WorldWideScience

Sample records for turbulent natural gas

  1. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence, Radiation, and Combustion Models for Natural Gas Combustion Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik Siang Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD study of a natural gas combustion burner focusing on the effect of combustion, thermal radiation and turbulence models on the temperature and chemical species concentration fields. The combustion was modelled using the finite rate/eddy dissipation (FR/EDM and partially premixed flame models. Detailed chemistry kinetics CHEMKIN GRI-MECH 3.0 consisting of 325 reactions was employed to model the methane combustion. Discrete ordinates (DO and spherical harmonics (P1 model were employed to predict the thermal radiation. The gas absorption coefficient dependence on the wavelength is resolved by the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM. Turbulence flow was simulated using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS based models. The findings showed that a combination of partially premixed flame, P1 and standard k-ε (SKE gave the most accurate prediction with an average deviation of around 7.8% of combustion temperature and 15.5% for reactant composition (methane and oxygen. The results show the multi-step chemistry in the partially premixed model is more accurate than the two-step FR/EDM. Meanwhile, inclusion of thermal radiation has a minor effect on the heat transfer and species concentration. SKE turbulence model yielded better prediction compared to the realizable k-ε (RKE and renormalized k-ε (RNG. The CFD simulation presented in this work may serve as a useful tool to evaluate a performance of a natural gas combustor. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 26th July 2017; Revised: 9th October 2017; Accepted: 30th October 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Pang, Y.S., Law, W.P., Pung, K.Q., Gimbun, J. (2018. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence, Radiation, and Combustion Models for Natural Gas Combustion Burner. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 155-169 (doi:10.9767/bcrec

  2. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Turbulence in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha

    Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be

  4. Modeling of free and confined turbulent natural gas flames using an extension of CFX-F3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roekaerts, D. [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hsu, A.

    1997-12-31

    A general form of the fast chemistry / assumed shape probability density function model for turbulent gaseous diffusion flames has been implemented in a new combination of computer programs consisting of the commercial code CFX-F3D (formerly CFDS-FLOW3D) and the program FLAME, developed at Delft University of Technology. Also a mixedness-reactedness model with two independent variables (mixture fraction and reaction progress variable) has been implemented. The main strength of the new program is that it combines the advantages of a general purpose commercial CFD code (applicable to arbitrarily shaped domains, wide range of solvers) with the advantages of special purpose combustion subroutines (more detail in modeling of chemistry and of turbulence-chemistry interaction, flexibility). The new combination of programs has been validated by the application to the prediction of the properties of a labscale turbulent natural gas diffusion flame for which detailed measurements are available. The mixedness-reactedness model has been applied to the case of a confined natural gas diffusion flame at globally rich conditions. In contrast with fast chemistry models, the mixedness-reactedness model can be used to predict the amount of methane at the end of the reactor vessel (`methane slip`) as a function of operating conditions. (author)

  5. An experimental study of the stability of natural gas and propane turbulent non-premixed flame under diluting condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashir Babak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability behavior of a jet diffusion flame developing in a co-flowing stream is studied experimentally, using natural gas and propane as fuel gases. Effects of oxidant and fuel stream velocities and oxidant stream dilution have been studied. The results of experiments showed that with increasing fuel jet Reynolds number, there appears along the flame a point that is accompanied by reaction zone sudden expansion. Flame becomes turbulent downstream from this point. This point is called transition point. More increment of fuel jet Reynolds number moves the transition point to the upstream. Furthermore, two types of stability limits are observed. Blow-off of the rim-stabilized flame is the first stability limit. The second one is the break-off or extinction of the turbulent portion of the flame at the transition point from laminar to turbulent flow. The oxidant and fuel streams are in environmental temperature. In dilution experiments, the oxidant primary stream is oxygen that is diluted with nitrogen or carbon dioxide. In the other experiments oxidant is environmental air.

  6. Microgravity Turbulent Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A gas-jet diffusion flame is similar to the flame on a Bunsen burner, where a gaseous fuel (e.g., propane) flows from a nozzle into an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., air). The difference is that a Bunsen burner allows for (partial) premixing of the fuel and the air, whereas a diffusion flame is not premixed and gets its oxygen (principally) by diffusion from the atmosphere around the flame. Simple gas-jet diffusion flames are often used for combustion studies because they embody the mechanisms operating in accidental fires and in practical combustion systems. However, most practical combustion is turbulent (i.e., with random flow vortices), which enhances the fuel/air mixing. These turbulent flames are not well understood because their random and transient nature complicates analysis. Normal gravity studies of turbulence in gas-jet diffusion flames can be impeded by buoyancy-induced instabilities. These gravitycaused instabilities, which are evident in the flickering of a candle flame in normal gravity, interfere with the study of turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. By conducting experiments in microgravity, where buoyant instabilities are avoided, we at the NASA Lewis Research Center hope to improve our understanding of turbulent combustion. Ultimately, this could lead to improvements in combustor design, yielding higher efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Gas-jet diffusion flames are often researched as model flames, because they embody mechanisms operating in both accidental fires and practical combustion systems (see the first figure). In normal gravity laboratory research, buoyant air flows, which are often negligible in practical situations, dominate the heat and mass transfer processes. Microgravity research studies, however, are not constrained by buoyant air flows, and new, unique information on the behavior of gas-jet diffusion flames has been obtained.

  7. Papers of the 2. annual Canadian Institute conference on managing natural gas price volatility : effective risk strategies for turbulent times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The issue of how natural gas price volatility is affecting future energy projects was the focus of this conference. Discussions focused on the dynamics of supply and demand of natural gas in North America and how end-users are responding to price fluctuations. Methods by which storage can be used as an effective risk management tool was also on the agenda. The hedging strategies that work best for leading energy firms were described. It was noted that price volatility can be reduced through improved market transparency. Discussions also focused on credit risk in a volatile price environment. A total of 17 papers were presented of which 3 were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  8. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  9. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  10. Natural gas annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  11. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  12. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  13. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  14. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  15. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  16. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  17. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  18. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  19. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This article comments data about the share of natural gas in the energy demand in Europe, about the uses of natural gas by different sectors (housing and office buildings, electricity production, and industry) in Europe, and about gas European imports and about gas supply origins. Graphs are displaying the evolution of energy demand in some European countries between 1990 and 2006 and for different energy sources (natural gas, coal, oil, primary energy, and renewable energies), the evolution of gas production and consumption in different countries of the European Union between 1990 and 2006, and gas import origins in the European Union in 2006. Gas pipeline projects between gas producing countries and Europe are briefly presented, and the development of liquefied natural gas is briefly commented and outlined as a contribution to supply diversification

  20. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having briefly commented the share of natural gas in the primary consumed energy in Europe and in France, and the reasons for its evolution, this document highlights that gas is mainly used for heating, electricity production and industrial purposes, that Europe possesses limited gas resources and must therefore rely on importations. It comments the diversification of supply sources, evokes new gas-pipeline projects between Europe and producer countries (mainly Russia), and briefly comments the development of liquefied natural gas

  1. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  2. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  3. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  4. Chemical discrimination in turbulent gas mixtures with MOX sensors validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

    2014-10-16

    Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance.

  5. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  6. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  7. European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Fred

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Main issues; Natural gas consumption and supply: statistics and key features of individual countries; Sectoral natural gas consumption; Indigenous production; Imports; Prices and taxes; The spot market: The interconnector; Forecasts of production and consumption and contracted imports; Progress of markets liberalisation; Effects of environmentalist developments; Transmission networks and storage; Some principal players. (Author)

  8. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  9. Data set from chemical sensor array exposed to turbulent gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-06-01

    A chemical detection platform composed of 8 chemo-resistive gas sensors was exposed to turbulent gas mixtures generated naturally in a wind tunnel. The acquired time series of the sensors are provided. The experimental setup was designed to test gas sensors in realistic environments. Traditionally, chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and minimize turbulence. Instead, we utilized a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that generate two gas plumes. The plumes get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow and reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments. Hence, the gas sensors can capture the spatio-temporal information contained in the gas plumes. The sensor array was exposed to binary mixtures of ethylene with either methane or carbon monoxide. Volatiles were released at four different rates to induce different concentration levels in the vicinity of the sensor array. Each configuration was repeated 6 times, for a total of 180 measurements. The data is related to "Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry", by Fonollosa et al. [1]. The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of [1]: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+senso+rarray+exposed+to+turbulent+gas+mixtures.

  10. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  11. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  12. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  13. Canadian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's natural gas industry enjoys a quiet confidence as it looks ahead to the 1990s. In this paper, the author explains why, despite some critical uncertainties, the optimism endures. Reviewing the current conditions of supply, production, consumption, pipelines, and pipeline expansion plans, the author contends that the New World of the 1990s will belong to natural gas. The author's assessment of natural gas markets proceeds far beyond the borders of Canada. The author examines the determinants of gas prices throughout North America and he identifies the one force that promises to seize almost complete control of gas prices throughout the continent. While the analysis points out the attributes of this new pricing regime, it also names the obstacles that could prevent this emerging mechanism from assuming its anticipated position

  14. Natural Gas Acquisition Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The "NGAP" system is a web based application which serves NGAP GSA users for tracking information details for various natural gas supply chain elements like Agency,...

  15. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveron, S. de

    1996-01-01

    This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG), which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical descriptions is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with some of CNG's specific technical features as compared to gasoline and diesel oil. Here CNG technologies are seen to be very close to the more conventional ones. (author)

  16. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  17. Natural Gas Liquid Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Natural gas interstate and intrastate pipelines in the United States. Based on a variety of sources with varying scales and levels of accuracy and therefore accuracy...

  18. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  19. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviewed natural gas supply and demand issues facing Ontario and outlined TransCanada's role as a key player in Ontario's energy industry. TransCanada's gas transmission assets include 39,000 km of wholly owned pipelines from British Columbia to Atlantic Canada that carry 11 Bcf of gas per day. In addition, TransCanada operates 29 power generating plants, of which 6 are in Ontario. The company is also involved the proposed Mackenzie Valley and Alaska pipeline. A map illustrating Ontario and Quebec operations was included along with graphs depicting the 2004 base case for North American gas demand by region. Historical and forecasted gas demand by end use sector in Ontario and Quebec was also illustrated. A chart of North American gas supply indicates that new supply is needed to meet energy demands. Production forecasts for Western Canada for conventional and unconventional reserves indicates that by 2015, unconventional reserves such as coalbed methane (CBM) will make up a larger portion of the production mix. A map indicating existing and proposed import terminals along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was included. The challenges facing the North American gas market include price volatility, the need to update energy policies, the need to improve regulatory efficiency, and aligning the interests of market participants. It was concluded that although natural gas from Western Canada will continue to be a stable supply source for many years, the natural gas market in North America is seeking new supply in frontier gas, LNG and CBM to meeting growing demand. 1 tab., 11 figs

  20. Natural gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  1. Natural gas's hottest spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing power and economic strength of Enron Corp., a natural gas distributor and exploration company. The paper reviews the policy of the company to exploit deregulation at home and privatization of all sorts of energy companies abroad. Enron is actively building its own power plants in the US and has successfully boosted their profits by 20 percent in what was considered a flat natural gas market. The paper goes on to discuss the company's view of the new energy tax and how it should benefit natural gas companies as a whole. Finally the paper reviews the contracting procedures of the company to secure long-term fixed price contracts in a volatile market which precludes most companies from taking the risk

  2. Natural gas annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies

  3. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  4. Natural gas technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todaro, J.M.; Herbert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation is devoted to a discussion regarding current and planned US fossil energy research and development for fiscal years 1996, 1997 and 1998. The principal focus of research in the immediate future will be: clean coal fuels, natural gas and oil exploration and production, especially reservoir life extension, advanced drilling completion and stimulation systems, advanced diagnostics and imaging systems, environmental compliance in technology development, regulatory streamlining and risk assessment. Program goals to 2010 were summarized as: increasing domestic oil and gas recovery; increasing recoverable reserves; decreasing cumulative industry environmental compliance costs; increasing revenues to the federal government; saving jobs in the U.S

  5. Optical turbulence in a spinning pipe gas lens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The researchers have managed to do quantitative analysis of ‘controlled’ turbulence. The researchers could control the degree of turbulence by controlling the rotation speed and wall temperature of the spinning pipe gas lens. The researchers also...

  6. Russian Natural Gas: Regional Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2007-01-01

    .... As such, Russia has some ability to dictate natural gas prices. Russia cut off the gas supply to Ukraine and Moldova in January 2006 and threatened to cut off gas supplies to Belarus and Georgia during late 2006 price negotiations...

  7. Turbulent spark-jet ignition in SI gas fuelled engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a thermodynamic analysis of a new combustion system that allows the combustion of stratified gas mixtures with mean air excess coefficient in the range 1.4-1.8. Spark ignition was used in the pre-chamber that has been mounted in the engine cylinder head and contained a rich mixture out of which a turbulent flow of ignited mixture is ejected. It allows spark-jet ignition and the turbulent combustion of the lean mixture in the main combustion chamber. This resulted in a two-stage combustion system for lean mixtures. The experimental study has been conducted using a single-cylinder test engine with a geometric compression ratio ε = 15.5 adapted for natural gas supply. The tests were performed at engine speed n = 2000 rpm under stationary engine load when the engine operating parameters and toxic compounds emissions have been recorded. Analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the evaluated combustion system offers large flexibility in the initiation of charge ignition through an appropriate control of the fuel quantities supplied into the pre-chamber and into the main combustion chamber. The research concluded with determining the charge ignition criterion for a suitably divided total fuel dose fed to the cylinder.

  8. Turbulence Nature and the Inverse Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Pyatnitsky, L. N

    2009-01-01

    Hydrodynamic equations well describe averaged parameters of turbulent steady flows, at least in pipes where boundary conditions can be estimated. The equations might outline the parameters fluctuations as well, if entry conditions at current boundaries were known. This raises, in addition, the more comprehensive problem of the primary perturbation nature, noted by H.A. Lorentz, which still remains unsolved. Generally, any flow steadiness should be supported by pressure waves emitted by some external source, e.g. a piston or a receiver. The wave plane front in channels quickly takes convex configuration owing to Rayleigh's law of diffraction divergence. The Schlieren technique and pressure wave registration were employed to investigate the wave interaction with boundary layer, while reflecting from the channel wall. The reflection induces boundary-layer local separation and following pressure rapid increase within the perturbation zone. It propagates as an acoustic wave packet of spherical shape, bearing oscil...

  9. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  12. Nonconventional natural gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    It is concluded that it is impossible at this time to forecast the volume of natural gas dissolved in water that can be economically recovered. The investigation to southern Louisiana, both onshore and offshore was confined. Estimates of the dissolved methane content are based upon information on temperatures, pressures, sandstone thicknesses, sandstone porosities, salinity, and the solubility of methane. The salinity of waters encountered in wells was estimated from wireline logs, and in turn used to reduce the estimated content of dissolved gas. The reductions range from 51 to 61 percent of the solubility of methane in fresh water. The assessment does not include gas dissolved in water contained in shale beds. A series of maps display the information used in the computation. Methane solubility values were multiplied by porosity--feet values for each 1000-foot interval. The total dissolved methane in the resource base is estimated to be 6,143 trillion cubic feet (Tcf); assumptions on the effect of salinity reduce this to 3,264 Tcf. This figure does not include methane beneath the Texas coast. Very preliminary estimates of the recoverable proportion of dissolved gas in the highly ''geopressured'' zones range from 1 to over 20 percent. Not all of the resource base estimates of 3,264 Tcf occurs in the highly geopressured zone, and the proportions individually allocatable within the resource base to the highly ''geopressured'' zone, to the intermediate-pressure zone, and to the normal or ''hydropressure'' zone cannotbe estimated readily. The environmental aspects of recovery of dissolved gas are also presented. The review is necessarily generalized, since it could not be based on actual experience. The problems include subsidence of land surface and possibly increased seismic activity. Fluid withdrawal might result in subsidence of the land surface, as well as activation of growth faults, with adjustments

  13. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  15. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  17. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, A

    2006-07-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities. (author)

  18. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. What drives natural gas prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephen P. A.; Yücel, Mine K.

    2007-01-01

    For many years, fuel switching between natural gas and residual fuel oil kept natural gas prices closely aligned with those for crude oil. More recently, however, the number of U.S. facilities able to switch between natural gas and residual fuel oil has declined, and over the past five years, U.S. natural gas prices have been on an upward trend with crude oil prices but with considerable independent movement. Natural gas market analysts generally emphasize weather and inventories as drivers o...

  20. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  1. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Propagation of a Free Flame in a Turbulent Gas Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, William R; Ernstein, Norman E

    1956-01-01

    Effective flame speeds of free turbulent flames were measured by photographic, ionization-gap, and photomultiplier-tube methods, and were found to have a statistical distribution attributed to the nature of the turbulent field. The effective turbulent flame speeds for the free flame were less than those previously measured for flames stabilized on nozzle burners, Bunsen burners, and bluff bodies. The statistical spread of the effective turbulent flame speeds was markedly wider in the lean and rich fuel-air-ratio regions, which might be attributed to the greater sensitivity of laminar flame speed to flame temperature in those regions. Values calculated from the turbulent free-flame-speed analysis proposed by Tucker apparently form upper limits for the statistical spread of free-flame-speed data. Hot-wire anemometer measurements of the longitudinal velocity fluctuation intensity and longitudinal correlation coefficient were made and were employed in the comparison of data and in the theoretical calculation of turbulent flame speed.

  5. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  6. Compression of turbulent magnetized gas in giant molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnboim, Yuval; Federrath, Christoph; Krumholz, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Interstellar gas clouds are often both highly magnetized and supersonically turbulent, with velocity dispersions set by a competition between driving and dissipation. This balance has been studied extensively in the context of gases with constant mean density. However, many astrophysical systems are contracting under the influence of external pressure or gravity, and the balance between driving and dissipation in a contracting, magnetized medium has yet to be studied. In this paper, we present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of compression in a turbulent, magnetized medium that resembles the physical conditions inside molecular clouds. We find that in some circumstances the combination of compression and magnetic fields leads to a rate of turbulent dissipation far less than that observed in non-magnetized gas, or in non-compressing magnetized gas. As a result, a compressing, magnetized gas reaches an equilibrium velocity dispersion much greater than would be expected for either the hydrodynamic or the non-compressing case. We use the simulation results to construct an analytic model that gives an effective equation of state for a coarse-grained parcel of the gas, in the form of an ideal equation of state with a polytropic index that depends on the dissipation and energy transfer rates between the magnetic and turbulent components. We argue that the reduced dissipation rate and larger equilibrium velocity dispersion has important implications for the driving and maintenance of turbulence in molecular clouds and for the rates of chemical and radiative processes that are sensitive to shocks and dissipation.

  7. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  8. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  9. Natural gas vs. heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrips, A.M.; Canney, W.A.

    Spokesmen for gas and electric utilities describe the relative merits of using natural gas and electric heat pumps. Both argue that their product is more economical and operates more efficiently than its competitor. Rising natural gas prices are responsible for making costs more competitive, although rates for both gas and electricity vary by region. The utilities also describe heat pump advantages in terms of installation ease and cost, reliability, maintenance, and thermal comfort. Both provide documentation to support their claims. 2 tables.

  10. Collisions between grains in a turbulent gas. [in interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelk, H. J.; Morfill, G. E.; Roeser, S.; Jones, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Turbulent gas motions will induce random velocities of small dust grains that are imbedded in the gas. Within large eddies the friction forces from the gas lead to strongly correlated velocities for neighboring grains, whereas small eddies cause uncorrelated grain motions. The nonlinear response of a grain to eddy motion is calculated. This leads to a turbulent pressure within the dust component as well as to collisions between pairs of grains. The results are evaluated numerically for a Kolmogoroff spectrum and turbulent collision rates are calculated for molecular clouds and protostellar environments. Whereas grain-grain collisions should not modify the initial size distribution in molecular clouds to a significant extent, they will lead to an entirely different grain population in protostars.

  11. Essentials of natural gas microturbines

    CERN Document Server

    Boicea, Valentin A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing a field which, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated, Essentials of Natural Gas Microturbines thoroughly examines several natural gas microturbine technologies suitable not only for distributed generation but also for the automotive industry. An invaluable resource for power systems, electrical, and computer science engineers as well as operations researchers, microturbine operators, policy makers, and other industry professionals, the book: Explains the importance of natural gas microturbines and their use in distributed energy resource (DER) systemsDiscusses the histor

  12. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Turbulence modeling of natural convection in enclosures: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong O

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a review of recent developments of turbulence models for natural convection in enclosures is presented. The emphasis is placed on the effect of the treatments of Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux on the stability and accuracy of the solution for natural convection in enclosures. The turbulence models considered in the preset study are the two-layer k -ε model, the shear stress transport (SST) model, the elliptic-relaxation (V2-f) model and the elliptic-blending second-moment closure (EBM). Three different treatments of the turbulent heat flux are the generalized gradient diffusion hypothesis (GGDH), the algebraic flux model (AFM) and the differential flux model (DFM). The mathematical formulation of the above turbulence models and their solution method are presented. Evaluation of turbulence models are performed for turbulent natural convection in a 1:5 rectangular cavity ( Ra = 4.3x10 10 ) and in a square cavity with conducting top and bottom walls ( Ra =1.58x10 9 ) and the Rayleigh-Benard convection ( Ra = 2x10 6 ∼ Ra =10 9 ). The relative performances of turbulence models are examined and their successes and shortcomings are addressed

  14. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  15. On the nature of interstellar turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altunin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Possible reasons of interstellar medium turbulence manifested in pulsar scintillation and radio-frequency emission scattering of extragalactic sources near by the Galaxy plane, are discussed. Sources and conditions of turbulence emergence in HII region shells, supernova, residue and in stellar wind giving observed scattering effects are considered. It is shown that in the formation of the interstellar scintillation pattern of discrete radio-frequency emission sources a certain role can be played by magnetosound turbulence, which arises due to shock-waves propagating in the interstellar medium at a velocity Vsub(sh) approximately 20-100 km/s as well as by stellar-wind inhomogeneity of OB classes stars [ru

  16. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  17. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  18. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  19. Natural gas; Le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, A.

    2010-09-15

    Among all the different energies which will answer to the world demand, natural gas has undoubtedly a particular and preferential position. It possesses indeed several favourable factors, among them a lower CO{sub 2} release than the other fossil resources. Natural gas will have to continue its development and to affirm its role in the years 2030. (O.M.)

  20. Stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoryev, Yurii N

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an in-depth systematic investigation of a dissipative effect which manifests itself as the growth of hydrodynamic stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows. The work describes the theoretical foundations of a new way to control stability and laminar turbulent transitions in aerodynamic flows. It develops hydrodynamic models for describing thermal nonequilibrium gas flows which allow the consideration of suppression of inviscid acoustic waves in 2D shear flows. Then, nonlinear evolution of large-scale vortices and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves in relaxing shear flows are studied. Critical Reynolds numbers in supersonic Couette flows are calculated analytically and numerically within the framework of both linear and nonlinear classical energy hydrodynamic stability theories. The calculations clearly show that the relaxation process can appreciably delay the laminar-turbulent transition. The aim of the book is to show the new dissipative effect, which can be used for flo...

  1. Natural gas industry in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkin, L.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Bulgarian natural gas industry is presented. The starting point was the discovery of the indigenous Chiren gas-field in 1967. The first agreement with the ex-USSR for supply of natural gas and construction of main pipelines was signed in 1968. The state gas company BULGARGAZ is responsible for transportation, storage, distribution, processing and marketing of the gas to over 150 industrial companies in the country, as well as for the transportation services to gas importers in neighboring Turkey. The GAZSTROJMONTAZH company accomplish the construction of the local and transit pipelines to Turkey and Greece, as well as of some objects in Iran, Syria, Ukraine and Germany. In the past 20 years, 87890 million m 3 natural gas from Russia are supplied and 846 million m 3 - from domestic sources. The share of natural gas in the overall energy balance is 13.6% for 1992. The restructuring and further development of gas industry require to take into account some factors as: security in supply; investments for technical assurance; pricing policy for natural gas; development of private business. Some administrative problems are also mentioned. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Natural gas, the new deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encel, Frederic; Boroumand, Raphael H.; Charlez, Philippe; Goutte, Stephane; Lafargue, Francois; Lombardi, Roland; Porcher, Thomas; Rebiere, Noemie; Schalck, Christophe; Sebban, Anne-Sophie; Sylvestre, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    As natural gas is about to become the first energy source in the world, is abundant and easy to transport, this collective publication addresses issues related to shale gas and to natural gas. The first part addresses shale gas. Four articles propose a global overview, comment the situation in the USA which, in eight years of time, reduced their oil dependency by half and became almost self-sufficient as far as gas is concerned, discuss technical and legal issues related to shale gas exploitation, discuss the perspective of evolution of the world gas markets, and notice that shale gas will not be a game changer in Europe. The second part addresses the natural gas. The articles discuss the possible influence of natural gas exploitation by Israel on the Middle-East geopolitical situation, the influence of the emergence of new producers in Africa (Tanzania and Mozambique), the contribution of gas-fuelled power station to the coverage of market risks, and the issue of European energy safety with a focus on the role of Turkey

  3. Are cosmological gas accretion streams multiphase and turbulent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornuault, Nicolas; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Boulanger, François; Guillard, Pierre

    2018-03-01

    Simulations of cosmological filamentary accretion reveal flows ("streams") of warm gas, T 104 K, which bring gas into galaxies efficiently. We present a phenomenological scenario in which gas in such flows, if it is shocked as it enters the halo as we assume and depending on the post-shock temperature, stream radius, its relative overdensity, and other factors, becomes biphasic and turbulent. We consider a collimated stream of warm gas that flows into a halo from an overdense filament of the cosmic web. The post-shock streaming gas expands because it has a higher pressure than the ambient halo gas and fragments as it cools. The fragmented stream forms a two phase medium: a warm cloudy phase embedded in hot post-shock gas. We argue that the hot phase sustains the accretion shock. During fragmentation, a fraction of the initial kinetic energy of the infalling gas is converted into turbulence among and within the warm clouds. The thermodynamic evolution of the post-shock gas is largely determined by the relative timescales of several processes. These competing timescales characterize the cooling, expansion of the post-shock gas, amount of turbulence in the clouds, and dynamical time of the halo. We expect the gas to become multiphase when the gas cooling and dynamical times are of the same order of magnitude. In this framework, we show that this mainly occurs in the mass range, Mhalo 1011 to 1013 M⊙, where the bulk of stars have formed in galaxies. Because of the expansion of the stream and turbulence, gas accreting along cosmic web filaments may eventually lose coherence and mix with the ambient halo gas. Through both the phase separation and "disruption" of the stream, the accretion efficiency onto a galaxy in a halo dynamical time is lowered. Decollimating flows make the direct interaction between galaxy feedback and accretion streams more likely, thereby further reducing the overall accretion efficiency. As we discuss in this work, moderating the gas accretion

  4. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels

  5. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  6. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  8. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  9. The European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagland, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An increasing amount of natural gas is flowing into continental Europe, one of the largest gas markets in the world. There are three main sources of gas: Africa, Russia and Norway. Norway is an important supplier of gas, but may be vulnerable to competition. The demand for gas is increasing on a global basis and the largest increase is expected in Asia, followed by America and Europe. It is expected that Norwegian gas deliveries will be a principle source of natural gas for North Europe in the next years and that they will take an increasing part of the British market as the gas deliveries from the British shelf is going down. The European gas market is likely to become liberalized according to the EU's competition- and gas directives. This will not necessarily be a problem, and Norway may be able to increase the export of gas to Great Britain considerably from the year 2010, perhaps up to 40 billion standard m3 per year. Russia is expected to take an increased share of the European gas market, especially in East- and Central Europe, Germany and North Italy. But large investments in existing fields, new developments and new strategic pipelines are necessary

  10. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  11. Insight conference proceedings : natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The state of Quebec's energy industry was discussed at this conference. Quebec's energy market is distinct by the diversity of its clients, the resource exploitation sector and its types of industries. As such, the energy needs are specific and the strategies for developing natural gas should be adapted to meet these needs. This conference focused on recent energy policy developments at Quebec's Office of Energy and other regulatory bodies. Topics of discussion included the risks and opportunities of the natural gas export market; volatile gas prices; public consultation processes; perspectives of large energy consumers; hydrocarbon potential and exploration in Quebec; natural gas exploration and development in Quebec; energy security and strategies to address carbon dioxide emissions. Other topics of discussion included the investment climate in Quebec; the profitability of Canada's oil and gas sector and refining capacity in Quebec. The conference featured 17 presentations, of which 6 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Natural gas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  13. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  14. Natural gas and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to energy security by natural gas supply seen in an International Energy Agency perspective. Topics are: Security of supply, what is it; the role gas on the European energy scene; short term security of supply; long term security of supply; future structural and regulatory developments and possible implications for security of supply. 6 figs

  15. The Pricing of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2004-11-01

    The report focuses on the pricing of natural gas. The motivation has been the wish of the Norwegian authorities to increase the use of natural gas and that this should follow market conditions. The pricing of gas occurs at present in various ways in the different markets. The report identifies to main factors behind the pricing. 1) The type of market i.e. how far the liberalization of the gas markets has gone in the various countries. 2) The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies. The gas markets are undergoing as the energy markets in general, a liberalization process where the traditional monopoly based market structures are replaced by markets based on competition. There are great differences in the liberalization development of the various countries, which is reflected in the various pricing principles applied for the trade of gas in the countries. The analysis shows that the net-back-pricing is predominant in some countries i.e. that the price is in various ways indexed towards and follow the development of the price of alternative energy carriers so that the gas may be able to compete. The development towards trade places for gas where the pricing is based on offer and demand is already underway. As the liberalization of the European gas markets progresses it is expected that the gas price will be determined increasingly at spot markets instead of through bilateral agreements between monopolistic corporations. The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies and to what extent this may influence the gas prices in the future, are also studied. There seem to be effects that may pull in both directions but it is evident that these political variables will influence the gas pricing in the international market to a large extent and thereby also the future internal natural gas market

  16. Start using the natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions and the Norwegian Labour Party set down a committee to investigate the application potential for the Norwegian natural gas and to develop a strategy for its use. This report presents their conclusions. It discusses (1) The increased value added through product development in which natural gas is the resource, (2) What must be done to land offshore pipelines at strategic places along the coast, (3) Increased use of gas/hydrogen in the transportation sector, (4) A more environmentally friendly energy policy, (5) Point out areas in which Norway may play a leading role in the future. The committee concludes that (1) The domestic use of natural gas should cover 10% of the total production within ten years, (2) A state-owned company that invests in infrastructure for gas distribution should be established, (3) Prepare fore increased use of natural gas within the constraints imposed by international climate commitments, (4) An active transition to more environmentally friendly use of natural gas, (5) Increased public priority to electrification of the North Sea activities as an environmental project in a class by itself, (6) A company shall be established for the development of environmentally friendly energy technology, (7) Increased utilization of carbon dioxide as an industrial by-product, without adverse environmental consequences

  17. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  18. Emergence of a turbulent cascade in a quantum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, Nir; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2016-11-01

    A central concept in the modern understanding of turbulence is the existence of cascades of excitations from large to small length scales, or vice versa. This concept was introduced in 1941 by Kolmogorov and Obukhov, and such cascades have since been observed in various systems, including interplanetary plasmas, supernovae, ocean waves and financial markets. Despite much progress, a quantitative understanding of turbulence remains a challenge, owing to the interplay between many length scales that makes theoretical simulations of realistic experimental conditions difficult. Here we observe the emergence of a turbulent cascade in a weakly interacting homogeneous Bose gas—a quantum fluid that can be theoretically described on all relevant length scales. We prepare a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical box, drive it out of equilibrium with an oscillating force that pumps energy into the system at the largest length scale, study its nonlinear response to the periodic drive, and observe a gradual development of a cascade characterized by an isotropic power-law distribution in momentum space. We numerically model our experiments using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and find excellent agreement with the measurements. Our experiments establish the uniform Bose gas as a promising new medium for investigating many aspects of turbulence, including the interplay between vortex and wave turbulence, and the relative importance of quantum and classical effects.

