, Peak Downs Mine, Moranbah, QLD 4744 (Australia); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-09-01

    The Achlada and Mavropigi lignite deposits in northern Greece provide the main coal source for the next generation of Greek power plants. A comparative characterization of these two lignite deposits is presented, covering the coal rank and the features of the maceral components, based on detailed coal petrography, and the mineralogical and geochemical features of the coals and their ashes, based on XRF and XRD analyses. The data are used to interpret the palaeoenvironments of the lignite beds, as well as factors that may affect their burnout behavior. Both deposits have a lignite C rank. The Mavropigi lignite is mainly a matrix lignite lithotype, whereas the Achlada deposit consists both of matrix and xylite-rich lithotypes. The Achlada lignite was formed in a fluviatile environment, mainly in the abandoned channels of a meandering river system during flooding periods; hence it is enriched in inorganic matter, with ash values > 30 wt.%. The Mavropigi lignite formed in a reed-marsh environment under limno-telmatic conditions, and displays ash values < 30 wt.%. The inorganic matter of the two deposits is different in composition due to the contrasting environments, and these differences should be taken into account in optimizing their utilization for power production. A preliminary assessment indicates that the Achlada lignite may have more favorable slagging and fouling properties than the Mavropigi lignite, although experimental studies are required for more solid conclusions to be reached. (author)

  4. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  5. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite II: extra-cellular protein analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiu-xiang; Pan, Lan-ying; Shi, Kai-yi; Chen-hui; Yin, Su-dong; Luo, Zhen-fu [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-05-15

    A white rot fungus strain, Trichoderma sp. AH, was isolated from rotten wood in Fushun and used to study the mechanism of lignite bio-solubilization. The results showed that nitric acid pretreated Fushun lignite was solubilized by T. sp. AH and that extracellular proteins from T. sp. AH were correlated with the lignite bio-solubilization results. In the presence of Fushun lignite the extracellular protein concentration from T. sp. AH was 4.5 g/L while the concentration was 3 g/L in the absence of Fushun lignite. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the extracelular proteins detected at least four new protein bands after the T. sp. AH had solubilized the lignite. Enzyme color reactions showed that extracelular proteins from T. sp. AH mainly consisted of phenol-oxidases, but that lignin decomposition enzymes such as laccase, peroxidase and manganese peroxidases were not present. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.; Wald, J.D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.P.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Uraniferous lignite deposits were mined from 1955 to 1967 by surface mining techniques. Overburden was stripped, and the lignite was burned to concentrate the uranium in its ash. Uranium salts in the overburden gave exposure levels of as much as 500 microroentgens/hour; water in mine pits had U concentrations from 12 to 19,000 micrograms/liter. Reclamation involved replacing the spoils into the source pit, the most contaminated spoils being placed above the water table, capping the pit with clay then topsoil containing lesser concentrations of radioactive elements, and finally planting with prairie grass. Resulting concentrations of radionuclides are given. The land is expected to remain as prairie for wildlife use, but it is safe enough for domestic animals as well. 3 figures

  7. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion testing of North Dakota lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, G; Vander Molen, R H; Wilson, K; Hajicek, D

    1980-05-01

    The sulfur retention by the inherent alkali, and added limestone sorbent, perform about the same and are reasonably predictable within a range of about +-10% retention by application of alkali to sulfur ratio. Temperature has a substantial effect on the retention of sulfur by the inherent alkali or limestone. The temperature effect is not yet fully understood but it appears to be different for different coals and operational conditions. The emission of SO/sub 2/ from the fluid bed burning the Beulah lignite sample used for these tests can be controlled to meet or better the current emission standards. The injection of limestone to an alkali-to-sulfur molar ratio of 1.5 to 1, should lower the SO/sub 2/ emissions below the current requirement of 0.6 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu to 0.4 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, a safe 33% below the standard. Agglomeration of bed material, and consequent loss of fluidization quality can be a problem when burning high sodium lignite in a silica bed. There appears, however, to be several ways of controlling the problem including the injection of calcium compounds, and careful control of operating conditions. The heat transfer coefficients measured in the CPC and GFETC tests are comparable to data obtained by other researchers, and agree reasonably well with empirical conditions. The NO/sub x/ emissions measured in all of the tests on Beulah lignite are below the current New Source Performance Standard of 0.5 lb NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu input. Combustion efficiencies for the Beulah lignite are generally quite high when ash recycle is being used. Efficiencies in the range of 98% to 99%+ have been measured in all tests using this fuel.

  8. Australian opencast-lignite mine Yallourn; Der australische Braunkohlentagebau Yallourn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscierski, Marcin; Goerlich, Michael [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I

    2009-01-15

    This article is about the open pit lignite mine Yallourn, located 150 km southeast of Melbourne (Figure 1). It focuses on the history, the geology and the environment. Furthermore, it describes the new mining method using large carry dozers. The open pit and the power plant are owned by TruEnergy (part of the CLP Group) and the mining activities are carried out in an Alliance with Roche Thiess Linfox (RTL). (orig.)

  9. Sorption of heavy metals on lignite impregnated with chitosan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Mizera, Jiří; Machovič, V.; Borecká, Lenka; Přibyl, Oldřich; Krausová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2013), s. 105-110 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : lignite * chitosan * heavy metals * sorption Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/index_en.php?page=acta_detail_doi&id=19

  10. Radiation doses of inhaled ash from the lignite power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshevski, Tome; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Chaushevski, Anton

    1997-01-01

    The coal-fired thermal power plants in Macedonia use lignite obtained by surface mining. The lignite contains traces of thorium-232, uranium-238 and uranium-235, which are long-lived natural radioactive isotopes. After lignite combustion, the concentration of these isotopes in the ash is increased. Due to the long life of fossil materials, the decay products are basically grouped in three radioactive chains that are in a semi-steady state, resulting in equal activity of all isotopes from the chain. Among the members of each chain there are α and β emitters followed by γ quanta emitters. The energies of the α and β particles are important for determining the effective dose. The γ quanta provide information about the chain activity and isotope types. Gamma-spectroscopy studies of the ash samples from the power plants in the City of Bitola in Macedonia have confirmed the presence of several radioactive decay products from the uranium and thorium radioactive chains. Using measurements of the radioactivity of the ash in the Bitola region, the total dose from ash inhalation for the population in the Bitola region was calculated and presented in this paper. Also, analysis of the procedure for determining the maximum allowable dose from radioactive contamination of the environment, is described in this paper. (Original)

  11. The catalytic cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolysis char on tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Huibin, H.; Xiangling, S.; Zhenhua, M.; Lei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different pyrolysis conditions for tar catalytic cracking will be analyzed according to the lignite pyrolysis char as catalyst on pyrolytic tar in this paper. The pyrolysis char what is the by-product of the cracking of coal has an abundant of pore structure and it has good catalytic activity. On this basis, making the modified catalyst when the pyrolysis char is activation and loads Fe by impregnation method. The cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolytic tar is explored by applying gas chromatograph to analyze splitting products of tar. The experimental results showed that: (1) The effect of tar cracking as the pyrolysis temperature, the heating rate, the volatilization of pyrolysis char and particle size increasing is better and better. The effect of the catalytic and cracking of lignite pyrolysis char in tar is best when the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature, the volatiles of pyrolysis char, particle size is in specific conditions.(2) The activation of pyrolysis char can improve the catalytic effect of pyrolysis char on the tar cracking. But it reduces the effect of the tar cracking when the pyrolysis char is activation loading Fe. (author)

  12. NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian lignite Kolubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are widely accepted tool for estimation of various pollutants emissions in USA and EU. Validity of emission factors is strongly related to experimental data on which they are based. This paper is a result of an effort to establish reliable NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian coals. The results of NOx and SO2 emissions estimations based on USA and EU emission factors from thermal power plants Nikola Tesla Obrenovac A and B utilizing the Serbian lignite Kolubara are compared with experimental data obtained during almost one decade (2000-2008 of emissions measurements. Experimental data are provided from regular annual emissions measurement along with operational parameters of the boiler and coal (lignite Kolubara ultimate and proximate analysis. Significant deviations of estimated from experimental data were observed for NOx, while the results for SO2 were satisfactory. Afterwards, the estimated and experimental data were plotted and linear regression between them established. Single parameter optimization was performed targeting the ideal slope of the regression line. Results of this optimization provided original NOx and SO2 emission factors for Kolubara lignite.

  13. Biotechnological lignite conversion - a large-scale concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich-Walber, M.; Meyrahn, H.; Felgener, G.W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany). Fuel Technology and Lab. Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Concerning the research on biotechnological lignite upgrading, Rheinbraun`s overall objective is the large-scale production of liquid and gaseous products for the energy and chemical/refinery sectors. The presentation outlines Rheinbraun`s technical concept for electricity production on the basis of biotechnologically solubilized lignite. A first rough cost estimate based on the assumptions described in the paper in detail and compared with the latest power plant generation shows the general cost efficiency of this technology despite the additional costs in respect of coal solubilization. The main reasons are low-cost process techniques for coal conversion on the one hand and cost reductions mainly in power plant technology (more efficient combustion processes and simplified gas clean-up) but also in coal transport (easy fuel handling) on the other hand. Moreover, it is hoped that an extended range of products will make it possible to widen the fields of lignite application. The presentation also points out that there is still a huge gap between this scenario and reality by limited microbiological knowledge. To close this gap Rheinbraun started a research project supported by the North-Rhine Westphalian government in 1995. Several leading biotechnological companies and institutes in Germany and the United States are involved in the project. The latest results of the current project will be presented in the paper. This includes fundamental research activities in the field of microbial coal conversion as well as investigations into bioreactor design and product treatment (dewatering, deashing and desulphurization). (orig.)

  14. Thermal dewatering of lignite: Phase III - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J; Kybett, B D

    1981-01-01

    Phase III of this project extended the investigation of thermal dewatering on several lignite and peat samples at the temperature range up to 400 degrees C and investigated variables such as retention time, increased rates of heating and cooling, extent of trace element removal, effect of particle size and effect of dewatering under heavy and light oils. Lignites from three areas of Canada (Estevan and Coronach, Saskatchewan, and Onakawana, Ontario) and one peat sample (Garrick, Saskatchewan) were thermally dewatered. The equilibrium moisture values obtained for the dewatered products were as low as, or lower than those obtained in Phases I and II of this project (350 degrees C). However, the measured moisture contents of the thermally dewatered Saskatchewan lignites were somewhat higher than those measured in Phases I and II. The equilibrium moisture values and the moisture contents decreased with increasing temperature. An optimum balance between extent of dewatering and resulting steam pressures is obtained for a dewatering temperature between 300 and 350 degrees C. At these temperatures, residence times in the order of 15 minutes are required. (35 refs.)

  15. Ameliorative properties of lignite fly ash in reclaiming saline and alkali soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalingam, P K

    1973-08-01

    Statistical analysis of the yield of rice grain and straw reveals that there is a significant increase in the yield of grain and straw due to the application of lignite fly ash over controls and application of lignite fly ash either at 5 tons or 10 tons per acre was on par with gypsum application at 5 tons/acre. Maximum yield was recorded in treatment with 5 tons of daincha plus 5 tons of lignite fly ash per acre. This is due to the combined effect of green manure and lignite fly ash. 4 references, 3 tables.

  16. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  17. Perspectives of the German lignite industry 2014; Perspektiven der deutschen Braunkohlenindustrie 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Matthias; Milojcic, George [DEBRIV, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The decision to phase out nuclear energy and gradually realign the electricity system towards more renewables in the future required some extensive changes to electricity generation transmission. One of the issues to be considered is what role lignite can play in the transformation of the electricity system and what application is offered to Germany and its regions. However, lignite has some stable factors and their development is fairly predictable. Domestic lignite is one such example. Beyond its familiar attributes, 'secure, competitive and economically important for the regions', 'flexibility' is a key word that indicates a new dimension for the German lignite industry.

  18. From psyche to soma? Changing accounts of antisocial personality disorders in the American Journal of Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn

    2010-09-01

    The history of psychiatry is often portrayed through the metaphor of a pendulum, the profession swinging back and forth between a concern with psyche and soma. Recent work critiquing the pendulum metaphor, however, suggests that it does not account for the complexity of psychiatry. This article explores the metaphor through an analysis of the changing aetiological accounts of personality disorders associated with antisocial behaviour advanced in the American Journal of Psychiatry from 1950 onwards. It is argued that the social, scientific and economic factors which help shape overarching professional trends in psychiatry only partly structure personality disorder discourse. If the pendulum swings, therefore, not all psychiatrists move with it.

  19. SOMA: A Proposed Framework for Trend Mining in Large UK Diabetic Retinopathy Temporal Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaraki, Vassiliki; Harding, Simon; Broadbent, Deborah; Coenen, Frans

    In this paper, we present SOMA, a new trend mining framework; and Aretaeus, the associated trend mining algorithm. The proposed framework is able to detect different kinds of trends within longitudinal datasets. The prototype trends are defined mathematically so that they can be mapped onto the temporal patterns. Trends are defined and generated in terms of the frequency of occurrence of pattern changes over time. To evaluate the proposed framework the process was applied to a large collection of medical records, forming part of the diabetic retinopathy screening programme at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital.

  20. Power generation from lignite coal in Bulgaria - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.; Gadjanov, P.; Panchev, T.

    1997-01-01

    The bulk of lignite coal produced in Bulgaria is used as fuel for the thermal power plants (TPP) built in Maritsa East coal field. A small part of it goes to production of briquettes and to fuel the auxiliary power plants of industrial enterprises. The total installed capacity of the power plants in the region of Maritsa East is 2490 MW, and the electric power generated by them is about 30% of the total power generated in the country. It should be noted that these power plants were subjected to a number of rehabilitations aiming to improve their technical and economic parameters. Irrespective of that, however, solution has still to be sought to a number of problems related to utilisation of the low-grade lignite coal for power generation. On the whole, they can be divided in the following groups: Those related to lignite coal mining can be referred to the first group. Lignite coal is mined in comparatively complicated mining and geological conditions characterized mainly by earth creep and deformation. The second group of problems is related to coal quality control. It is a fact of major significance that the quality indices of coal keep changing all the time in uneven steps without any definite laws to govern it. That creates hard problems in the process of coal transportation, crushing and combustion. The next group of problems concerns operation and upgrading of the power generation equipment. That applies especially to the existing boilers which bum low-grade fuel in order to improve their operation in terms of higher thermal efficiency, controllability, reliability, improved environmental indices, etc. An increasingly high importance is attached to environmental impact problems incident to lignite coal utilisation. Abatement of sulphur oxide emissions and dust pollution is a problem solution of which cannot wait. The possibilities for partial solution of the environmental problems through increasing the thermal efficiency of facilities at the thermal Power

  1. Genetic relationship of organic bases of the quinoline and isoquinoline series from lignite semicoking tars with the initial biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I.; Domogatskii, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Chilachava, K.B. [Leo Tolstoy State Pedagog University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    The genetic relationship of quinoline and isoquinoline compounds present in semicoking tars of Kimovsk lignites (near-Moscow fields) with the initial vegetable material is discussed. Transformation pathways of the native compounds in the course of lignite formation are suggested.

  2. Distribution and correlation of the natural radionuclides in a coal mine of the West Macedonia Lignite Center (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikritzis, L I; Fotakis, M; Tzimkas, N; Kolovos, N; Tsikritzi, R

    2008-02-01

    The distribution and correlation of six natural nuclides in the West Macedonia Lignite Center, Northern Greece were studied. Fifty-five samples of lignite, aged from 1.8 to 5 million years, and corresponding steriles, beds of marls, clays and sands alternating with the lignite, were collected perpendicular to the mine benches and measured spectroscopically. The mean concentrations of (238)U and (226)Ra in lignites were found to be higher than that in steriles since these nuclides are associated with the organic material of lignite, whereas (238)U/(226)Ra equilibrium was not observed in either lignites or steriles. Finally, the ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra in lignites was approximately double of that in steriles, confirming the affinity of the (238)U series with the coal matrix in contrast to the (232)Th series. No correlation was found between radionuclide concentrations and the depth of the sample, nor with the ash content of lignite.

  3. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    and a higher proportion of self-reported illness and are in higher risk of health problems and morbidity than their Danish counterparts. Furthermore, their health differences increase more by age. The research project aimed at finding possible explanations for these differences among Turkish and ethnic Danish......Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments...... elderly people by studying the every day life of elderly Turkish migrants. Methods Qualitative interviews were carried out with 12 Turkish men and 18 women aged 54-80. The interviews had a focus on their health practices and health perceptions in a life history perspective. The interviews were...

  4. Biodegradation of photo-oxidized lignite and characterization of the products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantao; Liu, Xiangrong; Yue, Zilin; Zhang, Yaowen

    2018-01-01

    Biodegradation of photo-oxidized Inner Mongolia lignite by pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied and the degradation percentage reached 56.27%, while the corresponding degradation percentage of the strain degrading raw Inner Mongolia lignite is only 23.16%. The degradation products were characterized. Proximate and ultimate analyses show that the higher oxygen content increased by photo-oxidation pretreatment maybe promoted the degradation process. Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) analysis of the liquid product reveals that it contains unsaturated structures and aromatic rings are the main structure units. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicates that the main components of the ethyl acetate extracts are low molecular weight organic compounds, such as ketones, acids, hydrocarbons, esters and alcohols. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis of raw lignite, photo-oxidized lignite and residual lignite demonstrates that the absorption peaks of functional groups in residual lignite disappeared or weakened obviously. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis manifests that small holes appear in photo-oxidized lignite surface, which may be promote the degradation process and this is only from the physical morphology aspects, so it can be inferred from the tests and analyses results that the more important reason of the high degradation percentage is mostly that the photo-oxidation pretreatment changes the chemical structures of lignite.

  5. Solid substrate fermentation of lignite by the coal-solubilizing mould, Trichoderma atroviride, in a new type of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Trichoderma atroviride CBS 349 is able to solubilize lignite. The mould was cultured under non-sterile conditions in a new type of bioreactor for solid substrate fermentation. German lignite (lithotype A, Bergheim) was used as complex solid substrate. Over 40 days 140 g of 1.5 kg lignite held in a 25 1-bioreactor was solubilized by the fungus.

  6. Sedimentologic and palynologic significance of finding tertiary lignites in an ancient rift zone lake (Chingla, Ethiopia). Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedamawit, Y.; Bonnefille, R.; Faure, H.; Taieb, M.

    1984-01-01

    Oligocene-Pleistocene deposits at Chingla apparently lie atop Miocene basalts. The upper cross-section shows numerous lignite interlayers. This paper discusses mineral composition of lignites and enclosing rock. Palynologic analysis of the lignite cross-sections determined 23 layers.

  7. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  8. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  9. Comparative study of German and Greek lignite mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The reclamation planning of three European lignite mining districts are compared: amount and extent of planning, integration with mining operations, and results. The districts are: Rheinbraun (Cologne), Leipzig-Borna (''East'' Germany), and Megalopolis (Greece). Lignite mines were visited and mining and reclamation personnel interviewed. The Rheinbraun mines have the most thorough reclamation operations. The integrated mine and reclamation operations are world class in size, scope, and detail of reclamation. A comprehensive landscape and reclamation plan is required in the mine permitting process. The Leipzig-Borna district is the second largest of the districts, studied little pre-mining planning of the post-mining landscape or land uses was evident. Reclamation is not closely integrated with the mining and typically occurs many years after the mining. Reduced lignite production since German reunification has left vast areas of disturbed land with little mining; and no funding for the reclamation of the large areas of mined land reclamation. The Greek Megalopolis mines have mine operations plan, but with no integrated reclamation planning. The initial spoil pile was reclaimed according to the original German mining plan. No pits have been reclaimed, and spoil areas are revegetated sporadically. The Rheinbraun mining operations Cologne which include a post mining landscape/land use plan have integrated and timely reclamation operations. The other two mining operations, which do not have a comprehensive and detailed reclamation and landscape/land use plans, do not integrate reclamation operations with the mining operations. The results are large areas of mined land unreclaimed for many years

  10. Treatment of products from petroleum, shale, coal, lignite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevanoff, V

    1952-06-20

    An improved process is described for treating with sodium plumbite all the products derived from crude petroleum, bituminous shale, coal, lignite, peat, etc., such as gasoline, solvents, lamp oil, gas oil, fuels, etc; the process being essentially characterized by the fact that it consists first in washing the product to be refined with a soda wash; submitting it to a treatment with sodium plumbite, without addition of sulfur, then to eliminate the sulfur plumbite compounds resulting in the treated product, using either redistillation to eliminate products remaining in the residue or filtration over an absorbing material such as active carbon, decolorizing earths.

  11. EFFECT OF MICROWAVE DRYING ON THE GRINDABILITY OF LIGNITE COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Güngören, Can; Özkan, Şafak Gökhan; Hacıfazlıoğlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the representative lignite coal samples supplied from Kastamonu-Tosya region were dried in a conventional drying oven and a microwave oven, and then they were ground by a laboratory rod mill. The particle size analyses of the ground samples at various grinding times (10, 20, 30, and 60 minutes) were carried out, and the results were compared. As a result, the d80 particle sizes of the samples, dried in the conventional drying oven, were determined as 350, 183, 180, and 100 µm a...

  12. Refining of raw materials, lignite present economic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G.

    1985-06-01

    East Germany seeks an economic intensification program that involves refining raw materials to a higher level. Lignite briquetting prior to liquefaction and gasification illustrates both the theoretical and practical aspects of that goal and also introduces questions of secure supplies. The author describes the special labor processes, use of technology, recycling of waste materials, and other new problems that the approach entails as the refined raw materials become new materials or energy sources. Economics based on the value of the refined product and the cost of the materials determine the degree of refinement. The concept also involves the relationship of producer and user as profits increase.

  13. Quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of germanium in lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1972-01-01

    A burning technique in a d.c. arc at 10 amp has been employed. The standards have been prepared from a natural lignite with a low germanium content. In order to enhance sensitivity, AgCl, K 2 SO 4 , CuF 2 , Sb 2 S 3 and Bi 2 S 3 have been tested as sweeping materials. Using 2% CuF 2 a detection limit of 1 ppm germanium is attainable. Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn have been studied as internal standards: the former leads to the, highest precision (1 6%. Results show good agreement with those obtained by the addition method. (Author) 6 refs

  14. The effect of lignite quality variation on the efficiency of on-line ash analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetakis, Michael J. [Technical University of Crete, Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering, University Campus, 73 100 Hania (Greece); Pavloudakis, Francis F. [Public Power Corporation SA, General Division of Mines, Kifisou and Dyrrahiou 89, 104 43 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable coal industry needs to achieve a number of objectives including improvements in utilization of deposits, energy efficiency, and environmental performance during combustion. The ''Clean Coal Concept'' promises to combine the secure and low cost electricity supply offered by hard coal and lignite with adequate environmental precautions. In this context, modern quality control systems, which are greatly based on the on-line analyzers, play an important role in achieving sustainability targets. This paper examines the possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the mineral matter content of low quality lignite mined from the lignite basin of Megalopolis, Peloponnese, Greece. The effect of the accuracy of the on-line analyzers to process control, when used for the characterization of low rank coals with complex and variable composition, is investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual energy gamma-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the mine pit to the homogenization stockyard. All measurement data were compared to data gathered during the realisation of similar trials in the lignite mines of Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece. Results indicated that the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not satisfactory and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The achieved inferior accuracy of the on-line measurement's accuracy, compared to previous applications at other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the mineral matter content of lignite and lignite composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average mass absorption coefficient of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of

  15. The structure and pyrolysis product distribution of lignite from different sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Dexiang; Wang, Lanlan; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Tieying; Lu, Xilan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon structure of three lignites was measured by solid "1"3C NMR. • Effect of carbon structure on pyrolysis product distribution was studied. • Tar yield is influenced by aliphatic carbon and oxygen functional group. • C1–C4 content of pyrolysis gas is related to CH_2/CH_3 ratio. - Abstract: Low-temperature pyrolysis is an economically efficient method for lignite to obtain coal tar and improve its combustion calorific value. The research on the distribution of pyrolysis product (especially coal tar yield) plays an important role in energy application and economic development in the now and future. Pyrolysis test was carried out in a tube reactor at 873 K for 15 min. The structure of the lignite was measured by solid "1"3C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal analysis was analyzed by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that the pyrolysis product distribution is related to the breakage of branch structures of aromatic ring in lignites from different sedimentary environment. The gas yield and composition are related to the decomposition of carbonyl group and the breakage of aliphatic carbon. The tar yield derived from lignite pyrolysis follows the order: Xianfeng lignite (XF, 13.67 wt.%) > Xiaolongtan lignite (XLT, 7.97 wt.%) > Inner Mongolia lignite (IM, 6.30 wt.%), which is mainly influenced by the aliphatic carbon contents, the CH_2/CH_3 ratio and the oxygen functional groups in lignite. The pyrolysis water yield depends on the decomposition of oxygen functional groups. IM has the highest content of oxygen-linked carbon so that the pyrolysis water yield derived from IM is the highest (9.20 wt.%), and is far more than that from the other two lignites.

  16. Lignite pre-treatment and its effect on bio-stimulative properties of respective lignite humic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlckova, Z.; Grasset, L.; Antosova, B.; Pekar, M.; Kucerik, J. [Brno University of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemistry

    2009-09-15

    Humic acids originating from South-Moravian lignite were subjected to a comparative study with the aim to assess the alteration of their physico-chemical properties after various lignite pre-treatments. Physical modification was achieved with two organic acids, such as acetic acid and citric acid and chemical modification by nitric acid and hydrogene peroxide in various concentrations. Elemental analysis, solid-state NMR, GC-MS analysis of polyols and size exclusion chromatography were carried out for chemical-physical characterization of obtained humic acids. Their biological effect, in form of potassium and ammonium humates, was tested on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. In these tests, potassium humates achieved far better overall results than ammonium humates. Results were inter-correlated in order to appraise the influence of humic acids physical and chemical properties on biological activity. Surprisingly, fractions with the lowest molecular size (0-35 kDa) showed no correlation with bioactivity results (Pearson coefficient from 0.05 to -0.4). On the contrary, middle-sized fractions (35-175 kDa) showed highly significant positive correlation (Pearson coefficient up to 0.92) and the highest molecular-size-fractions (275-350 kDa) showed negative correlation (Pearson coefficient up to -0.75). These findings were identical for both potassium and ammonium humates. No connection was found between bioactivity of humates and polyols content which was remarkably high; it reached 150 mg per g of humic acids in the most extreme case of 5% hydrogene peroxide pre-treatment. In the final analysis, the preparation mode bore pivotal responsibility for the control of humic acids biological effect and showed the best results for potassium humates obtained from lignite pre-treated by acetic acid and by 2% hydrogen peroxide.

  17. CT, MRI and PET image fusion using the ProSoma 3D simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalah, E.; Bradley, D.A.; Nisbet, A.; Reise, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Multi-modality imaging is involved in almost all oncology applications focusing on the extent of disease and target volume delineation. Commercial image fusion software packages are becoming available but require comprehensive evaluation to ensure reliability of fusion and the underpinning registration algorithm particularly for radiotherapy. The present work seeks to assess such accuracy for a number of available registration methods provided by the commercial package ProSoma. A NEMA body phantom was used in evaluating CT, MR and PET images. In addition, discussion is provided concerning the choice and geometry of fiducial markers in phantom studies and the effect of window-level on target size, in particular in regard to the application of multi modality imaging in treatment planning. In general, the accuracy of fusion of multi-modality images was within 0.5-1.5 mm of actual feature diameters and < 2 ml volume of actual values, particularly in CT images. (author)

  18. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  19. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  20. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  1. Ion channel density regulates switches between regular and fast spiking in soma but not in axons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Zeberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The threshold firing frequency of a neuron is a characterizing feature of its dynamical behaviour, in turn determining its role in the oscillatory activity of the brain. Two main types of dynamics have been identified in brain neurons. Type 1 dynamics (regular spiking shows a continuous relationship between frequency and stimulation current (f-I(stim and, thus, an arbitrarily low frequency at threshold current; Type 2 (fast spiking shows a discontinuous f-I(stim relationship and a minimum threshold frequency. In a previous study of a hippocampal neuron model, we demonstrated that its dynamics could be of both Type 1 and Type 2, depending on ion channel density. In the present study we analyse the effect of varying channel density on threshold firing frequency on two well-studied axon membranes, namely the frog myelinated axon and the squid giant axon. Moreover, we analyse the hippocampal neuron model in more detail. The models are all based on voltage-clamp studies, thus comprising experimentally measurable parameters. The choice of analysing effects of channel density modifications is due to their physiological and pharmacological relevance. We show, using bifurcation analysis, that both axon models display exclusively Type 2 dynamics, independently of ion channel density. Nevertheless, both models have a region in the channel-density plane characterized by an N-shaped steady-state current-voltage relationship (a prerequisite for Type 1 dynamics and associated with this type of dynamics in the hippocampal model. In summary, our results suggest that the hippocampal soma and the two axon membranes represent two distinct kinds of membranes; membranes with a channel-density dependent switching between Type 1 and 2 dynamics, and membranes with a channel-density independent dynamics. The difference between the two membrane types suggests functional differences, compatible with a more flexible role of the soma membrane than that of the axon membrane.

  2. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  3. Appraisal of Hydrologic Information Needed in Anticipation of Lignite Mining in Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William Scott

    1981-01-01

    Lignite in western Tennessee occurs as lenses or beds at various stratigraphic horizons in the Coastal Plain sediments of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The occurrence of this lignite has been known for many decades, but not until the energy crisis was it considered an important energy resource. In recent years, several energy companies have conducted extensive exploration programs in western Tennessee, and tremendous reserves of lignite have been found. From available information, Lauderdale County was selected as one of the counties where strip-mining of lignite will most likely occur. Lignite in this county occurs in the Jackson and Cockfield Formations, undivided, of Tertiary age. The hydrology of the county is known only from regional studies and the collection of some site-specific data. Therefore, in anticipation of the future mining of lignite, a plan is needed for obtaining hydrologic and geologic information to adequately define the hydrologic system before mining begins and to monitor the effects of strip-mining once it is begun. For this planning effort, available hydrologic, geologic, land use, and associated data were located and compiled; a summary description of the surface and shallow subsurface hydrologic system was prepared: the need for additional baseline hydrologic information was outlined; and plans to monitor the effects of strip-mining were proposed. This planning approach, although limited to a county area, has transferability to other Coastal Plain areas under consideration for strip-mining of lignite.

  4. Characteristics of Mae Moh lignite: Hardgrove grindability index and approximate work index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutthiphong Tara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to preliminarily study the Mae Moh lignite grindability tests emphasizing onHardgrove grindability and approximate work index determination respectively. Firstly, the lignite samples were collected,prepared and analyzed for calorific value, total sulfur content, and proximate analysis. After that the Hardgrove grindabilitytest using ball-race test mill was performed. Knowing the Hardgrove indices, the Bond work indices of some samples wereestimated using the Aplan’s formula. The approximate work indices were determined by running a batch dry-grinding testusing a laboratory ball mill. Finally, the work indices obtained from both methods were compared. It was found that allsamples could be ranked as lignite B, using the heating value as criteria, if the content of mineral matter is neglected. Similarly,all samples can be classified as lignite with the Hargrove grindability indices ranging from about 40 to 50. However, there isa significant difference in the work indices derived from Hardgrove and simplified Bond grindability tests. This may be due todifference in variability of lignite properties and the test procedures. To obtain more accurate values of the lignite workindex, the time-consuming Bond procedure should be performed with a number of corrections for different milling conditions.With Hardgrove grindability indices and the work indices calculated from Aplan’s formula, capacity of the roller-racepulverizer and grindability of the Mae Moh lignite should be investigated in detail further.

  5. Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne group) and Jackson group lignite deposits of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The lignite deposits within the upper Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne Group) and the overlying Jackson Group are among the coal resources that were not quantitatively assessed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) program in the Gulf Coastal Plain coal province. In the past, these lignite-bearing stratigraphic units often have been evaluated together because of their geographic and stratigraphic proximity (Fisher, 1963; Kaiser, 1974; Kaiser et al., 1980; Jackson and Garner, 1982; Kaiser, 1996) (Figures 1, 2). The term “Yegua-Jackson trend“ is used informally herein for the lignite-bearing outcrops of these Late Eocene deposits in Texas. Lignite beds in the Yegua-Jackson trend generally are higher both in ash yield and sulfur content than those of the underlying Wilcox Group (Figure 2). Recent studies (Senkayi et al., 1987; Ruppert et al., 1994; Warwick et al., 1996, 1997) have shown that some lignite beds within the Yegua-Jackson trend contain partings of volcanic ash and host elevated levels of trace elements that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Amendments of 1990. Lignite beds within the Yegua Formation are thin (less than or equal to 6 ft) and laterally discontinuous in comparison with most Wilcox Group deposits (Ayers, 1989a); in contrast, the Jackson Group lignite beds range up to 12 ft in total thickness and are relatively continuous laterally, extending nearly 32 mi along strike.

  6. Why Should Bilingualized Dictionary of Turkish Be Used in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami

    2018-01-01

    The first person to learn Turkish as a foreign language is a Chinese woman writing Turkish love letters for her exiled husband in the 4th century. However, we do not know much about how this woman learned Turkish. The known history of teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language goes back to the first concrete material produced for this process. They…

  7. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celenk, O.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The

  8. Investigation of pre-drying lignite in an existing Greek power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agraniotis Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of lignite pre-drying technologies in next generation of lignite power plants by utilizing low pressure steam as a drying medium instead of hot recirculated flue gas - combined with thermal utilization of the vaporized coal moisture - is expected to bring efficiency increase of 2-4 percentage points in future lignite power plants compared with today’s state of the art. The pre-drying concept is of particular importance in Greek boilers firing lignite with a high water and ash content. The combustion of Greek predried lignite has been investigated experimentally and via numerical simulations in our previous research. This study focuses on the potential integration of a lignite pre-drying system in an existing Greek power plant with dry lignite co-firing thermal share of up to 30%. The radiative and convective heat fluxes to the boiler and the overall boiler heat balance is calculated for reference and dry lignite co-firing conditions by an in-house calculation code. The overall plant’s thermal cycle is then simulated using commercial thermal cycle calculation software. The net plant efficiency is in this way determined for reference and dry coal co-firing conditions. According to the simulation results the integration of a pre-drying system and the implementation of dry lignite co-firing may bring an efficiency increase of about 1.5 percentage points in existing Greek boilers. It is therefore considered as an important measure towards improving plant efficiency and reducing specific CO2 emissions in existing plants.

  9. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2014-05-01

    Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Jaćimović et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope

  10. Sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrifical agent in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudchadker, M.V.; Weiss, W.J.

    1978-02-07

    A process is described for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs by secondary recovery methods. The process involves injecting via an injection well into the reservoir an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process is conducted by first injecting the lignite salt into the formation through the injection well and following it with either a polymer or a surfactant solution, which also may contain the lignite salt. The polymer or surfactant would then be followed by a drive fluid, such as water, to push the chemicals and oil to the production well. (18 claims)

  11. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  12. Innovative approach to ash radioactivitiy and health impacts of lignite power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosevski, T.; Pop-Jordanova, N. [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje (Macedonia)

    1998-12-31

    In Macedonia nearly 90% of the present electricity production utilizes domestic low-calorie lignite, and this is likely to continue for the next few decades. Local and global environmental impacts of fossil fuel utilization are considered. Some innovative extensions to standard methodologies of environmental risk assessment and management are considered. They involve ash radioactivity and psychosomatic health impacts from lignite power plants. Two extensions are proposed: one comprising complete radioactive chains when determining committed effective dose from lignite ash; the other by including the psychosomatic diseases, such as peptic ulcer and arterial hypertension, due to chronic stress induced by power plants during normal operation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Foreseen development of mining of lignite; Przewidywany rozwoj gornictwa wegla brunatnego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Z. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Geo-engineering, Mining and Geology

    2004-07-01

    The future of activity in Poland's lignite sector will be determined by the demand for this fuel, which will in turn result from mining possibilities and economic competitiveness of the fuel in relation to other sources of electrical energy. The paper discusses all these factors and presents a framework programme for the development of Poland's lignite sector until 2040 (in detail) and further ahead to 2075, called the 'Agreement of manufacturers of lignite'. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  15. Greek-Turkish Crises since 1955. Implications for Greek-Turkish Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS GREEK-TURKISH CRISES SINCE 1955. IMPLICATIONS FOR GREEK-TURKISH CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by...EU, WEU) have only to gain from a Greek-Turkish rapprochement. 14. SUBJECT TERMS GrEek-Turkish RElATiONS, CRiSiS MANAgEMENT, CONfLICT management 15...crises, because the intended outcome of mediation attempts has been regional stability instead of Greek-Turkish conflict management . Power mediation

  16. Sustainable lignite mining and utilization. Developments in the Rhenish lignite-mining area; Nachhaltige Braunkohlegewinnung und -nutzung. Entwicklung im Rheinischen Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Dieter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Sparte Tagebaue

    2012-09-15

    Lignite is an essential module in the Rhenish mining area's economic power. Mini ng in a densely populated region like the Rhineland calls for keeping an eye equ ally on people, the environment and industry now and in the future. By considering all concerns and ensuring transparency in our approach to people, we have succeeded in obtaining public acceptance also for large-scale projects in an environment that is not always easy in Germany. RWE Power plans to use lignite in powe r generation and in upgrading operations for many decades to come, so that the company is systematically implementing the power-plant renewal programme with is planning for BoAplus as highly efficient next-generation lignite-based power plants. Research on CO{sub 2} utilization, flexibilization, energy storage and alternative uses of lignite are as much features of RWE Power's future-proof alignment in the Rhenish mining area as are further innovations in the opencast mines. Core aspects here include further automation in the deployment of main mine equipment, closely dovetailed with innovations in other operating units. Parallel restructuring of the operating units and the Lignite Approvals area are underpinning these measures. Innovations and their translation into technical progress will ensure the success of a measured energy turnaround both in Germany and throughout Europe. However, this requires dependable political conditions, so that an engineering spirit can go on being transformed into entrepreneurial action. (orig.)

  17. Sustainable lignite mining and utilization. Developments in the Rhenish lignite-mining area; Nachhaltige Braunkohlegewinnung und -nutzung. Entwicklung im Rheinischen Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Dieter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Opencast Mines Div.