  19. French natural gas industry statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The opening of the French natural gas market is effective since August 2000. In this context, some information, which were published in the past, have become confidential and strategic and can no longer be revealed. The data published in this 2004 edition concern only the years 2001 and 2002 for which data are available. The year 2000 inquiry could not be exploited. A first part presents the natural gas industry in France (consumption, supplies, production, storage, distribution, definition of gases, information sources, energy equivalence, map of transportation networks, storage, compression and production facilities). The statistical data are summarized in the second part in the form of tables: resources and uses in 1999, 2001 and 2002; sectoral use of the network distributed gas since 1972; regional distribution of gas production; domestic production and imports since 1972; sectoral distribution of network gas supplies; pipelines and distribution systems; personnel in the gas industry; gas supplies in 2002; supplies to the residential-tertiary sector in 2002; supplies to the industry in 2002; regional supplies in 2002; share of gas supplies per use in each region; regional distribution of gas supplies for each use. A comparison between the 2002 inquiry results and the provisional status is given in appendix. The 2002 energy status and the 2002 questionnaire are also given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  20. Europe's future is natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Western Europe, with its substantial intraregional gas exports and imports, and its imports from outside the region, is a hub of international gas trading. Steel pipelines with diameters to 56 in. have proven to be a technically appropriate, cost-efficient system for the large-scale transportation of natural gas. In 1990, 74% of the trade in international markets was moved through pipelines. Worldwide, more than 800,000 miles of high-pressure gas pipelines are in operation. Laid end to end, these lines would stretch 30 times around the equator. The future progress for pipeline construction in Europe depends on the development of gas demand and the avenues open to the European gas industry to meet this demand

  1. Natural gas and deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2001-01-01

    The gas market is progressively moving towards new organizations under the effect of the deregulation initiated in the United States, the United Kingdom and transposed to other countries, particularly in Europe, at least for the member countries of the European union. Within the framework provided by this overall trend, Cedigaz proposes this study in order to describe the main developments affecting these markets on account of deregulation. This report is structured on the basis of three main topics (market organization, marketing modes, pricing) which appear to be the most cogent in terms of deregulation. This grouping by major topics accordingly offers a relatively synthetic view of the main trends which could be observed on the European market, for example. Our analysis is largely based on the example of the American market and, to a lesser extent, on the British situation. Whenever possible, concrete examples are provided for a closer understanding of this complex subject. On the whole, deregulation is not a frozen process, but has to adapt permanently to developments in a market stage-managed by politics, the regulator and the industrial players. This obviously means a dynamic and constantly evolving process, making it a highly complex process. This report aims to shed some light on the subject. (author)

  2. Turbulence modification and multiphase turbulence transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, D.C.; Kataoka, I.; Serizawa, A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown here that in the derivation of turbulence transport models for multiphase flows, terms naturally appear that can be interpreted as related to turbulence modification of one field by the other. We obtain two such terms, one suggesting turbulence enhancement due to instabilities in two-phase flow, the second one showing turbulence damping due to the presence of the other field, both in gas-particle and gas-liquid cases

  3. Effect of air turbulence on gas transport in soil; comparison of approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbakhtiar, Alireza; Papadikis, Konstantinos; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Bridge, Jonathan; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    turbulence. They are more similar to natural conditions and also the lower layers of soil are affecting the diffusion and dispersion coefficients of soil in the upper layers. Power spectrum density is calculated for all the all wind conditions to determine strength vibration of all the wind speeds and its relation to gas transport. Differential pressure for different wind conditions are measured at two sides of samples. References Oertel, C., Matschullat, J., Zurba, K., Zimmermann, F. & Erasmi, S. 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from soils—A review. Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, 76, 327-352. Poulsen, T.G., Christophersen, M., Moldrup, P. & Kjeldsen, P. 2001. Modeling lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to old landfill. Journal of Environmental Engineering (ASCE), 127, 145-153.

  4. The economics of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, D.; Mashayekhi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Natural gas resembles oil in fulfilling a wide variety of uses as both a source of energy and a feedstock, but the proportion of world production that is traded internationally is very much lower, and insufficient for a world price of gas to be established. Written specifically for economists interested in energy, development and industrial economics; oil and gas industry personnel; officials of developing countries; and intergovernmental organizations concerned with development. This book addresses the issues of how the economic price of gas is determined within individual countries with different characteristics and which factors should be taken into account by governments in the formulation of pricing policies that are appropriate for gas. These are illustrated with estimates of the costs of exploration and production of gas, and of the benefits to be derived from its use in various economic sectors for a number of Third World countries. The book also presents a detailed case study of the development of gas pricing in Bangladesh, and an analytical framework for the development of a formal gas planning model that could be applied to the cases of actual countries contemplating the development of gas use in the future

  5. Experimental Study of Gas Explosions in Hydrogen Sulfide-Natural Gas-Air Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vagner Gaathaug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of turbulent combustion of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and natural gas was performed to provide reference data for verification of CFD codes and direct comparison. Hydrogen sulfide is present in most crude oil sources, and the explosion behaviour of pure H2S and mixtures with natural gas is important to address. The explosion behaviour was studied in a four-meter-long square pipe. The first two meters of the pipe had obstacles while the rest was smooth. Pressure transducers were used to measure the combustion in the pipe. The pure H2S gave slightly lower explosion pressure than pure natural gas for lean-to-stoichiometric mixtures. The rich H2S gave higher pressure than natural gas. Mixtures of H2S and natural gas were also studied and pressure spikes were observed when 5% and 10% H2S were added to natural gas and also when 5% and 10% natural gas were added to H2S. The addition of 5% H2S to natural gas resulted in higher pressure than pure H2S and pure natural gas. The 5% mixture gave much faster combustion than pure natural gas under fuel rich conditions.

  6. Green future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallardi, P.

    1991-01-01

    A sectoral analysis of current trends in the use of natural gas in Italy shows that this energy source, now estimated to be covering 23.7% of total Italian national energy requirements, is fulfilling its role as an environmentally compatible, low cost and readily available energy alternative well suited to alleviate Italy's worrisome over-dependence on foreign supplied oil and reduce the severity of the urban air pollution problem (it being a low nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide emitting, non-sulfur containing fuel). This paper expands this theme by giving a complete panorama of the natural gas market in Italy, sector by sector, and by coupling projections on the expected increased use of this energy source (as mandated by the National Energy Plan) with estimates of consequent reductions in air pollution based on a comparative analysis of fuel oil versus natural gas combustion

  7. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  8. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  9. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian, E-mail: camila@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Niceno, Bojan, E-mail: bojan.niceno@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety

    2013-07-01

    After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 15}. Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu{sub i}). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v{sup 2} -f (commonly called as v{sup 2}-f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)

  10. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10 8 to 10 15 . Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu i ). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v 2 -f (commonly called as v 2 -f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)

  11. Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Natural Convection In A Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omri, Mohamed; Galanis, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    CFD codes are used extensively to analyse complex flow fields with heat and/or mass transfer, chemical reactions, etc. It is therefore necessary to continuously compare their predictions with experimental values in order to test their validity and eventually improve them. In this work, numerical predictions of turbulent natural convection in a square differentially heated cavity are analysed. Results are confronted to the detailed experimental data of [2] and [1] obtained with a Rayleigh number of 1.5x10^9. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the capacity of second order models to reproduce mean and fluctuating quantities. Thus, we first analyse mean velocities and mean temperature profiles. Then particular attention is given to turbulent quantities. Also, we compare the local Nusselt number along the four walls with the corresponding experimental values. Moreover five different grids are used (50x50, 100x100x100, 150x150, 200x200 and 300x300) to analyse grid-sensitivity. [1] Ampofo F.; Karayiannis T.G. (2003). Experimental benchmark data for turbulent natural convection in an air filled square cavity. Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer. [2] Tian Y.S.; Karayiannis T.G. (2000) Low turbulence natural convection in an air filled square cavity. Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer.

  12. Technology characterization: liquified natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    A technology characterization for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was made. The scope of work was confined to a literature review of LNG processes including natural gas production, liquefaction, and revaporization. The work was divided into five major categories as follows: (1) status of LNG projects, (2) general process description, (3) environmental aspects, (4) safety, and (5) economics. Each of these categories forms a major heading for this report. In addition, an LNG reference system of 250 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD) is included in the report at Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne) request. Information concerning this system was derived from other LNG systems in the literature. The report does not include an assessment of the market potential for the product gas or its end use. Published cost estimates in the literature have been identified but the original cost estimates have not been provided. Plant layouts, conceptual designs, and socioeconomic analysis are not provided.

  13. The natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This document aims to present the trumps of the natural gas for vehicle (NGV). It discusses the particularities, the actions of the government in favor of the NGV by the creation of financial and legal incentives and the challenges. A detail description of the financial and fiscal assistances and the regulation references are given. (A.L.B.)

  14. Natural gas news; Gaz actualites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    This brochure is a compilation of practical information concerning the Gaz de France group: organization chart, daughter companies, services, economical activity, natural gas market, trade, regulations etc. A list of partners, directions, centres, groups, associations and other various organisms in relation with Gaz de France company is given. (J.S.)

  15. The European Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.

    The European Union started the introduction of competition in the European market for natural gas. Today, mid-2016, the process of restructuring is still going on. In parallel, important changes in geopolitical, environmental and technological determinants can be observed in the European and global

  16. Natural gas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    Everywhere in the world plans are being made to stimulate the natural gas industry in developing countries. High investment costs are the biggest problem almost everywhere. Even countries with a closed economy realize that they do not get far without foreign capital. Cases are presented for Africa, Pakistan, and Indonesia

  17. North American natural gas vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app.

  18. North American natural gas vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app

  19. The natural gas supply of united Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1992-01-01

    One cannot classify and describe the developments in the natural gas sector in Germany without reference to the environment. The natural gas economy is now international. The prospects for the demand for natural gas are dealt with, taking into account any energy taxation. The market share, occurrence of natural gas and prospects for obtention are described. (DG) [de

  20. Future perspective for CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Driving on natural gas (CNG, Compressed Natural Gas) has been the talk of the industry for many years now. Although the benefits of natural gas as an engine fuel have become well-known, this phenomenon does not seem to gain momentum in the Netherlands. Over the last few months, however, the attitude towards CNG seems to be changing. Energy companies are increasingly engaged in commercial activities, e.g. selling natural gas at petrol stations, an increasing number of car manufacturers are delivering natural gas vehicles ex-works, and recently the NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) Holland platform was set up for the unequivocal marketing of natural gas as an engine fuel

  1. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  2. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  3. Natural gas supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegrouche, L.

    1992-01-01

    The geopolitical events over the last two years are such that the present natural gas supply schemes risk being overthrown. Recourse, to satisfy future European demands, to additional volumes coming from outlying sources will inevitably force the actors to define new strategies and to reconsider the reorganization of the transmission system' structure. Besides, the use of their capacities is closely bound to supply flexibility. At the same time, the saturation of the production and transmission capacities within the nearby outkirts combined with the purchasers' resolve to diversify their supply sources will undoubtedly shift the dynamics of the natural gas supply to potential sources and their access costs before the end of the century. 24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs., 4 maps

  4. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  5. Canadian natural gas price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1998-01-01

    The basic factors that influenced NYMEX gas prices during the winter of 1997/1998 - warm temperatures, low fuel prices, new production in the Gulf of Mexico, and the fact that forecasters had predicted a mild spring due to El Nino - were reviewed. However, it was noted that for the last 18 months the basic factors had less of an impact on market direction because of an increase in Fund and technical trader participation. Overall, gas prices were strong through most of the year. For the winter of 1998-1999 the prediction was that NYMEX gas prices will remain below $2.00 through to the end of October 1998 because of high U.S. storage levels and moderate temperatures. NYMEX gas prices are expected to peak in January 1999 at $3.25. AECO natural gas prices were predicted to decrease in the short term because of increasing levels of Canadian storage, and because of delays in Northern Border pipeline expansions. It was also predicted that AECO prices will peak in January 1999 and will remain relatively strong through the summer of 1999. tabs., figs

  6. Natural gas in coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, A.I.; Voytov, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    The special importance is noted of the problem of computing and careful use of the energy raw material, coal, oil and natural gases. An examination is made of the mechanism for the formation of carboniferous gases in the beds with the use of the model of coal macromolecule. A schematic section is presented for the coal field and plan for vertical gas zonality. The change in chemical composition of the natural gases with depth is governed by the countermovement of the natural gases: from top to bottom the gases of the earth's atmosphere move, mainly oxygenand nitrogen, from bottom to top, the gases of metamorphic and deep origin. Constant isotope composition of the carbon in the fossil coals is noted. The distribution of the quanitity deltaC/sup 13/ of carbon in the fossil coals of the Donets basin is illustrated. The gas content of the coal beds and gas reserves are discussed. The flowsheet is shown for the unit for degasification of the coal bed before the cleaning face.

  7. Radiation energy devaluation in diffusion combusting flows of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhanlall, Deodat; Munda, Josiah L.; Jiang, Peixue

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) is used to evaluate the thermodynamic second-law effects of thermal radiation in turbulent diffusion natural gas flames. Radiative heat transfer processes in gas and at solid walls are identified as important causes of energy devaluation in the combusting flows. The thermodynamic role of thermal radiation cannot be neglected when compared to that of heat conduction and convection, mass diffusion, chemical reactions, and viscous dissipation. An energy devaluation number is also defined, with which the optimum fuel–air equivalence for combusting flows can be determined. The optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio for a natural gas flame is determined to be 0.7. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic effects of thermal radiation in combusting flows analyzed. • General equation for second-law analyses of combusting flows extended. • Optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio determined for natural gas flame

  8. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  9. Natural gas as public service; Gas natural como servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Breno Vincius de; Franca, Vladimir da Rocha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Natural Gas passes through an outbreak of enormous growth in Brazil. Important in several economies in the world and is one of the main components of the energy matrix of various countries, including neighbouring Southern Cone, such as Argentina and Bolivia, he begins to own as a major viable alternatives to replace oil, along with alcohol and biodiesel. When the distribution of the gas flowing, this should be governed by a system of public law, according to the principles governing the administration, is emphasizing the principle of continuity, efficiency, and generally modest, because this is public service, and how to see this be seen on a strong regulation of the Member States of the Federation, which has the power to provide them directly or by concession. (author)

  10. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  11. Natural Gas Storage Facilities, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Platts Natural Gas Storage Facilities geospatial data layer contains points that represent locations of facilities used for natural gas storage in the United...

  12. On natural gas pricing reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aolin Hu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since April 1, 2015, for those non-residential gas users, the stock gas and incremental gas prices have been unified, and direct-supply gas prices have been released. This means that natural gas pricing reform has entered a new stage of development in China. In view of this, we first summarized and analyzed the achievements, status quo and existing problems in natural gas pricing reform in recent years in China. Then, we made an overview on the global natural gas pricing and marketing experiences and domestic situation in natural gas sector. On this basis, we presented the following proposals and implement approaches to ultimately achieving the market-oriented reform of natural gas pricing in China. First, the ex-factory prices for those residential gas users will be adjusted, which should be differentiated from those for the non-residential gas users. Second, the present natural gas pricing mechanism should be perfected with pipeline fees and gas storage fees being both added. Third, an integrated natural gas pricing system should be improved with differential prices implemented. Fourth, natural gas spot transaction should be promoted and energy measurement in gas metering and pricing should also be put into practice.

  13. Natural gas projects, strategies and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, G.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of some of the posters presented during the WOC 9 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress: natural gas in the new worldwide energy balance; eastern Russia: the last gas projects; the new underwater technologies and the availability of natural gas. (J.S.)

  14. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. TTF stirs market for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyboom, W.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the Dutch company Air Products switched from Gasterra to the virtual gas market place TTF, taking along several of its own clients. Gasterra thus lost a major client for high calorific gas. The gas market is in full motion. TitleTransfer Facility is a virtual market place of the operator of the Dutch natural gas transport grid, Gas Transport Services. [mk] [nl

  16. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  17. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  18. New opportunities for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the prospect of extremely low gas prices - approaching $1.00 per million Btu (MMBtu) on a seasonal basis - is frightening many producers. The presence of large gas inventories only serves to intensify these fears. Threats of declining market conditions stir the question: How should producers react to these prices? On the score, the experts advise: One of the first rules of playing the power game is that all bad news must be accepted calmly as if one already knew and didn't much care. Although stated jokingly, there is a kernel of truth to the suggestion. Having thought through the adversities involved in the worst case scenario - and for natural gas producers and other industry participants, those adversities are formidable - companies may be better prepared to adapt to the worst case, should it happen to materialize. Here, the bad news is that CERA foresees serious near-term perils that could route the industry toward that worst case. The good news is that long-term prospects provide a cause for optimism

  19. Natural gas conversion. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, E.; Spivey, J.J.; Fleisch, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volume. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings. The titles of the contributions are: Impact of syngas generation technology selection on a GTL FPSO; Methane conversion via microwave plasma initiated by a metal initiator; Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts; Catalyst-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of light paraffins in short contact time reactors; Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane over a PtSn/SiO 2 catalyst with oxygen addition: selective oxidation of H2 in the presence of hydrocarbons; Hydroconversion of a mixture of long chain n-paraffins to middle distillate: effect of the operating parameters and products properties; Decomposition/reformation processes and CH4 combustion activity of PdO over Al2O3 supported catalysts for gas turbine applications; Lurgi's mega-methanol technology opens the door for a new era in down-stream applications;Expanding markets for GTL fuels and specialty products; Some critical issues in the analysis of partial oxidation reactions in monolith reactors

  20. On natural gas pricing reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Aolin; Dong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Since April 1, 2015, for those non-residential gas users, the stock gas and incremental gas prices have been unified, and direct-supply gas prices have been released. This means that natural gas pricing reform has entered a new stage of development in China. In view of this, we first summarized and analyzed the achievements, status quo and existing problems in natural gas pricing reform in recent years in China. Then, we made an overview on the global natural gas pricing and marketing experie...

  1. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  2. Natural gas industry R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed significant developments in engineering relative to the distribution and use of natural gas. This paper reviews these developments which, in natural gas distribution, include - polyethylene conduits, the use of radar to trace buried conduits, telemetering, innovative pressure reducing techniques and equipment, optimized retrofitting of buried pipelines, leak detection techniques, and energy recovery systems applied to pressure reducing operations. Relative to the efficient combustion and new uses of natural gas, the paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the design of compact wall mounted gas fired boilers for building space heating, gas fuelled space heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, and natural gas fed fuel cells

  3. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Jin Kwon

    1997-01-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  4. Natural gas supply and demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The outlook for U.S. natural gas supply and demand in the residential, commercial, industrial/cogeneration, electricity and transportation sectors for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 was presented. A summary of gas well completions from 1990 to 1997 was also provided. The Canadian natural gas resource was estimated at 184 trillion cubic feet. In 1996, Canada produced 5.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, half of which was exported to the U.S. New pipeline projects have been proposed to transport natural gas from eastern offshore areas and the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A table representing U.S. and Canada gas trade from 1990 to 1997 and a map of proposed Canadian and U.S. natural gas pipeline routes were also included. Looking into the future, this speaker predicted continued volatility in natural gas prices. 9 tabs., 9 figs

  5. Natural gas supply in Denmark - A model of natural gas transmission and the liberalized gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregnbaek, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the liberalization of European energy markets a large area of research has spawned. This area includes the development of mathematical models to analyze the impact of liberalization with respect to efficiency, supply security and environment, to name but a few subjects. This project describes the development of such a model. In Denmark the parallel liberalization of the markets of natural gas and electricity and the existence of an abundance of de-centralized combined heat and power generators of which most are natural gas fired, leads to the natural assumption that the future holds a greater deal of interdependency for these markets. A model is developed describing network flows in the natural gas transmission system, the main arteries of natural gas supply, from a technical viewpoint. This yields a technical bounding on the supply available in different parts of the country. Additionally the economic structure of the Danish natural gas market is formulated mathematically giving a description of the transmission, distribution and storage options available to the market. The supply and demand of natural gas is put into a partial equilibrium context by integrating the developed model with the Balmorel model, which describes the markets for electricity and district heat. Specifically on the demand side the consumption of natural gas for heat and power generation is emphasized. General results and three demonstration cases are presented to illustrate how the developed model can be used to analyze various energy policy issues, and to disclose the strengths and weaknesses in the formulation. (au)

  6. A miniaturized optical gas sensor for natural gas analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of domestic reserves and the growing use of sustainable resources forces a transition from the locally produced natural gas with a well-known composition toward the ‘new’ gas with a more flexible composition in the Netherlands. For safe combustion and proper billing, the natural gas

  7. Gravitational fragmentation in turbulent primordial gas and the initial mass function of Population III stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul C.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Glover, Simon C.O.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bromm, Volker; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2010-08-25

    . This prompts the need for a large, high-resolution study of the formation of dark matter minihalos that is capable of resolving the turbulent flows in the gas at the moment when the baryons become self-gravitating. This would help determine which, if any, of the initial conditions presented in our study are realized in nature.

  8. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... state status in accordance with 33 U.S.C. 1508(a)(2). Summary of the Application Liberty Natural Gas...

  9. Natural gas: redistributing the economic surplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Pinto Junior, H.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The natural gas has a limited role in the Brazilian energy balance. This role in industrial countries and some developing countries is much more important. Historically this contrasting situation can be explained by the limited natural gas reserves Brazil used to have. Since the oil crisis however the Brazilian natural gas reserves increased substantially without a similar increase in the role of natural gas in the energy balance. The existing institutional arrangement generates a struggle for the economic rent generated by natural gas production and consumption that seems to be at the core of this question. Our paper estimates the economic rent generated by natural gas in Brazil and its distribution among producers and consumers: it points toward a new institutional arrangement that could arguably, generate a new role for the natural gas in the Brazilian energy balance. (author)

  10. An investigation of implicit turbulence modeling for laminar-turbulent transition in natural convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunggang; Tsubokura, Makoto; Wang, Weihsiang

    2017-11-01

    The automatic dissipation adjustment (ADA) model based on truncated Navier-Stokes equations is utilized to investigate the feasibility of using implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) with ADA model on the transition in natural convection. Due to the high Rayleigh number coming from the larger temperature difference (300K), Roe scheme modified for low Mach numbers coordinating ADA model is used to resolve the complicated flow field. Based on the qualitative agreement of the comparisons with DNS and experimental results and the capability of numerically predicating a -3 decay law for the temporal power spectrum of the temperature fluctuation, this study thus validates the feasibility of ILES with ADA model on turbulent natural convection. With the advantages of ease of implementation because no explicit modeling terms are needed and nearly free of tuning parameters, ADA model offers to become a promising tool for turbulent thermal convection. Part of the results is obtained using the K computer at the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (Proposal number hp160232).

  11. Trends in natural gas distribution and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, C.F.A.

    1993-01-01

    On the occasion of the GAS EXPO 93, to be held from 13-15 October 1993 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, an overview is given of trends in the distribution of natural gas and the measuring of natural gas, as noted by experts from the energy utilities, GASTEC and Gasunie in the Netherlands. With regard to the natural gas distribution trends attention is paid to synthetic materials, the environmental effects, maintenance, underground natural gas pressure control, horizontal drilling (no-dig techniques), and other trends. With regard to natural gas metering trends brief discussions are given of the direct energy meter, the search for a new gas meter in households, telemetering, improving the accuracy of the gas meters by means of electronics, on the spot calibration of large gas meters, the use of an online chromatograph to determine the calorific value, the development of a calibration instrument, the so-called piston prover, to measure large quantities of natural gas, the recalibration of natural gas stations, the ultrasonic gas meter, and finally the quality of the natural gas supply. 1 fig., 11 ills

  12. Natural gas vehicles. An option for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, Hella; Horn, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas vehicles are widespread. Some countries foster natural gas vehicles because they have own gas resources. Many countries must reduce the high air pollution in big cities. Environmental reasons are the main motive for the use of natural gas vehicles in Europe. In last years, high oil prices stimulated the use of natural gas as fuel. European governments have developed incentives (e.g. tax reductions) to foster natural gas vehicles. However, the focus is on hybrid technology and the electric car, which, however, need further technical improvement. In contrast, the use of natural gas in conventional engines is technically mature. Additional gas imports can be avoided by further improvements of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. In sum, the market penetration of natural gas as fuel should be promoted in Europe. (author)

  13. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  14. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  15. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  16. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided

  17. Natural gas applications in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs

  18. Guidelines For Evaluation Of Natural Gas Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is objected to give guidelines for natural gas projects appraisal These guidelines are summarized in modeling of natural gas demand forecast and energy pricing policies for different gas consumers mainly in the manufacturing, mining, transport, trade and agriculture sectors. Analysis of the results is made through sensitivity analysis and decision support system ( DSS )

  19. Application of two-equation turbulence models to turbulent gas flow heated by a high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    Heat transfer in heated turbulent gas flow is analyzed using two-equation turbulence models. Four kinds of two-equation models are examined; that is, k-epsilon model by Jones-Launder, k-w model by Wilcox-Traci, k-kL model by Rotta, k-ω model by Saffman-Wilcox. The results are compared with more than ten experiments by seven authors. The k-kL model proposed originally by Rotta and modified by the present author is found to give relatively the best results. It well predicts the decrease in the heat transfer coefficient found in the heated turbulent gas flow; however, it fails to predict the laminarization due to a strong heating. (author)

  20. Development of natural gas ocean transportation chain by means of natural gas hydrate (NGH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, T.; Oya, N.; Ishida, H.; Matsumoto, H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies in Japan have suggested that natural gas hydrate (NGH) transportation of natural gas is more economical than liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation systems for small, medium and remote gas fields. Researchers in Japan have built a 600 kg per day NGH production and pelletizing plant and regasification facility. This paper discussed feasibility studies conducted in southeast Asia to determine the unit's commercialization potential with large natural gas-related businesses including shipping companies and electric power utilities. The total supply chain was compared with the corresponding liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) supply chains. The study also examined natural gas reserves, energy policies, the positioning of natural gas supplies, and future forecasts of natural gas demand. A conceptual design for an NGH supply chain in Indonesia was presented. Results of the study have demonstrated that the NGH chain is an appropriate and economically feasible transportation method for many areas in southeast Asia. 8 refs., 10 figs

  1. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years

  2. Natural gas dehydration by desiccant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A.A. Farag

    2011-12-01

    Increasing water vapor concentration in inlet feed gas leads to a marked decrease in dehydration efficiency. As expected, a higher inlet flow rate of natural gas decrease dehydration efficiency. Increasing feed pressure leads to higher dehydration efficiency.