    2012-03-15

    Lignite is an essential module in the Rhenish mining area's economic power. Mining in a densely populated region like the Rhineland calls for keeping an eye equally on people, the environment and industry now and in the future. By considering all concerns and ensuring transparency in our approach to people, we have succeeded in obtaining public acceptance also for large-scale projects in an environment that is not always easy in Germany. RWE Power plans to use lignite in power generation and in upgrading operations for many decades to come, so that the company is systematically implementing the power-plant renewal programme with is planning for BoAplus as highly efficient next-generation lignite-based power plants. Research on CO{sub 2} utilization, flexibilization, energy storage and alternative uses of lignite are as much features of RWE Power's future-proof alignment in the Rhenish mining area as are further innovations in the opencast mines. Core aspects here include further automation in the deployment of main mine equipment, closely dovetailed with innovations in other operating units. Parallel restructuring of the operating units and the Lignite Approvals area are underpinning these measures. Innovations and their translation into technical progress will ensure the success of a measured energy turnaround both in Germany and throughout Europe. However, this requires dependable political conditions, so that an engineering spirit can go on being transformed into entrepreneurial action. (orig.)

  18. Bucket wheel excavator performances at Neyveli lignite mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaraswamy, S; Mozumdar, B K

    1987-03-01

    Bucket-wheel excavators have been in use at the Neyveli Lignite Mine in the State of Tamil Nadu, India, since the early nineteen-sixties. The mining environment has been particularly harsh for BWE application. The adverse influencing factors are the hardness of the over-burden formation, high abrasivity of rock and artesian ground water conditions. In this paper, the performances of the BWEs at Neyveli have been statistically analysed to determine the effects of physico-mechanical properties of overburden, blasting and rainfall on machine productivity, availability, wear-and-tear of bucket teeth, power consumption, production efficiency and cost of mining. An empirical relationship between the production efficiency, defined as the ratio of actual production rate to the theoretical one, and the bench height and width, height of slices, specific cutting resistance of the overburden material and its clay content, consumption of explosives, and conveyor length has been established.

  19. PFBC development for lignite-fired CC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Meier, H.J.; Smuda, J.V.; Stuhlmueller, F. [VEAG Vereinigte Energiewerke AG (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    A power station design based on pressurised combustion in a circulating fluid-bed is used to illustrate the principle, layout and potential of a lignite-fired combined power station. The fundamental reasons for concentrating on the circulating pressurised fluid-bed consist in its improved emission values, the possibility of separating heat source and heat sink, and better operating performance (part-load). This design has been developed as part of a feasibility study supported by the Federal Ministry for Research and Tehcnology. The paper describes the design of the power plant components. Combustion trials carried out at the pilot plant in Friedrichsfield are reported and the cost-effectiveness of the innovatory design discussed. 10 figs.

  20. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Pakamon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal. PMID:24250259

  1. The lignite industry and regional development. Interactions exemplified by the Rhenish mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, Lars; Voigt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Even in times of globalised markets, the German lignite industry retains its local and regional roots. Viewed against this background, the relationship between lignite industry and regional actors, and the interactions between the two play a major role in the perspectives for this branch of Germany's energy sector. Today, the links between the lignite industry and regional bodies are those of a partnership at eye-level. This type of relationship between the industry and regional actors has led to new forms and methods of cooperation at various levels. This is particularly evident in the efforts to re-shape the regional structure, develop the structure of townships and strengthen the economic structure with lignite playing an important role and new partners which are gaining in importance. (orig.)

  2. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  3. Soma, food of the immortals according to the Bower Manuscript (Kashmir, 6th century A.D.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2014-08-08

    Food is medicine and vice versa. In Hindu and Ayurvedic medicine, and among human cultures of the Indian subcontinent in general, the perception of the food-medicine continuum is especially well established. The preparation of the exhilarating, gold-coloured Soma, Amrita or Ambrosia, the elixir and food of the 'immortals'-the Hindu pantheon-by the ancient Indo-Aryans, is described in the Rigveda in poetic hymns. Different theories regarding the botanical identity of Soma circulate, but no pharmacologically and historically convincing theory exists to date. We intend to contribute to the botanical, chemical and pharmacological characterisation of Soma through an analysis of two historical Amrita recipes recorded in the Bower Manuscript. The recipes are referred therein as panaceas (clarified butter) and also as a medicine to treat nervous diseases (oil), while no exhilarating properties are mentioned. Notwithstanding this, we hypothesise, that these recipes are related to the ca. 1800 years older Rigvedic Soma. We suppose that the psychoactive Soma ingredient(s) are among the components, possibly in smaller proportions, of the Amrita recipes preserved in the Bower Manuscript. The Bower Manuscript is a medical treatise recorded in the 6th century A.D. in Sanskrit on birch bark leaves, probably by Buddhist monks, and unearthed towards the end of the 19th century in Chinese Turkestan. We analysed two Amrita recipes from the Bower Manuscript, which was translated by Rudolf Hoernle into English during the early 20th century. A database search with the updated Latin binomials of the herbal ingredients was used to gather quantitative phytochemical and pharmacological information. Together, both Amrita recipes contain around 100 herbal ingredients. Psychoactive alkaloid containing species still important in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Thai medicine and mentioned in the recipe for 'Amrita-Prâsa clarified butter' and 'Amrita Oil' are: Tinospora cordifolia (Amrita, Guduchi), three

  4. Conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. Functional evaluation with LENT-SOMA scales and the Enneking score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfiq, N.; Lagarde, P.; Thomas, L.; Kantor, G.; Stockle, E.; Bui, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. - The aim of this prospective study is the feasibility of late effects assessment by LENT-SOMA scales after conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and a comparison with the functional evaluation by the Enneking score. Patients and methods. - During the systematic follow-up consultations, a series of 32 consecutive patients was evaluated in terms of late effects by LENT SOMA scales and functional results by the Enneking score. The median time after treatment was 65 months. The treatment consisted of conservative surgery (all cases) followed by radiation therapy (29 cases), often combined with adjuvant therapy (12 concomitant radio-chemotherapy association cases out of 14). The assessment of the toxicity was retrospective for acute effects and prospective for the following late tissue damage: skin/subcutaneous tissues, muscles/soft tissues and peripheral nerves. Results. -According to the Enneking score, the global score for the overall series was high (24/30) despite four the scores zero for the psychological acceptance. According to LENT SOMA scales, a low rate of severe sequelae (grade 3-4) was observed. The occurrence of high-grade sequelae and their functional consequences were not correlated with quality of exeresis, dose of radiotherapy or use of concomitant chemotherapy. A complementarity was observed between certain factors of the Enneking score and some criteria of the LENTSOMA scales, especially of muscles/soft tissues. Conclusion. -The good quality of functional results was confirmed by the two mean scoring systems for late normal tissue damage. The routine use of LENT-SOMA seems to be more time consuming than the Enneking score (mean time of scoring: 1 3 versus five minutes). The LENT-SOMA scales are aimed at a detailed description of late toxicity and sequelae while the Enneking score provides a more global evaluation, including the psychological acceptance of treatment. The late effects assessment by the LENT-SOMA

  5. Report on the survey of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.J.; Prochaska, D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.

    1986-03-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in October 1983 as part of the proposed reclamation plan of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota. The survey was made to determine the extent of contamination caused by mining operations in the 1960's. Radiation measurements were made and soil samples were taken at approximately 300 locations around six mine sites comprising eleven lignite mine pits. Toxic element analysis was also done on 50 of the soil samples

  6. Steam gasification of Bulmer coal in the presence of lignite ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steam gasification of blends prepared from Balmer coal and the ash from combustion of Onakawana lignite was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The blends were prepared by co-slurrying followed by drying. In the presence of 20 wt% ash the gasification rate doubled at 830 and 930 C. Direct blending of coal and lignite resulted in an overall increase in carbon conversion at 830 C but had no effect at 930 C. 5 refs.

  7. Characteristics of Mae Moh lignite: Hardgrove grindability index and approximate work index

    OpenAIRE

    Wutthiphong Tara; Chairoj Rattanakawin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to preliminarily study the Mae Moh lignite grindability tests emphasizing onHardgrove grindability and approximate work index determination respectively. Firstly, the lignite samples were collected,prepared and analyzed for calorific value, total sulfur content, and proximate analysis. After that the Hardgrove grindabilitytest using ball-race test mill was performed. Knowing the Hardgrove indices, the Bond work indices of some samples wereestimated using the A...

  8. The reduction of sulfate ions in Musashino woody lignite and in acetone-furfural resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    By adding a barium chloride solution to sulfur-containing woody lignite kept in water for two years, it has been confirmed that large quantities of sulfate ions are adsorbed by the lignite. Furthermore, spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the reduction of sulfate ions in an acetone-furfural resin prepared with residual sulfuric acid. These experimental results suggest the possibility of reducing sulfate ions in coal in the absence of sulfate bacteria. 2 refs.

  9. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abordagens Somáticas do Corpo na Dança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Entende-se a Educação Somática como um campo interdisciplinar que se interessa pela consciência do corpo e seu movimento e que se propõe a uma descoberta pessoal de seus próprios movimentos, de suas próprias sensações. O presente artigo objetiva propor uma reflexão por meio de notas sobre o conceito de Educação Somática, Soma e Corpo, bem como destacar duas abordagens somáticas que são incorporadas nas práticas da temática em voga como caminhos possíveis para pensar o campo em estudo na dança. Parte de uma abordagem fenomenológica pautada nos estudos de Merleau-Ponty (1999, tomando como técnica de pesquisa a descrição merleaupontyana.

  11. Late effects of normal tissues (lent) scoring system: the soma scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Pavy, J.J.; Denekamp, J.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation tolerance of normal tissues remains the limiting factor for delivering tumoricidal dose. The late toxicity of normal tissues is the most critical element of an irradiation: somatic, functional and structural alterations occur during the actual treatment itself, but late effects manifest months to years after acute effects heal, and may progress with time. The optimal therapeutic ratio ultimately requires not only complete tumor clearance, but also minimal residual injury to surrounding vital normal tissues. The disparity between the intensity of acute and late effects and the inability to predict the eventual manifestation of late normal tissue injury has made radiation oncologists recognize the importance of careful patient follow-up. There is so far no uniform toxicity scoring system to compare several clinical studies in the absence of a 'common toxicity language'. This justifies the need to establish a precise evaluation system for the analysis of late effects of radiation on normal tissues. The SOMA/LENT scoring system results from an international collaboration. European Organization Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) have created subcommittees with the aim of addressing the question of standardized toxic effects criteria. This effort appeared as a necessity to standardize and improve the data recording, to then describe and evaluate uniform toxicity at regular time intervals. The current proposed scale is not yet validated, and should be used cautiously. (authors)

  12. TURKISH TRADE POLICY AND THE EFFICIENCY OF TURKISH COTTON MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Troy G.

    1999-01-01

    Turkish cotton markets are affected by import duties, export taxes, and a range of domestic subsidies. The degree of economic inefficiency arising from these government policies is estimated through the use of two partial equilibrium models, one for the Aegean market and another for the non-Aegean market. The welfare implications of these policies are also explored.

  13. Validation of a FBC model for co-firing of hazelnut shell with lignite against experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulah, Gorkem [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Performance of a comprehensive system model extended for modelling of co-firing of lignite and biomass was assessed by applying it to METU 0.3 MW{sub t} Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor co-firing lignite with hazelnut shell and validating its predictions against on-line temperature and concentration measurements of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and NO along the same test rig fired with lignite only, lignite with limestone addition and lignite with biomass and limestone addition. The system model accounts for hydrodynamics; volatiles release and combustion, char combustion, particle size distribution for lignite and biomass; entrainment; elutriation; sulfur retention and NO formation and reduction, and is based on conservation equations for energy and chemical species. Special attention was paid to different devolatilization characteristics of lignite and biomass. A volatiles release model based on a particle movement model and a devolatilization kinetic model were incorporated into the system model separately for both fuels. Kinetic parameters for devolatilization were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. Predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations of gaseous species along the combustor were found to be in good agreement. Introduction of biomass to lignite was found to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions but did not affect NO emissions significantly. The system model proposed in this study proves to be a useful tool in qualitatively and quantitatively simulating the processes taking place in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor burning lignite with biomass. (author)

  14. A study relating to the conceptual design and cost estimates of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation lignite beneficiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granatstein, D L; Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J

    1982-06-01

    The purpose is to provide technology for upgrading lignite to a cleaner fuel that is capable of improving utility plant operation and is more acceptable to the non-utility sector. Beneficiated lignite can provide a middle alternative between low-grade and high-grade fuels. The results for phase IV include a conceptual design for a lignite beneficiation plant and a marketing study for the product. The beneficiated lignite is cheaper to transport, easier to handle, cleaner, allows better plant operation with higher availability, reduced slagging and fouling, reduced sulphur, and lower operating and maintenance costs. 8 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, F.; Shala, F.; Xhixha, G.; Xhixha, M.K.; Hodolli, G.; Kadiri, S.; Bylyku, E.; Cfarku, F.

    2014-01-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg −1 , 9 ± 1 Bq kg −1 and 9 ± 3 Bq kg −1 , respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. - Highlights: • NORMs in lignite combustion residues from CFPPs are studied. • Th/U indicates either low U uptake from host rocks and/or high leaching from peat. • The concentration factor of NORMs in fly and bottom ash samples are 3–5 times. • No 226 Ra enrichment is observed in fly ash while a depletion in bottom ash. • The reuse of fly ash in cement industry poses no significant radiological issue

  16. The SOFIA Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey. I. Overview and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Liu, Mengyao; Tan, Jonathan C.; Staff, Jan E.; Tanaka, Kei E. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Beltrán, Maria T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Whitney, Barbara [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present an overview and first results of the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey, which is using the FORCAST instrument to image massive protostars from ∼10 to 40 μ m. These wavelengths trace thermal emission from warm dust, which in Core Accretion models mainly emerges from the inner regions of protostellar outflow cavities. Dust in dense core envelopes also imprints characteristic extinction patterns at these wavelengths, causing intensity peaks to shift along the outflow axis and profiles to become more symmetric at longer wavelengths. We present observational results for the first eight protostars in the survey, i.e., multiwavelength images, including some ancillary ground-based mid-infrared (MIR) observations and archival Spitzer and Herschel data. These images generally show extended MIR/FIR emission along directions consistent with those of known outflows and with shorter wavelength peak flux positions displaced from the protostar along the blueshifted, near-facing sides, thus confirming qualitative predictions of Core Accretion models. We then compile spectral energy distributions and use these to derive protostellar properties by fitting theoretical radiative transfer models. Zhang and Tan models, based on the Turbulent Core Model of McKee and Tan, imply the sources have protostellar masses m {sub *} ∼ 10–50 M {sub ⊙} accreting at ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} inside cores of initial masses M {sub c} ∼ 30–500 M {sub ⊙} embedded in clumps with mass surface densities Σ{sub cl} ∼ 0.1–3 g cm{sup −2}. Fitting the Robitaille et al. models typically leads to slightly higher protostellar masses, but with disk accretion rates ∼100× smaller. We discuss reasons for these differences and overall implications of these first survey results for massive star formation theories.

  17. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-02-01

    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Sulfurisation of lipids in a marine-influenced lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandison, C.M.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.; Boreham, C.J. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Compelling evidence is presented for the process of lipid sulfurisation in humic coal-forming environments. The production of reduced inorganic sulfides by sulfate-reducing bacteria during a marine transgression, which occurred during early diagenesis, enabled the selective sequestration of functionalised lipids in the polar and asphaltene fractions from the Eocene, marine-influenced Heartbreak Ridge lignite deposit in southeast Western Australia. Nickel boride desulfurisation experiments conducted on these fractions released small but significant quantities of sulfur-bound hydrocarbons. These comprised mostly higher plant triterpanes, C-29 steranes and extended 17beta(H),21beta(H)-hopanes, linked by one sulfur atom at, or close to, functionalised sites in the original natural product precursors. These sulfurised lipids come from the same carbon sources as the free hydrocarbon lipids, except for the sulfurised extended hopanoids, which may be partially derived from a different bacterial source. These results indicate that the selectivity and nature of steroid and hopanoid vulcanisation in coal-forming mires is similar to that observed in other sedimentary environments. However, the diversity of higher plant triterpanes that can be sulfurised in marine transgressed coals is greater than that reported in immature terrestrial coals. This preservation mechanism explains the formation of the structurally related biomarkers in more mature sulfur-rich humic coals.

  19. Computer simulations of discharges from a lignite power plant complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukouliou, V.; Horyna, J.; Perez-Sanchez, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes work carried out within the IAEA EMRAS program NORM working group to test the predictions of three computer models against measured radionuclide concentrations resulting from discharges from a lignite power plant complex. This complex consists of two power plants with a total of five discharge stacks, situated approximately 2-5 kilometres from a city of approximately 10,000 inhabitants. Monthly measurements of mean wind speed and direction, dust loading, and 238 U activities in fallout samples, as well as mean annual values of 232 Th activity in the nearest city sampling sites were available for the study. The models used in the study were Pc-CREAM (a detailed impact assessment model), and COMPLY and CROM (screening models). In applying the models to this scenario it was noted that the meteorological data provided was not ideal for testing, and that a number of assumptions had to be made, particularly for the simpler models. However, taking the gaps and uncertainties in the data into account, the model predictions from PC-CREAM were generally in good agreement with the measured data, and the results from different models were also generally consistent with each other. However, the COMPLY predictions were generally lower than those from PC-CREAM. This is of concern, as the aim of a screening model (COMPLY) is to provide conservative estimates of contaminant concentrations. Further investigation of this problem is required. The general implications of the results for further model development are discussed. (author)

  20. Product analysis of catalytic multi-stage hydropyrolysis of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Li; Na Wang; Baoqing Li [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2003-03-01

    A lignite added with 0.2% MoS{sub 2} as catalyst was pyrolyzed under H{sub 2} using multi-stage heating method (MHyPy) which means holding a suitable time near the peak temperature. The product distribution and detailed analysis of products were performed. The results show that the tar yield increased to 63.9% during MHyPy compared with that of 51.8% in traditional hydropyrolysis (HyPy), while the gas yield decreased to a half. This suggests the effective utilization of hydrogen during MHyPy. The light aromatics in the tar from MHyPy increased remarkably 42, 37.8 and 115.4% for BTX, PCX and naphthalenes, respectively. Biphenyls were also observed in the tar from MHyPy, which indicated the effective hydrogenation occurs during catalytic MHyPy. The rich pore structure of the char from MHyPy hints its high reactivity in the subsequent conversion process such as gasification and combustion. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Growth response of microorganisms to different molecular fractions of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Dugan, P.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Our research is primarily concerned with isolating and characterizing microbes which are able to dissimilate coal and convert it to other useful chemicals. This quarter, general growth responses of microorganisms cultivated in the presence of different molecular weight fractions of lignite coal were examined. Aerobic and anaerobic environmental samples from a variety of ecological niches were used as inocula. Growth of the microorganisms in these samples on the following types of media was tested: COAL medium, containing alkali-solubilized whole coal; THFI medium, containing the alkali-solubilized, tetrahydrofuran-insoluble, macromolecular portion of whole coal; THFS medium, containing the THF-soluble, low molecular weight portion of whole coal; and CON medium, void of any coal constituent. Overall results indicated that the presence of the THF-soluble, low molecular weight coal fraction enhanced the growth yield and the variety of aerobic microorganisms compared to the other coal fractions or the control medium. Conversely, anaerobic microbes grew best on media which contained the macromolecular fraction. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Oxidative desulfurization of Cayirhan lignites by permanganate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guru, M.; Tuzun, F.N.; Murathan, A.S.; Asan, A.; Kiyak, T. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Unless important developments record new and renewable energy sources, the role of fossil fuels as an energy resource goes on. It is possible to detect sulfur, heavy metals, and tracer elements such as arsenic and selenium by decreasing calorific value of coals. Sulfur oxides, which are the main pollutants in atmosphere, are irritative to humans and plants, and erosion occurs on buildings. Although there are high lignite reservoirs, high sulfur content limits the efficient use of them. In this research, it is aimed to convert combustible sulfur in coal to non-combustible sulfur form in the ash by oxidizing it with permanganate solution. During this research, the effect of two different parameters of potassium permanganate concentration, processing time, and mean particle size were investigated at constant room temperature and shaking rate. The conversion of combustible sulfur to non-combustible sulfur form was achieved optimally with 0.14 M potassium permanganate solution, 0.1 mm mean particle size at 16 h of treatment time, and the combustible sulfur amount was decreased by 46.37% compared to undoped conditions.

  3. The development of the Ptolemais lignite deposit, present situation and future perspective of the electrical energy market (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavourides, Kostas

    1997-01-01

    PPC is by far the major producer of solid fuels in Greece. Currently the known exploitable reserves of solid fuels, are 4,0 billions tones of lignite and 4 billion cubic meters of peat. Mining of Lignite in Greece started in 1951 at the Aliveri underground mine and was continued at the open cast mines at Ptolemais (1955) and Megalopolis (1919). For more than 45 years. PPC has successfully exploited the Greece Lignite deposit for the production of electricity in order to satisfy the demand in Greece. Today PPC produces 60 million tons of lignite and handles approximately 275 million cubic meters of masses (overburden, lignite and interculated) per year. Lignite is the main energy resource in Greece and its combustion provides 75-80% of the electrical energy consumed in Greece.The Lignite Center of Ptolemais - Amyndeon (LCP-A) operated by the Greece PPC is located in northern Greece, about 110 km west of the city of Thessaloniki. The lignite deposits under exploitation cover an area. of 120 km 2 including 4000 Mt of proven geological reserves and 2700 Mt of exploitable lignite under current economic and technological criteria. Today LCP-A manages six active mines which in 1997 have a rate of handling 245 mil cubic meter of material and producing approx. 48 mil for of lignite. The continuous mining method which employs BWES, conveyors and strackers is the principal mining method used in all the lignite mines at the Ptolemais-Amyndeon Lignite Center. The implementation of selective mining procedures as well as discontinuous and /or combined mining methods differentiates the mining technology at the LCP-A from the respective technology applied in Germany lignite mines. The quality properties suggest that the lignite deposits in Greece are among the world's worst quality deposits exploited for energy production, where approximately 2 kg of lignite are consumed per I kWh of generated power. The main advantages of PPC'S coal orientated development program are the following

  4. Effects of lignite application on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle pens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jianlei, E-mail: su@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Bai, Mei [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Shen, Jianlin [Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Griffith, David W.T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Denmead, Owen T. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Hill, Julian [Ternes Agricultural Consulting Pty Ltd, Upwey, VIC 3158 (Australia); Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin R. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Chen, Deli, E-mail: delichen@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Beef cattle feedlots are a major source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions from livestock industries. We investigated the effects of lignite surface applications on NH{sub 3} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot pens. Two rates of lignite, 3 and 6 kg m{sup −2}, were tested in the treatment pen. No lignite was applied in the control pen. Twenty-four Black Angus steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. We measured NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O concentrations continuously from 4th Sep to 13th Nov 2014 using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) NH{sub 3} analysers and a closed-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyser (CP-FTIR) in conjunction with the integrated horizontal flux method to calculate NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O fluxes. During the feeding period, 16 and 26% of the excreted nitrogen (N) (240 g N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}) was lost via NH{sub 3} volatilization from the control pen, while lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization to 12 and 18% of the excreted N, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Compared to the control pen, lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} emissions by approximately 30%. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cattle pens were small, 0.10 and 0.14 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1} (< 0.1% of excreted N) for the control pen, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Lignite application increased direct N{sub 2}O emissions by 40 and 57%, to 0.14 and 0.22 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The increase in N{sub 2}O emissions resulting from lignite application was counteracted by the lower indirect N{sub 2}O emission due to decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization. Using 1% as a default emission factor of deposited NH{sub 3} for indirect N{sub 2}O emissions, the application of lignite decreased total N{sub 2}O emissions. - Graphical abstract: Lignite application substantially decreased NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle feedlots and increased

  5. Changes of chemical properties of humic acids from crude and fungal transformed lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LianHua Dong; Quan Yuan; HongLi Yuan [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). College of Biological Science

    2006-12-15

    The development of biological processes for fossil energy utilization has received increasing attention in recent years. There are abundance of lignite resources in China and the lignite, a low-grade coal, can be transformed by a Penicillium sp. After fungal transformation, the contents of humic acid and water-soluble humic material increased from 38.6% to 55.1%, and from less than 4.0% to 28.2%, respectively. The differences in chemical properties of crude lignite humic acid (aHA), fungal transformed lignite humic acid (bHA) and water-soluble humic material from fungal transformed lignite (WS) were studied. Elemental analysis and size exclusion chromatography showed that the N content of bHA increased by 47.36% compared with aHA, and the molecular mass of bHA was smaller than aHA. And the WS with the smallest molecular mass contained most content of N. The {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR spectra of aHA and bHA showed that aHA contained more aromatic structure than bHA. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A lignite-geothermal hybrid power and hydrogen production plant for green cities and sustainable buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, B. [Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Turkey is rich in both geothermal energy and lignite reserves, which in many cases, are co-located. This condition makes it feasible to utilize both lignite and geothermal energy in a hybrid form for combined power heat, and cold generation, which may lead to optimally energy and exergy efficient, environmentally benign, and economically sound applications. This paper presents a novel concept of hybrid lignite-geothermal plant for a district energy system and hydrogen production facility in Aydin with special emphasis on high performance, green buildings and green districts. In this concept, lignite is first introduced to a partially fluidized-bed gasifier and then to a fluidized-bed gas cleaning unit, which produces synthetic gas and finally hydrogen. The by-products, namely char and ash are used in a fluidized-bed combustor to produce power. Waste heat from all these steps are utilized in a district heating system along with heat received from geothermal production wells after power is generated there. H{sub 2}S gas obtained from the separator system is coupled with hydrogen production process at the lignite plant. Absorption cooling systems and thermal storage tanks complement the hybrid system for the tri-generation district energy system. On the demand side, the new, green OSTIM OSB administration building in Ankara is exemplified for greener, low-exergy buildings that will compound the environmental benefits.

  7. Sociological analysis of contemporary Turkish political elites

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to find general characteristics of Contemporary Turkish political Elites since 1995 up to date. Social background characteristics were employed to realise the purposes. Documentary and historical research techniques were used during the study. As a result of examining the Contemporary Turkish political elites (since 1995 up to 2005) these major findings were discovered: the large majority of the Turkish parliamentary elites were well educated, male, middle aged, marrie...

  8. Wettability modification of Wender lignite by adsorption of dodecyl poly ethoxylated surfactants with different degree of ethoxylation: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Bao; Xia, Yangchao; Liu, Shengyu

    2017-09-01

    Lignite is an important and useful fossil fuel in the world and the strong hydrophilicity of it limits its applications. Surfactant adsorption on lignite is an effective way to make it hydrophobic. In this work, aiming to examine the effect of the degree of ethoxylation on the adsorption behavior of dodecyl poly ethoxylated surfactants on lignite and the wettability modification of modified lignite by surfactant adsorption, different combined systems formed by surfactants, water and a model surface of Wender lignite have been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The adsorption configurations vary with the degree of ethoxylation. At the same adsorption amounts, increasing the degree of ethoxylation can make the adsorption layer more compactness and bring stronger adsorption strength. The results of binding energy and its components show that the adsorption of alkyl polyoxyethylene ethers surfactant on lignite is physically adsorbed rather than electrostatically or chemisorbed. Meanwhile, van der Waals interaction plays a dominant role in the adsorption. The addition of surfactant could reduce the possibility of the interaction between water and lignite. Compared to the original lignite, the interaction between them is weakened after surfactant adsorption in water/surfactant/lignite system, thus strengthening the hydrophobicity of lignite. Similar to the adsorption strength, hydrophobicity of modified lignite increases with the increase of the degree of ethoxylation. The lignite surface properties are changed due to surfactant adsorption by analyzing the compositions of interaction energy and the change of hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The German lignite industry. Historical development, resources, technology, economic structures and environmental impact. Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    Lignite has a key role to play in the transformation of the energy system due to its specific structural features in terms of industry, company history, policy, economics, the environment and regional structures. Understanding these structural features of the German lignite industry is an important requirement for classifying the significance of the lignite industry up to now and for the redesigning of this industrial sector. From these environmental, economic and regulatory structural characteristics, which are interwoven in a variety of ways, the incentives arise for the mining and power plant operators to react to energy price signals or energy policy steering. The aim of this research study is to define these structural features, to compile comprehensively the basic data and information that is not always transparently available, to understand the interactions, to enable the navigation of issues that are partly very complex, and to classify into the long-term developments that are especially important for political and social processes. In 2016 approx. 12 percent of German primary energy consumption was met using lignite. At the same time, lignite has the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the fossil fuels; it currently accounts for approx. 19 percent of Germany's total greenhouse gas emissions as well as approx. 46 percent of the total CO2 emissions of the electricity sector. As a result of the mining of lignite and its conversion into electricity, substantial adverse impacts beyond the entry of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere arise for other environmental media. These impacts include half of Germany's mercury emissions, approx. a third of its sulfur dioxide emissions and approx. a tenth of its nitrogen oxide emissions. Lignite mining in open-cast mines takes up a substantial amount of landscape and soil and requires huge interventions in the water balance. Relatively high costs arise for the recultivation and rehabilitation of the open

  10. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  11. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines - Strategy and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines is defined as a strategic target. The tactics concerning the achievement of this target, includes estimation of optimal time lag between each lignite site (which is a segment of the whole lignite field) complete exploitation and its reclamation. Subsidizing of reclamation has been determined as a function of this time lag and relevant implementation is presented for parameter values valid for the Greek economy. We proved that the methodology we have developed gives reasonable quantitative results within the norms imposed by legislation. Moreover, the interconnection between strategy and tactics becomes evident, since the former causes the latter by deduction and the latter revises the former by induction in the time course of land reclamation.

  13. Influence of geological variations on lignite drying kinetics in superheated steam atmosphere for Belchatow deposit located in the central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciazko Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignite-fired coal power plants suffer from a significant heat loss due to the high moisture content in this energy carrier. Water removal from fuel is an indispensable treatment for improving the combustion process, which will foster the efficient utilization of lignite. Superheated steam fluidized bed drying is expected for this purpose in a power generation sector. Understanding drying kinetics of lignite will greatly reinforce design process of a dryer. Physical features as well as the drying behaviour may be divergent among the lignite originated from different depths and positions in a certain mine. To reveal and clarify the influence of the geological features, the drying characteristics of several grades of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland were investigated. The attempts to clarify the influence of the divergent properties of the investigated samples on the drying kinetics in superheated steam were presented in this paper.

  14. REMOVAL OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID FROM THE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING NATURAL AND ACTIVATED LIGNITE COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜLENSOY

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available In these studies, a typical lignite coal found near Istanbul (Yeniköy and its activated products were used to adsorb TCA from aqueous solutions. Particle sizes of coal samples and the concentrations of TCA solutions were chosen as parameters against the fixed amount of adsorbent. The maximum efficiency has been obtained for the coal having (-120 + 150 mesh size fraction activated by heating. As a result, it was shown that these kinds of lignite coals could be used as a good adsorbent. In addition, it was also proved that both the removal and recovery of TCA from some waste waters would easily be possible.

  15. Fractal morphology in lignite coal: a small angle x-ray scattering investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitra, R.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Chandrasekaran, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Small angle x-ray scattering technique has been used to study the pore morphology in lignite coal from Neyveli lignite mine (Tamilnadu, India). The sample were collected from three different locations of the same mine. SAXS profiles from all the three samples show almost identical functionality, irrespective of the locations from where the samples were collected. SAXS experiment using two different wavelengths also exhibit same functionality indicating the absence of multiple scattering. The analysis indicates the surface fractal nature of the pore morphology. The surface fractal dimension is calculated to be 2.58. (author)

  16. Accounting Education Approach in the Context of New Turkish Commercial Code and Turkish Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards on accounting education. This study takes advantage of the survey method for gathering information and running the research analysis. For this purpose, questionnaire forms are distributed to university students personally and via the internet.This paper includes significant research questions such as “Are accounting academicians informed and knowledgeable on new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do accounting academicians integrate new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards to their lectures?”, “How does modern accounting education methodology and technology coincides with the teaching of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do universities offer mandatory and elective courses which cover the new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?” and “If such courses are offered, what are their names, percentage in the curriculum and degree of coverage?”Research contributes to the literature in several ways. Firstly, new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards are current significant topics for the accounting profession. Furthermore, the accounting education provides a basis for the implementations in public and private sector. Besides, one of the intentions of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards is to foster transparency. That is definitely a critical concept also in terms of mergers, acquisitions and investments. Stakeholders of today’s business world such as investors, shareholders, entrepreneurs, auditors and government are in need of more standardized global accounting principles Thus, revision and redesigning of accounting educations plays an important role. Emphasized points also clearly prove the necessity and functionality of this research.

  17. Quantity versus Quality in Turkish Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan

    This paper asserts that there have not been adequate studies about the comparative quality of Turkish universities to provide information and data for prospective students, advisors, university administrators, and policymakers. Turkey has more than 70 state and private universities. Most of these are relatively new, although Turkish higher…

  18. Concept Maps and Language: A Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci

    2003-01-01

    Concept maps are being used by an increasing number of educators in Europe and the US. This paper has four goals. First, it discusses problems in developing Novak's style concept maps in Turkish caused by linguistic differences between Turkish and English. Second, it reports the findings of a research study conducted to adapt concept maps to…

  19. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  20. Germany's lignite industry in 2011; Die deutsche Braunkohlenindustrie im Jahr 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Uwe [Bundesverband Braunkohle, Koeln (Germany); Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany); Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    From 2010 to 2011, Germany's domestic lignite output edged up 4.2% from 169.4 mill. t to 176.5 mill. t. This output is equivalent to a net calorific value of 54.4 mill. tce; of the total output, 157.4 mill. t, or some 90% was used in utility power plants for public supply. That was 3.6% more than in the previous year; 15.5 mill. t was input in the factories of the lignite-mining industry to make solid products, while 2.6 mill. t was used to generate electricity in mine-mouth power plants. Other sales of raw lignite and changes in stocks accounted for 1.0 mill. t. Lignite made a 24.9% contribution toward Germany's total power generation in 2011. In 2011, lignite had an 11.7% share in primary-energy consumption, giving it slot four in Germany's energy-consumption balance after mineral oil (34.0%), natural gas (20.4%) and hard coal (12.6%). Renewable resources cover 10.9, while nuclear energy accounts for 8.8% and other energy sources for 1.6%. With output of 54.4 mill. tce, lignite held a share of 38,5% in Germany's primary-energy production of some 141.3 mill. tce. The contributions made by the other energy carriers to primary-energy production in 2011 were as follows: 12.3 mill. tce hard coal, 13.1 mill. tce gas, 3.9 mill tce mineral oil, 49.5 mill. tce renewables, and 8.1 mill. tce other energy sources. Of the total electricity that Germany produced in 2011, 24,9% was accounted for by lignite. This means that lignite led the ranking of the most important input energies for electricity generation in 2011, followed by renewables with 19.9% hard coal with 18.6%, nuclear energy with 17.6% and gas with 13.7%. Other energy sources made a 5.3% contribution to total gross power generation. The most important ratios for the contributions made by the various lignite-mining areas to Germany's energy supply was shown. CO{sub 2} emissions from lignite rose 3.7% from 168.7 mill. t in 2010 to 175 mill. t in 2011. In the entire period from 1990 to 2011, a

  1. Germany's lignite industry in 2012; Die deutsche Braunkohlenindustrie im Jahr 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Uwe [Bundesverband Braunkohle, Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany); Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany). CEA-W Allgemeine Wirtschaftspolitik/Wissenschaft

    2013-05-15

    From 2011 to 2012, Germany's domestic lignite output edged up to 5.1% from 176.5 mill. t to 185.4 mill. t. This figure is equivalent to a net calorific value of 57.2 mill. tce. Of the total output, 166.3 mill. t, or some 90%, was used in utility power plants for the public supply, i.e. 5.7% more than in the previous year. In addition, 15.1 mill. t was input in the factories of the lignite-mining industry to make solid products, while 3.0 mill. t was used to generate electricity in mine-mouth power plants. Other sales of raw lignite and changes in stocks accounted for 1.0 mill. t. Lignite made a 25.7% contribution toward Germany's total power generation in 2012. In 2012, lignite had a 12.1% share in primary-energy consumption balance after mineral oil (33.1%), natural gas (21.6%) and hard coal (12.2%). Renewable resources cover 11.6%, while nuclear energy accounts for 8.0% and other energy sources for 1.4%. With output of 57.2 mill. tce, lignite held a share of 38.4% in Germany's primary-energy production of some 149 mill. tce in 2012. The contributions made by other energy carriers to primary-energy production in 2012 were as follows: 11.1 mill. tce hard coal, 13.3 mill. tce gas, 3.8 mill. tce mineral oil, 54.0 mill. tce renewables, and 9.5 mill. tce other energy sources. Of the total electricity amount that Germany produced in 2012, 25.7% was accounted for by lignite. This means that lignite led the ranking of the most important input energies for electricity generation in 2012, followed by renewables with 22.1%, hard coal with 19.1%, nuclear energy with 16.1% and gas with 11.3%. Other energy sources made a 5.7% contribution to total gross power generation. The most important ratios for the contributions made by the various lignite-mining areas to Germany's energy supply are shown. CO{sub 2} emissions from lignite rose 5.1% from 173.9 mill. t in 2011 to 182.8 mill. t in 2012. In the total period from 1990 to 2012, a decline of 159.4 mill. t, or

  2. Lignite utilisation for binding of radionuclides and uranium determination by adsorptive stripping chronopotentiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavodska, L.