  3. Natural gas is more than gas power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Through the Statpipe gas line at Karmoey, Norway supplies 20% of the natural gas on the European market. The pipeline is 'leaking' a little bit of gas to the local communities at Karmoey and Haugesund. These communities have replaced 65% of their oil consumption with natural gas, which is a fine contribution to a better environment. The supplier of the natural gas, Gasnor ASA in this case, claims an energy efficiency of 90% at the end user because the gas burns directly and the loss in the pipeline is minimal. The efficiency of natural gas utilisation is twice that of the planned gas power stations in West-Norway, subtracting the losses in the electrical network. Gasnor ASA competes with oil suppliers and, if necessary, with electric utilities. The county hospital at Haugesund is quoted as an example. The hospital has two large boilers with dual fuel burners. They have been using natural gas since 1998 because it was worth while both economically and environmentally. The use of natural gas in the transport sector would be very important, but the necessary infrastructure is very little developed. For instance, five diesel-powered ferries on the Boknafjord emit as much NOx as the planned gas power plant at Kaarstoe

  4. Experimental study on gas-liquid bubbly turbulent flow in a large square duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haomin; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Hideo

    2012-11-01

    Gas-liquid bubbly turbulent flow exists in many industrial areas. Therefore, many experiments for gas-liquid bubbly turbulent flow have been carried out in circular pipes for bubbly turbulent flow model. However, the cross-section of many flow passages are not the circular shape. Since the secondary flow of 2nd kind for single phase turbulent flow in a non-circular duct is well-known, the interaction between the secondary flow of 2nd kind and bubbles in gas-liquid bubbly turbulent flow in the non-circular duct could play an important role. In this study, in order to validate gas-liquid bubbly turbulent flow model in the non-circular duct, measurements were performed in a large square (136 mm × 136 mm) duct with duct length of 2.8m. The distributions of primary velocity, void fraction and turbulent Reynolds stresses were measured by a hot film probe. It is well-known that the primary velocity distribution of the bubbly flow in a circular pipe has a peak in the pipe center. In contrast, it was found that the primary velocity peaked near the corner of the square duct. In addition, primary velocity distribution changes under various flow conditions were discussed by measuring data of the void fraction and turbulent Reynolds stresses. Financially Supported by JSPS and G-COE Program(J-051).

  5. Mathematical models of natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabo, Kristian; Scitovski, Rudolf; Vazler, Ivan; Zekic-Susac, Marijana

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of natural gas consumption hourly forecast on the basis of hourly movement of temperature and natural gas consumption in the preceding period. There are various methods and approaches for solving this problem in the literature. Some mathematical models with linear and nonlinear model functions relating to natural gas consumption forecast with the past natural gas consumption data, temperature data and temperature forecast data are mentioned. The methods are tested on concrete examples referring to temperature and natural gas consumption for the area of the city of Osijek (Croatia) from the beginning of the year 2008. The results show that most acceptable forecast is provided by mathematical models in which natural gas consumption and temperature are related explicitly.

  6. Natural gas for New Brunswick: First report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The development of the gas field off Sable Island and the imminent construction of a gas pipeline which will deliver natural gas to New Brunswick has prompted a thorough examination of energy-related issues in the province. This report presents the findings of the provincial energy committee which examined the implications of the arrival of natural gas to the province. The committee held a series of public hearings and consultations, and also received written submissions. After a historical perspective on natural gas as an energy source in the province and a review of the gas industry participants and their interests, the report discusses such issues as gas pipeline economics, local distribution company operations, infrastructure development, the regulatory framework, energy market competition, regional price equity, development of in-province gas sources, pipeline access, pipeline laterals and expansions, establishment of gas distribution franchises, municipal involvement in gas development, the impact of gas industry development on electric utility restructuring, and the environmental benefits of natural gas. Finally, recommendations are made regarding how natural gas should be regulated and distributed

  7. Market penetration of natural gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of restricting natural gas to noble uses (directive of EEC and endorsed by the IEA) impeded gas expansion despite substantial upward revisions in the assessment of available resources. However, increasing environmental concern slowly but gradually undermines this strategy because natural gas serves as a substitute for costly abatement. This article discusses the prospect of future natural gas consumption considering economic and ecological facts as well as strategic and political considerations. In fact, we argue that inconsistent political interventions first seriously lowered gas penetration but now favor its use

  8. North American natural gas price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding future natural gas prices for North America were discussed. Various aspects of the issue including the relationship between storage, weather and prices, received attention. It was noted that strong demand-growth will be needed to support near-term Canadian export increases without price declines. The issue of Gulf Coast production was also discussed. Power generation using natural gas as fuel is expected to support strong growth in the demand for natural gas. tabs., figs

  9. Natural gas vehicles in Europe: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettori, P.; Merigo, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper tables numerous statistical data to evidence that whereas the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel for private and public vehicles is growing in Asia, North and South America, in Europe this trend is currently being followed only in Italy. However, with the relatively recent expansion of the European Communities' natural gas distribution network, coupled with growing interest in this fuel as a cost effective and environmentally compatible alternative to petroleum, the demand for natural gas automotive fuels is expected to increase even in this continent. The trucking industry in particular should derive significant benefits from the switch to natural gas

  10. Hydrate Technology For Transporting Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is a viable alternative to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) or pipelines for the transportation of natural gas from source to demand. It involves three stages: production, transportation and re-gasification. The production of the hydrate occurs at pressures >50 bar at temperatures ~10oC in the presence of water and natural gas (particularly methane, ethane, propane). Transportation is by insulated bulk carrier at around –5 oC and atmospheric pressure or 0 oC at 10 bar, an...

  11. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  12. Evaluation And Analysis of Natural Gas Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Ali Akbar

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas is considered as a preferred fuel and its utility is growing every day in the country (Iran). The usage of natural gas has increased from 3.5 to 44 billion cubic meters from 1980 to 1997, respectively. Currently, 4 million residences and most of the industrial sector are being provided with the pipelined natural gas. Because of the tremendous increase in consumption, it is necessary to give the needed considerations to natural gas rate structure. The objective of the paper is to 1.Evaluate the fundamentals and principal methods used for rate structures. 2. Identification of effective components. 3. Analyze the current rates including connection fees and other customer charges

  13. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today's natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Outlook for Noth American natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The underlying resource base for North America natural gas is large, sufficient for nearly 100 years of current consumption. As such, the issues are not the size of the resource, but how to convert this resource into economically competitive supply. The key questions are: Will the cost (price) of natural gas remain competitive? What is the status of near-term deliverability? Will there be enough supply to meet growing demand? These economic and market issues frame the outlook for gas supplies in North America. Most importantly, they will determine how natural gas emerges from its competition for markets with other fuels and electricity. The paper addresses these questions by examining: (1) the underlying nature of the natural gas resource base; (2) the current status and trends in deliverability; and, (3) the potential of new technologies for producing gas more cost-effectively. (author)

  18. The economy of natural gas; De economie van het gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtens, B. [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-03-08

    The Dutch government uses the benefits of natural gas especially for public consumption expenditures. Re-establishment of a natural gas fund would lead to productive investment and create a more prosperous Dutch economy [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid gebruikt de aardgasbaten nu met name voor consumptieve overheidsbestedingen. Heroprichting van een aardgasfonds zou tot productieve investeringen leiden en Nederland welvarender maken.

  19. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines......Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  20. Biodesulphurization Within Natural Gas in Oil and Gas Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur compounds in natural gas can interfere to the quality of natural gas. The decline of combustion gas capacity, metal instrument corrosion in gas piping, and the environmental pollution from gas emission can affect by their presence. Bio-filter is one of the methods  that selected to reduce sulphur content in natural gas. A lab scale study of hydrogen sulphide reduction in natural gas had conducted in oil and gas field using bio-filter method. The bio-filter system (±1 L volume contains an active carbon and thiosulphide medium as a substrate, Thiobacillus thioparus as a single culture of sulphur bacteria, and Thiobacillus thioparus with sludge as a mixed culture of sulphur bacteria. The study of hydrogen sulphide reduction was conducted with continuous flow line process. The gas flow rate approximately 1.5 L/min with a fluctuate presence of Hydrogen sulphide (approximately 40 - 70 mg/L. The bio-filter system contains active carbon, thiosulphide medium, and single culture of T. thioparus appear as a good filter for hydrogen sulphide reduction. During 24 hours, the hydrogen sulphide reduction obtains 93% to 16%. When  culture media added, the hydrogen sulphide reduction will increase almost 60% and then the reduction decrease to 4% after 20 hours. It is concluded that the bio-filter have potential to develop for sulphur reduction in natural gas.

  1. Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including  physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...

  2. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports

  3. Optimization of combustion in gas turbines by applying resonant turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Antonie Alex; Stoffels, Genie G.M.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2011-01-01

    Is it possible to optimize the turbulent combustion of a low swirl burner by using resonance in turbulence? To answer that question an active grid with periodically opening and closing holes is constructed and placed upstream of a low swirl burner geometry. The presence of this grid introduces large

  4. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  5. Natural gas in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ask, T.Oe.; Einang, P.M.; Stenersen, D. [MARINTEK (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for more than 50% of all oil products consumed, and it is the fastest growing oil demand sector and the fastest growing source of emissions. During the last 10 years there have been a considerable and growing effort in developing internal combustion gas engines. This effort has resulted in gas engines with efficiencies comparable to the diesel engines and with emissions considerably lower than engines burning conventional fuels. This development offers us opportunities to use natural gas very efficiently also in the transportation sector, resulting in reduced emissions. However, to utilize all the built in abilities natural gas has as engine fuel, the natural gas composition must be kept within relatively narrow limits. This is the case with both diesel and gasoline today. A further development require therefore specified natural gas compositions, and the direct use of pipeline natural gas as today would only in limited areas be acceptable. An interesting possibility for producing a specified natural gas composition is by LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) production. (EG)

  6. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Tafdrup, S.; Christensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  7. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  8. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A)

  9. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  10. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Deregulation of natural gas in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Natural Gas Competition and Deregulation Act of 1997 in Georgia is discussed. New legislation passed the Natural Gas Consumer Relief Act in 2002 legislative session to provide additional protection and increase competition. This Act and its impacts are discussed in detail. Additional commission responsibilities are summarized. (R.P.)

  12. Adams natural gas/diesel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The results of a ore-year program to demonstrate the viability of fuelling and operating diesel road vehicles on dual fuel natural gas/diesel under commercial operating conditions is presented. During this project a natural gas fuelling station designed to accomodate the specific needs of heavy trucks was constructed, and a Canada Safeway Ltd. tractor was converted to dual fuel natural gas/diesel operation. The truck accumulated more than 64,000 km during the one-year monitoring period, providing useful data in terms of comparative fuel efficiency, natural gas/diesel proportions of fuel use, operating range, and refuelling times, along with assessments of its performance by drivers and fleet management. In the dual fuel mode the truck experienced a 15% loss in thermal efficiency relative to straight diesel fuel during highway operation, and a 20% loss during local operation. Fuel cost savings resulting from the use of natural gas were not large given the increased level of fuel consumption and the purchase of natural gas at higher prices. If the fleet were to have its own natural gas fuelling station fuel cost savings would be substantially increased. Areas in which further development is needed for natural gas to emerge as a significant fuel for heavy trucks are mentioned. 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994

  14. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  15. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Wingas in natural gas supply in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Recently Wingas has become active in the transport and supply of natural gas in Belgium and succeeded in entering contracts for the supply of natural gas which cover 6% of the Belgian market. Wingas is a German-Russian joint venture between BASF-daughter Wintershall and OAO Gasprom [nl

  17. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  18. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W.P. [Western Radiation Services, Perth, WA (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it`s decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  20. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  1. Natural gas - Market and environmental needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the natural gas market and environmental needs with topics as follow: Importance of the North Sea region; sustainable development on the balance between economic use and environmental protection; role of natural gas in meeting energy demand: market needs, technologies, environmental aspects. According to the author, natural gas causes minimal pollutants because it contains virtually no pollutant-forming substances such as heavy metals, sulphur, chlorine or fluorine. No solid residues exist in the combustion space such as ash, slag, dust or soot, and the formation of thermal NO x through natural gas combustion has decreased to a very large extent as a result of technical advances. Natural gas can make a significant contribution towards reducing CO 2 emissions due to its very high hydrogen content. 12 figs

  2. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  3. On High Pressure Real Gas Turbulent Mixing Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Neelakantan

    A database of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of spatially evolving turbulent mixing slot jets of Heptane-Air and Heptane-Oxygen is developed. The formulation includes the compressible form of the governing equations, a generalized multicomponent diffusion model with Soret and Dufour effects, a cubic real gas equation of state and realistic property models. Simulations are conducted over a wide range of initial pressures (1 atm variance, centerline velocity excess decay, and downstream growth of normal Reynolds stresses are calculated and compared with various experimental results. For subgrid analysis, a spatial filtering operation is applied to the DNS. The filtered mass density function (FMDF) of mixture fraction at various filter widths is obtained from the simulation at several spatial locations within the flow. The conditional scalar diffusion (CSD) term in the exact transport equation of FMDF is calculated from the DNS. A parametric study of variation of CSD with time, spatial location, Reynolds number, pressure and diffusion models is conducted. An a priori analysis of Interaction by Exchange of Mean (IEM), Modified Curl (MC) and Mapping Closure (MAPPING) mixing models for CSD is conducted. Performance of mixing models at various pressures with the generalized and Fickian diffusion models, with real and ideal gas equations of state is evaluated. The significance of mixing frequency used in the models and the errors associated with calculation of mixing frequency in simulations with the generalized diffusion model is studied. A parametric study of variation of the mixing frequency and its parameters with pressures, diffusion models and Reynolds number is performed. New model constants for mixing frequency applicable to the LES with generalized diffusion models at various pressures are proposed. Conditionally averaged mixing frequency for the IEM model is determined and compared with the conditionally averaged second invariant of the strain tensor to study

  4. The natural gas as integration element in Latin America; O gas natural como elemento de integracao na America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Maria Elizabeth; Dutra, Luis Eduardo; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses the following global aspects of natural gas development: natural gas and worldwide energetic integration; natural gas consumption rates in the world; natural gas industry development in Latin America; and natural gas industry in Brazil. The article concludes that the natural gas can integrate Latin-american economies since the Governments adopt coherent energetic politicians articulated to each other.

  5. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacki, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  6. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  7. Natural gas: an environmental-friendly solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1970, the portion of natural gas in energy consumption in Western-Europe has grown by 6 percent per year on the average. About 20 percent of the energy demand in Western-Europe is now covered by natural gas. It is forecasted that this growth will continue at a rate of 2 percent per year until 2010. The natural gas consumption will increase from 325 billion cubic metres in 1993 to 450 billion cubic metres per year in 2010. For the coming 10 to 15 years, the natural gas demand is covered by long-term contracts with gas producing countries. From 2010 on, additional contracts, covering 70 to 120 billion cubic metres per year are required. A shift in geographic distribution of countries from which natural gas will be imported by Western-European countries is expected, which implies high investments and additional costs for transport and distribution of natural gas. Due to its qualities with respect to environmental impact, yield, availability, and advanced technology, natural gas is the energy vector of the 21 first century. (A.S.)

  8. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  9. Natural gas consumption and economic growth: Are we ready to natural gas price liberalization in Iran?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, Hassan; Katircioglu, Salih Turan; Saeidpour, Lesyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in Iran within a multivariate production model. We also investigate the effects of natural gas price on its consumption and economic growth using a demand side model. The paper employs bounds test approach to level relationship over the period of 1972–007. We find evidence of bidirectional positive relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in short-run and long-run, based on the production model. The findings also suggest that real GDP growth and natural gas have positive and negative impacts on gross fixed capital formation, respectively. Employment, however, was found to have negative but insignificant impact on gross fixed capital formation. Moreover, the estimation results of demand side model suggest that natural gas price has negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption only in the long-run, though there is insignificant impact on economic growth. These results imply that the Iranian government's decision for natural gas price liberalization has the adverse effects on economic growth and policy makers should be cautious in doing this policy. - Highlights: • Iran has been considered as a major natural gas producer in the world. • This paper examines the relationship between gas consumption and growth in Iran. • Positive impact of gas consumption on growth has been obtained. • The paper finds that gas consumption and income reinforce each other in Iran. • Natural gas price has also negative and significant impact on natural gas consumption in Iran

  10. Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.

  11. Modelling of turbulence and combustion for simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Bjoern Johan

    1998-12-31

    This thesis analyses and presents new models for turbulent reactive flows for CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries like offshore modules. The course of a gas explosion in a complex geometry is largely determined by the development of turbulence and the accompanying increased combustion rate. To be able to model the process it is necessary to use a CFD code as a starting point, provided with a suitable turbulence and combustion model. The modelling and calculations are done in a three-dimensional finite volume CFD code, where complex geometries are represented by a porosity concept, which gives porosity on the grid cell faces, depending on what is inside the cell. The turbulent flow field is modelled with a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Subgrid models are used for production of turbulence from geometry not fully resolved on the grid. Results from laser doppler anemometry measurements around obstructions in steady and transient flows have been analysed and the turbulence models have been improved to handle transient, subgrid and reactive flows. The combustion is modelled with a burning velocity model and a flame model which incorporates the burning velocity into the code. Two different flame models have been developed: SIF (Simple Interface Flame model), which treats the flame as an interface between reactants and products, and the {beta}-model where the reaction zone is resolved with about three grid cells. The flame normally starts with a quasi laminar burning velocity, due to flame instabilities, modelled as a function of flame radius and laminar burning velocity. As the flow field becomes turbulent, the flame uses a turbulent burning velocity model based on experimental data and dependent on turbulence parameters and laminar burning velocity. The laminar burning velocity is modelled as a function of gas mixture, equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature in reactant. Simulations agree well with experiments. 139

  12. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market

  13. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market.

  14. Low-Mach-number turbulence in interstellar gas revealed by radio polarization gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensler, B M; Haverkorn, M; Burkhart, B; Newton-McGee, K J; Ekers, R D; Lazarian, A; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Robishaw, T; Dickey, J M; Green, A J

    2011-10-05

    The interstellar medium of the Milky Way is multiphase, magnetized and turbulent. Turbulence in the interstellar medium produces a global cascade of random gas motions, spanning scales ranging from 100 parsecs to 1,000 kilometres (ref. 4). Fundamental parameters of interstellar turbulence such as the sonic Mach number (the speed of sound) have been difficult to determine, because observations have lacked the sensitivity and resolution to image the small-scale structure associated with turbulent motion. Observations of linear polarization and Faraday rotation in radio emission from the Milky Way have identified unusual polarized structures that often have no counterparts in the total radiation intensity or at other wavelengths, and whose physical significance has been unclear. Here we report that the gradient of the Stokes vector (Q, U), where Q and U are parameters describing the polarization state of radiation, provides an image of magnetized turbulence in diffuse, ionized gas, manifested as a complex filamentary web of discontinuities in gas density and magnetic field. Through comparison with simulations, we demonstrate that turbulence in the warm, ionized medium has a relatively low sonic Mach number, M(s) ≲ 2. The development of statistical tools for the analysis of polarization gradients will allow accurate determinations of the Mach number, Reynolds number and magnetic field strength in interstellar turbulence over a wide range of conditions.

  15. Criteria Development for Gas Turbine Premixer Flameholding Tendencies of Natural Gas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Lewis, Elliot Gregory

    Due to increasingly stringent air quality requirements, stationary power gas turbines have moved to lean-premixed operation, which reduces pollutant emissions but can result in flashback. Flashback can cause serious damage to the premixer hardware. Curtailing flashback can be difficult with hydrocarbon fuels and becomes even more challenging when the fuel contains hydrogen. The two main approaches for coping with flashback are either to design a combustor that is resistant to flashback, or to design a premixer that will not anchor a flame if flashback occurs. Even with a well-designed combustor, flashback can occur under certain circumstances. Thus it is necessary to determine how to avoid flameholding within the premixer passageways of a gas turbine. To this end, an experiment was designed that would determine the flameholding propensities at elevated pressures and temperatures of three different classes of geometric features commonly found in gas turbine premixers, with both natural gas and hydrogen containing fuel. Experiments to find the equivalence ratio at blow off were conducted within an optically accessible test apparatus with four flameholders: 0.25 and 0.50 inch diameter cylinders, a reverse facing step with a height of 0.25 inches, and a symmetric airfoil with a thickness of 0.25 inches and a chord length of one inch. Tests were carried out at temperatures between 300 K and 750 K, at pressures up to 9 atmospheres. Typical bulk velocities were between 40 and 100 m/s. The effect of the airfoil's angle of rotation was also investigated. Blow off for hydrogen reactions was found to occur at much lower adiabatic flame temperatures than natural gas reactions. Additionally it was observed that at high pressures and high turbulence intensities, reactant velocity does not have a noticeable effect on the point of blow off due in large part to corresponding increases in turbulent flame speed. Finally a semi empirical correlation was developed that predicts flame

  16. Natural gas in Norway - Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerstad, H.; Eldegard, T.; Reve, T.; Sunnevaag, K.; Aarrestad, J.

    1995-06-01

    Norway is rich in gas resources. In recent years, gas sales from the Norwegian continental shelf have been in the order of 25 to 30 billion Sm 3 /yr and are expected to increase strongly the next 10 to 15 years. However, a scattered population, a difficult topography, long distances between large potential consumers and where the gas is brought ashore, make it difficult to utilize the gas commercially in this country. Moreover, the gas will have to compete with a highly developed hydro-electric network. This report evaluates possibilities and hindrances in the establishment of a home market for natural gas in Norway. The low population density implies that using gas for preheating of water, heating of rooms etc will not become important except, perhaps, locally, where gas may be available for other reasons. As a source of energy and raw material in many industrial processes, natural gas can become important in some coastal areas and in central parts of eastern Norway. Discussions are in progress on gas power stations for electricity production. This has aroused some controversy because of environmental problems, and for political acceptance gas power will have to replace coal power. As a fuel, gas may be of interest for domestic ferries and for busses. A lack of capital under financial risk and gas prices limit the market development. Although tax policy is presently favourable to gas power, the risk taken by private investors in converting to natural gas is increased by their not knowing for how long the gas will be exempt from environmental tax. 74 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs

  17. The Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in Highly Turbulent Gas Streams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Single acetone and heptane droplets were suspended from a hypodermic needle in turbulent airflow, and the Nusselt number was obtained from direct measurements of the droplet diameter and evaporation rate...

  18. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  19. Environmental Impact of Natural Gas Hydrate Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Unmet conventional energy demand is encouraging a number of deep energy importing nations closer to production of their potentially very large Natural Gas Hydrate (NGH) resources. As methane and other natural gases are potent greenhouse gases, concerns exist about the possible environmental risks associated NGH development. Accidental of natural gas would have environmental consequences. However, the special characteristics of NGH and production models indicate a very low environmental risk from the reservoir to the deepwater wellhead that is much lower than for conventional deepwater gas. NGH is naturally stable in its solid form in the reservoir and shutting in the gas can be achieved by stopping NGH conversion and gas production in the reservoir. Rapid shut down results in re-crystallization of gas and stabilization of the reservoir through NGH reformation. In addition, new options for innovative technologies have the potential to allow safe development of NGH at a fraction of the current estimated cost. Gas produced from NGH is about the same as processed conventional gas, although almost certainly more pure. Leakage of gas during transport is not a production issue. Gas transport leakage is a matter for best practices regulation that is rigorously enforced.

  20. Annual survey 2013 - Natural gas in the World 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Edition of 'Natural Gas in the World' by CEDIGAZ is built on CEDIGAZ's unique natural gas statistical database. This 170-page study, published since 1983, provides an in-depth analysis of the latest developments in the gas markets along with the most complete set of statistical data on the whole gas chain covering close to 130 countries. Topics covered by Natural Gas in the World 2013 include: proved natural gas reserves; unconventional gas status in the world; gross and marketed natural gas production; the international gas trade; existing and planned underground gas storage facilities in the world; natural gas consumption; natural gas prices

  1. Short-term natural gas consumption forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.

    2007-01-01

    Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs

  2. Method and system for natural gas utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmoe, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to an method on reducing the emission of carbon oxides during methanol production. (a) A first part of the natural feeding gas is to be converted to synthesis gas consisting of CO, H 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O and non-converted natural gas. (b) A second part of the natural feeding gas is to be combusted for the generation of heat used in the conversion process by means of which the volumes of CO 2 and H 2 O are formed. (c) The synthesis gas from (a) is to be converted to a product gas flow consisting of methanol and non-converted synthesis gas. (d) The product gas flow from (c) is to be cooled, and methanol is to be separated. (e) A first part of the non-converted gas from the separation step (d) is to be combined with the synthesis gas from (a). (f) A second part of the non-converted gas from the separation step (d) together with CO 2 and H 2 O from step (b) is to be led to a shift reactor for making the equilibrium of CO, H 2 , CO, and H 2 O. (g) CO from step (f) is to be converted with methanol from step (d) for production of acetic acid. 1 fig

  3. Ecological problems of natural gas cleansing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadov, M.M.; Alieva, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Chemical-technology approaches allowing to intensification the prevention processes of gas hydrates formation at motion of gas-liquid stream of natural gas in system natural gas well - gas wire have been worked up. Technological regimes of treatment of gas stream have been determined. Linear correlation dependences inhibitor electrolytes contained hydrated ions with different ion radii and charges of subgroups of alkali elements with one - type electron configuration were obtained. Important physico-chemical parameters of electrolytes have been determined: activity; coefficients of activity, viscosity, diffusion; density; heat capacity; heat conductivity; surface tension and freezing-point. The features of continuous influence of inhibitory factors on process of gas flow at low temperatures and relatively high pressure differences ΔP have been studied by using of technological installation modulating the system natural gas well - gas wire. The dependences of gas quantity flowing from installation on ΔP at low temperatures have been studied with consideration of real states of process of gas - liquid phase flowing. Obtained experimental data for non-inhibitory and inhibitory processes have been compared under the same conditions. It was established that more high intensification of prevention process of gas hydrates formation is observed at the same thermodynamic conditions due to continuous treatment of gas by methanol and polyvinyl alcohol, which are absorbed into the bentonite, by glycigol, absorbed into the silica gel, and by calcium chloride. Vibration conjugate process of gas hydrates formation and break-up taking place in gas-liquid system with using of membrane electrode of electrochemical cell has been found. Periodic vibrations of membrane potential have been found at treatment of natural gas by methanol at low temperatures. Periodic character of vibration effect is determined by conjugate variations of equilibrium concentrations of components

  4. Direct numerical simulation and modeling of turbulent natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjemadi, R.

    1996-03-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are the direct numerical simulation of natural convection in a vertical differentially heated slot and the improvements of second-order turbulence modelling. A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation code has been developed in order to gain a better understanding of turbulence properties in natural convection flows. This code has been validated in several physical configurations: non-stratified natural convection flows (conduction solution), stratified natural convection flows (double boundary layer solution), transitional and turbulent Poiseuille flows. For the conduction solution, the turbulent regime was reached at a Rayleigh number of 1*10 5 and 5.4*10 5 . A detailed analysis of these results has revealed the principal qualities of the available models but has also pointed our their shortcomings. This data base has been used in order to improve the triple correlations transport models and to select the turbulent time scales suitable for such flows. (author). 122 refs., figs., tabs., 4 appends

  5. European key issues concerning natural gas: Dependence and vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high demand for natural gas from emerging countries and because natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource is electricity production, natural gas demand should increase. This paper re-examines the geopolitical key issues related to natural gas as well as the uneven distribution of natural gas resources on a worldwide scale. This paper proposes to define the significance of liquefied natural gas in gas exchanges and it analyses the problem of European gas vulnerability using several indicators

  6. North American Natural Gas Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    participation. Although Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE —the national State-owned utility—) remained the only entity to supply electric power for...companies in Mexico: Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LFC). The first one is in charge of all power generation along...day by 2010 and 500 MMcf per day by 2011. Gas output will be used to supply Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE) gas-fired combined cycle power

  7. The organized nature of a turbulent trailing vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Ash, Robert L.; Stead, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    The turbulence structure of a trailing vortex produced at the juncture of a flow aligned cylinder and a pair of oppositely loaded airfoils is analyzed. The freestream turbulence intensity in this study varies from 0.32 to 1.48 percent, the vortex Reynold number varies from 15000 to 25000, and the Rossby number varies from 0.65 to 0.81. Within this parameter range, it is shown that the screens, but not the freestream turbulence level, are able to produce significant variations in the turbulence structure of the vortex, and that the turbulent structure is determined by the Rossby number and not the vortex Reynolds number. It is noted that the core is dynamic and an organized exchange of momentum takes place between the outer flow and the core region of the vortex. The vortex structure in the trailing vortex having the lowest Rossby number is considered.

  8. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 )/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO 2 /sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  9. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  10. The geopolitics of natural gas in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, natural gas has been the fastest-growing component of primary world energy consumption. This study seeks to examine the recent efforts by the Islamic Republic of Iran, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia to develop their natural gas resources and capture a large share of the Asian market, particularly in Turkey, India, China, Japan and South Korea. Counter-efforts by rivals, such as the Russian Federation and the Caspian Basin states, are analysed. Finally, international ventures to transport natural gas from producers to consumers, including the Dolphin Project, the Trans-Caspian Pipeline and Blue Stream, are discussed. (author)

  11. Natural gas commoditization - evolution and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albon, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation dealt with issues of deregulation in the natural gas industry. The commoditization process, the effect of deregulation as reflected by changes in the percentage distribution of market participation by profession in NYMEX in 1994 and for the first quarter of 1998, the natural gas supply and demand from 1990 to 1996, and natural gas market activities (i.e. swaps, EFPs, spreads, transportation look-alikes, triggers) were reviewed. An Alberta supply and demand forecast for the winter heating season of 1998-1999 and its impact on prices was also provided. tabs., figs

  12. Turbulent natural convection in an air filled partitioned square cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampofo, F

    2004-02-01

    An experimental study of low level turbulence natural convection in an air filled vertical partitioned square cavity was conducted. The dimensions of the cavity, which were 0.75 m high x 0.75 m wide x 1.5 m deep, resulted in 2D flow. The hot and cold walls of the cavity were isothermal at 50 and 10 deg. C respectively giving a Rayleigh number of 1.58 x 10{sup 9}. The local velocity and temperature were systematically measured at different locations in the cavity and both mean and fluctuation quantities are presented, i.e. u-macron, u'{sub rms}, v-macron, v'{sub rms}, T-bar, T'{sub rms} and u'v'-bar. The local and average Nusselt numbers and the wall shear stress are also presented. The experiments were conducted with very high accuracy and as such the results can form experimental benchmark data and will be useful for validation of computational fluid dynamics codes.