    2010-01-01

    This work in its first part deals with non-energetic use of young brown coal - lignite. The goal of the work was to perform a complex physical and chemical characterisation of the Slovak lignite (deposit Cary) which could contribute to rts use in binding of radionuclides in the environment. The characteristics of Slovak lignite were compared to leonardite (Gascoyne, USA) and Czech lignite (the area of Mikulcice). In the samples the residual humidity was determined. as well. as the content of ashes. representation of selected inorganic (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) as well as organo-elements (C, H, N, 0, S) and crystalline forms of inorganic phase in lignite. The specific surface (BET isotherm) of lignite was determined, representation of total and free humic acids and their cation exchange capacity. The samples underwent al.so gamma-spectrometric analysis ( 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ac, 137 Cs and 60 Co). Using the radio-indicator method ( 85 Sr and 137 Cs) the kinetics of sorption of Cs + and Sr + ions in Slovak lignite was studied. The efficiency of sorption for both cations on lignite was evaluated on the basis of constructed sorption isotherms. The sorption of Cs + ions on Slovak lignite is more suitable for the Freundlich type of isotherm, in case of Sr + ions the sorption is better described by Langmuir isotherm. The results of sorption experiments on lignite in comparison with clinoptilolite and montmorillonite K-10 showed a more efficient sorption for Sr Ions. despite the more coarse-grained fraction of this matrix. This finding supports the possibility of lignite application for binding of a quite mobile radiostrontium, which may be applied for construction of radioactive waste repositories or for remediation of contaminated soils. The second part of the work deals with the development and validation of new fast and reliable electrochemical method of uranium determination in natural waters. It is based on physical adsorption of created complex of uranium

  3. Production of virus-derived ping-pong-dependent piRNA-like small RNAs in the mosquito soma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M Morazzani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural maintenance cycles of many mosquito-borne pathogens require establishment of persistent non-lethal infections in the invertebrate host. The mechanism by which this occurs is not well understood, but we have previously shown that an antiviral response directed by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs is important in modulating the pathogenesis of alphavirus infections in the mosquito. However, we report here that infection of mosquitoes with an alphavirus also triggers the production of another class of virus-derived small RNAs that exhibit many similarities to ping-pong-dependent piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs. However, unlike ping-pong-dependent piRNAs that have been described previously from repetitive elements or piRNA clusters, our work suggests production in the soma. We also present evidence that suggests virus-derived piRNA-like small RNAs are capable of modulating the pathogenesis of alphavirus infections in dicer-2 null mutant mosquito cell lines defective in viral siRNA production. Overall, our results suggest that a non-canonical piRNA pathway is present in the soma of vector mosquitoes and may be acting redundantly to the siRNA pathway to target alphavirus replication.

  4. Evaluation of the Effects of Nationwide Conservation Voltage Reduction on Peak-Load Shaving Using SOMAS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Ryul Nam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new method to evaluate the effects of nationwide conservation voltage reduction (CVR on peak-load shaving, using substation operating results management system (SOMAS data. Its evaluation is based on a national CVR factor, which is defined as the weighted average of CVR factors associated with all transformer banks and weighting coefficients are determined by the reconstructed loads corresponding to each transformer bank. To make use of the data resulting from nationwide CVR without installing additional measuring devices, we adopt a linearized static-load model with a linearizing parameter. SOMAS data are used to evaluate the effects of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system. Evaluation results show that the national CVR factor of the Korean power system has small values in the summer season and large values in the winter season. This means that the effect of nationwide CVR on peak-load shaving in the Korean power system presents stronger benefits during winter months.

  5. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  6. Dry re-forming of methane to synthesis gas over lignite semicokes catalyst at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbo Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dry re-forming of methane has been carried out in a high temperature–pressure reactor at different pressures, using Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst. The results show that CH4 and CO2 conversions are decreased as the reaction pressure increased, but both of them kept basically stable when the reaction pressure is between 0.3 and 1 MPa. The comparison shows that the effects of the temperature and the flow of reactant gas on dry re-forming of methane are consistent with between high pressure and atmospheric pressure. The ratio of CO/H2 decreased as the ratio of CH4/CO2 increased, yet the value of CO/H2 is always more than 1 at different pressures. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst is characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and BET, and the analysis results reveled that the physical specific adsorption peak of CO2 at 2350 cm−1 is strengthened significantly at different pressures, the micropore area and volume of Hongce lignite semicokes reduced form 40.2 m2  g−1 and 0.019 cm3  g−1 to 34.9 m2  g−1 and 0.017 cm3  g−1, respectively. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst exhibited better activity and stability within 0.3–1 MPa range.

  7. Elemental characterization of lignite from Afsin-Elbistan in Turkey by k(0)-NAA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubešová, Marie; Orucoglu, E.; Haciyakupoglu, S.; Erenturk, S.; Krausová, Ivana; Kučera, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 308, č. 3 (2016), s. 1055-1062 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Lignite * Afsin * Elbistan * neutron activation analysis * k(0) standardization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  8. Process for treating bituminous coal, lignite, peat, and shale, and products obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabelitz, E J

    1951-06-27

    A process is described comprising leaching bituminous coal, lignite, peat, or shale by immersing said material in ethylene dichloride for a period of time sufficient to remove the ethylene dichloride-soluble constituents, separating the treated material from the ethylene dichloride solution and recovering from the solution the soluble constituents of the material dissolved in the solution. Soluble constituents include oils and waxes.

  9. Co-gasification of a lignite/waste-tyre in a moving bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Bučko, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2009), s. 1202-1206 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : co-gasification * waste-tyre * lignite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  10. A modern thermal power station operating on high-moisture lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.R. Kotler; D.V. Sosin [All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The boilers developed by the power machinery construction company Alstom for two power-generating units, the Maritsa East-II and Maritsa East-II, operating on high-moisture lignite from the Maritsa East field in Bulgaria are described.

  11. Sustainable development of lignite production on open cast mines in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko Danicic; Slobodan Mitrovic; Vladimir Pavlovic; Sava Kovacev [Kolubara Metal, Vreoci (Serbia)

    2009-09-15

    Currently operated coalmines in Serbia (Kolubara and Kostolac) have production around 36 million tons of lignite, and over 108 million m{sup 3} of overburden. Consequently, sustainability of lignite production requires cost reduction and environmental protection, as well as capacity increase. In order to rationalise, and increase efficiency of Serbian lignite mines, it is necessary to focus the activities on major issues shown within the triangle of energy policy objectives (security of supply, competitive prices and environmental protection). Production process optimisation singled out several special programs. Equipment revitalization and modernization is necessary taking into account that majority of the currently operated machinery has a life up to 25 years. Production process automation would enable high level of technical operation in the field of open cast mines management. Lack of coal quality uniformity is the permanent problem resulting by great amounts of coal reserves to be used uneconomically. Planning and training at all levels and finally cooperative software for business procedures and work order management. The measures suggested are a key precondition for maintaining competitive position of lignite production on international level. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Energy and exergy efficiencies in Turkish transportation sector, 1988-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Camdali, Unal

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at examining energy and exergy efficiencies in Turkish transportation sector. Unlike the previous studies, historical data is used to investigate the development of efficiencies of 17 years period from 1988 to 2004. The energy consumption values in tons-of-oil equivalent for eight transport modes of four transportation subsectors of the Turkish transportation sector, including hard coal, lignite, oil, and electricity for railways, oil for seaways and airways, and oil and natural gas for highways, are used. The weighted mean energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated for each mode of transport by multiplying weighting factors with efficiency values of that mode. They are then summed up to calculate the weighted mean overall efficiencies for a particular year. Although the energy and exergy efficiencies in Turkish transport sector are slightly improved from 1988 to 2004, the historical pattern is cyclic. The energy efficieny is found to range from 22.16% (2002) to 22.62% (1998 and 2004) with a mean of 22.42±0.14% and exergy efficiency to range from 22.39% (2002) to 22.85% (1998 and 2004) with a mean of 22.65±0.15%. Overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the transport sector consist mostly of energy and exergy efficiencies of the highways subsector in percentages varying from 81.5% in 2004 to 91.7% in 2002. The rest of them are consisted of other subsectors such as railways, seaways, and airways. The overall efficiency patterns are basically controlled by the fuel consumption in airways in spite of this subsector's consisting only a small fraction of total. The major reasons for this are that airways efficiencies and the rate of change in fuel consumption in airways are greater than those of the others. This study shows that airway transportation should be increased to improve the energy and exergy efficiencies of the Turkish transport sectors. However, it should also be noted that no innovations and other advances in transport technologies are

  13. Exploring the impact of reduced hydro capacity and lignite resources on the Macedonian power sector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taseska-Gjorgievskaa Verica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference development pathway of the Macedonian energy sector highlights the important role that lignite and hydro power play in the power sector, each accounting for 40% of total capacity in 2021. In 2030, this dominance continues, although hydro has a higher share due to the retirement of some of the existing lignite plants. Three sensitivity runs of the MARKAL-Macedonia energy system model have been undertaken to explore the importance of these technologies to the system, considering that their resource may be reduced with time: (1 Reducing the availability of lignite from domestic mines by 50% in 2030 (with limited capacity of imports, (2 Removing three large hydro options, which account for 310 MW in the business-as-usual case, and (3 Both of the above restrictions. The reduction in lignite availability is estimated to lead to additional overall system costs of 0.7%, compared to hydro restrictions at only 0.1%. With both restrictions applied, the additional costs rise to over 1%, amounting to 348 M€ over the 25 year planning horizon. In particular, costs are driven up by an increasing reliance on electricity imports. In all cases, the total electricity generation decreases, but import increases, which leads to a drop in capacity requirements. In both, the lignite and the hydro restricted cases, it is primarily gas-fired generation and imports that “fill the gap”. This highlights the importance of an increasingly diversified and efficient supply, which should be promoted through initiatives on renewables, energy efficiency, and lower carbon emissions.

  14. Distribution of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, V.; Ragupathy, S.; Parthipan, B.; Rani, D.B.R.; Mahadevan, A.

    1991-12-31

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorhizzal (VAM) status was assessed for coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils. The three study sites were: The Kothagudem coal field in the south central region where waste materials are piled 1 to 2 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from plants growing on the waste. Neyveli, on the southeastern coast, is a lignite coal mine where the spoil is piled 70 to 100 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from recently revegetated mine spoil and from 25 year old revegetated sites. The calcite mine at Thazhaiyuthu in the south where the spoil is piled up 2 to 3 m on the soil surface. Samples were collected from 4 to 7 year old reclaimed sites. The wastes generally supported different plant species. The level of VAM infection of plants was markedly different in each mine spoil, with the maximum infection in the coal and calcite spoils, and the least in the lignite spoil. There was more infection in the 25 year old lignite spoil than in the newly revegetated spoil. There were different VAM species in each spoil, and no one species was present in all of the samples. The authors conclude that one of the factors leading to the differences between spoils is the amount of topsoil contained in the spoil (least in the lignite spoils which are very deep). The other is age of the spoils. Unfortunately the authors concluded that the best approach is to enrich the spoils with VAM rather than salvaging and replacing topsoil

  15. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Tufail, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg -1 up to 43600 Bq kg -1 . Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag and 125 Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  16. Accounting Education Approach in the Context of New Turkish Commercial Code and Turkish Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Cevdet Kızıl; Ayşe Tansel Çetin; Ahmed Bulunmaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards on accounting education. This study takes advantage of the survey method for gathering information and running the research analysis. For this purpose, questionnaire forms are distributed to university students personally and via the internet.This paper includes significant research questions such as “Are accounting academicians informed and knowledgeable on new Turkish commerc...

  17. [Treating vaginismus in Turkish women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, V; Ruf, G D

    2009-03-01

    Vaginismus is a sexual dysfunction involving various branches of medicine, including psychiatry and gynaecology. Psychiatric help is sought in only a small proportion of cases, although it is probable that the psychopathological aetiology is more frequent than generally recognized. This article deals with the causes and psychological circumstances in four Turkish couples who presented with unconsummated marriage for 3 to 7 years. Vaginismus F52.5 to the ICD-10 is a sexual dysfunction characterised as: deep anxiety about coitus leading to extreme spasm of musculature making coitus impossible or extremely unpleasant and painful. Four Turkish couples with unconsummated marriage due to the female partners' penetration phobia were included to this study. A patient-oriented multidimensional individual treatment (combination therapy) is a cost effective, short-term (typically 10- to 12-week) treatment model for both partners. It includes some elements of cognitive behavioural therapy and systemic partner therapy which were considered not radically different from previous therapeutic strategies. Results were successful in all cases; the couples were extremely satisfied with having a normal sex life for the first time. This led to desired pregnancies and avoiding of possible breakdown of their families. The couples did well with combination behavioural therapy. This methodology is discussed in its various aspects and with a cultural background. We also emphasise the need for physicians to be mindful of cases of vaginismus requiring psychiatric intervention rather than gynaecological treatment.

  18. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  19. Perfectionism among Turkish Secondary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Camadan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze perfectionism among Turkish secondary school students. Perfectionism was compared according to the some variables like academic achievement, type of school, field (Quantitative, Verbal and Equally Weighted and gender. The study was performed with271 female and 320 male students. In this study Frost Multidimentional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS adapted into Turkish by Özbay and Mısırlı-Taşdemir (2003, was used. At the end of the study, in all subscales of perfectionism scale, there was significant variation according to student’s academic success levels. There was significant variation according to the school types in all subscales except Personal Standards subscale. While there was significant variation according to the field, in Parental Criticism and Concern over Mistakes subscales; according to gender, there was significant variation only in Doubt about Actions subscale. To not acceptnonperfect situations while trying to reach a goal may cause that students have procrastination behaviors and more anxiety. Therefore, their academic achievement may be affected negatively. With individual and group psychological counseling to perfectionist students can help them to notice their characteristics well and determine realistic goal. In this way, their academic achievement can be contributed positively

  20. “One Should Have Two Homelands”: Discord and Hope in Soma Morgenstern’s Sparks in the Abyss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Gellen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soma Morgenstern’s three-part novel Sparks in the Abyss, written between 1930 and 1943, exudes a spirit of serenity and optimism at the same time that its narrative is structured by repeated scenes of conflict and violence. This paper seeks to account for the place of discord in the trilogy. Morgenstern uses the interwar Galician homeland as a site to articulate the possibility of traditional Jewish life in modern Europe. By inhabiting two homes—East and West, Galicia and Vienna, secularism and piety—Jews will be able to negotiate the inevitable discord and occasional brutality that they face in the world. The lessons learned by a Western secular Jew in pluralist Galicia create hope for the negotiation of difference, if not for the complete overcoming of violence, on the eve of World War II.

  1. State and performance of on-stream ash content determination in lignite and black coal using 2-energy transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuemmel, H.W.; Koerner, G.; Leonhardt, J.

    1986-01-01

    The total r.m.s. ash error of the 2-energy transmission on-stream ash gauges KRAS-2 (CIIRR, GDR) and SIROASH (Australia) are 4 weight percentage for raw lignite and 0.5 weight percentage for black coal, respectively. A detailed error analysis shows that this difference is due to the high water content and to strong variations in the ash composition of raw lignite. Both gauges show essentially the same radiometric performance. (author)

  2. Petrographic Composition of Lignite from the Lake Somerville Spillway (East-central Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, Sandra; Bielowicz, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    In the presented paper, the macroscopic and microscopic composition of lignite from Lake Somerville Spillway has been examined. The study area is the upper part of the Manning Formation, located north-west of Somerville in the central-eastern part of Texas. There are three exposures: NE, SW and MC (Main Central) with visible parts of late-Eocene lignite seams belonging to the Jackson Group. The Manning section is divided into four marine dominated parasequences (P1 through P4). Lignite samples outlining the P1 parasequence from the MC and NE outcrops and the argillate sample from the lower part of the P2 parasequence, NE outcrop. Macroscopic characterization was carried out based on lithological classifications of humic coal. On this basis, it has been shown that the main lithotype occurring in the deposit is detritic (matrix) coal with a high share of mineral matter. The maceral composition of coal was determined according to the ICCP guidelines. The macerals from liptinite group were determined under fluorescent light. The maceral group content analysis was performed with use of 500-600 equally spaced points on the surface of the polished sections. It has been found that the examined coal is dominated by macerals from the huminite group, with a share ranging from 20.8 to 65.3% volume, including atrinite (9.8-22.8% volume, 17.5% volume on average). In the examined coal, macerals from the inertinite group (10.1 to 44.8%), especially semifusinite (max. 13.9%), fusinite (max. 9.3%) and funginite (max. 6.3 %) are of particularly large share. In the liptinite group, particular attention was paid to the content of alginite (max. 4.5%) and bituminite (max. 1.3 %), which indicate the paralic sedimentation environment of the examined coal. Additionally, the variability of macerals and maceral groups within the exposures and levels of the P1 parasequence was examined. The last step was to compare lignite from Lake Somerville Spillway with other lignites belonging to the

  3. Potentials and limitations of spatial and demographic development in Kosovo-Metohija lignite basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial research carried out for the purpose of elaborating the Spatial Plan for Kosovo-Metohija Lignite Basin indicated the need to address numerous conflicts and opposing interests in the area concerned. This required the Plan to focus on harmonizing the economic, social and spatial aspects of developing a mining-energy-industrial system (hereinafter MEIS and its surroundings, devising the new ways for the protection of local population interests and use of novel approaches in dealing with the environmental consequences of lignite exploitation and processing. The area wherein Kosovo-Metohija lignite deposits are found is replete with diverse conflicting interests, including insufficient and uneven development, extremely large overall and especially agrarian population density (among the highest in Europe, unemployment and a sizable portion of the grey economy, low level and quality of services of public interest, ethnic conflicts and polarization, etc. The environmental effects of MEIS activities in a situation of this kind were revealed by the early stages of research in all segments of economic, social and spatial development, along with a high degree of environmental degradation. The main conflict in the Plan area is the one between mining and agriculture, i.e. open pit lignite mining and high-fertility soil covering lignite deposits. The conflict is additionally aggravated by the remarkable density of agricultural population on this territory and high selling prices of the land. Therefore, a substantial part of the Plan’s propositions was related to the conditions of settlement and infrastructure relocation, population resettlement and measures to relieve the tensions and prevent the outbreak of potential conflicts in implementing the Plan. The Spatial Plan is conceived as a complex and comprehensive document defining the framework, basic principles, starting points and measures tackling the numerous development conflicts, spatial

  4. A producer survey on Turkish furniture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Öğün, Emir Polat

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Management and Graduate School of Business Administration of Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 79-80. Turkish furniture industry has been growing steadily since the liberalization of Turkish economy in early 1980’s. However, the industry faces some technological and economical problems which affects the competitiveness of the firms in the global market. The major problems ...

  5. Are Turkish University Students Autonomous or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büşra Kırtık

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tried to determine Turkish learners’ attitudes, and the Turkish education system’s approach towards learner autonomy with regard to three main points: 1 whether Turkish university students are aware of learner autonomy or not 2 whether Turkish university students have the characteristics of autonomous learners (whether they are autonomous learners or not, and 3 if the Turkish education system is suitable for fostering learner autonomy or not from the viewpoint of the participants. Participants were 50 second grade learners in the English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe University (N=10, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University (N=10, and Uludag University (N=30 who had already taken courses about learner autonomy.  The data were collected by means of a questionnaire which had two Likert-scale sections and an open-ended questions section. The first Likert-scale section contained 15 characteristics of autonomous learners each of which was rated by the participants in a scale from strongly disagree to agree, from 1 to 5. In the second Likert-scale section, the participants were asked to rate the Turkish education system’s five basic elements such as school curriculums, course materials, approaches used by the teachers in classrooms, learning activities, and classroom settings. Additionally, learners’ opinions about their awareness and understanding of learner autonomy were gathered by five open ended questions. The results proposed that the participants were aware of learner autonomy, and had the characteristics of autonomous learners. On the other hand, results showed that the Turkish education system was not suitable for autonomous learners and did not foster learner autonomy. The findings suggested that the Turkish education system should be designed again in such a way to support the autonomous learners and to foster learner autonomy in all sections of the education.

  6. The many faces of Turkish Odessa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    between Turkish newcomers and various Turkic-speaking groups in the area both create different and overlapping “ecumenical communities” and actualize long-forgotten connections or marginal historical visions. These migrants also generate important links to the area through marriage and intimate relations...... with Slav women. I argue that alliances between Turkish migrants and Turkic-speaking minorities and local women not only allow them to make the city their own, but also create a distance from wider Odessan society....

  7. Fates and roles of alkali and alkaline earth metal species during the pyrolysis and gasification of a Victorian lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mody, D.; Wu, H.; Li, C. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The transformation of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) species in a Victorian lignite during the pyrolysis and subsequent gasification in CO{sub 2} was studied in a novel quartz fluidised-bed reactor. Lignite samples prepared by physically adding NaCl and ion-exchanging Na{sup +} and Ca{sup ++} into the lignite were used to investigate the effects of chemical forms and valency of the AAEM species in the substrate lignite on their transformation during pyrolysis and gasification. Carboxyl-bound Na was found to be less volatile than Na present as NaCl, but more volatile than carboxyl-bound Ca during pyrolysis at temperatures between 400 and 900{sup o}C. However, the carboxyl-bound Na was volatilised to a much greater extent than the carboxyl-bound Ca in the same lignite during pyrolysis. It was seen that the loading of NaCl into the lignite did not significantly affect the char reactivity in the fluidised-bed reactor at 900{sup o}C.

  8. A comparative study of nitrogen conversion during pyrolysis of coconut fiber, its corresponding biochar and their blends with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the conversion of fuel-N to HCN and NH3 was investigated during rapid pyrolysis of raw biomass (coconut fiber), its corresponding biochar and their blends with lignite within a temperature range of 600-900°C. The results showed that the raw biomass and the biochar showed totally different nitrogen partitioning between NH3 and HCN. HCN was the dominant nitrogen pollutant from pyrolysis of raw biomass, while for the biochar pyrolysis the yield of NH3 was slightly higher than that of HCN. Synergistic interactions occurred within both raw biomass/lignite and biochar/lignite blends, especially for the biochar/lignite blend, and resulted in reduced yields of HCN and NH3, decreased the total nitrogen percentage retained in the char and promoted harmless N2 formation. These findings suggest that biochar/lignite co-firing for energy production may have the enhanced benefit of reduced emissions of nitrogen pollutants than raw biomass/lignite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Yılmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this consideration, in Abyssinia, coffee was consumed with bread; it was then pulped and brought to Yemen, and Yemeni people started to cultivate coffee. The word “kahve” in Turkish does not mean the coffee plant like its synonym in Arabic but means the beverage made by boiling. Turkish coffee is a blend of high-quality Arabic-type coffee beans, originating from Brazil and Central America and moderately roasted and ground finely. The way it is prepared differentiates Turkish coffee from others. This coffee was called Turkish coffee because of a new method of preparation invented by Turkish people where it is boiled in copper coffee pots. Turkish coffee that has spread around the world with this name has been an indispensable part of the cultural and social history of Turks.

  10. Solubilization of low-rank coal by Trichoderma atroviride: Evidence for the involvement of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes by using C-14-labelled lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Schmiers, H.; Grosse, S.; Winkelhofer, M.; Polsakiewicz, M.; Ludwig, S.; Dohse, J.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Inst. of Botany

    2002-04-01

    The deuteromycete Trichoderma atroviride is able to solubilize lignite in dependence on a given carbon source for growth. When cultivated on media containing glutamate, this mold excreted a set of different enzymes with hydrolytic activity. Addition of lignite to the growth media induced the synthesis of extracellular lignite-specific esterase activity but no evidence has been provided for its direct involvement in the process of lignite solubilization. Hence, the basic capability of T. atroviride enzymes to degrade a variety of ester and ether bonds at the surface or within the bulky lignite structure was tested using coal following its direct labelling with C-14-alkyl iodide. The participation of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes in lignite degradation was assessed by measuring the release of C-14 radioactivity from selectively alkylated carboxylic and phenolic OH groups. T. atroviride cleaved both carboxylic esters using esterases and the phenolic ether bonds by using oxidative enzymes, most likely laccases.

  11. Attitudes of Foreigners Who Learn Turkish as a Second Language towards Turkish Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    There is a very close association between language and culture. Thus, cultural values should be prioritized in language training and cultural knowledge should be concurrently instructed. Turkish culture should also be introduced to learners of Turkish as a foreign language. Therefore, it is important to determine the attitudes of learners of…

  12. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction.

  13. Internet use among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca G; Uzel, Mehtap; Ozcan, Neslihan; Avci, Ayse

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Internet use habits and problematic Internet use (PIU) in Turkish adolescents. Participants were 3,975 undergraduate students, 7.6% of whom used the Internet for more than 12 hours weekly. The Online Cognition Scale (OCS) was used. The most common purpose for using the Internet was playing games, followed by general information search. Female users mostly preferred searching for general information; male users preferred playing games (p game was violent games. While preference for strategy and fantasy role-play (FRP) games increased with age, preference for other games decreased (p games, followed by FRP, strategy, and sports and motor racing games. Computers and the Internet are useful, important inventions, but like other inventions, if used improperly, they may be harmful. Risk of harm raises concerns about who should use the Internet and computers, and where, when, and why the Internet and computers should be used.

  14. Production of fuels out of lignite and lignocelluloses; Herstellung von Brennstoffen aus Braunkohle und Lignozellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, W.; Schroeder, H.W.; Trommer, D. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The acceptance towards solid fuels will increase again if its ease of use is improved, the production costs remain low for extended periods of time, and high thermal efficiencies as well as low pollutant emissions are achieved. These demands can only be met by optimal fuel processing and the use of modern fuel engineering which applies, if possible, continuous and controlled fuel and air feed technology. Two fuels are introduced which are produced out of lignite and lignocelluloses by compaction or by balling granulation. Considering the improvement of combustion properties, remarkable synergy effects occur due to this raw material combination. Lignocelluloses act as an ignition auxillary. Lignite functions as a binding agent, increases the fuels' fire resistance, and guarantees a long, sustained combustion with an excellent combustion rate. (orig.)

  15. Volatiles and char combustion rates of demineralised lignite and wood blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, Melek; Pehlivan, Dursun

    2009-01-01

    Today, much interest is given to the utilisation of materials of plant origin as substitutions of fossil fuels in meeting energy needs to reduce the level of atmospheric pollutant emissions and global warming threat, and emphasis has been placed on the co-combustion of coal and biomass. In this study, volatiles and char combustion behaviour of the fuel pellets composed from demineralised lignite and poplar wood sawdust, were investigated in a cylindrical wire mesh basket placed in a preheated tube furnace. The results have shown that ignition times of the pellets decreased with the burning temperature and shortened further due to demineralisation of lignite. Volatiles combustion rates of the samples did not correlate well with combustion times. However, they can be correlated with their respective proximate volatile matter contents. Char burnout times decreased with increasing combustion rates and correlated well with the respective proximate fixed carbon contents of the samples. Deviations were more considerable in the case of rate data. (author)

  16. Briquetting of Tuncbilek lignite fines by using ammonium nitrohumate as a binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, M.; Ozbayoglu, G. [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    Results of experiments on the briquetting of Tuncbilek lignite fines using ammonium nitrohumate (anh), a low calorific value, young lignite-derived humic acid salt solution, are reported. The particulate material was blended with ammonium nitrohumate serving as the binder. In the briquetting tests, the effects of moisture content, pressure, binder content, nitrogen content and heat treatment were investigated. Durable briquettes, in terms of mechanical strength and water resistance, were produced with a 7% binder content at 10.5% moisture, following pressing at 1280 kg/cm{sup 2} and drying at 165{sup o}C for 1 h. The briqueues produced with ammonium nitrohumate had better combustion properties than run-of-mine samples; the contribution of the binder to smoke and sulphur emissions was very low and fine dust particles were negligible.

  17. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagińska Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  18. Paleoenvironmental implications from biomarker and stable isotope investigations on the Pliocene Velenje lignite seam (Slovenia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Markic, M.; Gratzer, R.; Lucke, A.; Puttmann, W. [Montan University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    A Pliocene lignite seam up to 160 m thick occurs in the Velenje basin (Slovenia). The seam originated in a topogenous mire and evolved within a non-marine, transgressive setting. Differences in soluble organic matter yield and hydrocarbon content of borehole samples from the lignite are related to differences in the composition of free lipids of microbial origin and/or hydrocarbons derived from the biogeochemical degradation of plant tissue. Variations of the redox conditions within the mire are reflected by pristane/phytane ratios. The abundance of terpenoid biomarkers indicates the predominance of gymnosperms over angiosperms, which is consistent with palynomorphic spectra dominated by pollen of the Sequoia-Taxodium-Metasequoia plant community rather than by angiosperms. Evidence is also provided that the content of land plant derived biomarkers and the preservation of plant tissue is controlled by the input of resin-rich, decay-resistant conifers.

  19. Physico-chemistry of adsorption of copper, nickel and cobalt on lignite from ammoniacal solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper deals with a process developed for lignite adsorption that can be used to prevent the hard scale formation during distillation of NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/, recover Cu, Ni and Cr from dilute solutions, Cu and NH/sub 3/ from waste effluent containing SO/sub 4/ radicals, separate Cu (NH/sub 3/)/sub 4//sup +2/ and AsO/sub 4//sup -3/ from ammonial solutions and recover Cu, Ni and Co from ore pulps. In additions to the study of the adsorptions of M, NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ on lignite with caustic soda) was also investigated. Changes of the functional groups of humic acid its salt, before and after the adsorption, were examined by infrared adsorption analysis. (author)

  20. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  1. Effect of mineral oxides on slag formation tendency of Mae Moh lignites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuwat Luxsanayotin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Slagging is one of major ash deposition problems experienced in the boilers of coal–fired power plants especially theplants that use lignite, like Mae Moh lignites. The occurrence of slag is a complex phenomenon depending on several factorssuch as ash properties, furnace operating conditions, and coal properties. The main objective of this work is to study theeffect of mineral components in Mae Moh lignite on ash fusion temperatures (AFTs, which is commonly used as a keyindicator for slag formation tendency under pulverized combustion conditions. Two Mae Moh lignites from the coal seamsplanned to be used in the future were selected for the study to represent low CaO and high CaO lignite. The two lignites,namely K1 and K3, have 3.6 and 40.4 wt% CaO in ash, respectively. The AFT characterization shows that their initial deformationtemperatures (ITs were almost identical and considered as low for the typical flue gas temperature in the radiationsection of Mae Moh boilers, i.e. 1050-1100°C. These observed similar ITs were rather unexpected, especially for K1 consideringits sufficiently low base to acid (B/A ratios. The X-ray diffraction analyses evidently show the presence of illite, pyriteand anhydrite in K1, which explains the observed lower IT of the sample. Anhydrite, which is known to lower the ITs, is alsothe most abundant mineral in K3. Washing the lignite samples with HCl can significantly reduce CaO, MgO, and SO3 contentin the ash but not Fe2O3 as it is present in the form of pyrite. The addition of Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe2O3 can help increase AFTs ofthe studied samples. The Al2O3 addition gives the strongest effect on increasing AFTs, especially for the sample with lowAl2O3 content. When the CaO is added to the low CaO samples, the fluxing effect will initially occur. However, when the CaOcontent is higher than a critical value (i.e. CaO > 38%, the effect of its high melting point will dominate hence the AFTsincreased. Ternary phase diagrams

  2. Combustion of producer gas from gasification of south Sumatera lignite coal using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidian Fajri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of gasses from lignite coal gasification is one of alternative fuel for the boiler or gas turbine. The prediction of temperature distribution inside the burner is important for the application and optimization of the producer gas. This research aims to provide the information about the influence of excess air on the temperature distribution and combustion product in the non-premixed burner. The process was carried out using producer gas from lignite coal gasification of BA 59 was produced by the updraft gasifier which is located on Energy Conversion Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Sriwijaya. The excess air used in the combustion process were respectively 10%, 30% and 50%. CFD Simulations was performed in this work using two-dimensional model of the burner. The result of the simulation showed an increase of excess air, a reduction in the gas burner temperature and the composition of gas (carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and water vapor.

  3. Possibilities of utilizing the Hungarian reserves of lignite in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faur, G

    1978-01-01

    The Upper Pannonian lignite reserves subjected to study are suited to opencast mining with respect to their depth and thickness. All of them are characterized by occurrence in multiple beds, the thickness of which however is different per area. The dirt between the strata consists mostly of sand, to a lesser degree of clay or of materials between the former. Continuously operating dredges can be used for working, the types depending on the thickness of the overburden and the technology to be applied. Deep wells with submerged pumps may be employed for drainage. High-capacity mining districts can be operated at the areas subjected to study, new districts must however be opened up to increase the productive capacity beyond a certain limit. Establishment of a significant power station capacity is made possible by the explored lignite reserves. (In Hungarian)

  4. Securing the future of the Lusatian lignite mining; Zukunftssicherung im Lausitzer Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocek, Gert [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Bergbauplanung; Ketzmer, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Grunddaten und Bergtechnik

    2014-11-01

    In the course of securing the future of the Lusatian lignite mining, the company has initiated several measures and activities. Thus with large-scale projects such as relocating the operating and surface facilities of the Welzow-Sued opencast mine uninterrupted long-term mining advance is ensured. The company's lignite-fired power plants with their project ''FlexGen'', to further increased flexibility, enhances their position to master of the challenges of ''Energiewende''. The political and societal framework for this complex development is in line with the climate and energy programmes or strategies of the Free State of Saxony and the federal state of Brandenburg.

  5. Lusatian lignite. Decisions for the future; Lausitzer Braunkohle. Entscheidungen fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daehnert, Detlev [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany); Vattenfall Europe Generation AG und Co. KG, Cottbus (Germany); Ketzmer, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG und Co. KG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    During the past months a number of important decisions regarding the future of the Lusatian lignite mining areas have been made or launched. In the focus is the concept of the long-term opencast mine and power plant development. Essential part of the concept is the strategy for meeting future challenges of climate change policy. CCS is the key for it. It is expected, that the CCS technology will be commercially available after 2020. Another important aspect is among others the use of the priority areas of the Welzow-Sued and Nochten opencast mined. The corresponding long-term lignite mining planning procedures were opened in autumn 2007. The plans of the company contain clear and reliable statements regarding the long-term opencast mine development until 2050. However, all decisions the company makes are focussing on putting people and their needs first. Solutions for mining related questions and requirements are jointly developed with the people of the region. Communities in direct neighbourhood to opencast mines are safely protected against immissions by structural and organisational measures. The principles of socially responsible resettlements set the framework of constructive and trustful co-acting of the people concerned and the company very early. The future post-mining landscape offers alternative utilization forms providing employment for many people. Economic development of the region is an important aspect of the company's activities. Under the headline ''Energy region Lusatia'', representatives of Vattenfall, different educational institutions, authorities and the politics have joined forces to formulate a strategic target for the future development of Lusatia. Sustainable development of lignite-based power generation to meet future climate change policy, development of energy industrial know-how and the use of other fuels are important issues. The results are visible. Lignite takes a solid place in the German Energy mix - it

  6. Effect of various experimental parameters on the swelling and supercritical extraction properties of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacimehmetoglu, S.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Canel, M. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Science

    2007-07-01

    The original lignite sample, the samples swollen in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, ethylenediamine (EDA), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH), the samples impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} as catalyst and the samples both swollen in the solvents and impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} were subjected to the supercritical toluene extraction and the effects of temperature, pressure, pre-swelling procedure, hydrogen donor solvent (tetralin), and catalyst on the extract yields were investigated.

  7. Catalytic effect of lignite ash on steam gasification of oil sand coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.

    1986-06-16

    Steam gasification of Suncor and Syncrude cokes was carried out in the presence of ash obtained after burning Onakawana lignite. Catalytic effects of the ash were evident at 930 C whereas at 830 C little effect was observed. These observations were attributed to the combined actions of Ca- and Fe-containing species in the ash, in which the former neutralized the sulfur in the cokes to prevent poisoning of Fe oxides. 5 tabs., 5 figs., 15 refs.

  8. Catalytic effect of mineral matter of high ash Onakawana lignite on steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1986-04-01

    Reactivities of untreated and acid washed Onakawana lignite during steam gasification were compared in a thermobalance reactor. The acid treatment resulted in removal of Ca, Mg, Ba and Sr from mineral matter. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the rates of H/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/ formation. The decrease of gasification rate was attributed to the decrease in concentration of gasification sites during the acid treatment.

  9. Experiments and stochastic simulations of lignite coal during pyrolysis and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor. ► The objective is to understand mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis. ► Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis were conducted using Gillespie algorithm. ► First order, single step mechanism failed to fit cumulative yield of hydrogen. ► Evolution of hydrogen via pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbon following bridges scission. -- Abstract: Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor at reactor temperatures of 800–950 °C in 50 °C intervals. CO 2 has been used as the gasifying agent for gasification experiments. The objective of this investigation is to understand the mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis and to unravel the effect of CO 2 on pyrolysis mechanism. Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis have been conducted using Gillespie algorithm. Two reaction mechanisms have been used in the simulations; first order, single step mechanism and the FLASHCHAIN mechanism. The first order single step mechanism was successful in fitting cumulative yield of CO 2 , CO, CH 4 and other hydrocarbons (C n H m ). The first order, single step failed to fit the cumulative yield of hydrogen, which suggests a more complex mechanism for hydrogen evolution. Evolution of CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , C n H m and H 2 flow rates has been monitored. The only effect of CO 2 on pyrolysis mechanism is promotion of reverse water gas shift reaction for the experiments described here. Methane evolution extended for slightly longer time than other hydrocarbons and hydrogen evolution extended for a slightly longer time than methane. This indicated the evolution of hydrogen via further pyrolysis of aliphatic hydrocarbon. It is also suggested that this step occurs in series after aliphatic hydrocarbons evolution by bridges scission.

  10. Late Neogene leaf assemblage from Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobiec Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf macroremains collected in the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland were investigated. The fossil assemblage consists of leaves of Acer, Betula, Carpinus, Dicotylophyllum, Fagus, ?Magnolia, “Parrotia”, Pinus, Quercus, and Zelkova. Mesophytic (zonal elements dominate, with admixture of riparian (azonal leaf taxa. The floristic composition points to late Neogene (late Miocene to late Pliocene age and suggests favourable temperate climate with mild winters.

  11. Spring Barley Yield Parameters after Lignite, Sodium Humate and Nitrogen Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a small number of publications dealing with the impact of solid sodium humate and lignite on the quantity and quality of grown crops was the reason for establishing the field experiment. The objective of this experiment was to detect the impact of solid lignite and solid sodium humate on the quantity and quality of spring barley yield. These substances were applied into the soil either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser. The next objective was to determine the impact of foliar application of sodium humate water solution applied either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser on the quality and quantity of spring barley yield. The achieved results showed that the autumn application of solid lignite and the presowing application of solid sodium humate into the soil tended to decrease the yield of both grain and straw of spring barley, crude protein content in grain, proportion of the first-class grains and volume weight of grain, whereas the impact of humate was more negative. Lignite and sodium humate in the solid form should be used along with nitrogen fertiliser. The application of sodium humate in liquid form during the growth season of barley tended to increase the yield of both grain and straw. The joint application of nitrogen and liquid sodium humate during the growth season of barley increased the grain yield of barley significantly. A lower dose of nitrogen, applied during the growth season of barley (growth season BBCH 23, increased the grain yield of barley considerably more than a higher N dose, applied into the soil before barley sowing.

  12. Synergetic use of lignite fly ash and metallurgical converter slag in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Mucsi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application and utilization of the industrial wastes and by-products in the construction industry is a key issue from an environmental and economic point of view. The increased use of lignite has substantially increased the available quantities of lignite fired power plant fly ash, which can be mainly classified as class C fly ash. The utilization of such raw material however has some difficulties. In the present paper lignite fired power station fly ash and metallurgical converter slag were used for the production of geopolymer concrete. The fly ash was used as a geopolymer based binder material, and a converter slag as aggregate, thus created a geopolymer concrete which contains mainly industrial wastes. As preliminary test experimental series were carried out using andesite as aggregate. The optimal aggregate/binder ratio was determined. The effect of the amount of alkaline activator solution in the binder, the aggregate type on the geopolymer concretes’ compressive strength and density was investigated. Furthermore, the physical properties - freeze-thaw resistance and particle size distribution - of the applied aggregates were measured as well. As a result of the experiments it was found that physical properties of the andesite and converter slag aggregate was close. Therefore andesite can be replaced by converter slag in the concrete mixture. Additionally, geopolymer concrete with nearly 20 MPa compressive strength was produced from class C fly ash and converter slag.

  13. Synthetic fuel production using Texas lignite and a very high temperature reactor for process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.A.; Klein, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Two approaches for synthetic fuel production from coal are studied using Texas lignite as the feedstock. First, the gasification and liquefaction of coal are accomplished using Lurgi gasifiers and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A 50 000 barrel/day facility, consuming 13.7 million tonne/yr (15.1 million ton/yr) of lignite, is considered. Second, a nuclear-assisted coal conversion approach is studied using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor with a modified Lurgi gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The nuclear-assisted approach resulted in a 35% reduction in coal consumption. In addition, process steam consumption was reduced by one-half and the oxygen plants were eliminated in the nuclear assisted process. Both approaches resulted in a synthetic oil price higher than the March 1980 imported price of $29.65 per barrel: $36.15 for the lignite-only process and $35.16 for the nuclear-assisted process. No tax advantage was assumed for either process and the utility financing method was used for both economic calculations

  14. NEW DATA ON THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE (GELASIAN LIGNITE BEDS OF CASTEL SAN PIETRO (RIETI, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PANDOLFI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A multiproxy study of the lignite-bearing lacustrine sequence cropping out at Castel San Pietro (CSP (Rieti, central Italy provides new insights on the paleoenvironmental evolution of an extensional basin, located on the Tyrrhenian side of the Apennine range. The CSP fossiliferous levels reflect deposition in a stable lacustrine environment. Mammal remains collected from this locality during the past centuries include Stephanorhinus etruscus, Anancus arvernensis and the beaver Castor fiber. The co-existence of the Etruscan rhinoceros and the mastodont suggests a middle Villafranchian age (Montopoli or Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit for the lignite beds of CSP. New paleoflora findings are in agreement with an attribution to the Piacenzian or Gelasian age for these deposits whilst the presence of the ostracod Qinghaicypris cf. Q. riojensis suggests a time interval from Zanclean to Gelasian (between ~4.5 and ~1.8 Ma. Accordingly, the lignite beds of CSP most likely were deposited during the Gelasian (from ca. 2.5 to 1.8 Ma; from Montopoli to Coste San Giacomo FUs or possibly to Olivola FU in forested area and warm and humid conditions.

  15. Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetakis, Michael; Roumpos, Christos; Alevizos, George; Vamvuka, Despina

    2011-01-01

    The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece. - Highlights: ► Quality and reserves uncertainty affects considerably the production scheduling. ► Stochastic optimization is greatly accelerated by incorporating Taylor's rule. ► Decisions can be made considering different risk level attitudes.

  16. Using cement, lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste for solidification of chromium electroplating treatment sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantawin, C.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to use baghouse filter waste as a binder mixed with cement and lignite fly ash to solidify sludge from chromium electroplating wastewater treatment. To save cost of solidification, reducing cement in binder and increasing sludge in the cube were focused on. Minimum percent cement in binder of 20 for solidification of chromium sludge was found when controlling lignite fly ash to baghouse filter waste at the ratio of 30:70, sludge to binder ratio of 0.5, water to mixer ratio of 0.3 and curing time of 7 days. Increase of sludge to binder ratio from 0.5 to 0.75 and 1 resulted in increase in the minimum percent cement in binder up to 30 percent in both ratios. With the minimum percent cement in binder, the calculated cement to sludge ratios for samples with sludge to binder ratios of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 were 0.4, 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. Leaching chromium and compressive strength of the samples with these ratios could achieve the solidified waste standard by the Ministry of Industry. For solidification of chromium sludge at sludge to binder ratio of 1, the lowest cost binder ratio of cement to lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste in this study was 30:21:49. The cost of binder in this ratio was 718 baht per ton dry sludge.

  17. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  18. Combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass and their blends with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toptas, Asli; Yildirim, Yeliz; Duman, Gozde; Yanik, Jale

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass (lignocellulosic and animal wastes) and their blends with lignite was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric method under air atmosphere. For comparison, combustion characteristics of raw biomasses were also determined. Torrefaction process improved the reactivity of char combustion step of biomasses. Characteristic combustion parameters for blends showed non-additivity behavior. It was found that the mixture of torrefied biomasses and lignite at a ratio of 1:1 had a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Although no interactions were observed between the lignite and torrefied biomass at initial step of combustion, a certain degree of interaction between the components occurred at char combustion step. Kinetic parameters of combustion were calculated by using the Coats Redfern model. Overall, this study showed that poultry litters can be used as a substitute fuel in coal/biomass co-firing systems by blending with lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reprint of: Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetakis, Michael; Roumpos, Christos; Alevizos, George; Vamvuka, Despina

    2012-01-01

    The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece. - Highlights: ► Quality and reserves uncertainty affects considerably the production scheduling. ► Stochastic optimization is greatly accelerated by incorporating Taylor's rule. ► Decisions can be made considering different risk level attitudes.

  20. E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

  1. CHAPTER FOUR LİBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS:

    OpenAIRE

    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin

    2002-01-01

    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  2. Questioning the Scholarly Discussion around Decentralization in Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Soner Onder

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of Turkish Republic till date, Turkish Education System (TES) has been steered by a handful of politicians and civil servants, who enjoy maximum centralized authority. Over the years, therefore, centralized management has repeatedly been blamed for the deadlocks hampering progress in the TES. Turkish scholars often seem to find…

  3. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  4. Perspectives of the non-energetic use of lignite in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.; Sailer, B. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    RWE Power AG as integral part of RWE Generation SE has been active in the development and commercialization of coal gasification routes for many years. RWE Generation SE is one of Europe's leading electricity producers and combines the expertise of the power plant specialists Essent (NL), RWE npower (UK) and RWE Power (D). A globally increasing freight traffic and accompanying fuel demand is anticipated in the future. This higher demand will probably result in an increase in crude oil price in the course of the next years. There will also be a disproportionately high increase in fuel prices additionally to the increase in the crude oil price due to an increasing treatment effort within refineries. Therefore the substitution of crude oil becomes more and more attractive in view of economical perspectives and security of supply. Crude oil is not only to be substituted as feedstock for fuels but also for the chemical industry. Coal has been and will be the most important feedstock for this. Especially its gasification enables various routes. In Germany there is also an interesting perspective for Coal-to-Liquids and Coal-to-Gas or CtL/CtG as the non-energetic use of coal is abbreviated. Lignite is available regardless of any market impacts and currently faces a change in its use for power generation due to the increasing use of renewable energies. Hence lignite is an attractive feedstock for CtL/CtG in Germany. The construction of a commercial size CtL/CtG plant means a billion Euro investment. So a reliable economic evaluation is inevitable. Today all CtL/CtG routes miss commercial competitiveness to the conventional production by some ten percents. In case the current upward price trend of crude oil continues CtL/CtG might become viable in the near future. The production of synthetic fuels appears most attractive in view of a substantial market potential. The further commercialization of gasification routes in Germany requires R and D activities especially

  5. Psychometric properties of Frustration Discomfort Scale in a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Harrington, Neil

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties of the Frustration Discomfort Scale for Turkish college students. The Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to a sample of 171 (98 women, 73 men) Turkish college students. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis yielded fit index values demonstrating viability of the four-dimensional solution as in the original. Findings also revealed that, as predicted, the Discomfort Intolerance subscale of Turkish FDS was most strongly correlated with procrastination. Overall results provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale for use in a Turkish population.

  6. Reactivity of chars prepared from the pyrolysis of a Victorian lignite under a wide range of conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Mody, D.; Li, C.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A Loy Yang lignite sample was pyrolysed under a wide range of experimental conditions using a wire-mesh reactor, a fluidised-bed reactor, a drop-tube reformer and a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivity of these char samples in CO{sub 2} and air was measured in the TGA as well as in the fluidised-bed reactor. A sample prepared by the physical impregnation of NaCl into the lignite was also used in order to investigate the effect of NaCl in the lignite on the reactivity of the resulting char. Our experimental results indicate that, due to the volatilisation of a substantial fraction of Na in the lignite substrate during pyrolysis, the true catalytic activity of the Na in the lignite substrate should be evaluated by measuring the sodium content in the char after pyrolysis. The char reactivity measured in situ in the fluidised-bed reactor was compared with that of the same char measured separately in the TGA after re-heating the char sample to the same temperature as that in the fluidised-bed. It was found that the re-heating of the char in the TGA reduced the char reactivity.

  7. Personality traits of Turkish handgun license applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Salih; Can, Serdar S; Yabanoglu, Ihsan

    2012-10-01

    Several theories have sought to explain the motivations for handgun possession and the relationship with personality. Perception of handguns also has cultural variations. The aim of the study is to evaluate handgun license applicants' personality profiles. 109 handgun license applicants were included in the study. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) scores of the applicants were recorded. Scores were compared with Turkish and American normative data for the Inventory. The study group had significantly lower subscores on novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and higher subscores on reward dependence and persistence compared to Turkish norms and significantly lower subscores on novelty seeking, reward dependence, and self-directedness compared to American norms. Results indicate that Turkish handgun license applicants' personality features are more similar to American norms.

  8. Assessment of morbidity in carcinoma of the cervix: a comparison of the LENT SOMA scales and the Franco-Italian glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Susan E.; Burns, Meriel P.; Routledge, Jacqueline A.; Swindell, Ric; Bentzen, Soeren M.; West, Catharine M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the correlation between the LENT (late effects on normal tissue) SOMA (subjective objective management analytic) system and the Franco-Italian glossary scores of late morbidity in cervical cancer patients treated with radiation, and to compare the ability of the scoring systems to detect differences between radiation treatment groups. Materials and methods: The study was retrospective. Patients, invited to take part in the study, had radiotherapy for cervical cancer and had a minimum of 3 years follow-up with no evidence of recurrence. One hundred patients agreed to take part. LENT subjective data were obtained using a patient questionnaire approach in order to complete the scales as published. The LENT objective, management and Franco-Italian glossary scores were obtained by a physician. Correlations between scores and differences between treatment groups were examined using non-parametric tests. Results: The average LENT SOMA scores had a greater resolution than the maximum scores, and using the maximum score alone underestimated treatment morbidity. The Franco-Italian glossary scores correlated strongly with the LENT objective scores (ρ=0.61, P<0.0005), and less strongly with the LENT subjective scores (ρ=0.45, P<0.0005). Significant differences in morbidity between the radiation treatment groups were measured using both the LENT SOMA system and the Franco-Italian glossary. Conclusions: The maximum and average LENT scores should be reported for each subsite. The LENT objective scores correlated well with the scores obtained using the established Franco-Italian glossary, but the LENT system provided additional information on subjective treatment effects. Both systems were able to measure significant differences in morbidity between radiation treatment groups. In conclusion, the LENT SOMA system is a valid and comprehensive approach for scoring the late normal tissue effects of radiotherapy

  9. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  10. [Strengthening of social participation of Turkish seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Jennifer; Stupp, Barbara

    2018-05-04

    Traditional municipal services are not successful at reaching Turkish seniors. Compared to native Germans Turkish seniors have a lower social participation. Do native language groups hosted by a German organization promote the social participation of Turkish seniors? How does social participation take place in the ZWAR networks (between work and retirement; a project to strengthen social participation of seniors) and which factors promote or reduce social participation? Qualitative structuring content analysis of two group discussions, which were based on guided interviews. The social participation of Turkish-speaking seniors was strengthened on three levels: (1) through regular meetings of the Turkish ethnic group social relationships were promoted and German language skills and other skills were improved. Through mutual sharing and understanding of the stressors specific to migration, emotional support was provided. The sharing of mutual cultural and linguistic backgrounds created a sense of community and meetings were perceived as an antidote to migrants' exhausting lives in German society. (2) At the organizational level, participation was promoted through extensive group events. Regardless of their cultural background all participants identified as equal ZWAR members. The ZWAR project functioned as an umbrella organization for participation in the intercultural context. (3) Participation in community events created contacts with community stakeholders and fostered volunteer work. Hence, participants were able to use their skills, and therefore broaden their horizons. Turkish ZWAR networks promoted the social participation of members because integration with their ethnic group reduced access barriers, broadened members' scopes of action, and created new opportunities for participation.

  11. CONTEMPORARY USAGE OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH MOTIFS IN PRODUCT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Gumuser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the traditional Turkish motifs and its relations among present industrial designs. Traditional Turkish motifs played a very important role in 16th century onwards. The arts of the Ottoman Empire were used because of their symbolic meanings and unique styles. When we examine these motifs we encounter; Tiger Stripe, Three Spot (Çintemani, Rumi, Hatayi, Penç, Cloud, Crescent, Star, Crown, Hyacinth, Tulip and Carnation motifs. Nowadays, Turkish designers have begun to use these traditional Turkish motifs in their designs so as to create differences and awareness in the world design. The examples of these industrial designs, using the Turkish motifs, have survived and have Ottoman heritage and historical value. In this study, the Turkish motifs will be examined along with their focus on contemporary Turkish industrial designs used today.

  12. Late radiation effects to the rectum and bladder in gynecologic cancer patients: the comparison of LENT/SOMA and RTOG/EORTC late-effects scoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Yavuz; Yalman, Deniz; Oezsaran, Zeynep; Haydaroglu, Ayfer

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the correlation of LENT/SOMA and RTOG/EORTC late-effect scales for rectum and bladder, 116 cases with gynecologic malignancies that were treated with radiotherapy were assessed with both scales. Methods and Materials: All cases had been treated at least 6 months before the date of assessment with external beam radiotherapy (50-54 Gy to midline) and 1-2 fractions of HDR brachytherapy (2x8.5 Gy to point-A for 32 inoperable cases; 1x9.25 Gy to 5-9 mm from the ovoid surface for 84 postoperative cases). The patients were questioned with both scales, and the correlation between the two scales was analyzed by Spearman's rho (rank correlation) test. Results: There were 64 cases with uterine cervix carcinoma and 52 cases with endometrium carcinoma, The overall (external + brachy) doses to ICRU points were 57.8±3.8 Gy for rectum and 59.3±4.9 Gy for bladder. The statistical analysis of LENT/SOMA and RTOG/EORTC scales revealed a very good correlation for rectum (r=0.81; p<0.01) and a good correlation for bladder (r=0.72; p<0.01). Conclusion: The LENT/SOMA system is a further step on the reporting of late radiation effects. Some modifications will improve its precision, and multicentric randomized studies are needed to test its validity

  13. Bibliometric Profile of Turkish Journal of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Al

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Journal of Psychology has been indexed by the Social Science Citation Index since 1995. This study examines the Turkish Journal of Psychology and bibliometric features of its articles.  The research carried out covers 118 articles between the years 1995-2005.  The following research ques- tions have been addressed: 1 What are the subjects of the articles? 2 Is multi- ple authorship a prevalent feature of the articles? 3 What are the institutional affiliations of the authors of the articles? 4 What are the common characteris- tics of the cited articles? 5 Which types of sources (journal articles, mono- graphs, etc. get cited more often in the articles? 6 What are the most frequent- ly cited journals in the TJP? 7 Does the distribution of citations to journals fit Bradford's Law of Scattering? 8 Is there a relationship between the impact fac- tors of journals and the number of citations they get? 9 What is the rate of lit- erature obsolescence in psychology? 10 With regard to impact factor, what is the position of the TJP? Almost all of the articles were written in Turkish. The important part of the contributors was affiliated with Hacettepe, Ankara and the Middle East Technical universities. This research showed that 57% of articles (67 articles published in Turkish Journal of Psychology received no citations remaining 43% (51 articles were cited 135 times. The author self-citation ratio was 34%. In addition, journal self-citation ratio was 41%. Journals received 69% of all cita- tions in the Turkish Journal of Psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Turkish Journal of Psychology, Child Development, Developmental Psychology and Psychological Bulletin were among the most frequently cited journals. Articles that appeared in the top 18 journals received 33% of all citations. The half-life of sources cited in the Turkish Journal of Psychology was ten years. According to the impact factor rank, the Turkish Journal of

  14. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  15. Slavic borrowings in modern Turkish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Slavic borrowings in standard Turkish language Material for this paper was excerpted from the Dictionary of Turkish Standard Language (TDK Turküe Sozluk. Excerpted data which count just about 100 words were treated within lexical-semantic groups, also with pointing to certain inconsistencies in the lexicographic treatment: some words are not marked as Slavic (e.g. kumpir, som, pogrom; after some lexemes wrong etymon is stated (e.g. kopek and some of them are left without an etymon (e.g. bocuk, gocuk.

  16. Comparison of patient-reported late treatment toxicity (LENT-SOMA) with quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35) assessment after head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Kean Fatt; Farnell, Damien J.J.; Routledge, Jacqueline A.; Burns, Meriel P.; Sykes, Andrew J.; Slevin, Nick J.; Davidson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The patient's role in toxicity reporting is increasingly acknowledged but requires the adaptation and validation of toxicity reporting instruments for patient use as most toxicity scales are designed for physician use. Recording of radiotherapy related late toxicity is important and needs to be improved. A patient-scored symptom questionnaire of late treatment effects using LENT-SOMA was compared with a recognised quality of life tool (EORTC QLQ-C30/H and N35). Materials/methods: LENT-SOMA and EORTC QLQ-C30 patient questionnaires were prospectively completed by 220 head and neck cancer patients over 3 years and 72 completed EORTC QLQ-H and N35 questionnaires at 2 years post-radiotherapy. Results: Endpoints common to both questionnaires (pain, swallowing, dental pain, dry mouth, opening mouth, analgesics) were matched. Spearman rank correlation coefficients with ρ > 0.6 (P < 0.001) were obtained for all 'matched' scales except for analgesics scale, ρ = 0.267 (P < 0.05). There was good agreement between LENT-SOMA and EORTC QLQ-H and N35 except for analgesic endpoints. Global quality of life scores correlated negatively with average LENT-SOMA scores (P < 0.001). Significant differences in average LENT-SOMA scores between treatment modalities were found. The LENT-SOMA questionnaire has demonstrated a high Cronbach's α value (0.786) indicating good reliability. Conclusions: LENT-SOMA patient questionnaire results agreed well with those from the EORTC QLQ-H and N35 questionnaire for toxicity items where they could be compared explicitly, particularly for subjective endpoints. Patient-reported late toxicity had a negative impact on quality of life. The LENT-SOMA patient questionnaire is both reliable and sensitive to differences between patients treated with different modalities. A patient-based questionnaire is an important contributor to capturing late radiotherapy effects.

  17. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  18. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  19. Numerical analysis of single and multiple particles of Belchatow lignite dried in superheated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Marcin; Sciazko, Anna; Komatsu, Yosuke; Akiyama, Taro; Hashimoto, Akira; Kaneko, Shozo; Kimijima, Shinji; Szmyd, Janusz S.; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2018-03-01

    Low production costs have contributed to the important role of lignite in the energy mixes of numerous countries worldwide. High moisture content, though, diminishes the applicability of lignite in power generation. Superheated steam drying is a prospective method of raising the calorific value of this fuel. This study describes the numerical model of superheated steam drying of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland in two aspects: single and multi-particle. The experimental investigation preceded the numerical analysis and provided the necessary data for the preparation and verification of the model. Spheres of 2.5 to 30 mm in diameter were exposed to the drying medium at the temperature range of 110 to 170 °C. The drying kinetics were described in the form of moisture content, drying rate and temperature profile curves against time. Basic coal properties, such as density or specific heat, as well as the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in the particular stages of the process laid the foundations for the model construction. The model illustrated the drying behavior of a single particle in the entire range of steam temperature as well as the sample diameter. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of coal batches containing particles of various sizes were conducted to reflect the operating conditions of the dryer. They were followed by deliberation on the calorific value improvement achieved by drying, in terms of coal ingredients, power plant efficiency and dryer input composition. The initial period of drying was found crucial for upgrading the quality of coal. The accuracy of the model is capable of further improvement regarding the process parameters.

  20. The impact of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual function assessed using the LENT SOMA scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Susan E.; Burns, Meriel P.; Routledge, Jacqueline A.; Swindell, Ric

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: As there are few studies examining the impact of radiotherapy on sexuality, we assessed the effect of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual health and the ability of the LENT system to assess sexual function. Materials and methods: Using the vagina and sexual dysfunction scales of the LENT SOMA scales, subjective scores were measured prospectively before initiation of radiotherapy for 89 women, and at the following times after the start of treatment: 21, 70, 200, 400, 600 and 800 days. Results: There was considerable variation in pre-radiotherapy scores that was not related to disease stage (P=0.054), but was related to patient age (P=0.037, for the average vagina scores and P=0.039 for the maximum vagina scores) The scores were influenced by prior surgery (P<0.0005 for maximum and average vagina scores, P=0.042 average and 0.017 maximum sexual dysfunction scores). For 48 patients for whom data were available at the first three time points, the vagina scores decreased significantly by 70 days compared to pre-radiotherapy scores, but not for sexual dysfunction. There was heterogeneity in the pattern of changes of scores over time: for some women there was no change in vagina subsection score, some increased, and some decreased. Conclusions: The work has shown variation both in pre-treatment sexual function and in the pattern of changes seen following radiotherapy. Our questionnaire proved useful to score subjective sexual and vaginal problems as given in the LENT subjective scales. Further study is needed to assess the effectiveness of the scales in assessing late effects

  1. Device for determining element contents of lignite mass flows by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Maul, E.; Rose, W.; Wagner, D.

    1987-01-01

    A simple device is presented, apt for continuous operation, to determine the element contents of bulk goods of flowable materials with a suitable granularity, in particular of lignite mass flows to assess the coal quality. Several kilograms of samples can be reproducibly dosed and homogeneously activated by a device consisting of a shielding container with activation chamber and radiation source, a measuring unit with detectors, and a source container, and characterized by a blade wheel in the activation chamber which causes the dosing and homogeneous activation of the sample

  2. Modernisation of a lignite-fired steam generator. Reduction of NO{sub x} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegeskotte, Ralf; Thierbach, Hans-Ulrich; Zimmermann, Bernhard [Steinmueller Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Di Ferdinando, Quinto [ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3 AD, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-11-01

    ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3 is a lignite-fired power plant with an electrical total output of 4 x 227 MW. The four steam generators of Russian design have a steam capacity up to 730 t/h each and were commissioned between 1978 and 1981. According to EU requirements, the NO{sub x} emissions have to be reduced reliably by 2015. The consortium Steinmueller Engineering GmbH Gummersbach and Siemens EOOD, Sofia, successfully redesigned the furnace of boiler 4. (orig.)

  3. Adsorption study of mercury on lignite in the presence of different anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Robles

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of different anions such as chloride, nitrate, and sulphate on the mercury adsorption onto lignite, which was a model material for the humus-containing organics in soil, and can be considered as a natural sorbent in the remediation of contaminated sites. Since the complex formation can significantly influence the mercury sorption, besides chloride, the effects of other complex-forming agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and thiocyanate were also tested. Various batch type and dynamic experiments were performed and four sorption models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to evaluate the sorption data.

  4. REMOVAL OF Cr(VI FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ACTIVATED COAL FROM LIGNITE COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated coal produced from Ağaçlı Lignite coal was used to remove Cr(VI from aqueous solutions. The adsorption of Cr(VI was studied as a function of initial concentration, time, pH, adsorbent concentration and temperature. The adsorption data were found to fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Lagergren equation was used to calculate the adsorption rate. The amount of Cr(VI adsorbed was increased with decreasing pH and decreased with increasing temperature.

  5. Organic petrology, mineralogy and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, Maritza-West basin, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, Irena [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Sofia University ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , 1000, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zdravkov, Alexander [Department of Economic Geology, University of Mining and Geology ' ' St. Ivan Rilski' ' , 1700, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide additional information about the properties and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, which was deposited during the regressive stage of development of the Maritza-West basin. Petrographical and mineralogical data, along with ash yields and sulphur contents of 24 samples from a seam profile, have been used to study the vertical variation of the depositional settings during peat accumulation and subsequent coalification. The Kipra lignite is characterized by high ash yields and sulphur contents. It formed in a rheotrophic, low-lying mire with alkaline pH value. Vegetation with low preservation potential dominated within the palaeomire. During peat formation, frequent changes of the water level controlled the depositional environment. During the deposition of units 1 and 2, high water energy caused the transportation of high amounts of inorganic material into the mire, resulting in the formation of weakly gelified mineral-rich lignite. The organic matter from units 3 and 4 is characterized by enhanced gelification, which probably reflects the decreasing energy of the system. Good positive correlation between sulphur contents and the GI values was established in units 4, indicating that the gelification of the tissues was probably mainly controlled by the bacterial activity. In contrast, the gelification of the samples from unit 3 of the Kipra seam was probably governed by the redox conditions. The organic matter deposited under relatively wet conditions, in which the thermal and oxidative destruction of the tissues, was limited. A variety of major, minor and accessory minerals are present in Maritza-West lignite. The mineral composition is dominated mainly by pyrite, gypsum and calcite, and to a lesser extent limonite, quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, chlorite and plagioclase. Jarosite, hematite, halloysite, mica, K-feldspar, aragonite, siderite, and dolomite were also determined in very low

  6. Process of transforming into light oils heavy oils from carbonization of lignites, coals, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1926-12-20

    A process is described for transforming into light oils the heavy oils coming from the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, and shales, and heavy oils from original minerals and vegetables, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid or liquid substances conveniently chosen, with a veiw to effect distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature, the solids or liquid substances favoring the formation of light products under the influence of heat, being preferably added to the oil before admitting it to the retort and heating, so that the light oils are obtained from the heavy oils in a single operation.

  7. Diagnostic measurements on the great machines conditions of lignite surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helebrant, F.; Jurman, J.; Fries, J. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis of loading and service dependability of a rail-mounted excavator used in surface lignite mining is described. Wheel power vibrations in electric motor bearings and electric motor input bearings to the gearbox were measured in situ, in horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. The data were analyzed using a mathematical relationship. The results are presented in a loading diagram that shows the deterioration and the acceptable lower bound of machine conditions over time. Work is continuing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Comparison of physico-chemical properties of various lignites treated by mechanical thermal expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janine Hulston; Alan L. Chaffee; Christian Bergins; Karl Strauss [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). School of Chemistry and CRC for Clean Power from Lignite

    2005-12-01

    This study investigates how the Mechanical Thermal Expression (MTE) process affects the physico-chemical properties of low rank lignites sourced from Australia, Greece, and Germany. The MTE process was effective in reducing the moisture content of all three coals and resulted in significant Na reductions in both the Australian and German coals. However, the organic composition of the coals investigated remained relatively unaffected. Upon oven drying, all wet MTE products underwent significant shrinkage, the degree of which was dependent upon the temperature and pressure used during the MTE process. Upon rehydration, the oven-dried MTE products underwent significant swelling, which is most likely related to the chemical composition of the coals.

  9. Investigations on high temperature coking of lignite with the help of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, H.G.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The time characteristics and the varying flow characteristics of fine-grained briquettes during the high temperature coking of lignite according to Rammler and Bilkenroth were studied with the help of radionuclide technique. The process parameters (tsub(V), zsub(R), etc.) refer to the different zones of the coke furnace (bunker/dryer, coker/cooler). The different time charakteristics of the coke-grain fractions formed during the BHT-process enables a correlation of the retention time and the quality factors of the coke. The results obtained would enable a better operation of the individual furnaces in the plant and offer the basis for further process developments. (orig.) [de

  10. Natural radioisotopes in lignite of the Ptolemais region (Greece) and in their ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simopoulos, S.E.; Angelopoulos, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of lignite, fly ash and bottom ash of a power plant, located in the Ptolemais region, were examined by gamma spectroscopy and their concentrations in Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 have been determined. These samples were prepared from samples taken daily for a period of one month. The brown coal samples are taken from the front of the brown coal field supplying one of the units. They show a flutuation of the concentrations of the same radionuclides in the brown coal seams and in the intermediate layers. Further samples taken from 3 small private mines of the Ptolemais region were also examined. (author)

  11. Carbonate and lignite cycles in the Ptolemais Basin: Orbital control and suborbital variability (Late Neogene, northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. E.; Tougiannidis, N.; Ricken, W.; Rolf, C.; Kleineder, M.; Bertram, N.; Antoniadis, P.

    2009-04-01

    We recently commenced a project to investigate deep drillings as well as outcrops in the Ptolemais Basin, northern Greece, for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate change. Specific attention is paid to mining sites Achlada, Vevi, Vegora, Amynteon, North Field, South Field, and Lava. The sediment archive comprises Upper Miocene to Quaternary continental lake deposits (up to 800 m thick) with an extended Lower Pliocene section. The Upper Miocene sections are composed of diatomaceous mud and gray marls. Pliocene lake sediments commence with the Kyrio member (lignite/grey marl), followed by the Theodoxus member (beige marl/lignite), and the Notio member (marl with intercalated sand /lignite). The limnic deposits show striking rhythmic bedding of (mostly) carbonates and lignites, reflecting orbital-induced humidity and temperature changes in this small NW-SE elongated continental basin. First, we retrieved chronometric information by determining magnetic polarity changes on three sites as independent stratigraphic ground-truth in combination with palynological evidence and published data. Then we conducted a number of high-resolution (1 - 6 cm increment), non-destructive measurements to obtain paleoclimate proxies: photospectrometry (colors L, a, b), magnetic susceptibility, and natural gamma. Accordingly, we achieved a multi-proxy insight into paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental evolution at unprecedented temporal resolution (up to a few decades!) over long time series and at a number of key sites. Using the newly-developed ESALab software, we conducted spectral and evolutionary spectral analysis to evaluate the cyclo-stratigraphic development. As for orbital variability, spectral power is concentrated on precession, hemi-precession, and eccentricity, with only minor impact of orbital tilt. We used this information to increase the temporal resolution of our age models by tuning as many precession (insolation) maxima as possible to carbonate minima (lignite maxima

  12. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  13. Turkish Student Teachers' Concerns about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Yezdan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching concerns of Turkish student teachers and how these concerns differ among year groups within the teacher education programme. Data were collected from 339 student teachers using the Teacher Concerns Checklist. Analysis of the data, including both descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis…

  14. Turkish Primary School Pupils' Views on Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bahri

    2010-01-01

    Teachers meet with unwanted behavior when they are acting as facilitators of the learning process and they resort to certain tactics to deal with them. One of these tactics is punishment. This study aimed to identify the views held by Turkish primary school pupils on punishment. According to the results of the study, pupils were punished for…

  15. Eurimages and Turkish cinema: history, identity, culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yılmazok, L.

    2012-01-01

    Out of the new sources for financing films that emerged in the post-1990 Turkish cinema, Eurimages is the only non-domestic, supra-national one wherein support decisions are taken by the representatives of various member states. Eurimages was established as a part of the framework of the Council of

  16. Turkish Adaptation of the Gratitude Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Asuman; Oguz Duran, Nagihan

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Although the study of gratitude in psychology has a very short history, the findings of several studies underline the role of gratitude in enhancing individual well-being. Therefore, it is important to be able to assess levels of individual gratitude in counseling and research settings. Since, in the Turkish literature, no…

  17. A. Davutoglu's Ideology of Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the ideology of turkish foreign policy is analyzed, elaborated and successfully put into practice by the former Minister for Foreign Affairs, and nowadays by prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu. Foreign policy strategy of Davutoglu represents set of the interconnected theoretical (the flexible approach; consistency and systematic approach; new diplomatic style and practical principles directed on increase of a role of the Turkish state on international scene - balance between democracy and safety; “zero of problems with neighbours”; preventive and priority peace diplomacy; multidimensional foreign policy; rhythmical diplomacy. Each of principles possesses certain properties and characteristics which have always been presented as a certain purpose which is necessary for reaching Turkey in the difficult international environment. Undoubtedly, A. Davutoglu's ideology has brought the huge contribution to activization and expansion of foreign policy of Turkey last decade. The merit of Davutoglu consists that it has cardinally changed the approach of the Turkish state to the foreign policy which was based earlier on such postulate - “the best friend of a Turk is a Turk”. However the destructive events which have passed and occurring today as in the Turkish state (terrorism strengthening, instability of political system, and also in region of the Middle East - civil war in Syria, deterioration of relations with Russia, Greece, Syria, Iran and Iraq have called into question a number of positions of the concept of Davutoglu in this connection in article some attention to the critic of its approach is paid also.

  18. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyurt, Secil

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth investigation of Turkish primary school students' perceptions of geography. Gender differences in students' perceptions of geography were investigated, including definitions of geography and its field of study. The findings showed that "landforms," "our geographical regions/Turkey,"…

  19. Cyberbullying and Victimisation among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Yavuz; Eristi, Bahadir

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of cyberbullying and victimisation among Turkish university students at a state college of education. A personal information form and 56 scaled items were administered to 254 students. Items addressing cyberbullying victimisation were adopted from a recent study, whereas parallel cyberbullying items were…

  20. Views of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers and Their Managers Related to Professional and Organizational Socialization Processes of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet; Arslan, M. Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Turkish effectively and successfully is one of the main functions of all the teaching phases of Turkish education system. In secondary education, this duty mostly depends on Turkish Language and Literature teachers. The aim of the research named "Socialization of Turkish Language and Literature teachers" is to evaluate the…

  1. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.

    2010-01-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  2. Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

    Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  4. Lignite and hard coal: Energy suppliers for world needs until the year 2100 - An outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielemann, Thomas; Schmidt, Sandro; Peter Gerling, J.

    2007-01-01

    For three years, international hard coal prices have been at rather expensive levels. Some argue that these higher prices might indicate the threat of a physical scarcity of fossil fuels - similar to the situation with oil and gas. This is not true. The supply situations with lignite and hard coal appear to be largely not critical. Adjusted to the rise in global coal consumption, which is expected until 2100, nature by and large can meet the world's coal demand. This is shown for lignite in this article and it is illustrated for hard coal here, differentiated in space and time for a world divided into eight regions and viewed for the years 2005, 2020, 2030, 2050, and 2100. The only area of potential concern is Asia (especially China). But today's and coming eager efforts in China to convert coal resources into reserves will most likely deliver the coal needed for the Chinese market. Up to the year 2100, and from a geoscientific point of view, there will be no bottleneck in coal supplies on this planet. (author)

  5. Valorization of lignite combustion residues and ferroalumina in the production of aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, I M; Stivanakis, V E; Angelopoulos, G N; Papamantellos, D C

    2010-02-15

    The present research study investigates the synergy of industrial solid by-products from lignite combustion (fly ash and bottom ash) and aluminum production (ferroalumina) in the production of lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering. Bottom ash (BA) is used as the principal raw material in mixtures while ferroalumina (FAL) is added in lower percentages (5-30 wt%). BA carbon content is used as the fuel of sintering process in high temperatures, around 1250 degrees C, and gas generation is responsible for porous structure formation. Physical properties such as porosity, water absorption and bulk density, of sintering products are measured. Increase of FAL percentage in sintering mixtures results in decrease of porosity from 61% to 35% and of water absorption from 61% to 21% and in increase of bulk density from 1.02 g/cm(3) to 1.80 g/cm(3) of the produced aggregates. Aggregates produced by FAL addition up to 20 wt% are characterized as LWA. Aggregates formed are used in the production of concrete specimens. Compressive strength of concrete increases by increasing FAL addition in aggregates from 5 wt% to 15 wt% (highest strength value), while decrease by increasing FAL addition from 20 wt% to 30 wt%. FAL addition in lignite ashes sintering mixtures (up to 15 wt%) is considered as an important parameter for enhancing aggregates strength.

  6. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  7. Structural degradation of Thar lignite using MW1 fungal isolate: optimization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; SanFilipo, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological degradation of low-rank coals, particularly degradation mediated by fungi, can play an important role in helping us to utilize neglected lignite resources for both fuel and non-fuel applications. Fungal degradation of low-rank coals has already been investigated for the extraction of soil-conditioning agents and the substrates, which could be subjected to subsequent processing for the generation of alternative fuel options, like methane. However, to achieve an efficient degradation process, the fungal isolates must originate from an appropriate coal environment and the degradation process must be optimized. With this in mind, a representative sample from the Thar coalfield (the largest lignite resource of Pakistan) was treated with a fungal strain, MW1, which was previously isolated from a drilled core coal sample. The treatment caused the liberation of organic fractions from the structural matrix of coal. Fungal degradation was optimized, and it showed significant release of organics, with 0.1% glucose concentration and 1% coal loading ratio after an incubation time of 7 days. Analytical investigations revealed the release of complex organic moieties, pertaining to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and it also helped in predicting structural units present within structure of coal. Such isolates, with enhanced degradation capabilities, can definitely help in exploiting the chemical-feedstock-status of coal.

  8. The effect of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners: a diachronic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichletidis, L; Tsiotsios, I; Chloros, D; Daskalopoulou, E; Ziomas, I; Michailidis, K; Kottakis, I; Konstantinidis, T H; Palladas, P

    2004-01-01

    It is not known whether working in surface lignite mines can cause x-ray lesions or disorders of respiratory function. The aim of the study was to investigate the diachronic impact of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners at mines in Eordea, Greece. Cases of 199 workers (Group A) residing permanently in the Eordea valley and 151 (Group B) living outside the Eordea valley were studied during Phase I and then re-examined after three years (Phase II). These cases were compared to those of 71 office workers living in Eordea valley (Group C) and to 96 living in Grevena, a region without pollution (Group D). The study included the completion of the MRC questionnaire for the detection of respiratory diseases, pulmonary function tests, measurement of diffusion capacity, otorhinolaryngologic examination, rhinomanonetry as well as chest and paranasal cavity X-rays. Chronic bronchitis was reported by 26.8%, 24.8%, 17.9% and 10.6% respectively of the subjects of groups A, B, C and D according to the answers of the questionnaire (pmines under conditions of excessive pollution by airborne contaminants have a high prevalence of atrophic rhinitis and, in addition to other standard examinations, should undergo rhinomanometry testing and X-ray imaging of the paranasal cavities.