  13. A natural adsorbent for natural gas industry; Um adsorvente nacional para a industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachina, G.H.A.B.; Silveira, V.R.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Balthar, A.R.; Oliveira, V.M.; Bayer, M.M. [CTGAS - Centro de Tecnologias do Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, C.M.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One the natural pollutants in the natural gas considered critical in reference to the corrosion is the H{sub 2}S. Its presence depends on the origin, as well as the own process used in the gas treatment, it can bring problems to the pipes and the final applications of natural gas (NG). The National Petroleum Agency (ANP) in its entrance number 104/02, establishes that the quantity of H{sub 2}S in NG, of national or imported origin, commercialized at the country can only be at the most 10 - 15 mg/m{sup 3}. In the Natural Gas Processing Unit (UPGN) different methods are used for the removal of H{sub 2}S, the absorption process (e.g. with aminas, Sulfinol{sup R} process) or for adsorption in tower filled with activated coal, zeolites and Sulfatreat{sup R}. In this work, the adsorbent material used is the mineral clay Paligorsquita. That class of clay minerals characterized by pores and a crystalline structure containing Tetrahedral layers linked by chains of longitudinal secondary lines. The typical unitary cell is formed basically by moisturized oxides of aluminum, Sicilian and magnesium of (Mg, Al)5SiO2O(OH)2(H20)4.4H20, with Mg specially located in octahedral sites. (author)

  14. Norwegian Natural Gas. Liberalization of the European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Leading abstract. This book focuses on issues that are important for Norway as a major gas exporter and to the development of a liberalized European market. Chapter 2 explains main features of the European gas market. Natural gas is sold in regional markets with independent pricing structure and particularities. In Europe, this has led to large investments for the producers and long-term contracts. The strong market growth and EU's actions to liberalize the market may change this. The organization of the Norwegian gas production and sale is discussed, as well as the reorganization taking place in 2001. Pricing mechanisms are discussed in Chapter 3, both in the ''old'' / existing structure and how a liberalization of the market may change price formation. The increased importance of energy taxation in EU countries is covered in Chapter 4. Even though natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, the use of natural gas may be taxed far harder in the future. The report discusses price effects of such a development. Chapter 5 discusses whether or not a gas producer, like Norway, necessarily must earn a resource rent. With the use of economic theory for exhaustible resources it is shown how prices to consumers may increase at the same time as prices to producers drop, where the difference is made up by higher gas taxes to the consuming countries. Transportation of natural gas involves considerable scale advantages and there are often scope advantages from production, storage and sale, as well. Chapter 6 discusses how competition and regulation may influence the functioning and social efficiency of the market, and the concentration of market power. When companies become large, they may exploit market power, supported by the authorities of their respective countries. Chapter 7 focuses on regulatory challenges for the EU, and how the transporters may change between conflicting and cooperation with the EU. Chapter 8 focuses on schedules for

  15. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  16. The new East Coast natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, I.; Cowan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Market demand for natural gas in Canada's Maritime provinces was discussed. The Atlantic market represents the largest potential region, currently without access to natural gas in Canada or the United States. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines and the Sable Offshore Energy partners have made great efforts to introduce and market natural gas as well as to provide pipeline transportation services in the Maritimes and New England markets. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines is a partnership project with Westcoast Energy, Mobil Oil, and Duke Energy. Theirs is the first pipeline project to deliver gas, but it will certainly not be the last gas project in the region. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines now has 180,000 MMBtu/day of phased-in Canadian load committed to firm service agreements for delivery in the first 24 months of operation. In addition to these firm service agreements, an additional 60,000 MMBtu/day is signed for future lateral extensions to service emerging markets. figs

  17. Methane leakage in natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennervik, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world gas industry is efficient in conservation of natural gas within its systems. As the influence of methane as an infra-red absorbent gas has been more widely recognized, the considerations of methane's greenhouse effect has become vitally important to gas companies around the world. The industry is universally environmentally conscious. natural gas transmission and distribution companies want to maintain their image as suppliers of clean fuel. Further reductions in methane leakage --- particularly in older distribution systems --- can, should and will be pursued. Unfortunately, there has been little exchange of views on methane leakages between commentators on environmental matters and gas companies and organizations. There is absolutely no need for the industry to avoid the issue of greenhouse gases. Without industry involvement, the environmental debate concerning fossil fuels could lead to selective interpretation of scientific views and available evidence. Companies and authorities would be presented with confusing, contradictory evidence on which to base policy approaches and regulations

  18. The future of European natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausems, D.

    1991-01-01

    Western Europe's natural gas markets abound with opportunities. They also contain major challenges. This paper presents a revealing assessment of both the challenges and the opportunities that arise from those markets. It also explains some of the surprising ways in which the European Commission and Dutch gas industry will influence gas markets throughout the Continent. Gas consumption is well-established and expanding in a small group of European nations. These countries rely on an equally small collection of suppliers, both within and beyond the Community's borders, to provide the required volumes of natural gas. Because supply and demand are likely to grow at significantly different rates, it is suggested what a major market imbalance could materialize before the end of the decade. Averting major gas supply problems beyond the year 2000 will require multi-billion dollar commitments by producers and will necessitate long-term take-or-pay contacts backed by strong and financially healthy buyers

  19. FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Berman, M.; Angerinos, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development

  20. Natural gas in France: main results in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document briefly presents and comments the main data about natural gas in France: gas consumption, natural gas-based electricity production, refineries, energetic final consumption of natural gas, non-energetic final consumption of natural gas, gas imports and suppliers (countries), national production, and stocks

  1. Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA works with states and other key stakeholders, through sound scientific research and regulation; to help ensure that natural gas extraction from shale formations, also called fracking or hydrofracking, does not harm public health and the environment.

  2. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry

  3. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  4. Natural gas encasement for highway crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The University Transportation Center for Alabama researchers examined the Alabama Department of : Transportations current policy regarding the encasement of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines at roadway : crossings. The group collected inf...

  5. Undiscovered Natural Gas Liquids Colorado Plateau

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This dataset is based on U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessments for “undiscovered” natural gas liquid resources, which are resources that have not yet...

  6. The evolution of natural gas regulatory policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.J. Jr. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article reviews the history of regulation and deregulation of the natural gas industry, providing insights which can be useful in identifying potential ways of attaining socially beneficial results in many analogous context.

  7. Natural gas 1992: Issues and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1991 and 1992, focusing on trends in production, consumption, and pricing of natural gas and how they reflect the regulatory and legislative changes of the past decade (Chapter 1). Also presented are details of FERC Order 636 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992, as well as pertinent provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Chapter 2). In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: Trends in wellhead prices and natural gas supply activities (Chapter 3); Recent rate design changes for interstate pipeline companies (Chapter 4); Benefits to consumers from the more competitive marketplace (Chapter 5); Pipeline capacity expansions during the past 2 years (Chapter 6); Increasing role of the natural gas futures market (Chapter 7)

  8. Competition in trade with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On 22 June 1998, the European Parliament and the Council of Europe adopted Directive 98/30/EC on common rules for the internal market for natural gas. The Natural Gas Market Directive is aimed at increasing the competition on the gas market and creating an internal market for natural gas. To achieve this, the Directive includes provisions for ensuring that owners of transmission and distribution networks will allow other players access to these networks. The Directive is much more far-reaching and comprehensive than the present Swedish legislation in the field of natural gas. The main task of the committee is to submit a proposal for natural gas legislation that will meet the requirements of the new Directive. According to the committee directives, the work on the new legislation should aim at the regulations serving as a basis for a socio economically efficient market. However, it should also be borne in mind that the Swedish natural gas market is less developed than the markets in most other European countries, and that a lack of equilibrium in the opening of the gas markets should be avoided. Current international deliberations concerning the natural gas network in the Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea region should also be taken into account. Chapter 1 gives more detailed particulars of the points of departure for the work of the committee and the implementation of the work. The report is arranged in the form three main parts, i.e. a background part, a part describing the points of departure, and a proposals part

  9. Challenges and opportunities await natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohasseb, S.

    1998-01-01

    During the last two decades, the natural gas industry has gone through drastic changes. On one hand, deregulation and customer choice have been introduced to the industry. On the other hand, technological advances have resulted in substantial growth of available gas resources. In short, deregulation coupled with increased availability of supply has changed the way market participants interact with each other and which avenues they take to become leaders. Many new opportunities for entry into the market have also been created. As a result, the tide of competition has not only turned against the financially strong giants of the past, but it has also turned against new entrants who are fast, flexible and market driven. Natural gas utilities companies have responded by improving their operational efficiencies through process re-engineering, organizational re-alignment, restructuring and strategic alliances or mergers. Deregulation of the electricity industry is expected to increase competitive pressures on the natural gas industry, thus causing even more of a decrease in natural gas prices. In the future, natural gas utilities must be able to improve their effectiveness by accurately forecasting demand and optimizing their own supply and delivery systems in such a way that costs are minimized without compromising the reliability of supply. The new frontier of competitiveness will ensure that structural changes in the industry are characterized by an effective management of the supply-demand relationship and the optimization of risks inherently a part of gas delivery

  10. Conveyance of natural gas. Organization and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This International Energy Agency (IEA) study deals with the conveyance of natural gas. The socio-economic factors are given as well as the different organization and regulations modes of natural gas conveyance and storage in the IEA countries and in central and eastern Europe. The main questions forming the subject of discussions in the IEA countries are analyzed too. (O.L.). 50 refs., 55 figs., 16 tabs

  11. Natural Gas Annual 1984. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, E.H.

    1985-12-31

    This publication provides information on deliveries of natural gas to large end users by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code for 5 heating years from 1980-1981 through 1985-1985. Tables are presented showing deliveries of natural gas: (1) to the top 20 industries; (2) to large end users by SIC; (3) by the top 100 distributors; (4) to large end users by industry and state; and (5) to large end users by state. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Natural Gas Extraction, Earthquakes and House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Hans R.A. Koster; Jos N. van Ommeren

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural gas is strongly increasing around the world. Long-run negative external effects of extraction are understudied and often ignored in social) cost-benefit analyses. One important example is that natural gas extraction leads to soil subsidence and subsequent induced earthquakes that may occur only after a couple of decades. We show that induced earthquakes that are noticeable to residents generate substantial non-monetary economic effects, as measured by their effects o...

  13. The eligibility of the natural gas consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The eligible consumers are allowed to chose freely their natural gas producers and negotiate the prices and the supply modalities. In this context this information paper presents the legislative and regulation framework of the natural gas consumers eligibility, a definition of the possible eligible consumers and a list at the 30 january 2004. It provides also recommendations and answers to the more often asked questions on the administrative procedures and the contracts. (A.L.B.)

  14. The density variance-Mach number relation in supersonic turbulence - I. Isothermal, magnetized gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, F. Z.; Glover, S. C. O.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    It is widely accepted that supersonic, magnetized turbulence plays a fundamental role for star formation in molecular clouds. It produces the initial dense gas seeds out of which new stars can form. However, the exact relation between gas compression, turbulent Mach number and magnetic field strength is still poorly understood. Here, we introduce and test an analytical prediction for the relation between the density variance and the rms Mach number ? in supersonic, isothermal, magnetized turbulent flows. We approximate the density and velocity structure of the interstellar medium as a superposition of shock waves. We obtain the density contrast considering the momentum equation for a single magnetized shock and extrapolate this result to the entire cloud. Depending on the field geometry, we then make three different assumptions based on observational and theoretical constraints: B independent of ρ, B∝ρ1/2 and B∝ρ. We test the analytically derived density variance-Mach number relation with numerical simulations, and find that for B∝ρ1/2, the variance in the logarithmic density contrast, ?, fits very well to simulated data with turbulent forcing parameter b= 0.4, when the gas is super-Alfvénic. However, this result breaks down when the turbulence becomes trans-Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic, because in this regime the turbulence becomes highly anisotropic. Our density variance-Mach number relations simplify to the purely hydrodynamic relation as the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure β0→∞.

  15. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  16. Liquefied natural gas projects in Altamira: impacts on the prices of the natural gas; Proyectos de gas natural licuado en Altamira: impactos sobre los precios del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Cordova, Hugo; Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The possible incorporation of new points of supply of natural gas to the Sistema National de Gasoductos (SNG) through the import of Liquified Natural Gas or (GNL) could cause an important modification in the national balance of supply-demand of the fuel and in its price, if large volumes are received. An analysis is presented of the possible impact that would have in the natural gas national market and in its prices the import of GNL made by the region of Altamira, Tamaulipas. [Spanish] La posible incorporacion de nuevos puntos de oferta de gas natural al Sistema Nacional de Gasoductos (SNG) a traves de la importacion de Gas Natural Licuado (GNL), podria provocar una modificacion importante en el balance oferta-demanda nacional del combustible y en su precio, si se reciben fuertes volumenes. Se presenta un analisis del posible impacto que tendria en el mercado nacional del gas natural y en sus precios la importacion de GNL realizada por la region de Altamira, Tamaulipas.

  17. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  18. Trading in LNG and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the market for natural gas from a number of viewpoints, starting with the role of natural gas in the global energy market where its 20% share of primary energy demand has been captured in the space of almost as many years. In discussion regional energy markets we cover the disparities between supply and demand which give rise to trade by pipeline, and by sea in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Both have in fact increased steadily in recent years, yet even in 1991, only 12-15% of total gas production was traded across international boundaries, whereas for oil it was closer to 40%. For the moment pipeline trade remains heavily concentrated in Europe and North America, and it is in the LNG sector where the spread of projects, both existing and planned, is more global in nature. We examine the development of LNG trades and the implications for shipping. Finally, we look at transportation costs, which are likely to be an important component in the viability of many of the natural gas export schemes now under review. There is good reason to be ''bullish'' about parts of the natural gas industry but this Report suggests that there are areas of concern which could impinge on the development of the market in the 1990s. (author)

  19. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  20. Natural gas: A bridge to the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel, but never got the chance to develop its use. The reason for that is the notion that the natural gas supplies would last for only some decennia. That is only right for the conventional gas supplies. In ice crystals, some hundreds of meters deep in the oceans, enormous methane reserves, many times larger than the conventional supplies, are enclosed in so-called clathrates. From the literature it appears that other sources of natural gas or methane and new options to use these energy sources are considered or to be developed. Attention is paid to the methane reserves in geologic formations, methane produced by microbes, and methane in clathrates. It is estimated that the methane reserve is 8 x 10 2 3 Joule. By using natural gas as a fuel CO 2 emission will be reduced considerably. Methane emission however must be limited, because of the reducing effect of methane on the oxygen production in the troposphere. The large reserves of methane also offer good prospects for the production of hydrogen, large-scale applications to generate electric power or the use of CH 4 as a fuel in the transportation sector. New techniques and economic, social and institutional factors determine how fast the use of natural gas will increase. It is expected that 0.54 Tm 3 of natural gas will be needed for the twelve countries of the European Community. Main users in the year 2030 will be the electric power industry (39%), industry (26%), households and trade (18%), and transportation sector and supply (15%). In 2030 63% of natural gas has to be imported. 3 refs

  1. 1991 worldwide natural gas industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides information for the natural gas industry, just as other PennWell directories have for the petroleum industry. Comprehensive in scope, each company listing includes address, phone, fax telex and cable numbers, key personnel, subsidiaries, branches and brief descriptions. The directory is organized in major areas of operation and includes sections on: Distribution, Drilling/Exploration/Production, Gas Utilities, Gathering/Transmission, Industry Associations/Organizations, LNG, LPG, Marketing, Processing, Regulatory Agencies, and Service, Supply and Manufacturers. An invaluable reference source for the natural gas professional

  2. Drift turbulence of plasma as a gas of vortex ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburdzhaniya, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows that in the magnetoactive plasma the short-wavelength nonlinear vortex structures can form the drift turbulence. It has been established that the vortex structures, interacting between and with plasma particles, exite the wide density pulsation spectrum and lead to the anomalous diffusion of the particles. (author). 28 refs

  3. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. The natural gas industry and interest rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y.J.

    1995-01-01

    In discussing the impact of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636, the latest rule on the restructuring and deregulation of the US natural gas industry, the effect of interest rates on the success of the FERC policy is often overlooked. The thesis of this paper is that interest rates play an important role in integrating seasonal gas markets and in stimulating investment in storage infrastructure. We propose a model to analyse the equilibrium condition for an efficient gas market. Also analysed are the implications of pipeline rate design of FERC 636 for gas despatch decisions. (author)

  5. Natural gas industry and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staropoli, R.; Darras, M.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

  6. Natural gas cooling: Part of the solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the efficiencies and performance of a number of gas cooling systems with a comparable electric cooling system. The results show that gas cooling systems compare favorably with the electric equivalents, offering a new dimension to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. The paper goes on to compare the air quality benefits of natural gas to coal or oil-burning fuel systems which are used to generate the electricity for the electric cooling systems. Finally, the paper discusses the regulatory bias that the author feels exists towards the use of natural gas and the need for modification in the existing regulations to provide a 'level-playing field' for the gas cooling industry

  7. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  8. Natural gas storage; Stockage de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2009-07-01

    Storage is an important link in the natural gas supply chain. It is a valuable aid to providing the link between remote sources of production and consumption locations. After a brief recall covering the role of storage this article describes the various options for storing natural gas: saline cavities, aquifers, liquefied gas tanks or artificial cavities. A report follows on the different solutions adopted in Europe and in Switzerland, more particularly that chosen by Gaznat in order to contribute to securing supplies in Western Switzerland. Market deregulation has brought changes to the regulations, which are in turn modifying the rules that were in force until just recently, and new topics are arising, such as strategic reserves and pricing rules for stored natural gas. (author)

  9. Natural gas for utility use appears unstoppable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, H.

    1993-04-01

    Electric demand probably will grow rapidly through 1995, which will force utilities to quickly build substantial new generating capacities, predicted the National Economic Research Associates Inc. (NERA) in December 1992. NERA, a market research firm based in White Plains, NY, also noted this growth would require an increase in coal and hydrogeneration capacities, electrical generation by natural gas. NERA feels environmental pressures, economics and short lead times for gas electric generation plants point to surging consumption during the late 90s into the early 21st century. NERA estimates utilities will burn 200 percent more natural gas by 2005, or up to 7.5-trillion cubic feet (7.5 Tef) in that year. The increased consumption would raise natural-gas-fired electrical capacity to 145 GW by year-end 1995 and 160 GW by 2000. NERA bases its estimate on the price of natural gas at the wellhead remaining below $3/Mcf ($3 per thousand cubic feet in 1991 dollars). NERA and the high growth in electric utility usage would put extreme pressure on the natural gas industry.

  10. Canadian natural gas : market review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual working paper provides summaries of trends within the North American natural gas industry and also reviews Canadian gas exports. It is designed to promote dialogue between industry and the government and to obtain feedback on natural gas issues. The main section of the report consists of graphs, with limited text comments on the side. It provides a structured look at supply and demand for the year 2000 as well as for the near term (2001) and long-term (2010). The sources of information included private consultants, industry associations and federal agencies in Canada and the United States. It was shown that gas demand had grown steadily in North America since 1997, at about 2.5 per cent annually, and then fell 3.4 per cent in 1998 and remained low in 1999, below 1997 demand. This was due mainly to mild winters. In 2000, the demand for natural gas increased again to 5 per cent as a result of a colder winter and increased gas use for power generation. The report also stated that the combination of various factors including low storage balances due to previously low drilling years and high oil prices, were responsible for natural gas price increases in 2000. The tight supply/demand balance was exacerbated by restraints in pipeline capacity. Producers and pipeline groups are now looking seriously at developing the large gas deposits in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta which were previously considered to be uneconomic. It was noted that in the near term, storage must be rebuilt to normal levels. Storage balances will be a good indicator of the relative strengths of gas production and demand growth. It was forecasted that Canada to U.S. gas exports should continue to increase in 2001 as a large new export pipeline was completed in 2000, but there is considerable uncertainty for the medium to longer-term. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Evaluation of system codes for analyzing naturally circulating gas loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ik; No, Hee Cheon; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Steady-state natural circulation data obtained in a 7 m-tall experimental loop with carbon dioxide and nitrogen are presented in this paper. The loop was originally designed to encompass operating range of a prototype gas-cooled fast reactor passive decay heat removal system, but the results and conclusions are applicable to any natural circulation loop operating in regimes having buoyancy and acceleration parameters within the ranges validated in this loop. Natural circulation steady-state data are compared to numerical predictions by two system analysis codes: GAMMA and RELAP5-3D. GAMMA is a computational tool for predicting various transients which can potentially occur in a gas-cooled reactor. The code has a capability of analyzing multi-dimensional multi-component mixtures and includes models for friction, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and multi-component molecular diffusion. Natural circulation data with two gases show that the loop operates in the deteriorated turbulent heat transfer (DTHT) regime which exhibits substantially reduced heat transfer coefficients compared to the forced turbulent flow. The GAMMA code with an original heat transfer package predicted conservative results in terms of peak wall temperature. However, the estimated peak location did not successfully match the data. Even though GAMMA's original heat transfer package included mixed-convection regime, which is a part of the DTHT regime, the results showed that the original heat transfer package could not reproduce the data with sufficient accuracy. After implementing a recently developed correlation and corresponding heat transfer regime map into GAMMA to cover the whole range of the DTHT regime, we obtained better agreement with the data. RELAP5-3D results are discussed in parallel.

  12. A critical view on the new Dutch Natural Gas Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the opinions of several players in the market for natural gas on the new Dutch Natural Gas Law, which is drafted within the framework of the liberalization of the European market for natural gas

  13. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  14. Characterization of Fuego for laminar and turbulent natural convection heat transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Nicholas Donald, Jr. (,; .)

    2005-08-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is conducted for internal natural convection heat transfer using the low Mach number code Fuego. The flow conditions under investigation are primarily laminar, transitional, or low-intensity level turbulent flows. In the case of turbulent boundary layers at low-level turbulence or transitional Reynolds numbers, the use of standard wall functions no longer applies, in general, for wall-bounded flows. One must integrate all the way to the wall in order to account for gradients in the dependent variables in the viscous sublayer. Fuego provides two turbulence models in which resolution of the near-wall region is appropriate. These models are the v2-f turbulence model and a Launder-Sharma, low-Reynolds number turbulence model. Two standard geometries are considered: the annulus formed between horizontal concentric cylinders and a square enclosure. Each geometry emphasizes wall shear flow and complexities associated with turbulent or near turbulent boundary layers in contact with a motionless core fluid. Overall, the Fuego simulations for both laminar and turbulent flows compared well to measured data, for both geometries under investigation, and to a widely accepted commercial CFD code (FLUENT).

  15. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  16. 2013 - The Natural Gas Year in Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas consumption only rose by 1.3%, down from an average growth of 2.8% per year in the previous decade. Natural gas still suffers in particular from severe competition with coal in the power generation sector. Inside the EU-28, actual consumption was estimated down 1.9% to 460 Billion cubic metres (Bcm). This poor performance brought European consumption to levels not seen in more than 15 years. In the US, rising gas prices compared to 2012 has often made coal more competitive and penalized gas consumption in the power generation sector, causing it to fall by 10.5%. Global growth in natural gas has been increasingly constrained by supply. In 2013, the growth in gas production slowed substantially to 0.8%, bringing the total volume to 3377 Bcm. As before, the gas supply shortfall was due to the decline of mature and conventional fields, and an insufficient renewal of reserves. The lack of upstream investment is especially acute in emerging markets, due to a lack of a favourable regulatory and fiscal climate. The moderation of natural gas supply and investment has also been increasingly driven by geopolitical challenges. Deterioration of security, internal conflicts and resulting damage to infrastructures have caused some production outages and supply disruptions in some countries. In 2013, marketed production fell especially heavily in Africa (Algeria, Nigeria, Libya and Egypt). With the exception of Europe, other regions posted positive production gains. The largest of them were recorded in the CIS (+ 2.7%) and the Middle East (+ 3.4%). International gas trade increased significantly by 2.1% to 1048 Bcm, due to the growing dependence of consumer markets on increasingly distant production sources, sometimes located in economically and politically unstable areas. The rise in the international gas trade was only driven by inter-regional pipeline gas exports from the CIS to Europe (+ 15%) and China (+ 36%). Geopolitical risks are having an ever

  17. Social costs of natural gas market rigidities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadman, H.G.; Darmstadter, J.; Montgomery, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    To the extent that there are market imperfections and other constraints limiting consumption of gas to levels significantly below those dictated by underlying economic factors of cost and producibility, society bears the cost resulting from misallocation of resources and avoidable environmental deterioration. Given the regulatory and institutional setting within which the natural gas industry has been forced to operate, there is a strong presumption that such inhibitions on gas use may in fact exist. Some rigidities stem undoubtedly from characteristics unique to gas as a natural-resource commodity. This report presents a framework for reviewing potential sources of constraints, rigidities, and distortions in the functioning of natural gas markets under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) and other legislation. The organizing principle and primary focus of the paper are the sequence of transactions between wellhead and point of consumption, with major attention to industrial and power plant use. The transactions in question are between: producers and pipelines; pipelines and distributors; distributors and end users; and pipelines and industrial end users (mainline sales). In addition to these vertical transactions, there are horizontal transactions between pipelines (off-system sales) and between distributors. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  18. Markets for British Columbia natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerz, D.H.; Coad, L.A.

    1990-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the outlook for the British Columbia natural gas industry and the fundamentals underlying both the increase in activity and the longer-term outlook for the natural gas sector are examined. The basis for the analysis was the North American Regional Gas (NARG) model, to which a number of modifications were made. The level of natural gas resource assumed for northeastern British Columbia corresponds to an ultimate potential of 50 Tcf. Significant growth in production over the outlook period (1988-2007) is predicted. High rates of utilization on the Westcoast system underscore the need for significant capacity expansion if the production levels projected for the mid-1990s are to be achieved. Natural gas production is projected to be sustained at the 800 billion cubic foot level from the mid-1990s onwards, with the majority of the production growth occurring between 1992 and 1997. Significant growth in exports is projected, especially when capacity is available to move gas supplies directly into the California and Rocky Mountain regions in the US. These two transport corridors represent over half the increase in British Columbia production between 1992 and 1997. 53 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  19. Forced and free convection turbulent boundary layers in gas lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Approximate expressions for the effect on optical path length through a turbulent vertical boundary layer caused by the combined presence of forced and free convection were obtained to first order in the asymptotic cases of dominant forced convection and dominant free convection. The effect in both cases is a reduction of the boundary-layer thickness. Characteristic scaling lengths are presented which aid in the optical analysis of the flowfield

  20. Eastern Canada natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs

  1. Natural gas hydrate occurrence and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring gas hydrate is found in sediment of two regions: (1) continental, including continental shelves, at high latitudes where surface temperatures are very cold, and (2) submarine outer continental margins where pressures are very high and bottom-water temperatures are near 0??C. Continental gas hydrate is found in association with onshore and offshore permafrost. Submarine gas hydrate is found in sediment of continental slopes and rises. The amount of methane present in gas hydrate is thought to be very large, but the estimates that have been made are more speculative than real. Nevertheless, at the present time there has been a convergence of ideas regarding the amount of methane in gas hydrate deposits worldwide at about 2 x 1016 m3 or 7 x 1017 ft3 = 7 x 105 Tcf [Tcf = trillion (1012) ft3]. The potentially large amount of methane in gas hydrate and the shallow depth of gas hydrate deposits are two of the principal factors driving research concerning this substance. Such a large amount of methane, if it could be commercially produced, provides a potential energy resource for the future. Because gas hydrate is metastable, changes of surface pressure and temperature affect its stability. Destabilized gas hydrate beneath the sea floor leads to geologic hazards such as submarine mass movements. Examples of submarine slope failures attributed to gas hydrate are found worldwide. The metastability of gas hydrate may also have an effect on climate. The release of methane, a 'greenhouse' gas, from destabilized gas hydrate may contribute to global warming and be a factor in global climate change.

  2. Comparative Assessment Of Natural Gas Accident Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The study utilizes a hierarchical approach including (1) comparative analyses of different energy chains, (2) specific evaluations for the natural gas chain, and (3) a detailed overview of the German situation, based on an extensive data set provided by Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches (DVGW). According to SVGW-expertise DVGW-data can be regarded as fully representative for Swiss conditions due to very similar technologies, management, regulations and safety culture, but has a substantially stronger statistical basis because the German gas grid is about 30 times larger compared to Switzerland. Specifically, the following tasks were carried out by PSI to accomplish the objectives of this project: (1) Consolidation of existing ENSAD data, (2) identification and evaluation of additional sources, (3) comparative assessment of accident risks, and (4) detailed evaluations of specific issues and technical aspects for severe and smaller accidents in the natural gas chain that are relevant under Swiss conditions. (author)

  3. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  4. The commercialization of natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, P.