  9. Land movement monitoring at the Mavropigi lignite mine using spaceborne D-InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Eirini; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Mertikas, Stelios; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Schilizzi, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the capability of remote sensing radar interferometry to monitor land movements, as it varies with time, in areas close to open pit lignite mines. The study area is the "Mavropigi" lignite mine in Ptolemais, Northern Greece; whose continuous operation is of vital importance to the electric power supply of Greece. The mine is presently 100-120m deep while horizontal and vertical movements have been measured in the vicinity of the pit. Within the mine, ground geodetic monitoring has revealed an average rate of movement amounting to 10-20mm/day at the southeast slopes. In this work, differential interferometry (DInSAR), using 19 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of ALOS satellite, has been applied to monitor progression of land movement caused my mining within the greater area of "Mavropigi" region. The results of this work show that DInSAR can be used effectively to capture ground movement information, well before signs of movements can be observed visually in the form of imminent fissures and tension cracks. The advantage of remote sensing interferometry is that it can be applied even in inaccessible areas where monitoring with ground equipment is either impossible or of high-cost (large areas).

  10. Conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. Functional evaluation with LENT-SOMA scales and the Enneking score; Traitement conservateur des sarcomes des tissus mous des membres. Evaluation du resultat fonctionnel selon l'echelle LENT-SOMA et le score de Enneking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfiq, N.; Lagarde, P.; Thomas, L.; Kantor, G. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Stockle, E. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service de Chirurgie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Bui, B.N. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. - The aim of this prospective study is the feasibility of late effects assessment by LENT-SOMA scales after conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and a comparison with the functional evaluation by the Enneking score. Patients and methods. - During the systematic follow-up consultations, a series of 32 consecutive patients was evaluated in terms of late effects by LENT SOMA scales and functional results by the Enneking score. The median time after treatment was 65 months. The treatment consisted of conservative surgery (all cases) followed by radiation therapy (29 cases), often combined with adjuvant therapy (12 concomitant radio-chemotherapy association cases out of 14). The assessment of the toxicity was retrospective for acute effects and prospective for the following late tissue damage: skin/subcutaneous tissues, muscles/soft tissues and peripheral nerves. Results. -According to the Enneking score, the global score for the overall series was high (24/30) despite four the scores zero for the psychological acceptance. According to LENT SOMA scales, a low rate of severe sequelae (grade 3-4) was observed. The occurrence of high-grade sequelae and their functional consequences were not correlated with quality of exeresis, dose of radiotherapy or use of concomitant chemotherapy. A complementarity was observed between certain factors of the Enneking score and some criteria of the LENTSOMA scales, especially of muscles/soft tissues. Conclusion. -The good quality of functional results was confirmed by the two mean scoring systems for late normal tissue damage. The routine use of LENT-SOMA seems to be more time consuming than the Enneking score (mean time of scoring: 1 3 versus five minutes). The LENT-SOMA scales are aimed at a detailed description of late toxicity and sequelae while the Enneking score provides a more global evaluation, including the psychological acceptance of treatment. The late effects assessment by the LENT-SOMA

  11. Biophysics of active vesicle transport, an intermediate step that couples excitation and exocytosis of serotonin in the neuronal soma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F De-Miguel

    Full Text Available Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52-951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60-6.18 µm distances at average 11-95 nms(-1 velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4-72.0, calculated from the ratio of the ΔG(process/ΔG(ATP, depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6-2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a

  12. Co-liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite with Manure Biomass; Part 2 - Effect of Biomass Type, Waste to Lignite Ratio and Solid to Liquid Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hüseyin; Koyunoglu, Cemil

    2017-12-01

    Most coal hydrogenation processes require a large quantity of hydrogen. In general, a coal derived liquid such as anthracene oil was used as a hydrogen donor solvent. Tetralin, partially hydrogenated pyrene, phenantrene and coal-derived solvents, which contain hydroaromatic compounds, are efficient solvents to donate hydrogen. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. This must be hydrogenated during or before the process and recycled. To reduce the cost of hydrogen donor vehicles instead of liquids recycled from the liquefaction process or several biomass types, industrial by products, liquid fractions derived from oil sands bitumen were successfully used to solubilize a coal from the past. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. However, when hydrogen is supplied from the hydroaromatic structures present in the solvent, the activity of coal minerals is too low to rehydrogenate the solvent in-situ. Nevertheless, a decrease of using oxygen, in addition to enhanced usage of the hydrogen supply by using various waste materials might lead to a decrease of the cost of the liquefaction procedure. So instead of using tetralin another feeding material such as biomass is becoming another solution improving hydrogen donor substances. Most of the liquefaction process were carried out in a batch reactor, in which the residence time of the liquefaction products is long enough to favour the retrogressive reactions, early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Alternatively, to understand the hydrogen transfer from biomass to coal, in this study, Elbistan Lignite (EL) with manure, tea

  13. Use of lignite in the production of sponge iron and processing of waste oxides in rotary kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichberger, H; Schnabel, W; Serbent, H

    1978-11-01

    Based on a study of the situation of fossil energy reserves, processes are described in which non-coking coals, in particular lignite, are used for reduction in the rotary kiln, i.e. for sponge iron production and for zinc volatilization from waste oxides).

  14. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  15. Low temperature coal depolymerization-liquefaction: conversion of a North Dakota lignite to a light hydrocarbon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabtai, J.; Yuan Zhang (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Fuels Engineering)

    1989-10-01

    A new low temperature method of coal liquefaction is described which includes intercalation of the coal with FeCl{sub 3}, depolymerization under supercritical conditions, and hydroprocessing of the depolymerized product. Results indicate a high yield conversion of lignites to light hydrocarbon oils. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Co-processing of lignite-plastic mixtures into liquid distillate fractions in the presence of iron catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Doroginskaya, A.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials Sibirian Branch

    1997-12-31

    Some features of co-processing of Kansk-Achinsk lignite with plastics into hydrocarbon mixtures in the presence of activated iron-containing minerals (hematite, magnetite, pyrrhotite) were investigated under various operating parameters. The following catalytic processes were studied: pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere, hydropyrolysis and water-steam cracking. (orig.)

  17. Research of lignite oxidation kinetic parameters modified by CuSO4 and NaNO3 initiation additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larionov Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study and subsequent analytical assessment of activation energy change in lignite oxidation process with addition of NaNO3 and CuSO4 mineral salts were conducted. The results showed that injection of catalytic additives leads to reduction of coal activation energy and reaction initial temperature.

  18. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  19. Combustion characteristics and air pollutant formation during oxy-fuel co-combustion of microalgae and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Dou, Jinxiao; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels is seen as one of the key technologies for carbon capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The combustion characteristics of lignite coal, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae, and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 conditions were studied using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). During co-combustion of blends, three distinct peaks were observed and were attributed to C. vulgaris volatiles combustion, combustion of lignite, and combustion of microalgae char. Activation energy during combustion was calculated using iso-conventional method. Increasing the microalgae content in the blend resulted in an increase in activation energy for the blends combustion. The emissions of S- and N-species during blend fuel combustion were also investigated. The addition of microalgae to lignite during air combustion resulted in lower CO2, CO, and NO2 yields but enhanced NO, COS, and SO2 formation. During oxy-fuel co-combustion, the addition of microalgae to lignite enhanced the formation of gaseous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen-rich gas as a product of two-stage co-gasification of lignite/waste mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Bičáková, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 21 (2014), s. 10987-10995 ISSN 0360-3199 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : co-gasification * waste plastics * lignite * hydrogen-rich gas Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2014 http://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0360319914014025

  1. Petrology, palynology and organic geochemistry of Eocene lignite of Matanomadh, Kutch Basin, western India: Implications to depositional environment and hydrocarbon source potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mathews, Runcie P.; Saraswati, Pratul K.; Banerjee, Santanu [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Singh, Bhagwan D.; Tripathi, Suryakant M.; Singh, Alpana [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere

    2011-01-01

    Petrological, palynological and organic-geochemical investigations were undertaken to determine the source vegetation, depositional conditions and hydrocarbon source potential of Eocene Matanomadh lignites from Kutch Basin, western India. The maceral study reveals that studied lignites are rich in huminite (av. 63%) with sub-ordinate amount of liptinite (av. 19%) and low inertinite (av. 3%), along with low to moderately high associated mineral matters (av. 15%). The overall petrographic composition points to a lagoonal condition for the formation of these lignites. The mean huminite reflectance values (R{sub r}: 0.28-0.34%, av. 0.31%) as well as low Rock-Eval T{sub max} (av. 417 C) values for the seams, suggest brown coal or lignitic stage/rank for the studied lignites. The palynological assemblages, dominated by tropical angiospermic pollen, suggest prevalence of warm humid tropical climate during the deposition of these lignites. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of lignites ranges between 26 and 58 wt.%, whereas the TOC content of the associated carbonaceous shales is around 4 wt.%. The Hydrogen Index (HI) ranging from 23 to 452 mg HC/g TOC indicates that the lignite sequence has the potential to produce mixed oil and gaseous hydrocarbons on maturation. The major pyrolysis products of lignites, derived from Curie point pyrolysis-GC-MS, are straight chain aliphatics, phenols and cadalene-based C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids. The exclusive occurrence of C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids suggests that these compounds are derived from dammar resin of angiosperm plants, belonging to family Dipterocarpaceae. (author)

  2. Turkish Political Market and the Perception of Political Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Polat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the Turkish political market and determine where and how Turkish political parties are perceived by voters. The study uses a two-dimensional map to determine the voter perceptions of the parties in the Turkish political market based on a survey questionnaire applied to 400 young voters. It also investigates whether there are any major differences in the perception of parties in the political space based on voter ideologies. The study finds that young voters have clear perceptions of the positions of Turkish parties. It also finds that voter perceptions of parties vary based on voters’ ideological positions.

  3. LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

    2004-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young

  4. Perspectives on the German lignite industry in 2012. Stability through diversity; Perspektiven der deutschen Braunkohlenindustrie 2012. Stabilitaet durch Vielfalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertz, Johannes F. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany); Milojcic, George [Bundesverband Braunkohle (DEBRIV), Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The formula - stability through diversity - stands for a promising approach to energy policy. Germany will be phasing out nuclear energy by 2022 and giving a big push to renewables as a substitute. That changes the electricity mix. In this setting, lignite becomes more valuable as base load energy. Any look at the history of technology shows that, in the competition to find good solutions, experience proves that diversity is generated, and that means stability. In the energy sector, no one solution will determine the future, but many different technologies will co-exist in a pattern that is increasingly networked and integrated. The background here is a combination of nature circumstances, the wishes of consumers and, of course, the technical potential and availability of raw materials. There is no sign that coal, which is so abundantly available and competitive worldwide, will be excluded from the energy mix any time soon. The figures prove the contrary. The dynamism of world coal consumption speaks an unequivocal language. Germany, with its lignite, has a valuable natural resource which will be available for a long time to come. Germany's energy-policy aim should be to make use of the strengths of domestic lignite, strengths like security of supply and affordability, while working on minimising CO{sub 2} emissions, in particular through increases in efficiency and, in the long run, through CCS. Indispensable for this are the underlying production conditions. At the start, I had a word of thanks for our many partners for their good cooperation. We go on relying on your support. Specifically, we hope that the lignite industry, like other sectors will go on being appreciated for the benefits that it brings, and that no additional burdens are envisaged that might impair its competitiveness. It is our task in the lignite industry to further develop the potential of lignite with our wealth of ideas and fact-driven work. The good of today thus make a better

  5. Long-term radiation sequelae after breast-conserving therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer: an observational study using the LENT-SOMA scoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlauer, Fabian; Tribius, Silke; Hoeller, Ulrike; Rades, Dirk; Kuhlmey, Antje; Bajrovic, Amira; Alberti, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term toxicity after breast-conserving therapy in women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Late toxicity according to the late effects of normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, and analytic (LENT-SOMA) criteria and cosmetic outcome (graded by physicians) were evaluated in 590 of 2943 women with early-stage breast cancer who were irradiated between 1983 and 1995 using the following fractionation schedules: group A, 1983-1987, 2.5 Gy 4x/wk to 60 Gy; group B, 1988-1993, 2.5 Gy 4x/wk to 55 Gy, group C, 1994-1995, 2.0 Gy 5x/wk to 55 Gy. Results: LENT-SOMA Grade 3-4 toxicity was observed as follows: group A (median follow-up 171 months; range 154-222 months), fibrosis 16% (7 of 45), telangiectasia 18% (8 of 45), and atrophy 4% (2 of 45); group B (median follow-up 113 months; range 78-164 months), pain 2% (8 of 345), fibrosis 10% (34 of 345), telangiectasia 10% (33 of 345), arm edema 1% (2 of 345), and atrophy 8% (27 of 345); and group C (median follow-up 75 months, range 51-96 months, n = 200), occurrence of Grade 3-4 late morbidity ≤2%. The cosmetic outcome was very good to acceptable in 78% (35 of 45) of patients in group A, 83% (286 of 345) in group B, and 94% (187 of 200) in group C. Conclusion: In our population, the long-term side effects after breast-conserving therapy were not rare, but were mainly asymptomatic. The LENT-SOMA breast module is a practical tool to assess radiation-induced long-term toxicity

  6. The long term plan for the integration of nuclear power plants into the Turkish Electrical Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutukcuoglu, A.

    1974-03-01

    The report covers in detail the study of the expansion of the Turkish Electric Power System for the period 1980-1987. Load forecast is done by sectors and regions and inter-regions power balances gave the basis for the high voltage network configurations. Expansion alternatives are defined giving priority to hydroelectric projects, to local resources and nuclear power plants concurrently with conventional plants (lignite and oil). Several reactor strategies are analysed with LWR, HWR, FBR and HTGR power plants. Present worth value method is used for comparison of alternatives and sensitivity analysis is done for those ranked in the first places. Load flow, transient stability and frequency deviation studies of the power system are studied carefully by means of A.C. calculator and digital computer codes in order to see the influence of the introduction of large-sized power plants (600-750MW(e)) and their location in the power system. A 600MW(e) nuclear plant in 1983 and a second one of 750MW(e) in 1987 should, it is found, be commissioned into the system. The economic optimization was done with two computer programmes developed by KFA (Juelich): IACO for fuelling nuclear plant and RESTRAPO for power system with high hydroelectric component. The report is bound in three volumes: Volume I: Summary and Conclusions; Volume II: System Planning; Volume III: Electrical Survey

  7. Comparação dos métodos soma constante e análise conjunta de fatores para estimar a importância relativa

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    A proposta deste trabalho foi comparar os métodos Soma Constante (SC) e Análise Conjunta de Fatores (ANCF) para estimar a importância relativa ((IR%)) dos fatores em estudos da preferência do consumidor. O objetivo principal foi verificar se o método SC pode ser utilizado para avaliar as estimativas de IR (%) obtidas pela ANCF. Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a intenção de compra de uma bebida láctea sabor café com base na embalagem. Utilizou-se uma amostra de 192 julgadores residentes n...

  8. PARENTING AND SOCIAL ROLES IN TURKISH TRADITIONAL FAMILIES: ISSUES AND CHOICES IN PARENTING FOR TURKISH EXPATRIATE FAMILIES LIVING IN BUCHAREST

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ECIRLI

    2012-01-01

    This article looks into the issues and challenges of parenting in Turkish families upholding traditional values that live in Bucharest, the capital of Romania. Based on theoretical mainstreams on parenting and the structure of Turkish families, a qualitative research was designed with two aims. The first was to describe the issues and choices in parenting for Turkish expatriate families living in a foreign country. The second was to find out to which of the three ideal-types of families accor...

  9. The Mineral Character and Geomechanical Properties of the Transitional Rocks from the Mesozoic-Neogene Contact Zone in the Bełchatów Lignite Deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Pękala

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Beginning more than 30 years ago, opencast lignite mining in the "Bełchatów" area is an important source of accompanying minerals. Lignite mining in the "Bełchatów" mine yields, on average, more than 35 million tonnes per annum and requires removing more than 110 million cubic meters of overburden. Therefore the mine outside of the main mineral exploitation of lignite, leads to a large-scale economy of accompanying minerals. Part of the minerals are present in the overburden and are ...

  10. Preparation and combustion of Yugoslavian lignite-water fuel, Task 7.35. Topical report, July 1991--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.M.; DeWall, R.A.; Ljubicic, B.R.; Musich, M.A.; Richter, J.J.

    1994-03-01

    Yugoslavia`s interest in lignite-water fuel (LWF) stems from its involvement in an unusual power project at Kovin in northern Serbia. In the early 1980s, Electric Power of Serbia (EPS) proposed constructing a 600-MW power plant that would be fueled by lignite found in deposits along and under the Danube River. Trial underwater mining at Kovin proved that the dredging operation is feasible. The dredging method produces a coal slurry containing 85% to 90% water. Plans included draining the water from the coal, drying it, and then burning it in the pulverized coal plant. In looking for alternative ways to utilize the ``wet coal`` in a more efficient and economical way, a consortium of Yugoslavian companies agreed to assess the conversion of dredged lignite into a LWF using hot-water-drying (HWD) technology. HWD is a high-temperature, nonevaporative drying technique carried out under high pressure in water that permanently alters the structure of low-rank coals. Changes effected by the drying process include irreversible removal of moisture, micropore sealing by tar, and enhancement of heating value by removal of oxygen, thus, enhancement of the slurry ability of the coal with water. Physical cleaning results indicated a 51 wt % reduction in ash content with a 76 wt % yield for the lignite. In addition, physical cleaning produced a cleaned slurry that had a higher attainable solids loading than a raw uncleaned coal slurry. Combustion studies were then performed on the raw and physically cleaned samples with the resulting indicating that both samples were very reactive, making them excellent candidates for HWD. Bench-scale results showed that HWD increased energy densities of the two raw lignite samples by approximately 63% and 81%. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was conducted to evaluate the HWD and pipeline transport of Kovin LWF to domestic and export European markets. Results are described.

  11. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and depositional environment of a lignite-bearing succession at Surkha Mine, Cambay Basin, north-western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Priyanka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports palynology and palynofacies studies of lignite-bearing sediments exposed in an opencast mine succession at Surkha, Bhavnagar District, in the coastal region of Gujarat, India. The study examined the relationships between the palynoflora, sedimentary organic matter and environment at the time of deposition of lignite and associated sediments. Based on dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, the sedimentary succession is dated as early Eocene (Ypresian. Palynofacies studies helped reveal the palaeoenvironmental fluctuations. The dominance of angiosperm pollen grains, freshwater algae, microthyraceous fungi and a large share of land debris in the lower part of the succession suggests a freshwater swamp environment of deposition for the basal lignite facies. Two cenozones - Matanomadiasulcites maximus and Lakiapollis ovatus - were identified in the lower lignite facies, determined from the dominance of these pollen grains in the palynological assemblages. The presence of angiosperm pollen grains and pteridophyte spores in the carbonaceous shale horizon above the lignite facies indicates a change in the depositional regime from freshwater swamp to lagoonal. This was identified as the Arecipites wodehousei cenozone due to its numerical abundance in the assemblage. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance and diversity, and microforaminiferal test linings along with well-sorted terrestrial debris in the mudstone in the upper part of the succession suggest a more open marine estuarine type of depositional environment. The Homotryblium complex along with Cordospheridium fibrospinosum, Kenleyia sp., and Thalassiphora pelagica dinoflagellate cysts are the main representatives of this zone, determined as the Homotryblium tenuispinosum cenozone. The changing depositional settings (freshwater swamp-lagoonal-estuarine along the vertical succession indicate a marine transgression in this region. Results from palynological studies of early Palaeogene

  12. Local community opinions regarding the socio-environmental aspects of lignite surface mining: Experiences from central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badera, Jarosław; Kocoń, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Surface lignite mining covers large areas and usually generates social conflicts which pose one of several energy security threats to certain states. Therefore, defining the social conditions determines the success of a mining project. Two communes were chosen for a public opinion study: Kleszczów, where the Bełchatów mine is located, and Złoczew, where a lignite deposit will soon be developed. The analysis shows, as opposed to other areas in Poland that have been projected for development, that both local communities are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. In both cases, awareness about the profits was stronger than anxiety about the investment's negative effects. However, most inhabitants could not assess the mining company's diligence concerning its responsibility for mining damages as well as the diligence of external experts assessing the environmental impacts of excavation. Most respondents also could not assess if the legal regulations of public participation in the decision process were sufficient, but the negative opinions outweighed the positive ones. From the perspective of the energy policy, dialogue-type social communication is needed for every case of a new energy-mining project. Research on local public opinion should be the first step to opening up a social debate. - Highlights: • Lignite mining can generate social conflicts, which may threaten energy security. • Examined communes are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. • Inhabitants cannot assess if the legal regulations of mining activity are sufficient. • From the perspective of the energy policy, broader social communication is needed. • Research on the public opinion should be the first step to open up a social debate

  13. An ecosystem approach to evaluate restoration measures in the lignite mining district of Lusatia/Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Lignite mining in Lusatia has a history of over 100 years. Open-cast mining directly affected an area of 1000 km2. Since 20 years we established an ecosystem oriented approach to evaluate the development and site characteristics of post-mining areas mainly restored for agricultural and silvicultural land use. Water and element budgets of afforested sites were studied under different geochemical settings in a chronosequence approach (Schaaf 2001), as well as the effect of soil amendments like sewage sludge or compost in restoration (Schaaf & Hüttl 2006). Since 10 years we also study the development of natural site regeneration in the constructed catchment Chicken Creek at the watershed scale (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2013). One of the striking characteristics of post-mining sites is a very large small-scale soil heterogeneity that has to be taken into account with respect to soil forming processes and element cycling. Results from these studies in combination with smaller-scale process studies enable to evaluate the long-term effect of restoration measures and adapted land use options. In addition, it is crucial to compare these results with data from undisturbed, i.e. non-mined sites. Schaaf, W., 2001: What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering 17, 241-252. Schaaf, W. and Hüttl, R. F., 2006: Direct and indirect effects of soil pollution by lignite mining. Water, Air and Soil Pollution - Focus 6, 253-264. Schaaf, W., Bens, O., Fischer, A., Gerke, H.H., Gerwin, W., Grünewald, U., Holländer, H.M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Mutz, M., Schloter, M., Schulin, R., Veste, M., Winter, S. & Hüttl, R.F., 2011: Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial-ecosystem development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174, 229-239. Schaaf, W., Elmer, M., Fischer, A., Gerwin, W., Nenov, R., Pretsch, H. and Zaplate, M.K., 2013: Feedbacks between vegetation, surface structures and hydrology

  14. Turkish Independence War and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru‑Nicolae Cucu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the First World War, the Ottoman Empire collapsed and the Great Powers came to take the control of its territories. Having a strategic position at the southern gate of Europe, all of Turkish lands were very important for the First World War winners, both to secure European borders and to develop the trade between Europe and Middle East. On the other side, under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk command, a new Turkey with a strong nationalist way decided to fight for emancipating. Winning the war with the Great Powers not only in a military way, but also from a diplomatic perspective, the new Turkey became a modern regional power, having institutions and laws that assured its prosperity and security. Taking into consideration the independence war evolution, this paper wants also to show the diplomatic capability of Turkish leaders to balance between powers involved in the region.

  15. Determination of Natamycin in Turkish Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Bilgic Alkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing RP-HPLC method for determination of natamycin in Turkish yoghurt. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C8 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 µm with a mobile phase of methanol : water : acetic acid (12 : 8 : 1 v/v/v, at 1 mL/min flow rate with a detection of 303 nm. Natamycin was spiked into handmade yoghurt samples and used for validation. The method has been fully validated according to ISO 9233-2, 2007 (IDF 140-2, 2007. It was successfully applied to determination of 28 different Turkish yoghurt products. Findings dealing with the presence of natamycin in cheese samples are presented.

  16. Reform in Turkish Elementary Mathematics Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    BABADOĞAN, Cem; OLKUN, Sinan

    2006-01-01

    Disappointed from such major international studies as TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS andsome internal indicators such as national university entrance examination, the Turkish Ministry ofNational Education initiated a massive reform movement in education. These reforms includedeveloping new curricula for both elementary and secondary education and developing teachercompetencies. The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of the elementary schoolmathematics curriculum, which is a part of the ref...

  17. REVIEW OF TURKISH SCIENTIFIC TEXTS ON TEACHING TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil İŞERİ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The functions of the scientific texts under the informative text type are referring to the results of a research, reinterpreting certain research results, or reaching original results. When literature reviewed, it is observed that although the studies for creating scientific text have increased recently, it seems that the desired outcome is not achieved. In addition to teaching Turkish as a mother tongue, teaching it as a foreign language has also started to gain importance. For this reason, it is necessary to carry out such studies in order to increase the productivity in the field of teaching Turkish to foreigners. The aim of the study is to determine the orientations related to the rhetorical arrangement of the scientific texts on teaching of Turkish as a foreign language, which are included in the textbooks of the International Training and Education of Turkish Language Congresses as a full text and to evaluate these texts in terms of their specific functions. Findings and determinations revealed in the study are based on a corpus comprised of a total of 64 texts included in proceedings books, written in Turkish and related to teaching Turkish to foreigners. The study is structured by qualitative research method. The data were obtained by qualitative data collection techniques through document scanning and were examined within the framework of the scientific text criteria specified by Huber and Uzun (2001. Two out of 64 articles in the sample of the study revealed that none of the expected functional steps in the introduction, main and final sections were found. No work has been found that covers all of the functional steps in the introduction, main and final sections.

  18. FAIR PLAY I N TURKISH SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail TEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We can say that we start hearing term of fair play since last 30 years in our country. While it is a sportive term it also represents respectfulness toward all mutual rights, symbol of being just and honest also we can determine it as basic moral values wh ich needs to be practise. Expression and teaching of Fair play fact starts with family and it needs to be thought as a life discipline which should appear in society. Term of Fair play isn‟t only an organizing term for sportive interrelations it also ne eds to be taken as a cultural fact. It is a way of life. Term of Fair play is a way of thinking and acting so it is is above all of sport branches. It is behaviors and emotions which are accepted as conditions of being a perfect human being by Turkish society. Purpose of this study is to investigate perspective of Turkish society toward Fair play and find lived / real fair play events to set as sample. Term of Fair play, cultural values among Turkish society and real Fair play events had been studied carefully within the theorical scope. This research is a theorical study. Screening the resources used as method for this study. Tried to investigate works, articles and researches had been done about this field and interpret the facts which can be acc epted as sample for Fair play.

  19. Analysis of gas-phase mercury sorption with coke and lignite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczak Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of mercury emission became a widely discussed topic. Its high impact is caused by its toxicity and ability to accumulate in living organisms, properties that justified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA to classify mercury as hazardous pollutant. The problem of mercury emission is crucial for countries like Poland, where the most of the emission is caused by coaldepended energy sector. Current technology of mercury removal utilizes adsorption of mercury on the surface of activated carbon. Due to high price of activated carbon, this technological approach seems to be uneconomical and calls for cheaper alternative. One possible solution can be usage of other sorptive materials obtained from thermal processes like coke production. Example of such material is coke dust obtained from dry quenching of coke. The aim of this work was to analyse the sorption potential of lignite and coke dust and determine parameters influencing mercury behaviour during combustion.

  20. Cleaning of flue gases from lignite-fired power plants by electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, T.

    1998-01-01

    An essential part of the electricity production in Bulgaria depends on the combustion of lignite with high humidity and high sulphur content. As a result of burning, toxic gases as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrous oxides (NO x ) are emitted in the atmosphere. Both S0 2 and NO x in flue gases could be removed simultaneously by the Electron Beam (EB) process. Beforehand cleaned from fly ash, the flue gas is cooled by injection of water and ammonia is added. By irradiation with high energy electrons, S0 2 and NO x are converted into aerosols of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. The byproduct is collected by an electrostatic precipitator and is used for the production of fertilisers

  1. Use of abandoned coal/lignite open pits for waste disposal in selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libicki, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The use of abandoned coal/lignite pits as disposal sites for solid waste appears to be a reasonable approach to a difficult problem, especially if they are located close to the waste source. However, a potential for groundwater and soil pollution exists. This issue was discussed by a Group of Experts on Opencast Mining of the UN Economic Commission for Europe because most of the sites are operated by mining companies. This paper contains the major topics of discussion including the significance of the problem, legal aspects, characteristics of the open pits, waste intended for disposal, investigations required to obtain a disposal permit, disposal techniques, protection measures, monitoring environmental impacts, and research trends. A few countries are used as examples

  2. A comparison of improved power plant technologies on lignite with (PFBC) and (IGCC) cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, Ilija

    1997-01-01

    Technologies and process diagrams descriptions for PFBC (Pressurised Fluidized Bed Combustion) and IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) are presented as for improved cycles with modern clean coal technologies, the most popular currently. A special attention is paid to the possibilities for Macedonian lignites use on the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles. The comparison of the above mention technologies has been done particularly on the desulfurization, NO x reduction, ash elimination and its use in the building and construction industries. A comparison between the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles is made by the following criteria: cycle efficiency, desulfurization and nitrogen oxides reduction, power plant complexity and their cost, as well as plant reliability. (Author)

  3. The clean coal technologies for lignitic coal power generation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Raza, Z.; Aziz-ur-Rehman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Pakistan contains huge reserves of lignitic coals. These are high sulphur, high ash coals. In spite of this unfortunate situation, the heavy demand for energy production, requires the development utilization of these indigenous coal reserves to enhance energy production. The central of the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of these coals has been a major hindrance in their utilization. Recently a substantial reduction in coal combustion emissions have been achieved through the development of clean coal technologies. Pakistan through the transfer and adaptation of the advanced clean coal technologies can utilize incurring the high sulphur coals for energy production without incurring the environmental effects that the developed countries have experienced in the past. The author discusses the recently developed clean coal utilization technologies, their applications economies and feasibility of utilization with specific reference to Pakistan''s coal. (author)

  4. Advanced control - technologies for suppressing harmful emission in lignitic coal-fired power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Hai, S.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The production of sufficient amount of indigenous energy is a prerequisite for the prosperity of a nation. Pakistan's energy demand far exceeds its indigenous supplies. A cursory look at the energy situation in Pakistan reveals that there is an urgent need for the development of its energy resources. In this regard, coal can play a key role if its problems of high-sulfur and high ash can be rectified through the adoption adaptation of advanced technologies, like (I) clean coal technologies, and (II) control technologies. A review on clean coal technologies for utilization of lignitic coals has already been published and the present article describes the effect of harmful emissions from the combustion of high sulfur coals, like the ones found in Pakistan and their control through advanced control technologies, to make a significant contribution in the total energy economics of Pakistan. (author)

  5. The effects of leaching and floatation on the ash fusion temperatures of three selected lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng-hai Li; Jie-jie Huang; Yi-tian Fang; Yang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2011-07-15

    Experiments have been conducted with Huolinhe (HLH), Xiaolongtan (XLT), and Ethiopian (ET) lignites to investigate the effects of washing with water, acid-leaching, and floatation on their ash fusion temperatures (AFTs). The results show that the AFTs of XLT and ET are elevated by washing with water and floatation, but the AFT of HLH is decreased. The AFTs of all three lignites are increased markedly by acid leaching. A decrease in the total basic composition in ash increases its AFT, and vice versa. Changes in the mineral contents of the coals after treatment contribute to the variations in their AFTs. After washing with water, the lower AFT of HLH is brought about by the increases in the amounts of cordierite and anhydrite, whereas the higher AFT of XLT is caused by the decreases in the amounts of anhydrite and calcite. For the floatation treatment, the decrease of AFT for HLH is due to the reduction in the amount of kaolinite, but the elevation of AFT for XLT or ET is caused by the decrease in the amount of pyrite and the reductions in the amounts of gypsum and xanthoxenite, respectively. For the acid-leaching treatment, a decrease in the amount of pyrite and an increase in the amount of kaolinite result in increases in AFTs for HLH and XLT. Increases in the amounts of kaolinite and cristobalite in FET (ET after floatation), WET (ET after washing with water), and AET (ET after acid-leaching) lead to corresponding increases in the AFTs. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Depositional environment of the San Miguel lignite deposit in Atascosa and McMullen Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowan, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit was carried out in order to understand newly discovered characteristics of the deposit. The environment of deposition of the overburden and underburden was evaluated through an interpretation of three continuous cores. Four coal cores and a highwall section were carefully described to determine the depositional environmental of the coal seams and partings. These studies were supplemented by the construction of seam and parting isopachs, and the analysis of the distribution of sulfur isotopes, sulfur, forms, and total sulfur within the coal. The sedimentary package is composed of a basal prograding barrier that beach, dune, and back-barrier sands. This unit correlates with a downdip sand that was also interpreted as a prograding barrier by other authors. The barrier is overlain by a series of slit and clay deposits of lagoonal, tidal flat, and tidal channel origin. These deposits are capped by restricted lagoon sediments composed of green, calcareous clays that occasionally contain shell layers. The restricted lagoon deposits formed when the barrier closed the lagoon off from the sea. Peat forming freshwater swamps eventually became established behind the barrier and on top of the restricted lagoon sediments. The parting isopachs reveal a reticulate morphology similar to the mangrove swamps located lateral to the modern Niger River Delta. The partings represent vegetated tidal flat deposits that formed during periodic invasions by the sea that killed the swamp and inundated the peat with sulfate rich water. The lignite interval is capped by open lagoon and tidal flat sediments.

  7. Utilization of lignite power generation residues for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Iason M; Stivanakis, Victor E

    2009-04-15

    A novel process is proposed for the utilization of lignite combustion solid residues in the production of inflammable lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering, and carbon contained in BA was used as the process fuel. The main residues bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) from Megalopolis power plant were characterized, mixed in different proportions and treated through pelletization and sintering process. Sintering benefits from combustion of BA carbon content and the product is a hardened porous cake. The energy required for achievement of high temperatures, in the range of 1250 degrees C, was offered by carbon combustion and CO(2) evolution is responsible for porous structure formation. Selected physical properties of sintered material relevant to use as lightweight aggregates were determined, including bulk density, porosity and water absorption. Bulk density varies from 0.83 to 0.91 g/cm(3), porosity varies from 60% to 64% and water absorption varies from 66% to 80%. LWA formed is used for the production of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Thermal conductivity coefficient varies from 0.25 to 0.37 W/mK (lower than maximum limit 0.43 W/mK) and compressive strength varies from 19 to 23 MPa (higher than minimum limit 17 MPa). The results indicate that sintering of lignite combustion residues is an efficient method of utilization of carbon containing BA and production of LWA for structural and insulating purposes. Carbon content of BA is a key factor in LWA production. Finally, this research work comprises the first proposed application for utilization of BA in Greece.

  8. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  9. Photoluminescence of Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Başevirgen, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    The purple-colored unique gem material is only found in the Harmancık (Bursa) region of the western Anatolia (Turkey). Therefore, it is specially called “Turkish purple jade or turkiyenite” on the worldwide gem market. Even though its jadeite implication is the principal constituent, the material cannot be considered as a single jadeite mineral since other implications are quartz, orthoclase, epidote, chloritoid and phlogopite minerals. Even if the analytical methods are used to characterize and identify the Turkish purple jade samples in detail, the luminescence spectra, especially photoluminescence features regarding to composite mineral implications of the material are important because of the existence the numerous characteristic broad and intensive luminescence bands in the samples. We can state that the UV-irradiation luminescence centers as photoluminescence (PL) are due to the overall signals in the Turkish purple jade samples. Accordingly, the distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 743, 717, 698, 484, 465 and 442 nm in PL-2D (counter diagram and sections) and PL-3D (sequence spectra) ranging between 300 and 900 nm of wavelengths, and between 220 and 340 K of temperatures are observed. Finally, photoluminescence features of the heterogeneous-structured material cannot be simply attributed to any chemical impurities, since the jade mass has numerous heterogeneous mineral constituents instead of a single jadeite mineral. Six different mineral implications and chemical impurities in the material composition display complex and individual all kind of luminescence features. Therefore, photoluminescence as well as radioluminescence, cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra provide positive identification regarding to the provenance (geographic origin) of the original Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite). - Highlights: ► The purple-colored gem material is only found in the Harmancık-Bursa region of Turkey. ► Material is called “Turkish purple

  10. Ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elders, L.A.M.; Burdorf, A.; Öry, F.G.

    2004-01-01

    The number of native Dutch and Turkish workers receiving a permanent disability pension in the Netherlands is still rising. To assess ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders, a retrospective study was conducted within a large scaffolding company. Medical files for

  11. Ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); F.G. Öry; L.A.M. Elders (Leo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe number of native Dutch and Turkish workers receiving a permanent disability pension in the Netherlands is still rising. To assess ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders, a retrospective study was conducted within a large

  12. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on one such Turkish complementary school in .... various educational services that lead to achieving certain goals .... languages, together with the issue of differences of quality of .... challenge of “tackling underachievement” of Turkish Speaking ..... Cape schools and implications for school leadership.

  13. "Turkish Modernization," Democracy, and Education: An Analysis from Dewey's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Seckin

    2009-01-01

    Dewey is an important representative of the libertarian education movement, which has its roots based on the values of the enlightenment. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between "Turkish modernization" and education from Dewey's perspective. In the paper, the place and effect of Dewey in the Turkish pedagogical vision was…

  14. New Technologies in Maritime Education and Training, Turkish Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Oral; Demirel, Ergun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce new technologies and approaches in the maritime education and training (MET) and Turkish experiment/acquisitions/contributions including some analysis which may be helpful for the future studies on this subject. As an example of such an effort, Turkish experiment/contribution on seafaring officer education…

  15. Secularity and religiosity: keystones of Turkish national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Olyunin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to many experts Turkish National Federation experiences crisis of its national identity. The article concerns the problem of secular and religious balance in Turkish nationalism. Special attention is attached to Turkey as a project and Turkey as a process, war factor in a birth of the nation, national idea reproduction, Islam nationalization and nationalism Islamisation.

  16. Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

  17. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…

  18. A characterization of verb use in Turkish agrammatic narrative speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bamyacı, Elif; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of narrative-speech production and the use of verbs in Turkish agrammatic speakers (n = 10) compared to non-brain-damaged controls (n = 10). To elicit narrative-speech samples, personal interviews and storytelling tasks were conducted. Turkish has a large

  19. The Mineral Character and Geomechanical Properties of the Transitional Rocks from the Mesozoic-Neogene Contact Zone in the Bełchatów Lignite Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pękala

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: Against the background of a number of published papers on the rocks accompanying lignite seams there is a lack of the "Bełchatów" mineralogical-petrographic studies of the transitional sediments in the Mesozoic-Neogene contact zone in the "Bełchatów" lignite deposit taking into account the aspect of raw materials. This paper has been produced to fill the void in this area.

  20. US and Turkish preschoolers' observational knowledge of astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçkes, Mesut; McCormick Smith, Mandy; Cabe Trundle, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to describe and compare US and Turkish children's observational knowledge of the day and night cycle and to identify similarities predicted by framework theory. Fifty-six (27 US and 29 Turkish) young children (ages 48-60 months) participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were individually conducted, digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method. The results demonstrate that preschoolers from the two cultures are able to make comparable informal observations of the sky, and their observational knowledge includes many similarities, with one exception, as predicted by framework theory. US children were more likely to perform better than the Turkish children on the question about the time of observation for the moon. Although science concepts and skills are better represented in US early childhood education programs than the Turkish program, the results suggest that this advantage did not translate into performance differences between US and Turkish children.

  1. Opinions of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers on the Curriculum of Turkish Literature Course Based on the Constructivist Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to collect the opinions of Turkish Language and Literature teachers at secondary schools about the Curriculum of the Turkish Literature Course based on the constructivist learning theory. To this end, the descriptive method was employed to collect teacher opinions. Structured interview was used as a data…

  2. The Place of Digital Marketing on Turkish Small Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Karatum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, technology develops rapidly and continuously and it affects every aspect of our lives. Marketing concept has been affected by these developments. What we want from marketing and reaching in an increasingly virtualized world is to be a lot faster than the past. Also, new marketing channels have emerged as well. Turkish small businesses, the building blocks of Turkish economy, have the chance of addressing the marketing problems and solving the problems with the digital marketing channels. Small businesses have time and cash money limitations and this restricts their development. It is aimed to inform Turkish small businesses about Turkish population’s digital channel usage and the benefits of using digital marketing channels. As a result, digital marketing is going to improve the speed of renewal process of the Turkish small businesses and competition between them will improve the economy of Turkey. In the 21st century, technology develops rapidly and continuously and it affects every aspect of our lives. Marketing concept has been affected by these developments. What we want from marketing and reaching in an increasingly virtualized world is to be a lot faster than the past. Also, new marketing channels have emerged as well. Turkish small businesses, the building blocks of Turkish economy, have the chance of addressing the marketing problems and solving the problems with the digital marketing channels. Small businesses have time and cash money limitations and this restricts their development. It is aimed to inform Turkish small businesses about Turkish population’s digital channel usage and the benefits of using digital marketing channels. As a result, digital marketing is going to improve the speed of renewal process of the Turkish small businesses and competition between them will improve the economy of Turkey.

  3. Turkish putsch through the eyes of Turkish people: image of the failed coup estimated by Turkish media in July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamedov Zaur Imalverdi oglu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Turkish media on the subject of the coup in 2016. The reviewed materials were published in the first two weeks after the coup attempt, and these most clearly convey the atmosphere of those days. The purpose of this study is to examine the formation of public opinion in connection with the coup in Turkey. The uniqueness of the work lies in the fact that almost all types of mass media were involved in the analysis: television, press, popular sites.

  4. Some examples of the cavity filling along transportation routes above abandoned room and pillar lignite Mines in Tokai Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, A.; Yamada, N.; Sugiura, K.; Kawamoto, T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe the applications of the integrated cavity filling technique to abandoned lignite mines in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's and the routes of Tokai By-Pass Expressway and the linear motor car railway line for Aichi Exposition pass over these abandoned mines. Since the size of abandoned mines were much larger than the route of the expressway and the elevated monorail, limited areas relevant to their stability had to be only filled. This article describe the details of cavity filling operations in these two projects, which may be some valuable examples for assessing the methods how to deal problems associated with mine closures in long term. (authors)

  5. Re-evaluation of the age of the Brandon Lignite (Vermont, USA) based on plant megafossils. [USA - Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffney, B.H. (University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    The Brandon Lignite of west-central Vermont contains the northernmost megafossil flora of Cenozoic angiosperms, and one of the most diverse Cenozoic pollen floras in northeastern North America. While the floristic composition clearly indicates deposition of the Brandon sediments in the warmer parts of the Cenozoic, previous attempts at a more precise stratigraphic placement have been inconclusive, ranging from Cretaceous to Miocene. Re-evaluation of existing and new fruit, seed and wood data from the Brandon flora in the context of other floras in the Northern Hemisphere leads to the conservative conclusion that the deposit could range from earliest Oligocene to Early Miocene. Several lines of potentially weak evidence favor an Early Miocene age, in agreement with recent biostratigraphic data from the associated pollen flora. It is concluded that the Brandon Lignite is Early Miocene.

  6. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on survival and growth of perennial grasses in lignite overburden in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Call, C.A.; Davies, F.T.

    1988-12-01

    Seedlings of sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) were inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Glomus fasciculatum and Gigaspora margarita) in a containerized system and transplanted into lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas, U.S.A. After three growing seasons without cultural inputs, plants inoculated with VAM fungi had greater survival percentages, basal diameters, and above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Inoculated plants had higher levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Root colonization percentages of inoculated plants remained fairly stable while noninoculated plants showed low levels of colonization over the 3-year study period. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the survival and growth of the 3 grass species by making effective use of limited resources in the lignite overburden. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Aspects of combustion behaviour of coals from some New Zealand lignite-coal regions determined by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1997-08-25

    The papers describes how thermogravimetric analysis of five Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic New Zealand lignites demonstrate that their combustion behaviour is distinct from that of subbituminous coals and may be characterised by peak temperature of 377-416{degree}C, maximum rate of combustion of 25-31 wt% min{sup -1}, and temperature of char burnout 421-497{degree}C. These parameters reflect variation in thermal behaviour associated with both the organic and inorganic constituents of the coal. The information obtained is additional to that provided by proximate analysis; the latter is insufficient to predict the combustion behaviour of the coals relative to one another. A post-combustion thermal event is seen among the lignites as in other low-rank coals combusting below 600{degree}C, which appears to be related to the organic sulphur content of the coal.

  8. Lignite and tin ores exploration in southern part of Thailand by using nuclear track-etch detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittrakarn, T.; Boonnummar, R.; Pongsuwan, T.; Nuannin, P.; Kaew-On, C.

    1993-01-01

    Both lignite and tin mines in Southern of Thailand are associated with uranium ore. In lignite exploration, Bangpudum Lignite Mine at Krabi Province was chosen for this studied because we know the exact location and deposition of coal seam by using other geophysical technique and also confirm by borehole. The size 1x2 cm 2 of cellulose nitrate CN-85 films were used, each film was stuck at the inner bottom of a softdrink cup. Each cup was put up side down at the bottom of a borehole about 75 cm depth from the earth surface and laid about 10 m apart. All the cups were put in the hole along the line in order to cover about 280 metre in the cross sectional direction long of the known coal seam. After one month, all the film detectors were collected and etched with 6.25N NaOH at 60 o C about 25 minutes long in order to enlarge the latent alpha registration tracks. These alpha particles were emitted from radon gas (Rn-222) which was generated from uranium associated with lignite ore. The registration track density per area of each CN-85 film was studied by optical microscope at 400x magnifications. We found that the track densities of the films have high correlation with the depth of the known coal seam while high and low track densities will correspond to the shallow and deep coal seam respectively. Also, track density was significantly higher than background. A similar manner of experiment was designed for tin ore exploration at Ronpibul district, Nakorn Si Thammarat province. The result is in progress and will present at the conference. (Author)

  9. A realistic EU vision of a lignite-based energy system in transition: Case study of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batas-Bjelić Ilija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Contracting Parties to the Treaty establishing the Energy Community of the South East Europe, currently in energy transition, have electricity production dominantly based on lignite which contrasts their new reality. Planning approach to designing a new feasible energy policy is presented in this paper. This novel approach in using EnergyPLAN tool stems from analysis of market operation of lignite thermal power plants on hourly basis, and quantification of the feasibility of the energy policy and its alignment with EU vision, and is presented in few scenarios. It was found out that the Serbian energy system is highly sensitive to the electricity market and CO2 tax increase, because the marginal costs for lignite generation will increase to more than 50€/MWh. Shifting in the merit order will be observed even at lower CO2 tax levels, because of the intensity of the emission of the electricity sector (calculated to be higher than 700gCO2/kWhel, according to current energy policy. Based on the increased use of renewable energy sources and more efficient energy conversion technologies, socio-economic and energy policy feasibility would be increased, while long-term marginal costs would be improved by 2€/MWh and emission intensity by 258 gCO2/kWhel, compared to the current energy policy. These contributions, shown in the Serbian case, are of general importance for other lignite dominated Contracting Parties to Treaty establishing the Energy Community. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42009

  10. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  13. Ritual Change in a Turkish Alevi Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McElwain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a documentation and analysis of change in ritual in the village of Sarilar, on the west bank of the Euphrates River near Yavuseli, Gaziantep. The research problem posed was identification of ritual change within the consultants' memory and some tentative ways of situating such change within the socio-economic context. The mysticism of the dervish lodge remains as a certain life attitude along with the new views of modernization that have been so well inculcated. Although modernization, at least in the Turkish Alevi context, tends to conflict with the mystical experience of the Bektashi dervish in some areas, a democratized inner core remains.

  14. Turkish Petroleum Corporation: Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A brief account of the generating electrical energy and building the most suitable generation facility activities carried out by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, Ankara during the period January 2005 to December 2005 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: 1) Our vision 2) Goals and objectives, strategies 3) Who we are 4) Board of directors 5) Domestic exploration and production activities 6) International exploration and production activities 7) Innovations in technology 8) Occupational safety and environmental protection 9) TPAO services 10) TPAO district Managements 11) Finance etc

  15. Employment benefits of electricity generation. A comparative assessment of lignite and natural gas power plants in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourkolias, C.; Damigos, D.; Diakoulaki, D.; Mirasgedis, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at developing an integrated approach for estimating the employment benefits associated with power-generation technologies. The proposed approach exploits the input-output methodology for estimating the direct, indirect and induced employment effects associated with the energy project in question, as well as two different valuation techniques, namely the 'opportunity cost of labour' approach and the 'public expenditures' approach, for expressing these effects in monetary terms. This framework has been implemented to estimate the employment benefits resulting from the development of a lignite-fired and a natural gas-fired power plant in Greece, taking into account all the stages of the corresponding fuel cycles that are undertaken domestically. The results of the analysis clearly show that lignite-fired electricity generation results in significant employment benefits amounting to 2.9-3.5 EUR/MWh in the basic scenario. On the other hand, the employment benefits associated with the examined natural gas unit were estimated at 0.4-0.6 EUR/MWh in the basic scenario. It is also worth mentioning that the significant environmental externalities of the lignite-fired electricity in Greece that have been presented in a number of studies can only be partially compensated by the estimated employment benefits. (author)

  16. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  17. Speciation of selected trace and major elements in lignite Used in "Nikola Tesla A" power plant (Obrenovac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSANDAR POPOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Four samples of milled lignite used in the “Nikola Tesla A” power plant, located in Obrenovac near Belgrade, were subjected to a five-step sequential extraction, comprising of the following phases: distilled water, 1 M ammonium acetate, 0.2 M ammonium oxalate / 0.2 M oxalic acid, acidic solution of H2O2 and a 6 M solution of HCl. The concentrations of the different elements obtained in the extractions were statistically analysed. The majority of the examined elements were found to be most probably associated with inorganic fractions of lignite, only aluminum, silicon, chromium and arsenic have a larger extractable organic/sulfide fraction than an extractable inorganic fraction. Alumosilicates of magnesium (carriers of arsenic, zinc, lead, copper and chromium, silicates of potassium (scavengers of lead and nickel, mixed aluminates of iron and magnesium (carriers of arsenic, zinc, copper and chromium and compounds of iron that do not contain aluminum and magnesium (scavengers of manganese were dissolved in the fifth phase of the sequential extraction. Copper is a substrate of alumosilicates of potassium and magnesium, while zinc and chromium are substrates of compounds of iron leached in the third phase of the sequential extraction. Interphase correlation revealed that the adsorbed and ion-exchangeable fractions of most of the examined elements do not exhibit preferential binding to the components of the inorganic matrix of lignite ash.

  18. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd 3 ) [121,100 cubic meters (m 3 )] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat

  19. Genetic diversity of disease-associated loci in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Sefayet; Cesuroglu, Tomris; Karaca, Mehmet; Erge, Sema; Polimanti, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Many consortia and international projects have investigated the human genetic variation of a large number of ethno-geographic groups. However, populations with peculiar genetic features, such as the Turkish population, are still absent in publically available datasets. To explore the genetic predisposition to health-related traits of the Turkish population, we analyzed 34 genes associated with different health-related traits (for example, lipid metabolism, cardio-vascular diseases, hormone metabolism, cellular detoxification, aging and energy metabolism). We observed relevant differences between the Turkish population and populations with non-European ancestries (that is, Africa and East Asia) in some of the investigated genes (that is, AGT, APOE, CYP1B1, GNB3, IL10, IL6, LIPC and PON1). As most complex traits are highly polygenic, we developed polygenic scores associated with different health-related traits to explore the genetic diversity of the Turkish population with respect to other human groups. This approach showed significant differences between the Turkish population and populations with non-European ancestries, as well as between Turkish and Northern European individuals. This last finding is in agreement with the genetic structure of European and Middle East populations, and may also agree with epidemiological evidences about the health disparities of Turkish communities in Northern European countries.

  20. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any

  1. Time-dependent phosphate dynamics in reclaimed lignite-mine soils under Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Dirk; Slazak, Anna

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of the opencast lignite mining activities in Lusatia/Germany, the cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice plantations (SRC) has been considered as a viable option for reclamation purposes. In this region an area of about 1000 km2 has been degraded. Owing to the unfavourable biotic and abiotic properties of the overburden mining substrate, the biogeochemical processes associated with the soil ecosystem development are in the initial phase. The substrate contains very low amount of nutrients, mainly very low total Phosphate (P) content nearly equal to zero. The lack of P is one of the main issues in reclamation of this marginal site. Therefore, the cultivation of perennial SRC with Robinia pseudoacacia L. is considered as a supporting measurement for effective soil reclamation. In this context, it is important to understand the dynamics of P in this "initial substrate" to describe the P availability and P sorption/desorption.. Iron/aluminium oxides and organic matter are the soil constituents most strongly affecting the reactions and rate of P sorption and desorption, also in post-mining soils. Therefore the interaction of these oxides and organic matter with P is essential with regard to developing effective nutrient management strategies for marginal sites. The study focused on P sorption and desorption with regard to different development stages of R. pseudoacacia L. established in a short rotation coppices on the post mining soils. to describe the P availability (Pav) in relation to total P mobility. The hypothesis is that SRC would cause significant changes in soil P dynamics over time in post lignite mining soils. The trees has been planted in between 1995 and 2007, which means that R. pseudoacacia L. was in a range of 2 to 20 years old at different sampling times. Soil was sampled in 2008 and 2015 at three depths of: 0-3cm, 3-10 cm and 10-30 cm. To characterize the P dynamics different P forms and P sorption/desorption kinetics were analysed

  2. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-01-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon

  3. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Lignite-derived products (LDPs), including humic acids and organo-mineral soil conditioners, are being marketed in many parts of the world. They are promoted as plant growth stimulants, additives that improve plant nutrient uptake as well as providing humic materials to improve soil structure and combat soil degradation. There are mixed views regarding the efficacy of these products and there is a lack of scientific studies that verify the efficacy of these products in the field. Anecdotally, agricultural producers become repeat users of the products when they see economic benefits, such as increases in crop yields, while others abandon repeat use when no benefits were seen. In this paper, we present results from a literature meta-analysis1 and a number of field studies that examine the potential for LDPs to improve soil fertility and plant growth. Our findings suggest that complex interactions between LDPs, soil types, environmental conditions and plant species mean that a 'one-size fits all' product or solution is unlikely; and that changes to soil characteristics brought about by LDPs are more apparent over longer time periods than a single cropping season. Most of these studies have not been undertaken in full field trial conditions, where the crop has been grown to harvest. Limited studies in small plots or glass-house conditions often report early benefits. It is not known if these benefits persist. Moreover, the actual composition of these additives may vary significantly and is rarely specified in full. In a study of our own, a small plot experiment evaluated the effect of a single application of a commercial potassium humate product from Victorian lignite on ryegrass and lucerne grown in a sandy, nutrient deficient, low organic matter soil. Treatment resulted in increased shoot growth (up to 33%) of ryegrass during the pasture establishment phase. Root growth was also improved with a 47% increase at 0-10 cm depth and 122% increase at 10-30 cm depth

  4. Extraction of organic materials from red water by metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Fangfang [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lv, Fengzhu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail: zhengfangye@163.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon was investigated as adsorbent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorbent for the extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of different metals on the extraction were investigated and discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many loading factors of Cu{sup 2+} were found having great influences on the extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extraction performances and mechanism of TNT red water on Cu/LAC were investigated. - Abstract: Extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by lignite activated carbon (LAC) impregnated with Cu{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} was investigated. The affinity to organic materials in red water was found to follow the order: Cu/LAC > Sn/LAC > Ag/LAC > Ba/LAC > Fe/LAC > Ca/LAC, which was explained by the hard and soft acid base (HSAB) theory. Cu{sup 2+} showed the best performance and several parameters were further studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified effective loading of Cu{sup 2+} on the LAC surface. The water quality before and after treated by Cu/LAC was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS), UV-vis spectroscopy and other analyses. The extraction performances and mechanism of organic materials on Cu/LAC were investigated through static methods. The experimental results showed that Cu/LAC possessed stronger extraction ability for the sulfonated nitrotoluenes than the non-sulfonated nitrotoluenes, the kinetic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. In addition, the leaching out of Cu{sup 2+} from Cu/LAC was found much lower in the 100 times diluted red water (0.074%) than in the raw water (10.201%). Column adsorptions with more concentrated red water were also studied. Finally, Cu/LAC was observed to possess excellent

  5. Aquatic balance in Vegoritis Lake, West Macedonia, Greece, relating to lignite mining works in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Grigorakou, E.; Koumantakis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Vegoritis Lake, which is located at Vegoritis closed Basin in West Macedonia, Greece, is the biggest lake in Greece. In 1994 the area of the lake was 35 Km2 with maximum depth 42 m at the northwestern part of the lake. It is the final receiving body of the surface runoff of the hydrological basin. Moreover, it is the surficial appearance of an enormous and not well-known karstic aquifer. Being a closed hydrological basin any interference in surface or groundwater conditions in every part of its area affects the level of the lake. The level of the lake in 1900 was 525 masl, in 1942 was 542 masl reaching the higher level of 543 masl in 1956. The increase of the level of the lake was due to the drainage of Ptolemais (Sarigiol) swamp through Soulou drain ditches that transfer the water in the lake. Since then, a continuous drawdown took place with small periods of rising of water level. Today, the level of the lake is declined in a smaller rate having reached the level of 510 masl. Water coming from the lake has been used in the past, and in some cases still does, for agricultural, industrial and domestic use, for hydropower generation and for the cooling system of power plants. Moreover, P.P.C. (Public Power Corporation of Greece) develops an intense activity in the area with the exploitation of the lignite deposits of the basin and power generation in several Power Plants. Few years ago significant quantities from Vegoritis Lake were used for hydro power of Agras Power Plant. With the elaboration of the existent data (water level measurements, recharge, discharge) the connection between the lowering of the surface of the lake and the subtracted quantities through the Arnissa Tunel the first years of its use, is obvious. The last twenty years the condition has change. Outflow through the Arnissa Tunnel for hydropower has stopped. The continued lowering of the level of the lake is caused, mainly, by overexploitation due to the intense increase of the irrigating land

  6. "Reflections of the Loss of Rumeli on the Turkish Poetry"

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Losing the land of Rumeli has had significant reflections on the Turkish poetry. Poets such as Rıza Tevfik, Mehmet kif, Aka Gündüz, Arif Nihat, etc. wrote poems on how much the sudden loss of Rumeli, which had long been under the Turkish rule, influenced the feelings of the Turkish people quite negatively. They harshly criticized the negligence and the incompetence of the rulers which accelerated the loss of the land during the Balkan War. One can easily observe the dramatic style in such po...

  7. Reflections of the Loss of Rumeli on the Turkish Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Losing the land of Rumeli has had significant reflections on the Turkish poetry. Poets such as Rıza Tevfik, Mehmet Âkif, Aka Gündüz, Arif Nihat, etc. wrote poems on how much the sudden loss of Rumeli, which had long been under the Turkish rule, influenced the feelings of the Turkish people quite negatively. They harshly criticized the negligence and the incompetence of the rulers which accelerated the loss of the land during the Balkan War. One can easily observe the dramatic style in such p...

  8. Gender equality or patriarchal dividend: Structural change in Turkish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Elizabeth; Badir, Aysel

    2008-06-01

    Turkey is attempting to join the European Union and is facing pressure to eliminate many forms of discrimination, including discrimination based on gender. In keeping with these aims, in early 2007 the Turkish government changed the law to permit Turkish men to become nurses. Given that Turkey is a highly patriarchal society and that occupational segregation by sex is a persistent feature, it is important to examine the potential outcome of the legislative changes. The aim of this paper is to explore the paradoxical potential for Turkish female nurses to experience increased discrimination in a system that is restructured by legislation to be non-discriminatory.

  9. The Attitude of Students Who Are Native Speakers of Turkish in England towards Turkish Lessons Based on Their Demographic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazik Müge TEKİN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mother tongue education (or instruction plays quite a significant role in individual students’ success in both social and academic areas. A qualified mother tongue education is crucial in ensuring those students become successful adults in their later life and adopt their own culture and identities. From time to time, there might be students who have mother tongue medium education along with those who have other languages as the medium of instruction. Among those bilingual students there are children of Turkish citizens who immigrated to Western Europe as workers. Mother tongue education is a necessity for bilingual individuals to protect their identities, to adopt to the society they already live in and to learn the language used in that very society much more easily. This makes it more important for the bilingual Turkish children living in foreign countries to receive mother tongue education. In this vein, the attitudes of Turkish students, who live in England, towards the Turkish language class are examined. 105 Turkish students between 11 and 18 years enrolled in Wisdom and Namık Kemal Turkish School in the UK were requested to fill in a questionnaire. Based on their responses, their opinions about the Turkish language class were evaluated.

  10. Water extraction from high moisture lignite by means of efficient integration of waste heat and water recovery technologies with flue gas pre-drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiaoqu; Yan, Junjie; Karellas, Sotirios; Liu, Ming; Kakaras, Emmanuel; Xiao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy-saving potential of FPLPS in different cold-ends and lignite types is evaluated. • Water-saving of FPLPS is realized through recovery of water extracted from lignite. • Integrations of low pressure economizer and spray tower with FPLPS are proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic performances of different schemes are investigated. - Abstract: The flue gas pre-dried lignite-fired power system (FPLPS) integrates the fan mill flue gas dryer with an open pulverizing system and yields an increase of the boiler efficiency. Particularly, the dryer exhaust gas contains a large amount of vapor removed from high moisture lignite, which exhibits great potential for waste heat and water recovery. Two available options are considered to realize the extraction of water from lignite: the low pressure economizer (LPE) for water-cooled units and the spray tower (SPT) integrated with heat pump for air-cooled units. This paper aims at evaluating the energy saving and water recovery potentials of the FPLPS integrated with both schemes. Results showed that the plant efficiency improvement of the FPLPS at base case varied from 1.14% to 1.47% depending on the moisture content of raw lignite. The water recovery ratio and plant efficiency improvement in the optimal LPE scheme were 39.4% and 0.20%, respectively. In contrast, 83.3% of water recover ratio and 110.6 MW_t_h heat supply were achieved in the SPT system. Both schemes were economically feasible with discounted payback periods of around 3 years. Moreover, parametric analysis was conducted to examine the economic viability of both schemes with different lignite types and market factors.

  11. Adult urethral stricture: practice of Turkish urologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Mehmet; Sertkaya, Zulfu; Koca, Orhan; Calıskan, Selahattin; Kutluhan, Musab Ali; Karaman, Muhammet Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate national practice patterns in the treatment of male anterior urethral strictures among Turkish urologists. Materials and Methods: A survey form including 12 questions prepared to determine active Turkish urologists' approach to diagnosis and treatment of the adult urethral stricture (US) were filled out. Based on the survey results, the institutions which 218 urologists work and their years of expertise, methods they used for diagnosis and treatment, whether or not they perform open urethroplasty and timing of open urethroplasty were investigated. Results: Optic internal urethrotomy and dilatation are the most commonly used minimal invasive procedures in treatment of US with the ratios of 93.5% and 63.3% respectively. On the other hand it was seen that urethroplasty was a less commonly used procedure, compared to minimal invasive techniques, with the ratio of 36.7%. Survey results showed us that the number of US cases observed and open urethroplasty procedures performed increases with increasing years of professional experience. Conclusions: As a method demanding special surgical experience and known as a time-consuming and challenging procedure, open urethroplasty will be able to take a greater part in current urological practice with the help of theoretical education and practical courses given by specific centers and experienced authors. PMID:27256189

  12. Adult urethral stricture: practice of Turkish urologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akyuz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate national practice patterns in the treatment of male anterior urethral strictures among Turkish urologists. Materials and Methods: A survey form including 12 questions prepared to determine active Turkish urologists' approach to diagnosis and treatment of the adult urethral stricture (US were filled out. Based on the survey results, the institutions which 218 urologists work and their years of expertise, methods they used for diagnosis and treatment, whether or not they perform open urethroplasty and timing of open urethroplasty were investigated. Results: Optic internal urethrotomy and dilatation are the most commonly used minimal invasive procedures in treatment of US with the ratios of 93.5% and 63.3% respectively. On the other hand it was seen that urethroplasty was a less commonly used procedure, compared to minimal invasive techniques, with the ratio of 36.7%. Survey results showed us that the number of US cases observed and open urethroplasty procedures performed increases with increasing years of professional experience. Conclusions: As a method demanding special surgical experience and known as a time-consuming and challenging procedure, open urethroplasty will be able to take a greater part in current urological practice with the help of theoretical education and practical courses given by specific centers and experienced authors.

  13. Internal control activities in small Turkish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Bilgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present major outcomes from an empirical study concerning internal control activities in small Turkish companies, as to propose the improvement guidelines. Methods of analysis and synthesis, descriptive statistics, and statistical comparison were used. The collected data was processed with the help of the SPSS software. Тhe study is limited to organizations based in the European part of Turkey. Most of them operate in areas around large cities, such as Istanbul, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Tekirdağ. They employ on average 19-20 people and have a turnover of about TRY 3 million (≈€715,000, https://sdw.ecb.europa.eu on average. The survey concentrates mainly on small family businesses, which have been present on the market for more than ten years, with managers of good education and other characteristics that presuppose availability of internal control systems. The research results were used to compile main points of a SWOT analysis, as a part of the broader effort to help modernizing the internal control system in Turkish small businesses.

  14. Investigation of Turkish marbles as shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atasoy, H.; Tarcan, G.; Doekmen, S.

    1992-01-01

    The natural Turkish marbles, especially Usak Green (UG), Aegean Purple (AP), and Marmara White (MW) were tested as shielding materials using standard gamma sources such as Co-60, Cs-137 and Eu-152. The experiment showed that UG, AP and MW are very effective shields against gamma-rays. The result for this experiment is that the gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of UG, AP and MW are almost equal for the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 1.4 MeV. Also, the elemental compositions of the natural UG, AP and MW marbles have been determined by fast and thermal neutron activation analysis and fourteen elements including Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, V, Ti, Mn, Fe, La, Ba and Sc have been found using the gamma spectroscopic method. The range of element contents of all Turkish marbles are remarkably different, but most of the elements are common such as Ca, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg, Si. (orig.)

  15. Current snapshot of the Turkish ESCO market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, Ugur; Okay, Esin; Okay, Nesrin

    2013-01-01

    Turkey's Energy Efficiency Law (EEL), enacted in 2007, had been expected to transform the energy policies in government and private sectors, and offer opportunities for, then-impending, Turkish Energy Service Company (ESCO) market. Yet, the communiqué of the EEL related to ESCOs was released only recently in July 2012. In this work, we review the current status of the ESCO market in Turkey. We provide an outlook through the recent legal communiqué and present barriers, enabling factors, and opportunities, supported by country's financial and economic facts. ESCO-financing mechanism prevailing and the sources of financing in the country are also mentioned. The communiqué on ESCOs fits well in the chain of regulatory attempts to increase Turkey's competitiveness in the global markets. However, we anticipate that some of its principles and procedures to be enforced may be deterrent for small-scale candidate ESCOs and may slow down the expected development of the Turkish ESCO market. Otherwise, the communiqué should lead restructuring of a stronger ESCO market in Turkey. - Highlights: • We review the current status of the ESCO market in Turkey. • We give outlook through the recent communiqué on ESCOs. • We provide view through financial and economic facts. • We present barriers, enabling factors, and suggestions

  16. Measurements of Neuronal Soma Size and Estimated Peptide Concentrations in Addition to Cell Abundance Offer a Higher Resolution of Seasonal and Reproductive Influences of GnRH-I and GnIH in European Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorin, Nelson; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in vertebrate reproduction, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), can vary in the abundance of immunoreactive cells as a function of the reproductive status and nest box occupation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). While using the abundance of cells as an indicator of the activity of neurohormones is informative, incorporating information on cell size (readily observed using immunohistochemistry) can offer a more detailed understanding of environmentally-mediated changes in hormonal dynamics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the size of cells' somas and the estimated concentration of peptides in cells immunoreactive (ir) for GnRH-I and GnIH would vary throughout the breeding season and as a function of nest-box status (resident or not). In the absence of a direct assay of protein, we estimated an index of the concentration of hypothalamic peptides via the relative optical density (i.e., the difference between the mean optical density and the optical density of background staining). In support of our hypothesis, we found that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration changed both in males and females throughout the breeding season. Somas were largest and estimated peptide concentration was highest mid-season when compared with earlier in the season or to the non-breeding period. For nest-box residents, GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration were higher during the middle of the breeding season than earlier in the breeding season, although residence in the nest box was not related to GnRH-I-ir variables. Our results confirm that previously reported changes in cell abundance mimic changes we see in GnRH-I and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration. However, investigating changes in the soma of GnRH-I-ir cells revealed a peak in size during the middle of the breeding season, a change not evident when solely examining data on the

  17. Green synthesis of carbon quantum dots from lignite coal and the application in Fe3+ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuexia; Hao, Juanyuan; Liu, Jianhui; Tao, Hongcai

    2018-02-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) had attracted much attention due to their unique structures and excellent properties. Their green preparation was one of the research frontiers. However, most of the CQDs were prepared by strong acid oxidation, the way of which was not friendly to the environment. In this study, CQDs were prepared by green ozone oxidation of lignite coal, which is abundant and inexpensive. The CQDs were well dispersed, the size distribution of the obtained CQDs centralized from 2 to 4 nm with the average diameter of about 2.8 nm. In addition, the as-prepared CQDs containing rich oxygen functional groups exhibited good water-solubility and optical properties with yield reached 35%. The CQDs showed a highly sensitive and selective quenching effect to Fe3+ with desirable anti-interference performance. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of CQDs had a good linear response to the Fe3+ concentration ranging from 10 to 150 µmol/L with the detection limit of 0.26 µmol/L. This green and facile synthesis method had the prospect of large-scale preparation of CQDs.

  18. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  20. Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, S.; Wernecke, K.D.; Makeschin, F. [Technical University of Dresden, Tharandt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of fly ash and SO{sub 2} from lignite-fired power plants strongly affect large forest areas in Germany. The impact of different deposition loads on the microbial biomass and enzyme activities was studied at three forest sites (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) along an emission gradient of 3, 6, and 15 km downwind of a coal-fired power plant, representing high, moderate and low emission rates. An additional site at a distance of 3 km from the power plant was chosen to study the influence of forest type on microbial parameters in coniferous forest soils under fly ash and SO{sub 2} emissions. Soil microbial biomass C and N, CO{sub 2} evolved and activities of L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase, beta-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase (expressed on dry soil and organic C basis) were determined in the forest floor (L, Of and Oh horizon) and mineral top soil (0-10 cm). It is concluded that chronic fly ash depositions decrease litter decomposition by influencing specific microbial and enzymatic processes in forest soils.

  1. Process of desulfurizing dephenolating, and cracking raw pitch obtained by dry distilling lignite, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1932-12-21

    A process is described of desulfurizing, dephenelating, and cracking the dry pitch obtained by dry distillation of lignite, bituminous shale, asphaltic rocks, and peat and fossil coals, that is characterized by the raw material being distilled in a retort together with calcium oxide, the vapors escaping from the still being compelled to pass through a catalyst tube containing calcium oxide mixed with other metallic oxide, the catalyst being helped by suitable heating to a temperature higher than that of the retort mentioned. For the purpose of lessening the quantity of phenolic groups contained in the raw tar to eliminate a great part of the sulfur belonging to the thiophenols and hydrogen sulfide without removing the organic radical to which they are attached, to accomplish a pyrogenic dissociation at the temperature of distillation of the pitch by means of using bone acid (phosphoric) to obtain a greater yield of light hydrocarbon from heavy hydrocarbons. Another purpose is the elimination of sulfur and thiophene and whatever neutral sulfur is contained in the primary pitch, by means of iron sulfate and copper in the anhydrous state or by means of other sulfates whose metals have the ability to form sulfides with sulfur.

  2. Comparison of health and environmental effects of nuclear power plants and lignite-burning power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.; Chytil, I.; Razga, J.

    1988-01-01

    The individual factors are discussed which characterize the impact of nuclear power plants and lignite-burning power plants on human health and on the environment. The study proceeds from the IAEA categorization of these impacts. In this light, attention is centred on the impact of the normal operation of power plants and on accidents. The former category is further divided into regional impacts such as the emission of chemical substances, the emission of radioactive substances, heat emissions and the sum of regional factors, and on global impacts such as emissions of carbon dioxide, emissions of long-lived radionuclides and the sum of global impacts. It is stated that research should pay more attention to the dangers of the effects of such a state of affairs when the infrastructure contaminated after a large-scale accident would be put out of operation, and the dangers of such a situation especially in small countries with great population densities. Such accidents represent the biggest danger of the use of nuclear power. The greatest danger of coal-burning power plants is their global impact on the atmosphere caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels. (Z.M.). 4 figs., 13 refs

  3. Use of lignite fly ash as an additive in alkaline stabilisation and pasteurisation of wastewater sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocaer, F.O.; Alkan, U.; Baskaya, H.S. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering & Architecture

    2003-10-01

    The possibility of using lignite fly ash in low doses for reducing the pathogen levels in wastewater sludge was investigated. The results showed that using fly ash alone in doses of 40%,80% and 120% (on a dry weight basis), did not produce an alkaline environment for an efficient removal of pathogens. However, using fly ash in conjunction with the minimum amount of quicklime may act as an effective way of fecal coliform removal in both alkaline stabilisation and pasteurisation processes. It was shown that using fly ash in doses of 80% and 120% in alkaline stabilisation and pasteurisation processes prevented the pH decays and regrowth of pathogens during 60 days of storage period. The results of the study confirmed that alkaline pasteurisation process produces a product which is more resistant to pH decays and regrowth of fecal coliforms compared to that of alkaline stabilisation. Consequently, the overall results of this study indicated that the minimum lime and fly ash dosages required to generate a Class B biosolid were 10-15% and 80%, respectively. On the other hand, heating sludge to 50{degree}C prior to the addition of 10-15% quicklime and 80% fly ash followed by further heating to 70{degree}C and then sustaining at this temperature for 30 minutes were sufficient to generate a Class A biosolid.

  4. Methodology for quantifying uncertainty in coal assessments with an application to a Texas lignite deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Luppens, James A.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A common practice for characterizing uncertainty in coal resource assessments has been the itemization of tonnage at the mining unit level and the classification of such units according to distance to drilling holes. Distance criteria, such as those used in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 891, are still widely used for public disclosure. A major deficiency of distance methods is that they do not provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Additionally, relying on distance between data points alone does not take into consideration other factors known to have an influence on uncertainty, such as spatial correlation, type of probability distribution followed by the data, geological discontinuities, and boundary of the deposit. Several geostatistical methods have been combined to formulate a quantitative characterization for appraising uncertainty. Drill hole datasets ranging from widespread exploration drilling to detailed development drilling from a lignite deposit in Texas were used to illustrate the modeling. The results show that distance to the nearest drill hole is almost completely unrelated to uncertainty, which confirms the inadequacy of characterizing uncertainty based solely on a simple classification of resources by distance classes. The more complex statistical methods used in this study quantify uncertainty and show good agreement between confidence intervals in the uncertainty predictions and data from additional drilling. (author)

  5. Methodology for quantifying uncertainty in coal assessments with an application to a Texas lignite deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Luppens, J.A.; Tewalt, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    A common practice for characterizing uncertainty in coal resource assessments has been the itemization of tonnage at the mining unit level and the classification of such units according to distance to drilling holes. Distance criteria, such as those used in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 891, are still widely used for public disclosure. A major deficiency of distance methods is that they do not provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Additionally, relying on distance between data points alone does not take into consideration other factors known to have an influence on uncertainty, such as spatial correlation, type of probability distribution followed by the data, geological discontinuities, and boundary of the deposit. Several geostatistical methods have been combined to formulate a quantitative characterization for appraising uncertainty. Drill hole datasets ranging from widespread exploration drilling to detailed development drilling from a lignite deposit in Texas were used to illustrate the modeling. The results show that distance to the nearest drill hole is almost completely unrelated to uncertainty, which confirms the inadequacy of characterizing uncertainty based solely on a simple classification of resources by distance classes. The more complex statistical methods used in this study quantify uncertainty and show good agreement between confidence intervals in the uncertainty predictions and data from additional drilling. ?? 2010.