    1997-01-01

    A successful NGV industry depends upon the skilled use of prime geographic and economic drivers. But a vital ingredient to a sustained and profitable industry is the pioneering example of the gas suppliers and the combined commercial skills of fleet operators equipment suppliers and government. The use of natural gas for vehicles must be long-term commercially viable both for the vehicles whole life cost and the refuelling stations capital investment. (au)

  5. Canadian natural gas price debate : TCGS view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding the Alberta supply of natural gas were debated. Factors considered include pipeline expansions, storage and foreign exchange. The influence of NYMEX was also cited as an important determinant of gas pricing. Currently, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin's (WCSB) market share is 22 per cent of the North American demand. The WCSB extends through Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories and the Yukon. The Basin's estimated reserves at the end of 1996 were 65 TCF. tabs., figs

  6. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... 13-03-NG ProGas USA Inc........ Order granting blanket authority to import/export natural gas from/to... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export... authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These...

  7. Challenges for the future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the closure talk from P. Gadonneix, president of Gaz de France (GdF) company, who draws out the perspectives of development of the French national company in the context of an increasing natural gas demand with new competition and with an evolution of the European regulations: perspectives of demand and production, the dependency of Europe, the competition with other energy sources, the European deregulation of natural gas market, the strategy of Gaz de France, the relation with consumers, the development of distribution systems, the promotion of new products, the environmental qualities of natural gas and the development of clean technologies, the construction of new pipelines within the national territory, the partnerships of GdF with other national companies, the socio-economical actions of GdF (employment etc..). (J.S.)

  8. General Motors natural gas vehicle initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Koplow, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    General Motors (GM) has a number of natural gas vehicle (NGV) programs in progress that address various marketing, technical, and production planning issues that lean on the introduction of NGVs from GM. The initial target is light and medium duty trucks sold in non-attainment air quality regions. GM has also embarked on a longer term program that encompasses vehicle and systems development, gas supply and infrastructure development, and customer and market development. The major long-term issues are gas quality, supplier participation, and infrastructure

  9. Natural gas - energy with continually rising prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The gas industry has its problems. Its estimates for the future have been run over by the energy conservation trend. Contracts considered to be safe did not come off, and the cost of new contracts was much higher than expected. The gas supply contract with Russia - already celebrated as a German contribution to the easing of tension between East and West - remains a price problem. Consumers will have to pay so much for natural gas that utilities begin to fear district heating, the cost of which will be even higher.

  10. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) as part of the environmental review of the Liberty... governing their licensing, and the receipt of the current application for the proposed Liberty Deepwater...

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs

  12. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  13. Building alliances for natural gas development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangles, N. [Novacorp International, Alberta (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    NOVA Corporation of Alberta is a widely held company operating internationally from headquarters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. NOVA adds value to energy through producing, marketing and transporting natural gas and upgrading natural gas and other hydrocarbons into chemicals and plastics. In 1992, NOVA generated $3 billion in revenue and $164 million in net income. Assets at the end of 1992 totalled $6.2 billion. Shares trade on the Toronto, Montreal, Alberta, New york and London stock exchanges, and on Swiss stock exchanges in Geneva, Zurich and Basle. Worldwide, NOVA employs over 6000 people.

  14. Building alliances for natural gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangles, N.

    1993-01-01

    NOVA Corporation of Alberta is a widely held company operating internationally from headquarters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. NOVA adds value to energy through producing, marketing and transporting natural gas and upgrading natural gas and other hydrocarbons into chemicals and plastics. In 1992, NOVA generated $3 billion in revenue and $164 million in net income. Assets at the end of 1992 totalled $6.2 billion. Shares trade on the Toronto, Montreal, Alberta, New york and London stock exchanges, and on Swiss stock exchanges in Geneva, Zurich and Basle. Worldwide, NOVA employs over 6000 people

  15. Decision support models for natural gas dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, L. (Bentley College, Waltham, MA (United States)); Vollmann, T.E. (International Inst. for Management Development, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    A decision support model is presented which will give utilities the support tools to manage the purchasing of natural gas supplies in the most cost effective manner without reducing winter safety stocks to below minimum levels. In Business As Usual (BAU) purchasing quantities vary with the daily forecasts. With Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Linear Programming (LP), two types of factors are used: seasonal weather and decision rule. Under current practices, BAU simulation uses the least expensive gas source first, then adding successively more expensive sources. Material Requirements Planning is a production planning technique which uses a parent item master production schedule to determine time phased requirements for component points. Where the MPS is the aggregate gas demand forecasts for the contract year. This satisfies daily demand with least expensive gas and uses more expensive when necessary with automatic computation of available-to-promise (ATP) gas a dispacher knows daily when extra gas supplies may be ATP. Linear Programming is a mathematical algorithm used to determine optimal allocations of scarce resources to achieve a desired result. The LP model determines optimal daily gas purchase decisions with respect to supply cost minimization. Using these models, it appears possible to raise gross income margins 6 to 10% with minimal additions of customers and no new gas supply.

  16. Decision support models for natural gas dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, L.; Vollmann, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    A decision support model is presented which will give utilities the support tools to manage the purchasing of natural gas supplies in the most cost effective manner without reducing winter safety stocks to below minimum levels. In Business As Usual (BAU) purchasing quantities vary with the daily forecasts. With Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Linear Programming (LP), two types of factors are used: seasonal weather and decision rule. Under current practices, BAU simulation uses the least expensive gas source first, then adding successively more expensive sources. Material Requirements Planning is a production planning technique which uses a parent item master production schedule to determine time phased requirements for component points. Where the MPS is the aggregate gas demand forecasts for the contract year. This satisfies daily demand with least expensive gas and uses more expensive when necessary with automatic computation of available-to-promise (ATP) gas a dispacher knows daily when extra gas supplies may be ATP. Linear Programming is a mathematical algorithm used to determine optimal allocations of scarce resources to achieve a desired result. The LP model determines optimal daily gas purchase decisions with respect to supply cost minimization. Using these models, it appears possible to raise gross income margins 6 to 10% with minimal additions of customers and no new gas supply

  17. Natural Gas Liberalisation and Deregulation - The German Gas Industry's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernie, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Europe, the process of creating a single energy market is under way. The 1998 Gas Directive established an important date for the European gas industry. On 10 August 1998, ''Directive 98/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas'' came into force. It had to be transposed into national law by the EU member states within two years, i.e. by 10 August 2000. The Directive is a cornerstone in establishing a competitive gas market in the European Union. It is the outcome of several years of negotiations and can be regarded as a compromise between the various interests. On the whole, it leaves EU member states with sufficient scope for adequately taking account of national characteristics in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity. The process of transposing the Gas Directive into the national law of individual EU member states is being closely followed by the European Commission. While acknowledging all the progress made in the single market process, the Commission still detects shortcomings in the implementation of the Gas Directive on the road to an actual single market. This is seen as a justification for new initiatives and intervention, even though the new political framework for the gas industry has not yet been tested in practice and been able to prove itself on a broad scale for any length of time. In the debate on liberalisation, tried-and-tested instruments of secure and market-oriented gas supply on the European continent long-term supply contracts with take-or-pay clauses and competitive oil-indexed gas prices have also come under scrutiny. However, even under the conditions of liberalisation, security of supply has to be achieved mainly by a balanced mix of supply sources and by long-term supply contracts, including competitive pricing as ensured by so-called oil indexing. In the further liberalisation of west European gas industries, it will be essential to ensure

  18. Mitchell firmly retrenched in natural gas services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    The past three years, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp. has undergone a massive restructuring that has changed the face of one of the nation's largest and best-known natural gas/natural gas liquids companies. Facing a rapidly changing industry that frequently has been stung by volatile swings in energy markets, management of the independent company, founded by George Mitchell in 1946, sold off $300 million in non-core assets; reduced its long-term debt by $400 million; instituted a hiring freeze and reduced its workforce by a third, from 2,900 to 1,950, over the last three years. Mitchell negotiated a buyout of its hugely profitable North Texas gas sales contract with Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America as a means of easing its transition to a market-sensitive price environment and reducing its debt. Mitchell also took operational control. Finally, Mitchell has left the real estate business, culminating July 31 with the sale of its real estate subsidiary, The Woodlands Corporation, for $543 million ($460 million net after-tax), further reducing its workforce to 1,100. On Aug. 18, the company said it will use the proceeds to repurchase common stock, retire another $200 million of public debt, make asset niche energy acquisitions and increase capital spending for existing programs. The result is a renewed focus on its exploration and production and gas gathering, processing and marketing businesses

  19. Natural gas markets in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzmark, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, Asian energy markets expanded at a rapid rate to meet the surge in demand from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. This demand boom coincided with an increase in non-OPEC oil production in the region. As oil production stabilizes, demand appears to be surging again, but this time in the Southeast Asian countries. Natural gas will play a key role in this expansion of energy use and could start to lead rather than follow the oil market. This will be especially true as compressed natural gas and oxygenates start to take significant shares of the transportation fuel markets, while the role of residual fuel oil is increasingly usurped by gas for environmental reasons. Many new gas sources such as Papua New Guinea, Siberia, China, and Canada will fight for market share while domestic demand in Indonesia and Malaysia takes up increasing proportions of those countries' gas production. Extensive regional transportation schemes are likely to direct more of the gas output of Southeast Asia to intra-ASEAN uses. 2 tabs

  20. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)

  1. Natural gas retailing: writing the last chapter of natural gas deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerkelund, T.

    1995-01-01

    Under the A greement on Natural Gas Markets and Prices of October 1985, the Canadian federal government agreed to deregulate the price of natural gas and to allow a competitive gas market to develop. Several beneficial changes that have occurred as a result of the deregulation were described, including the Industrial Gas Users Association's (IGUA) view on the marketing and sale of natural gas by local gas distributor's (LDC) and the sale within the LDC franchise. IGUA's support for the separation between LDC distribution and LDC sales and marketing activities as the last step in deregulation process, was explained. Several arguments for the opposing view were also discussed. Recommendations were made for effective separation of LDC distribution and LDC sales/marketing activities

  2. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  3. Discussion paper 'Natural Gas for Sale'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The information in this report must support a discussion on policy starting points for the structure of natural gas tariffs in the Netherlands. The discussion will be held within EnergieNed (the association for energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) in the light of recent developments in the energy distribution sector in Europe

  4. The complexity of natural gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the process of the deregulation of the energy market large consumers will have lots of opportunities to purchase natural gas and electricity cheaper than before. However, only one third seizes those opportunities. Special consultants can help to conclude supply contracts, focusing on the customer, supplier and commodity. Advantages and disadvantages of collective purchases of energy are briefly outlined

  5. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  6. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  7. Sustainable operation - natural-gas contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, R.T.; Meo, M. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1993-01-01

    In view of the rapid pace of population growth in industrializing nations and the globalization of many commercial markets, cumulative environmental damages have heightened the responsibility of industrialized nations to use science and technology to help other nations achieve desirable levels of economic prosperity and environmental quality. For all nations, the challenge of sustainable development will be to use natural resources in an economic and equitable manner that results in minimum environmental impact over time. For these reasons, the expanded use of natural gas will continue to be prominent in the debate about policy alternatives for advancing sustainable development. As the cleanest burning fossil fuel, natural gas and its attendant supply and distribution infrastructure are characterized as important for many reasons including: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, generating minimal solid and liquid wastes during production, transportation, and consumption; serving as a transition fuel to a future with greater reliance on renewable energy sources; and for providing an industrial base for developing more environmentally conscious technologies. Other arguments for its expanded use have emphasized the opportunity to induce technical innovations and behavioral changes that are more compatible with sustainable development. The criteria by which society can design sustainable development strategies and determine whether environmental quality goals have been met will be key to the effective implementation of clean-fuel programs and expansion of natural-gas uses. This issue is timely, particularly with regard to how clean fuels can be nested within conceptual policy and planning frameworks that address sustainable industrial development more broadly. 35 refs.

  8. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000

  9. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. Methane emissions from the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.; Cowgill, R.M.; Campbell, L.M.; Lott, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. EPA and the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have suggested that global warming could be reduced if more energy was generated using natural gas rather than fuels such as coal. An increased use of natural gas instead of coal would decrease global warming since methane emits less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than any fossil fuel. However, methane is a more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 , and leakage from the gas system could reduce or eliminate the inherent advantage of natural gas. For this reason, methane emissions must be quantified before a national policy on preferred fuels is developed. Therefore, GRI and EPA have developed this confunded program to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry. This paper presents, for general industry review, the approach and methodology that the project is using to determine the emissions. The study will measure or calculate all gas industry methane emissions - from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. When these data are combined with data from other studies, a definitive comparison of the relative environmental impact of using methane versus other fuels will be possible. The study will also provide data that can be used by the industry to identify cost-effective mitigation techniques to reduce losses. The methane emissions project is being conducted in three phases: the first two phases have identified and ranked all known potential methane-emitting sources and established methods for measuring, calculating, and extrapolating emissions from those sources. The third phase, which is currently in progress, will gather sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal. This paper briefly summarizes the methodology being used for the completion of the third phase

  11. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  12. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  13. Natural gas and its consumption in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniriah, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this report the worldwide position of natural gas as an important energy of the coming decades and its modest current standing in the Swiss energy balance are highlighted. The relative role and importance of the principal fossil fuels in the energy supply, the average energy prices and taxes, particularly those of gas and fuel oil in the residential sector and the overall statistically related inter-fuel substitution in Switzerland are examined. The role of governments in energy supply in general and with gas utilization in particular is examined. The international trade in gas and its supply infrastructure are reviewed and the advantageous situation of Switzerland in Western Europe and the latter in the World, with respect to present and future gas supplies, are underlined. Considering the current level of gas consumption in Switzerland and its past and projected rates of market penetration, in comparison to other OECD countries, it would appear that Switzerland is not taking full advantage of the situation. The implicit message, even if diffidently conveyed, is intervention by prescription and by proscription. In the absence of such measures, and with the virtual demise of nuclear energy or its expansion, the disproportionate and dominant position of fuel oil in the energy mix, will endure whereas the share of gas grows very slowly remaining at much lower levels than in the neighbouring countries. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  14. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  15. Natural gas in the World 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the key findings of the 160-page 2014 edition of CEDIGAZ's flagship survey 'Natural Gas in the World': Worldwide proved natural gas reserves grew by 0.5% (981 bcm) in 2013. On January 1, 2014, reserves were estimated by Cedigaz to stand at 200,576 bcm, compared to 199,595 bcm for the previous year. Out of the seven regions in our regional breakdown, only North America and the C.I.S. have seen an increase in their reserves base in 2013. The strongest gain, both in absolute terms (+739 bcm) and as a percentage (+6.8%), was recorded in North America, reflecting the growth of unconventional gas reserves, both in the U.S. and Canada. The C.I.S. also posted a solid 669 bcm increase, representing a 1% rise. OPEC countries control about half of the world's gas reserves (47%) whereas C.I.S. countries account for almost one-third (33%). Proved unconventional gas reserves are concentrated in North America, especially in the U.S., which held in particular 3.7 tcm of proven shale gas reserves. Outside North America, large coal bed methane (CBM) reserves also exist in Australia and China. Marketed production was up by only 1% from 2012, reaching 3394 bcm, compared to the average growth rate for the last ten years (2.5%/year). This slowdown is partly explained by growing coal-togas competition on the demand side and a gas supply shortfall on the supply side, especially in emerging markets, where the lack of upstream investment is acute. The highest production increases were recorded in the Middle East (+3.1%) and the C.I.S. (+2.6%), which compensated for output losses in Europe (-2.3%) and Africa (-6.6%). In 2013, the two leading regional producing markets, North America and the C.I.S., accounted for 26% and 24% of global production respectively, followed by the Middle East (17%) and Asia Oceania (15%). In 2013, growth in unconventional gas production was driven by North America, China and Australia. North America no longer accounts

  16. Annual survey on the natural gas market: 2008 main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This document presents and briefly comments the main data of the natural gas market in France in 2008: gas production, gas transit (entry points receiving gas from various origins and export points to Spain and Switzerland), gas storage, gas distribution, gas sales in the different French regions and to different kinds of customers or industries

  17. Gas as a growth factor for the emerging economies: Natural gas resources Worldwide. Gas: alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, Armelle

    2015-01-01

    All the qualities of gas - available, affordable, efficient, acceptable and reliable - make this energy a cornerstone both for the development of emerging countries and for new economic activities. Another advantage is that gas is available everywhere in a gaseous and/or liquid form, according to the particular infrastructure (gas pipeline, gas tankers). Moreover, gas can be consumed in different sectors - residential, commercial or industrial - and for different uses - electricity generation or clean fuel for transportation. A first part of this paper presents the natural gas resources Worldwide (Cedigaz data) while a second part reviews the development around the world of the use of gas - liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas - as alternative fuels

  18. The effect of natural gas shortages on the Mexican economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz, Carlo; Villalvazo Martin, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Mexican economy experienced a shortage of natural gas from the second quarter of 2012 through the second half of 2013. In order to deal with this problem, the state-owned national supplier of natural gas (Pemex) implemented a system that restricts the amount of natural gas used by the manufacturing sector. With this information, we have constructed a "shortage index" that represents the percentage of natural gas restricted per month in each region. We quantify the effect of natural gas sh...

  19. The natural gas industry in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheloufi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This article makes a synthesis of the evolution of the natural gas sector in Portugal since the end of the 1990's. The aim of the energy policy of Portugal was the creation of a liberalized energy market capable to ensure the security of the energy supplies and to encourage the energy efficiency in order to reduce the environmental impact. The success of the introduction of natural gas in Portugal perfectly fulfills these goals. Since 1997, the natural gas consumption has increased significantly. The start-up of the methane terminal of Sines allows the diversification of the supply sources and contributes to the growth of the offer. The opening of the market is under development. It will allow the main consumers to select their supplier among those present on the Portuguese market. GALP company should keep its leader position and its daughter company 'Gas du Portugal' should reach 300 MW of power generation capacities by 2005 with the development of multi-energy services. The creation of an Iberian energy market between Spain and Portugal should speed up in 2004 leading to deep modifications in the energy sector of southern Europe. (J.S.)

  20. Hyper market of the Natural Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The article tries about the Center of Commercialization of Gas-CCG located in Bogota where experts take charge minute to minute that and that fuel that ECOPETROL sells arrives every day to its final destination. They work 24 hours during 365 days, they receive and they respond in time their clients' record applications, they analyze rates; they sell, they negotiate, they give the prices, but the mainly, they control the key that guarantees that the Colombians receive the supply of natural gas on time. It has the most modern tip technology and a complete system of compute that allows knowing the requirements of the buyers in real time. From there they decide that natural gas will be made every day and they detect quickly where flaws are presented. The CCG sells every month an average of $35.000 millions. Although the thermal plants are the biggest buyers of natural gas in the country, some industrial clients and big companies have begun the conversion of their teams to make use of this fuel, recognized in the world to be more economic and cleaner for the environment

  1. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... natural gas from/to Canada/Mexico. 3296 06/18/13 13-67-LNG ConocoPhillips Company..... Order granting... granting blanket authority to import/ export natural gas from/to Canada/Mexico, and to import LNG from... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013...

  2. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Commodities Order granting blanket LLC. authority to import/export natural gas from/to Canada/ Mexico, to... Generale Order granting blanket Energy Corp. authority to import/export natural gas from/to Canada/ Mexico... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied...

  3. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Natural Gas Inc. Order granting blanket authority to import/export LNG from/to Canada/Mexico by truck... granting blanket authority to export natural gas to Canada/ Mexico. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE...

  4. A natural gas country halfway between Slochteren and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty four years ago the natural gas field Slochteren in Groningen, Netherlands made the Netherlands into an outstanding natural gas country. Last summer, exactly half of the original 2680 trillion m 3 of natural gas has been extracted. According to the projections of the Dutch Gasunie the Dutch gas reserves will be about depleted after another thirty four years. To guarantee continuity of the natural gas supply the natural gas will have to become more expensive. Also considerable investments in storage capacity are needed. Comments and opinions of experts regarding the future of the Dutch natural gas market are presented. 2 figs., 14 ills

  5. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  6. Natural gas - an alternative. Swedish electric power from Norwegian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The report describes the possible substitution of electric power by natural gas on the heat source market and how gas can be used for power production. The cost of distribution and means of supply are presented. 1/3 of the electric power produced by nuclear power plants can be replaced by the middle of the nineties. Transport techniques for gas and its total volume as well as transport cost from Norwegian North Sea are discussed

  7. The essence of turbulence as a physical phenomenon with emphasis on issues of paradigmatic nature

    CERN Document Server

    Tsinober, Arkady

    2014-01-01

    This book critically reexamines what turbulence really is, from a fundamental point of view and based on observations from nature, laboratories, and direct numerical simulations. It includes critical assessments and a comparative analysis of the key developments, their evolution and failures, along with key misconceptions and outdated paradigms. The main emphasis is on conceptual and problematic aspects, physical phenomena, observations, misconceptions and unresolved issues rather than on conventional formalistic aspects, models, etc. Apart from the obvious fundamental importance of turbulent flows, this emphasis stems from the basic premise that without corresponding progress in fundamental aspects there is little chance for progress in applications such as drag reduction, mixing, control and modeling of turbulence. More generally, there is also a desperate need to grasp the physical fundamentals of the technological processes in which turbulence plays a central role.

  8. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS STUDIES OF TURBULENCE IN OPTICALLY THICK GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, C.; Medeiros, J. R. De; Lazarian, A.; Burkhart, B.; Pogosyan, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate the sensitivity of principal component analysis (PCA) to the velocity power spectrum in high-opacity regimes of the interstellar medium (ISM). For our analysis we use synthetic position–position–velocity (PPV) cubes of fractional Brownian motion and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, post-processed to include radiative transfer effects from CO. We find that PCA analysis is very different from the tools based on the traditional power spectrum of PPV data cubes. Our major finding is that PCA is also sensitive to the phase information of PPV cubes and this allows PCA to detect the changes of the underlying velocity and density spectra at high opacities, where the spectral analysis of the maps provides the universal −3 spectrum in accordance with the predictions of the Lazarian and Pogosyan theory. This makes PCA a potentially valuable tool for studies of turbulence at high opacities, provided that proper gauging of the PCA index is made. However, we found the latter to not be easy, as the PCA results change in an irregular way for data with high sonic Mach numbers. This is in contrast to synthetic Brownian noise data used for velocity and density fields that show monotonic PCA behavior. We attribute this difference to the PCA's sensitivity to Fourier phase information

  9. Natural Gas Boom in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to present the place and role played by the Middle East region on the international market of natural gas due to its high potential of production and export. Important gas reserves are not extracted due to poor infrastructure, difficult technical conditions and lack of needed investments. But the main problem which creates great obstacles for the capitalization of gas resources and impedes the countries’ development and export is the conflictual situation persisting in the region for many decades. Instead of cooperation one can see a permanent confrontation which seriously harms the social and economic progress, and that is why democratic and responsible regimes are required, with a new vision upon international relations, but also it is needed the economic, financial and technological support of the great powers, in particular of USA and EU, that is essential and extremely beneficial for the future of this region.

  10. SCADA Architecture for Natural Gas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turc Traian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Natural Gas Plant SCADA architecture. The main purpose of SCADA system is remote monitoring and controlling of any industrial plant. The SCADA hardware architecture is based on multi-dropping system allowing connecting a large number of different fiels devices. The SCADA Server gathers data from gas plant and stores data to a MtSQL database. The SCADA server is connected to other SCADA client application offers a intuitive and user-friendly HMI. The main benefit of using SCADA is real time displaying of gas plant state. The main contriobution of the authors consists in designing SCADA architecture based on multi-dropping system and Human Machine Interface.

  11. Evaluation of the Predictive Capabilities of a Phenomenological Combustion Model for Natural Gas SI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toman Rastislav

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the predictive capabilities of a new phenomenological combustion model, available as a part of the GT-Suite software package. It is comprised of two main sub-models: 0D model of in-cylinder flow and turbulence, and turbulent SI combustion model. The 0D in-cylinder flow model (EngCylFlow uses a combined K-k-ε kinetic energy cascade approach to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder charge motion and turbulence, where K and k are the mean and turbulent kinetic energies, and ε is the turbulent dissipation rate. The subsequent turbulent combustion model (EngCylCombSITurb gives the in-cylinder burn rate; based on the calculation of flame speeds and flame kernel development. This phenomenological approach reduces significantly the overall computational effort compared to the 3D-CFD, thus allowing the computation of full engine operating map and the vehicle driving cycles. Model was calibrated using a full map measurement from a turbocharged natural gas SI engine, with swirl intake ports. Sensitivity studies on different calibration methods, and laminar flame speed sub-models were conducted. Validation process for both the calibration and sensitivity studies was concerning the in-cylinder pressure traces and burn rates for several engine operation points achieving good overall results.

  12. Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    David Reinstein; Daniel A. Benítez Benítez; Todd M. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, in...

  13. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  14. Natural gas heating in Serbian settlements according to urbanity parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Brkić , Dejan

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Natural gas can be directly used for heating of flats by gas distribution system. Indirectly, heating power plant can disburse natural gas and deliver hot water or steam for heating of flats. Decision of optimal way for gas heating usage is done based on spatial disposal of building, number and size of buildings in settlement, etc. Optimal solution, between gas distribution and district heating system (local or district heating by natural gas), can be done according to...

  15. Competitive natural gas market situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzola, C.; Grillo, M.

    1998-01-01

    This article evaluates the prospects for achieving a competitive market in the natural gas industry, according to the common rules for the internal market established by the Directive 98/30/CE of 22 June 1998. Firstly, for the organisation of the access to the system, the regulated, rather than the negotiated, procedure would ensure a better opportunity to promote competition in the market. Secondly, the establishment of a competitive market calls for the effective separation of the phases of production characterized by natural monopoly from the phases which may be developed in a competitive setting [it

  16. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugliotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society. [it

  17. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  18. The impact of natural gas on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreut, J.

    1997-01-01

    Centra Gas B.C. Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Inc., delivers gas to 54,000 residential and commercial customers and seven large market pulp mills in British Columbia. Over the next few years, Centra Gas expects their throughput capacity to double from 100 million cubic feet of gas/day to about 200 million cubic feet/day. Currently, there is about 2,500 km of distribution mains in place and new mains are being added at the rate of 200 km/year. The distribution system includes 565 km of pipeline for Vancouver Island. The B.C. government has announced plans to build two cogeneration plants on the Island which will have major positive economic and environmental impacts. Consumer benefits include not only one of the cleanest, most reliable, efficient and versatile energy sources available today, but also significant reductions in particulate and carbon dioxide emissions, high efficiency and instant response of natural gas appliances, as well as stability for existing industry and jobs, and the opportunity to expand, or to attract new industry and additional employment

  19. The natural gas storage in France and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The natural gas storages play a great role in the gas supplying security. They allow to compensate for the variations of the supply and demand. This document presents the different natural gas storage technic: in the phreatic cave, in salt hollows, in abandoned deposits and the natural liquefied gas. It includes also a map of the natural gas storage situation in France. (A.L.B.)

  20. The AFG Convention - The future for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Lafon, Madeleine; Bouchard, Georges; Figoli, Jean-Michel; Honorat, Augustin; Clodic, Denis; Fauvel, Philippe; Frantz, Ludovic; Rottenberg, Jacques; Stabat, Thibault; Constant, Herve; Ferraris, Patrick; Monserand, David; Padova, Yann; Leeder, Nick

    2017-01-01

    The Association Francaise du Gas (French Gas Association) has held its 'the future of gas' convention in October 2016. After an opening speech, which insisted on the fact that natural gas is now recognized as a low greenhouse gas emission energy source, and a presentation of the gas demand scenario for 2030, two round tables addressed the new utilizations of natural gas (LNG for ships and vehicles, power generation, biomethane, cryogenics, heating systems), and the contributions of new technologies (and more especially digital systems) in the natural gas market and gas utilities

  1. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... BG LNG SERVICES, LLC 12-04-LNG MICHIGAN CONSOLIDATED GAS COMPANY 12-02-NG ENERGY SOURCE CANADA INC 12... Federal holidays. Issued in Washington, DC, on February 22, 2012. John A. Anderson, Manager, Natural Gas... granting blanket authority Natural Gas LLC. to import natural gas from Canada. 3057 01/10/12 12-03-NG...

  2. Stakeholder Workshop Presentations: EPA Greenhouse Gas Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    View the summary and presentations from the November 2015 stakeholder workshop on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks.

  3. Viscous shock layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    The viscous shock layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially symmetric flow fields. Solutions are obtained using an implicit finite difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically blunted cone configurations at free stream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.

  4. Viscous-shock-layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    The viscous-shock-layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially-symmetric flow fields. Solutions were obtained using an implicit finite-difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically-blunted cone configurations at freestream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.

  5. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  6. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  7. Annual survey of the natural gas market: 2010 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welter-Nicol, Cecile

    2011-12-01

    This document presents and briefly comments the main data of the natural gas market in France in 2010: gas production (only 2 pc of supplies), gas transit evolutions since 2007 (entry points receiving gas from various origins and export points to Spain and Switzerland), outlines the increase of imports from Norway, comments gas storage capacities, the evolution of gas distribution in France, the evolution of gas consumption, and gas sales in the different French regions and to different kinds of customers or industries

  8. Numerical Study of Natural Supercavitation Influenced by Rheological Properties of Turbulent Drag-Reducing Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Xing Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural supercavitations in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution were numerically simulated using unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS scheme with mixture-multiphase model. The Cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the fluid property of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The characteristics of natural supercavity configuration and overall resistance of the navigating body were presented, respectively. The numerical simulation results indicated that, at the same cavitation number, the length and diameter of supercavity in drag-reducing solution are larger than those in water, and the drag coefficient of navigating body in solution is smaller than that in water; the surface tension plays an important role in incepting and maintaining the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitation, drag reduction, and decrease of turbulent vortex structures. Numerical simulation results are consistent with the available experimental data.