  6. Restoration of open pit lignite mining in the former GDR: lessons to be learnt from Zwenkau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, U.; Schreck, P.; Schreiter, P.; Lerche, I.; Glaesser, W. [Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle (UFZ), Halle (Germany) Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2003-07-01

    The interactions have been investigated between the near-surface sediments of the sediment dumping at the Zwenkau open pit near Leipzig, used for extraction of lignite, and the produced mining water. These environmental impacts are the legacy of the energy policy of the former GDR. The pyrite oxidation that takes place in the overburden sediments causes the formation of an oxidation front and the pH-value of sediments falls to about 2 to 3 very soon after deposition. The primary mineral contents are destroyed and a considerable number of elements are mobilized that remain locally in the sediment pores. Because of the very weak seepage, rainfall remains in the alluvial areas as so called dump lakes. The dump lakes are very acidic because the rainwater transport the mobilized elements from the surface. Autochthonous and allochthonous formations of secondary minerals have been observed and analysed. A continuously ongoing interaction of exogenous and endogenous effects hinders the hydrological and geochemical equilibrium stabilization. What to do with such a 'moonscape' is considered in the conclusions. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Bucket wheel rehabilitation of ERC 1400-30/7 high-capacity excavators from lignite quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlceanu, Fl; Iancu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The existence of bucket wheel equipment type ERC 1400-30/7 in lignite quarries with lifetime expired, or in the ultimate life period, together with high cost investments for their replacement, makes rational the efforts made to rehabilitation in order to extend their life. Rehabilitation involves checking operational safety based on relevant expertise of metal structures supporting effective resistance but also the replacement (or modernization) of subassemblies that can increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption, reducing mechanical stresses. This paper proposes an analysis of constructive solution of using a part of the classical bucket wheel, on which are located 9 cutting cups and 9 chargers cups and adding a new part so that the new redesigned bucket-wheel will contain 18 cutting-chargers cups, compared to the classical model. On the CAD model of bucket wheel was performed a static and a dynamic FEA, the results being compared with the yield strength of the material of the entire structure, were checked mechanical stresses in the overall distribution map, and were verified the first 4 vibrating modes the structure compared to real loads. Thus was verified that the redesigned bucket-wheel can accomplish the proposed goals respectively increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption and reducing mechanical stresses.

  8. A diverse snake fauna from the early Eocene of Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, J.C.; Folie, A.; Rana, R.S.; Singh, H.; Rose, K.D.; Smith, T. [Museum National Historical Nature, Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The early Eocene (Ypresian) Cambay Formation of Vastan Lignite Mine in Gujarat, western India, has produced a diverse assemblage of snakes including at least ten species that belong to the Madtsoiidae, Palaeophiidae (Palaeophis and Pterosphenus), Boidae, and several Caenophidia. Within the latter taxon, the Colubroidea are represented by Russellophis crassus sp. nov. (Russellophiidae) and by Procerophis sahnii gen. et sp. nov. Thaumastophis missiaeni gen. et sp. nov. is a caenophidian of uncertain family assignment. At least two other forms probably represent new genera and species, but they are not named; both appear to be related to the Caenophidia. The number of taxa that represent the Colubroidea or at least the Caenophidia, i.e., advanced snakes, is astonishing for the Eocene. This is consistent with the view that Asia played an important part in the early history of these taxa. The fossils come from marine and continental levels; however, no significant difference is evident between faunas from these levels. The fauna from Vastan Mine includes highly aquatic, amphibious, and terrestrial snakes. All are found in the continental levels, including the aquatic palaeophiids, whereas the marine beds yielded only two taxa. Vastan Mine is only the second locality in which the palaeophiids Palaeophis and Pterosphenus co-occur. The composition of the fauna from Vastan is on the whole similar to that of the early Eocene of Europe; however, comparisons with early Eocene faunas of other continents are not possible because they are poorly known or unknown.

  9. Factors of Reclamation Success at the Lignite Strip-Mined Land in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Panagopoulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The adverse ecological conditions at the lignite mines of Ptolemaida make the landscape reclamation difficult. The naturally established vegetation and soil properties were studied prior to reclamation. Various forest species were planted to assess the afforestation potential. The natural vegetation was heterogeneous but can be used for the analysis of the site. The soil of the spoil heaps was heterogeneous with unfavourable physicochemical properties. Surface soil temperature was still 24º C higher in bare soil than in soil covered with vegetation. The most successful species of the afforestation trial were Robinia pseudoacacia and Cedrus atlantica. Covering of fly ash spoils with topsoil presented poor results, while sewage sludge gave a favorable amelioration response in areas with high fly ash content. Topsoil from older stands was the suggested method to establish Robinia pseudoacacia. Reclamation success was dependent on appropriate planning; thus, the new landscape had to be designed in harmony with the surrounding landscape before the start of the mining activity.

  10. Light absorption by primary particle emissions from a lignite burning plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, T.C.; Bussemer, M.; Wehner, B.; Keller, S.; Charlson, R.J.; Heintzenberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols from the burning of fossil fuels contribute to climate forcing by both scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and estimates of climate forcing by light-absorbing primary particles have recently been published. While the mass and optical properties of emissions are needed for these studies, the available measurements do not characterize the low-technology burning that is thought to contribute a large fraction of light-absorbing material to the global budget. The authors have measured characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from a small, low-technology lignite-burning plant. The PM emission factor is comparable to those used to calculate emission inventories of light-absorbing particles. However, the fine fraction, the absorbing fraction, and the absorption efficiency of the emissions are substantially below assumptions that have been made in inventories of black carbon emissions and calculations of climate forcing. The measurements suggest that nonblack, light-absorbing particles are emitted from low-technology coal burning. As the burning rate increases, the emitted absorption cross-section decreases, and the wavelength dependence of absorption becomes closer to that of black particles

  11. Effect of some pre-treatments on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, S.; Guerses, A.; Bayrak, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments, such as HCl treatment, demineralization and pyrolysis, under a CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite were investigated. The adsorption capacities of the samples were determined before and after these pre-treatments. In addition, the removals of pyritic and organic sulfur and ash contents for the same coal samples were also defined. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the samples decreased after these pre-treatments. The decrease in adsorption capacity with pyrolysis can be attributed to the changes in surface morphology and/or pore size distribution of the coal samples. On the other hand, the observed decrease in adsorption capacity with removal of carbonates and silicates shows that these minerals have an important effect on methylene blue adsorption, and the adsorption considerably occurs through electrostatic interactions. In addition, the obtained results showed that the organic sulfur presence in the coal matrix have a positive effect on the methylene blue adsorption

  12. Colonization of spoil benches of an opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain by amphibians and reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, P. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Faculty of Biology

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the colonization by reptiles and amphibians of the spoil benches of the Meirama opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain over 10 years, following the start of the revegetation process. At Meirama, spoil benches are initially fertilized and hydroseeded with a pasture mix, but are subject to little subsequent management and are gradually colonized by scrub vegetation characteristic of the region. Herpetofauna censuses were carried out yearly on a single 2 ha plot over 6 years following hydroseeding, and in a single year on ten 2 ha plots which had been hydroseeded between 0 and 10 years previously. In addition, censuses were carried out on three undisturbed `control` plots close to the mine. Fifteen species (nine amphibians and six reptiles) were detected in one or more of the spoil-bench plots. Recolonization was particularly rapid after the first 2-3 years post-hydroseeding, and was closely related to habitat development due to revegetation and natural succession. Species composition was most similar to that in control plots in the oldest (ten-year-old) spoil plots.

  13. Migration and reproductive behavior in Turkish migrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Nauck, Bernhard

    1987-01-01

    Migration and reproductive behavior in Turkish migrant families : a situational explanation. - In: Growth and progress in cross-cultural psychology / ed. by Cigdem Kagitcibasi. - Lisse u.a. : Swets & Zeitlinger, 1987. - S. 336- 345

  14. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    3The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of ... Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the caprine PRNP .... Sampling localities, sample size (n) and sex of Turkish native goat breeds.

  15. A Qualitative Analysis of the Turkish Gendarmerie Assignment Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soylemez, Kadir

    2005-01-01

    ...; this number increases to 43 million (65% of the population) in the summer months. This study is an organizational analysis of the current assignment process of the Turkish General Command of the Gendarmerie...

  16. Missing data analysis and homogeneity test for Turkish precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the monthly and annual total precipitation records at stations operated by Turkish ... used in regional studies; the number of stations representing the area and the quality of the data are also very ..... Water Resources Management 22: 823–841.

  17. Invisible Barriers: The Loneliness of School Principals at Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    x

    2016-11-10

    Nov 10, 2016 ... Keywords: barriers; loneliness at work; school principals; Turkish elementary ... competencies as they face the challenges of their position (Howard & Mallory, 2008). ..... of the participants was female and six of them were.

  18. Turkish Air Force's Experiences in Chemical Material Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taskiran, Huseyin

    2002-01-01

    .... In addition, it analyzes the chemical material acquisition from business perspective. Due to operating in different environments, the Turkish Air Force and the private sector have different objectives in the acquisition of chemical materials...

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Turkish version of Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ (Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Altan Atalay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Most of the studies that examine cognitive vulnerability tend to focus on cognitive vulnerability for depression and explain anxiety through its intersection with depression. Looming Cognitive Style (LCS was suggested as a cognitive vulnerability model that is specific for anxiety. According to the model, people who have looming vulnerability tend to evaluate the threats coming from the environment as more overwhelming than they actually are and are constantly hypervigilant to the threat cues that may come from the environment. This pattern plays an important role in both generation and maintenance of anxiety disorders. A two-factor looming vulnerability scale was developed to assess looming cognitive style and the present study aims to adapt the scale into Turkish and examine its psychometric characteristics. Method: The sample is composed of 657 university students between the ages of 18 and 29. The participants were administered LMSQ-R as well as scales that assess anxiety, depression, and worry. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis results supported the original factor structure of the scale providing two distinct, but correlated factors as social and physical looming. In addition to that, total score and subscale scores had moderate to high correlations with other study variables and reliability scores appearing close to the original form provides support for the reliability of the scale. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the LMSQ-R is a reliable and valid scale that can be used with Turkish population.

  20. Psychometric evaluation of Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale with Turkish college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cahit; Tansey, Timothy N; Melekoglu, Macid; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Chan, Fong

    2017-12-20

    The Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (T-PSS-10) measures the extent to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement structure of T-PSS-10. Two-hundred and thirty-five Turkish university students (93 men and 142 women) completed the T-PSS-10, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the General Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), and the Inventory of Common Problems (ICP). Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that a one-factor model did not fit the data, whereas a two-factor correlated model (stress related self-efficacy beliefs, stress related feelings of helplessness) provided a better fit between the model and the data. Significant moderate correlations were found for the stress-related self-efficacy beliefs and stress-related feelings of helplessness factors with depression, anxiety, academic difficulty, relationship problems and health problems. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for the stress-related self-efficacy beliefs and stress-related feelings of helplessness factors were 0.68 and 0.85, respectively. This study provided support for the reliability and validity of T-PSS-10 suggesting that it can be used as a screening instrument by health professionals working with Turkish college students.

  1. Usefulness Of Derivative Instruments In Emerging Markets: Turkish Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Saatcioglu; Iskender Karagul; Ara G. Volkan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of derivative markets, definitions of derivative investment instruments, development of global derivative markets and the applicability of derivative markets in Turkey, given their economic value added to the Turkish economy. Readers will acquire insight into investing in various investment instruments and hedging against risk. Turkish derivative markets will be described, supportive statistical data will be presented, and readers will be introduced to the de...

  2. The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish Coffees

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Funda; Selvi, Nigar; Kıpçak, Seyhun; Özdemir, Özgül; Piskin, Mehmet; Moroydor Derun, Emek

    2015-01-01

    The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish CoffeesCoffee is one of the most popular drinks across the world and its enormous commercial and social importance is obvious. Coffee has become the essential consumption matter and one of the rituals of many societies for several years.Turkish people's first confrontation with it dates back to 16th century, in Ottoman era. Since then, because of the differences in terms of preparation and presentation styles, the coffee has been n...

  3. Seigniorage Revenue and Inflation Tax in Turkish economy

    OpenAIRE

    doğru, bülent

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to test the implication of optimal seigniorage theory that in the long run higher tax rates are associated with higher inflation rates and higher nominal interest rates. For this purpose, we examine the long run relationship between nominal interest rates, inflation and tax revenue using time series dataset for Turkish Economy for the period 1980-2011. We estimate the Mankiw’s (1987) optimal seigniorage model for Turkish Economy with the cointegration and vector erro...

  4. The Interethnic and Interreligious Values in Turkish and Crimean Legends

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiia Zherdieva

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines interethnic and interreligious values in Turkish and Crimean folk legends. The folklore of both Crimea and Turkey has a multicultural background, which makes both corpuses of texts suitable for research. In the course of the study, a wide range of published Turkish and Crimean legends were reviewed and analysed. There are two deeply-rooted tendencies in the studied legends. First of all, the interethnic and interreligious relationships can be described as ghastly an...

  5. The Place of Digital Marketing on Turkish Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Serhat Karatum

    2017-01-01

    In the 21st century, technology develops rapidly and continuously and it affects every aspect of our lives. Marketing concept has been affected by these developments. What we want from marketing and reaching in an increasingly virtualized world is to be a lot faster than the past. Also, new marketing channels have emerged as well. Turkish small businesses, the building blocks of Turkish economy, have the chance of addressing the marketing problems and solving the problems with the digital mar...

  6. Conflict within the Turkish foreign policy decision making mechanism:

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz, Mustafa; Oguz, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of Turkish foreign policy decision making in a theoretical model and argues that Turkish foreign policy is a product of negotiation and compromises among various foreign policy making actors. Theoretical foundation is built on decision units framework advanced by Margaret G. Herman. It applies this framework to two cases and four decision occasions to investigate who made foreign policy decisions and how this influenced foreign policy of Turkey. The first case...

  7. Activated-Lignite-Based Super Large Granular Slow-Release Fertilizers Improve Apple Tree Growth: Synthesis, Characterizations, and Laboratory and Field Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yafu; Wang, Xinying; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Cheng, Dongdong

    2017-07-26

    In this work, lignite, a low-grade coal, was modified using the solid-phase activation method with the aid of a Pd/CeO 2 nanoparticle catalyst to improve its pore structure and nutrient absorption. Results indicate that the adsorption ability of the activated lignite to NO 3 - , NH 4 + , H 2 PO 4 - , and K + was significantly higher than that of raw lignite. The activated lignite was successfully combined with the polymeric slow-release fertilizer, which exhibits typical slow-release behavior, to prepare the super large granular activated lignite slow-release fertilizer (SAF). In addition to the slow-release ability, the SAF showed excellent water-retention capabilities. Soil column leaching experiments further confirmed the slow-release characteristics of the SAF with fertilizer nutrient loss greatly reduced in comparison to traditional and slow-release fertilizers. Furthermore, field tests of the SAF in an orchard showed that the novel SAF was better than other tested fertilizers in improve the growth of young apple trees. Findings from this study suggest that the newly developed SAF has great potential to be used in apple cultivation and production systems in the future.

  8. H-binding of size- and polarity-fractionated soil and lignite humic acids after removal of metal and ash components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Marios; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    A fractionation technique, combining dialysis removal of metal and ash components with hydrofluoric acid and pH 10 citrate buffer followed by chromatography of dialysis permeate on XAD-8 resin at decreasing pH values, has been applied to lignite humic acid (lignite-HA) and soil humic acid (soil-HA). H-binding data and non ideal competitive adsorption-Donnan model parameters were obtained for the HA fractions by theoretical analysis of H-binding data which reveal a significant increase of the carboxyl and the phenolic charge for the lignite-HA fractions vs. the parental lignite humic acid (LParentalHA). The fractionated lignite-HA material consisted mainly of permeate fractions, some of which were fulvic acid-like. The fractionated soil-HA material consisted mainly of large macromolecular structures that did not permeate the dialysis membrane during deashing. Chargeable groups had comparable concentrations in soil-HA fractions and parental soil humic acid (SParentalHA), indicating minimal interference of ash components with carboxyl and phenolic (and/or enolic) groups. Fractionation of HA, combined with theoretical analysis of H-binding, can distinguish the supramolecular vs. macromolecular nature of fractions within the same parental HA.

  9. Mangrove associated lignite beds of Malvan, Konkan: Evidence for higher sea-level during the Late Tertiary (Neogene) along the west coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran, K.P.N.; Shindikar, M.; Limaye, R.B. [Agharkar Research Inst., Pune (India)

    2004-01-25

    Fossil pneumatophores (breathing roots) of Avicennia are recovered and reported from the lignite beds exposed in Kolamb well-section near Malvan, Konkan area of western Maharashtra. The accrued palynoflora is dominated by mangroves (Avicennia, Aegialitis, Excoecaria, Rhizophora and Sonneratia). The spores of mangrove fern (Acrostichum aureum) an estuarine fungus Cirrenalia indicate that these lignites are autochthonous and deposited in a near-shore environment. Presence of foraminiferal linings (= microforaminifera), dinoflagellate cysts, a few calcareous nannofossils and scolecodonts is an irrefutable proof of marine and brackish water influence during the deposition of lignites under intertidal/tidal swampy condition (mangrove influenced) with fair input from freshwater swamps and hinterland. Freshwater-related forms, viz. Ceratopteris thalictroides, Nymphaeaceae, Ctenolophonaceae and hinterland taxa (Cullenia/Durio) of Bombacaceae along with abundance of microthyriaceous fungi in the palynoflora imply a warm humid tropical climate with high precipitation during the depositional period. The presence of Ctenolophon englerianus (= Ctenolophonidites costatus) in Kolamb lignites suggests the Late Neogene (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) age. The occurrence of pneumatophores and associated lignite deposits about 37 m above the present mean sea-level, and much inland, clearly indicates the higher sea-level strand during Late Neogene along the west coast of India.

  10. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  11. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  12. An Analysis on Reading Texts in Teaching Turkish to Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem İŞCAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the four basic language skills, reading has a great importance in teaching Turkish to foreigners. It is required to develop reading skills to develop vocabulary. There have been some problems in teaching Turkish as second language. These problems are generally related to difference in alphabet, inadequacy of the sources used in teaching Turkish, methods and techniques used and the texts used. The basic sources used in teaching Turkish to foreigners are texts. This study aims at determination of the opinions of students in Gaziosmanpaşa University and Ondokuz Mayıs University Turkish Education and Application Center (TOMER concerning Turkish reading texts. General browsing method was used in the study. The questionnaire comprising of 24 items was applied to 25 students in beginner level and 7 students in advanced level. With this study, it is foreseen to arrange the texts being the key stone according to the wishes of and in compliance with the levels of students; giving importance to pre-reading, reading and post-reading activities and including questions with short-answer about the text as well as questions to develop high level skills.

  13. Comparison of arch forms between Turkish and North American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A. Celebi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological differences in the mandibular arches of Turkish and North American white subjects. Methods: The sample included 132 Turkish (34 Class I, 58 Class II, and 40 Class III and 160 North American (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of patients' mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for each tooth based on mandibular tooth thickness data. Four linear and two proportional measurements were taken. The subjects were grouped according to arch form types (tapered, ovoid and square in order to have frequency distribution compared between ethnic groups in each Angle classification. Results: The Turkish group showed significantly lower molar depth and more significant molar width-depth (W/D ratio in all three Angle classifications. On the other hand, the Turkish group also showed a significantly larger intercanine width in Class III malocclusion and intermolar width in Class II malocclusion. The most frequent arch forms seen were the ovoid arch form in the Turkish group and the tapered form in the white group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that when treating Turkish patients, one should expect to use preformed ovoid arch form orthodontic wires in a significant percentage of patients.

  14. MARKET CONCENTRATION IN TURKISH JOURNALISM SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEM KALÇA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Concentration is a situation in which market structure of a sector is controlled by a few firms. At the present time, many analyzing methods such as Herfindahl-Hirschman and N-Firm Concentration Indexes are used to determine market structure.According to market concentration indexes, higher concentration level means more monopolistic market structure, lower concentration level means more full competitive market structure. In this study concentration levels of media groups in Turkish journalism sector within the scope of traditional journalism and internet journalism was analyzed via N-Firm Concentration and H-H Indexes. As a result of the study, it’s seen that first four biggest media groups have monopolistic competition in internet journalism sector,and oligopol structure in traditional journalism sector. According to H-H index analyze, there is monopolistic competition in the sector.

  15. EMOTION BASED ANALYSIS OF TURKISH CUSTOMER OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kahya-Ozyirmidokuz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Firms should manage their customer feedback so they can adapt to rapid changes in the environment. They have to interact with their customers to understand them and to turn their opinions into useful knowledge. Understanding customers' feelings about a product gives firmS competitive advantage through continuous market monitoring. They can thus generate improving strategies about the system to change perceptions that drive the behaviours of the customers. Firms can view their customers' happiness as a key tool for decision-making. This study calculates online product happiness by using the average emotional valence values of customer opinions. We analyse Turkish opinions about a product over a period of 3 months. We find the averages of the online emotional valence values of the product per month. We also determined the increase in happiness over time. According to the opinion valence values, we found the relations between the documents.

  16. Ethics in Turkish nursing education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgülü, Refia Selma; Dinç, Leyla

    2007-11-01

    This descriptive study investigated the current status of ethics instruction in Turkish nursing education programs. The sample for this study comprised 39 nursing schools, which represented 51% of all nursing schools in Turkey. Data were collected through a postal questionnaire. The results revealed that 18 of these nursing schools incorporated an ethics course into undergraduate and three into graduate level programs. Most of the educators focused on the basic concepts of ethics, deontological theory, ethical principles, ethical problems in health care, patient rights and codes of ethics for nurses. More than half of the educators believed that students' theoretical knowledge of ethics is applied to their clinical experiences. The teaching methods used included discussion in class, lectures, case studies, small group discussion, dramatization and demonstration. Assessment was carried out by means of written essays and written examinations.

  17. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS OFFERED IN TURKISH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengül CETINTAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n this study, the departments of philology and teaching, which take place in higher education programs in Turkey and give education in foreign language, have been examined. 23 different languages are offered to philology students who wants to attend to faculty of literature. Students can prefer classical languages besides modern languages. However, English, German, French, Arabic and Japanese are offered to the students of teaching department. To teach another foreign language, pedagogical formation is also required.This study focuses on the departments of German Language Teaching and German Language and Literature. From this point, the place and the importance of other philology and foreign language teaching departments in Turkish higher education have been examined.

  18. Workplace violence: a study of Turkish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Serpil; Bozkurt, Veysel; Bayram, Nuran; Yildiz, Selver; Aytac, Mustafa; Akinci, Fusun Sokullu; Bilgel, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to address the experience of workplace violence of Turkish workers from different sectors and to investigate the impact of the exposed violence on their psychological well-being. Data were collected anonymously with printed questionnaires from the volunteer participants and depended on self-reporting. The response rate was 79.0% (1708/2161). The prevalence of workplace violence was found to be 44.8%. The most common type was verbal violence together with mobbing (bullying). Victims of physical violence were mostly males, whereas females were found to be victims of verbal, psychological and sexual violence. Most cases did not result in legal action and the victims remained silent. Psychological well-being of exposed workers in terms of depression, anxiety and stress seemed to deteriorate. Workplace violence remains a silent epidemic in Turkey. Preventive measures against workplace violence and social support for violated workers do not exist.

  19. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  20. News impact for Turkish food prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Chadwick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric volatility is a widely encountered concept particularly in financial series. It refers to the case that “bad news” generates more volatility than “good news” of equal magnitude. In an inflationary environment “bad news” is disclosed as increasing inflation that is expected to generate higher volatility. The present article examines whether unexpected price changes affect the volatility of prices asymmetrically for 90 retail food items of the Turkish consumer price index. These 90 food items have a weight of approximately 20 percent in headline consumer price index (CPI. We employ exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (EGARCH model to extract asymmetric volatility, using monthly data between January 2003 and January 2017. Our results reveal that volatility of food prices respond asymmetrically to unexpected price shocks for 62 percent of the retail food items.

  1. The significance of music in teaching Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyzan Göher Vural

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The whole history of teaching foreign languages is, in a way, a search for the best methodologies of doing so. Methods of teaching can be seen as systems providing the optimal ways of getting basic knowledge of a foreign language for students. The existing wide variety of methods suggests the choice of those most efficient for particular individuals. Each of the methodologies used relies on a number of theoretical underpinnings. This article advances proposals on using music in teaching Turkish as a foreign language, based on the principles of suggestopedia — the psychology of positive teaching developed by G. Lozanov. It is claimed that suggestopedia helps students learn a foreign language 3 to 5 times faster than those who rely on traditional methods of study. Suggestopedia makes colloquial dialogues in a foreign language be pronounced and/or listened to in the same way as music, and music is used as a facilitating and motivating factor, without lyrics. However, teaching based on suggestopedia alone will not suffice, since in the classical form it is limited by adult audiences and small ones to boot. Other peculiarities of students and groups also have to be accounted for, such as their linguistic background: if their first language is a Turkic one, they can be expected to learn Turkish faster, since they are already familiar with the melodic mode of the language. It can nevertheless be postulated that the use of songs in language learning helps develop such skills as vocabulary, rules of grammar and correct pronunciation. Songs facilitate teaching new words, grammatical rules, learning direction, layout, numbers and demonstrative adjectives. This is both useful and interesting for all categories of learners, children as well as adults.

  2. The German lignite industry. Historical development, resources, technology, economic structures and environmental impact. Study; Die deutsche Braunkohlenwirtschaft. Historische Entwicklungen, Ressourcen, Technik, wirtschaftliche Strukturen und Umweltauswirkungen. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    Lignite has a key role to play in the transformation of the energy system due to its specific structural features in terms of industry, company history, policy, economics, the environment and regional structures. Understanding these structural features of the German lignite industry is an important requirement for classifying the significance of the lignite industry up to now and for the redesigning of this industrial sector. From these environmental, economic and regulatory structural characteristics, which are interwoven in a variety of ways, the incentives arise for the mining and power plant operators to react to energy price signals or energy policy steering. The aim of this research study is to define these structural features, to compile comprehensively the basic data and information that is not always transparently available, to understand the interactions, to enable the navigation of issues that are partly very complex, and to classify into the long-term developments that are especially important for political and social processes. In 2016 approx. 12 percent of German primary energy consumption was met using lignite. At the same time, lignite has the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the fossil fuels; it currently accounts for approx. 19 percent of Germany's total greenhouse gas emissions as well as approx. 46 percent of the total CO2 emissions of the electricity sector. As a result of the mining of lignite and its conversion into electricity, substantial adverse impacts beyond the entry of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere arise for other environmental media. These impacts include half of Germany's mercury emissions, approx. a third of its sulfur dioxide emissions and approx. a tenth of its nitrogen oxide emissions. Lignite mining in open-cast mines takes up a substantial amount of landscape and soil and requires huge interventions in the water balance. Relatively high costs arise for the recultivation and rehabilitation

  3. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  4. Chemical characterization and receptor modeling of PM10 in the surroundings of the opencast lignite mines of Western Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini; Argyropoulos, George; Grigoratos, Theodoros; Kouras, Αthanasios; Manoli, Εvangelia; Andreadou, Symela; Pavloudakis, Fragkiskos; Sahanidis, Chariton

    2018-05-01

    The Western Macedonian Lignite Center (WMLC) in northwestern Greece is the major lignite center in the Balkans feeding four major power plants of total power exceeding 4 GW. Concentrations of PM 10 (i.e., particulate matters with diameters ≤10 μm) are the main concern in the region, and the high levels observed are often attributed to the activities related to power generation. In this study, the contribution of fugitive dust emissions from the opencast lignite mines to the ambient levels of PM 10 in the surroundings was estimated by performing chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling. For this purpose, PM 10 samples were concurrently collected at four receptor sites located in the periphery of the mine area during the cold and the warm periods of the year (November-December 2011 and August-September 2012), and analyzed for a total of 26 macro- and trace elements and ionic species (sulfate, nitrate, chloride). The robotic chemical mass balance (RCMB) model was employed for source identification/apportionment of PM 10 at each receptor site using as inputs the ambient concentrations and the chemical profiles of various sources including the major mine operations, the fly ash escaping the electrostatic filters of the power plants, and other primary and secondary sources. Mean measured PM 10 concentrations at the different sites ranged from 38 to 72 μg m -3 . The estimated total contribution of mines ranged between 9 and 22% in the cold period increasing to 36-42% in the dry warm period. Other significant sources were vehicular traffic, biomass burning, and secondary sulfate and nitrate aerosol. These results imply that more efficient measures to prevent and suppress fugitive dust emissions from the mines are needed.

  5. Adsorption of lignite-derived humic acids on coal-based mesoporous activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Gryglewicz, Grazyna

    2005-04-15

    The adsorption by a coal-based mesoporous activated carbon of humic acids (HAs) isolated from two Polish lignites was studied. For comparison, a commercial Aldrich humic acid was also included into this study. The differences in chemical structure and functional groups of HAs were determined by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy DRIFT. Two activated carbons used differed in terms of mesopore volume, mesopore size distribution, and chemical properties of the surface. The kinetics of adsorption of HAs have been discussed using three kinetic models, i.e., the first-order Lagergren model, the pseudo-second-order model, and the intraparticle diffusion model. It was found that the adsorption of HAs from alkaline solution on mesoporous activated carbon proceeds according to the pseudo-second-order model. The correlation coefficients were close to 1. The intraparticle diffusion of HA molecules within the carbon particle was identified to be the rate-limiting step. Comparing the two activated carbons, the carbon with a higher volume of pores with widths of 10-50 nm showed a greater removal efficiency of HA. An increase in the Freundlich adsorption capacity with decreasing carbon content of HA was observed. Among the HAs studied, S-HA shows characteristics indicating the highest contribution of small-size fraction. The S-HA was removed by both activated carbons to the highest extent. The effect of pH solution on the adsorption of HA was examined over the range pH 5.4-12.2. It was found that the extent of adsorption decreased with decreasing pH of the solution.

  6. Experimental investigation into the surface oxidation of lignite high temperature coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H G; Dallmann, W [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrgebiet Kokerei und Brikettierung

    1979-11-01

    It was intended to produce lignite high temperature coke (BHFK) in the laboratory comparable to that produced with the Salem-Lurgi-open hearth process and quench them according to the prescribed condition. By this means, the surface oxide formation could be continually recorded gravimetrically. The self-sustaining reaction of the physical and chemical adsorption on the loose material were observed under consideration that the adsorption or surface oxide can exist in a gaseous as well as in a liquid aggregate. The established steam isotherms and electron-microscope photos identified the product BFHK as a material which shows in the range of high-humidity capillary condensation. The continuous gravimetric adsorption leads to 1,9 per cent by weight on dry surface oxides. On the other hand, oxidized coke in the presence of water builds up on the surface to 2,3 per cent by weight. It became apparent that the finest capillary water is not involved in the formation of the oxide. For the dry accumulation, which is a reaction of the first degree, the equation for the accumulation of the oxygen is given. From the BET surface, made up from the graphite-like ring structure of the carbon surface, as well as the dposited quantity of oxide, the surface density of the oxygen atoms is indicated in relation to the quantity of carbon atoms, or alternatively the six-ring. The dry deposition leads to a proportion of 1,5 oxygen atoms to 10 carbon atoms. In a wet reaction, the ratio is 1,8 to 10. With increasing quantities of oxide, the content of volatile matter, the sparking point and reactivity increase, while the porosity diminishes as a consequence.

  7. Prevention of ground-water quality degradation during reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.; Burgess, J.L.; Wald, J.D.; Patrick, D.P.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    About 590,000 pounds of uranium oxide were recovered from 85,000 tons of lignite in at least 16 North Dakota pits between 1955 and 1967. Because uranium salts in the overburden generally were not recovered, spoil piles at abandoned mine sites contain elevated uranium contents. Reclamation of these mines is required to eliminate public hazards due to elevated radiation and toxic-element levels. A pilot reclamation project was implemented at one abandoned mine pit in northwestern Stark County. Basically, the reclamation involved the replacement of spoil material into the pits from which it was removed. Based on analyses of drill-hole cutting samples obtained from 2-foot depth increments on a 50-foot grid over the 7.25-acre spoil pile, spoil material with radium-226 concentrations exceeding 5 picocuries per gram above background or with uranium concentrations exceeding 5 times background was identified and mapped in three dimensions. This ''most-contaminated'' spoil material was selectively replaced in the mine pits above the water table to prevent dissolution of uranium salts and under a minimum of 5 feed of cover to minimize postreclamation surface-radiation levels. Similarly, areas of spoils with specific conductance greater than 5,000 microsiemens per centimeter were replaced at least 6 feet below the postreclamation ground surface to promote revegetation and above the water table to prevent enrichment of dissolved-solids concentrations in the aquifer. Finally, replaced zones of high radioactivity and soluble salts were capped with clay from the base of an adjacent pit; and the surface topography was mounded to minimize infiltration that might introduce radioactive and other soluble salts into the aquifer

  8. Adsorption kinetics of malachite green onto activated carbon prepared from Tuncbilek lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Y.; Akmil-Basar, C.; Eren, Didem; Sarici-Ozdemir, Cigdem; Depci, Tolga

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbent (T 3 K618) has been prepared from Tuncbilek lignite by chemical activation with KOH. Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by t-plot based on N 2 adsorption isotherm. The N 2 adsorption isotherm of malachite green on T 3 K618 is type I. The BET surface area of the adsorbent which was primarily contributed by micropores was determined 1000 m 2 /g. T 3 K618 was used to adsorb malachite green (MG) from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. The effects of initial dye concentration, agitation time, initial pH and adsorption temperature have been studied. It was also found that the adsorption isotherm followed both Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. However, the Freundlich gave a better fit to all adsorption isotherms than the Dubinin-Radushkevich. The kinetics of adsorption of MG has been tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Results show that the adsorption of MG from aqueous solution onto micropores T 3 K618 proceeds according to the pseudo-second-order model. The intraparticle diffusion of MG molecules within the carbon particles was identified to be the rate-limiting step. The adsorption of the MG was endothermic (ΔH o = 6.55-62.37 kJ/mol) and was accompanied by an increase in entropy (ΔS o = 74-223 J/mol K) and a decrease in mean value of Gibbs energy (ΔG o = -6.48 to -10.32 kJ/mol) in the temperature range of 20-50 deg. C

  9. Management of Lignite Fly Ash for Improving Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Lal C.; Srivastava, Nishant K.; Jha, Sangeet K.; Sinha, Awadhesh K.; Masto, Reginald E.; Selvi, Vetrivel A.

    2007-09-01

    Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and biofertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. The highest yield LFA dose was 200 t/ha for one-time and repeat applications, the maximum yield being with crop III (combination treatment). One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy-metal contents and in the level of γ-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

  10. Operational experience of a 300-MW lignite-fired utility unit: environmental performance after retrofiitting of a low pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanetsakunvatana, Vicharn; Arkornsakul, P.

    2010-09-15

    The experimental data on major emissions from a 300-MW lignite-fired boiler operating under different fuel LHVs and turbine rotors are discussed. The thermal efficiency was quantified based on the heat loss method. The PM and CO2 emission rates were predicted. Specific emissions were quantified for the boiler of interest. The SO2, PM and NOx emission concentrations in flue gas were found lower than the respective emission standard. The CO2 emissions have also declined 4.65% in 2009, compared to 2008 and before. The clean development mechanism complied with UNFCCC methodology is adopted in this study responding to the global changes.

  11. Installation services in the lignite industry. Implementing health and safety; Montageeinsaetze in der Braunkohlenindustrie. Handlungsfeld fuer den Arbeitsschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskopf, Norbert [Roskopf Vulkanisation GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The increasing number of assignments of contractors in the lignite industry challenges both the client and the contractor with respect to health and safety. Additional endeavours have to be made concerning information, communication, coordination and assurance. Quantitative differences of occupational safety can be made up by operator support. The contractor himself is required to highly focus on health and safety issues. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU OSHA) and its campaign 'Healthy Workplaces - Safe Maintenance' currently raises the awareness of all parties being involved. More information can be found under http://hw.osha.europa.eu. (orig.)

  12. Organic geochemistry of the Lower Miocene Oberdorf lignite (Styrian Basin, Austria): its relation to petrography, palynology and the palaeoenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Kolcon, I.; Gratzer, R. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Prospektion und Angewandte Sedimentologie, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str. 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Otto, A.; Puettmann, W. [Institut fuer Mineralogie-Umweltanalytik, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, Georg-Voigt-Str. 14, D-60054 a.M. Frankfurt (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    In the Oberdorf trough at the northwestern margin of the Styrian Basin (Austria), an up to 36-m thick Lower Miocene (Ottnangian) lignite seam occurs within the fluvial Koeflach-Voitsberg Formation. Previous results indicate that the lignite originated in a topogenous mire within a wet-forest swamp palaeoenvironment. Differences in soluble organic matter (SOM) yield of borehole samples from the lignite seam are related to free lipids present in plant waxes or resins and the presence of thermally labile polymers indicated by the contents of liptinite macerals (i.e., resinite, suberinite, and liptodetrinite). The n-alkane distribution patterns are dominated by high-molecular weight lipids with marked odd over even predominance, originating from plant waxes. A contribution of algae to the even numbered short-chain lipids, observed in considerable amounts in the footwall sediments is proposed. Terpenoid biomarkers characteristic for conifers and angiosperms were detected, consistent with palynomorphic spectra which are dominated by forest swamp pollen (Taxodiaceae-Cupressaceae) and pollen from plants living in a mixed mesophytic forest. Excellent relationships between higher plant biomarker composition and palynologic data indicate that the organic geochemical results reflect the varying inputs of coniferales vs. angiosperms. The data further imply that cuparene may be used for taxonomical differentiation of coniferales families. Organic geochemical data provide evidence that the content of land plant-derived biomarkers is controlled by the input of resin-rich conifers. Concentrations of hopanoids, dominated by hop-17(21)-ene, generally increase towards the top of the lignite, a section characterised by high extents of aromatisation of triterpenoid biomarkers. The results suggest that the aromatisation of angiosperm-derived biomarkers may be governed by the activity of anaerobic rather than by aerobic bacteria. However, changes in the depositional environment and

  13. Structural insights from boron tribromide ether cleavage into lignites and low maturity coals from the New Zealand Coal Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2011-01-01

    structure, boron tribromide (BBr3) ether cleavage was applied to a series of lignite and coal samples of different maturity (R0 0.27–0.80%) obtained from coal mines and natural outcrops from the North and South Island of New Zealand. Terminal ether-bound alcohols rapidly decrease during diagenesis and occur...... over geological time scales. Polyether compounds were detected with chain length up to five carbon atoms. After a small decrease during the diagenetic phase these compounds occur in relatively high concentrations, even in the main catagenetic stage. This suggests that these linkage structures represent...