  9. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes 14 C, 222 Rn and 3 He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO 2 exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The 222 Rn to 226 Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess 3 He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with 226 Ra and 3 H in order to allow the use of the 222 Rn and 3 He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO 2 exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  10. Natural Gas in the World 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January 2012, proved natural gas reserves grew by 1.7% over revised reserves of 2011 and were estimated at 199.6 trillion cubic meters (bcm), according to CEDIGAZ. The Commonwealth of Independent states (CIS) made the largest contribution to this growth, essentially as a result of reserves additions/re-evaluation by Russia. The Middle East also showed a significant increase (+ 565 bcm), led by Iran and Saudi Arabia. In North America, shale gas reserves continue to post a sustained growth. Whereas 72% of oil reserves are held by OPEC members, the bulk of gas reserves are distributed between OPEC countries, with 47.6% of the world total, and in the C.I.S. with 32.4%. These two economic blocks thus share responsibility for closing the future world gas balance. World production increased significantly in 2011 to adapt to the expansion of gas demand in a large number of markets, with the exception of Europe, where demand collapsed. World gross production increased 2% in 2011 to 4127 bcm, of which 449.5 bcm was reinjected, 126.5 bcm was flared and 253 bcm was lost through shrinkage. World marketed production climbed 2.8% to reach a new record level of 3299 bcm in 2011. This growth corresponds to the average recorded in the past-ten years. The Middle East recorded the strongest production growth in volume terms (+ 44 bcm), overtaking Asia Oceania to become the third largest producing regional market. North America and the CIS bolstered their standing as the leading producing regions, accounting for 25.6% and 24.9% of global output respectively. For the second consecutive year, the large majority of the volumetric growth in gas supply was led by three countries: the US, Qatar and Russia. In addition, China and Iran improved their rankings. Production of shale gas in the US pursued an exponential growth in 2011, under the impetus of the Haynesville and Marcellus fields. Shale gas represent 30% of the country's gas output today. The interest for unconventional resources

  11. Papers of the Canadian Institute's forum on natural gas purchasing strategies : critical information for natural gas consumers in a time of diminishing natural gas supplies and higher prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference provided insight into how to prosper in an increasingly complex natural gas marketplace. The presentations from key industry players offered valuable information on natural gas purchasing strategies that are working in the current volatile price environment. Diminishing natural gas supplies in North America mean that higher prices and volatility will continue. Other market challenges stem from potential cost increases in gas transportation, unbundling of natural gas services, and the changing energy marketing environment. The main factors that will affect prices for the winter of 2004 were outlined along with risk management and the best pricing strategies for businesses. The key strategies for managing the risks associated with natural gas purchase contracts were also reviewed, along with the issue of converging natural gas and electricity markets and the impact on energy consumers. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Natural gas in low energy house Zittau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maertens, L.; Koschack, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a low-energy house in Zittau, Germany. The house consists of two parts A and B. Part A is heated by means of gas boilers and condensed boilers, while part B is solar heated. Energy for heating and warming of tap water is an important part of the primary energy consumption in Germany. Therefore, one way of reducing the CO2 emissions is to reduce the heat losses of buildings through outer facades and air ventilation, to use regenerative energy sources, to use fuels with low CO2 emissivity like natural gas, and to install efficient heating- and hot water preparation systems. The low-energy house in Zittau is used for energy research

  13. International natural gas and petrochemical opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of NOVA Gas International Ltd. (NGI) to locating international development opportunities was reviewed. NOVA has provided consulting expertise to more than 300 projects in 50 countries during the past 20 years. NGI is focusing its energies on five regions: Canada, the US, Mexico, the southern cone of South America and the Asia-Pacific region. To determine where to offer natural gas services and petrochemicals, the Company utilizes a multi-step analysis process which is designed to identify (1) the perfect customer, (2) the most attractive global regions, (3) the potential pitfalls, and (4) the best projects. NOVA also found out the importance of developing a solid network of local contacts and partners. Project financing must be adequate and flexible, requiring constant communications with partners and interested parties

  14. Heat transfer by liquids in suspension in a turbulent gas stream (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay

    1960-01-01

    The introduction of a small volume of liquid into a turbulent gas stream used as cooling agent improves considerably the heat transfer coefficient of the gas. When the turbulent regime is established, one observes in a cylindrical tube two types of flow whether the liquid wets or does not wet the wall. In the first case, one gets on the wall an annular liquid film and droplets in suspension are in the gas stream. In the second case, a fog of droplets is formed without any liquid film on the wall. Experiments were performed with the following mixtures: water-hydrogen, water-nitrogen, ethanol-nitrogen (wetting liquids) introduced into a stainless steel tube of 4 mm ID, electrically heated on 320 mm of length. We varied the gas flow rate (Reynolds until 50000), the rate of the liquid flow rate to gas flow rate (until 15), the pressure (until 10 kg/cm 2 ), the temperature (until the boiling point) and the heat flux (until 250 W/cm 2 ). Two types of burnout were observed. A formula of correlation of the burnout heat flux is given. Making use of the analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, a dimensionless formula of correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is established. (author) [fr

  15. Regulatory issues of natural gas distribution; Aspectos regulatorios acerca da distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Fabio Augusto C.C.M.; Costa, Hirdan Katarina de M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito

    2004-07-01

    In these past few years, natural gas in Brazil has arised as one of the alternatives for the energetic crisis suffered by the country. Such situation was one of the motives for its expansion, rising, after that, the importance of the regulation of its distribution. The regulation of canalized natural gas distribution can be found in the Federal Constitution, after Constitutional Amendment n. 05/95, in the article n. 25, para. 2nd, which say that belongs to the Federal States the concession or direct exercise of canalized natural gas services, now clearly classified as a public service. In order of these events, its imperative the analysis of natural gas distribution's public service, because it belongs to the Federal States. According to this situation, the study of the new regulatory function of the Administration and the tracing of action for the regulatory state agencies are the main goals of this work. As so, the present research aims to focus the reflexes from the actual dimension of natural gas distribution, specially referring to its regulatory statements, the limitations of state agencies, the National Petroleum Agency and the market where distribution belongs, and particularly the open access of new agents. (author)

  16. Numerical Monitoring of Natural Gas Distribution Discrepancy Using CFD Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Seleznev, Vadim E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a new method for numerical monitoring of discrepancies in natural gas supply to consumers, who receive gas from gas distribution loops. This method serves to resolve the vital problem of commercial natural gas accounting under the conditions of deficient field measurements of gas supply volumes. Numerical monitoring makes it possible to obtain computational estimates of actual gas deliveries over given time spans and to estimate their difference from corresponding values r...

  17. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but uncertainties exist in the amount of methane leakage occurring upstream in the extraction and production of natural gas. At high leakage levels, these methane emissions could outweigh the benefits of switching from coal to natural gas. This analysis uses the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of the U.S. energy system over a series of model runs in which the power sector is asked to meet a specific CO2 reduction target and the availability of natural gas changes. Scenarios are run with a range of upstream methane emission leakage rates from natural gas production. While the total CO2 emissions are reduced in most scenarios, total greenhouse gas emissions show an increase or no change when both natural gas availability and methane emissions from natural gas production are high. Article presents summary of results from an analyses of natural gas resource availability and power sector emissions reduction strategies under different estimates of methane leakage rates during natural gas extraction and production. This was study was undertaken as part of the Energy Modeling Forum Study #31:

  18. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  19. Prediction of turbulent gas-solids flow in curved ducts using the Eulerian-Lagrangian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, S.; Bryden, I. G.

    1999-10-01

    The flow of particulate two-phase flow mixtures occur in several components of solid fuel combustion systems, such as the pressurised fluidised bed combustors (PFBC) and suspension-fired coal boilers. A detailed understanding of the mixture characteristics in the conveying component can aid in refining and optimising its design. In this study, the flow of an isothermal, dilute two-phase particulate mixture has been examined in a high curvature duct, which can be representative of that transporting the gas-solid mixture from the hot clean-up section to the gas turbine combustor in a PFBC plant. The numerical study has been approached by utilising the Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology for describing the characteristics of the fluid and particulate phases. By assuming that the mixture is dilute and the particles are spherical, the governing particle momentum equations have been solved with appropriately prescribed boundary conditions. Turbulence effects on the particle dispersion were represented by a statistical model that accounts for both the turbulent eddy lifetime and the particle transit time scales. For the turbulent flow condition examined it was observed that mixtures with small particle diameters had low interphase slip velocities and low impaction probability with the pipe walls. Increasing the particle diameters (>50 m) resulted in higher interphase slip velocities and, as expected, their impaction probability with the pipe walls was significantly increased. The particle dispersion is significant for the smaller sizes, whereas the larger particles are relatively insensitive to the gas turbulence. The main particle impaction region, and locations most prone to erosion damage, is estimated to be within an outer duct length of two to six times the duct diameter, when the duct radius of curvature to the duct diameter ratio is equal to unity. Copyright

  20. Realization of a Tunable Dissipation Scale in a Turbulent Cascade using a Quantum Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, Nir; Eigen, Christoph; Zhang, Jinyi; Lopes, Raphael; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2017-04-01

    Many turbulent flows form so-called cascades, where excitations injected at large length scales, are transported to gradually smaller scales until they reach a dissipation scale. We initiate a turbulent cascade in a dilute Bose fluid by pumping energy at the container scale of an optical box trap using an oscillating magnetic force. In contrast to classical fluids where the dissipation scale is set by the viscosity of the fluid, the turbulent cascade of our quantum gas finishes when the particles kinetic energy exceeds the laser-trap depth. This mechanism thus allows us to effectively tune the dissipation scale where particles (and energy) are lost, and measure the particle flux in the cascade at the dissipation scale. We observe a unit power-law decay of the particle-dissipation rate with trap depth, which confirms the surprising prediction that in a wave-turbulent direct energy cascade, the particle flux vanishes in the ideal limit where the dissipation length scale tends to zero.

  1. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgarone, E; Zwaan, M A; Godard, B; Bergin, E; Ivison, R J; Andreani, P M; Bournaud, F; Bussmann, R S; Elbaz, D; Omont, A; Oteo, I; Walter, F

    2017-08-24

    Starburst galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation are among the most extreme star-forming engines in the Universe, producing stars over about 100 million years (ref. 2). The star-formation rates of these galaxies, which exceed 100 solar masses per year, require large reservoirs of cold molecular gas to be delivered to their cores, despite strong feedback from stars or active galactic nuclei. Consequently, starburst galaxies are ideal for studying the interplay between this feedback and the growth of a galaxy. The methylidyne cation, CH + , is a most useful molecule for such studies because it cannot form in cold gas without suprathermal energy input, so its presence indicates dissipation of mechanical energy or strong ultraviolet irradiation. Here we report the detection of CH + (J = 1-0) emission and absorption lines in the spectra of six lensed starburst galaxies at redshifts near 2.5. This line has such a high critical density for excitation that it is emitted only in very dense gas, and is absorbed in low-density gas. We find that the CH + emission lines, which are broader than 1,000 kilometres per second, originate in dense shock waves powered by hot galactic winds. The CH + absorption lines reveal highly turbulent reservoirs of cool (about 100 kelvin), low-density gas, extending far (more than 10 kiloparsecs) outside the starburst galaxies (which have radii of less than 1 kiloparsec). We show that the galactic winds sustain turbulence in the 10-kiloparsec-scale environments of the galaxies, processing these environments into multiphase, gravitationally bound reservoirs. However, the mass outflow rates are found to be insufficient to balance the star-formation rates. Another mass input is therefore required for these reservoirs, which could be provided by ongoing mergers or cold-stream accretion. Our results suggest that galactic feedback, coupled jointly to turbulence and gravity, extends the starburst phase of a galaxy instead of quenching it.

  2. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  3. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  4. The fuel of choice: forecasting natural gas availability and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This article examines predictions set out in the US Energy Information Administration's 'International Energy Outlook 2001' concerning growth in energy consumption, the use of natural gas for electricity generation, and growth in worldwide natural gas consumption in industrialised and developing countries. The reported increase in global natural gas reserves is considered, and regional activity and natural gas reserves in North America, Europe, the former Soviet Union, Central and South America, Asia, the Middle East and Asia are discussed

  5. Natural gas: energy, environment, development and externalities; Gas natural: energia, meio-ambiente, desenvolvimento e externalidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Natural gas is a major source of non-renewable energy in the Brazilian energy matrix, and the noticeable increase in demand for this energy. This can be checked with the expansion of investments in Brazil and in the state of Bahia for the various sectors. The environmental benefits of natural gas highlight the advantages of using this input to the other fossil fuels. This paper discusses the availability of natural gas in Brazil and how it occurs its participation in the national energy matrix. This issue of the vulnerability of the market by the conflict between the growing demand from various industries and the need for order of thermal. It indicates scenarios and future prospects, and limiting factors for their growth. (author)

  6. Liquefied natural gas: a harbor plan; Plano diretor portuario para o gas natural liquefeito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Aluisio de Souza; Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Rego, Erik Eduardo [Excelencia Energetica Consultoria Empresarial Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present the structuring of a port directing plan for the liquefied natural gas. In this sense, an integrated approach between the applied logistic and the requested market conditions was used. For the large distances transportation of liquefied natural gas, the marine modal must attain technical requirements that are not usual in the port routine. Apart from the proper dimensioning of the naval fleet in order to maximize the transported load, providing the optimization of the economic distance, the entire port infra-structure is planned for the reception of liquefied natural gas, in order to attend the physical peculiarities as well as security aspects of extreme importance. The selection of the studied local was motivated by the fuel supply shortage suffered by the country, especially in the northeast region, which owns already installed thermal units in need of the fuel supply to be operated. (author)

  7. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  8. Natural gas prices and the end of gradual change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Natural gas price predictions for the years 1998, 1999-2001, 2000-2005 are provided. In general, prices are predicted to decrease with increase in storage. Some other factors that will influence the price of natural gas and, therefore, should receive consideration in price predictions, include growth in demand, natural gas production, deliverability, new pipelines, and the Alberta price basis. tabs., figs

  9. Software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation (gaspisim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a sudden increase in demand and utilization of natural gas in Nigeria; this may be attributed to federal government policy on establishment of independent power plants and the rising cost of kerosene and fire wood. This increase in demand for natural gas call for design and construction of pipelines for natural gas ...

  10. 75 FR 67352 - Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application October 26, 2010. On October 14, 2010, Liberty Natural Gas, LLC (Liberty) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... Onshore Pipeline is a part of the Liberty Natural Gas Project, which will include a deepwater port (Port...

  11. The prospects of natural gas vehicles in France and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolle, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Given the availability and environmental advantages of natural gas, several countries soon felt that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) were a logical way to respond to transportation needs while meeting up to the standards of sustainable development. Natural gas is now a genuine alternative to petroleum products, and NGVs are capable of using the current engine technology. (author)

  12. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  13. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a volumetrically heated square cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Camila Braga; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to analyze the turbulent natural convection in a volumetrically heated fluid with similar characteristics of an oxide layer of a molten core in the lower head of the pressure vessel. The simulations were carried out in a square cavity with isothermal walls, for Rayleigh numbers (Ra) ranging from 10 9 to 10 11 . Different turbulence models based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations were studied, such as the standard k - ε, low-Reynolds-k - ε, and Shear Stress Transport (SST), using the open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code - Open FOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation). The results of the three turbulence models were compared versus the results of experimental correlations and other authors’ simulations, and the conclusion was that the most promising model proves to be the SST, due to its accuracy and robustness. (author)

  14. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  15. Emissions credits from natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.F.; Kodjak, D.

    1997-01-01

    Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) often are capable of testing to lower than federally required engine certification standards. NGVs often meet inherently low emission vehicle (ILEV) and ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards. Over the useful life of the vehicle, a significant amount of mobile source emission reduction credits (MSERCs) can be generated. This paper will discuss key elements of establishing a workable methodology to quantify the emissions benefits generated through the purchase and use of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles instead of heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The paper will focus on a public fleet of transit buses owned by the Massachusetts Bay Transit Agency, the Massachusetts Port Authority, and a private fleet of waste haulers. Public fleets may generate emission credits as a key compliance option to offset emission shortfalls from changes to the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program, the Inspection and Maintenance program, and facilitate annual surface transportation conformity. Private fleets may generate emission credits for open market trading to area and stationary sources seeking to buy credits from mobile sources, where allowed by EPA and state policy

  16. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  17. The consideration of the turbulence influence on the gas explosion expansion in non-closed areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polandov Iurii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the gas explosions simulation practice in non-closed areas there is a common opinion of burning rate increase at turbulization of initial gas mixture stream. The article shows that in conditions of turbulization there is no increase of the burn rate, but of the flame front area. A wording change of pressure rise reason does not lead to a change of the calculation results, but gives the opportunity to look at the problem differently and interpret a physical process correctly. In order to prove it there are results of the vibrational combustion modeling in terms of gas explosion in the cylinder with an opening on the side. The results show that along with the pressure fluctuation there is burning area size fluctuation that occur synchronous and with the same amplitude. The modeling basis is the system of differential equations, that describe the adopted in gas dynamics fundamental conservation laws, the equation of state, written in the so-called Euler’s form. The system is supplemented with flame spread conditions. The system solution is based on the Russian method of the numerical approximation of this system-the large-particle method.

  18. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  19. Natural gas participation on brazilian demand supply of liquefied petroleum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Rachid, L.B. de

    1991-01-01

    Natural Gas Liquids Production, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) among them, has undergone a continuous growth and technological development until the first half of the eighties. This paper presents the natural gas processing activity development in Brazil, in the last 20 years, and the increasing share of LPG produced from natural gas in the supply of LPG domestic market. Possibilities of achieving greater shares are discussed, based on economics of natural gas processing projects. Worldwide gas processing installed capacity and LPG pricing tendencies, and their influence in the construction of new Natural Gas Processing Units in Brazil, are also discussed. (author)

  20. Study on the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry; Estudo sobre a utilizacao do gas natural na industria ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The production, principal applications, characteristics and properties, advantages of the gas natural is showed. A sectorial overview of the ceramic industry and the utilization of the natural gas in the ceramic industry is presented. The expectations are systematized and the impact of the natural gas utilization in the ceramic industry is evaluated. Some conclusions are withdrawn and recommendations suggested.

  1. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... granting blanket Company. authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada/Mexico, and to import LNG.... authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada/Mexico, to export LNG to Canada/ Mexico by vessel... natural gas from/ to Canada/Mexico. 3095 04/30/12 12-39-NG Virginia Power Energy Order granting blanket...

  2. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  3. The natural gas futures markets - is it still inefficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The natural gas futures market is fundamental to the current natural gas market both as means of price discovery and for price hedging. Thus, the informational efficiency of the futures market is an important issue. This article re-examines the informational efficiency of the natural gas futures market. In this re-examination several cash price series are considered. It is found that the natural gas futures market is informationally efficient for only one of the cash markets. The characteristics of the current natural gas market that might explain the estimated results are also discussed. (author)

  4. Natural Gas Versus Nuclear New Build Versus Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, B.

    2013-01-01

    Proven natural gas reserves and production in the USA have continued to increase in recent years. This is due to the exploration of shale formations and the expanded use of hydraulic fracking technology. Looking forward, we can expect that high crude oil prices will sustain natural gas production at current levels (approximately 25% of natural gas production in the USA is a by-product of crude oil drilling), and the natural gas liquid cuts are priced with crude oil. Continued drilling in the near term for natural gas is required by lease obligations and by commitments to investors

  5. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  6. Legislative competence relative to natural gas; Competencia legislativa atinente ao gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para Habilitacao em Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    The expansion of the gas industry in our country in the actual days, allied to the constitutional authorization for the private initiative acting in this sector provides the establishment of precise rules to the consequent market consolidation. In spite of the exigencies, one realises that the law no. 9.487/97, often denominated as Oil Law, does not rule in its fullness the specifics situations concerned to the natural gas. Despite the elaboration of the natural gas Law is a target of the governmental politics, overcoming the question pondered, there is not, until now, a detailed study of the legislative competency regimen relative to the natural gas. This very work, notably, gathers relevance in front of the State shape adopted in our country and the federative pact historically built; while aiming the complex distribution of legislative power made to each one of the political entities, there is need to establish the limits of performance to the sort of the coming gas Law, under penalty its arising with an unconstitutionality defect confronting to the federative pact. In the sense of clarifying the probably doubts around the subject and allowing that power comes closer to the people are our considerations proposed for. (author)

  7. Asian natural gas--For a brighter '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Ohashi, Tadahiko

    1991-01-01

    The seminar was designed to focus on the business aspects of developing Asian natural gas resources by inclusion of papers on natural gas markets, the role of banks, and financial case histories of existing projects, and papers on commercial and industrial natural gas utilization. The utilization of natural gas was addressed by papers that targeted small-scale, industrial and utility usage of natural gas in electric power production, and by papers on air conditioning and other applications. Each of these topics is important to the development of the Asian natural gas industry. Together, they formed a balanced program when combined with the opening keynote addresses from Tokyo Gas Company, Ltd., and PETRONAS and a panel discussion on gas pricing. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  8. The perspectives of the natural gas in Mexico; Las perspecivas del gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez S, Luis [DIAVAZ S.A de C.V, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    As never before in the last year we have suffered the increases in the cost of the natural gas. For those who are not aware, the prices have gone from 2.48 dollars per million BTU a year ago to 9.57 last month. The truth is that we are facing a true world-wide energy crisis. From one year to date the prices of all the energy sources have increased an average superior to 30%, including increases in Diesel oil, LP Gas, Natural Gas, Turbine fuel. The causes are many and very varied, from efficiency decisions, as in the case of the electrical Generation that has chosen to incline definitively to the natural gas, confusing de-regulations as in the case of California, increases of demand beyond the anticipated by economic activity, changes of consumption pattern, etc.. This demonstrates the well focussed and the opportunity of this Seminar, since there is no doubt that it has become imperative a single and efficient criterium on this so limited resource. In Mexico, the situation is very similar. Recently a measurement has been implemented that tries to palliate the conjunctural effects of this crisis and PEMEX has put to the disposition of the users a contract at fixed price, for three years and by a specific amount. [Spanish] Como nunca antes en el ultimo ano hemos resentido los incrementos en el gasto del gas natural. Para quien no este al tanto los precios han pasado de 2.48 dolares por millon de BTU hace un ano a 9.57 el mes pasado. La verdad es que os estamos enfrentando a una verdadera crisis energetica mundial. De un ano para aca todos los energeticos han aumentado un promedio superior al 30%, incluyendo aumentos en Diesel, Gas LP, Gas Natural, Turbosina. Las causas son muchas y muy variadas, desde decisiones de eficiencia, como en el caso de la Generacion electrica que ha optado por inclinarse definitivamente por el gas natural, desregulaciones confusas como en el caso de California, incrementos de demanda mas alla de lo previsto por actividad economica, cambios

  9. Do changes in natural gas futures prices influence changes in natural gas spot prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Data on natural gas futures and spot markets are examined to determine if variability in price on futures markets influences variability in price on spot markets. Using econometric techniques, it is found that changes in futures contract prices do not precede changes in spot market prices. (Author)

  10. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  11. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effects of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the Cit of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas' pipeline...

  12. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  13. Natural gas in Europe: Development prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasetto, R.

    1992-01-01

    Today, natural gas covers 16% of primary energy demand in Europe. Consumption of this fuel is set at about 380 billion cubic meters to which we can add about 700 billion consumed in the ex-COMECON countries. Europe's consumption alone is forecasted by many to rise to 500 billion cubic meters at the turn of the century and to 600 billion by the year 2010. It is expected that the power plant sector will account for one-third of this rise in consumption. Even if domestic production of this fuel is maximized and foreign suppliers maintain their production trends, the expected demand increases in industriali--ed countries can be sufficiently satisfied only by recourse to new suppliers located in the far reaches of the globe

  14. Liquefaction and merchandising of offshore natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, H.W. (LGA Gastechnik G.m.b.H., Remagen (Germany, F.R.))

    1978-01-01

    The liquefaction of offshore natural gas is a relatively new technology, and years of intensive research and development indicate that it is now feasible. But problems can occur in the phase of merchandising the cryogenic liquid. In this context, the necessary steps start with the intermediate product storage which maybe integrated in the liquefaction platform, or which possibly has to be on an external structure. The product transfer from the platform to the exporting tanker is another problem area. The paper deals with the principle design features of the liquefaction plant's supporting structure (barge, semisubmersible or fixed platform). Special emphasize is given to the technical, the operational and the economic aspects of the product transfer from the offshore liquefaction site to the coastal terminal and these considerations are summarized under the heading merchandising.

  15. The necessity for storage of natural gas in the Netherlands: In particular the natural gas storage near Langelo, Drenthe, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The natural gas supply in the Netherlands will experience a capacity problem once the pressure of the natural gas field Slochteren in the province Groningen will decrease below a certain level. It is expected that this will already happen in the winter of 1996. Underground storage of natural gas reserves is considered to be the only appropriate solution to accommodate this problem. Four environmental organizations in the Netherlands ordered GASTEC, the Dutch research center for natural gas technology, to study the alternatives for natural gas storage in the Netherlands. 7 figs

  16. Turbulent heat transfer on a permeable surface in the range of supercritical gas injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichatov, B.V.; Polyaev, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    Gas injection in a permeable surface is used as one of the most perspective ways of thermal protection. Forcing back of the boundary layer from the surface takes place by injection, whereby the friction coefficients and heat exchange are decreased. By certain injection parameter, which is called critical, there takes place the complete forcing back of the boundary layer from the surface. However the process of friction and heat exchange degeneration proceeds nonuniformly. This article is devoted to explanation of the above notice. Analysis of the problem is based on the limiting relative law of heat exchange and friction for a turbulent boundary layer

  17. Study of turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity filled with either non-participating, participating grey and participating semigrey media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, R; Perez-Segarra, C D; Lehmkuhl, O; Colomer, G

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent natural convection in a tall differentially heated cavity of aspect ratio 5:1, filled with air under a Rayleigh number based on the height of 4.5·10 10 is studied numerically. Three different situations have been analysed. In the first one, the cavity is filled with a transparent medium. In the second one, the cavity is filled with a semigrey participating mixture of air and water vapour. In the last one the cavity contains a grey participating gas. The turbulent flow is described by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) using symmetry-preserving discretizations. Simulations are compared with experimental data available in the literature and with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Surface and gas radiation have been simulated using the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM). The influence of radiation on fluid flow behaviour has been analysed.

  18. Development of a natural Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.; Haas, M.; Pepper, W.; Rose, J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent dramatic changes in natural gas markets have significant implications for the scope and direction of DOE's upstream as well as downstream natural gas R ampersand D. Open access transportation changes the way gas is bought and sold. The end of the gas deliverability surplus requires increased reserve development above recent levels. Increased gas demand for power generation and other new uses changes the overall demand picture in terms of volumes, locations and seasonality. DOE's Natural Gas Strategic Plan requires that its R ampersand D activities be evaluated for their ability to provide adequate supplies of reasonably priced gas. Potential R ampersand D projects are to be evaluated using a full fuel cycle, benefit-cost approach to estimate likely market impact as well as technical success. To assure R ampersand D projects are evaluated on a comparable basis, METC has undertaken the development of a comprehensive natural gas technology evaluation framework. Existing energy systems models lack the level of detail required to estimate the impact of specific upstream natural gas technologies across the known range of geological settings and likely market conditions. Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM) research during FY 1993 developed and implemented this comprehensive, consistent natural gas system evaluation framework. Rather than a isolated research activity, however, GSAM represents the integration of many prior and ongoing natural gas research efforts. When complete, it will incorporate the most current resource base description, reservoir modeling, technology characterization and other geologic and engineering aspects developed through recent METC and industry gas R ampersand D programs

  19. Natural gas market assessment: Price convergence in North American natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The extent to which Canadian and U.S. natural gas markets have become integrated in the post-deregulation era was assessed. This assessment was accomplished through a statistical analysis of the price movements in Canadian and U.S. gas markets. The analysis pointed to three broad conclusions: (1) on the whole, there has been an increasing degree of integration among North American natural gas markets since price deregulation and the introduction of open access, (2) there is somewhat of a split between eastern and western markets, (3) Alberta's links are stronger with the western U.S. natural gas market than with the market in the eastern U.S. Several factors were cited as contributing to the general increase in market integration, including: (1) increased pipeline capacity and additional pipeline interconnections, coupled with the development of market hubs, (2) improved flexibility of access to pipeline transportation services, (3) improved access to market information and greater trading flexibility which has been facilitated by growing use of electronic bulletin boards and electronic trading systems. The increased market integration was claimed to have benefited both consumers and producers, and to have increased competition in both countries.. 28 refs., 14 figs

  20. The natural gas ducts and the ICMS; Os dutos de gas natural e o ICMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rafael Silva Paes Pires; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos; Gomes, Carlos Roberto de Miranda [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-36

    2005-07-01

    With the advent of the Constitutional Emendation no. 9/95 operated it the open of the industry of the oil and the natural gas for companies others that came to be contracted by the State. Ahead of the insertion of new players, the regulation of the sector was given for the Law (no. 9.478/97), as well for legal acts edited for the National Agency of the Oil - ANP. Meanwhile, the Oil norm little disciplined the industry of the natural gas that, for its peculiarities, imposes specific rules. In this context, the transport of the natural gas by means of ducts become prominent for the lack of debates on the correct form to classify them. The present work has for target to analyze the legal types instituted by the Law and for the ANP acts for the ducts, as form of if having a correct understanding of the matter. Thus, will reveal as each one of the adopted classifications can cause (or not) the incidence of the ICMS, or either, as the legal regimen of the gas-lines is correlated with the tax. (author)

  1. Conference Reports: New developments affecting natural gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Papers presented at a conference examining and reviewing recent trends in natural gas sales contracts are contained in this volume. Conference participants heard 14 presentations, with topics including pricing provisions in gas contracts, security of supply, cross-border issues, legislative reform of electronic data interchange, digital signatures, new developments in managing contracts in a competitive environment, the changing role of natural gas aggregators, drafting 'force majeure' clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts and the consequences and remedies for breach of natural gas contracts. The volume also includes biographical notes, and current addresses of the speakers

  2. Liberalization of natural gas supply prices in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasines, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper constitutes a follow-up to the one published in this journal in 2004 (no. 562). In this update we describe the new regulations introduced in the Spanish natural gas sector and analyse the behaviour of the market since then. From this study we can deduce that the liberalization of the Spanish natural gas market has led to an oligopoly of suppliers of natural gas. As the Government has liberalized final prices of natural gas, distributors have been able to increase the margin between final prices and the average import price paid for this gas. (author)

  3. Literature Review and Synthesis for the Natural Gas Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, Stephen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Talaber, Leah [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McLamore, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kraucunas, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McPherson, Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parrott, Lori [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manzanares, Trevor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consuming regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well has to travel a great distance to reach its point of use. The transportation system for natural gas consists of a complex network of pipelines designed to quickly and efficiently transport the gas from its origin to areas of high demand. The transportation of natural gas is closely linked to its storage: If the natural gas being transported is not immediately required, it can be put into storage facilities until it is needed. A description of the natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) sector is provided as follows.

  4. The impact of high oil prices on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The principle of gas-to-oil (oil prices determine the price of natural gas) in the Netherlands and several other developments elsewhere (war in Iraq and a cold winter in the USA) has caused high natural gas prices. The question is whether the liberalization of the energy market can change this principle [nl

  5. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit

  6. Operator splitting method for simulation of dynamic flows in natural gas pipeline networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, Sergey A.; Zlotnik, Anatoly; Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Chertkov, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We develop an operator splitting method to simulate flows of isothermal compressible natural gas over transmission pipelines. The method solves a system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) of hydrodynamic type for mass flow and pressure on a metric graph, where turbulent losses of momentum are modeled by phenomenological Darcy-Weisbach friction. Mass flow balance is maintained through the boundary conditions at the network nodes, where natural gas is injected or withdrawn from the system. Gas flow through the network is controlled by compressors boosting pressure at the inlet of the adjoint pipe. Our operator splitting numerical scheme is unconditionally stable and it is second order accurate in space and time. The scheme is explicit, and it is formulated to work with general networks with loops. We test the scheme over range of regimes and network configurations, also comparing its performance with performance of two other state of the art implicit schemes.

  7. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  8. The economic implications of natural gas infrastructure investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutagalung, Aldi Martino; Hartono, Djoni; Arentsen, Maarten; Lovett, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Since 2001, the Indonesian government has issued natural gas master plans annually holding the planned gas infrastructure developments in order to motivate private parties who are not motivated due to the lack of the gas infrastructure increase. Since 2002, there were only three segments of gas

  9. Numerical investigation of turbulent natural convection in an inclined square cavity with a hot wavy wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aounallah, M.; Imine, O.; Adjlout, L. [Department of Marine Engineering, Faculty of Mechanics, P.O. Box 1505, El-Mnaouar (Algeria); Addad, Y. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Benhamadouche, S.; Laurence, D. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Electricite de France R and D, Departement de Mecanique des Fluides et Transferts Thermiques (MFTT), 6 Quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France)

    2007-05-15

    The turbulent natural convection of air flow in a confined cavity with two differentially heated side walls is investigated numerically up to Rayleigh number of 10{sup 12}. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of the inclination angle and the amplitude of the undulation on turbulent heat transfer. The low-Reynolds-number k-{epsilon}, k-{omega}, k-{omega}-SST RANS models and a coarse DNS are used and compared to the experimental benchmark data of Ampofo and Karayiannis [F. Ampofo, T.G. Karayiannis, Experimental benchmark data for turbulent natural convection in an air filled square cavity, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 46 (2003) 3551-3572]. The k-{omega}-SST model is then used for the following test-cases as it gives the closest results to experimental data and coarse DNS for this case. The mean flow quantities and temperature field show good agreement with coarse DNS and measurements, but there are some slight discrepancies in the prediction of the turbulent statistics. Also, the numerical results of the heat flux at the hot wall are over predicted. The strong influence of the undulation of the cavity and its orientation is well shown. The trend of the local heat transfer is wavy with different frequencies for each undulation. The turbulence causes an increase in the convective heat transfer on the wavy wall surface compared to the square cavity for high Rayleigh numbers. A correlation of the mean Nusselt number function of the Rayleigh number is also proposed for the range of Rayleigh numbers of 10{sup 9}-10{sup 12}. (author)

  10. Gas Composition Sensor for Natural Gas and Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Sweelsen, J.; Blokland, H.

    2016-01-01

    The calorific value of energetic gasses is an important parameter in the quality assessment of gas steams, and can be calculated from the chemical composition of the gas. An array of capacitive sensor electrodes was developed, each functionalized with a gas responsive coating to measure the

  11. Analysis of sulphur compounds in underground reservoirs of natural gas and town gas by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triska, J.; Kuras, M.; Zachar, P.; Vodicka, L. (Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Lab. of Synthetic Fuels)

    1990-09-01

    This paper deals with mass spectrometry and gas chromatography of the sulphur compounds in waste waters from the natural gas underground reservoirs, in extracts of activated charcoal used for purification of town gas, and in the oils from compressors of natural gas. (orig.).

  12. TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS BY ADSORPTION OF CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Hádková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from burning, one of the possible uses of natural gas is as a fuel for motor vehicles. There are two types of fuel from natural gas — CNG (Compressed Natural Gas or LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas. Liquefaction of natural gas is carried out for transport by tankers, which are an alternative to long-distance gas pipelines, as well as for transport over short distance, using LNG as a fuel for motor vehicles. A gas adjustment is necessary to get LNG. As an important part of the necessary adjustment of natural gas to get LNG, a reduction of CO2 is needed. There is a danger of the carbon dioxide freezing during the gas cooling. This work deals with the testing of adsorption removal of CO2 from natural gas. The aim of these measurements was to find a suitable adsorbent for CO2 removal from natural gas. Two different types of adsorbents were tested: activated carbon and molecular sieve. The adsorption properties of the selected adsorbents were tested and compared. The breakthrough curves for CO2 for both adsorbents were measured. The conditions of the testing were estimated according to conditions at a gas regulation station — 4.0MPa pressure and 8 °C temperature. Natural gas was simulated by model gas mixture during the tests. The breakthrough volume was set as the gas volume passing through the adsorber up to the CO2 concentration of 300 ml/m3 in the exhaust gas. The thermal and pressure desorption of CO2 from saturated adsorbents were also tested after the adsorption.

  13. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  14. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  15. Adsorbed natural gas usage in vehicles; Uso veicular do gas natural adsorvido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Flavio Barboza; Miller, Francisco Mateus; Moura, Newton Reis de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates the actual state of development of the natural gas storage in activated carbons (ANG - adsorbed natural gas) for vehicles applications. This paper also presents the technological challenges that must be overcome to turn ANG viable for vehicles applications. The main results published in ANG, its theoretical limit and a preliminary comparison between the ANG and the GNC technologies are also presented in this work. The parameters used in that comparison were storage capacity, reservoir's weight and volume. The maximum methane storage capacity in activated carbon monoliths (theoretical limit), determined by molecular simulation, is lower than the CNG ones. Therefore, the ANG contribution to vehicles applications is not related to a higher storage capacity but to its lower working pressure, that represents an advantage by the following aspects: reduction or elimination the loss of useful space inside the vehicle; safety and price reduction of NG at fueling station. (author)

  16. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  17. Obstacles to the use of natural gas in electric markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A brief overview of the New England Electric System (NEES) and its current and planned natural gas fired generation is presented. Some statistics are given that indicate that electric generation is the biggest growth market for natural gas, underscoring the importance of overcoming the obstacles to the use of gas in electric generation markets. What is seen as the major obstacles to gas use in the electric power industry and some ways to overcome these obstacles are reviewed

  18. Radon measurements over a natural-gas contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, D.; Fusella, E.; Avila, Y.; Salas, J.; Teixeira, D.; Fernández, G.; Salas, A.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Greaves, E.; Barros, H.; Bolívar, M.; Regalado, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radon and thoron concentrations in soil pores in a gas production region of the Anzoategui State, Venezuela, were determined by active and passive methods. In this region, water wells are contaminated by natural gas and gas leaks exist in the nearby river. Based on soil gas Radon data surface hydrocarbon seeps were identified. Radon and thoron concentration maps show anomalously high values near the river gas leaks decreasing in the direction of water wells where natural gas is also detected. The area where the highest concentrations of 222 Rn were detected seems to indicate the surface projection of the aquifer contaminated with natural gas. The Radon/Thoron ratio revealed a micro-localized anomaly, indicating the area where the gas comes from deep layers of the subsoil. The radon map determined by the passive method showed a marked positive anomaly around abandoned gas wells. The high anomalous Radon concentration localized near the trails of ascending gas bubbles at the river indicates the zone trough where natural gases are ascending with greater ease, associated with a deep geological fault, being this the main source of methane penetration into the aquifer. It is suggested that the source of the natural gas may be due to leaks at deep sites along the structure of some of the abandoned wells located at the North-East of the studied area. - Highlights: ► High Radon/Thoron ratios were localized near the natural-gas emanations in a river. ► Natural gases are ascending trough a deep geological fault. ► Apparently, the radon anomaly shows the site where natural gas enters the aquifer. ► Natural gas source may be related to leaks in the structure of abandoned gas wells

  19. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Flow restriction of multicontrolled natural gas; Restritor de fluxo de gas natural microcontrolado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Lauro C.; Reis, Antonio M.; Maldonado, Waldemar; Suzuqui, Moises [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia, Automacao e Controle; Scucuglia, Jose W.; Cortez, Marco A.A. [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Eletrica; Teixeira, Marcelo C.M. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica; Carrasco, Benjamim N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the specific cases of control in the operation of natural gas distribution is of the automatic restriction of the outflow due the violations of standards of draining of the natural gas in the ducts. With the objective to get a device of low cost, with national technology and high technological value aggregate, developed an electronic, microcontrolled, programmable device, and of low cost, that will function connected the sensors and valves of flow control, of form to monitor in real time the outflow of draining of the natural gas in the respective ducts and to restrict of automatic form the outflow, that necessary or always convenient. The developed hardware was conceived using micro controllers of high performance with capacity of reading of sensors of pressure, temperature and measurers of outflow. Had to a serial communication and the storage in memory of mass with 264 capacity of Kbytes is possible the pertinent visualization of graphs and reports to the behavior of the outflow and performance of the system. An internal RTC - Real Clock Teams, added to the hardware a clock and a calendar for acquisition of data in the schedule defined, as well as the possibility of unloading of the data through the telephonic line, using one embedded modem. (author)

  1. Juridical consequences of liberalization. Part 2. Natural Gas Law and reorganization of the gas utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rijke, M.; Kuipers, D.P.; Koster, W.; Geertsma, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    The liberalization of the natural gas market in Europe has all kinds of juridical aspects. Not only with respect to new legislation (Natural Gas Law and Mining Law), but also changes in juridical structures of natural gas companies, caused by privatization or splitting up in a mains management company and a distribution company. In a series of articles lawyers of the Energy Working Group of Houthoff Buruma in The Hague, Netherlands, discuss the developments at the natural gas market. In this first part, attention will be paid to actual developments with respect to the new Natural Gas Law and the Mining Law in the Netherlands

  2. Application of natural gas in market gardening. Erdgasanwendung im Erwerbsgartenbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsten, H.D. (Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany))

    In the last years, natural gas has become an important energy source in underglaze horticulture of the Federal Republic of Germany. Special techniques for application such as CO{sub 2}-concentration from waste gases of gas boilers and the application of CO{sub 2} - common also for the heating of vegetable cultures can be realized technically and economically advantageous with natural gas. New technologies such as cogeneration plants with gas engine for plant lighting are technically perfected in the meantime. As a whole, the application of natural gas facilitates a good efficiency and thus, a very good utilization of fuel. (orig./BWI).

  3. Natural gas as raw material for industrial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvisle, Steinar

    2006-01-01

    Industrial development based on natural gas has broad, industrial implications. Norway has a vital industry based on natural gas as raw material, here under Ormen Lange, Snoehvit LNG, Tjeldbergodden and Petrochemical Grenland. The petrochemical industry has challenges, e.g. the cost of raw materials and energy, localization related to the markets, and recruitment, but considerable investments are made in the sector. The Northern areas in Norway may have special challenges related to bringing the product to the market. Solutions to this challenge are in LNG (liquid natural gas), GTL (gas to liquids), and GTO (gas to olefins)

  4. Distribution forms for biogas and natural gas in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Nilsson, Ronny

    2009-11-01

    Since biogas and natural gas basically have the same characteristics, they can be distributed in the same system. In the parts of the country where there is an extensive natural gas distribution network, the infrastructure for natural gas can be used for distribution of biogas. In order to increase the use of renewable energy, it is a political ambition to increase the share of biogas in the natural gas network, and, in the long run, entirely replace natural gas with biogas. Much of biogas production in the country is, however, not reached by the existing natural gas network, and this is also the case for a large part of the potential for future biogas production. In these areas the gas is transported in more or less extensive local gas distribution networks and by truck in compressed or liquid form. Transport of compressed and liquefied gas is efficient in some cases and development of these systems is an ongoing process. A number of facilities are planned for production of large quantities of biogas, several hundred GWh/year, through digestion and gasification processes. These plants will be located either in conjunction with major gas consumers or in the vicinity of the existing natural gas grid. The potential for biogas production is, however, present throughout the country and in order to meet market demand biogas requires efficient distribution systems

  5. Regional Cooperation Towards Trans-country Natural Gas Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2009-01-01

    India began gas imports since 2004 through liquified natural gas (LNG) route. Imports through trans-country gas pipelines could help in bringing gas directly into the densely populated Northern part of India, which are far from domestic gas resources as well as coastal LNG terminals. The purpose...... of this paper is to report scenarios, which quantify the impacts for India of regional cooperation to materialize trans-country pipelines. The analysis covers time period from 2005 to 2030....

  6. Indicators of security of natural gas supply in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalu, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas has become an increasingly valuable resource and a global commodity. The demand for it has significantly increased. Japan, Korea and Taiwan heavily rely on liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports for their gas supplies from Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Australia and the Middle East. On the other hand, countries like Thailand and Singapore import gas via trans-border pipelines. Gas supply interruptions, volatile gas prices, transportation and distribution bottlenecks, and a growing reliance on imports over longer distances have renewed interest on gas security in Asia. This paper examines the relative vulnerability to natural gas supply disruptions of seven gas-importing countries in Asia for year 2008. Based on four indicators of security of gas supply, a composite gas supply security index is estimated as an overall indication of gas vulnerability for our sample countries. The results demonstrate that there are differences in the values of the overall indicator of gas vulnerability among countries and the assessment is useful in developing an effective strategy of natural gas supply security in countries in the Asian region.

  7. Industrial natural gas supply options in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the availability and cost of natural gas in British Columbia for use by firms interested in establishing gas-intensive industrial facilities in the province. British Columbia has an abundant supply of natural gas, originating mainly from deposits in the westernmost part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the northeast part of the province. Recoverable resources in British Columbia are estimated at 1,000-1,400 billion m 3 . Over 200 producers compete to sell natural gas for both domestic and export markets. Gathering, processing, and transmission of the gas is undertaken mainly by the Westcoast Energy pipeline system, and distribution is undertaken by several distribution utilities. At present, all large industrial gas users buy their firm gas requirements directly from gas producers, often using gas marketers or brokers to assist in purchasing. Regulation of the gas industry is performed by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, which sets rules for energy supply contracts, and by the National Energy Board, which sets tolls for gathering, processing, and transporting gas. Factors affecting gas pricing are discussed, with reference to both the wellhead price and the cost of gathering, processing, and transportation. Firm gas costs for two hypothetical industrial loads in British Columbia are illustrated. Potential intensive uses of natural gas in the province are outlined, including power generation, liquefaction for export, manufacturing, production of direct reduced iron, and as petrochemical feedstocks. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Economic balance sheet of a natural gas vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas fuels for vehicles bear an important and variable additional cost which corresponds to the cost for compression. This short paper gives a cost-benefit comparative estimation of the m 3 of natural gas cost when the FUELMAKER and the CIRRUS compressors are used, respectively. A comparative economic estimation between petrol and natural gas for vehicles is given for two Renault vehicles. (J.S.)

  9. Oil price, oil price volatility and natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan, Mürşide Rabia

    2017-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Economics, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2017. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 29-31). Natural gas market has been developing and transportation and storage methods have been improving. Due to substitution between natural gas and oil in various sectors such as power generation, oil price and oil price volatility may reflect these changes in natural gas markets. We employ four rat...

  10. Natural Gas in China: Market evolution and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, Chinas natural gas consumption increased by 23.8% and attained 69.5 billion cubic metres (bcm) (NBS 2008). Thanks to this rapid increase, China became one of the world's top 10 countries in terms of natural gas consumption. Moreover, according to the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2008, China will become the top natural gas consuming country in the Asia-Pacific region, overtaking Japan by 2015.

  11. Economics of retail competition in Australia's natural gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Adam; Harman, Julie

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable reform of the Australian natural gas industry. An element of this reform has been the introduction of ‘contestability’ — allowing customers to select their retailer of natural gas. The potential benefits and risks associated with this policy are presented and the key issues involved in the implementation of contestable natural gas market are explored. Aside from the potential risks, the policies that have been introduced in order to prevent potential difficulties a...

  12. Land based use of natural gas - distribution solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanger, Einar; Moelnvik, Mona J.; Owren, Geir; Einang, Per Magne; Grinden, Bjoern; Tangen, Grethe

    2002-05-01

    The report presents results from the project ''Landbasert bruk av naturgass - distribusjonsloesninger'' (Land based use of natural gas - distribution solutions). It describes the aims of the project, the political external conditions for the use of natural gas, some environmental profits by changing from petroleum and coal to natural gas, the Norwegian infrastructure, the optimisation of energy transport, strategic consequences of the introduction of LNG and the practical consequences of the Enova strategy

  13. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  14. Debunking the myths: Natural gas and SO2 allowance solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    During the decade of the 1990's and beyond, natural gas is expected to be the fuel of choice for a significant portion of new generation capacity. Natural gas already enjoys a greater than 50% market share as a fuel source in the non-regulated cogeneration and Independent Power Producer market. With the new administration in Washington, increased environmental focus will likely increase the attractiveness of natural gas based capacity expansions. While these various issues may appear to contribute to making this decade, the decade for natural gas, there are a number of challenges that must be met if the natural gas and power generation industries are going to satisfy the ever increasing needs of the marketplace. These challenges include: (1) myths of natural gas supply availability, (2) transportation and operational coordination issues, (3) uncertainty of price and reliability, and (4) natural gas for NO x and SO 2 compliance. The author believes that these challenges are actively being met and that there are existing solutions already being offered and incorporated into contracts by natural gas suppliers. The focus of this paper is how electric utilities need to become comfortable with the new natural gas industry and how services can be structured to meet these challenges of serving the electric market requirements

  15. Corporate renewal in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.

    1994-01-01

    The changes occurring at the gas-related operating companies of Nova Corporation of Alberta are reviewed. These companies include Nova Gas Transmission, Alberta's major gas pipeline company, which moved 3.8 trillion ft 3 of gas in 1993; Nova Gas Services, a provider of gas management services to customers in Canada, USA, and Mexico; and Novacorp International, a joint venture investor in gas pipeline developments and consulting. The changes were made in response to increased competition in the gas transport industry following the deregulation process that started in the mid-1980s. A strategic direction based on growth rather than cost-cutting was chosen in order to make the Nova companies dominant players in North American gas supply. Nova's confidence in being able to implement such a strategy is based on four factors: abundant supply of gas and high potential for growth in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin; steadily growing demand for gas; the development of a market-responsive industry; and the emergence of a truly North American market that includes Mexico. Business transformation teams were established with the task of finding out the right business design to meet customer needs and to provide exceptional service. Detailed plans for implementing the transformation are being completed, and a performance measurement system with clear targets has been developed to measure the success of the transformation

  16. The drivers behind the globalization of natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi

    2006-01-01

    Today, the globalisation of natural gas markets is a topic much discussed amongst gas industry practitioners, policy makers and academics. If there is a consensus on a tendency towards the ''commoditisation'' of natural gas markets, there is less agreement on the certainty of the global approach to gas marketing. The aim of this paper is to untangle the main drivers behind the globalisation of natural gas markets, both on the demand and supply sides, and to discuss problems related to the market structure, such as price arbitrages and organised markets. The paper will conclude that the globalisation of natural gas markets cannot be approached as a deterministic problem and as a consequence, there is still no precise answer as to when the different regional gas markets will forge a global one. (author)

  17. The drivers behind the globalization of natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed El Hachemi Mazighi [Sonatrach Commercialisation, Algiers (Algeria)

    2006-06-15

    Today, the globalisation of natural gas markets is a topic much discussed amongst gas industry practitioners, policy makers and academics. If there is a consensus on a tendency towards the ''commoditisation'' of natural gas markets, there is less agreement on the certainty of the global approach to gas marketing. The aim of this paper is to untangle the main drivers behind the globalisation of natural gas markets, both on the demand and supply sides, and to discuss problems related to the market structure, such as price arbitrages and organised markets. The paper will conclude that the globalisation of natural gas markets cannot be approached as a deterministic problem and as a consequence, there is still no precise answer as to when the different regional gas markets will forge a global one. (author)

  18. Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

  19. Heat transfer from a simulated shuttle external tank in the naturally turbulent outdoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F. N.; Littlefield, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    To estimate the local heat-transfer coefficients around an external-tank (ET) surface, a 9.8-m-high by 8.4-m-diameter ET simulator is constructed, instrumented, and tested in the naturally turbulent outdoor environment. Two different configurations under which the testing is conducted are described. The time-average, local values of Nusselt number at time-average Reynolds numbers of 2.2 x 10 to the 6th, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th, and 4.5 x 10 to the 6th are presented. It is shown that, at the same Reynolds numbers, the heat transfer coefficients due to the atmospheric airflow are higher than those due to airflow in a low-turbulent-intensity wind tunnel.

  20. World statistics on natural gas reserves, production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikaslehto, S.

    2001-01-01

    By reviewing the statistics of BP Amoco on natural gas reserves, production and usage, it is easy to see that Russia and USA, both being large natural gas producers, differ significantly from each other. The natural gas reserves of USA are 6th largest in the world, simultaneously the natural gas consumption and import are largest in the world. About one third of the known natural gas reserves of the world are in Russia. The known natural gas reserves of both USA and Canada have decreases, but they have potential gas reserves left. Known natural gas reserves of the USA have been calculated to be sufficient for 9 years consumption at present usage and those of Canada for 11 years. The reserves of Algeria correspond to the usage of 55 years, and the Russian reserves for are about 83 years. Annual production figures of both Russia and the USA are nearly the same. Russia is the largest exporter (125.5 billion m 3 ) of natural gas and the USA the largest importer (96 billion m 3 ). The natural gas reserves of the largest European producers, the Netherlands and Norway have been estimated to be sufficient for use of about 20 years, but those of Great Britain only for about 10 years. The annual production of Russia has varied in the 1990s between nearly 600 billion m 3 and present 550 billion m 3 , the minimum being in 1997 only about 532 billion m 3 . Ten largest natural gas consumers use 67% of the natural gas consumed annually in the world. USA consumes about 27% of the total natural gas produced in the world, the amount of Russia being 364 billion m 3 (16%). Other large natural gas consumers are Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Ukraine, Canada, Italy, Iran and Uzbekistan. The share of these countries of the total consumption varied in between 2-4%. Only Japan has no natural gas production of its own. The foreign trade between Japan and Indonesia is trade on LNG. On the other hand the natural gas consumption of the world's 10th largest producer Norway is nearly zero, so

  1. Impact of hydrogen insertion on vehicular natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangueto, Karina Maretti; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering. Energy Dept.], Email: karinakms@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This article aims to analyze the possibility of insertion of hydrogen in the vehicular natural gas or even the insertion of the hydrogen in the compressed natural gas used in Brazil. For the production of this hydrogen, the spilled turbinable energy from Itaipu would be harnessed. The calculation of production can be extended to other power plants which are close to the natural gas pipelines, where the hydrogen would be introduced. Then, it was analyzed the consumption of natural gas in vehicles in Brazil, the regulation of transportation, the sales of compressed natural gas to fuelling station, the specifications that the piped gas should follow to be sold, and how much hydrogen could be accepted in the mix. (author)

  2. Buying natural gas in the spot market: risks related to the natural gas industry globalization; Aquisicao de gas natural em bases 'spot': riscos associados a globalizacao da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The growth of the international natural gas trade during the last decade resulted in the expectation that this product would be traded as a commodity. This expectation created a boom in the investments related to the commercialization of natural gas between borders, especially in the distinct segments of the chain of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Different agents launched themselves into liquefaction and regasification enterprises, and the ordering of ships also showed significant growth. Despite that, the natural gas market still cannot be considered global, and international gas transactions are primarily done within regional markets. This article investigates the challenges posed to the constitution of a global natural gas market. These challenges represent risks to the commercialization of this product in spot bases, for the agents that launch themselves into projects to export or import LNG to be commercialized through short term contracts in the international market for this product. (author)

  3. Environmental policy and regulatory constraints to natural gas production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    2004-12-17

    For the foreseeable future, most of the demand for natural gas in the United States will be met with domestic resources. Impediments, or constraints, to developing, producing, and delivering these resources can lead to price increases or supply disruptions. Previous analyses have identified lack of access to natural gas resources on federal lands as such an impediment. However, various other environmental constraints, including laws, regulations, and implementation procedures, can limit natural gas development and production on both federal and private lands. This report identifies and describes more than 30 environmental policy and regulatory impediments to domestic natural gas production. For each constraint, the source and type of impact are presented, and when the data exist, the amount of gas affected is also presented. This information can help decision makers develop and support policies that eliminate or reduce the impacts of such constraints, help set priorities for regulatory reviews, and target research and development efforts to help the nation meet its natural gas demands.

  4. Multi-criteria evaluation of natural gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Naim H.; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2007-01-01

    Geologically estimated natural gas resources are 500 Tcm. With the advance in geological science increase of estimated resources is expected. Natural gas reserves in 2000 have been proved to be around 165 Tcm. As it is known the reserves are subject to two constraints, namely: capital invested in the exploration and drilling technologies used to discover new reserves. The natural gas scarcity factor, i.e. ratio between available reserves and natural gas consumption, is around 300 years for the last 50 years. The new discovery of natural gas reserves has given rise to a new energy strategy based on natural gas. Natural gas utilization is constantly increasing in the last 50 years. With new technologies for deep drilling, we have come to know that there are enormous gas resources available at relatively low price. These new discoveries together with high demand for the environment saving have introduced a new energy strategy on the world scale. This paper presents an evaluation of the potential natural gas utilization in energy sector. As the criteria in this analysis resource, economic, environmental, social and technological indicators are used. Among the potential options of gas utilization following systems are considered: Gas turbine power plant, combine cycle plant, CHP power plant, steam turbine gas-fired power plant, fuel cells power plant. Multi-criteria method was used for the assessment of potential options with priority given to the Resource, Economic and Social Indicators. Results obtained are presented in graphical form representing priority list of potential options under specific constraints in the priority of natural gas utilization strategy in energy sector

  5. Thermodynamic modelling of acid gas removal from natural gas using the Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamics of natural gas sweetening process needs to be known for proper design of natural gas treating plants. Absorption with aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine is currently the most commonly used process for removal of acid gas (CO2 and H2S) impurities from natural gas. Model parameters...... for the Extended UNIQUAC model have already been determined by the same authors to calculate single acid gas solubility in aqueous MDEA. In this study, the model is further extended to estimate solubility of CO2 and H2S and their mixture in aqueous MDEA at high pressures with methane as a makeup gas....

  6. Canadian natural gas market dynamics and pricing : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report discusses natural gas price formation and describes the current functioning of regional gas markets in Canada. This EMA also describes the factors affecting the price of natural gas in Canada and examines natural gas markets on a region-by region basis. It is shown that as part of an integrated North American market, prices of natural gas in Canada reflect supply and demand factors in both Canada and the United States. During the low oil price period of 1997/1998, high demand for natural gas outpaced the supply because of low drilling and production activity by producers. In response to the increased demand and lower levels of supply, the price of natural gas increased significantly in 1999 and 2000. This was followed by a period of market adjustment. The importance of electronic trading systems for enhancing price discovery was also discussed with reference to how spot and futures markets allow market participants to manage price volatility. It was determined that Canadians have had access to natural gas on terms and conditions equal to export customers, and at equal pricing. In early November 2000, natural gas prices in North American began to rise due to low levels of natural gas in storage. The price shocks were felt unevenly across the North American market. In response to the high prices, consumers conserved energy use, and many industrial users switched to cheaper fuels. By the spring 2001, demand continued to decrease at a time when production was high. These factors contributed to the downward pressure on gas prices. This EMA discusses the structure of market transactions and market adjustment mechanisms. It is presented in the context of the approaching 2002/2003 winter season where the tightening between natural gas supply and demand is expected to result in price volatility. 28 figs

  7. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  8. Market prospective of natural gas 2010-2025; Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Bautista, Alejandro; Doniz Gonzalez, Virginia; Navarrete Barbosa, Juan Ignacio [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The Ministry of Energy, in compliance to Article 109 of the Natural Gas Regulations, publishes the Prospective natural gas market 2010-2025, which contains the most current information about the historical evolution and growth prospects of the domestic market country's natural gas and its role in the international context. This foresight is attached to the lines of action established in the National Energy Strategy, ratified by Congress in April 2010 in regard to strengthening the transportation infrastructure of natural gas, in order to ensure the supply of this fuel, therefore remains congruence with the instruments of power sector planning. The first one concerns the international panorama of natural gas in the different producing and consuming regions around the world. Chapter two provides a current perspective of those actions in the sector within the regulatory framework for natural gas in Mexico. The third chapter details the issues that occurred in the natural gas market during the period 1999-2009 and the fourth chapter discusses the expected evolution of demand and domestic supply of natural gas by 2025. [Spanish] La Secretaria de Energia, en el cumplimiento al Articulo 109 del Reglamento de Gas Natural, publica la Prospectiva del mercado de gas natural 2010-2025, la cual contiene la informacion mas actualizada acerca de la evolucion historica y las expectativas de crecimiento del mercado interno de gas natural del pais y su papel en el contexto internacional. Esta Prospectiva se apega a las lineas de accion establecidas en la Estrategia Nacional de Energia, ratificada por el Congreso en abril de 2010, en lo relativo a fortalecer la infraestructura de transporte de gas natural, con el fin de asegurar el suministro de este combustible, por lo cual se mantiene congruencia con los instrumentos de planeacion del sector energetico. La Prospectiva esta integrada por cuatro capitulos. El primero se refiere al panorama internacional del gas natural en las

  9. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good

  10. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  12. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  13. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujotomo Isworo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%, and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant has a high electrical efficiency (45%. Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  14. Future considerations: Imperial finds new promise in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1988-01-01

    After decades of having natural gas a minor part of its operations, Imperial Oil has reevaluated the importance of that resource within the company's strategy. A comprehensive business review of the industry was conducted in 1987 and prompted Imperial's subsidiary, Esso Resources Canada, to adopt the goal of becoming an industry leader in natural gas reserves, production, and marketing. Imperial's natural gas business started in 1921, when it assumed control of the company whose Turner Valley gas find sparked an oil rush in 1914. By the early 1940s, when Turner Valley was still Canada's only major oil field, Imperial was considering the manufacture of synthetic oil from natural gas, but then it discovered the first well of the Leduc oil boom in 1947. Imperial built the first gas conservation plant in Canada in 1950, but largely left other companies to develop gas fields. The deregulated gas market of the mid-1980s saw Imperial buying its first major acquisition in over 20 years, Sulpetro Ltd.; this boosted Imperial's annual gas production and its reserves by a third. A further purchase of Ocelot Industries increased overall gas production by another 20%. Imperial also made substantial gas finds in the Mackenzie Delta, and the company's holdings at Obed (Alberta) will add 8% to gas production

  15. Development prospects of natural gas worldwide 2000-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.; Bouchard, G.

    1996-01-01

    Two differing models for the expansion of natural gas consumption worldwide are presented. Forecasting over the next five decades, gas consumption in various parts of the world are tabulated for a base case where gas consumption could increase by 75% by 2030 and an alternative case linked to relatively poor economic conditions with expansion at half that rate. (UK)

  16. Dutch natural gas strategy : Historic perspective and challenges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Luthi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight a watershed in the natural gas legacy of the Netherlands: after 50 years of successful gas development, production output of conventional fields will decline from 2010 onwards. The projected decline in Dutch gas output will lead to a loss of future income for the State. In the past, E&P

  17. Why natural gas for CO2 and climate control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roose, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have suggested that increased use of natural gas is a possible strategy for reducing the potential for global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) contributes as much to global warming as all other greenhouse gases combined. During combustion, natural gas generates less CO 2 per unit of energy produced than either coal or oil. On the basis of the amount of CO 2 emitted, the potential for global warming could be reduced by substituting natural gas to coal or oil. However, since natural gas is primarily methane, a potent greenhouse gas, these emissions could reduce natural gas's inherent advantage of lower CO 2 emissions. To address this issue and compare the fuels on an equivalent basis, it is necessary to account for emissions of all greenhouse gases throughout the fuel cycle of each fuel and to determine the impact of these gases on global warming. Gas Research Institute and EPA jointly funded a study to quantify methane emissions from the natural gas industry so that this information could be used as input to address the issue of the fuel switching strategy. The study found that the natural gas industry emitted 1.4% of natural gas production (314 Bscf of methane) to the atmosphere in 1992. Today, due to voluntary reductions from the gas industry, the percent leaked is even less. This 1992 amount has been analyzed over a broad range of global warming potentials, and the conclusion that fuel switching to natural gas reduces the potential for global warming is supported. The results of this study are presented in this paper

  18. The voice of Canada's oil and natural gas industry : oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 150 members of the oil and gas industry, which together are responsible for approximately 95 per cent of the oil and natural gas produced in Canada. The upstream sector comprises companies that explore for, develop and produce petroleum resources, while the downstream sector involves companies that refine and market the resources. CAPP works closely with governments of 11 of Canada's 13 provinces and territories and with public groups to represent upstream producers active across the country. The enhancement of the economic well-being and sustainability of the upstream petroleum industry is the mission of the CAPP. The main priorities of the CAPP are: Environment, Health and Safety Stewardship, reasonable and timely access to resources, competitiveness of the Canadian industry on a global basis, the secure and efficient access to markets, and open and constructive public, government and media affairs. Some of the issues dealt with by the CAPP are sour gas, flaring, venting and industry-landowner relations, improved safety performance, federal issues such as corporate taxes and environmental issues, Aboriginal and First Nations issues, transportation costs for natural gas on major pipelines, and oil and sands bitumen issues, to name a few. The board of the CAPP is made up of 32 members. The work is carried out by hundreds of volunteers from member companies who provide their time and expertise for various committees and working groups, as well as a staff of approximately 40 people to assist them. The members provide the entire funding for CAPP, which is located in Calgary, Alberta. The document concluded with a few facts concerning the petroleum industry in general. 12 figs

  19. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  20. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  1. Natural gas central to world's future energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Continued growth in demand for natural gas is one of three pillars around which the energy mix of the future will take shape and upon which energy strategies should be based. The others are consumption efficiency and growth of renewable energy sources. This paper evaluates world energy supply and demand and includes an analysis of world pipeline gas, electricity, and LNG trends. The paper discusses the natural gas resource, proved reserves, reserves growth, gas prices and demand, country demand trends, world energy use, gas pipeline construction, power generation, electricity consumption and prices, and global carbon emissions

  2. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  3. Natural gas to buoy Trinidad and Tobago petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum sector remains at a crossroads. While heavily reliant on oil and gas for domestic energy consumption and hard currency export earnings, the small Caribbean island nation faces some tough choices in reviving its hydrocarbon sector in the 1990s. Exploration and production of crude oil have stagnated in recent years, and domestic refinery utilization remains low at 36%. However, substantial natural gas reserves in Trinidad and Tobago offer the promise of a burgeoning natural gas based economy with an eye to liquefied natural gas and gas based petrochemical exports. Any solutions will involve considerable outlays by the government as well as a sizable infusion of capital by foreign companies. Therein lie some of the hard choices. The article describes the roles of oil and gas, foreign investment prospects, refining status, refining problems, gas sector foreign investment, and outlook for the rest of the 1990's

  4. Model for negotiation on contingency plans for distribution of natural gas; Modelo de negociacao para planos de contingencia energetica na area de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Morais, Danielle Costa [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The high consumption of Natural Gas (NG), the environmental and economic turbulences that occurred in recent years raises questions about the supply of the product in critical situations. Characteristic factors of natural gas, like the high cost of storage, show the need for the establishment of contingency plans that define what procedures should be adopted in the distribution of Natural Gas or redistribute among consumers in times of restriction of supply, substantial increase on demand or reduction in the ability of supply. These plans aim to define in advance the actions that will be adopted, providing business and consumer segments clear rules indicate the time to search for alternative sources in case of crisis. The current models can not yet address the problem of negotiation for the division of the product following the concepts proposed by the science of trading, making things like proportionality and envy-free are not observed. The aim of this study is to propose a model for distribution of quotas for supply of NG between different consumer segments. The proposed algorithm combines the procedures of Knaster, Steinhaus and Divide the Dollar, seeking an allocation that minimize the feeling of jealousy and provide an equitable distribution. (author)

  5. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  6. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a synthesis gas turbulent combustion in a round jet burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Mohammad; Kamali, Reza

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the RNG-Large Eddy Simulation (RNG-LES) methodology of a synthesis gas turbulent combustion in a round jet burner is investigated, using OpenFoam package. In this regard, the extended EDC extinction model of Aminian et al. for coupling the reaction and turbulent flow along with various reaction kinetics mechanisms such as Skeletal and GRI-MECH 3.0 have been utilized. To estimate precision and error accumulation, we used the Smirinov's method and the results are compared with the available experimental data under the same conditions. As a result, it was found that the GRI-3.0 reaction mechanism has the least computational error and therefore, was considered as a reference reaction mechanism. Afterwards, we investigated the influence of various working parameters including the inlet flow temperature and inlet velocity on the behavior of combustion. The results show that the maximum burner temperature and pollutant emission are affected by changing the inlet flow temperature and velocity.

  7. A Shaky Business: Natural Gas Extraction, Earthquakes and House Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, H.R.A.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural gas is strongly increasing around the world. Long-run negative external effects of extraction are understudied and often ignored in (social) cost-benefit analyses. One important example is that natural gas extraction leads to soil subsidence and subsequent induced

  8. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  9. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  10. Policies for technical innovations to promote natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Short-term and long-term perspectives of the natural gas market worldwide are discussed, covering demand and supply trends. Technologies determining the future of the natural gas market, and R and D needs for implementing future technological challenges are considered. (R.P.)

  11. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  12. Statistics of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, presents financial and operating information of all major interstate natural gas pipeline companies that operated in the United States during 1991. This report is used by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), State utility commissions, other government agencies, and the general public. The information is taken from FERC Form 2, ''Annual Report of Major Natural Gas Companies,'' as filed with FERC

  13. software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    www.globaljournalseries.com; Info@globaljournalseries.com. SOFTWARE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE DESIGN AND. SIMULATION (GASPISIM). A. A. ADAMU. (Received 17 January 2017; Revision Accepted 17 March 2017). ABSTRACT. There is a sudden increase in demand and utilization of natural gas in Nigeria; ...

  14. Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan

    This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

  15. Regulatory reform in the Indonesian Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutagalung, Aldi; Arentsen, Maarten; Lovett, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the problems and dilemmas Indonesia is facing in the upstream and downstream segments of the gas market and the remedies suggested and practiced in Indonesia to mitigate the problems. Indonesia is a country gifted with natural resources, including natural gas and oil. The

  16. Natural gas supply-demand situation and prospect in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 21st century, the reserves of conventional natural gas as well as tight gas in China have been decreasing and their annual production growth rates have been generally reduced from double-digit to one-digit number of percentage. It is predicted that natural gas production will possibly reach up to 134 billion m3 in 2015; and if the marketable rate is 90%, the gas supply volume will probably be 120.6 billion m3 in 2015. Since shale gas development just has started currently, about 0.6 billion m3 of the marketable shale gas will be added to gas supply in 2015. The CBM gas production especially such gas consumption has long been lagged behind the expected targets, and what's more, flaws exist in their statistics; on this basis, it is assumed that the marketable CBM gas will be 4 billion Nm 3 in 2015. With so many achievements made in the coal gas exploitation, it is forecasted that about 5.5 billion m3 coal gas will be added to gas supply in 2015. In total, the domestic fuel gas supply is roughly estimated to be 131 billion m3 in 2015; if the gas consumption in the year is presumably 231 billion m3, about 100 billion m3 gas will then be imported in 2015. From the presumable actual imports of piped gas and LNG terminals, there is still a gap of 27–30 billion m3 in 2015. Therefore, it is suggested that more LNG receiving terminals be put into production in advance and the increment of import gas be needed from Middle Asia. Also, it is proposed that the statistics be completed on the practical marketable fuel gas quantity in the fundamental study of energy planning in the National 13th Five-Year Plan. In conclusion, the economic system reform process is the key to the further development of oil and gas industry in China.

  17. South American natural gas trade: the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Tissot, R.; Peacey, D.

    1997-01-01

    The current state and future prospects for the natural gas sector in South America were examined, including the ability of the natural gas resource base to meet potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay). The physical, legal, fiscal, regulatory and political developments in the hydrocarbon-producing countries in the Southern Cone region were reviewed. For example, in Colombia, the domestic gas market potential and resource base argue in favor of a closed domestic gas sector development policy. In contrast, Venezuela, a country that already has a well developed domestic gas sector, is pursuing offshore market development through both petrochemical and liquefied natural gas initiatives. Following a comprehensive description of individual gas resources, markets and market potential, and legal, institutional and political environments, the study reports on a number of alternative scenarios concerning natural gas integration in the Southern Cone region, developed by using the South America Natural Gas (SANG) model. The following scenarios were reviewed: (1) closure and confinement, (2) integration and expansion, and (3) gains from technology. It was estimated that potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region is projected to grow from 900 billion cubic feet per year in 1994 to over 5.3 trillion cubic feet in 2021. The majority of growth is expected in Brazil. The overall conclusion of the study was that regardless of the scenario, Southern Core gas sector integration has strong economic and commercial merit, and that the natural gas resource base in the Southern Cone, as represented by the gas reserves database, is more than adequate to service potential demand. 100 refs., 50 tabs., 54 figs

  18. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Raymond [Avondale, AZ

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  19. Statistics 2005 of the natural gas industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This document provides and analyses statistical data of the natural gas industry for the year 2005. After a presentation of the consumption and the supplying, it deals with the gas market organization (production, transport, storage, supply and distribution), the information sources and the methods of the analysis and the main data (transport, production, storage, employment, uses). The last part takes stock of the energy in 2005 and the main transport axis of the natural gas in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  20. Natural gas - bridge to a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Per unit of useful energy natural gas gives the lowest environmental pollution of all fossil fuels. This is due to its low carbon content, the absence of sulphur compounds, and the fact that natural gas can, rather easily, be burnt completely in such a way that also the NO x emission is acceptably low. Although natural gas has already a good record as an efficient and clean fuel large improvements are still possible, but this requires more R+D and time. The presently known natural gas world reserves are high enough to go for a substantially higher share of gas in the energy package. E.g. replacing coal by natural gas will give large environmental improvements. Furthermore, direct gas use is very often the most efficient and cleanest option, also when electricity is an alternative. To develop and connect the known large reserves to the market enormous amounts of money are required. The political and economical situation should make these investments possible and attractive. The ideas first expressed by the Dutch prime minister, now incorporated in the Energy Charter, have been developed to that end. Special attention should be given to the development of small gas fields as is e.g. being done in The Netherlands, which has improved the local gas reserves situation impressively. As a first major step to a clean future the potential of natural gas should be explored and put to work worldwide. Its potential as an important diversified source of energy is underestimated. Amongst others by funding more natural gas R+D natural gas should develop a keyrole in the energy scene of the next 3-5 decades.(author) 3 figs., 8 tabs., 3 refs

  1. Natural gas pipelines: emerging market challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, A.; Balfe, P

    2001-01-01

    The Australian gas industry has come a long way in recent years. Most of the formerly government owned gas transmission, distribution and retail businesses have been privatised; major utility companies have been fundamentally restructured; the convergence of energy markets has seen many companies stepping outside the boundaries of their traditional businesses; and national competition policy has led to profound changes in the regulatory landscape. Yet despite the magnitude of these changes, it is clear that the journey of competitive reform has a long way to go. The Australian Gas Association's Industry Development Strategy identifies the potential for gas to increase its share of Australia's primary energy market, from around 18 percent at present to 22 percent by 2005, and 28 percent by 2015. Our analysis, using ACIL's Eastern Australian Gas Model, clearly shows that in the absence of major new sources of gas, these challenging targets will not be met and, indeed, there will be an increasing supply shortfall. However, with the emergence of new competitive supply sources such as Papua New Guinea and the Timor Sea, our modelling suggests that most of this demand can be satisfied at prices which will maintain gas' competitiveness in energy markets. Such developments provide both opportunities and challenges for the industry. In particular, they will profoundly affect the owners and operators of transmission pipeline systems. (Authors)

  2. Forecasting natural gas consumption in China by Bayesian Model Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With rapid growth of natural gas consumption in China, it is in urgent need of more accurate and reliable models to make a reasonable forecast. Considering the limitations of the single model and the model uncertainty, this paper presents a combinative method to forecast natural gas consumption by Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA. It can effectively handle the uncertainty associated with model structure and parameters, and thus improves the forecasting accuracy. This paper chooses six variables for forecasting the natural gas consumption, including GDP, urban population, energy consumption structure, industrial structure, energy efficiency and exports of goods and services. The results show that comparing to Gray prediction model, Linear regression model and Artificial neural networks, the BMA method provides a flexible tool to forecast natural gas consumption that will have a rapid growth in the future. This study can provide insightful information on natural gas consumption in the future.

  3. Spark ignition natural gas engines-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Haeng Muk; He, Bang-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the operating envelope, fuel economy, emissions, cycle-to-cycle variations in indicated mean effective pressure and strategies to achieve stable combustion of lean burn natural gas engines are highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines are briefly reviewed. To keep the output power and torque of natural gas engines comparable to those of their gasoline or Diesel counterparts, high boost pressure should be used. High activity catalyst for methane oxidation and lean deNOx system or three way catalyst with precise air-fuel ratio control strategies should be developed to meet future stringent emission standards

  4. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  7. Rising natural gas prices : impacts on U.S. industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of rising natural gas prices on the United States economy and domestic industries was examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Industry comments were solicited on the effects of natural gas prices on their business performance from 2000 to 2004 in order to collect data, and macroeconomic impacts were determined through the use of an inter-industry model. Results of the survey and subsequent model suggested that in 2000 and 2001, real gross domestic product (GDP) growth was depressed by 0.2 per cent because of higher natural gas prices. Between 2000 and 2004, the civilian workforce was lower by 489,000 jobs. It was determined that nitrogenous fertilizer manufacturing was the most gas intensive industry. The results indicated that higher natural gas prices were an additional burden on manufacturing industries, and that the economic performance of natural gas intensive industries was poor between 2000-2004. However, it was just as poor between 1997-2000, when gas prices were relatively low and stable. Natural gas intensive industries passed along price increases in their products to their downstream consumers. Despite job losses, wages in natural gas intensive industries were higher and grew faster than in the rest of the manufacturing industry in the 2000-2004 period. Although capital expenditures declined between 2000 to 2004, they declined more rapidly in the 1997-2000 period. There has been no evidence of a decline in international competitiveness of natural gas intensive industries. It was concluded that rising natural gas prices have had a significant impact on the growth of the economy and workforce. tabs., figs

  8. Annual survey on the natural gas market: results for 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadin, Didier; Moreau, Sylvain

    2015-02-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this publication presents and discusses data regarding the French natural gas market in 2013: origin of the consumed gas and share of the national production, evolution of the inlet-outlet ratio for gas-pipe and gas harbour terminals in France, adjustment of resources to demand in terms of jobs, production, imports and storage, evolution of stored quantities, evolution of consumption, evolution of consumption per sector since 2007, regional supplies in 2012 and 2013

  9. Experimental and numerical analysis of natural bio and syngas swirl flames in a model gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S.; Benim, A. C.; Fischer, S.; Joos, F.; Kluβ, D.; Wiedermann, A.

    2016-10-01

    Turbulent reacting flows in a generic swirl gas turbine combustor model are investigated both numerically and experimentally. In the investigation, an emphasis is placed upon the external flue gas recirculation, which is a promising technology for increasing the efficiency of the carbon capture and storage process, which, however, can change the combustion behaviour significantly. A further emphasis is placed upon the investigation of alternative fuels such as biogas and syngas in comparison to the conventional natural gas. Flames are also investigated numerically using the open source CFD software OpenFOAM. In the numerical simulations, a laminar flamelet model based on mixture fraction and reaction progress variable is adopted. As turbulence model, the SST model is used within a URANS concept. Computational results are compared with the experimental data, where a fair agreement is observed.

  10. Approximate deconvolution model for the simulation of turbulent gas-solid flows: An a priori analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, Simon; Saeedipour, Mahdi

    2018-02-01

    Highly resolved two-fluid model (TFM) simulations of gas-solid flows in vertical periodic channels have been performed to study closures for the filtered drag force and the Reynolds-stress-like contribution stemming from the convective terms. An approximate deconvolution model (ADM) for the large-eddy simulation of turbulent gas-solid suspensions is detailed and subsequently used to reconstruct those unresolved contributions in an a priori manner. With such an approach, an approximation of the unfiltered solution is obtained by repeated filtering allowing the determination of the unclosed terms of the filtered equations directly. A priori filtering shows that predictions of the ADM model yield fairly good agreement with the fine grid TFM simulations for various filter sizes and different particle sizes. In particular, strong positive correlation (ρ > 0.98) is observed at intermediate filter sizes for all sub-grid terms. Additionally, our study reveals that the ADM results moderately depend on the choice of the filters, such as box and Gaussian filter, as well as the deconvolution order. The a priori test finally reveals that ADM is superior compared to isotropic functional closures proposed recently [S. Schneiderbauer, "A spatially-averaged two-fluid model for dense large-scale gas-solid flows," AIChE J. 63, 3544-3562 (2017)].

  11. Effect of wall thermal conductivity on the heat transfer process in annular turbulent gas flow for constant wall temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshev, A.I.; Anisimov, V.V.; Kashcheev, V.M.; Khudasko, V.V.; Yur'ev, Yu.S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of wall material on convective heat transfer of turbulent gas flow in an annular tube with account of longitudinal diffusion both in the wall and in the liquid is studied numerically. The conjugated problem is solved for P r =0.7 (Re=10 4 -10 6 ). Based on numerical calculations it is stated that thermal conductivity of the wall and gas essentially affects the degree of preliminary heating of liquid in the range of a non-heated section

  12. Outlook natural and renewable gas. 2017 gas adequacy report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Pursuant to Article L.141-10 of the French Energy Code, the managers of the gas distribution and transmission networks published jointly, and for the first time in 2016, a multi-year provisional assessment of gas demand and production in France. This document is an update of that first edition. It was developed in a collaborative process among managers of the distribution and transmission networks, which coordinated their analyses while taking into consideration recent changes in the energy sector. As the 2016 provisional assessment, this document presents three scenarios: a base reference scenario in line with the objectives of the multi-year energy program, and two framing scenarios

  13. Natural gas in Denmark - from monopoly to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Ramskov, J.; Larsen, A.; Fristrup, P.

    2003-07-01

    For years the Danish natural gas companies have been protected against competition. Now, however, as in other countries the natural gas market in Denmark is in a process of liberalisation. This implies that new market players now get the opportunity to go into the market and challenge the Danish gas companies, that the customers can freely choose their gas supplier, and that open access to the natural gas grid will be given to everybody interested in transporting gas. In this study we have investigated the following aspects of liberalising the Danish gas market: Are the changes as seen in market organisation in accordance with the guidelines of liberalisation?; Have Danish gas prices been adapted to the liberalised gas market?; What will be the consequences of harmonising energy taxes?; What kind of regulation is needed?; How is the Danish gas market different from the European gas market? By applying a general equilibrium model, ENERGAS, we have analysed the effects for the Danish gas market of carrying through a tax harmonisation. Two different scenarios have been analysed: 1. To introduce the energy tax proposal made by the Commission in the autumn of 2002; 2. To impose green taxes equivalent to the environmental costs by using energy. (BA)

  14. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  15. Natural turbulence electrical power generator. [using wave action or random motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilem, R. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An energy conversion apparatus is disclosed in which a stator, fixed to a watertight housing, is coupled to a rotor by a helical spring which suspends the rotor from the housing. Natural turbulence of a fluid, such as water or air, causes acceleration of the housing, and hence, acceleration of the stator. Inertia of the rotor, coupled to the stator through the helical spring and the housing, causes relative motion, both longitudinal and rotational, between the stator and the rotor. The rotational motion between the rotor, and the stator is used to generate electrical current.

  16. Southwest British Columbia natural gas supply and deliverability: Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    A review is presented of energy in British Columbia, the role of natural gas, and options available to enhance gas supply security in the province's most densely populated area, the southwest. British Columbia has abundant natural gas supplies, and production exceeds domestic demand. In 1992, natural gas supplied ca 25% of total provincial end-use energy requirements, but this share is expected to rise to 30% by 2015. Although some say that the province's natural gas production and transmission system should serve only domestic needs, this would have significant negative impacts. Domestic gas supply policy allows gas consumers to contract their own supplies, but contract security is required. Provincial guidelines allow demand-side programs to compete with supply sources to ensure that the resource profile is achieved at least cost. In the southwest, natural gas demand is projected to increase from 189 PJ in 1991 to 262 PJ by 2005. Most gas supplied to this region comes from northeast British Columbia through pipelines that are generally fully contracted. Short-term deliverability can be a problem, especially in peak winter demand periods. The gas industry's contingency plans for shortages are outlined and alternatives to enhance deliverability to the southwest are assessed, including storage, expansion of the pipeline system, supply curtailment, and peaking supply contracts. Aspects of provincial natural gas planning are discussed, including security of supply and deliverability, economic and environmental impacts, consumer costs, safety, and the public interest. A least-cost option for enhancing deliverability (underground storage and an additional liquefied natural gas plant) is estimated to cost consumers $3.69/GJ over 20 years. 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  18. Projections of demand of natural gas in Mexico; Proyecciones de demanda de gas natural en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The projections of demand of energy for Mexico, in the global and regional scope, for period 1992-2020 are presented. The projections are based on the use of a simulation model built in the University Program of Energy of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), which allows to project the demand in the short and medium term of the primary and final energy. Projections of the demands of energy or for fuels by sectors and subsectors are obtained in accordance with different scenarios of growth. Particularly the demand of natural gas is analyzed, both, as energy and as raw material for the petrochemical industry, and as fuel oil, under different scenarios of economic growth and policies of environmental character. [Spanish] Se presentan las proyecciones de demanda de energia para Mexico, en el ambito global y regional, para el periodo 1992-2020. Las proyecciones estan basadas en el uso de un modelo de simulacion construido en el Programa Universitario de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), el cual permite proyectar la demanda de energia primaria y final en el corto y mediano plazos. Se obtienen proyecciones de las demandas de energia por sectores y subsectores o por combustibles de acuerdo con diferentes escenarios de crecimiento. En particular se analiza la demanda de gas natural, tanto como energetico como materia prima para la petroquimica, y combustoleo bajo diferentes escenarios de crecimiento economico y politicas de caracter ambiental.

  19. Natural gas revenues in the Netherlands. Consequences of the liberalization of the natural gas market for the Dutch State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, J.; Krijnen, L.; Van Maasacker, M.

    1999-01-01

    For the Dutch government, natural gas is an important source of revenue. The liberalisation of the gas market has serious consequences for the revenues the Dutch government generates by producing and selling natural gas. In late September 1999, the Netherlands Office of Audits ('Algemene Rekenkamer') published a report with gloomy prospects concerning future natural gas revenues. The Office expects a reduction in government revenues that may even run into more than 2 billion Dutch guilders a year. A report was prepared to provide insight into the financial effects of market liberalisation and to allow the Dutch Parliament to reach an informed decision

  20. Natural gas : the green fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.S.; Harbinson, S.W.; Tertzakian, P.; Wall, T.; Wilkinson, J.; Graham, M.; Young, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that the demand for crude oil exceeds supply and other energy sources are needed to met the shortfall. Natural gas and coal are the only 2 current energy sources that have the global capacity to, by themselves, address increased energy demand in a timely manner. Both these resources have been used primarily for power generation and heating. This paper discussed the transition that will likely occur in which natural gas and coal will be used increasingly as transportation fuels. It presented data comparing the environmental impact of using methane versus coal and proposed natural gas as the future green fuel. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the current Canadian natural gas market. The strengths include recent discoveries in the Horn River Basin and the Montney plays in British Columbia which are expected to triple natural gas production within the next decade. The weaknesses include an oversupply of gas compared to current demand; gas prices are currently in a range that are barely economic for many shale plays; and Canadian gas is disadvantaged for sales in the United States by additional pipeline transportation costs. The opportunities include global export opportunities of liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the proposed Kitimat LNG export facility and others off the west coast of Canada. The threat facing natural gas development is the strong competition for market share with coal. However, emissions data and energy efficiencies provide evidence to support the choice to use natural gas. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 26 figs.