  14. The influence of water quality on the reuse of lignite-derived waters in the Latrobe Valley, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Butler; A.M. Green; L. Chaffee [Monash University, Churchill, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Applied Sciences and Engineering

    2005-03-01

    Mechanical Thermal Expression (MTE), a novel non-evaporative brown coal (lignite) dewatering process, is being developed to increase the efficiency of power stations in the Latrobe Valley (Victoria, Australia). A by-product of this process is a large volume (potentially 20 giga liters per annum) of product water stream. This paper examines water quality requirements for reuse and disposal within the Latrobe Valley and their compatibility with MTE process water. It has been established that remediation of this water will be required and that the maintenance of environmental flows in surface waters would be the most suitable use for the remediated water.

  15. Analytical investigation of lignite and its ash samples taken from the Afsin-Elbistan coal basin in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukonder, Adnan; Paksoy, Emine; Biber, Seyma [Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Durdu, Burhanettin Goeker [Kilis 7 Aralik Univ., Kilis (Turkey). Opticianry Program; Baskaya, H.; Dogru, Mahmut [Bitlis Eren Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2014-04-15

    Lignite, taken from basin in Afsin-Elbistan region, and ash samples were analyzed according to the qualitative, quantitative and radioactivity properties. An elemental analysis was made by using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. 59.5 keV photons emitted from a {sup 241}Am source and 5.9 keV photons emitted from a {sup 55}Fe radioactive source were used for excitation. The characteristic K X-rays of the elements were counted with a Si(Li) detector. For the same samples gross alpha, gross beta and radionuclide activities were also measured. (orig.)

  16. The application of Airborne Laser Scaning for identifying old lignite workings - case study: the mine "Borussia" near Ośno Lubuskie (Western Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontaszewska-Piekarz, Agnieszka; Mrówczyńska, Maria

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents the possibilities of using data obtained by airborne laser scanning for identifying areas where lignite used to be mined. The technology of airborne laser scanning presented in the paper as and its results have a vast potential in terms of identifying local terrain deformations. The paper also presents the history of lignite mining in the region of Ośno Lubuskie (the north-west of Ziemia Lubuska - western Poland). It describes underground mining in complicated geological conditions (glaciotectonic deformations). The paper is supplemented with historical maps showing the locations of the mines

  17. Study relating to the conceptual design and cost estimates of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation lignite beneficiation process, Phase IV: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granatstein, D L; Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J

    1982-01-01

    The lignite beneficiation process produces a clean, environmentally acceptable and economical source of energy which offers many benefits to Saskatchewan, the public utilities and private industry. This document provides: A detailed assessment of the overall feasibility of the proposed process and its suitablity for successful commercialization; an economic evaluation including a sensitivity analysis of the major process uncertainties and alternate case analyses; an analysis of the market for beneficiated lignite; an analysis of the credits applicable to such a beneficiated product; and an outline of recommendation for process improvements and future process research and development.

  18. NEGATIVE CURRENCY-RISK-EXPOSURE FOR TURKISH EQUITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore J. Terregrossa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency-risk-exposure is an issue for Turkish equities, from two different angles: internationaltrade and foreign-portfolio-investment. The likely effect is positive for the former, and negative for the latter aspect. Consequently, the overall or net effect on equity value depends on which of these aspects of currency-risk-exposure has the greater impact. The present empirical analysis estimates currency risk of Turkish equities within a multi-factor regression setting, utilizing the framework of the Security Market Plane (SMP model. The SMP model embodies a conditional relation among three variables: beta, realized excess market-return, and expected excess portfolio-return. The SMP empirical framework is extended to include a currency-risk-factor in the present analysis. The currency-risk-factor is specified as the excess return to holding foreign currency (€; $, relative to holding domestic currency (Turkish Lira. The SMP-related factor is the cross-product term of beta and realized excess market-return (β it rMt . A regression of realized excess portfolio-returns against the corresponding currency-risk-factor and cross product-term (β it rMt finds that the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis generally have overall negative currency-risk-exposure; suggesting that unexpected currency depreciation generally leads to lower values for Turkish stocks (and portfolios of Turkish stocks. Thus, after accounting for the SMP-related interaction-effect between beta and realized excess marketreturn, currency risk is found to command a premium for the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis.

  19. Teacher Opinions on the Implementation of Values Education in Teaching Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Abdulkadir

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the realization levels of values education implementations in teaching Turkish by taking the opinions of Turkish teachers. The sample of this study conducted in the survey model comprises 108 Turkish teachers employed at different secondary schools in Erzurum, Bayburt, Gümüshane and Trabzon in the Spring…

  20. Financial Policies of Turkish Industrial Companies during the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Gokce Adas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Latest global financial crisis that shrank the credit market affected the companies’ financial policies since the credit contraction led the firms to rely more on their own resources rather than external financing. The expectation during such crises is more equity issues along with less borrowing. In economic literature there are some evidence supporting this fact for developed countries. As an emerging country Turkey’s case is different than that of advanced countries. The era commenced with Lehman turmoil by passed Turkish economy in the first years due to the solid, strong and healthy banking sector due to the measurements taken after 2001 banking crisis of Turkey. Therefore, international lenders did not hesitate directing their funds to Turkish banks. As a result, Turkish companies did not suffer in financing their investments through bank loans. Moreover, the growth policy of Turkey based on current account deficit supported Turkish economy and in turn the firms due to the abundance of liquidity after the peak of the crisis. In this work we examined 164 industrial firms that are traded on Borsa Istanbul to see if there happened to be a shift in their financing preferences during the recent global crisis. We found that the importance of borrowing had not decreased and that contradicts the expectations. As of equity issues, before and after 2009 no radical change has been observed. In 2009 where the crisis hit worst Turkish economy leading a 4.7% GDP decrease, the equity issues were doubled.

  1. Reliability and validity of the Incontinence Quiz-Turkish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Kerime C; Çıtak Karakaya, İlkim; Tunalı, Nur; Karakaya, Mehmet G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Incontinence Quiz, which was developed by Branch et al. (1994), to assess women's knowledge of and attitudes toward urinary incontinence. Comprehensibility of the Turkish version of the 14-item Incontinence Quiz, which was prepared following translation-back translation procedures, was tested on a pilot group of eight women, and its internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were assessed in 150 women who attended the gynecology clinics of three hospitals in İçel, Turkey. Physical and sociodemographic characteristics and presence of incontinence complaints were also recorded. Data were analyzed at the 0.05 alpha level, using SPSS version 22. The scale had good reliability and validity. The internal reliability coefficient (Cronbach α) was 0.80, test-retest correlation coefficients were 0.83-0.94; and with regard to construct validity, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient was 0.76 and Barlett sphericity test was 562.777 (P = 0.000). Turkish version of the Incontinence Quiz had a four-factor structure, with Eigenvalues ranging from 1.17 to 4.08. The Incontinence Quiz-Turkish version is a highly comprehensible, reliable and valid scale, which may be used to assess Turkish-speaking women's knowledge of and attitudes toward urinary incontinence. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. A Turkish study of medical student learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaca, S; Gulpinar, M

    2011-12-01

    A good understanding of the learning styles of students is necessary for optimizing the quality of the learning process. There are few studies in Turkey on the subject of the learning characteristics of medical students. The aim of this study was to define the learning patterns of Turkish medical students based on the Turkish version of Vermunts Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS). The Turkish version of the ILS was developed and administered to 532 medical students. Learning patterns were investigated using factor analysis. Internal consistencies of scales ranged from 0.43 to 0.80. The Turkish version of the ILS identified four learning styles among medical students. In comparing the pre-clinical and clinical phases of medical students related to mental models of learning, statistically significant differences (p learning characteristics: lack of regulation; certificate; self-test and ambivalent orientation; intake of knowledge; and use of knowledge. The Turkish version of the ILS can be used to identify learning styles of medical students. Our findings indicate an intermediate position for our students on a teacher-regulated to student-regulated learning continuum. A variety of teaching methods and learning activities should be provided in medical schools in order to address the range of learning styles.

  3. Serbs in education during the Turkish government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present opportunities cultural educational social policy and the Serbian people during the Turkish government. The intention is also to investigate the extent and level of education - literacy through the process of learning, reading, writing and acquiring new knowledge. The paper will also be discussed and the impact of other counters and their schools (Russia, Germany, Greece on the entire educational system in Serbia in the Serbian education period. Legal regulation and development of spiritual awareness and desire for literacy, will also find its place in this paper. Based on all the foregoing, it follows that the literacy during the Ottoman rule was very limited, and that the small number and percentage of population of certain social groups (nobility, clergy. There fore education was meager and insignificant, that and that, as concept, was reduced to literacy. Also, the church was the meeting place of all those who strove for literacy, and together with the monasteries of the first and only school in which they were taught reading and writing. During the First Serbian Uprising, except churches, the need for some kind of education begins to have, and government or authority which forms a first and basic institution of society. Looking at the wider development of literacy in Serbia can be concluded that education had its ups and downs, which are periodically changed depending on the social and political conditionally. Thus, at the close of the Middle Ages to the territorial possession of Despot Stefan Lazarevic (1389-1427 and its owner George Brankovic (1427-1456, with constant theats to the Turkish conquest occurred one interesting moment. Thjere is still an independent country, and despite the double vassalage to Turkey and Hungary, has seen a tumultuous economy and education rise, which was also the basis for the rise of Serbia culture. In the Serbian despots then we come to real cult of art and education, as earlier

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  6. Isolation and identification of a Candida digboiensis strain from an extreme acid mine drainage of the Lignite Mine, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh J; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2009-12-01

    An extremely acidic mine drainage (AMD) water sample was collected in 1998 and 2008 from Panandhro lignite mine, Gujarat, India. The yeast isolated from this sample was identified using mini API identification system, as a member of genus Candida. The major cellular fatty acids detected by FAME from the isolate are C(16:0) and C(18:2) (cis 9,12)/C(18:0alpha) as 25.23 and 19.5%, respectively. The isolate was identified as Candida digboiensis by 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis and designated as Candida digboiensis SRDyeast1. Phylogenetic analysis using D1/D2 variable domains showed that the closest relative of this strain is Candida blankii with 3% divergence. This organism has been reported for the first time from the lignite mine AMD sample, and for cellular fatty acid analysis. This yeast is able to survive in the AMD sample preserved at 10-42 degrees C temperature since last 10 years along with iron oxidizing microorganisms. It can grow in the presence of 40% glucose, 10% NaCl and in the pH range of 1 to 10. The isolate is capable of producing enzymes like protease and lipase. This isolate differs from the type strain Candida digboiensis in as many as six physiological and metabolic characteristics.

  7. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-burning area of Western Macedonia, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini

    Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air burning of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel burning in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal burning, vegetative burning (wood combustion and agricultural burns) and refuse open-air burning. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.

  8. Model Research of Gas Emissions From Lignite and Biomass Co-Combustion in a Large Scale CFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzywański Jarosław

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the idea of a combustion modelling of a large-scale circulating fluidised bed boiler (CFB during coal and biomass co-combustion. Numerical computation results for three solid biomass fuels co-combustion with lignite are presented in the paper. The results of the calculation showed that in previously established kinetics equations for coal combustion, some reactions had to be modified as the combustion conditions changed with the fuel blend composition. Obtained CO2, CO, SO2 and NOx emissions are located in borders of ± 20% in the relationship to the experimental data. Experimental data was obtained for forest biomass, sunflower husk, willow and lignite cocombustion tests carried out on the atmospheric 261 MWe COMPACT CFB boiler operated in PGE Turow Power Station in Poland. The energy fraction of biomass in fuel blend was: 7%wt, 10%wt and 15%wt. The measured emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx (i.e. NO + NO2 were also shown in the paper. For all types of biomass added to the fuel blends the emission of the gaseous pollutants was lower than that for coal combustion.

  9. Hydrogen Transfer during Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite to Biomass; Total Reaction Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Given the high cost of the tetraline solvent commonly used in liquefaction, the use of manure with EL is an important factor when considering the high cost of using tetraline as a hydrogen transfer source. In addition, due to the another cost factor which is the catalyst prices, red mud (commonly used, produced as a byproduct in the production of aluminium) is reduced cost in the work of liquefaction of coal, biomass, even coal combined biomass, corresponding that making the EL liquefaction an agenda for our country is another important factor. Conditions for liquefaction experiments conducted for hydrogen transfer from manure to coal; Catalyst concentration of 9%, liquid/solid ratio of 3/1, reaction time of 60 min, fertilizer/lignite ratio of 1/3, and the reaction temperature of 400 °C, the stirred speed of 400 rpm and the initial nitrogen pressure of 20 bar was fixed. In order to demonstrate the hydrogen, transfer from manure to coal, coal is used solely, by using tetraline (also known as a hydrogen carrier) and distilled water which is not hydrogen donor as a solvent in the co-liquefaction of experiments, and also the liquefaction conditions are carried out under an inert (N2) gas atmosphere. According to the results of the obtained liquefaction test; using tetraline solvent the total liquid product conversion percentage of the oil + gas conversion was 38.3 %, however, the results of oil+gas conversion obtained using distilled water and EL combined with manure the total liquid product conversion percentage was 7.4 %. According to the results of calorific value and elemental analysis, only the ratio of (H/C)atomic of coal obtained by using tetraline increased with the liquefaction of manure and distilled water. The reason of the increase in the amount of hydrogen due to hydrogen transfer from the manure on the solid surface of the coal, and also on the surface of the inner pore of the coal during the liquefaction, brings about the evaluation of the coal as a

  10. Remote sensing for investigations of woodlands impacted by lignite open surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarski, M. [ILV-Fernerkundung GmbH, Teltow (Germany); Lohstraeter, O. [Abteilung Markscheidewesen, MIBRAG mbH, Theissen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The development of a long term monitoring concept for post-mining landscapes and mine surroundings as ordered by the company MIBRAG requires different preliminary studies. Objectives of these methodologically oriented analyses presented were the recording of ecologically relevant parameters, their changes and of possible effects caused by the mining activities in the flood plains of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder' situated between the open surface lignite mines 'Vereinigtes Schleenhain' and 'Profen' south of Leipzig. Besides other information, repeatedly generated satellite data of the SPOT system was prepared for research of various vegetation types, selected by certain criteria for a long term monitoring. The satellite data analysis methodology and research findings are presented. The generation of radiometrical and comparable data records using the atmosphere correction software 'ATCOR' as part of the image processing system 'ERDAS IMAGINE' and the evaluation of the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index NDVI are important parts of the analysis. Based on deciduous woodland maps near the rivers of 'Weisse Elster' and 'Schnauder', which were categorised as ecologically valuable, statistical analyses were made using the vegetation status evaluated by remote sensing. As a result, tendencies of vegetation change are demonstrated. To obtain more details about special relations between vegetation development and remote sensing data, further research is necessary involving spectral features of deciduous plant canopy and their causalities. Future gathering of high-precision geometric and radiometric (digital airborne) data is one way of reaching more detailed information of the objects in question. The high geometric accuracy of digital camera data (by DMC) and the color bands are benefits for the mining company which can now replace regular air-borne surveying made with analogous technology

  11. Drone-Borne Hyperspectral Monitoring of Acid Mine Drainage: An Example from the Sokolov Lignite District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jackisch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the potential of unmanned aerial systems (UAS to monitor areas affected by acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD is an environmental phenomenon that usually develops in the vicinity of mining operations or in post-mining landscapes. The investigated area covers a re-cultivated tailing in the Sokolov lignite district of the Czech Republic. A high abundance of AMD minerals occurs in a confined space of the selected test site and illustrates potential environmental issues. The mine waste material contains pyrite and its consecutive weathering products, mainly iron hydroxides and oxides. These affect the natural pH values of the Earth’s surface. Prior research done in this area relies on satellite and airborne data, and our approach focuses on lightweight drone systems that enables rapid deployment for field campaigns and consequently-repeated surveys. High spatial image resolutions and precise target determination are additional advantages. Four field and flight campaigns were conducted from April to September 2016. For validation, the waste heap was probed in situ for pH, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and reflectance spectrometry. Ground truth was achieved by collecting samples that were characterized for pH, X-ray diffraction, and XRF in laboratory conditions. Hyperspectral data were processed and corrected for atmospheric, topographic, and illumination effects using accurate digital elevation models (DEMs. High-resolution point clouds and DEMs were built from drone-borne RGB data using structure-from-motion multi-view-stereo photogrammetry. The supervised classification of hyperspectral image (HSI data suggests the presence of jarosite and goethite minerals associated with the acidic environmental conditions (pH range 2.3–2.8 in situ. We identified specific iron absorption bands in the UAS-HSI data. These features were confirmed by ground-truth spectroscopy. The distribution of in situ pH data validates the UAS-based mineral

  12. Technical and Sociological Investigation of Impacts in Using Lignite Mine Drainage for Irrigation - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugappan, A.; Manoharan, A.; Senthilkumar, G.; Krishnamurthy, J.

    2017-07-01

    Irrigated farming depends on an ample supply of water compatible quality. Presently, a lot of irrigation projects have to depend on inferior quality and not so enviable sources of water supply. In order to prevent troubles during usage of such water supplies of poor quality, there must be meticulous preparation to ensure that the water available with such quality characteristics is put to best use. The effect of water quality upon soil and crops must be better understood in choosing fitting options to manage with impending water quality associated troubles that might decrease soil and crop productivity under existing circumstances of water use. Two tanks (small sized reservoirs) namely, Walajah Tank and Perumal Tank in Cuddalore District, used for irrigation, receive mine drainage water pumped out continuously from the open cast lignite mines of the NLC India Limited, Neyveli, Tamilnadu State. This water has been used by the farmers in the irrigated commands of both Walajah Tank and Perumal Tank for more than three decades. Recently, the beneficiaries had raised fears on the quality of mine drainage waters they had been using for raising crops in the commands of both the tanks. They opined that the coal dust laden mine water used for irrigation had affected the crop yields. This incited us to take up a study to (i) assess the status of quality of surface waters released from the two tanks for irrigation in the respective command areas and (ii) assess the likely impacts of quality of water on soil and on growth and productivity of crops cultivated in the command areas. Further to the technical evaluation of the impacts, a structured questionnaire survey was also conducted among the farmers and the common public in the study area. The findings of the survey confirmed with the outcome of the technical assessment in that the mine drainage had a poor impact in the cultivable command area of Walajah tank system while such impacts were less significant in most parts of

  13. Penetration strategies of Turkish corporations in Kosovo’s market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan VARDARI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments and increasing competition in recent years have prevented companies from producing and selling only in domestic markets, but also causing their foreign resources and investments to be directed to foreign markets. In this case, once businesses decide to join a particular market, they have to decide which is the best way to penetrate there. Turkish multinational corporations, which have been spreading all over the world with their investments, have conquered world markets with their exports, initiatives and acquisitions, they have entered in foreign markets in various forms and have a significant share in world trade volume with their successful investments. From this point of view, this study examines the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets especially in Kosovo and the impact that those companies have had in the development of the Kosovo economy and the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets.

  14. The Dictionary of Authors and Poets in Turkish Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Akkılık

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author of this work, Hikmet Altınkaynak, is a graduate of İstanbul University's Faculty of Letters. He is a critic of contemporary literary history as well as the social trends that comprise it. He has hosted literary discussion programs on television and radio, and has worked as a journalist and as a journal editor, manager, writer, and publisher. Altınkaynak's work has been included in numerous journals and course texts.  He is currently an Instructor of Turkish language at Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul. His project, "The Dictionary of Authors and Poets in Turkish Literature" is much more than a simple dictionary.  It can be considered an encyclopedia, guidebook, or a general source of information.  Regardless of what one calls it, this work is an unequaled treasure of thirteen centuries of Turkish literary history, and includes entries on approximately 1400 poets and writers.

  15. Turkish EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of English as a Lingua Franca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görsev İnceçay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the perceptions of; (1 Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language teachers about ELF, (2 Turkish EFL teachers and teacher educators about the role of ELF on language teacher education. Data came from a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A hundred Turkish EFL teachers working at two universities in Istanbul responded to the questionnaire. Ten randomly selected EFL teachers and 10 teacher educators working in language teacher education departments of two universities were interviewed to elicit their views about the role of ELF in language teacher education. Findings of the study revealed a number of important results and implications for the field

  16. Cognitive testing in non-demented Turkish immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T. Rune; Vogel, Asmus M.; Gade, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Nielsen, T. R. Vogel, A., Gade, A. & Waldemar, G. (2012). Cognitive testing in healthy Turkish immigrants - comparison of the RUDAS and the MMSE. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 455-460. Methods for culturally and linguistically appropriate cognitive testing of elderly minority populations...... are lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to compare performance on the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in Turkish immigrants in Denmark and determine the impact of demographic and health-related variables on test performance. A sample...... of non-demented community-dwelling Turkish immigrants was recruited from the greater Copenhagen area. All participants completed a structured interview regarding demographic, physical and mental health status, as well as measures of depression and acculturation, and cognitive testing with the RUDAS...

  17. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  18. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  19. Psychological problems of Turkish migrants in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, P T

    1981-04-01

    The path of adjustment for Turkish migrants--young and old, male and female--to a highly industralized Western society is a difficult one fraught with parlous conditions over which they have little control, largely because of Germany attitudes toward and treatment of Gastarbeiter in general and Turks in particular. Holding other variables constant, the psychological problems discerned as unique to Turkish Gastarbeiter are on the rise. These problems are of such a dimension that they clearly show the urgent need for Germans, the German government and its agencies, the Turkish government, and mental health professionals to come to grips with the existing situation. A program should be devised that (1) prepares the Turks for their new life before emigration; (2) educate the host country to lessen prejudice and heighten appreciation of the alien culture.

  20. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  1. The Historical Development of the Turkish Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray GÖÇ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to give information about historical development of Turkish intelligence especially from last periods of ottoman to nowadays. It has studied the effects on services in stage of history and has given information about roles played by them in forming of today’s community structure. This study contains information about a-thousand-year effect of a sequence began by secret service of ottoman and continued by union and progress, MAH (national labor service, JİTEM (gendarmes intelligence and anti terror unit, ÖHD (special operations department and MİT (national intelligence service over Anatolia lands, besides some resources such as book, magazine and article, in this study, there is an interview of Mehmet ELKATMIŞ who is the president of Susurluk commission of investigation and has several studies on this subject, of Şamil Tayyar who is the deputy of justice and development party (Ak Party and of journalist Nasuhi Güngür on this subject. The study examines. On the other hand, the problem that intelligence services give maneuver stepping out of line of law to the state. Could the state try to adopt illegality as a principle on behalf of its continuity by means of intelligence services, could it be possible? Or, could intelligence services perform unconventional behaviors occasionally by saying “in the name of the state”? These questions have been examined.

  2. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Ozcan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or to the housewife’s love and affection for her husband and children, since sweets and desserts are important elements of Turkish cuisine. However, the consciousnesses of nutrition and healthy eating, due to rapid change in popular life style and dietary patterns, has contributed to the increased interest in traditional foods with potential health benefits, with increased uncertainty for dessert consumption. Dairy desserts are extensively consumed due to their nutritive and sensoric characteristics. Some of traditional dairy desserts are Mustafakemalpasa, Gullac, Kazandibi, Hosmerim and Tavukgogsu, which are mainly made from milk or fresh cheese, and the current paper discusses their manufacturing processes and composition.

  3. Turkish nuclear program: a frustrated ambition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has launched an ambitious program for the construction of 3 plants involving a total of 12 reactors. Only the Akkuyu and the Sinop projects have been materialized by 2 international agreements. The Akkuyu project will benefit from Russian technology and financing while the Sinop project will rely on a Franco-Japanese technology: the ATMEA reactor. In the eighties there were previous projects on the same sites but they failed due to the lack of financing. Today's economic policy of the Turkish government relies on the construction of big infrastructures in the sectors of transport, defense and energy and nuclear plants are an integral part of it. Turkey's nuclear programme faces various challenges of different types: the seismic risk is very high, the regulation body is consistent for research reactors but not for power plants, there is a lack of trained people in nuclear sciences and engineering, contracts stipulate that local company should be involved in the construction but the industrial sector lacks enterprises that have been certified for working in the nuclear sector, nuclear controversy is emerging in Turkey and diplomatic difficulties with Russia concerning Syria conflict jeopardizes the project. (A.C.)

  4. Turkish version of the Academic Motivation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Gürhan

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the college version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) into Turkish. The participants were 797 college students (437 men, 360 women) with a mean age of 20.1 yr. A seven-factor model of the scale, as well as alternative models (five-, three-, two-, and one-factor models) were investigated and compared through confirmatory factor analysis. The seven-factor model demonstrated adequate fit to the data. The fit indices obtained from the five-factor model were acceptable also. Hancock's coefficient H values and test-retest correlation coefficients of the subscales indicated that reliability of the scale was adequate except for the identified regulation subscale. The CFA conducted for the groups of men and women produced more acceptable fit indices values for men than women, but women obtained significantly higher scores from the AMS subscales. Correlations among the seven subscales partially supported the simplex pattern which claims that the neighboring subscales should have stronger positive correlations than the non-neighboring subscales and that the subscales which are the farthest apart should have the strongest negative relationships.

  5. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noli, Fotini, E-mail: noli@chem.auth.gr; Tsamos, Panagiotis, E-mail: pktsamos@chem.auth.gr

    2016-09-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  6. Biochar and lignite affect H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activities in root tonoplast and nutrient contents of mung bean under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabian, Shahram; Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Rathjen, Judith

    2018-05-31

    This research was conducted to evaluate effects of biochar (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) and lignite (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) treatments on H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activity of root tonoplast, nutrient content, and performance of mung bean under salt stress. High saline conditions increased H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities in root tonoplast, sodium (Na) content, reactive oxygen species (H 2 O 2 and O 2 - ) generation, relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity in root and leaf, but decreased relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content index, leaf area, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content of plant tissues, root and shoot dry weight of mung bean. Lignite and biochar treatments decreased the H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities of root tonoplast under salt stress. Moreover, these treatments increased the cation exchange capacity of soil and nutrient values in plant tissues. Biochar and lignite diminished the generation of reactive oxygen species and DPPH activity in root and leaf cells, and these superior effects improved chlorophyll content index, leaf area and growth of mung bean under both conditions. In general, the results of this study demonstrated that biochar and lignite decreased the entry of Na ion into the cells, enriched plant cells with nutrients, and consequently improved mung bean performance under salt toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Scientific investigations accompanying recultivation of abandoned lignite mines in East Germany. Research projects 1994 through 2000; Wissenschaftliche Begleitung der ostdeutschen Braunkohlesanierung. Forschungsprojekte 1994 bis 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gockel, G.; Hildmann, E.; Schlenstedt, J.; Schreiber, M. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    From 1990 the reduction of lignite mining on the territory of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) led to the closure of plants for the production and processing of lignite. This entailed a dramatic demand of redevelopment and transformation of former mining and industrial areas of lignite industry and the creation of the industrial branch of remediation of post-lignite-mining areas, for which suitable structures of management and financing had to be found. The target of these endeavours is the creation of multifunctional to follow former surface mining areas. Ecological and security criteria play an eminent part in this process. Stabilising slopes, recultivation, rehabilitation of a balanced water regime and the elimination of dangers emanating from groundwater and soil contamination by earlier industrial use have particular priority. Recultivation requires scientific preparation and surveillance. Deficits are discussed that have led to the invitation of tenders for a promotion initiative and resulted in the implementation of a number of research projects. This publication deals with the presentation of the tasks and research approaches as well as the description and evaluation of results with the view of their applicability. (orig.)

  8. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, technologies, cost and availability. Sub-project alternative energy sources: solar, eolic, shale, ocean, hydrogen, organic wastes, peat and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Several aspects of solar, eolic and ocean energy and shale, peat lignite, hydrogen and organic waste in Brazil are described, including reserves, potential, technology economy and environment. Based in data and information presented in this report, the necessity of a more detailed survey with the potential of alternative energy sources in Brazil, emphasizing the more promiser regions is also mentioned. (C.G.C.)

  9. Reclamation of a lignite combustion waste disposal site with alders (Alnus sp.): assessment of tree growth and nutrient status within 10 years of the experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, Bartłomiej; Pająk, Marek; Wanic, Tomasz; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Chodak, Marcin

    2018-06-01

    Combustion wastes are characterised by extremely low N contents. Therefore, introduction of nitrogen-fixing species at the first stage of their biological reclamation is required. This paper presents an assessment of the growth parameters of alders (Alnus sp.) 10 years after their introduction to a disposal site of lignite combustion waste in Central Poland. Black (Alnus glutinosa) and grey alders (Alnus incana) were planted directly in the combustion waste. The soil amendment included three variants: control with pure combustion waste, admixture of lignite culm and addition of acid sand. Both alder species displayed good growth parameters comparable to those of alders in natural habitats. However, black alder had better growth parameters, such as stand density index (SDI), diameter at breast height (DBH) and height (H) than grey alder. The lignite amendment exerted a positive effect on tree growth, reflected in a higher SDI and H, whereas the acid sand amendment did not affect any of the growth parameters of the studied alder species. Despite the good growth parameters, the measured N:P and N:K ratios in the alder leaves largely differed from the optimal values indicating insufficient P and K supply at the combustion waste disposal site. This may pose a threat to further development of the introduced tree plantings. The introduction of alders along with the lignite addition into the planting holes seems to be a successful method of combustion waste revegetation.

  10. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noli, Fotini; Tsamos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  11. E-LEARNING TURKISH LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GEORGALAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several modules of the website has been measured, examined and analyzed. The research was carried out between the years 2010- 2011 and included the analysis of several million clicks. The results show particular attitudes, habits and preferences throughout the e-learning process. There is a preference of users to exercises against theory. Fast cross-link exercises are preferred to slower “fill in” ones. During the weekends, visitors tend to use less e-learning facilities and select more light activities than the rest days of the week. Society trends and fashions like TV serials have a serious impact to the number of people who decide to learn a new foreign language, in particular Turkish. There is a strong preference of the audience to use online TV against online radio facilities for language practice. The subjects that Greek learners of Turkish language spend more time are verbs conjugation and vocabulary learning. They focus on elementary grammar subjects like the Alphabet, the numbers and the formation of plural. Finally, they try to learn the syntax of Turkish language through sentence structure puzzles and give priority to special grammar issues like noun compounds that are not present in Greek language.

  12. Turkish Image in The Works of Juan Goytisolo

    OpenAIRE

    SARI SEO LECOQ, Kübra

    2016-01-01

    Inthis article we aim to analize how is perceived Turkey and Turkish people bythe West during the historical process in the non-fictional writings of JuanGoytisolo, who is one of the contemporary writers of Spain. The interest of JuanGoytisolo for Turkish and Islamic World is well-known. However, this positiveattention has never been an obstacle for a realistic approach. The books ofGoytisolo that we incorporated by reference when we were preparing this articleare ‘Estambul Otomano’, ‘Cronica...

  13. Is political risk still an issue for Turkish stock market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Günay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the effects of internal political risk on the Turkish stock market in the period of 2001–2014. Empirical analyses are conducted through various methods to obtain breaks and regimes in the return volatilities of the BIST100 index. According to the results, while the number of breaks has increased in recent years, the risk level of recent periods is significantly lower than the early regimes, and the risk level trend for all regimes show a negative slope. In conclusion, the Turkish stock market responds to political events, but according to our results, not as significantly as in the past.

  14. Petrography and geochemistry of selected lignite beds in the Gibbons Creek mine (Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Paleocene) of east-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Pontolillo, James

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of two lignite beds (3500 and 4500 beds, Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Eocene) that are mined at the Gibbons Creek mine in east-central Texas. The purpose of the study was to identify the relations among sample ash yield, coal petrography, and trace-element concentrations in lignite and adjoining rock layers of the Gibbons Creek mine. Particular interest was given to the distribution of 12 environmentally sensitive trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U) that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Eleven lignite, floor, and rock parting samples were collected from incremental channel samples of the 3500 and 4500 beds that were exposed in a highwall of pit A3 at the Gibbons Creek mine. Short proximate and ultimate and forms of sulfur analyses were performed on all lignite samples, and lignite and rock samples were analyzed for 60 major, minor and trace elements. Representative splits of all lignite samples were ground and cast into pellets, and polished for petrographic analyses in blue-light fluorescence and reflected white light to determine liptinite, inertinite, and huminite maceral group percentages. The following observations summarize our results and conclusions about the geochemistry, petrography, and sedimentology of the 3500 and 4500 beds of the Gibbons Creek lignite deposit: (1) Weighted average dry (db) ash yield for the two beds is 29.7%, average total sulfur content is 2.6%, and average calorific value is 7832 Btu (18.22 MJ/kg). Ash yields are greatest in the lower bench (59.33% db) of the 3500 bed and in the upper bench of the 4500 bed (74.61% db). (2) For lignite samples (on a whole-coal basis), the distributions of two of the HAPs (Pb and Sb) are positively related to ash yield, probably indicating an inorganic affinity for these elements. By using cluster analysis we

  15. Homogeneous distribution of large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels on soma and apical dendrite of rat neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhassine, Narimane; Berger, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Voltage-gated conductances on dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons participate in synaptic integration and output generation. We investigated the properties and the distribution of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) in this cell type using excised patches in acute slice preparations of rat somatosensory cortex. BK channels were characterized by their large conductance and sensitivity to the specific blockers paxilline and iberiotoxin. BK channels showed a pronounced calcium-dependence with a maximal opening probability of 0.69 at 10 microm and 0.42 at 3 microm free calcium. Their opening probability and transition time constants between open and closed states are voltage-dependent. At depolarized potentials, BK channel gating is described by two open and one closed states. Depolarization increases the opening probability due to a prolongation of the open time constant and a shortening of the closed time constant. Calcium-dependence and biophysical properties of somatic and dendritic BK channels were identical. The presence of BK channels on the apical dendrite of layer 5 pyramidal neurons was shown by immunofluorescence. Patch-clamp recordings revealed a homogeneous density of BK channels on the soma and along the apical dendrite up to 850 microm with a mean density of 1.9 channels per microm(2). BK channels are expressed either isolated or in clusters containing up to four channels. This study shows the presence of BK channels on dendrites. Their activation might modulate the shape of sodium and calcium action potentials, their propagation along the dendrite, and thereby the electrotonic distance between the somatic and dendritic action potential initiation zones.

  16. The need for verification of the Polish lignite deposits owing to development and nature conservation protection on land at the surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naworyta Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a country rich in lignite. The area where the lignite occurs occupies approx. 22% of the total surface area of the country. Geological resources of Polish lignite deposits are estimated at 23.5 billion Mg, but in the majority (69% the accuracy of their identification is poor. Nevertheless the amount of coal in Polish deposits allows - at least in theory - for mining and energy production at the current level for hundreds of years to come. It is an important raw material for the energy security of the country both currently and in the future. Because the vast majority of Polish and foreign mines use an open pit method for lignite extraction the actual amount of mineral available for the extraction depends not only on the properties of the deposit but to a large extent on the method of development of the surface land above the deposit, as well as on the sensitivity of the environment in the vicinity of any future mines. After careful analysis it can be stated that only a few of the lignite deposits may be subject to cost-effective mining operations. These deposits should be subjected to special protection as a future resource base which will ensure the energy security of the country. Some examples of domestic deposits have been presented where due to the conflict resulting from the development of the area should be deleted from the Balance Sheet of Mineral Deposits because their exploitation is irrational and uneconomic. Keeping such deposits in the Balance Sheet, and the use of large numbers in the context of their resource base leads to an unwarranted sense of wealth which consequently does not encourage the protection of these deposits which may actually be subject to rational exploitation in the near future. In summary there is a need to find a compromise in order to adequately protect all natural resources including mineral deposits.

  17. Virgin Mary’s Importance in Islam and its Reflection on Classical Turkish Literature and Turkish Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhekim Koçin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The language used by a poet or an author in a literary work in verse or prose, and the way he uses idioms, proverbs and literary arts in that language indicate the success of his art. The achievement of author in this matter makes him well known in the country where he lives. However, the topic choice is as important as an artist’s language skills. That’s why poets and authors prefer universal subjects such as love, death, religion, religious personalities (like prophets, saints, etc. and humanity (man's way of living and right to live in their works. If artists produce universal subjects with a clear language, a fluent wording and a strong story line, this achievement makes them famous both nationally and internationally. This fact can also be applied to the literature of any nation. Literary works containing local subjects cannot take their place in the world’s literary history. Classical Turkish literature (Ottoman Period Turkish Literature is extremely rich in subject matter. The period in which Classical Turkish Literature continued its existence was the period when the Ottoman state dominated large geographical regions in Asia, Europe and Africa. Accordingly, the lifestyles, beliefs, traditions and customs of people from different religions, races and cultures living in these geographies; in other words, the issues that are important to these people were also reflected in the literature produced in this period. The subject of this article Virgin Mary is an important religious and a historical personality primarily for the Ottoman state’s Christians and Muslim subjects as well as those who weren’t the subjects of Ottoman Empire. In this article, first how Virgin Mary took part in the two most important sources of Classical Turkish literature, Koran and the hadiths will be summarized. Secondly, Virgin Mary’s place in Classical Turkish literature and the vocabulary and concepts that Turkish language gained through Virgin Mary will

  18. Optimization of a lignite-fired open pulverizing system boiler process based on variations in the drying agent composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Youfu; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Yichao; Wang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates three lignite-fired OPSB (open pulverizing system boiler) processes, named OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C, corresponding to three options of drying agents used for the pulverizing systems. OPSB-B is similar to our previous work [18] on drying agent composition. Performances of the three OPSBs were calculated and compared with a 600 MW lignite-fired boiler as the reference. The results showed that the coal savings of OPSB-A and OPSB-C were 5.41% and 4.06% in comparison with the reference boiler, whereas for OPSB-B, the savings was 2.57%. Accordingly, emissions of each OPSB could be reduced in proportion to the coal savings. Among the three OPSBs, OPSB-C showed the best performance of water recovery from mill-exhausts because it had the highest mill-exhaust water dew point of 73.2 °C, whereas the exhaust dew points of OPSB-A and OPSB-B were 63.9 °C and 70.9 °C, respectively. Both OPSB-C and OPSB-B are beneficial for achieving a high mill-exhaust humidity ratio, which facilitates water recovery from the mill-exhaust, and a low oxygen content in mill-exhaust, which improves the operating safety of the pulverizing systems, whereas OPSB-A is relatively inferior in these respects. The OPSB-C process is recommended for engineering applications because of its favorable overall performances. - Highlights: • Three lignite-fired OPSB processes are analyzed based on a conventional 600 MW boiler. • OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C show coal savings of 5.41%, 2.57 and 4.06%, respectively. • All OPSBs have a great advantage of water recovery from the flue gas, especially OPSB-C. • OPSB-C process is recommended in view of its favorable overall performances

  19. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  20. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-01-01

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill(trademark). The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable