Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Set1 V2c (GSSTF) at GES DISC
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25 x 0.25 deg, Daily Grid V3 (GSSTF) at GES DISC
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F13) V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F15) V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_11) V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F14) V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, Daily Grid F08 V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F13 V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Set1 V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F11 V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F14 V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F08 V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, Daily Grid F10 V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F10 V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F15 V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...
NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II in HDF-EOS5, for GSSTF2c, 1x1 deg Daily grid V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....
Flux driven turbulence in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Ottaviani, M.; Sarazin, Y.; Beyer, P.; Benkadda, S.; Waltz, R.E.
1999-01-01
This work deals with tokamak plasma turbulence in the case where fluxes are fixed and profiles are allowed to fluctuate. These systems are intermittent. In particular, radially propagating fronts, are usually observed over a broad range of time and spatial scales. The existence of these fronts provide a way to understand the fast transport events sometimes observed in tokamaks. It is also shown that the confinement scaling law can still be of the gyroBohm type in spite of these large scale transport events. Some departure from the gyroBohm prediction is observed at low flux, i.e. when the gradients are close to the instability threshold. Finally, it is found that the diffusivity is not the same for a turbulence calculated at fixed flux than at fixed temperature gradient, with the same time averaged profile. (author)
Turbulent Fogwater Flux Measurements Above A Forest
Burkard, R.; Eugster, W.; Buetzberger, P.; Siegwolf, R.
Many forest ecosystems in elevated regions receive a significant fraction of their wa- ter and nutrient input by the interception of fogwater. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the suitability of the eddy covariance technique for the direct measure- ment of turbulent liquid water fluxes. Since summer 2001 a fogwater flux measure- ment equipment has been running at a montane site above a mixed forest canopy in Switzerland. The measurement equipment consists of a high-speed size-resolving droplet spectrometer and a three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer. The chemical composition of the fogwater was determined from samples collected with a modified Caltech active strand collector. The deposition of nutrients by fog (occult deposition) was calculated by multiplying the total fogwater flux (total of measured turbulent and calculated gravitational flux) during each fog event by the ionic concentrations found in the collected fogwater. Several uncertainties still exist as far as the accuracy of the measurements is con- cerned. Although there is no universal statistical approach for testing the quality of the liquid water flux data directly, results of independent data quality checks of the two time series involved in the flux computation and accordingly the two instruments (ultrasonic anemometer and the droplet spectrometer) are presented. Within the measurement period, over 80 fog events with a duration longer than 2.5 hours were analyzed. An enormous physical and chemical heterogeneity among these fog events was found. We assume that some of this heterogeneity is due to the fact that fog or cloud droplets are not conservative entities: the turbulent flux of fog droplets, which can be referred to as the liquid water flux, is affected by phase change processes and coagulation. The measured coexistence of upward fluxes of small fog droplets (di- ameter < 10 µm) with the downward transport of larger droplets indicates the influ- ence of such processes. With the
Turbulent fluxes by "Conditional Eddy Sampling"
Siebicke, Lukas
2015-04-01
Turbulent flux measurements are key to understanding ecosystem scale energy and matter exchange, including atmospheric trace gases. While the eddy covariance approach has evolved as an invaluable tool to quantify fluxes of e.g. CO2 and H2O continuously, it is limited to very few atmospheric constituents for which sufficiently fast analyzers exist. High instrument cost, lack of field-readiness or high power consumption (e.g. many recent laser-based systems requiring strong vacuum) further impair application to other tracers. Alternative micrometeorological approaches such as conditional sampling might overcome major limitations. Although the idea of eddy accumulation has already been proposed by Desjardin in 1972 (Desjardin, 1977), at the time it could not be realized for trace gases. Major simplifications by Businger and Oncley (1990) lead to it's widespread application as 'Relaxed Eddy Accumulation' (REA). However, those simplifications (flux gradient similarity with constant flow rate sampling irrespective of vertical wind velocity and introduction of a deadband around zero vertical wind velocity) have degraded eddy accumulation to an indirect method, introducing issues of scalar similarity and often lack of suitable scalar flux proxies. Here we present a real implementation of a true eddy accumulation system according to the original concept. Key to our approach, which we call 'Conditional Eddy Sampling' (CES), is the mathematical formulation of conditional sampling in it's true form of a direct eddy flux measurement paired with a performant real implementation. Dedicated hardware controlled by near-real-time software allows full signal recovery at 10 or 20 Hz, very fast valve switching, instant vertical wind velocity proportional flow rate control, virtually no deadband and adaptive power management. Demonstrated system performance often exceeds requirements for flux measurements by orders of magnitude. The system's exceptionally low power consumption is ideal
Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events
Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian
2018-01-01
The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport
Turbulent flux and the diffusion of passive tracers in electrostatic turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basu, R.; Jessen, T.; Naulin, V.
2003-01-01
The connection between the diffusion of passive tracer particles and the anomalous turbulent flux in electrostatic drift-wave turbulence is investigated by direct numerical solutions of the 2D Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The probability density functions for the point-wise and flux surface...
Validating modeled turbulent heat fluxes across large freshwater surfaces
Lofgren, B. M.; Fujisaki-Manome, A.; Gronewold, A.; Anderson, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Blanken, P.; Spence, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Xiao, C.; Charusambot, U.
2017-12-01
Turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat are important physical processes that influence the energy and water budgets of the Great Lakes. Validation and improvement of bulk flux algorithms to simulate these turbulent heat fluxes are critical for accurate prediction of hydrodynamics, water levels, weather, and climate over the region. Here we consider five heat flux algorithms from several model systems; the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and the Large Lake Thermodynamics Model, which are used in research and operational environments and concentrate on different aspects of the Great Lakes' physical system, but interface at the lake surface. The heat flux algorithms were isolated from each model and driven by meteorological data from over-lake stations in the Great Lakes Evaporation Network. The simulation results were compared with eddy covariance flux measurements at the same stations. All models show the capacity to the seasonal cycle of the turbulent heat fluxes. Overall, the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment algorithm in FVCOM has the best agreement with eddy covariance measurements. Simulations with the other four algorithms are overall improved by updating the parameterization of roughness length scales of temperature and humidity. Agreement between modelled and observed fluxes notably varied with geographical locations of the stations. For example, at the Long Point station in Lake Erie, observed fluxes are likely influenced by the upwind land surface while the simulations do not take account of the land surface influence, and therefore the agreement is worse in general.
Turbulent particle flux to a perfectly absorbing surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pecseli, H.L.
2005-01-01
is generated by two moving grids. The simultaneous trajectories of many small approximately neutrally buoyant polystyrene particles are followed in time. In a Lagrangian analysis, we select one of these as the centre of a ‘sphere of interception’, and obtain estimates for the time variation of the statistical......The feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of the particle flux to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows is demonstrated in a Lagrangian as well as an Eulerian representation. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow...... average of the inward particle flux through the surface of this moving sphere. The variation of the flux with the radius in the sphere of interception, as well as the variation with basic flow parameters is described well by a simple model, in particular for radii smaller than a characteristic length...
Modeling subgrid-scale turbulent fluxes in the "Grey Zone"
De Roode, S. R.; Jonker, H. J.; Siebesma, P.
2017-12-01
The ever increasing computational power nowadays allows both weather and climate models to operate at a horizontal grid resolution that is high enough to resolve some part of the turbulent transport. Some of these models apply a Smagorinsky type TKE closure model including a buoyancy production term to compute the subgrid turbulent fluxes of heat, momentum and moisture. For a stable stratification an analytical solution for the eddy viscosity can be derived. From a comparison with similarity relations from field observations it is concluded that an anistropic grid, as measured by the ratio of the horizontal to the vertical grid mesh sizes (r=Dx/Dz>1), will yield excessive subgrid mixing and an erroneous dependency on the grid resolution. Secondly, in contrast to what is being used in many LES models, field observations suggest that for a stable boundary layer the turbulent Prandtl number is close to unity. The effect of grid anistropy is also investigated for the CONSTRAIN cold air outbreak model intercomparison case. Here opposite results are found. In the presence of convective stratocumulus clouds the Smagorinsky model appears to be well capable of compensating the gradual reduction of the resolved vertical fluxes with coarsening horizontal grid resolution, up to values Dx>3 km, in such a way that the total turbulent fluxes are hardly affected.
Doppler lidar measurement of profiles of turbulence and momentum flux
Eberhard, Wynn L.; Cupp, Richard E.; Healy, Kathleen R.
1989-01-01
A short-pulse CO2 Doppler lidar with 150-m range resolution measured vertical profiles of turbulence and momentum flux. Example measurements are reported of a daytime mixed layer with strong mechanical mixing caused by a wind speed of 15 m/sec, which exceeded the speed above the capping inversion. The lidar adapted an azimuth scanning technique previously demonstrated by radar. Scans alternating between two elevation angles allow determination of mean U-squared, V-squared, and W-squared. Expressions were derived to estimate the uncertainty in the turbulence parameters. A new processing method, partial Fourier decomposition, has less uncertainty than the filtering used earlier.
Energy fluxes and spectra for turbulent and laminar flows
Verma, Mahendra K.
2017-05-14
Two well-known turbulence models to describe the inertial and dissipative ranges simultaneously are by Pao~[Phys. Fluids {\\\\bf 8}, 1063 (1965)] and Pope~[{\\\\em Turbulent Flows.} Cambridge University Press, 2000]. In this paper, we compute energy spectrum $E(k)$ and energy flux $\\\\Pi(k)$ using spectral simulations on grids up to $4096^3$, and show consistency between the numerical results and predictions by the aforementioned models. We also construct a model for laminar flows that predicts $E(k)$ and $\\\\Pi(k)$ to be of the form $\\\\exp(-k)$, and verify the model predictions using numerical simulations. The shell-to-shell energy transfers for the turbulent flows are {\\\\em forward and local} for both inertial and dissipative range, but those for the laminar flows are {\\\\em forward and nonlocal}.
Performance of different detrending methods in turbulent flux estimation
Donateo, Antonio; Cava, Daniela; Contini, Daniele
2015-04-01
The eddy covariance is the most direct, efficient and reliable method to measure the turbulent flux of a scalar (Baldocchi, 2003). Required conditions for high-quality eddy covariance measurements are amongst others stationarity of the measured data and a fully developed turbulence. The simplest method for obtaining the fluctuating components for covariance calculation according to Reynolds averaging rules under ideal stationary conditions is the so called mean removal method. However steady state conditions rarely exist in the atmosphere, because of the diurnal cycle, changes in meteorological conditions, or sensor drift. All these phenomena produce trends or low-frequency changes superimposed to the turbulent signal. Different methods for trend removal have been proposed in literature; however a general agreement on how separate low frequency perturbations from turbulence has not yet been reached. The most commonly applied methods are the linear detrending (Gash and Culf, 1996) and the high-pass filter, namely the moving average (Moncrieff et al., 2004). Moreover Vickers and Mahrt (2003) proposed a multi resolution decomposition method in order to select an appropriate time scale for mean removal as a function of atmospheric stability conditions. The present work investigates the performance of these different detrending methods in removing the low frequency contribution to the turbulent fluxes calculation, including also a spectral filter by a Fourier decomposition of the time series. The different methods have been applied to the calculation of the turbulent fluxes for different scalars (temperature, ultrafine particles number concentration, carbon dioxide and water vapour concentration). A comparison of the detrending methods will be performed also for different measurement site, namely a urban site, a suburban area, and a remote area in Antarctica. Moreover the performance of the moving average in detrending time series has been analyzed as a function of the
Surface energy budget and turbulent fluxes at Arctic terrestrial sites
Grachev, Andrey; Persson, Ola; Uttal, Taneil; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina
2017-04-01
Determination of the surface energy budget (SEB) and all SEB components at the air-surface interface are required in a wide variety of applications including atmosphere-land/snow simulations and validation of the surface fluxes predicted by numerical models over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, comparisons of net surface energy budgets at two Arctic sites are made using long-term near-continuous measurements of hourly averaged surface fluxes (turbulent, radiation, and soil conduction). One site, Eureka (80.0 N; Nunavut, Canada), is located in complex topography near a fjord about 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. The other site, Tiksi (71.6 N; Russian East Siberia), is located on a relatively flat coastal plain less than 1 km from the shore of Tiksi Bay, a branch of the Arctic Ocean. We first analyzed diurnal and annual cycles of basic meteorological parameters and key SEB components at these locations. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located on different continents and at different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and SEB components are qualitatively similar. Surface energy balance closure is a formulation of the conservation of energy principle. Our direct measurements of energy balance for both Arctic sites show that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes and the ground (conductive) heat flux systematically underestimate the net radiation by about 25-30%. This lack of energy balance closure is a fundamental and pervasive problem in micrometeorology. We discuss a variety of factors which may be responsible for the lack of SEB closure. In particular, various storage terms (e.g., air column energy storage due to radiative and/or sensible heat flux divergence, ground heat storage above the soil flux plate, energy used in photosynthesis, canopy biomass heat storage). For example, our observations show that the photosynthesis storage term is relatively small (about 1-2% of the net radiation), but about 8-12% of the
The Importance of Non-Linearity on Turbulent Fluxes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rokni, Masoud
2007-01-01
Two new non-linear models for the turbulent heat fluxes are derived and developed from the transport equation of the scalar passive flux. These models are called as non-linear eddy diffusivity and non-linear scalar flux. The structure of these models is compared with the exact solution which...... is derived from the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and contains a three term-basis plus a non-linear term due to scalar fluxes. In order to study the performance of the model itself, all other turbulent quantities are taken from a DNS channel flow data-base and thus the error source has been minimized. The results...... are compared with the DNS channel flow and good agreement is achieved. It has been shown that the non-linearity parts of the models are important to capture the true path of the streamwise scalar fluxes. It has also been shown that one of model constant should have negative sign rather than positive, which had...
Turbulent heat flux measurements in thermally stable boundary layers
Williams, Owen J.; van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander J.
2014-11-01
Thermally stable turbulent boundary layers are prevalent in the polar regions and nocturnal atmospheric surface layer but heat and momentum flux measurements in such flow are often difficult. Here, a new method is employed using a nanoscale cold-wire (T-NSTAP) adjacent to a 2D PIV light sheet to measure these fluxes within rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. This method combines the advantages of fast thermal frequency response with measurement of the spatial variation of the velocity field. Resolution is limited solely by the separation of the probe and the light sheet. The new technique is used to examine the applicability of Monin-Obukhov similarity over a range of Richardson numbers from weak to strongly stable. In addition, the velocity fields are conditionally averaged subject to strong deviations of temperature above and below the local average in an effort to determine the relationship between the coherent turbulent motions and the fluctuating temperature field. This work was supported by the Princeton University Cooperative Institute for Climate Science.
An algebraic stress/flux model for two-phase turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, R.
1995-12-01
An algebraic stress model (ASM) for turbulent Reynolds stress and a flux model for turbulent heat flux are proposed for two-phase bubbly and slug flows. These mathematical models are derived from the two-phase transport equations for Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux, and provide C μ , a turbulent constant which defines the level of eddy viscosity, as a function of the interfacial terms. These models also include the effect of heat transfer. When the interfacial drag terms and the interfacial momentum transfer terms are absent, the model reduces to a single-phase model used in the literature
DNS of turbulent channel flow subject to oscillatory heat flux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bukhvostova Anastasia
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the heat transfer in a turbulent channel flow, which is periodically heated through its walls. We consider the flow of air and water vapor using direct numerical simulation. We consider the fluid as a compressible Newtonian gas. We focus on the heat transfer properties of the system, e.g., the temperature difference between the walls and the Nusselt number. We consider the dependence of these quantities on the frequency of the applied heat flux. We observe that the mean temperature difference is quite insensitive to the frequency and that the amplitude of its oscillations is such that its value multiplied by the square root of frequency is approximately constant. Next we add droplets to the channel, which can undergo phase transitions. The heat transfer properties of the channel in the case with droplets are found to increase by more than a factor of two, compared to the situation without droplets.
Potential landscape and flux field theory for turbulence and nonequilibrium fluid systems
Wu, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jin
2018-02-01
Turbulence is a paradigm for far-from-equilibrium systems without time reversal symmetry. To capture the nonequilibrium irreversible nature of turbulence and investigate its implications, we develop a potential landscape and flux field theory for turbulent flow and more general nonequilibrium fluid systems governed by stochastic Navier-Stokes equations. We find that equilibrium fluid systems with time reversibility are characterized by a detailed balance constraint that quantifies the detailed balance condition. In nonequilibrium fluid systems with nonequilibrium steady states, detailed balance breaking leads directly to a pair of interconnected consequences, namely, the non-Gaussian potential landscape and the irreversible probability flux, forming a 'nonequilibrium trinity'. The nonequilibrium trinity characterizes the nonequilibrium irreversible essence of fluid systems with intrinsic time irreversibility and is manifested in various aspects of these systems. The nonequilibrium stochastic dynamics of fluid systems including turbulence with detailed balance breaking is shown to be driven by both the non-Gaussian potential landscape gradient and the irreversible probability flux, together with the reversible convective force and the stochastic stirring force. We reveal an underlying connection of the energy flux essential for turbulence energy cascade to the irreversible probability flux and the non-Gaussian potential landscape generated by detailed balance breaking. Using the energy flux as a center of connection, we demonstrate that the four-fifths law in fully developed turbulence is a consequence and reflection of the nonequilibrium trinity. We also show how the nonequilibrium trinity can affect the scaling laws in turbulence.
Flux expansion effect on turbulent transport in 3D global simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Galassi
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The flux expansion effect on the Scrape-Off Layer equilibrium is inspected through TOKAM3X 3D turbulence simulations. Three magnetic equilibria with analytically controlled flux expansion are built, representing respectively a positive, a null and a negative Shafranov shift. Turbulent E × B fluxes across flux surfaces show similar amplitudes and poloidal distributions in all cases. The ballooning nature of the interchange instability is recovered, with an enhancement of turbulence in the vicinity of the limiter, probably due to a Kelvin–Helmoltz instability. Interestingly, the poloidally averaged density decay length is found to be shorter almost by a factor 2 in the case of flux surfaces compressed at the low-field side midplane, with respect to the opposite case, indicating the presence of unfavorable conditions for the turbulent transport. The difference in the magnetic field line shape is pointed out as a mechanism which affects the turbulent transport across the flux surfaces. Indeed the unstable region has a larger parallel extension when flux expansion in the low-field side is larger. Moreover, the configuration with a lower magnetic shear at the low-field side midplane shows a more unstable behavior. The role of this parameter in turbulence stabilization is qualitatively evaluated. The difference in the distribution of transport along the parallel direction is shown to affect also the parallel flows, which are analyzed for the three proposed cases.
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Monthly Grid V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Seasonal Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Yearly Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Yearly Grid V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Seasonal Grid V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ling; Laughman, Brian; Lund, Thomas S.; Collins, Richard L.
2018-01-01
A companion paper by Fritts, Laughman, et al. (2017) employed an anelastic numerical model to explore the dynamics of gravity waves (GWs) encountering a mesospheric inversion layer (MIL) having a moderate static stability enhancement and a layer of weaker static stability above. That study revealed that MIL responses, including GW transmission, reflection, and instabilities, are sensitive functions of GW parameters. This paper expands on two of the Fritts, Laughman, et al. (2017) simulations to examine GW instability dynamics and turbulence in the MIL; forcing of the mean wind and stability environments by GW, instability, and turbulence fluxes; and associated heat and momentum transports. These direct numerical simulations resolve turbulence inertial-range scales and yield the following results: GW breaking and turbulence in the MIL occur below where they would otherwise, due to enhancements of GW amplitudes and shears in the MIL. 2-D GW and instability heat and momentum fluxes are 20-30 times larger than 3-D instability and turbulence fluxes. Mean fields are driven largely by 2-D GW and instability dynamics rather than 3-D instabilities and turbulence. 2-D and 3-D heat fluxes in regions of strong turbulence yield small departures from initial T(z) and N2(z) profiles, hence do not yield nearly adiabatic "mixed" layers. Our MIL results are consistent with the relation between the turbulent vertical velocity variance and energy dissipation rate proposed by Weinstock (1981) for the limited intervals evaluated.
Sensible Heat Flux Related to Variations in Atmospheric Turbulence Kinetic Energy on a Sandy Beach
2017-06-01
FLUX RELATED TO VARIATIONS IN ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE KINETIC ENERGY ON A SANDY BEACH by Jessica S. Koscinski June 2017 Thesis Advisor...KINETIC ENERGY ON A SANDY BEACH 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jessica S. Koscinski 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...Sensible heat flux, turbulence kinetic energy , surf zone 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT
NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II, for GSSTF, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_NCEP), at GES DISC V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Simulation of the turbulent fluxes evolution by the transition theory for different stratifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maqueda, G.; Cuadrado, J.J.
1997-01-01
This paper shows an easy techniques in order to describe the temporal evolution of profiles and turbulent fluxes in the lower atmosphere from Transilient Turbulence Theory, as an alternative method to the one-order closure, so as k-theory. A nonlocal closure of the turbulent kinetic energy equation, TKE, to get the mixing coefficients is requested in the Transilient theory. Potential matrix and transient matrix, arising from the proposed model, allow to obtain typical profiles of dynamical and thermal variables of PBL, as well as turbulent fluxes associated to them. In this work both, profiles and fluxes, under some imposed conditions and several kinds of stratifications in the 100 m closer to the ground are simulated. (Author) 22 refs
The flux tube paradigm and its role in MHD turbulence in the solar atmosphere
Matthaeus, W. H.; Greco, A.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Osman, K.; Ruffolo, D. J.
2011-12-01
Descriptions of magnetic field and plasma structures in terms of flux tubes, plasmoids and other bundles of magnetic field lines are familiar in the vocabulary of observational and theoretical space physics. "Spaghetti models" and flux ropes are well known examples. Flux tubes and families of field lines can also be defined in a medium that admits magnetic fluctuations, including strong MHD turbulence, but their behavior can become complicated. In 3D fluctuations the smooth flux tube description itself becomes in some sense unstable, as nearby field lines diverge and flux surfaces shred. This lends complexity to the structure of flux tubes, and can give rise to temporarily trapped field lines and charged test particle trajectories, with immediate implications for transport, e.g., of solar energetic particles. The properties of the turbulent magnetic field can also be strongly influenced by the dynamics of turbulence. Large scale self organizing behavior, or inverse cascade, can enhance very long wavelength structure, favoring Bohm scaling of diffusion coefficients. Meanwhile smaller scale flux tube structures are integral features of the inertial range of turbulence, giving rise to a cellularization of the plasma due to rapid dynamical relaxation processes. These drive the turbulent system locally towards low-acceleration states, including Alfvenic, Beltrami and force-free states. Cell boundaries are natural positions for formation of near discontinuous boundaries, where dynamical activity can be enhanced. A primary example is appearance of numerous discontinuities and active reconnection sites in turbulence, which appear to support a wide distribution of reconnection rates associated with coherent current structures. These discontinuities are also potential sites of enhanced heating, as expected in Kolmogorov's Refined Similarity Hypothesis. All of these features are related to self organization, cascade and intermittency of the turbulence. Examples of these
On the parameterization of turbulent fluxes over the tropical Eastern Pacific
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. B. Raga
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We present estimates of turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum derived from low level (~30 m aircraft measurements over the tropical Eastern Pacific and provide empirical relationships that are valid under high wind speed conditions (up to 25 ms−1. The estimates of total momentum flux and turbulent kinetic energy can be represented very accurately (r2=0.99, when data are binned every 1 ms−1 by empirical fits with a linear and a cubic terms of the average horizontal wind speed. The latent heat flux shows a strong quadratic dependence on the horizontal wind speed and a linear relationship with the difference between the air specific humidity and the saturated specific humidity at the sea surface, explaining 96% of the variance. The estimated values were used to evaluate the performance of three currently used parameterizations of turbulence fluxes, varying in complexity and computational requirements. The comparisons with the two more complex parameterizations show good agreement between the observed and parameterized latent heat fluxes, with less agreement in the sensible heat fluxes, and one of them largely overestimating the momentum fluxes. A third, very simple parameterization shows a surprisingly good agreement of the sensible heat flux, while momentum fluxes are again overestimated and a poor agreement was observed for the latent heat flux (r2=0.62. The performance of all three parameterizations deteriorates significantly in the high wind speed regime (above 10–15 ms−1. The dataset obtained over the tropical Eastern Pacific allows us to derive empirical functions for the turbulent fluxes that are applicable from 1 to 25 ms−1, which can be introduced in meteorological models under high wind conditions.
Measurement of Turbulent Fluxes of Swirling Flow in a Scaled Up Multi Inlet Vortex Reactor
Olsen, Michael; Hitimana, Emmanual; Hill, James; Fox, Rodney
2017-11-01
The multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) has been developed for use in the FlashNanoprecipitation (FNP) process. The MIVR has four identical square inlets connected to a central cylindrical mixing chamber with one common outlet creating a highly turbulent swirling flow dominated by a strong vortex in the center. Efficient FNP requires rapid mixing within the MIVR. To investigate the mixing, instantaneous velocity and concentration fields were acquired using simultaneous stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence. The simultaneous velocity and concentration data were used to determine turbulent fluxes and spatial cross-correlations of velocity and concentration fluctuations. The measurements were performed for four inlet flow Reynolds numbers (3250, 4875, 6500, and 8125) and at three measurement planes within the reactor. A correlation between turbulent fluxes and vortex strength was found. For all Reynolds numbers, turbulent fluxes are maximum in the vortex dominated central region of the reactor and decay away from the vortex. Increasing Reynolds number increased turbulent fluxes and subsequently enhanced mixing. The mixing performance was confirmed by determining coefficients of concentration variance within the reactor.
Parwani, Ajit K.; Talukdar, Prabal; Subbarao, P. M. V.
2015-03-01
Heat flux at the boundary of a duct is estimated using the inverse technique based on conjugate gradient method (CGM) with an adjoint equation. A two-dimensional inverse forced convection hydrodynamically fully developed turbulent flow is considered. The simulations are performed with temperature data measured in the experimental test performed on a wind tunnel. The results show that the present numerical model with CGM is robust and accurate enough to estimate the strength and position of boundary heat flux.
Hydrodynamical model of anisotropic, polarized turbulent superfluids. I: constraints for the fluxes
Mongiovì, Maria Stella; Restuccia, Liliana
2018-02-01
This work is the first of a series of papers devoted to the study of the influence of the anisotropy and polarization of the tangle of quantized vortex lines in superfluid turbulence. A thermodynamical model of inhomogeneous superfluid turbulence previously formulated is here extended, to take into consideration also these effects. The model chooses as thermodynamic state vector the density, the velocity, the energy density, the heat flux, and a complete vorticity tensor field, including its symmetric traceless part and its antisymmetric part. The relations which constrain the constitutive quantities are deduced from the second principle of thermodynamics using the Liu procedure. The results show that the presence of anisotropy and polarization in the vortex tangle affects in a substantial way the dynamics of the heat flux, and allow us to give a physical interpretation of the vorticity tensor here introduced, and to better describe the internal structure of a turbulent superfluid.
Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau : surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes
Su, Zhongbo; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Yaoming; Jia, Li; Wen, Jun
2006-01-01
This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy
Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau: surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes
Su, Z.; Zhang, T.; Ma, Y.; Jia, L.; Wen, J.
2006-01-01
This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy
Surface renewal analysis for estimating turbulent surface fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castellvi, F.
2009-01-01
A decade ago, the need for a long-term surface monitoring was recognized to better understand the soil-vegetation-atmosphere scalar exchange and interaction processes. the AmeriFlux concept emerged in the IGBP workshop (La Thuile, IT, 1995). Continuous acquisition of surface fluxes for different species such as temperature, water vapour, CO x , halocarbon, ozone, etc.,) and momentum allows determination of the influence of local (canopy) exchanges, fossil fuel emission, large-scale biotic exchange on ambient concentrations which are crucial to take decisions for protecting natural environments and water resources, to develop new perspective for modern agriculture and forest management and to better understand the global climate change. (Author)
Stomatal and Non-Stomatal Turbulent Deposition Flux of Ozone to a Managed Peatland
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tarek S. El-Madany
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Ozone is a key trace gas in the troposphere; because it is a greenhouse gas, it is very reactive, and it is potentially toxic to humans, fauna, and vegetation. The main sink processes for ozone are chemical reactions and the turbulent deposition flux to the earth’s surface. The deposition process itself is rather complex: The interactions between co-varying drivers such as the tropospheric ozone concentration, turbulence, and chemical reactions are not well understood. In the case of ozone deposition to vegetation, another aspect that must be studied is the role of stomatal regulation for a wide range of conditions. Therefore, we measured turbulent deposition fluxes of ozone with the eddy covariance technique during the peak of the growing season in 2014 over a managed, rewetted peatland in NW Germany. The deposition flux was large during the day (up to −15 nmol m−2 s−1 and relatively small during the night (between −1 and −2 nmol m−2 s−1. Flux partitioning by applying the surface resistance analogy and further analysis showed that the stomatal uptake was smaller than non-stomatal deposition. The correction of stomatal conductance with the gross primary production (GPP improved the estimation of day- and nighttime stomatal deposition fluxes. Statistical analysis confirmed that the friction velocity (u* was the single most important driver of non-stomatal ozone deposition and that relationships with other environmental drivers are not linear and highly variable. Further research is needed to develop a better process understanding of non-stomatal ozone deposition, to quantify the role of surface deposition to the ozone budget of the atmospheric boundary layer, and to estimate uncertainties associated with the partitioning of ozone deposition into stomatal and non-stomatal fluxes.
Moody, M.; Bailey, B.; Stoll, R., II
2017-12-01
Understanding how changes in the microclimate near individual plants affects the surface energy budget is integral to modeling land-atmosphere interactions and a wide range of near surface atmospheric boundary layer phenomena. In urban areas, the complex geometry of the urban canopy layer results in large spatial deviations of turbulent fluxes further complicating the development of models. Accurately accounting for this heterogeneity in order to model urban energy and water use requires a sub-plant level understanding of microclimate variables. We present analysis of new experimental field data taken in and around two Blue Spruce (Picea pungens) trees at the University of Utah in 2015. The test sites were chosen in order study the effects of heterogeneity in an urban environment. An array of sensors were placed in and around the conifers to quantify transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum: radiative fluxes, temperature, sap fluxes, etc. A spatial array of LEMS (Local Energy Measurement Systems) were deployed to obtain pressure, surrounding air temperature and relative humidity. These quantities are used to calculate the radiative and turbulent fluxes. Relying on measurements alone is insufficient to capture the complexity of microclimate distribution as one reaches sub-plant scales. A spatially-explicit radiation and energy balance model previously developed for deciduous trees was extended to include conifers. The model discretizes the tree into isothermal sub-volumes on which energy balances are performed and utilizes incoming radiation as the primary forcing input. The radiative transfer component of the model yields good agreement between measured and modeled upward longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes. Ultimately, the model was validated through an examination of the full energy budget including radiative and turbulent fluxes through isolated Picea pungens in an urban environment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibrom, Andreas; Brændholt, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim
2016-01-01
that the concentration signal was hardly biased during the ca 10 s travel through the tube. Due to the larger turbulence time scales at large measurement heights the low-pass correction was for the majority of the measurements water vapour the tube attenuation was massive, which had, however, a positive effect...... by reducing both the water vapour dilution correction and the cross sensitivity effects on the N2O and CO flux measurements. Here we present the set-up of the concentration step change experiment and its results and compare them with recently developed theories for the behaviour of gases in turbulent tube......The eddy covariance technique relies on the fast and accurate measurement of gas concentration fluctuations. While for some gasses robust and compact sensors are available, measurement of, e.g., non CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes is often performed with sensitive equipment that cannot be run on a tower...
Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width
Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.
2015-04-01
Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments.
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Yearly Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c (GSSTFYC) at GES DISC
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Climatology, Set1 and NCEP V2c (GSSTFMC) at GES DISC
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Grid, Set1 and Interpolated Data V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Inertial-dissipation methods and turbulent fluxes at the air-ocean interface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fairall, C. W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1986-01-01
The use of high frequency atmospheric turbulence properties (inertial subrange spectra, structure function parameters or dissipation rates) to infer surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat is more practical for most ocean going platforms than direct covariance measurement....... The relationships required to deduce the fluxes from such data are examined in detail in this paper and several ambiguities and uncertainties are identified. It is noted that, over water, data on water vapor properties (the dimensionless functions for the mean profile, the structure function parameter...... and the variance transport term) are extremely sparse and the influence of sea spray is largely unknown. Special attention is given to flux estimation on the basis of the structure function formalism. Existing knowledge about the relevant similarity functions is summarized and discussed in light of the ambiguities...
Turbulent Fluxes and Pollutant Mixing during Wintertime Air Pollution Episodes in Complex Terrain.
Holmes, Heather A; Sriramasamudram, Jai K; Pardyjak, Eric R; Whiteman, C David
2015-11-17
Cold air pools (CAPs) are stagnant stable air masses that form in valleys and basins in the winter. Low wintertime insolation limits convective mixing, such that pollutant concentrations can build up within the CAP when pollutant sources are present. In the western United States, wintertime CAPs often persist for days or weeks. Atmospheric models do not adequately capture the strength and evolution of CAPs. This is in part due to the limited availability of data quantifying the local turbulence during the formation, maintenance, and destruction of persistent CAPs. This paper presents observational data to quantify the turbulent mixing during two CAP episodes in Utah's Salt Lake Valley during February of 2004. Particulate matter (PM) concentration data and turbulence measurements for CAP and non-CAP time periods indicate that two distinct types of mixing scenarios occur depending on whether the CAP is dry or cloudy. Where cloudy, CAPs have enhanced vertical mixing due to top-down convection from the cloud layer. A comparison between the heat and momentum fluxes during 5 days of a dry CAP episode in February to those of an equivalent 5 day time period in March with no CAP indicates that the average turbulent kinetic energy during the CAP was suppressed by approximately 80%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peeters, A. G.; Rath, F.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Strintzi, D.; Weikl, A. [Physics Department, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, Bayreuth (Germany); Camenen, Y. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, Marseille (France); Candy, J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Casson, F. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); Hornsby, W. A. [Max Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2 85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-08-15
It is shown that Ion Temperature Gradient turbulence close to the threshold exhibits a long time behaviour, with smaller heat fluxes at later times. This reduction is connected with the slow growth of long wave length zonal flows, and consequently, the numerical dissipation on these flows must be sufficiently small. Close to the nonlinear threshold for turbulence generation, a relatively small dissipation can maintain a turbulent state with a sizeable heat flux, through the damping of the zonal flow. Lowering the dissipation causes the turbulence, for temperature gradients close to the threshold, to be subdued. The heat flux then does not go smoothly to zero when the threshold is approached from above. Rather, a finite minimum heat flux is obtained below which no fully developed turbulent state exists. The threshold value of the temperature gradient length at which this finite heat flux is obtained is up to 30% larger compared with the threshold value obtained by extrapolating the heat flux to zero, and the cyclone base case is found to be nonlinearly stable. Transport is subdued when a fully developed staircase structure in the E × B shearing rate forms. Just above the threshold, an incomplete staircase develops, and transport is mediated by avalanche structures which propagate through the marginally stable regions.
Los, S.; Hipps, L.; Alfieri, J. G.; Prueger, J. H.; Kustas, W. P.
2017-12-01
Agriculture in semi-arid regions is globally facing increasing stress on water resources. Hence, knowledge of water used in irrigated crops is essential for water resource management. However, quantifying spatial and temporal distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) has proven difficult because of the inherent complexities involved. Understanding of the complex biophysical relationships that govern ET is incomplete, particularly for heterogeneous vegetation. The USDA-ARS is developing a remotely-sensed ET modeling system that utilizes a two-source energy balance (TSEB) model capable of simulating turbulent water and energy exchange from measurements of radiometric land surface temperature. The modeling system has been tested over a number of vegetated surfaces and is currently being validated for vineyard sites in the Central Valley of California through the Grape Remote sensing Atmospheric Profiling & Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX). The highly variable, elevated canopy structure and semi-arid climatic conditions of these sites give the opportunity to gain knowledge of both turbulent exchange processes and the TSEB model's ability to simulate turbulent fluxes for heterogeneous vegetation. Analyzed are fast-response (20 Hz) 3-D velocity, temperature, and humidity measurements gathered over 4 years at two vineyard sites. These data were collected at a height of 5 m, within the surface layer but above the canopy, and at 1.5 m, below the canopy top. Power spectra and cross-spectra are used to study behavior of turbulent water vapor exchanges and coupling between the canopy layer and surface layer under various atmospheric conditions. Frequent light winds and unstable daytime conditions, combined with the complicated canopy structure, often induce intermittent and episodic turbulence transport. This resulted in a modal behavior alternating between periods of more continuous canopy venting and periods where water vapor fluxes are dominated by transient, low
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Ocean Surface Waves and Turbulence: Air-Sea Fluxes and Climate Variability
Melville, W. Kendall
2009-11-01
Apart from heating of the atmosphere, two of the most important consequences of current climate variability are changes in sea level, and acidification of the oceans. Over decadal time scales, changes in sea level are caused by changes in heat content and salinity of the ocean, and by changes in mass resulting from exchanges between the ocean, glaciers and other land-based reservoirs. The oceans have absorbed about one third of the anthropogenic CO2 due to fossil fuel burning. This reduces the green house effect in the atmosphere, but the CO2 reacts in the surface waters of the ocean to lower pH. Conservative projections of sea level rise over the next century are O(0.1 - 1) m, while ocean acidification is already having an impact on marine ecosystems. Both these processes depend on air-sea fluxes: heat flux for sea level rise, and gas flux for ocean acidification. These fluxes are among the most poorly constrained in current climate models, but both ultimately depend on fluid dynamics at the ocean surface and in the adjacent boundary layers. Traditional boundary layer models of the marine boundary layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer were based on classical theories of boundary layers over rigid surfaces, but there is increasing evidence that these models must now include surface wave effects. In this talk the motivating climate data and modeling will be briefly reviewed, and then recent work on surface wave dynamics, air-sea fluxes and the adjacent boundary layers will be presented. The roles of surface wave breaking, Langmuir circulations, wave-turbulence interactions and gravity-capillary waves will be discussed.
Measurements and modelling of snowmelt and turbulent heat fluxes over shrub tundra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Bewley
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Measurements of snowmelt and turbulent heat fluxes were made during the snowmelt periods of two years at two neighbouring tundra sites in the Yukon, one in a sheltered location with tall shrubs exposed above deep snow and the other in an exposed location with dwarf shrubs covered by shallow snow. The snow was about twice as deep in the valley as on the plateau at the end of each winter and melted out about 10 days later. The site with buried vegetation showed a transition from air-to-surface heat transfers to surface-to-air heat transfers as bare ground became exposed during snowmelt, but there were daytime transfers of heat from the surface to the air at the site with exposed vegetation even while snow remained on the ground. A model calculating separate energy balances for snow and exposed vegetation, driven with meteorological data from the sites, is found to be able to reproduce these behaviours. Averaged over 30-day periods the model gives about 8 Wm^{−2} more sensible heat flux to the atmosphere for the valley site than for the plateau site. Sensitivity of simulated fluxes to model parameters describing vegetation cover and density is investigated.
Kesteren, van A.J.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dinther, van D.; Moene, A.F.; Graf, A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2012-01-01
The goal of this study is to test an alternative method for determining turbulent H2O and CO2 fluxes, which has a faster statistical convergence than the classical eddy-covariance method. This enables determining turbulent fluxes during strongly non-stationary conditions, e.g. in the intermittent
Kesteren, van A.J.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dinther, van D.; Moene, A.F.; Graf, A.
2012-01-01
The goal of this study is to test an alternative method for determining turbulent H2O and CO2 fluxes, which has a faster statistical convergence than the classical eddy-covariance method. This enables determining turbulent fluxes during strongly non-stationary conditions, e.g. in the intermittent
Wang, B.; Ma, Yaoming; Weiqiang Ma,; Su, Z.
2017-01-01
Precise measurements of evaporation and understanding of the physical controls on turbulent heat flux over lakes have fundamental significance for catchment-scale water balance analysis and local-scale climate modeling. The observation and simulation of lake-air turbulent flux processes have been
GRILLIX: a 3D turbulence code based on the flux-coordinate independent approach
Stegmeir, Andreas; Coster, David; Ross, Alexander; Maj, Omar; Lackner, Karl; Poli, Emanuele
2018-03-01
The GRILLIX code is presented with which plasma turbulence/transport in various geometries can be simulated in 3D. The distinguishing feature of the code is that it is based on the flux-coordinate independent approach (FCI) (Hariri and Ottaviani 2013 Comput. Phys. Commun. 184 2419; Stegmeir et al 2016 Comput. Phys. Commun. 198 139). Cylindrical or Cartesian grids are used on which perpendicular operators are discretised via standard finite difference methods and parallel operators via a field line tracing and interpolation procedure (field line map). This offers a very high flexibility with respect to geometry, especially a separatrix with X-point(s) or a magnetic axis can be treated easily in contrast to approaches which are based on field aligned coordinates and suffer from coordinate singularities. Aiming finally for simulation of edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) turbulence, an isothermal electrostatic drift-reduced Braginskii model (Zeiler et al 1997 Phys. Plasmas 4 2134) has been implemented in GRILLIX. We present the numerical approach, which is based on a toroidally staggered formulation of the FCI, we show verification of the code with the method of manufactured solutions and show a benchmark based on a TORPEX blob experiment, previously performed by several edge/SOL codes (Riva et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 044005). Examples for slab, circular, limiter and diverted geometry are presented. Finally, the results show that the FCI approach in general and GRILLIX in particular are viable approaches in order to tackle simulation of edge/SOL turbulence in diverted geometry.
Flux-driven turbulence GDB simulations of the IWL Alcator C-Mod L-mode edge compared with experiment
Francisquez, Manaure; Zhu, Ben; Rogers, Barrett
2017-10-01
Prior to predicting confinement regime transitions in tokamaks one may need an accurate description of L-mode profiles and turbulence properties. These features determine the heat-flux width upon which wall integrity depends, a topic of major interest for research aid to ITER. To this end our work uses the GDB model to simulate the Alcator C-Mod edge and contributes support for its use in studying critical edge phenomena in current and future tokamaks. We carried out 3D electromagnetic flux-driven two-fluid turbulence simulations of inner wall limited (IWL) C-Mod shots spanning closed and open flux surfaces. These simulations are compared with gas puff imaging (GPI) and mirror Langmuir probe (MLP) data, examining global features and statistical properties of turbulent dynamics. GDB reproduces important qualitative aspects of the C-Mod edge regarding global density and temperature profiles, within reasonable margins, and though the turbulence statistics of the simulated turbulence follow similar quantitative trends questions remain about the code's difficulty in exactly predicting quantities like the autocorrelation time A proposed breakpoint in the near SOL pressure and the posited separation between drift and ballooning dynamics it represents are examined This work was supported by DOE-SC-0010508. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).
Turbulent Heat Transfer Behavior of Nanofluid in a Circular Tube Heated under Constant Heat Flux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuichi Torii
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to disclose the forced convective heat transport phenomenon of nanofluids inside a horizontal circular tube subject to a constant and uniform heat flux at the wall. Consideration is given to the effect of the inclusion of nanoparticles on heat transfer enhancement, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and pressure loss in the turbulent flow region. It is found that (i heat transfer enhancement is caused by suspending nanoparticles and becomes more pronounced with the increase of the particle volume fraction, (ii its augmentation is affected by three different nanofluids employed here, and (iii the presence of particles produces adverse effects on viscosity and pressure loss that also increases with the particle volume fraction.
Mesoscale model parameterizations for radiation and turbulent fluxes at the lower boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somieski, F.
1988-11-01
A radiation parameterization scheme for use in mesoscale models with orography and clouds has been developed. Broadband parameterizations are presented for the solar and the terrestrial spectral ranges. They account for clear, turbid or cloudy atmospheres. The scheme is one-dimensional in the atmosphere, but the effects of mountains (inclination, shading, elevated horizon) are taken into account at the surface. In the terrestrial band, grey and black clouds are considered. Furthermore, the calculation of turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat and momentum at an inclined lower model boundary is described. Surface-layer similarity and the surface energy budget are used to evaluate the ground surface temperature. The total scheme is part of the mesoscale model MESOSCOP. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs [de
Medium Resolution Parameterisation of Turbulent Heat Fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau
Faivre, R.; Colin, J.; Ghafarian, H.; Menenti, M.
2013-01-01
The estimation of turbulent fluxes is of primary interest for hydrological and climatological studies. Also the use of optical remote sensing data in the VNIR and TIR domain already proved to allow for the parameterization of surface energy balance, leading to many algorithms. Their use over arid high elevation areas require detailed characterisation of key surface physical properties and atmospheric statement at a reference level. Satellite products aquired over the Tibetan Plateau provide incentives for a regular analysis at medium scale. This work aims at improving the use of spaceborne optical remote sensing such as ENVISAT/AATSR or Feng-Yun 2C (VNIR and TIR) for land surface evaporation mapping over the whole Tibetan Plateau, based on SEBI algorithm. An evaluation is leaded over some reference sites set-up through the Tibetan Plateau.
Gal-Chen, Tzvi; Xu, Mei; Eberhard, Wynn L.
1992-11-01
Techniques for extraction of boundary layer parameters from measurements of a short pulse (≈0.4 μs) CO2 Doppler lidar (λ = 10.6 μm) are described. The lidar is operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL). The measurements are those collected during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE). The recorded radial velocity measurements have a range resolution of 150 m. With a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz it is possible to perform scannings in two perpendicular vertical planes (x-z and y-z) in approximately 72 s. By continuously operating the lidar for about an hour, one can extract stable statistics of the radial velocities. Assuming that the turbulence is horizontally homogeneous, we have estimated the mean wind, its standard deviations, and the momentum fluxes. We have estimated the first, second, and, third moments of the vertical velocity from the vertically pointing beam. Spectral analysis of the radial velocities is also performed, from which (by examining the amplitude of the power spectrum at the inertial range) we have deduced the kinetic energy dissipation. Finally, using the statistical form of the Navier-Stokes equations, the surface heat flux is derived as the residual balance between the vertical gradient of the third moment of the vertical velocity and the kinetic energy dissipation. With the exception of the vertically pointing beam an individual radial velocity estimate is accurate only to ±0.7 m s-1. Combining many measurements would normally reduce the error, provided that it is unbiased and uncorrelated. The nature of some of the algorithms, however, is such that biased and correlated errors may be generated even though the "raw" measurements are not. We have developed data processing procedures that eliminate bias and minimize error correlation. Once bias and error correlations are accounted for, the large sample size is
Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.
2005-01-01
Evidence is presented that in the stable atmospheric surface layer turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum can be determined from the standard deviations of longitudinal wind velocity and temperature, ¿u and ¿T respectively, measured at a single level. An attractive aspect of this method is that it
Estimations of ABL fluxes and other turbulence parameters from Doppler lidar data
Tzvi, Gal-Chen; Mei, XU; Eberhard, Wynn
1990-01-01
Techniques for extracting boundary layer parameters from measurements of a short pulse CO2 Doppler Lidar are described. The radial velocity measurements have a range resolution of 150 m. With a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz, it is possible to perform scannings in two perpendicular vertical planes in approx. 72 s. By continuously operating the Lidar for about an hour, one can extract stable statistics of the radial velocities. Assuming that the turbulence is horizontally homogeneous, the mean wind, its standard deviations, and the momentum fluxes were estimated. From the vertically pointing beam, the first, second, and third moments of the vertical velocity were also estimated. Spectral analysis of the radial velocities is also performed from which, by examining the amplitude of the power spectrum at the inertial range, the kinetic energy dissipation was deduced. Finally, using the statistical form of the Navier-Stokes equations, the surface heat flux is derived as the residual balance between the vertical gradient of the third moment of the vertical velocity and the kinetic energy dissipation.
Estimations of ABL fluxes and other turbulence parameters from Doppler lidar data
Tzvi, Gal-Chen; Mei, Xu; Eberhard, Wynn
Techniques for extracting boundary layer parameters from measurements of a short pulse CO2 Doppler Lidar are described. The radial velocity measurements have a range resolution of 150 m. With a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz, it is possible to perform scannings in two perpendicular vertical planes in approx. 72 s. By continuously operating the Lidar for about an hour, one can extract stable statistics of the radial velocities. Assuming that the turbulence is horizontally homogeneous, the mean wind, its standard deviations, and the momentum fluxes were estimated. From the vertically pointing beam, the first, second, and third moments of the vertical velocity were also estimated. Spectral analysis of the radial velocities is also performed from which, by examining the amplitude of the power spectrum at the inertial range, the kinetic energy dissipation was deduced. Finally, using the statistical form of the Navier-Stokes equations, the surface heat flux is derived as the residual balance between the vertical gradient of the third moment of the vertical velocity and the kinetic energy dissipation.
Application of two-equation turbulence models to turbulent gas flow heated by a high heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamura, Hiroshi
1978-01-01
Heat transfer in heated turbulent gas flow is analyzed using two-equation turbulence models. Four kinds of two-equation models are examined; that is, k-epsilon model by Jones-Launder, k-w model by Wilcox-Traci, k-kL model by Rotta, k-ω model by Saffman-Wilcox. The results are compared with more than ten experiments by seven authors. The k-kL model proposed originally by Rotta and modified by the present author is found to give relatively the best results. It well predicts the decrease in the heat transfer coefficient found in the heated turbulent gas flow; however, it fails to predict the laminarization due to a strong heating. (author)
Steiner, J. F.; Stigter, E.; Litt, M.; Shea, J.; Bierkens, M. F.; Immerzeel, W. W.
2017-12-01
Debris-covered glaciers play an important role in the water cycle in high altitude catchments in the Himalaya. The melt dynamics of these glaciers are complex as a result of the debris. A thin debris layer (up to a few cm) may act as a facilitator of melt, whereas a thick layer serves primarily as an insulator. The debris cover itself shows a strong diurnal variation in temperature and humidity resulting in a complex interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Energy balance models are a common way to quantify sub-debris melt, but the importance of turbulent fluxes in this energy balance have so far been poorly investigated. We hypothesize that they may play a substantial role during phases of wetting and drying. In this study, ABL characteristics and surface turbulent fluxes are measured using an automatic weather station including an eddy-correlation (EC) system on the debris-covered Lirung glacier in Nepal over a 10 day period in late 2016, during the transition period from monsoon to the drier post-monsoon. The measurements are combined with surface temperature measurements and thermal UAV flights covering the footprint area of the EC tower to quantify the surface fluxes over a larger area. Our results show that turbulent fluxes do play a substantial role in the energy balance of debris-covered glaciers, and need to be accounted for to accurately simulate glacier melt. The EC tower results are subsequently evaluated against a number of different bulk approaches to quantify sensible and latent heat fluxes and are evaluated against turbulence characteristics. If found accurate enough, these approaches require less advanced measurement set-ups and can be applied on a wider scale.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Grid, Set1 and Interpolated Data V2c (GSSTFM) at GES DISC
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Spatial and temporal variability of turbulent vertical fluxes in Helsinki, Finland
Järvi, L.; Nordbo, A.; Haapanala, S.; Moilanen, J.; Vesala, T.
2012-04-01
The eddy-covariance technique has been widely used above vegetated surfaces to measure the turbulent exchange of momentum, heat and gases between the surface and the atmosphere. Above an urban surface, however, observations are scarce and complex measurement surroundings bring challenges to the measurements and the representativeness of the fluxes in a city scale. The fluxes of sensible (QH) and latent heat (QE), and CO2 (Fc) have been measured at three sites in Helsinki, Finland. At the SMEAR III station the measurements have been ongoing since December 2005 and the site is located next to a busy road about 4 km from downtown Helsinki. Two of the sites, Erottaja Fire Station (EFS) and Hotel Torni (HT), are located in downtown within a distance of 400 meters from each other. In EFS, the measurements have been carried out in June 2010 - January 2011, while in HT, the measurements have been ongoing since September 2010. The present dataset allows the studying of the inter-site variability of the exchange processes. Simultaneous measurements from all three sites cover four months in autumn/winter time. The high-latitude location allows a detailed examination of the effect of seasonal variation to the exchange processes. QH tends to be higher in city centre than in SMEAR III and a difference of 50 W m-2 is observed in winter. During the simultaneous measurements, stable atmospheric stratification is observed half of the time at SMEAR III whereas the occurrence in the city centre is less than 5%. This is a result of the urban heat island effect which is stronger in downtown than in the outside region. On the other hand, higher QE is measured in SMEAR III than in downtown particularly during spring and summer months when a difference of 100 W m-2 is observed. In downtown the low fraction of green areas limits the evaporation. Despite the short distance there are also differences between the two downtown sites. Both the median QH and QE are 7 W m-2 smaller in EFS than in
Ivey, C. E.; Sun, X.; Holmes, H.
2017-12-01
Land surface processes are important in meteorology and climate research since they control the partitioning of surface energy and water exchange at the earth's surface. The surface layer is coupled to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) by surface fluxes, which serve as sinks or sources of energy, moisture, momentum, and atmospheric pollutants. Quantifying the surface heat and momentum fluxes at the land-atmosphere interface, especially for different surface land cover types, is important because they can further influence the atmospheric dynamics, vertical mixing, and transport processes that impact local, regional, and global climate. A cold air pool (CAP) forms when a topographic depression (i.e., valley) fills with cold air, where the air in the stagnant layer is colder than the air aloft. Insufficient surface heating, which is not able to sufficiently erode the temperature inversion that forms during the nighttime stable boundary layer, can lead to the formation of persistent CAPs during wintertime. These persistent CAPs can last for days, or even weeks, and are associated with increased air pollution concentrations. Thus, realistic simulations of the land-atmosphere exchange are meaningful to achieve improved predictions of the accumulation, transport, and dispersion of air pollution concentrations. The focus of this presentation is on observations and modeling results using turbulence data collected in Salt Lake Valley, Utah during the 2010-2011 wintertime Persistent Cold Air Pool Study (PCAPS). Turbulent fluxes and the surface energy balance over seven land use types are quantified. The urban site has an energy balance ratio (EBR) larger than one (1.276). Negative Bowen ratio (-0.070) is found at the cropland site. In addition to turbulence observations, half-hourly WRF simulated net radiation, latent heat, sensible heat, ground heat fluxes during one persistent CAP event are evaluated using the PCAPS observations. The results show that sensible and latent
An instrument to measure turbulent eddy fluxes in the atmosphere of Mars
S. Rafkin; D. Banfield; R. Dissly; J. Silver; A. Stanton; E. Wilkinson; W. Massman; J. Ham
2012-01-01
Turbulent eddies in the planetary boundary layer of the terrestrial planet atmospheres are the primary mechanism by which energy, momentum, gasses, and aerosols are exchanged between the surface and the atmosphere [1]. The importance of eddies has long been recognized by the Earth atmospheric science community, and turbulent theory for Earth has a long history with a...
Weber, Maria Ann
2014-12-01
The Sun exhibits cyclic properties of its large-scale magnetic field on the order of sigma22 years, with a ˜11 year frequency of sunspot occurrence. These sunspots, or active regions, are the centers of magnetically driven phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections. Volatile solar magnetic events directed toward the Earth pose a threat to human activities and our increasingly technological society. As such, the origin and nature of solar magnetic flux emergence is a topic of global concern. Sunspots are observable manifestations of solar magnetic fields, thus providing a photospheric link to the deep-seated dynamo mechanism. However, the manner by which bundles of magnetic field, or flux tubes, traverse the convection zone to eventual emergence at the solar surface is not well understood. To provide a connection between dynamo-generated magnetic fields and sunspots, I have performed simulations of magnetic flux emergence through the bulk of a turbulent, solar convective envelope by employing a thin flux tube model subject to interaction with flows taken from a hydrodynamic convection simulation computed through the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code. The convective velocity field interacts with the flux tube through the drag force it experiences as it traverses through the convecting medium. Through performing these simulations, much insight has been gained about the influence of turbulent solar-like convection on the flux emergence process and resulting active region properties. I find that the dynamic evolution of flux tubes change from convection dominated to magnetic buoyancy dominated as the initial field strength of the flux tubes increases from 15 kG to 100 kG. Additionally, active-region-scale flux tubes of 40 kG and greater exhibit properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun, such as: tilt angles, rotation rates, and morphological asymmetries. The joint effect of the Coriolis force and helical motions present in convective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noel Fitzpatrick
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In the majority of glacier surface energy balance studies, parameterization rather than direct measurement is used to estimate one or more of the individual heat fluxes, with others, such as the rain and ground heat fluxes, often deemed negligible. Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat are commonly parameterized using the bulk aerodynamic technique. This method was developed for horizontal, uniform surfaces rather than sloped, inhomogeneous glacier terrain, and significant uncertainty remains regarding the selection of appropriate roughness length values, and the validity of the atmospheric stability functions employed. A customized weather station, designed to measure all relevant heat fluxes, was installed on an alpine glacier over the 2014 melt season. Eddy covariance techniques were used to observe the turbulent heat fluxes, and to calculate site-specific roughness values. The obtained dataset was used to drive a point ablation model, and to evaluate the most commonly used bulk methods and roughness length schemes in the literature. Modeled ablation showed good agreement with observed rates at seasonal, daily, and sub-daily timescales, effectively closing the surface energy balance, and giving a high level of confidence in the flux observation method. Net radiation was the dominant contributor to melt energy over the season (65.2%, followed by the sensible heat flux (29.7%, while the rain heat flux was observed to be a significant contributor on daily timescales during periods of persistent heavy rain (up to 20% day−1. Momentum roughness lengths observed for the study surface (snow: 10−3.8 m; ice: 10−2.2 m showed general agreement with previous findings, while the scalar values (temperature: 10−4.6 m; water vapor: 10−6 m differed significantly from those for momentum, disagreeing with the assumption of equal roughness lengths. Of the three bulk method stability schemes tested, the functions based on the Monin-Obukhov length
Diurnal and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide net turbulent flux in the center of Łódź, Poland
Pawlak, W.
2010-09-01
Research concerning intensity of carbon dioxide absorption/emission is one of the most important climatologic issues, especially today, when the role of this gas in global warming process is widely discussed. During recent years, number of papers presenting characteristics of CO2 exchange between active surface and troposphere rapidly grew because of wide application of eddy covariance method which enables the accurate measurements of heat and mass exchange within the surface-troposphere system. Measurements of turbulent vertical carbon dioxide net flux above the urban terrain are carried out relatively rare, despite the fact that the cities are meaningful sources of CO2, which is a side effect of public transport, industry, house heating etc. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide turbulent flux carried out with the eddy covariance method have been made in Łódź since July 2006. The measurement point is located in the west part of the densely built-up city centre, where artificial surfaces clearly prevail over natural terrain. The measurement system includes a Kipp & Zonen's CNR1 net radiometer, RMY 81000 sonic anemometer, and Li-cor 7500 open path H2O/CO2 infra red gas analyser. Sensors are installed on the high tower 20 m above the roof of the building and 37 m above the ground. The diurnal and annual variability of carbon dioxide flux FCO2 for the period July 2006 - March 2010 is analysed in this work. The results show characteristic features in diurnal and annual courses of FCO2. Independently from the season, upward fluxes of the order of 0-15 μmol m-2 s-1 prevail in the data. During the cold season an increase in turbulent CO2 exchange is observed and FCO2 quite often exceeded 30 μmol m-2 s-1. This can be attributed to anthropogenic CO2 emissions, which are particularly strong in winter due to, among other things, mineral fuel combustion during domestic heating. The average monthly fluxes are positive in all seasons, which means that emission of CO2
Brenner, Claire; Thiem, Christina Elisabeth; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten
2017-05-19
In this study, high-resolution thermal imagery acquired with a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to map evapotranspiration (ET) at a grassland site in Luxembourg. The land surface temperature (LST) information from the thermal imagery is the key input to a one-source and two-source energy balance model. While the one-source model treats the surface as a single uniform layer, the two-source model partitions the surface temperature and fluxes into soil and vegetation components. It thus explicitly accounts for the different contributions of both components to surface temperature as well as turbulent flux exchange with the atmosphere. Contrary to the two-source model, the one-source model requires an empirical adjustment parameter in order to account for the effect of the two components. Turbulent heat flux estimates of both modelling approaches are compared to eddy covariance (EC) measurements using the high-resolution input imagery UAVs provide. In this comparison, the effect of different methods for energy balance closure of the EC data on the agreement between modelled and measured fluxes is also analysed. Additionally, the sensitivity of the one-source model to the derivation of the empirical adjustment parameter is tested. Due to the very dry and hot conditions during the experiment, pronounced thermal patterns developed over the grassland site. These patterns result in spatially variable turbulent heat fluxes. The model comparison indicates that both models are able to derive ET estimates that compare well with EC measurements under these conditions. However, the two-source model, with a more complex treatment of the energy and surface temperature partitioning between the soil and vegetation, outperformed the simpler one-source model in estimating sensible and latent heat fluxes. This is consistent with findings from prior studies. For the one-source model, a time-variant expression of the adjustment parameter (to account for the difference between
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yixiong Lu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This study examines the modelled surface turbulent fluxes over sea ice from the bulk algorithms of the Beijing Climate Centre Climate System Model (BCC_CSM, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF model and the Community Earth System Model (CESM with data from the fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE 2010 and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA experiment. Of all the model algorithms, wind stresses are replicated well and have small annual biases (−0.6% in BCC_CSM, 0.2% in CESM and 17% in ECMWF with observations, annual sensible heat fluxes are consistently underestimated by 83–141%, and annual latent heat fluxes are generally overestimated by 49–73%. Five sets of stability functions for stable stratification are evaluated based on theoretical and observational analyses, and the superior stability functions are employed in a new bulk algorithm proposal, which also features varying roughness lengths. Compared to BCC_CSM, the new algorithm can estimate the friction velocity with significantly reduced bias, 84% smaller in winter and 56% smaller in summer, respectively. For the sensible heat flux, the bias of the new algorithm is 30% smaller in winter and 19% smaller in summer than that of BCC_CSM. Finally, the bias of modelled latent heat fluxes is 27% smaller in summer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Sjöblom
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Different observation techniques for atmospheric turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible heat were tested in a High-Arctic valley in Svalbard during two consecutive summers (June–August in 2010 and 2011. The gradient method (GM and the bulk method (BM have been compared to the more direct eddy covariance method (ECM in order to evaluate if relatively robust and cheap instrumentation with low power consumption can be used as a means to increase the number of observations, especially at remote locations where instruments need to be left unattended for extended periods. Such campaigns increase knowledge about the snow-free surface exchange processes, an area which is relatively little investigated compared to snow-covered ground. The GM agreed closely to the ECM, especially for momentum flux where the two methods agree within 5%. For sensible heat flux, the GM produces, on average, approximately 40% lower values for unstable stratification and 67% lower for stable stratification. However, this corresponds to only 20 and 12 W m−2, respectively. The BM, however, shows a greater scatter and larger differences for both parameters. In addition to testing these methods, radiation properties were measured and the surface albedo was found to increase through the summer, from approximately 0.1 to 0.2. The surface energy budget shows that the sensible heat flux is usually directed upwards for the whole summer, while the latent heat flux is upwards in June, but becomes downward in July and August.
Lu, Yang; Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan; van de Giesen, Nick
2016-04-01
This study is focused on estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes from land surface temperature (LST) time series and soil moisture observations. Surface turbulent heat fluxes interact with the overlying atmosphere and play a crucial role in meteorology, hydrology and other climate-related fields, but in-situ measurements are costly and difficult. It has been demonstrated that the time series of LST contains information of energy partitioning and that surface turbulent heat fluxes can be determined from assimilation of LST. These studies are mainly based on two assumptions: (1) a monthly value of bulk heat transfer coefficient under neutral conditions (CHN) which scales the sum of the fluxes, and (2) an evaporation fraction (EF) which stays constant during the near-peak hours of the day. Previous studies have applied variational and ensemble approaches to this problem. Here the newly developed particle batch smoother (PBS) algorithm is adopted to test its capability in this application. The PBS can be seen as an extension of the standard particle filter (PF) in which the states and parameters within a fix window are updated in a batch using all observations in the window. The aim of this study is two-fold. First, the PBS is used to assimilate only LST time series into the force-restore model to estimate fluxes. Second, a simple soil water transfer scheme is introduced to evaluate the benefit of assimilating soil moisture observations simultaneously. The experiments are implemented using the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) (FIFE) data. It is shown that the restored LST time series using PBS agrees very well with observations, and that assimilating LST significantly improved the flux estimation at both daily and half-hourly time scales. When soil moisture is introduced to further constrain EF, the accuracy of estimated EF is greatly improved. Furthermore, the RMSEs of retrieved fluxes are effectively reduced at both
NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II, for GSSTF, 0.25x0.25 deg, Monthly grid, V3, (GSSTFM_NCEP), at GES DISC V3
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
NCEP/DOE Reanalysis II in HDF-EOS5, for GSSTF2c, 1x1 deg Monthly grid V2c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...
Heat-flux enhancement by vapour-bubble nucleation in Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence
Narezo Guzman, Daniela; Xie, Yanbo; Chen, S.; Fernandez Rivas, David; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Ahlers, Günter
2016-01-01
We report on the enhancement of turbulent convective heat transport due to vapour-bubble nucleation at the bottom plate of a cylindrical Rayleigh–Bénard sample (aspect ratio 1.00, diameter 8.8 cm) filled with liquid. Microcavities acted as nucleation sites, allowing for well-controlled bubble
Chen, B.; Xu, X. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Porkolab, M.; Edlund, E.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J.; Hughes, J. W.; Mao, S. F.; Ye, M. Y.; Wan, Y. X.
2017-11-01
The BOUT++ code has been exploited in order to improve the understanding of the role of turbulent modes in controlling edge transport and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width. For the C-Mod enhanced D_α (EDA) H-mode discharges, BOUT++ six-field two-fluid nonlinear simulations show a reasonable agreement of upstream turbulence and divertor target heat flux behavior: (a) the simulated quasi-coherent modes show consistent characteristics of the frequency versus poloidal wave number spectra of the electromagnetic fluctuations when compared with experimental measurements: frequencies are around 60-120 kHz (experiment: about 70-110 kHz), k_θ are around 2.0 cm-1 which is similar to the phase contrast imaging data; (b) linear spectrum analysis is consistent with the nonlinear phase relationship calculation which indicates the dominance of resistive-ballooning modes and drift-Alfven wave instabilities; (c) the SOL heat flux width λq versus current I p scaling is reproduced by turbulent transport: the simulations yield similar λq to experimental measurements within a factor of 2. However the magnitudes of divertor heat fluxes can be varied, depending on the physics models, sources and sinks, sheath boundary conditions, or flux limiting coefficient; (d) Simple estimate by the ‘2-point model’ for λq is consistent with simulation. Moreover, blobby turbulent spreading is confirmed for these relatively high B p shots.
Hsieh, C. I.
2016-12-01
This study investigated the relative transport efficiency and flux-variance relationships of temperature and water vapor, and examined the performance of using this method for predicting sensible heat (H) and water vapor (LE) fluxes with eddy-covariance measured flux data at three different ecosystems: grassland, paddy rice field, and forest.The H and LE estimations were found to be in good agreement with the measurements over the three fields. The prediction accuracy of LE could be improved by around 15% if the predictions were obtained by the flux-variance method in conjunction with measured sensible heat fluxes. Moreover, the paddy rice field was found to be a special case where water vapor follows flux-variance relation better than heat does. The flux budget equations of heat and water vapor were applied to explain this phenomenon. Our results also showed that heat and water vapor were transported with the same efficiency above the grassland and rice paddy. For the forest, heat was transported 20% more efficiently than evapotranspiration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
W. Davis, S.; M. Stone, J.; Pessah, Martin Elias
2010-01-01
We examine the effects of density stratification on magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in local simulations that adopt the shearing box approximation. Our primary result is that, even in the absence of explicit dissipation, the addition of vertical gravity ....... Confirming the results of previous studies, we find oscillations in the large scale toroidal field with periods of ~10 orbits and describe the dynamo process that underlies these cycles....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.
2012-01-01
–WRF comparisons of friction velocity and 10 m wind speed show good agreement. It is also shown that on a long‐term basis, the WRF and bulk estimates of stability are nearly equal and that a correction towards a slightly stable atmospheric condition has to be applied to the long‐term wind profile at Horns Rev......Direct estimations of turbulent fluxes and atmospheric stability were performed from a sonic anemometer at 50 m height on a meteorological mast at the Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea. The stability and flux estimations from the sonic measurements are compared with bulk results from a cup...... to the surface, not only from a systematic bulk and WRF under‐prediction of the friction velocity when compared with the sonic value but also because of the lower magnitude of the sonic heat flux compared with that from the WRF simulations. Although they are not measured but parameterized or estimated, the bulk...
Losic, Mira
Turbulent heat flux and its contribution to energy balance is investigated at two glaciers in the Canadian Rockies. Detailed profile measurements of wind, temperature, and humidity in the lower boundary layer above the Opabin Glacier reveal a predominantly stable boundary layer regime. Wind speeds generally increase with height and temperature profiles are predominantly logarithmic in nature, however humidity profiles do not exhibit the archetypal shape. Roughness lengths derived using the profile method are used to calculate energy balance in fifteen unique models per site. The models perform best at both sites when a constant roughness value is used; however, the median value of all found roughness lengths performs better than mean value which is typically used in current literature. Model results improve when melt is restricted to periods when surface temperature is above 0°C, and when atmospheric stability corrections are applied.
Marine boundary layer and turbulent fluxes over the Baltic Sea: Measurements and modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.
2002-01-01
Two weeks of measurements of the boundary-layer height over a small island (Christianso) in the Baltic Sea are discussed. The meteorological conditions are characterised by positive heat flux over the sea. The boundary-layer height was simulated with two models, a simple applied high-resolution (...
Ando, Y.; Tachibana, Y.; Konda, M.; Maekawa, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Okada, K.
2016-12-01
In order to understand the air-sea interaction in the climate system, a direct measurement of turbulent flux (the eddy covariance method) is necessary as well as an indirect estimate of that, for example, the bulk method. However, it is rarely experienced due to many difficulties over a long period. The most of the difficulties comes from the moving platform, which is not fixed as over land because the anemometer moves with the platform as the ship moves. The ship motion correction for the wind velocity is a very difficult issue. On the top of the foremast of the training ship SEISUIMARU (Mie University, Japan), the developed on-board eddy covariance system was installed in 2009. The training ship SEISUIMARU cruises the northwest Pacific Ocean, especially the coast of Japan every year. This system is routinely operating in her whole cruises. When these kind of continuous measurements are integrated in these areas, reliable direct measurement of turbulent flux database can be established.We compared the turbulent heat fluxes using the bulk method and those of the eddy covariance method using this database. The results were some differences in certain conditions. In some cases, the direction of the turbulent heat fluxes was opposite. This might be caused by the sea surface temperatures (SSTs) using the bulk method were temperatures at the depth of 3 meter instead of the surface temperatures. SSTs are warmer than bulk 3 meter temperatures in high-level solar radiation and low-wind conditions, as expected due to the sea surface warming effects over calm oceans in summer. The difference of the turbulent heat fluxes using the eddy covariance method and those of the bulk method was positively correlated with the solar radiation. Moreover, the difference was negatively correlated with the surface wind speed. These results were more clear in the sensible heat fluxes than that of the latent heat fluxes. These results suggest one of difference of the turbulent heat fluxes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata (India)
2016-11-20
At present, the Babcock–Leighton flux transport solar dynamo models appear to be the most promising models for explaining diverse observational aspects of the sunspot cycle. The success of these flux transport dynamo models is largely dependent upon a single-cell meridional circulation with a deep equatorward component at the base of the Sun’s convection zone. However, recent observations suggest that the meridional flow may in fact be very shallow (confined to the top 10% of the Sun) and more complex than previously thought. Taken together, these observations raise serious concerns on the validity of the flux transport paradigm. By accounting for the turbulent pumping of magnetic flux, as evidenced in magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar convection, we demonstrate that flux transport dynamo models can generate solar-like magnetic cycles even if the meridional flow is shallow. Solar-like periodic reversals are recovered even when meridional circulation is altogether absent. However, in this case, the solar surface magnetic field dynamics does not extend all the way to the polar regions. Very importantly, our results demonstrate that the Parker–Yoshimura sign rule for dynamo wave propagation can be circumvented in Babcock–Leighton dynamo models by the latitudinal component of turbulent pumping, which can generate equatorward propagating sunspot belts in the absence of a deep, equatorward meridional flow. We also show that variations in turbulent pumping coefficients can modulate the solar cycle amplitude and periodicity. Our results suggest the viability of an alternate magnetic flux transport paradigm—mediated via turbulent pumping—for sustaining solar-stellar dynamo action.
Tang, S.; Xie, S.; Tang, Q.; Zhang, Y.
2017-12-01
Two types of instruments, the eddy correlation flux measurement system (ECOR) and the energy balance Bowen ratio system (EBBR), are used at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site to measure surface latent and sensible fluxes. ECOR and EBBR typically sample different land surface types, and the domain-mean surface fluxes derived from ECOR and EBBR are not always consistent. The uncertainties of the surface fluxes will have impacts on the derived large-scale forcing data and further affect the simulations of single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulation models (LES), especially for the shallow-cumulus clouds which are mainly driven by surface forcing. This study aims to quantify the uncertainties of the large-scale forcing caused by surface turbulence flux measurements and investigate the impacts on cloud simulations using long-term observations from the ARM SGP site.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Lüers
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The observed rapid climate warming in the Arctic requires improvements in permafrost and carbon cycle monitoring, accomplished by setting up long-term observation sites with high-quality in-situ measurements of turbulent heat, water and carbon fluxes as well as soil physical parameters in Arctic landscapes. But accurate quantification and well adapted parameterizations of turbulent fluxes in polar environments presents fundamental problems in soil-snow-ice-vegetation-atmosphere interaction studies. One of these problems is the accurate estimation of the surface or aerodynamic temperature T_{(0} required to force most of the bulk aerodynamic formulae currently used. Results from the Arctic-Turbulence-Experiment (ARCTEX-2006 performed on Svalbard during the winter/spring transition 2006 helped to better understand the physical exchange and transport processes of energy. The existence of an atypical temperature profile close to the surface in the Arctic spring at Svalbard could be proven to be one of the major issues hindering estimation of the appropriate surface temperature. Thus, it is essential to adjust the set-up of measurement systems carefully when applying flux-gradient methods that are commonly used to force atmosphere-ocean/land-ice models. The results of a comparison of different sensible heat-flux parameterizations with direct measurements indicate that the use of a hydrodynamic three-layer temperature-profile model achieves the best fit and reproduces the temporal variability of the surface temperature better than other approaches.
Aircraft measurement of ozone turbulent flux in the atmospheric boundary layer
Affre, Ch.; Carrara, A.; Lefebre, F.; Druilhet, A.; Fontan, J.; Lopez, A.
In May 1995, the "Chimie-Creil 95" experiment was undertaken in the north of France. The field data are first used to validate the methodology for airborne measurement of ozone flux. A certain number of methodological problems due to the location of the fast ozone sensor inside the airplane are, furthermore discussed. The paper describes the instrumentation of the ARAT (Avion de Recherche Atmosphérique et de Télédétection), an atmospheric research and remote-sensing aircraft used to perform the airborne measurements, the area flown over, the meteorological conditions and boundary layer stability conditions. These aircraft measurements are then used to determine ozone deposition velocity and values are proposed for aerodynamic, bulk transfer coefficients (ozone and momentum). The paper also establishes the relationship between the normalised standard deviation and stability parameters ( z/ L) for ozone, temperature, humidity and vertical velocity. The laws obtained are then presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brændholt, Andreas; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas
2016-01-01
Abstract Precise quantification of the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration (Rs) is crucial to correctly estimate annual soil carbon fluxes as well as to correctly interpret the response of Rs to biotic and abiotic factors on different time scale. In this study we found a systematic...... day time, i.e. following the course of soil temperatures. This effect on the diurnal pattern was due to low turbulence primarily occurring during night time. We calculated different annual Rs budgets by filtering out fluxes for different levels of u⋆. The highest annual Rs budget was found when...
Radić, Valentina; Menounos, Brian; Shea, Joseph; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Tessema, Mekdes A.; Déry, Stephen J.
2017-12-01
As part of surface energy balance models used to simulate glacier melting, choosing parameterizations to adequately estimate turbulent heat fluxes is extremely challenging. This study aims to evaluate a set of four aerodynamic bulk methods (labeled as C methods), commonly used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes for a sloped glacier surface, and two less commonly used bulk methods developed from katabatic flow models. The C methods differ in their parameterizations of the bulk exchange coefficient that relates the fluxes to the near-surface measurements of mean wind speed, air temperature, and humidity. The methods' performance in simulating 30 min sensible- and latent-heat fluxes is evaluated against the measured fluxes from an open-path eddy-covariance (OPEC) method. The evaluation is performed at a point scale of a mountain glacier, using one-level meteorological and OPEC observations from multi-day periods in the 2010 and 2012 summer seasons. The analysis of the two independent seasons yielded the same key findings, which include the following: first, the bulk method, with or without the commonly used Monin-Obukhov (M-O) stability functions, overestimates the turbulent heat fluxes over the observational period, mainly due to a substantial overestimation of the friction velocity. This overestimation is most pronounced during the katabatic flow conditions, corroborating the previous findings that the M-O theory works poorly in the presence of a low wind speed maximum. Second, the method based on a katabatic flow model (labeled as the KInt method) outperforms any C method in simulating the friction velocity; however, the C methods outperform the KInt method in simulating the sensible-heat fluxes. Third, the best overall performance is given by a hybrid method, which combines the KInt approach with the C method; i.e., it parameterizes eddy viscosity differently than eddy diffusivity. An error analysis reveals that the uncertainties in the measured meteorological
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ravn, Ib
. FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...
Seyfried, Léo; Marsaleix, Patrick; Richard, Evelyne; Estournel, Claude
2017-12-01
In the north-western Mediterranean, the strong, dry, cold winds, the Tramontane and Mistral, produce intense heat and moisture exchange at the interface between the ocean and the atmosphere leading to the formation of deep dense waters, a process that occurs only in certain regions of the world. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the ability of a new coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling system based on MESONH-SURFEX-SYMPHONIE to simulate a deep-water formation event in real conditions. The study focuses on summer 2012 to spring 2013, a favourable period that is well documented by previous studies and for which many observations are available. Model results are assessed through detailed comparisons with different observation data sets, including measurements from buoys, moorings and floats. The good overall agreement between observations and model results shows that the new coupled system satisfactorily simulates the formation of deep dense water and can be used with confidence to study ocean-atmosphere coupling in the north-western Mediterranean. In addition, to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the representation of turbulent fluxes in strong wind conditions, several simulations were carried out based on different parameterizations of the flux bulk formulas. The results point out that the choice of turbulent flux parameterization strongly influences the simulation of the deep-water convection and can modify the volume of the newly formed deep water by a factor of 2.
Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry
Braam, M.
2014-01-01
Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry Atmospheric turbulence is the main vertical transport mechanism in the atmospheric boundary layer. The surface fluxes related to this turbulent transport are the sensible (
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Dupuis
Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Gerken
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a surface model with two soil-layers for use in a high-resolution circulation model that has been modified with an extrapolated surface temperature, to be used for the calculation of turbulent fluxes. A quadratic temperature profile based on the layer mean and base temperature is assumed in each layer and extended to the surface. The model is tested at two sites on the Tibetan Plateau near Nam Co Lake during four days during the 2009 Monsoon season. In comparison to a two-layer model without explicit surface temperature estimate, there is a greatly reduced delay in diurnal flux cycles and the modelled surface temperature is much closer to observations. Comparison with a SVAT model and eddy covariance measurements shows an overall reasonable model performance based on RMSD and cross correlation comparisons between the modified and original model. A potential limitation of the model is the need for careful initialisation of the initial soil temperature profile, that requires field measurements. We show that the modified model is capable of reproducing fluxes of similar magnitudes and dynamics when compared to more complex methods chosen as a reference.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.
2006-06-01
It is necessary to improve understanding and develop validation data of the heat flux incident to an object located within the fire plume for the validation of SIERRA/ FUEGO/SYRINX fire and SIERRA/CALORE. One key aspect of the validation data sets is the determination of the relative contribution of the radiative and convective heat fluxes. To meet this objective, a cylindrical calorimeter with sufficient instrumentation to measure total and radiative heat flux had been designed and fabricated. This calorimeter will be tested both in the controlled radiative environment of the Penlight facility and in a fire environment in the FLAME/Radiant Heat (FRH) facility. Validation experiments are specifically designed for direct comparison with the computational predictions. Making meaningful comparisons between the computational and experimental results requires careful characterization and control of the experimental features or parameters used as inputs into the computational model. Validation experiments must be designed to capture the essential physical phenomena, including all relevant initial and boundary conditions. A significant question of interest to modeling heat flux incident to an object in or near a fire is the contribution of the radiation and convection modes of heat transfer. The series of experiments documented in this test plan is designed to provide data on the radiation partitioning, defined as the fraction of the total heat flux that is due to radiation.
Louda, P.; Kozel, K.; Sváček, P.; Příhoda, J.
2012-11-01
The work deals with numerical simulation of transonic flow in turbine cascade including heat transfer between fluid and blades. The blades are considered either solid, with heat conduction, or with a cavity held at constant temperature above the total temperature of the fluid. The surface of blades is hydraulically smooth or rough. The mathematical model is based on Favre averaged Navier-Stokes equations with SST turbulence model. The heat transfer inside blades is governed by Laplace equation for temperature. The solution for fluid part is obtained by implicit AUMPW+ finite volume method. The solution of Laplace equation is obtained by finite element method. The coupling between the two solvers is discussed including some problems. In the discussion of results, the effects of heat conduction in the blade, internal heating of the blade and surface roughness are observed.
Helbig, M.; Wischnewski, K.; Kljun, N.; Chasmer, L.; Quinton, W. L.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.
2015-12-01
Boreal forests in the sporadic permafrost zone have been shown to decline at the expense of wetlands following permafrost disappearance. These land cover changes cause shifts in ecosystem properties and affect biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The goal of our study is to examine the effects of permafrost disappearance on landscape-scale sensible (H) and latent heat fluxes (LE) and related potential feedbacks on regional air temperatures (Ta) We use a combination of nested eddy covariance flux towers, flux footprint and planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamic modelling, and MOderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing products to resolve spatio-temporal dynamics in H and LE at the landscape scale at Scotty Creek, NWT (61º18' N; 121º18' W) and in radiometric land surface temperatures (LST) at the regional scale across the southern Taiga Plains in the sporadic permafrost zone of northwestern Canada. The heterogeneous landscape comprises boreal forests with permafrost and permafrost-free wetlands. Our results show that H above the heterogeneous landscape was about twice as high as above a nearby treeless, permafrost-free bog. In contrast, landscape-scale LE was only about 50 % of LE over the bog. These differences were primarily driven by higher heat transfer efficiency of the aerodynamically rougher forest and lower albedo of the forest compared to the bog (about 10 % lower during summer and about 40 % lower during late winter). Aerodynamic LST increased with the fraction of forest in the flux footprints. This effect was strongest (r2 = 0.55, slope = 0.06 K per % forest) at the end of winter when contrasts in albedo are largest. Bulk surface conductance increased with the fraction of wetlands in the footprints. On a regional scale, radiometric MODIS LST increased with tree cover during the snow cover period (0.06 K per % tree cover), but decreased during the summer (-0.04 K per % tree cover). Modelling results showed that a shift from the
van Milligen, B. Ph.; Sánchez, R.; Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.; LaBombard, B.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Gonçalves, B.; Balbín, R.
2005-05-01
Plasma density fluctuations and electrostatic turbulent fluxes measured at the scrape-off layer of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [B. LaBombard, R. L. Boivin, M. Greenwald, J. Hughes, B. Lipschultz, D. Mossessian, C. S. Pitcher, J. L. Terry, and S. J. Zweben, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2107 (2001)], the Wendelstein 7-Advanced Stellarator [H. Renner, E. Anabitarte, E. Ascasibar et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 31, 1579 (1989)], and the TJ-II stellarator [C. Alejaldre, J. Alonso, J. Botija et al., Fusion Technol. 17, 131 (1990)] are shown to obey a non-Gaussian but apparently universal (i.e., not dependent on device and discharge parameters) probability density distribution (pdf). The fact that a specific shape acts as an attractor for the pdf seems to suggest that emergent behavior and self-regulation are relevant concepts for these fluctuations. This shape is closely similar to the so-called Bramwell, Holdsworth, and Pinton distribution, which does not have any free parameters.
Turbulent current drive mechanisms
McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua
2017-08-01
Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.
2015-01-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Li, Hui; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe
2015-07-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Si, Jiahe, E-mail: jsi@nmt.edu; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2015-07-15
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Zieliński, Mariusz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Siedlecki, Mariusz
2018-01-01
We investigate the area-averaged sensible heat flux (QH ) obtained with a scintillometer along a 3.1-km path length over the city centre of Łódź, Central Poland. The annual cycle of QH peaks in June but is lower by the middle of summer. In winter, due to a large amount of anthropogenic heat input, QH remains positive all day long, with positive night-time fluxes also found during months with frequent cold advection, e.g., June 2010. In the diurnal cycle of this flux, several features specific to urban areas are seen: the peak shifts 1-2 h after noon, the heat flux turns from positive to negative 1-2 h after sunset. In Łódź QH was observed during inflow from the north and north-west, i.e. from the city centre. As this area is mostly covered with impervious materials, most of the heat exchanged between the ground and the overlying air is in the form of sensible heat flux. Under the conditions of inflow from the east and south-east, the maximum heat flux is approximately 100 W m^{-2} lower than during the inflow from the city centre, since more vegetation exists to the east and south-east of the scintillometer path. Cold and warm advection are found to be a vital factor in the observed heat-flux variability in the centre of Łódź.
Mayor, S. D.; Spuler, S. M.; Morley, B. M.; Horst, T. W.; Oncley, S. P.; Patton, E. G.; Lenschow, D. H.
2007-12-01
The NCAR Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) and the Integrated Surface Flux Facility (ISFF) operated from 15 March to 11 June, 2007, for the Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS). Lidar aerosol backscatter data at 1.5 microns wavelength were recorded at 1.5 meter intervals to ranges of 5.8 kilometers. Scanning resulted in almost half a million vertical cross-sections and near horizontal slices. The horizontal scans ranged in altitude from meters to tens of meters above the surface and covered approximately 10-square kilometer areas. Scans were repeated at approximately 15 second intervals in order to create time-lapse animations of the flow. The ISFF 30-meter tall tower was located 1.6 km from the REAL. The tower intersected all of the horizontal scans and the vertical scan planes were approximately 10 meters or less from the tower. Time- series of in situ measurements and fluxes from the tower will be compared with the lidar backscatter at that range. Ultimately, by combining the spatial imaging and time-lapse visualization capability of the lidar with the precision of the in situ measurements, we hope to improve understanding of near-surface fluxes and their impact on the larger scales.
Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence
Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya
2018-04-01
Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.
Predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.
2002-01-01
With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isot......With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous...
Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B
2012-01-01
In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation.......In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Z. Baumert
2009-03-01
Full Text Available This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from internal waves to turbulence. This energy source is in addition to the traditional shear production. The second variable of the new two-equation model is the turbulent enstrophy (Ω. Compared to the traditional shear-only case, the Ω-equation is modified to account for the effect of the waves on the turbulence time and space scales. This modification is based on the assumption of a non-zero constant flux Richardson number in the limit of vanishing mean shear when turbulence is produced exclusively by internal waves. This paper is part 1 of a continuing theoretical development. It accounts for mean shear- and internal wave-driven mixing only in the two limits of mean shear and no waves and waves but no mean shear, respectively.
The new model reproduces the wave-turbulence transition analyzed by D'Asaro and Lien (2000b. At small energy density E of the internal wave field, the turbulent dissipation rate (ε scales like ε~E^{2}. This is what is observed in the deep sea. With increasing E, after the wave-turbulence transition has been passed, the scaling changes to ε~E^{1}. This is observed, for example, in the highly energetic tidal flow near a sill in Knight Inlet. The new model further exhibits a turbulent length scale proportional to the Ozmidov scale, as observed in the ocean, and predicts the ratio between the turbulent Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales well within the range observed in the ocean.
Statistical properties of transport in plasma turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Garcia, O.E.; Nielsen, A.H.
2004-01-01
The statistical properties of the particle flux in different types of plasma turbulence models are numerically investigated using probability distribution functions (PDFs). The physics included in the models range from two-dimensional drift wave turbulence to three-dimensional MHD dynamics...
The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS)
Edward G. Patton; Thomas W. Horst; Donald H. Lenschow; Peter P. Sullivan; Steven Oncley; Sean Burns; Alex Guenther; Andreas Held; Thomas Karl; Shane Mayor; Luciana Rizzo; Scott Spuler; Jielun Sun; Andrew Turnipseed; Eugene Allwine; Steven Edburg; Brian Lamb; Roni Avissar; Heidi E. Holder; Ron Calhoun; Jan Kleissl; William Massman; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Jeffrey C. Weil
2008-01-01
Turbulence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) well above the surface has been shown to be independent of the details of the surface roughness. In this region well-quantified similarity relationships work well when characterizing turbulent fluxes (e.g., Raupach, 1979). However, in the near-surface layer which is directly influenced by roughness elements, i.e., the...
Beyond scale separation in gyrokinetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Darmet, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Angelino, P.; Bertrand, P.; Besse, N.; Gravier, E.; Morel, P.; Sonnendruecker, E.; Crouseilles, N.; Dischler, J.-M.; Latu, G.; Violard, E.; Brunetti, M.; Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Tran, T.-M.; Villard, L.; Boulet, M.
2007-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained with a set of gyrokinetic codes based on a semi-Lagrangian scheme. Several physics issues are addressed, namely, the comparison between fluid and kinetic descriptions, the intermittent behaviour of flux driven turbulence and the role of large scale flows in toroidal ITG turbulence. The question of the initialization of full-F simulations is also discussed
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates
Turbulence in Natural Environments
Banerjee, Tirtha
Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be
Magnetic turbulence and anomalous transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.
1990-01-01
The self consistency conditions for magnetic turbulence are reviewed. The main features of magnetic topology involving stochastic flux lines are summarized. Two driving sources are considered: thermal effects which require large scale residual islands and electron diamagnetism which involves fluctuation scales smaller than the ion Larmor radius and a β p threshold of order one. Stability criteria and transport coefficients are given
Turbulent jet in confined counterflow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct ...
Turbulent jet in confined counterflow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...
Turbulent energy losses during orchard heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bland, W.L.
1979-01-01
Two rapid-response drag anemometers and low time constant thermocouples, all at 4 m above a heated orchard floor, sampled wind component in the vertical direction and temperature at 30 Hz. The turbulent heat flux calculated revealed not more than 10% of the heat lost from the orchard was via turbulent transort. The observations failed to support previous estimates that at least a third of the energy applied was lost through turbulent transport. Underestimation of heat loss due to mean flow and a newly revealed flux due to spatial variations in the mean flow may explain the unaccounted for loss.
Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; F. Levinton; R. Maingi; L. Roquemore; S. Sabbagh; G. Wurden
2000-01-01
Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radial heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of ''gas puff imaging'' to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence
Nazarenko, Sergey
2015-07-01
Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2005-01-01
Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.
Recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terry, P.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1997-09-22
This report contains viewgraphs of recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport. Localized nonlinear structures occur under a variety of circumstances in turbulent, magnetically confined plasmas, arising in both kinetic and fluid descriptions, i.e., in either wave-particle or three-wave coupling interactions. These structures are non wavelike. They cannot be incorporated in the collective wave response, but interact with collective modes through their shielding by the plasma dielectric. These structures are predicted to modify turbulence-driven transport in a way that in consistent with, or in some cases are confirmed by recent experimental observations. In kinetic theory, non wavelike structures are localized perturbations of phase space density. There are two types of structures. Holes are self-trapped, while clumps have a self-potential that is too weak to resist deformation and mixing by ambient potential fluctuations. Clumps remain correlated in turbulence if their spatial extent is smaller than the correlation length of the scattering fields. In magnetic turbulence, clumps travel along stochastic magnetic fields, shielded by the plasma dielectric. A drag on the clump macro-particle is exerted by the shielding, inducing emission into the collective response. The emission in turn damps back on the particle distribution via Landau dampling. The exchange of energy between clumps and particles, as mediated by the collective mode, imposes constraints on transport. For a turbulent spectrum whose mean wavenumber along the equilibrium magnetic field is nonzero, the electron thermal flux is proportional to the ion thermal velocity. Conventional predictions (which account only for collective modes) are larger by the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Recent measurements are consistent with the small flux. In fluid plasma,s localized coherent structures can occur as intense vortices.
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurence, D.
1997-01-01
This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-ε two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (R ij -ε) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)
Turbulent mixed flow applying CFD in electronic cooling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Alberto Chaves
2011-01-01
laminar and turbulent fluxes until heat flux equal 1,000 and maximum dimensionless temperature increase abruptly with heat flux to laminar and turbulent flows for injection dimensionless velocity equal 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. The results obtained allowed identifying the highest temperature when the system is submitted to combine forced and free convection, making possible to apply control actions, avoiding thermal damages to the devices that work with this cooling process.
Physics of magnetic flux ropes
Russell, C. T.; Priest, E. R.; Lee, L. C.
The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations.
Momentum and scalar transport at the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a jet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerweel, J.; Fukushima, C.; Pedersen, Jakob Martin
2009-01-01
and well-defined bounding interface between the turbulent and non-turbulent regions of flow. The jet carries a fluorescent dye measured with planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and the surface discontinuity in the scalar concentration is identified as the fluctuating turbulent jet interface. Thence...... velocity and mean scalar and a tendency towards a singularity in mean vorticity. These actual or asymptotic discontinuities are consistent with the conditional mean momentum and scalar transport equations integrated across the interface. Measurements of the fluxes of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.
Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Yokoi, N.
2017-12-01
Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow
TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators
Proll, J. H. E.; Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Faber, B. J.
2016-01-01
With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is addressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X (Beidler et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 148) and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT (Spong et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 711) code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stellarator experiment HSX (Anderson et al 1995 Fusion Technol. 27 273) is presented for which a reduction of the linear growth rates is achieved over a broad range of the operational parameter space. As an important consequence of this property, the turbulent heat flux levels are reduced compared with the initial configuration.
Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Estimating surface fluxes using eddy covariance and numerical ogive optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sievers, J.; Papakyriakou, T.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
2015-01-01
Estimating representative surface fluxes using eddy covariance leads invariably to questions concerning inclusion or exclusion of low-frequency flux contributions. For studies where fluxes are linked to local physical parameters and up-scaled through numerical modelling efforts, low......-frequency contributions interfere with our ability to isolate local biogeochemical processes of interest, as represented by turbulent fluxes. No method currently exists to disentangle low-frequency contributions on flux estimates. Here, we present a novel comprehensive numerical scheme to identify and separate out low......-frequency contributions to vertical turbulent surface fluxes. For high flux rates (|Sensible heat flux| > 40Wm-2, |latent heat flux|> 20Wm-2 and |CO2 flux|> 100 mmolm-2 d-1/ we found that the average relative difference between fluxes estimated by ogive optimization and the conventional method was low (5–20 %) suggesting...
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Turbulence modeling of natural convection in enclosures: A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong O
2012-01-01
In this paper a review of recent developments of turbulence models for natural convection in enclosures is presented. The emphasis is placed on the effect of the treatments of Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux on the stability and accuracy of the solution for natural convection in enclosures. The turbulence models considered in the preset study are the two-layer k -ε model, the shear stress transport (SST) model, the elliptic-relaxation (V2-f) model and the elliptic-blending second-moment closure (EBM). Three different treatments of the turbulent heat flux are the generalized gradient diffusion hypothesis (GGDH), the algebraic flux model (AFM) and the differential flux model (DFM). The mathematical formulation of the above turbulence models and their solution method are presented. Evaluation of turbulence models are performed for turbulent natural convection in a 1:5 rectangular cavity ( Ra = 4.3x10 10 ) and in a square cavity with conducting top and bottom walls ( Ra =1.58x10 9 ) and the Rayleigh-Benard convection ( Ra = 2x10 6 ∼ Ra =10 9 ). The relative performances of turbulence models are examined and their successes and shortcomings are addressed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nycander, J.
2003-01-01
Self-consistent development of transport barriers is investigated analytically and numerically in flux driven interchange turbulence with highly intermittent turbulent fluxes. Numerical simulations on a bounded domain show turbulence leading to a homogenization of Lagrangian invariants by mixing,......, and constitute transport barriers for the turbulent fluxes, but are intermittently disrupted by strong bursts in the transport, which may be related to the strong edge localized modes observed in toroidal devices. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics....
A New Paradigm for Turbulence Control for Drag Reduction
2017-02-27
Reynolds stresses , turbulent heat fluxes and higher-order moments of velocity and temperature. Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Models (EARSM...obtained the Reynolds stress distributions in best agreement with DNS data for rotational flows and turbulent heat flux distributions obtained from two...flows. Results from this seed grant have appeared in three journal articles and have been accepted for presentation at national conferences 16
Turbulence modification and multiphase turbulence transport modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besnard, D.C.; Kataoka, I.; Serizawa, A.
1991-01-01
It is shown here that in the derivation of turbulence transport models for multiphase flows, terms naturally appear that can be interpreted as related to turbulence modification of one field by the other. We obtain two such terms, one suggesting turbulence enhancement due to instabilities in two-phase flow, the second one showing turbulence damping due to the presence of the other field, both in gas-particle and gas-liquid cases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietri, L.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.; Fulachier, L. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phinomenes Hors Equilibre Equipe Turbulence, 13 - Marseille (France)
1997-12-31
Turbulent flows with strong density variations, like helium jets in the ambient air, have specific properties linked with the difference of gas densities. This paper presents some experimental results of turbulence properties inside such flows: the Reynolds tensions and the associated turbulent viscosity, and some characteristics linked with the statistical properties of the different turbulence scales. These last results allows to show the complexity of such flows characterized by the influence of external parameters (Reynolds number, initial density ratio, initial momentum flux) that govern the evolution of these parameters inside the jet from the nozzle up to regions where similarity properties are reached. (J.S.) 12 refs.
Estimating local atmosphere-surface fluxes using eddy covariance and numerical ogive optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sievers, Jakob; Papakyriakou, T.; Larsen, S.
2014-01-01
-frequency contributions to vertical turbulent surface fluxes. For high flux-rates (|Sensible heat flux|> 40 Wm^(-2), |latent heat flux|>10 Wm^(-2) and |CO_2 flux|>170 mmol m^(-2) d^(-1)) we found that the average relative difference between fluxes estimated by Ogive optimization and the conventional method was low (5......–20%) suggesting negligible low-frequency influence and that both methods capture the turbulent fluxes equally well. For flux-rates below these thresholds, however, the average relative difference between flux estimates was found to be very high (23–80%) suggesting non-negligible low-frequency influence...... and that the conventional method fails in separating low-frequency influences from the turbulent fluxes. Hence, the Ogive optimization method is an appropriate method of flux analysis, particularly in low-flux environments....
Multiple-scale turbulence and bifurcation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kawasaki, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto (Japan)
2003-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the turbulence composed of collective modes with different scale lengths. The hierarchical model for multiple-scale turbulence is developed. Nonlinear interactions between different scale length are modeled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. Using this model, a case where two driving mechanisms coexist (one for the micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) is investigated. It is found that a new type of turbulence transition and a cusp-type catastrophe exist in some parameter regime. Numerical simulations are also performed for neighboring multiple-scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient driven drift wave (ITG) (k{sub y}{rho}{sub i} < 1) and short wavelength ITG (k{sub y}{rho}{sub i} > 1) modes in the shearless slab geometry. The cascade and inverse cascade in multiple-scale turbulence are investigated. The cascade is mainly observed in k sub(parallel) space. On the other hand, the cascade and the inverse cascade are observed in K sub(perpendicular) space. Another interesting result is that the particle flux is negative (inward pinch) due to the short wavelength ITG modes, while the ion and electron heat flux are positive, which indicates nonlinear interaction between different scale length mode might affect transport. (author)
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
Heat Flux Inhibition by Whistlers: Experimental Confirmation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichler, D.
2002-01-01
Heat flux in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma is, according to theoretical predictions, limited by whistler turbulence that is generated by heat flux instabilities near threshold. Observations of solar wind electrons by Gary and coworkers appear to confirm the limit on heat flux as being roughly the product of the magnetic energy density and the electron thermal velocity, in agreement with prediction (Pistinner and Eichler 1998)
Cascade of circulations in fluid turbulence.
Eyink, Gregory L
2006-12-01
Kelvin's theorem on conservation of circulations is an essential ingredient of Taylor's theory of turbulent energy dissipation by the process of vortex-line stretching. In previous work, we have proposed a nonlinear mechanism for the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem in ideal turbulence at infinite Reynolds number. We develop here a detailed physical theory of this cascade of circulations. Our analysis is based upon an effective equation for large-scale coarse-grained velocity, which contains a turbulent-induced vortex force that can violate Kelvin's theorem. We show that singularities of sufficient strength, which are observed to exist in turbulent flow, can lead to nonvanishing dissipation of circulation for an arbitrarily small coarse-graining length in the effective equations. This result is an analog for circulation of Onsager's theorem on energy dissipation for singular Euler solutions. The physical mechanism of the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem is diffusion of lines of large-scale vorticity out of the advected loop. This phenomenon can be viewed as a classical analog of the Josephson-Anderson phase-slip phenomenon in superfluids due to quantized vortex lines. We show that the circulation cascade is local in scale and use this locality to develop concrete expressions for the turbulent vortex force by a multiscale gradient expansion. We discuss implications for Taylor's theory of turbulent dissipation and we point out some related cascade phenomena, in particular for magnetic flux in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Dis-aggregation of airborne flux measurements using footprint analysis
Hutjes, R.W.A.; Vellinga, O.S.; Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.
2010-01-01
Aircraft measurements of turbulent fluxes are generally being made with the objective to obtain an estimate of regional exchanges between land surface and atmosphere, to investigate the spatial variability of these fluxes, but also to learn something about the fluxes from some or all of the land
Scale-locality of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aluie, Hussein [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eyink, Gregory L [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.
2009-01-01
We investigate the scale-locality of cascades of conserved invariants at high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers in the 'inertial-inductive range' of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where velocity and magnetic field increments exhibit suitable power-law scaling. We prove that fluxes of total energy and cross-helicity - or, equivalently, fluxes of Elsaesser energies - are dominated by the contributions of local triads. Corresponding spectral transfers are also scale-local when defined using octave wavenumber bands. Flux and transfer of magnetic helicity may be dominated by nonlocal triads. The magnetic stretching term also may be dominated by non-local triads but we prove that it can convert energy only between velocity and magnetic modes at comparable scales. We explain the disagreement with numerical studies that have claimed conversion non locally between disparate scales. We present supporting data from a 1024{sup 3} simulation of forced MHD turbulence.
Modeling the Emission from Turbulent Relativistic Jets in Active ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... We present a numerical model developed to calculate observed fluxes of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. The observed flux of each turbulent eddy is dependent upon its variable Doppler boosting factor, computed as a function of the relativistic sum of the individual eddy and bulk jet velocities, and ...
Turbulent dynamo action in stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenburg, A.; Nordlund, A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Stein, R.F.; Tuominen, I.
1990-01-01
The way in which dynamo action amplifies magnetic fields in the Sun, the Earth, and indeed galaxies is a classic problem of theoretical physics. Here we present the results of direct simulations of turbulent compressible hydromagnetic convection with a stable overshoot layer underneath (to model the Sun). We find spontaneous dynamo action followed by saturation, with most of the generated magnetic field appearing as coherent flux tubes in the vicinity of strong downdrafts. Here both the generation and destruction of magnetic field is at its most vigorous, and which process ultimately dominates depends on the sizes of the magnetic Reynolds and magnetic Prandtl numbers. (orig.)
High Reynolds Number Turbulence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Smits, Alexander J
2007-01-01
The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Drikakis, D; Geurts, Bernard
2002-01-01
... discretization 3 A test-case: turbulent channel flow 4 Conclusions 75 75 82 93 98 4 Analysis and control of errors in the numerical simulation of turbulence Sandip Ghosal 1 Introduction 2 Source...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob
2011-01-01
The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....
Field-theoretic calculation of kinetic helicity flux
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the inertial range the kinetic helicity flux is found to be constant and forward. The universal constant KH appearing in the spectrum of kinetic helicity was found to be. 2.47. Keywords. Kinetic helicity; helical turbulence. PACS Nos 47.27.Ak; 47.27.Gs. Kinetic helicity plays an important role in the dynamics of turbulence.
First-order chemistry in the surface-flux layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans
1997-01-01
of a characteristic turbulent time scale and the scalar mean lifetime. We show that if we use only first-order closure and neglect the effect of the Damkohler ratio on the turbulent diffusivity we obtain another analytic solution for the profiles of the flux and the mean concentration which, from an experimental...
Direct Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer with Spanwise Wall Oscillation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weidan Ni
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Direct numerical simulations (DNS of Mach = 2.9 supersonic turbulent boundary layers with spanwise wall oscillation (SWO are conducted to investigate the turbulent heat transport mechanism and its relation with the turbulent momentum transport. The turbulent coherent structures are suppressed by SWO and the drag is reduced. Although the velocity and temperature statistics are disturbed by SWO differently, the turbulence transports of momentum and heat are simultaneously suppressed. The Reynolds analogy and the strong Reynolds analogy are also preserved in all the controlled flows, proving the consistent mechanisms of momentum transport and heat transport in the turbulent boundary layer with SWO. Despite the extra dissipation and heat induced by SWO, a net wall heat flux reduction can be achieved with the proper selected SWO parameters. The consistent mechanism of momentum and heat transports supports the application of turbulent drag reduction technologies to wall heat flux controls in high-speed vehicles.
Intermittent Turbulence in the Very Stable Ekman Layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnard, James C [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2001-01-01
This study describes a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a very stable Ekman layer in which a constant downward heat flux is applied at the lower boundary, thus cooling the fluid above. Numerical experiments were performed in which the strength of the imposed heat flux was varied. For downward heat fluxes above a certain critical value the turbulence becomes intermittent and, as the heat flux increases beyond this value, the flow tends to relaminarize because of the very strong ambient stratification. We adopt Mahrt?s (1999) definition of the very stable boundary layer as a boundary layer in which intermittent, rather than continuous turbulence, is observed. Numerical experiments were used to test various hypothesis of where in ?stability parameter space? the very stable boundary layer is found. These experiments support the findings of Howell and Sun (1999) that the boundary layer will exhibit intermittency and therefore be categorized as ?very stable?, when the stability parameter, z/L, exceeds unity. Another marker for the very stable boundary layer, Derbyshire?s (1990) maximum heat flux criterion, was also examined. Using a case study drawn from the simulations where turbulence intermittency was observed, the mechanism that causes the intermittence was investigated. It was found that patchy turbulence originates from a vigorous inflectional, Ekman-like instability -- a roll cell -- that lifts colder air over warmer air. The resulting convective instability causes an intense burst of turbulence. This turbulence is short-lived because the lifting motion of the roll cell, as well as the roll cell itself, is partially destroyed after the patchy turbulence is generated. Examples of intermittent turbulence obtained from the simulations appear to be consistent with observations of intermittency even though the Reynolds number of the DNS is relatively low (400).
Feedback control of edge turbulence in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kan, Zhai; Yi-zhi, Wen; Chang-xuan, Yu; Wan-dong, Liu; Chao, Wang; Ge, Zhuang; Kan, Zhai; Zhi-Zhan, Yu
1997-01-01
An experiment on feedback control of edge turbulence has been undertaken on the KT-5C tokamak. The results indicate that the edge turbulence could be suppressed or enhanced depending on the phase shift of the feedback network. In a typical case of 90 degree phase shift feedback, the turbulence amplitudes of both T e and n e were reduced by about 25% when the gain of the feedback network was 15. Correspondingly the radial particle flux decreased to about 75% level of the background. Through bispectral analysis it is found that there exists a substantial nonlinear coupling between various modes comprised in edge turbulence, especially in the frequency range from about 10 kHz to 100 kHz, which contains the large part of the edge turbulence energy in KT-5C tokamak. In particular, by actively controlling the turbulence amplitude using feedback, a direct experimental evidence of the link between the nonlinear wave-wave coupling over the whole spectrum in turbulence, the saturated turbulence amplitude, and the radial particle flux was provided. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Progress in turbulence research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradshaw, P.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in experiments and eddy simulations, as an introduction to a discussion of turbulence modeling for engineers is reviewed. The most important advances in the last decade rely on computers: microcomputers to control laboratory experiments, especially for multidimensional imaging, and supercomputers to simulate turbulence. These basic studies in turbulence research are leading to genuine breakthroughs in prediction methods for engineers and earth scientists. The three main branches of turbulence research: experiments, simulations (numerically-accurate three-dimensional, time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, with any empiricism confined to the smallest eddies), and modeling (empirical closure of time-averaged equations for turbulent flow) are discussed. 33 refs
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence model
Hammer, James
2005-10-01
K-epsilon models find wide application as approximate models of fluid turbulence. The models couple equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate to the usual fluid equations, where the turbulence is driven by Reynolds stress or buoyancy source terms. We generalize to the case with magnetic forces in a Z-pinch geometry (azimuthal fields), using simple energy arguments to derive the turbulent source terms. The field is presumed strong enough that 3 dimensional twisting or bending of the field can be ignored, i.e. the flow is of the interchange type. The generalized source terms show the familiar correspondence between magnetic curvature and acceleration as drive terms for Rayleigh-Taylor and sausage instability. The source terms lead naturally to a modification of Ohm's law including a turbulent electric field that allows magnetic field to diffuse through material. The turbulent magnetic diffusion parallels a corresponding ohmic heating term in the equation for the turbulent kinetic energy.
Homogeneous turbulence dynamics
Sagaut, Pierre
2018-01-01
This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...
Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.; Umansky, M.; Dudson, B.; Snyder, P.
2008-05-01
The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (ni), electron and ion temperature (T e ; T i ) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics
Models for turbulent flows with variable density and combustion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, W.P.
1980-01-01
Models for transport processes and combustion in turbulent flows are outlined with emphasis on the situation where the fuel and air are injected separately. Attention is restricted to relatively simple flames. The flows investigated are high Reynolds number, single-phase, turbulent high-temperature flames in which radiative heat transfer can be considered negligible. Attention is given to the lower order closure models, algebraic stress and flux models, the k-epsilon turbulence model, the diffusion flame approximation, and finite rate reaction mechanisms
Stably-stratified wall-bounded turbulence
Hadi Sichani, Pejman; Zonta, Francesco; Obabko, Aleksandr; Soldati, Alfredo
2017-11-01
Stably-stratified (bottom-up cooling) turbulent flows are encountered in a number of industrial applications, environmental processes and geophysical flows. Turbulent entrainment and mixing across density interfaces in terrestrial water bodies (oceans, lakes and rivers) and in industrial heat transfer equipments are just some important examples of stably-stratified flows. In this work we use Direct Numerical Simulation to investigate the fundamental physics of stably-stratified channel turbulence under Boussinesq and Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) conditions. Compared to the neutrally-buoyant case, in the stably-stratified case active turbulence survives only in the near-wall region and coexists with internal gravity waves (IGW) moving in the core region of the channel. This induces a general suppression of turbulence levels, momentum and buoyancy fluxes. Our results show also that NOB effects may be important when the flow is subject to large temperature gradients. The most striking feature observed in case of NOB conditions is the generation of a strong flow asymmetry with possible local flow laminarization in the near wall region.
Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence
Kupka, Friedrich
2008-01-01
What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...
Momentum transport in gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchholz, Rico
2016-07-01
In this thesis, the gyrokinetic-Vlasov code GKW is used to study turbulent transport, with a focus on radial transport of toroidal momentum. To support the studies on turbulent transport an eigenvalue solver has been implemented into GKW. This allows to find, not only the most unstable mode, but also subdominant modes. Furthermore it is possible to follow the modes in parameter scans. Furthermore, two fundamental mechanisms that can generate an intrinsic rotation have been investigated: profile shearing and the velocity nonlinearity. The study of toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak due to profile shearing reveals that the momentum flux can not be accurately described by the gradient in the turbulent intensity. Consequently, a description using the profile variation is used. A linear model has been developed that is able to reproduce the variations in the momentum flux as the profiles of density and temperature vary, reasonably well. It uses, not only the gradient length of density and temperature profile, but also their derivative, i.e. the second derivative of the logarithm of the temperature and the density profile. It is shown that both first as well as second derivatives contribute to the generation of a momentum flux. A difference between the linear and nonlinear simulations has been found with respect to the behaviour of the momentum flux. In linear simulations the momentum flux is independent of the normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}, whereas it is linear in ρ{sub *} for nonlinear simulations, provided ρ{sub *} is small enough (≤4.10{sup -3}). Nonlinear simulations reveal that the profile shearing can generate an intrinsic rotation comparable to that of current experiments. Under reactor conditions, however, the intrinsic rotation from the profile shearing is expected to be small due to the small normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}
California's Future Carbon Flux
Xu, L.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K.; Gertz, M.
2008-12-01
The diversity of the climate and vegetation systems in the state of California provides a unique opportunity to study carton dioxide exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. In order to accurately calculate the carbon flux, this study couples the sophisticated analytical surface layer model ACASA (Advance Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, developed in the University of California, Davis) with the newest version of mesoscale model WRF (the Weather Research & Forecasting Model, developed by NCAR and several other agencies). As a multilayer, steady state model, ACASA incorporates higher-order representations of vertical temperature variations, CO2 concentration, radiation, wind speed, turbulent statistics, and plant physiology. The WRF-ACASA coupling is designed to identify how multiple environmental factors, in particularly climate variability, population density, and vegetation distribution, impact on future carbon cycle prediction across a wide geographical range such as in California.
Heat and Momentum Fluxes Near a Forest Edge
Kruijt, B.; Klaassen, W.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Veen, A.W.L.
1991-01-01
Turbulent fluxes have been measured downwind of an interface between agricultural land and mixed deciduous forest. Theory predicts the presence of vertical flux divergences within the adjusting layer of air. It was investigated whether edge effects and advection can be characterized by measured
Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, DR
2011-01-31
The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.
The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
wind regime (Mahrt et al. ... Influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent fluxes. 1401. Table 1. Specifications of the eddy ..... different soil and vegetation properties and other regional climatic factors. Earlier, it was found that.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Plasmoid-mediated Regime
Comisso, L.; Huang, Y.-M.; Lingam, M.; Hirvijoki, E.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2018-02-01
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and magnetic reconnection are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments. In most situations these processes do not occur in isolation but interact with each other. This renders a comprehensive theory of these processes highly challenging. Here we propose a theory of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven at a large scale that self-consistently accounts for the mutual interplay with magnetic reconnection occurring at smaller scales. Magnetic reconnection produces plasmoids (flux ropes) that grow from turbulence-generated noise and eventually disrupt the sheet-like structures in which they are born. The disruption of these structures leads to a modification of the turbulent energy cascade, which in turn exerts a feedback effect on the plasmoid formation via the turbulence-generated noise. The energy spectrum in this plasmoid-mediated range steepens relative to the standard inertial range and does not follow a simple power law. As a result of the complex interplay between turbulence and reconnection, we also find that the length scale that marks the beginning of the plasmoid-mediated range and the dissipation length scale do not obey true power laws. The transitional magnetic Reynolds number above which the plasmoid formation becomes statistically significant enough to affect the turbulent cascade is fairly modest, implying that plasmoids are expected to modify the turbulent path to dissipation in many astrophysical systems.
PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pope, Stephen B
2006-01-01
.... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...
Nagendra Prakash, Vivek
2013-01-01
This thesis deals with the broad topic of particles in turbulence, which has applications in a diverse number of fields. A vast majority of fluid flows found in nature and in the industry are turbulent and contain dispersed elements. In this thesis, I have focused on light particles (air bubbles in
Dynamic paradigm of turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhamedov, Alfred M.
2006-01-01
In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced
Interstellar MHD Turbulence and Star Formation
Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique
This chapter reviews the nature of turbulence in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) and its connections to the star formation (SF) process. The ISM is turbulent, magnetized, self-gravitating, and is subject to heating and cooling processes that control its thermodynamic behavior, causing it to behave approximately isobarically, in spite of spanning several orders of magnitude in density and temperature. The turbulence in the warm and hot ionized components of the ISM appears to be trans- or subsonic, and thus to behave nearly incompressibly. However, the neutral warm and cold components are highly compressible, as a consequence of both thermal instability (TI) in the atomic gas and of moderately-to-strongly supersonic motions in the roughly isothermal cold atomic and molecular components. Within this context, we discuss: (1) the production and statistical distribution of turbulent density fluctuations in both isothermal and polytropic media; (2) the nature of the clumps produced by TI, noting that, contrary to classical ideas, they in general accrete mass from their environment in spite of exhibiting sharp discontinuities at their boundaries; (3) the density-magnetic field correlation (and, at low densities, lack thereof) in turbulent density fluctuations, as a consequence of the superposition of the different wave modes in the turbulent flow; (4) the evolution of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio (MFR) in density fluctuations as they are built up by dynamic compressions; (5) the formation of cold, dense clouds aided by TI, in both the hydrodynamic (HD) and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) cases; (6) the expectation that star-forming molecular clouds are likely to be undergoing global gravitational contraction, rather than being near equilibrium, as generally believed, and (7) the regulation of the star formation rate (SFR) in such gravitationally contracting clouds by stellar feedback which, rather than keeping the clouds from collapsing, evaporates and disperses
The influence of humidity fluxes on offshore wind speed profiles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Pryor, Sara
2010-01-01
extrapolation from lower measurements. With humid conditions and low mechanical turbulence offshore, deviations from the traditional logarithmic wind speed profile become significant and stability corrections are required. This research focuses on quantifying the effect of humidity fluxes on stability corrected...... wind speed profiles. The effect on wind speed profiles is found to be important in stable conditions where including humidity fluxes forces conditions towards neutral. Our results show that excluding humidity fluxes leads to average predicted wind speeds at 150 m from 10 m which are up to 4% higher...... than if humidity fluxes are included, and the results are not very sensitive to the method selected to estimate humidity fluxes....
Gyrokinetic simulations of ETG Turbulence*
Nevins, William
2005-10-01
Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence [1,2] produced different results despite similar plasma parameters. Ref.[1] differs from Ref.[2] in that [1] eliminates magnetically trapped particles ( r/R=0 ), while [2] retains magnetically trapped particles ( r/R 0.18 ). Differences between [1] and [2] have been attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with toroidicity and/or global simulations[2]. We have reproduced the results reported in [2] using a flux-tube, particle-in-cell (PIC) code, PG3EQ[3], thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. We observe late-time decay of ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport in agreement with [2], and show this results from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both the PG3EQ simulations reported here and those reported in Ref.[2] have little to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous electron heat transport. Our attempts to benchmark PIC and continuum[4] codes at the plasma parameters used in Ref.[2] produced very large, intermittent transport. We will present an alternate benchmark point for ETG turbulence, where several codes reproduce the same transport levels. Parameter scans about this new benchmark point will be used to investigate the parameter dependence of ETG transport and to elucidate saturation mechanisms proposed in Refs.[1,2] and elsewhere[5-7].*In collaboration with A. Dimits (LLNL), J. Candy, C. Estrada-Mila (GA), W. Dorland (U of MD), F. Jenko, T. Dannert (Max-Planck Institut), and G. Hammett (PPPL). Work at LLNL performed for US DOE under Contract W7405-ENG-48.[1] F. Jenko and W. Dorland, PRL 89, 225001 (2002).[2] Z. Lin et al, 2004 Sherwood Mtg.; 2004 TTF Mtg.; Fusion Energy 2004 (IAEA, Vienna, 2005); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (November, 2004); 2005 TTF Mtg.; 2005 Sherwood Mtg.; Z. Lin, et al, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056125 (2005). [3] A.M. Dimits
Coherent stuctures in geophysical turbulence
Siegel, Andrew Robert
This thesis examines the dynamic role of coherent structures in high Re turbulence. Three settings are chosen: the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), two- dimensional turbulence, and oceanic gyres. In the ABL, the intermittency of vertical heat and momentum fluxes complicates the use of local drag laws, which in turn has serious implications for large eddy simulations (LES). We develop a method to test the accuracy of local drag laws as a surface boundary condition for LES. When our diagnostic is applied to measurements of ABL turbulence, results indicate that drag-law formulations are only adequate for LES grid spacings dx > 25 km. The most salient aspect of 2-D solutions of the Navier Stokes equations is the appearance of populations of circular vortices and their subsequent dominance of the flow dynamics. To understand these dynamics, one must develop a method of decomposing such flows into their `coherent' and `non-coherent' components. We devise and test such an algorithm on weakly decaying 2-D simulations. We argue that the WPT algorithm is more general and suitable to a wider range of problems than a traditional selection-criteria approach. The decomposed 2-D solutions are then analyzed in light of turbulence theories which fail to take into account the two distinct regimes of the flow. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM's) traditionally fail to accurately mimic observed levels of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and mesoscale vortex activity. A possible explanation is insufficient horizontal resolution due to the huge computational demands of complex ocean models. To test this hypothesis, a highly efficient, parallel numerical algorithm is designed to simulate the wind- driven, closed basin quasigeostrophic (QG) equations. The combination of idealized geometry, simplified equations, and the most recent technology in parallel computing permits us to achieve decade-length integrations at resolutions five times greater than has been possible with OGCM's. These
Turbulent structure of stably stratified inhomogeneous flow
Iida, Oaki
2018-04-01
Effects of buoyancy force stabilizing disturbances are investigated on the inhomogeneous flow where disturbances are dispersed from the turbulent to non-turbulent field in the direction perpendicular to the gravity force. Attaching the fringe region, where disturbances are excited by the artificial body force, a Fourier spectral method is used for the inhomogeneous flow stirred at one side of the cuboid computational box. As a result, it is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is dispersed as layered structures elongated in the streamwise direction through the vibrating motion. A close look at the layered structures shows that they are flanked by colder fluids at the top and hotter fluids at the bottom, and hence vertically compressed and horizontally expanded by the buoyancy related to the countergradient heat flux, though they are punctuated by the vertical expansion of fluids at the forefront of the layered structures, which is related to the downgradient heat flux, indicating that the layered structures are gravity currents. However, the phase between temperature fluctuations and vertical velocity is shifted by π/2 rad, indicating that temperature fluctuations are generated by the propagation of internal gravity waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Childress, S.
1995-01-01
The authors formulate and study an elementary one-dimensional model mimicking some of the features of fluid turbulence. The underlying vorticity field corresponds to a parallel flow. Structure on all scales down to the numerical resolution is generated by the action of baker's maps acting on the vorticity of the flow. These transformations conserve kinetic energy locally in the Euler model, while viscous diffusion of vorticity occurs in the Navier-Stokes case. The authors apply the model to the study of homogeneous fully, developed turbulence, and to turbulent channel flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K.S. [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B.J. [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)
Belotserkovskii, OM; Chechetkin, VM
2005-01-01
The authors present the results of numerical experiments carried out to examine the problem of development of turbulence and convection. On the basis of the results, they propose a physical model of the development of turbulence. Numerical algorithms and difference schema for carrying out numerical experiments in hydrodynamics, are proposed. Original algorithms, suitable for calculation of the development of the processes of turbulence and convection in different conditions, even on astrophysical objects, are presented. The results of numerical modelling of several important phenomena having both fundamental and applied importance are described.
Turbulent mixing and entrainment in a gravity current
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Odier, Philippe [ENS-LYON, FRANCE; Chen, Jun [PURDUE UNIV.
2010-01-01
We present an experimental study of the mixing processes in a gravity current. The turbulent transport of momentum and buoyancy can be described in a very direct and compact form by a Prandtl mixing length model: the turbulent vertical fluxes of momentum and buoyancy are found to scale quadratically with the vertical mean gradients of velocity and density. The scaling coefficient is the square of the mixing lenth, approximately constant over the mixing zone of the stratified shear layer. We show how, in different flow configurations, this length can be related to the shear length of the flow ({var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}{sub z}u{sup 3}){sup 1/2}. We also study the fluctuations of the momentum and density turbulent fluxes, showing how they relate to the mixing phenomena, and to the entrainment/detrainment balance.
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction
Lane, Todd
2016-01-01
Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.
Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods
Wu, Xiaohua
2017-01-01
Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.
Turbulence Spreading into Linearly Stable Zone and Transport Scaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.
2003-01-01
We study the simplest problem of turbulence spreading corresponding to the spatio-temporal propagation of a patch of turbulence from a region where it is locally excited to a region of weaker excitation, or even local damping. A single model equation for the local turbulence intensity I(x, t) includes the effects of local linear growth and damping, spatially local nonlinear coupling to dissipation and spatial scattering of turbulence energy induced by nonlinear coupling. In the absence of dissipation, the front propagation into the linearly stable zone occurs with the property of rapid progression at small t, followed by slower subdiffusive progression at late times. The turbulence radial spreading into the linearly stable zone reduces the turbulent intensity in the linearly unstable zone, and introduces an additional dependence on the rho* is always equal to rho i/a to the turbulent intensity and the transport scaling. These are in broad, semi-quantitative agreements with a number of global gyrokinetic simulation results with zonal flows and without zonal flows. The front propagation stops when the radial flux of fluctuation energy from the linearly unstable region is balanced by local dissipation in the linearly stable region
Intrinsic non-inductive current driven by ETG turbulence in tokamaks
Singh, Rameswar; Kaw, P. K.; Singh, R.; Gürcan, Ã.-. D.
2017-10-01
Motivated by observations and physics understanding of the phenomenon of intrinsic rotation, it is suggested that similar considerations for electron dynamics may result in intrinsic current in tokamaks. We have investigated the possibility of intrinsic non-inductive current in the turbulent plasma of tokamaks. Ohm's law is generalized to include the effect of turbulent fluctuations in the mean field approach. This clearly leads to the identification of sources and the mechanisms of non-inductive current drive by electron temperature gradient turbulence. It is found that a mean parallel electro-motive force and hence a mean parallel current can be generated by (1) the divergence of residual current flux density and (2) a non-flux like turbulent source from the density and parallel electric field correlations. Both residual flux and the non-flux source require parallel wave-number k∥ symmetry breaking for their survival which can be supplied by various means like mean E × B shear, turbulence intensity gradient, etc. Estimates of turbulence driven current are compared with the background bootstrap current in the pedestal region. It is found that turbulence driven current is nearly 10% of the bootstrap current and hence can have a significant influence on the equilibrium current density profiles and current shear driven modes.
Turbulent Mechanical Energy Budget in Stably Stratified Baroclinic Flows over Sloping Terrain
Łobocki, Lech
2017-09-01
Analysis of second-moment budget equations in a slope-oriented coordinate frame exhibits the pathways of exchange between the potential energy of mean flow and the total turbulent mechanical energy. It is shown that this process is controlled by the inclination of the potential temperature gradient. Hence, this parameter should be considered in studies of turbulence in slope flows as well as the slope inclination. The concept of turbulent potential energy is generalized to include baroclinicity, and is used to explain the role of along-slope turbulent heat flux in energy conversions. A generalization of static stability criteria for baroclinic conditions is also proposed. In addition, the presence of feedback between the turbulent heat flux and the temperature variance in stably-stratified flows is identified, which implies the existence of oscillatory modes characterized by the Brunt-Väisäla frequency.
Kesteren, van A.J.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dinther, van D.; Moene, A.F.; Bruin, de H.A.R.
2013-01-01
This study introduces four methods for determining turbulent water vapour and carbon dioxide flux densities, the evapotranspiration and CO2 flux respectively. These methods combine scintillometer measurements with point-sampling measurements of scalar quantities and consequently have a faster
MULTIFLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENT DECAY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downes, T. P.; O'Sullivan, S.
2011-01-01
It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512 3 resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity, and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingly we find that, at least at these resolutions, the majority of the physics of multifluid turbulence can be captured by simply introducing fixed (in time and space) resistive terms into the induction equation without the need for a full multifluid MHD treatment. The velocity dispersion is also examined and, in common with previously published results, it is found not to be power law in nature.
Physics of magnetic flux ropes. Geophysical Monograph, No. 58
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, C.T.; Priest, E.R.; Lee, L.C.
1990-01-01
The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations
Critical flux determination by flux-stepping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil
2010-01-01
In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...
Periodic Boundary Motion in Thermal Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jun; Libchaber, Albert
2000-01-01
A free-floating plate is introduced in a Benard convection cell with an open surface. It partially covers the cell and distorts the local heat flux, inducing a coherent flow that in turn moves the plate. Remarkably, the plate can be driven to a periodic motion even under the action of a turbulent fluid. The period of the oscillation depends on the coverage ratio, and on the Rayleigh number of the convective system. The plate oscillatory behavior observed in this experiment may be related to a geological model, in which continents drift in a quasiperiodic fashion. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Turbulent regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosetto, A.
2014-01-01
The tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) is the plasma region characterized by open field lines that start and end on the vessel walls. The plasma dynamics in the SOL plays a crucial role in determining the overall performance of a tokamak, since it controls the plasma-wall interactions, being responsible of exhausting the tokamak power, it regulates the overall plasma confinement, and it governs the plasma refueling and the removal of fusion ashes. Scrape-off layer physics is intrinsically non-linear and characterized by phenomena that occur on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Free energy sources drive a number of unstable modes that develop into turbulence and lead to transport of particles and heat across the magnetic field lines. Depending on the driving instability, different SOL turbulent regimes can be identified. As the SOL turbulent regimes determine the plasma confinement properties and the SOL width (and, consequently, the power flux on the vessel wall, for example), it is of crucial importance to understand which turbulent regimes are active in the SOL, under which conditions they develop, and which are the main properties of the associated turbulent transport. In the present thesis we define the SOL turbulent regimes, and we provide a framework to identify them, given the operational SOL parameters. Our study is based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations and it is focused on a limited tokamak SOL configuration. We first describe the main SOL linear instabilities, such as the inertial and resistive branches of the drift waves, the resistive, inertial and ideal branches of the ballooning modes, and the ion temperature gradient mode. Then, we find the SOL turbulent regimes depending on the instability driving turbulent transport, assuming that turbulence saturates when the radial gradient associated to the pressure fluctuations is comparable to the equilibrium one. Our methodology for the turbulent regime identification is supported by the analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.
2010-01-01
boundary layer during nucleation days shows highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing most important characteristics of particle dynamics inside the atmospheric...... boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles at the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer....
Turbulence introduction to theory and applications of turbulent flows
Westerweel, Jerry; Nieuwstadt, Frans T M
2016-01-01
This book provides a general introduction to the topic of turbulent flows. Apart from classical topics in turbulence, attention is also paid to modern topics. After studying this work, the reader will have the basic knowledge to follow current topics on turbulence in scientific literature. The theory is illustrated with a number of examples of applications, such as closure models, numerical simulations and turbulent diffusion, and experimental findings. The work also contains a number of illustrative exercises.
Turbulence Driven by Common Non-stationary Weak Winds
Mahrt, L.
2015-12-01
Complications with analysis of turbulence in common non-stationary weak-wind conditions are briefly surveyed. The behavior of turbulent transport in the weak-wind stably stratified boundary layer is then examined in terms of the non-stationarity of the wind field using measurements from three field programs with towers ranging from 12 to 20 m and an extensive horizontal network of sonic anemometers. The relationship of the friction velocity to the stratification and small non-stationary submeso motions are studied from several points of view and nominally quantified. The relationship of the turbulence to the stratification is less systematic than expected due to the important submeso motions. Cause and effect relationships are difficult to isolate because the non-stationary momentum flux significantly modifies the profile of the non-stationary mean flow. The link between the turbulence and accelerations at the surface is examined in terms of the changing vertical structure of the wind profile and sudden increases of downward transport of momentum. The relationship between the heat flux, wind speed and stratification is investigated. Weak wind conditions include frequent vertical convergence of the heat flux and implied temperature advection.
Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo
2014-01-01
Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re r = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in the
Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian, E-mail: camila@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Niceno, Bojan, E-mail: bojan.niceno@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety
2013-07-01
After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 15}. Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu{sub i}). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v{sup 2} -f (commonly called as v{sup 2}-f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)
Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan
2013-01-01
After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10 8 to 10 15 . Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu i ). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v 2 -f (commonly called as v 2 -f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)
Implications of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory for plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, David
1977-01-01
A brief discussion of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory is given with particular reference to the two dimensional case. The MHD turbulence is introduced with possible applications of techniques developed in Navier-Stokes theory. Turbulence in Vlasov plasma is also discussed from the point of view of the ''direct interaction approximation'' (DIA). (A.K.)
Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Gurcan, O.E.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a novel, unified approach to the theory of turbulent transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift waves. The physics of resonant and non‐resonant off‐diagonal contributions to the momentum flux is emphasized, and collisionless momentum exchange between waves...... and particles is accounted for. Two related momentum conservation theorems are derived. These relate the resonant particle momentum flux, the wave momentum flux and the refractive force. A perturbative calculation, in the spirit of Chapman‐Enskog theory, is used to obtain the wave momentum flux, which...... contributes significantly to the residual stress. A general equation for mean κ∥(〈κ∥〉) is derived and used to develop a generalized theory of symmetry breaking. The resonant particle momentum flux is calculated, and pinch and residual stress effects are identified. The implications of the theory for intrinsic...
Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Gürcan, O.D.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a novel, unified approach to the theory of turbulent transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift waves. The physics of resonant and nonresonant off-diagonal contributions to the momentum flux is emphasized, and collisionless momentum exchange between waves...... and particles is accounted for. Two related momentum conservation theorems are derived. These relate the resonant particle momentum flux, the wave momentum flux, and the refractive force. A perturbative calculation, in the spirit of Chapman-Enskog theory, is used to obtain the wave momentum flux, which...... contributes significantly to the residual stress. A general equation for mean k(parallel to) () is derived and used to develop a generalized theory of symmetry breaking. The resonant particle momentum flux is calculated, and pinch and residual stress effects are identified. The implications...
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caldas, Ibere L.; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Brasilio, Z.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1997-12-31
Full text. In this work we summarize the results from experiments on electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in tokamak plasmas. Spectral analyses show that these fluctuations are turbulent, having a broad spectrum of wavectors and a broad spectrum of frequencies at each wavector. The electrostatic turbulence induces unexpected anomalous particle transport that deteriorates the plasma confinement. The relationship of these fluctuations to the current state of plasma theory is still unclear. Furthermore, we describe also attempts to control this plasma turbulence with external magnetic perturbations that create chaotic magnetic configurations. Accordingly, the magnetic field lines may become chaotic and then induce a Lagrangian diffusion. Moreover, to discuss nonlinear coupling and intermittency, we present results obtained by using numerical techniques as bi spectral and wavelet analyses. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.
Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.
1995-01-01
This document deals with correlation length of electrostatic turbulence. First, the model of drift waves turbulence is presented. Then, the radial correlation length is determined analytically with toroidal coupling and non linear coupling. (TEC). 5 refs
Statistical theory of Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DuBois, D.F.; Rose, H.A.; Goldman, M.V.
1979-01-01
A statistical theory of Langmuir turbulence is developed by applying a generalization of the direction interaction approximation (DIA) of Kraichnan to the Zakharov equations describing Langmuir turbulence. 7 references
Radial and zonal modes in hyperfine-scale stellarator turbulence
Jenko, F.; Kendl, A.
2002-10-01
Electromagnetic plasma turbulence at hyperfine (i.e., electron gyroradius) scales is studied in the geometry of an advanced stellarator fusion experiment, Wendelstein 7-AS [H. Renner, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 31, 1579 (1989)], by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. It is demonstrated that high-amplitude radial streamers may also exist in non-tokamak devices, raising the electron heat flux to experimentally relevant values. Moreover, some statistical characteristics of the fully developed turbulence are computed, highlighting the (co-)existence, nature, and role of self-generated zonal flows and fields.
A New Look at Some Solar Wind Turbulence Puzzles
Roberts, Aaron
2006-01-01
Some aspects of solar wind turbulence have defied explanation. While it seems likely that the evolution of Alfvenicity and power spectra are largely explained by the shearing of an initial population of solar-generated Alfvenic fluctuations, the evolution of the anisotropies of the turbulence does not fit into the model so far. A two-component model, consisting of slab waves and quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations, offers some ideas, but does not account for the turning of both wave-vector-space power anisotropies and minimum variance directions in the fluctuating vectors as the Parker spiral turns. We will show observations that indicate that the minimum variance evolution is likely not due to traditional turbulence mechanisms, and offer arguments that the idea of two-component turbulence is at best a local approximation that is of little help in explaining the evolution of the fluctuations. Finally, time-permitting, we will discuss some observations that suggest that the low Alfvenicity of many regions of the solar wind in the inner heliosphere is not due to turbulent evolution, but rather to the existence of convected structures, including mini-clouds and other twisted flux tubes, that were formed with low Alfvenicity. There is still a role for turbulence in the above picture, but it is highly modified from the traditional views.
Plasma turbulence calculations on supercomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Dominguez, N.; Drake, J.B.; Garcia, L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Sidikman, K.
1991-01-01
Although the single-particle picture of magnetic confinement is helpful in understanding some basic physics of plasma confinement, it does not give a full description. Collective effects dominate plasma behavior. Any analysis of plasma confinement requires a self-consistent treatment of the particles and fields. The general picture is further complicated because the plasma, in general, is turbulent. The study of fluid turbulence is a rather complex field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples back to the fluid. Since the fluid is not a perfect conductor, this turbulence can lead to changes in the topology of the magnetic field structure, causing the magnetic field lines to wander radially. Because the plasma fluid flows along field lines, they carry the particles with them, and this enhances the losses caused by collisions. The changes in topology are critical for the plasma confinement. The study of plasma turbulence and the concomitant transport is a challenging problem. Because of the importance of solving the plasma turbulence problem for controlled thermonuclear research, the high complexity of the problem, and the necessity of attacking the problem with supercomputers, the study of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement devices is a Grand Challenge problem
An overview of turbulence compensation
Schutte, K.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Iersel, M. van; Doelman, N.J.
2012-01-01
In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification
Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
theories have since found applications in many areas of astrophysics. Spacecraft measurements of solar-wind turbulence show that there is more power in Alfvén waves that travel away from the. Sun than towards it. Theories of imbalanced MHD turbulence have now been proposed to address interplanetary turbulence.
Basic issues of atmospheric turbulence and turbulent diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortak, H.
1985-01-01
A major concern of the institutions commissioned with the protection of the environment is the prognostication of the environment's exposure to various pollutant emissions. The transport and turbulent diffusion of air-borne substances largely take place within a planetary boundary layer of a thickness between 500 to 1,500 m in which the atmosphere continues to be in a turbulent state of flow. The basic theories for the origination and formation of turbulence in flow fields, for the application of these theories to turbulent flows over complex terrain structures and, finally, for the turbulent diffusion of air-borne substances within the planetary boundary layer are presented. (orig./PW) [de
Vertical divergence of fogwater fluxes above a spruce forest
Burkard, R.; Eugster, W.; Wrzesinsky, T.; Klemm, O.
Two almost identical eddy covariance measurement setups were used to measure the fogwater fluxes to a forest ecosystem in the "Fichtelgebirge" mountains (Waldstein research site, 786 m a.s.l.) in Germany. During the first experiment, an intercomparison was carried out with both setups running simultaneously at the same measuring height on a meteorological tower, 12.5 m above the forest canopy. The results confirmed a close agreement of the turbulent fluxes between the two setups, and allowed to intercalibrate liquid water content (LWC) and gravitational fluxes. During the second experiment, the setups were mounted at a height of 12.5 and 3 m above the canopy, respectively. For the 22 fog events, a persistent negative flux divergence was observed with a greater downward flux at the upper level. To extrapolate the turbulent liquid water fluxes measured at height z to the canopy of height hc, a conversion factor 1/[1+0.116( z- hc)] was determined. For the fluxes of nonvolatile ions, no such correction is necessary since the net evaporation of the fog droplets appears to be the primary cause of the vertical flux divergence. Although the net evaporation reduces the liquid water flux reaching the canopy, it is not expected to change the absolute amount of ions dissolved in fogwater.
Turbulence and Flying Machines
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
for Advanced Scientific. Research. She is currently working on problems of flow stability, transition to turbulence and vortex dynamics. Rama Govindarajan. This article is intended to introduce the young reader to the ... T applied by the engines and the drag force D due to the resistance of the air, i.e., under cruise condi~ions,.
Incremental Similarity and Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen
This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...
Stochastic modelling of turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse
previously been shown to be closely connected to the energy dissipation. The incorporation of the small scale dynamics into the spatial model opens the door to a fully fledged stochastic model of turbulence. Concerning the interaction of wind and wind turbine, a new method is proposed to extract wind turbine...
Turbulence compressibility corrections
Coakley, T. J.; Horstman, C. C.; Marvin, J. G.; Viegas, J. R.; Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Kussoy, M. I.
1994-01-01
The basic objective of this research was to identify, develop and recommend turbulence models which could be incorporated into CFD codes used in the design of the National AeroSpace Plane vehicles. To accomplish this goal, a combined effort consisting of experimental and theoretical phases was undertaken. The experimental phase consisted of a literature survey to collect and assess a database of well documented experimental flows, with emphasis on high speed or hypersonic flows, which could be used to validate turbulence models. Since it was anticipated that this database would be incomplete and would need supplementing, additional experiments in the NASA Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) were also undertaken. The theoretical phase consisted of identifying promising turbulence models through applications to simple flows, and then investigating more promising models in applications to complex flows. The complex flows were selected from the database developed in the first phase of the study. For these flows it was anticipated that model performance would not be entirely satisfactory, so that model improvements or corrections would be required. The primary goals of the investigation were essentially achieved. A large database of flows was collected and assessed, a number of additional hypersonic experiments were conducted in the Ames HWT, and two turbulence models (kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models with corrections) were determined which gave superior performance for most of the flows studied and are now recommended for NASP applications.
van der Veen, Roeland
2016-01-01
In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study
Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence
Kumar, Abhishek
2014-08-25
Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Πu, we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum Eu(k)∼k-11/5, the potential energy spectrum Eθ(k)∼k-7/5, and Πu(k)∼k-4/5 are consistent with the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling. This scaling arises due to the conversion of kinetic energy to the potential energy by buoyancy. For weaker buoyancy, this conversion is weak, hence Eu(k) follows Kolmogorov\\'s spectrum with a constant energy flux. For Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we show that the energy supply rate by buoyancy is positive, which leads to an increasing Πu(k) with k, thus ruling out Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling for the convective turbulence. Our numerical results show that convective turbulence for unit Prandt number exhibits a constant Πu(k) and Eu(k)∼k-5/3 for a narrow band of wave numbers. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Yan, Zheng
This dissertation provides an experimental test of the basic theory of the self-regulating drift wave turbulence (DWT)/sheared zonal flow (ZF) system in a cylindrical plasma device. The work is carried out from three approaches: the first explores the statistical properties of the turbulent Reynolds stress and its link to the ZF generation, the second investigates the dynamical behavior of the DWT/ZF system and the third investigates the variation of the DWT driven ZF verses magnetic field strength and ion-neutral drag. A radially sheared azimuthally symmetric plasma flow is generated by the DWT turbulent Reynolds stress which is directly measured by a multi-tip Langmuir probe. A statistical analysis shows that the cross-phase between the turbulent radial and azimuthal velocity components is the key factor determining the detailed Reynolds stress profile. The coincidence of the radial location of the non-Gaussian distribution of the turbulent Reynolds stress and the ion saturation current, as well as the properties of the joint probability distribution function (PDF) between the radial particle flux and turbulent Reynolds stress suggest that the bursts of the particle transport appear to be associated with radial transport of azimuthal momentum as well. The results link the behavior of the Reynolds stress, its statistical properties, generation of bursty radially going azimuthal momentum transport events, and the formation of the large-scale ZF. From both Langmuir probe and fast-faming imaging measurements this shear flow is found to evolve with low frequency (˜250-300Hz). The envelope of the higher frequency (above 5kHz) floating potential fluctuations associated with the DWT, the density gradient, and the turbulent radial particle flux are all modulated out of phase with the strength of the ZF. The divergence of the turbulent Reynolds stress is also modulated at the same slow time scale in a phase-coherent manner consistent with a turbulence-driven shear flow
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
Magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, P.
1979-01-01
By using measurements with the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the Imp 6 satellite a study has been conducted of the spectrum of electrostatic plasma waves in the terrestrial magnetosheath. Electrostatic plasma wave turbulence is almost continuously present throughout the magnetosheath with broadband (20 Hz to 70 kHz) rms field intensities typically 0.01--1.0 mV m -1 . Peak intensities of about 1.0 mV m -1 near the electron plasma frequency (30--60 kHz) have been detected occasionally. Two or three components can usually be identified in the spectrum of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence: a high-frequency (> or =30kHz) component peaking at the electron plasma frequency f/sub p/e, a low-frequency component with a broad intensity maximum below the nominal ion plasma frequency f/sub p/i (approx. f/sub p/e/43), and a less well defined intermediate component in the range f/sub p/i < f< f/sub p/e. The intensity distribution of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence clearly shows that the low-frequency component is associated with the bow shock, suggesting that the ion heating begun at the shock continues into the downstream magnetosheath. Electrostatic waves below 1 kHz are polarized along the magnetic field direction, a result consistent with the polarization of electrostatic waves at the shock. The high- and intermediate-frequency components are features of the magnetosheath spectrum which are not characteristic of the shock spectrum but are often detected in the upstream solar wind. The intensity distribution of electrostatic turbulence at the magnetosheath plasma frequency has no apparent correlation with the shock, indicating that electron plasma oscillations are a general feature of the magnetosheath. The plasma wave noise shows a tendency to decrease toward the dawn and dusk regions, consistent with a general decrease in turbulence away from the subsolar magnetosheath
Structure of Turbulence in Katabatic Flows Below and Above the Wind-Speed Maximum
Grachev, Andrey A.; Leo, Laura S.; Sabatino, Silvana Di; Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Fairall, Christopher W.
2016-06-01
Measurements of small-scale turbulence made in the atmospheric boundary layer over complex terrain during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program are used to describe the structure of turbulence in katabatic flows. Turbulent and mean meteorological data were continuously measured on four towers deployed along the east lower slope (2-4°) of Granite Mountain near Salt Lake City in Utah, USA. The multi-level (up to seven) observations made during a 30-day long MATERHORN field campaign in September-October 2012 allowed the study of temporal and spatial structure of katabatic flows in detail, and herein we report turbulence statistics (e.g., fluxes, variances, spectra, and cospectra) and their variations in katabatic flow. Observed vertical profiles show steep gradients near the surface, but in the layer above the slope jet the vertical variability is smaller. It is found that the vertical (normal to the slope) momentum flux and horizontal (along-slope) heat flux in a slope-following coordinate system change their sign below and above the wind maximum of a katabatic flow. The momentum flux is directed downward (upward) whereas the along-slope heat flux is downslope (upslope) below (above) the wind maximum. This suggests that the position of the jet-speed maximum can be obtained by linear interpolation between positive and negative values of the momentum flux (or the along-slope heat flux) to derive the height where the flux becomes zero. It is shown that the standard deviations of all wind-speed components (and therefore of the turbulent kinetic energy) and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy have a local minimum, whereas the standard deviation of air temperature has an absolute maximum at the height of wind-speed maximum. We report several cases when the destructive effect of vertical heat flux is completely cancelled by the generation of turbulence due to the along-slope heat flux. Turbulence above the wind
Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-07-03
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.
Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-07-01
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a ΛΛ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.
Exact law for homogeneous compressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics turbulence
Andrés, N.; Galtier, S.; Sahraoui, F.
2018-01-01
We derive an exact law for three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous compressible isothermal Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, without the assumption of isotropy. The Hall current is shown to introduce new flux and source terms that act at the small scales (comparable or smaller than the ion skin depth) to significantly impact the turbulence dynamics. The law provides an accurate means to estimate the energy cascade rate over a broad range of scales covering the magnetohydrodynamic inertial range and the sub-ion dispersive range in 3D numerical simulations and in in situ spacecraft observations of compressible turbulence. This work is particularly relevant to astrophysical flows in which small-scale density fluctuations cannot be ignored such as the solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, and the interstellar medium.
Satellite sensing of submerged fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence
Gibson, Carl H.
2004-11-01
Surface brightness anomalies from a submerged municipal wastewater outfall trapped by buoyancy in an area 0.1 km^2 are surprisingly detected from space satellites in areas > 200 km^2. How is this possible? Microstructure measurements near the outfall diffuser reveal enhanced turbulence and temperature dissipation rates above the 50 m trapping depth. Near-vertical radiation of internal waves by fossil and zombie turbulence microstructure patches produce wind ripple smoothing with 30-50 m internal wave patterns in surface Fourier brightness anomalies near the outfall. Detections at 10-14 km distances are at 100-220 m bottom boundary layer (BBL) fossil turbulence scales. Advected outfall fossils form zombie turbulence patches in internal wave patterns as they extract energy, vorticity, turbulence and ambient vertical internal wavelength information as their density gradients are tilted by the waves. As the zombies fossilize, patterned energy radiates near-vertically to produce the detected Fourier anomalies. Zombie turbulence patches beam extracted energy in a preferred direction with a special frequency, like energized metastable molecules in a chemical maser. Thus, kilowatts to produce the submerged field of advected fossil outfall turbulence patches are amplified by beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA) into megawatts of turbulence dissipation to affect sea surface brightness on wide surface areas using gigawatts of BBL fossil turbulence wave energy available.
Field-theoretic calculation of kinetic helicity flux
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we apply perturbative field-theoretic technique to helical turbulence. In the inertial range the kinetic helicity flux is found to be constant and forward. The universal constant H appearing in the spectrum of kinetic helicity was found to be 2.47.
Degefie, D. T.; El-Madany, T.-S.; Held, M.; Hejkal, J.; Hammer, E.; Dupont, J.-C.; Haeffelin, M.; Fleischer, E.; Klemm, O.
2015-10-01
The chemical composition of collected fog water and its temporal evolution was studied during the PARISFOG campaign in winter 2012/2013 at the SIRTA (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphéric) atmospheric observatory outside Paris, France. A further development of the caltech active fog collector was applied, in which the collected fog water gets into contact with Teflon and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) material exclusively. The collector was operational whenever the visibility was below 1000 m. In addition, the turbulent and gravitational fluxes of fog water and water vapor flux were used to examine in detail the temporal evolution the chemical composition of two fogs. The technique was applied to two fog events, one representing a radiation fog and the other one representing a stratus lowering fog. The result revealed that the dominant inorganic species in the fog water were NH4+, NO3-, Ca2 + and SO42 -, which accounted for more than 85% of the ion balance. The pH ranged from 3.7 to 6.2. In the evolution the two fog events, the interaction among the turbulent fog water flux, gravitational fog water flux and water vapor flux controlled the major ion loads (amount of ions, dissolved in fog droplets per volume of air) and ion concentrations (amount dissolved per volume of liquid water) of the fog water. In the radiation fog event, an increase of ion loads and ion concentrations occurred when the direction of water vapor flux towards to the place where the condensation process occurred. A decrease of ion loads and ion concentrations mainly happened by gravitational fog water flux with a minor contribution from turbulent fog water flux. However, when the turbulent water vapor flux was oriented downward, it turned the turbulent fog water flux upward and offset the removal of ions in the fog. In the stratus lowering fog event, the turbulent fog water flux and the gravitational water flux together mainly contributed to the fog water deposition and
The lagRST Model: A Turbulence Model for Non-Equilibrium Flows
Lillard, Randolph P.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Olsen, Michael E.; Blaisdell, Gregory A.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.
2011-01-01
This study presents a new class of turbulence model designed for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows with separation. The model addresses deficiencies seen in the modeling of nonequilibrium turbulent flows. These flows generally have variable adverse pressure gradients which cause the turbulent quantities to react at a finite rate to changes in the mean flow quantities. This "lag" in the response of the turbulent quantities can t be modeled by most standard turbulence models, which are designed to model equilibrium turbulent boundary layers. The model presented uses a standard 2-equation model as the baseline for turbulent equilibrium calculations, but adds transport equations to account directly for non-equilibrium effects in the Reynolds Stress Tensor (RST) that are seen in large pressure gradients involving shock waves and separation. Comparisons are made to several standard turbulence modeling validation cases, including an incompressible boundary layer (both neutral and adverse pressure gradients), an incompressible mixing layer and a transonic bump flow. In addition, a hypersonic Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction with separation is assessed along with a transonic capsule flow. Results show a substantial improvement over the baseline models for transonic separated flows. The results are mixed for the SWTBLI flows assessed. Separation predictions are not as good as the baseline models, but the over prediction of the peak heat flux downstream of the reattachment shock that plagues many models is reduced.
Impact of terrain heterogeneity on near-surface turbulence structure
Fesquet, Clément; Drobinski, Philippe; Barthlott, Christian; Dubos, Thomas
2009-10-01
This study investigates the impact of terrain heterogeneity on local turbulence measurements using 18 months of turbulence data taken on a 30 m tower at the SIRTA mixed land-use observatory under varying stability conditions and fetch configurations. These measurements show that turbulence variables such as the turbulent kinetic energy or momentum fluxes are strongly dependent on the upstream complexity of the terrain (presence of trees or buildings, open field). However, using a detection technique based on wavelet transforms which permits the isolation of the large-scale coherent structures from small-scale background fluctuations, the study shows that, for all stability conditions, whatever the upstream complexity of the terrain, the coherent structures display universal properties which are independent of the terrain nature: the frequency of occurrence, time duration of the coherent structures, the time separation between coherent structures and the relative contribution of the coherent structures to the total fluxes (momentum and heat) appear to be independent of the upstream roughness. This is an important result since coherent structures are known to transport a large portion of the total energy. This study extends to all stability conditions a numerical study by Fesquet et al. [Fesquet, C., Dupont, S., Drobinski, P., Barthlott, C., Dubos, T., 2008. Impact of terrain heterogeneities on coherent structures properties: experimental and numerical approaches. In: 18th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence. No. 11B.1. Stockholm, Sweden., Fesquet, C., Dupont, S., Drobinski, P., Dubos, T., Barthlott, C., in press. Impact of terrain heterogeneity on coherent structure properties: numerical approach. Bound.-Layer Meteorol.] conducted in neutral conditions which shows that a reason for such behavior is that the production of local active turbulence in an internal boundary layer associated with coherent structure originating from the outer layer and impinging
MHD energy fluxes for late type dwarfs
Rosner, R.; Musielak, Z. E.
1987-01-01
The efficiency of MHD wave generation by turbulent motions in stratified stellar atmospheres with embedded uniform magnetic fields is calculated. In contradiction with previous results, it is shown that there is no significant increase in the efficiency of wave generation because of the presence of magnetic fields, at least within the theory's limits of applicability. It is shown that MHD energy fluxes for late-type stars are less than those obtained for acoustic waves in a magnetic-field-free atmosphere, and do not vary enough for a given spectral type in order to explain observed UV and X-ray fluxes. Thus, the results show that MHD energy fluxes obtained if stellar surface magnetic fields are uniform cannot explain the observed stellar coronal emissions.
VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PROPAGATING TURBULENT RELATIVISTIC JETS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pollack, Maxwell; Pauls, David; Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: wiitap@tcnj.edu [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States)
2016-03-20
We use the Athena hydrodynamics code to model propagating two-dimensional relativistic jets as approximations to the growth of radio-loud active galactic nuclei for various input jet velocities and jet-to-ambient matter density ratios. Using results from these simulations we estimate the changing synchrotron emission by summing the fluxes from a vertical strip of zones behind the reconfinement shock, which is nearly stationary, and from which a substantial portion of the flux variability should arise. We explore a wide range of timescales by considering two light curves from each simulation; one uses a relativistic turbulence code with bulk velocities taken from our simulations as input, while the other uses the bulk velocity data to compute fluctuations caused by variations in the Doppler boosting due to changes in the direction and the speed of the flow through all zones in the strip. We then calculate power spectral densities (PSDs) from the light curves for both turbulent and bulk velocity origins for variability. The range of the power-law slopes of the PSDs for the turbulence induced variations is −1.8 to −2.3, while for the bulk velocity produced variations this range is −2.1 to −2.9; these are in agreement with most observations. When superimposed, these power spectra span a very large range in frequency (about five decades), with the turbulent fluctuations yielding most of the shorter timescale variations and the bulk flow changes dominating the longer periods.
Anaïs Schaeffer
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed. The last day of data collection, tired but satisfied after seven intense days of measurements. Around the cryostat, from left to right: Philippe-E. Roche, Éléonore Rusaouen (CNRS), Olivier Pirotte, Jean-Marc Quetsch (CERN), Nicolas Friedlin (CERN), Vladislav Benda (CERN). Not in the photo: Laurent Le Mao (CERN), Jean-Marc Debernard (CERN), Jean-Paul Lamboy (CERN), Nicolas Guillotin (CERN), Benoit Chabaud (Grenoble Uni), and Gregory Garde (CNRS). CERN has a unique cryogenic facility in hall SM18, consisting of 21 liquid-helium-cooled test stations. While this equipment was, of course, designed for testing parts of CERN's acce...
Aerotaxis in Bacterial Turbulence
Fernandez, Vicente; Bisson, Antoine; Bitton, Cindy; Waisbord, Nicolas; Smriga, Steven; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman
2012-11-01
Concentrated suspensions of motile bacteria exhibit correlated dynamics on spatial scales much larger than an individual bacterium. The resulting flows, visually similar to turbulence, can increase mixing and decrease viscosity. However, it remains unclear to what degree the collective dynamics depend on the motile behavior of bacteria at the individual level. Using a new microfluidic device to create controlled horizontal oxygen gradients, we studied the two dimensional behavior of dense suspensions of Bacillus subtilis. This system makes it possible to assess the interplay between the coherent large-scale motions of the suspension, oxygen transport, and the directional response of cells to oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). At the same time, this device has enabled us to examine the onset of bacterial turbulence and its influence on the propagation of the diffusing oxygen front, as the bacteria begin in a dormant state and transition to swimming when exposed to oxygen.
Random functions and turbulence
Panchev, S
1971-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stefanicki, G.; Geissbuehler, P.; Siegwolf, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
The Eddy covariance technique allows to measure different components of turbulent air fluxes, including the flow of water vapour. Sap flux measurements determine directly the water flow in tree stems. We compared the water flux just above the crowns of trees in a forest by the technique of Eddy covariance and the water flux by the xylem sap flux method. These two completely different approaches showed a good qualitative correspondence. The correlation coefficient is 0.8. With an estimation of the crown diameter of the measured tree we also find a very good quantitative agreement. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.
A flux footprint analysis to understand ecosystem fluxes in an intensively managed landscape
Hernandez Rodriguez, L. C.; Goodwell, A. E.; Kumar, P.
2017-12-01
Flux tower studies in agricultural sites have mainly been done at plot scale, where the footprint of the instruments is small such that the data reveals the behaviour of the nearby crop on which the study is focused. In the Midwestern United States, the agricultural ecosystem and its associated drainage, evapotranspiration, and nutrient dynamics are dominant influences on interactions between the soil, land, and atmosphere. In this study, we address large-scale ecohydrologic fluxes and states in an intensively managed landscape based on data from a 25m high eddy covariance flux tower. We show the calculated upwind distance and flux footprint for a flux tower located in Central Illinois as part of the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO). In addition, we calculate the daily energy balance during the summer of 2016 from the flux tower measurements and compare with the modelled energy balance from a representative corn crop located in the flux tower footprint using the Multi-Layer Canopy model, MLCan. The changes in flux footprint over the course of hours, days, and the growing season have significant implications for the measured fluxes of carbon and energy at the flux tower. We use MLCan to simulate these fluxes under land covers of corn and soybeans. Our results demonstrate how the instrument heights impact the footprint of the captured eddy covariance fluxes, and we explore the implication for hydrological analysis. The convective turbulent atmosphere during the daytime shows a wide footprint of more than 10 km2, which reaches 3km length for the 90% contribution, where buoyancy is the dominant mechanism driving turbulence. In contrast, the stable atmosphere during the night-time shows a narrower footprint that goes beyond 8km2 and grows in the direction of the prevalent wind, which exceeds 4 km in length. This study improves our understanding of agricultural ecosystem behaviour in terms of the magnitude and variability of fluxes and
Fluxes over a heterogeneous land surface: results and perspectives of the LITFASS program
Beyrich, F.; Richter, S.H.; Weisensee, U.; Herzog, H.J.; DeBruin, H.A.R.; Meijninger, W.M.L.
2002-01-01
From 1995 till 2001, the German Meteorological Service (DWD) has performed a research project (LITFASS='Lindenberg Inhomogeneous Terrain - Fluxes between Atmosphere and Surface: a Long-term Study') in order to develop and to test a strategy for the determination of the area-averaged turbulent fluxes
A Parallel, Finite-Volume Algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows
Bui, Trong T.
1999-01-01
A parallel, finite-volume algorithm has been developed for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent flows. This algorithm includes piecewise linear least-square reconstruction, trilinear finite-element interpolation, Roe flux-difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack time marching. Parallel implementation is done using the message-passing programming model. In this paper, the numerical algorithm is described. To validate the numerical method for turbulence simulation, LES of fully developed turbulent flow in a square duct is performed for a Reynolds number of 320 based on the average friction velocity and the hydraulic diameter of the duct. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) results are available for this test case, and the accuracy of this algorithm for turbulence simulations can be ascertained by comparing the LES solutions with the DNS results. The effects of grid resolution, upwind numerical dissipation, and subgrid-scale dissipation on the accuracy of the LES are examined. Comparison with DNS results shows that the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation adversely affects the accuracy of the turbulence simulation. For accurate turbulence simulations, only 3-5 percent of the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation is needed.
A new turbulence-based model for sand transport
Mayaud, Jerome; Wiggs, Giles; Bailey, Richard
2016-04-01
Knowledge of the changing rate of sediment flux in space and time is essential for quantifying surface erosion and deposition in desert landscapes. While many aeolian studies have relied on time-averaged parameters such as wind velocity (U) and wind shear velocity (u*) to determine sediment flux, there is increasing evidence that high-frequency turbulence is an important driving force behind the entrainment and transport of sand. However, turbulence has yet to be incorporated into a functional sand transport model that can be used for predictive purposes. In this study we present a new transport model (the 'turbulence model') that accounts for high-frequency variations in the horizontal (u) and vertical (w) components of wind flow. The turbulence model is fitted to wind velocity and sediment transport data from a field experiment undertaken in Namibia's Skeleton Coast National Park, and its performance at three temporal resolutions (10 Hz, 1 Hz, 1 min) is compared to two existing models that rely on time-averaged wind velocity data (Radok, 1977; Dong et al., 2003). The validity of the three models is analysed under a variety of saltation conditions, using a 2-hour (1 Hz measurement resolution) dataset from the Skeleton Coast and a 5-hour (1 min measurement resolution) dataset from the southwestern Kalahari Desert. The turbulence model is shown to outperform the Radok and Dong models when predicting total saltation count over the three experimental periods. For all temporal resolutions presented in this study (10 Hz-10 min), the turbulence model predicted total saltation count to within at least 0.34%, whereas the Radok and Dong models over- or underestimated total count by up to 5.50% and 20.53% respectively. The strong performance of the turbulence model can be attributed to a lag in mass flux response built into its formulation, which can be adapted depending on the temporal resolution of investigation. This accounts for the inherent lag within the physical
Numerical computation of compressible, turbulent high-speed flows
Suzen, Yildirim Bora
Separated flows and subsequent formation of shear layers are important fluid processes which play a dominant role in numerous engineering applications. Accurate prediction of this fluid process is an important element in the design and analysis of high speed vehicles and, ultimately, in performance and trajectory analysis. In this study, a two-dimensional/axisymmetric Navier-Stokes flow solver using Steger-Warming flux vector splitting technique is developed for the accurate simulation of high speed turbulent flows. Computations are performed for an underexpanded, supersonic, turbulent, axisymmetric jet and a two-stream supersonic turbulent wake flowfield behind a two-dimensional thick base as representative of high speed, compressible shear flows. Baldwin-Barth and Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence models and Baseline version of Menter's zonal k - omega/k - varepsilon two-equation turbulence models are used to investigate their performance for the applications considered. Modifications to these models are incorporated in order to improve their prediction capabilities for the types of flows considered. For two-equation models, modifications to include compressibility correction terms are considered and a modeled version of Menter's models including compressible dissipation and pressure dilatation terms is developed. Axisymmetric correction is incorporated to all models by means of coefficient changes. The computational results are compared to available experimental data. Results show that the modifications improve the computed solutions for all models.
Control of wave-driven turbulence and surface heating on the mixing of microplastic marine debris
Kukulka, T.; Lavender Law, K. L.; Proskurowski, G. K.
2016-02-01
Buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD) is a pollutant in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) that is submerged by turbulent transport processes. Langmuir circulation (LC) is a turbulent process driven by wind and surface waves that enhances mixing in the OSBL. Sea surface cooling also contributes to OSBL turbulence by driving convection. On the other hand, sea surface heating stratifies and stabilizes the water column to reduce turbulent motion. We analyze observed MPMD surface concentrations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to reveal a significant increase in MPMD concentrations during surface heating and a decrease during surface cooling. Turbulence resolving large eddy simulations of the OSBL for an idealized diurnal heating cycle suggest that turbulent downward fluxes of buoyant tracers are enhanced at night, facilitating deep submergence of plastics, and suppressed in heating conditions, resulting in surface trapped MPMD. Simulations agree with observations if enhanced mixing due to LC is included. Our results demonstrate the controlling influence of surface heat fluxes and LC on turbulent transport in the OSBL and on vertical distributions of buoyant marine particles.
Turbulence and Mixing in a Shallow Shelf Sea From Underwater Gliders
Schultze, Larissa K. P.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Carpenter, Jeffrey R.
2017-11-01
The seasonal thermocline in shallow shelf seas acts as a natural barrier for boundary-generated turbulence, damping scalar transport to the upper regions of the water column and controlling primary production to a certain extent. To better understand turbulence and mixing conditions within the thermocline, two unique 12 and 17 day data sets with continuous measurements of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ) collected by autonomous underwater gliders under stratified to well-mixed conditions are presented. A highly intermittent ɛ signal was observed in the stratified thermocline region, which was mainly characterized by quiescent flow (turbulent activity index below 7). The rate of diapycnal mixing remained relatively constant for the majority of the time with peaks of higher fluxes that were responsible for much of the increase in bottom mixed layer temperature. The water column stayed predominantly strongly stratified, with a bulk Richardson number across the thermocline well above 2. A positive relationship between the intensity of turbulence, shear, and stratification was found. The trend between turbulence levels and the bulk Richardson number was relatively weak but suggests that ɛ increases as the bulk Richardson number approaches 1. The results also highlight the interpretation difficulties in both quantifying turbulent thermocline fluxes as well as the responsible mechanisms.
Bruno, Roberto
2016-01-01
This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...
4th European Turbulence Conference
1993-01-01
The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...
Turbulent Simulations of Divertor Detachment Based On BOUT + + Framework
Chen, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang; Ye, Minyou
2015-11-01
China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is under conceptual design, acting as a bridge between ITER and DEMO. The detached divertor operation offers great promise for a reduction of heat flux onto divertor target plates for acceptable erosion. Therefore, a density scan is performed via an increase of D2 gas puffing rates in the range of 0 . 0 ~ 5 . 0 ×1023s-1 by using the B2-Eirene/SOLPS 5.0 code package to study the heat flux control and impurity screening property. As the density increases, it shows a gradually change of the divertor operation status, from low-recycling regime to high-recycling regime and finally to detachment. Significant radiation loss inside the confined plasma in the divertor region during detachment leads to strong parallel density and temperature gradients. Based on the SOLPS simulations, BOUT + + simulations will be presented to investigate the stability and turbulent transport under divertor plasma detachment, particularly the strong parallel gradient driven instabilities and enhanced plasma turbulence to spread heat flux over larger surface areas. The correlation between outer mid-plane and divertor turbulence and the related transport will be analyzed. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675075.
Numerical analysis of hypersonic turbulent film cooling flows
Chen, Y. S.; Chen, C. P.; Wei, H.
1992-01-01
As a building block, numerical capabilities for predicting heat flux and turbulent flowfields of hypersonic vehicles require extensive model validations. Computational procedures for calculating turbulent flows and heat fluxes for supersonic film cooling with parallel slot injections are described in this study. Two injectant mass flow rates with matched and unmatched pressure conditions using the database of Holden et al. (1990) are considered. To avoid uncertainties associated with the boundary conditions in testing turbulence models, detailed three-dimensional flowfields of the injection nozzle were calculated. Two computational fluid dynamics codes, GASP and FDNS, with the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax and k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections were used. It was found that the B-L model which resolves near-wall viscous sublayer is very sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions at the nozzle exit face. The k-epsilon models with improved wall functions are less sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions. The testings show that compressibility corrections are necessary for the k-epsilon model to realistically predict the heat fluxes of the hypersonic film cooling problems.
Synergistic cross-scale coupling of turbulence in a tokamak plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howard, N. T., E-mail: nthoward@psfc.mit.edu [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); White, A. E.; Greenwald, M. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)
2014-11-15
For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations spanning both the ion and electron spatio-temporal scales have been performed with realistic electron mass ratio ((m{sub D}∕m{sub e}){sup 1∕2 }= 60.0), realistic geometry, and all experimental inputs, demonstrating the coexistence and synergy of ion (k{sub θ}ρ{sub s}∼O(1.0)) and electron-scale (k{sub θ}ρ{sub e}∼O(1.0)) turbulence in the core of a tokamak plasma. All multi-scale simulations utilized the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] to study the coupling of ion and electron-scale turbulence in the core (r/a = 0.6) of an Alcator C-Mod L-mode discharge shown previously to exhibit an under-prediction of the electron heat flux when using simulations only including ion-scale turbulence. Electron-scale turbulence is found to play a dominant role in setting the electron heat flux level and radially elongated (k{sub r} ≪ k{sub θ}) “streamers” are found to coexist with ion-scale eddies in experimental plasma conditions. Inclusion of electron-scale turbulence in these simulations is found to increase both ion and electron heat flux levels by enhancing the transport at the ion-scale while also driving electron heat flux at sub-ρ{sub i} scales. The combined increases in the low and high-k driven electron heat flux may explain previously observed discrepancies between simulated and experimental electron heat fluxes and indicates a complex interaction of short and long wavelength turbulence.
Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Galtier
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.
Turbulent dispersion of many particles
Pratt, J.; Busse, A.; Muller, W. C.
2017-12-01
We demonstrate the utility of the convex hull to analyze dispersion of groups of many Lagrangian tracer particles in turbulence. We examine dispersion in turbulent flows driven by convection, relevant to geophysical flows and the spread of contaminants in the atmosphere, and in turbulent flows affected by magnetic fields, relevant to stellar winds and stellar interiors. Convex hull analysis can provide new information about local dispersion, in the form of the surface area and volume for a cluster of particles. We use dispersive information to examine the local anisotropy that occurs in these turbulent settings, and to understand fundamental characteristics of heat transfer and the small-scale dynamo.
Electrostatic turbulence in the Tokamak TBR-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, R.M. de.
1991-01-01
Characteristics of turbulence at plasma edge of tokamak TBR - 1 are determined from measurements of potentials and density fluctuations, done with a square array of four single Langmuir probes. Two adjacent probes are used to measure the floating potential of the plasma in either poloidal or toroidal directions, the remaining two probes are used to measure saturation current also in poloidal and toroidal directions. Using multiple shot data from the four probe array the radial fluctuation density (n ∼ ) and floating potential (φ ∼ ) profiles are estimated. Analysing the fluctuations spectra the wavenumber-frequency spectrum S(k,ω) from two points measurements is determined. An extension of the cross-correlation concept to a three points correlations leads to the estimation of the fluctuation induced particle flux, from which the particle diffusion coefficient and the convected heat flux can be estimated. All this measurements were performed with and without a resonant magnetic field to verify the eventual influence of this field on the data already mentioned. It was verified that the particle flux is outward and due to electrostatic fluctuations with frequencies lower than 150 khz. (author)
Capabilities of VOS-based fluxes for estimating ocean heat budget and its variability
Gulev, S.; Belyaev, K.
2016-12-01
We consider here the perspective of using VOS observations by merchant ships available form the ICOADS data for estimating ocean surface heat budget at different time scale. To this purpose we compute surface turbulent heat fluxes as well as short- and long-wave radiative fluxes from the ICOADS reports for the last several decades in the North Atlantic mid latitudes. Turbulent fluxes were derived using COARE-3 algorithm and for computation of radiative fluxes new algorithms accounting for cloud types were used. Sampling uncertainties in the VOS-based fluxes were estimated by sub-sampling of the recomputed reanalysis (ERA-Interim) fluxes according to the VOS sampling scheme. For the turbulent heat fluxes we suggest an approach to minimize sampling uncertainties. The approach is based on the integration of the turbulent heat fluxes in the coordinates of steering parameters (vertical surface temperature and humidity gradients on one hand and wind speed on the other) for which theoretical probability distributions are known. For short-wave radiative fluxes sampling uncertainties were minimized by "rotating local observation time around the clock" and using probability density functions for the cloud cover occurrence distributions. Analysis was performed for the North Atlantic latitudinal band from 25 N to 60 N, for which also estimates of the meridional heat transport are available from the ocean cross-sections. Over the last 35 years turbulent fluxes within the region analysed increase by about 6 W/m2 with the major growth during the 1990s and early 2000s. Decreasing incoming short wave radiation during the same time (about 1 W/m2) implies upward change of the ocean surface heat loss by about 7-8 W/m2. We discuss different sources of uncertainties of computations as well as potential of the application of the analysis concept to longer time series going back to 1920s.
Radon flux measurement methodologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.
1984-01-01
Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements
Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing
Kumar, Abhishek
2017-01-11
In this paper, we characterise the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, restricted in a vertical plane, under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) coexists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate k−3 scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a k−3 power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow k−11/5 form at large scales, to a steeper approximate k−3 scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interestingly, large (small) scales show an inverse (forward) KE flux. The PE flux in this regime is directed to small scales, and the PE spectrum is characterised by an approximate k−1.64 scaling. Finally, for weak stratification, KE is transferred upscale and its spectrum closely follows a k−2.5 scaling, while PE exhibits a forward transfer and its spectrum shows an approximate k−1.6 power-law. For all stratification strengths, the total energy always flows from large to small scales and almost all the spectral indicies are well explained by accounting for the scale-dependent nature of the corresponding flux.
The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Howard, N. T. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)
2016-06-15
The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the threshold for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.
Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Helene; Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.
1986-01-01
Conditional structures, or eddies, in turbulent flows are discussed with special attention to electrostatic turbulence in plasmas. The potential variation of these eddies is obtained by sampling the fluctuations only when a certain condition is satisfied in a reference point. The resulting...
Active turbulence in active nematics
Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.
2016-07-01
Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.
Magnetized Turbulent Dynamo in Protogalaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leonid Malyshkin; Russell M. Kulsrud
2002-01-28
The prevailing theory for the origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they have been amplified to their present values by the turbulent dynamo inductive action in the protogalactic and galactic medium. Up to now, in calculation of the turbulent dynamo, it has been customary to assume that there is no back reaction of the magnetic field on the turbulence, as long as the magnetic energy is less than the turbulent kinetic energy. This assumption leads to the kinematic dynamo theory. However, the applicability of this theory to protogalaxies is rather limited. The reason is that in protogalaxies the temperature is very high, and the viscosity is dominated by magnetized ions. As the magnetic field strength grows in time, the ion cyclotron time becomes shorter than the ion collision time, and the plasma becomes strongly magnetized. As a result, the ion viscosity becomes the Braginskii viscosity. Thus, in protogalaxies the back reaction sets in much earlier, at field strengths much lower than those which correspond to field-turbulence energy equipartition, and the turbulent dynamo becomes what we call the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In this paper we lay the theoretical groundwork for the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In particular, we predict that the magnetic energy growth rate in the magnetized dynamo theory is up to ten times larger than that in the kinematic dynamo theory. We also briefly discuss how the Braginskii viscosity can aid the development of the inverse cascade of magnetic energy after the energy equipartition is reached.
Study of edge turbulence in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazin, Y.
1997-01-01
The aim of this work is to propose a new frame to study turbulent transport in plasmas. In order to avoid the restraint of scale separability the forcing by flux is used. A critical one-dimension self-organized cellular model is developed. In keeping with experience the average transport can be described by means of diffusion and convection terms whereas the local transport could not. The instability due to interchanging process is thoroughly studied and some simplified equations are derived. The proposed model agrees with the following experimental results: the relative fluctuations of density are maximized on the edge, the profile shows an exponential behaviour and the amplitude of density fluctuations depends on ionization source strongly. (A.C.)
Laminar turbulent transition in heated free jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krejci, L.; Marsik, F.; Nenicka, V.
1998-01-01
The evolution of heat and mass transfer in the initial region of a transitional plasma plume is investigated and discussed. The results show that these transport processes are controlled and limited by the plume shear layer instability. The process of laminar-turbulent transition is consecutively controlled by the plume core shear layer instability where interrelation of the effective thickness of the shear temperature and density layers play decisive role. When the absolute instability occurs the resonances in the jet and arc chamber must be taken into account. These processes are manifested in three events. Between the first and second phase, there is a maximum of arc heater exit average enthalpy. The other two thresholds occur at maximum and minimum stagnation heat flux from the plume core. It seems that these processes also influence the thermal energy production in the arc chamber cavity. (author)
Mixing rates and vertical heat fluxes north of Svalbard from Arctic winter to spring
Meyer, Amelie; Fer, Ilker; Sundfjord, Arild; Peterson, Algot K.
2017-06-01
Mixing and heat flux rates collected in the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard during the N-ICE2015 drift expedition are presented. The observations cover the deep Nansen Basin, the Svalbard continental slope, and the shallow Yermak Plateau from winter to summer. Mean quiescent winter heat flux values in the Nansen Basin are 2 W m-2 at the ice-ocean interface, 3 W m-2 in the pycnocline, and 1 W m-2 below the pycnocline. Large heat fluxes exceeding 300 W m-2 are observed in the late spring close to the surface over the Yermak Plateau. The data consisting of 588 microstructure profiles and 50 days of high-resolution under-ice turbulence measurements are used to quantify the impact of several forcing factors on turbulent dissipation and heat flux rates. Wind forcing increases turbulent dissipation seven times in the upper 50 m, and doubles heat fluxes at the ice-ocean interface. The presence of warm Atlantic Water close to the surface increases the temperature gradient in the water column, leading to enhanced heat flux rates within the pycnocline. Steep topography consistently enhances dissipation rates by a factor of four and episodically increases heat flux at depth. It is, however, the combination of storms and shallow Atlantic Water that leads to the highest heat flux rates observed: ice-ocean interface heat fluxes average 100 W m-2 during peak events and are associated with rapid basal sea ice melt, reaching 25 cm/d.
Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces
Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald
2014-11-01
Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.
Turbulent thermal boundary layers with temperature-dependent viscosity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jin; Jung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Zaki, Tamer A.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Turbulent thermal boundary layers with temperature-dependent viscosity are simulated. • Effect of temperature-dependent viscosity on the statistics of the scalar field. • An identity for the Stanton number is derived and analyzed. • Effect of temperature-dependent viscosity on the statistics of scalar transfer rate. • Modification of turbulent flow field leads to an enhanced scalar transfer rate. - Abstract: Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over isothermally heated walls were performed, and the influence of the wall-heating on the thermal boundary layers was investigated. The DNS adopt an empirical relation for the temperature-dependent viscosity of water. The Prandtl number therefore changes with temperature, while the Péclet number is constant. Two wall temperatures (T w = 70 °C and 99 °C) were considered relative to T ∞ = 30 °C, and a reference simulation of TBL with constant viscosity was also performed for comparison. In the variable viscosity flow, the mean and variance of the scalar, when normalized by the friction temperature deficit, decrease relative to the constant viscosity flow. A relation for the mean scalar which takes into account the variable viscosity is proposed. Appropriate scalings for the scalar fluctuations and the scalar flux are also introduced, and are shown to be applicable for both variable and constant viscosity flows. Due to the modification of the near-wall turbulence, the Stanton number and the Reynolds analogy factor are augmented by 10% and 44%, respectively, in the variable viscosity flow. An identity for the Stanton number is derived and shows that the mean wall-normal velocity and wall-normal scalar flux cause the increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Finally, the augmented near-wall velocity fluctuations lead to an increase of the wall-normal scalar flux, which contributes favorably to the enhanced heat transfer at the wall
Self-organized edge density profile with turbulent pinch
Zhu, Ben; Francisquez, Manaura; Rogers, Barrett
2017-10-01
In many tokamak operations, plasma is only fueled by ionization of neutrals in the periphery which subsequently penetrate inward toward core and form a peaked density profile - a process commonly referred as density pinch. Although the Ware effect, and drift wave-/ITG-/TEM-based turbulent transport theory are proposed to explain density pinch in the core region (r / a fluid edge turbulence code, GDB. GDB is a flux-driven electromagnetic model self-consistently evolving plasma density, temperature as well as the sheared flow profiles in both closed-flux surfaces and the SOL. In this study, the effective simulation domain is 0.8 < r / a < 1.1 with a heat source located at r / a < 0.8 and a Gaussian particle source located in a relatively small region near the separatrix (0.96 < r / a < 1.05). An inward (up-gradient) particle flux in the closed flux region is observed once the particle source is turned on until the system reaches quasi-steady-state with a slightly peaked density profile. The final density profile seems insensitive to particle source profiles but largely depends on the other plasma parameters, e.g., plasma temperature. This work was supported by DOE-SC-0010508. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center.
Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence
Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew
2014-05-01
of scales. The method involving the multi-fractal dimension measurements is much more elaborated and seems to have a better theoretical justification in the sense that it is possible that different concentrations showing different fractal dimensions may be due to different levels of intermittency (and thus different spectra, which are not generally in equilibrium as dscribed by[9,10]. Using topological descriptors we can establish now a theoretical baseline pattern for the turbulence behaviour that is reflected in the different structures (volume fraction, velocity, vorticity, helicity) we can thus obtain a classification relating D3 and the integral of the different fractal dimensions D2 for different levels of scalar (volume fraction reaction intensity or temperature). [5,8,11] Vorticity evolution is more smooth and quite different than that of volume fraction or density and these seem also different for the RT and RM instability driven mixing showing a wider range of even higher mixing efficiencies 0- 0.66 Thanks to European Union project ERBIC15-CT96-0111 Multi-scale complex fluid flows and interfacial phenomena (PITN-GA-2008-214919). ERCOFTAC and GenCat. grant 2001SGR00221. [1] Mahjoub O.B., Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. (2000) Hyerarchy flux in nonhomogeneous flows in Turbulent diffusion in the environment Eds. Redondo J.M. and Babiano A. 249-260. . [2] Dalziel, S. B.,(1994) Perturbations and coherent flow in Rayleigh-Taylor instability: in 4th International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, ed. P. F. Linden, D. L. Youngs, & S. B. Dalziel; 32-41. [3] Linden, P. F., Redondo, J. M., and Youngs, D. (1994) Molecular mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor instability, J. Fluid Mech. 265, 97-124 [4] Vindel, J.M., Yague, C. and Redondo, J.M. Nuovo Cimento (2008) 31, [5]Redondo J.M. (1993) Fractal models of density interfaces. Wavelets, Fractals and Fourier transforms. (Eds.) M. Farge, J.C.R. Hunt and J.C. Vassilicos. 353-370. IMA number 43, Clarendon Press
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darmet, G
2007-11-15
This work deals with the kinetic transport in a fusion plasma magnetically confined and flux-constrained. The author proposes a new interpretation of the dynamics of zonal flows. The model that has been studied is a gyrokinetic model reduced to the transport of trapped ions. The inter-change stability that is generated allows the study of the kinetic transport of trapped ions. This model has a threshold instability and can be simulated over a few tens confining time for either thermal bath constraint or flux constraint. For thermal baths constraint, the simulation shows a metastable state where zonal flows are prevailing while turbulence is non-existent. In the case of a flux-constraint, zonal flows appear and relax by exchanging energy with system's kinetic energy and turbulence energy. The competition between zonal flows and turbulence can be then simulated by a predator-prey model. 2 regimes can be featured out: an improved confining regime where zonal flows dominate transport and a turbulent regime where zonal flows and turbulent transport are of the same magnitude order. We show that flux as well as the Reynolds tensor play an important role in the dynamics of the zonal flows and that the gyrokinetic description is relevant for all plasma regions. (A.C.)
Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence
Soulopoulos, N.; Kerl, J.; Sponfeldner, T.; Beyrau, F.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Vassilicos, J. C.
2013-12-01
A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area.
Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport
Estève , D. ,; Sarazin , Y.; Garbet , X.; Grandgirard , V.; Breton , S. ,; Donnel , P. ,; Asahi , Y. ,; Bourdelle , C.; Dif-Pradalier , G; Ehrlacher , C.; Emeriau , C.; Ghendrih , Ph; Gillot , C.; Latu , G.; Passeron , C.
2018-01-01
International audience; Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code [V. Grandgirard et al., Comp. Phys. Commun. 207, 35 (2016)]. A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime likely relevant for tungsten, the standard expression of the neoclassical impurity flux is shown t...
Turbulence in the statically unstable oceanic boundary layer under Arctic leads
McPhee, Miles G.; Stanton, Timothy P.
1996-03-01
Measurements of turbulent stress, heat flux, salinity flux, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation were made in the oceanic boundary layer under freezing leads during the 1992 Lead Experiment project in the Arctic Ocean north of Alaska. Results from two instrument systems, one comprising a vertical array of four turbulence-measuring instrument clusters, the other an automated, loose-tethered microstructure profiler, show that forcing by modest surface fluxes (surface friction velocity u*0 ˜ 0.7 cm s-1, surface buoyancy flux 0 ˜ -0.7 × 10-7 W kg-1) substantially changes the scales and character of boundary layer turbulence relative to forcing by stress alone. Despite continuous freezing at the surface, a diurnal cycle of heating and cooling of the mixed layer was seen, with downward oceanic heat flux as high as 70 W m-2 observed at middepth in the mixed layer near solar noon. Heat flux was determined both by direct eddy covariance of temperature and vertical velocity at fixed levels and from TKE and thermal dissipation estimates from the profiling instrument, with reasonable agreement. Similarly, there was close correspondence between TKE dissipation estimates obtained from inertial subrange spectral levels at the fixed instruments and from microstructure shear profiles. TKE production was dominated by buoyancy flux through most of the boundary layer. Thermal and saline eddy diffusivities were computed from directly measured fluxes and mixed layer temperature and salinity gradients, with mean values of 0.046 and 0.049 m2 s-1 for temperature and salinity, respectively. Kolmogorov constants for relating thermal and saline dissipations to inertial subrange spectral levels were found to be 0.9 and 1.0, respectively, but with large scatter.
Measurements of Impurity Particle Transport Associated with Drift-Wave Turbulence in MST
Nishizawa, Takashi; Nornberg, Mark; Boguski, John; Craig, Darren; den Hartog, Daniel; Pueschel, M. J.; Sarff, John; Terry, Paul; Williams, Zach; Xing, Zichuan
2017-10-01
Understanding and controlling impurity transport in a toroidal magnetized plasma is one of the critical issues that need to be addressed in order to achieve controlled fusion. Gyrokinetic modeling shows turbulence can drive impurity transport, but direct measurements of the turbulent flux have not been made. Particle balance is typically used to infer the presence of turbulent impurity transport. We report, for the first time in a toroidal plasma, direct measurements of turbulence-driven impurity transport. Trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence appears in MST plasmas when MHD tearing fluctuations are suppressed. Impurity ion-Doppler spectroscopy is used to correlate impurity density and radial velocity fluctuations associated with TEM. Small Doppler shifts associated with the radial velocity fluctuations (rms 1km/s) are resolved with the use of a new linearized spectrum correlation analysis method, which improves the rejection of Poisson noise. The method employs frequency-domain correlation analysis to expose the fluctuation and transport spectrum. The C+ 2 impurity transport velocity driven by turbulence is found to be 48m/s (inward), which is sufficiently large to impact an impurity flux balance in MST improved-confinement plasmas. This work is supported by the US DOE.
Turbulent thermal diffusion of aerosols in geophysics and in laboratory experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Eidelman
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss a new phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion associated with turbulent transport of aerosols in the atmosphere and in laboratory experiments. The essence of this phenomenon is the appearance of a nondiffusive mean flux of particles in the direction of the mean heat flux, which results in the formation of large-scale inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of aerosols that accumulate in regions of minimum mean temperature of the surrounding fluid. This effect of turbulent thermal diffusion was detected experimentally. In experiments turbulence was generated by two oscillating grids in two directions of the imposed vertical mean temperature gradient. We used Particle Image Velocimetry to determine the turbulent velocity field, and an Image Processing Technique based on an analysis of the intensity of Mie scattering to determine the spatial distribution of aerosols. Analysis of the intensity of laser light Mie scattering by aerosols showed that aerosols accumulate in the vicinity of the minimum mean temperature due to the effect of turbulent thermal diffusion.
A new disjunct eddy-covariance system for BVOC flux measurements - validation on CO2 and H2O fluxes
Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Jarnot, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Striebig, N.; Ferlicoq, M.; Keravec, P.
2012-12-01
The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method is an interesting alternative to the conventional eddy covariance (EC) method because it allows the estimation of turbulent fluxes of species for which fast sensors are not available. We have developed and validated a new disjunct sampling system (called MEDEE). This system is built with chemically inert materials. Air samples are taken quickly and alternately in two cylindrical reservoirs, the internal pressures of which are regulated by a moving piston. The MEDEE system was designed to be operated either on the ground or aboard an aircraft. It is also compatible with most analysers since it transfers the air samples at a regulated pressure. To validate the system, DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and latent heat fluxes were performed concurrently during a field campaign. EC fluxes were first compared to simulated DEC (SDEC) fluxes and then to actual DEC fluxes. Both the simulated and actual DEC fluxes showed a good agreement with EC fluxes in terms of correlation. The determination coefficients (R2) were 0.93 and 0.91 for DEC and SDEC latent heat fluxes, respectively. For DEC and SDEC CO2 fluxes R2 was 0.69 in both cases. The conditions of low fluxes experienced during the campaign impaired the comparison of the different techniques especially for CO2 flux measurements. Linear regression analysis showed an 14% underestimation of DEC fluxes for both CO2 and latent heat compared to EC fluxes. A first field campaign, focusing on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, was carried out to measure isoprene fluxes above a downy oak (Quercus Pubescens) forest in the south-east of France. The measured standard emission rate was in the lower range of reported values in earlier studies. Further analysis will be conducted through ground-based and airborne campaigns in the coming years.
Turbulent deflagrations, autoignitions, and detonations
Bradley, Derek
2012-09-01
Measurements of turbulent burning velocities in fan-stirred explosion bombs show an initial linear increase with the fan speed and RMS turbulent velocity. The line then bends over to form a plateau of high values around the maximum attainable burning velocity. A further increase in fan speed leads to the eventual complete quenching of the flame due to increasing localised extinctions because of the flame stretch rate. The greater the Markstein number, the more readily does flame quenching occur. Flame propagation along a duct closed at one end, with and without baffles to increase the turbulence, is subjected to a one-dimensional analysis. The flame, initiated at the closed end of the long duct, accelerates by the turbulent feedback mechanism, creating a shock wave ahead of it, until the maximum turbulent burning velocity for the mixture is attained. With the confining walls, the mixture is compressed between the flame and the shock plane up to the point where it might autoignite. This can be followed by a deflagration to detonation transition. The maximum shock intensity occurs with the maximum attainable turbulent burning velocity, and this defines the limit for autoignition of the mixture. For more reactive mixtures, autoignition can occur at turbulent burning velocities that are less than the maximum attainable one. Autoignition can be followed by quasi-detonation or fully developed detonation. The stability of ensuing detonations is discussed, along with the conditions that may lead to their extinction. © 2012 by Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Numerical methods for turbulent flow
Turner, James C., Jr.
1988-01-01
It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.
Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms
Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric
2017-07-01
When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomeau, Y.
1981-07-01
In this work it is reviewed a few known types of transition to turbulence, as the cascade of period doubling and the intermittent transition. This happens in dynamical systems with a few degrees of freedom, as modelled by the iteration of non linear maps. Then it is presented specific transitions for systems with many degrees of freedom. It is condidered first the occurence of a low frequency broadband noise in large cells at the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection; then the transition by intermittent bursts in parallel flows. In this last case, one is concerned with localized and finite amplitude perturbations. Simple geometric arguments show that these fluctuations, when they are isolated and with a well definite relative speed, exist for a single value of the Reynolds number only [fr
Entropic-Skins Geometry to Describe Wall Turbulence Intermittency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diogo Queiros-Conde
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In order to describe the phenomenon of intermittency in wall turbulence and, more particularly, the behaviour of moments and and intermittency exponents ζP with the order p and distance to the wall, we developed a new geometrical framework called “entropic-skins geometry” based on the notion of scale-entropy which is here applied to an experimental database of boundary layer flows. Each moment has its own spatial multi-scale support Ωp (“skin”. The model assumes the existence of a hierarchy of multi-scale sets Ωp ranged from the “bulk” to the “crest”. The crest noted characterizes the geometrical support where the most intermittent (the highest fluctuations in energy dissipation occur; the bulk is the geometrical support for the whole range of fluctuations. The model assumes then the existence of a dynamical flux through the hierarchy of skins. The specific case where skins display a fractal structure is investigated. Bulk fractal dimension and crest dimension are linked by a scale-entropy flux defining a reversibility efficiency (d is the embedding dimension. The model, initially developed for homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, is applied here to wall bounded turbulence where intermittency exponents are measured by extended self-similarity. We obtained for intermittency exponents the analytical expression with γ ≈ 0.36 in agreement with experimental results.
Statistical properties of turbulence: An overview
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the turbulent advection of passive scalars, turbulence in the one-dimensional Burgers equation, and fluid turbulence in the presence of polymer ... However, it is not easy to state what would consti- tute a solution of the turbulence ...... flow with Lagrangian tracers and use a cubic spline interpolation method to calculate their ...
Ruzmaikin, A.
1997-01-01
Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.
Effect of turbulent collisions on diffusion in stationary plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, H.; Ishihara, O.
1990-01-01
Recently the velocity diffusion process was studied by the generalized Langevin equation derived by the projection operator method. The further study shows that the retarded frictional function plays an important role in suppressing particle diffusion in the velocity space in stronger turbulence as much as the resonance broadening effect. The retarded frictional effect, produced by the effective collisions due to the plasma turbulence is assumed to be a Gaussian, but non-Markovian and non-wide-sense stationary process. The relations between the proposed formulation and the extended resonance broadening theory is discussed. The authors also carry out test particle numerical experiment for Langmuir turbulence to test the theories. In a stronger turbulence a deviation of the diffusion rate from the one predicted by both the quasilinear and the extended resonance theories has been observed and is explained qualitatively by the present formulation
Wind energy impact of turbulence
Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan
2014-01-01
This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application
Turbulence via information field dynamics
Ensslin, Torsten A.
2015-08-01
Turbulent flows exhibit-scale free regimes, for which information on the statistical properties of the dynamics exists for many length-scales. The simulation of turbulent systems can benefit from the inclusion of such information on sub-grid process. How can statistical information about the flow on small scales be optimally be incorporated into simulation schemes? Information field dynamics (IFD) is a novel information theoretical framework to design schemes that exploit such statistical knowledge on sub-grid flow fluctuations. In this talk, I will introduce the basic idea of IFD, present its first toy applications, and discuss the next steps towards its usage in complex turbulence simulations.
On Lean Turbulent Combustion Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constantin LEVENTIU
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates a lean methane-air flame with different chemical reaction mechanisms, for laminar and turbulent combustion, approached as one and bi-dimensional problem. The numerical results obtained with Cantera and Ansys Fluent software are compared with experimental data obtained at CORIA Institute, France. First, for laminar combustion, the burn temperature is very well approximated for all chemical mechanisms, however major differences appear in the evaluation of the flame front thickness. Next, the analysis of turbulence-combustion interaction shows that the numerical predictions are suficiently accurate for small and moderate turbulence intensity.
The Interaction of Coronal Mass Ejections with Alfvenic Turbulence
Manchester, W.; van der Holst, B.
2017-12-01
We provide a first attempt to understand the interaction between Alfven wave turbulence, kinetic instabilities and temperature anisotropies in the environment of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME). The impact of a fast CME on the solar corona causes turbulent energy, thermal energy and dissipative heating to increase by orders of magnitude, and produces conditions suitable for a host of kinetic instabilities. We study these CME-induced effects with the recently developed Alfven Wave Solar Model, with which we are able to self-consistently simulate the turbulent energy transport and dissipation as well as isotropic electron heating and anisotropic proton heating. Furthermore, the model also offers the capability to address the effects of firehose, mirror mode, and cyclotron kinetic instabilities on proton energy partitioning, all in a global-scale numerical simulation. We find turbulent energy greatly enhanced in the CME sheath, strong wave reflection at the shock, which leads to wave dissipation rates increasing by more than a factor of 100. In contrast, wave energy is greatly diminished by adiabatic expansion in the flux rope. Finally, we find proton temperature anisotropies are limited by kinetic instabilities to a level consistent with solar wind observations.
Exact result in strong wave turbulence of thin elastic plates
Düring, Gustavo; Krstulovic, Giorgio
2018-02-01
An exact result concerning the energy transfers between nonlinear waves of a thin elastic plate is derived. Following Kolmogorov's original ideas in hydrodynamical turbulence, but applied to the Föppl-von Kármán equation for thin plates, the corresponding Kármán-Howarth-Monin relation and an equivalent of the 4/5 -Kolmogorov's law is derived. A third-order structure function involving increments of the amplitude, velocity, and the Airy stress function of a plate, is proven to be equal to -ɛ ℓ , where ℓ is a length scale in the inertial range at which the increments are evaluated and ɛ the energy dissipation rate. Numerical data confirm this law. In addition, a useful definition of the energy fluxes in Fourier space is introduced and proven numerically to be flat in the inertial range. The exact results derived in this Rapid Communication are valid for both weak and strong wave turbulence. They could be used as a theoretical benchmark of new wave-turbulence theories and to develop further analogies with hydrodynamical turbulence.
Morphing continuum analysis of energy transfer in compressible turbulence
Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis B.; Chen, James
2018-02-01
A shock-preserving finite volume solver with the generalized Lax-Friedrichs splitting flux for morphing continuum theory (MCT) is presented and verified. The numerical MCT solver is showcased in a supersonic turbulent flow with Mach 2.93 over an 8∘ compression ramp. The simulation results validated MCT with experiments as an alternative for modeling compressible turbulence. The required size of the smallest mesh cell for the MCT simulation is shown to be almost an order larger than that in a similar direct numerical simulation study. The comparison shows MCT is a much more computationally friendly theory than the classical Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamics of energy cascade at the length scale of individual eddies is illuminated through the subscale rotation introduced by MCT. In this regard, MCT provides a statistical averaging procedure for capturing energy transfer in compressible turbulence, not found in classical fluid theories. Analysis of the MCT results show the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding eddy rotational energy fluctuations, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. In conclusion, MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources.
Fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanojevic, M; Duhovnik, J; Jelic, N; Kendl, A; Kuhn, S
2005-01-01
A fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent boundary plasma is presented. Turbulent transport corrections of the classical three-dimensional fluid transport equations, which can be used to study magnetic presheaths in various geometries, are derived by means of the ensemble averaging procedure from the statistical theory of plasma turbulence. Then, the magnetic presheath in front of an infinite plane surface is analysed in detail. The linearized planar magnetic presheath equations are applied to the plasma-presheath-magnetic-presheath boundary (i.e. the magnetic presheath edge), whereas the original non-linear planar magnetic presheath equations are used for the entire magnetic presheath, allowing for various sets of experimentally relevant free model parameters to be applied. Important new results of this study are, among others, new expressions for the fluid Bohm criterion at the Debye sheath edge and for the ion flux density perpendicular to the wall. These new results, which exhibit corrections due to the turbulent charged particle transport, can qualitatively explain the fact that whenever the angle between the magnetic field and the wall is very small (i.e. several degrees) or zero, electric currents, measured by Langmuir probes in the boundary regions of nuclear fusion devices and in various low-temperature plasmas, are anomalously enhanced in comparison with those expected or predicted by other theoretical models
Shock-wave-induced turbulent boundary-layer separation at hypersonic speeds
Horstman, C. C.; Kussoy, M. I.; Coakley, T. J.; Rubesin, M. W.; Marvin, J. G.
1975-01-01
An experiment is described that tests and guides computations of the interaction of a shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Numerical solutions of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for the entire flow field employing algebraic eddy viscosity and turbulent Prandtl number models for shear stress and heat flux are presented and used to illustrate the dependence of the computations on the particulars of the turbulence models. To guide modifications in the models, the mean flow profiles and surface measurements of pressure, shear, and heat flux are analyzed critically. The results show that the models of eddy viscosity require substantial modifications in the interaction region. Improved solutions employing the experimentally modified models are presented.
The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The influence of wind speed on surface layer stability and turbulent fluxes over southern Indian peninsula station. M N Patil∗. , R T Waghmare, T Dharmaraj, G R Chinthalu,. Devendraa Siingh and G S Meena. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411 008, India. ∗. Corresponding ...
Self-consistent gyrokinetic modeling of neoclassical and turbulent impurity transport
Estève, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Breton, S.; Donnel, P.; Asahi, Y.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ehrlacher, C.; Emeriau, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Gillot, C.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.
2018-03-01
Trace impurity transport is studied with the flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA code (Grandgirard et al 2016 Comput. Phys. Commun. 207 35). A reduced and linearized multi-species collision operator has been recently implemented, so that both neoclassical and turbulent transport channels can be treated self-consistently on an equal footing. In the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime that is probably relevant for tungsten, the standard expression for the neoclassical impurity flux is shown to be recovered from gyrokinetics with the employed collision operator. Purely neoclassical simulations of deuterium plasma with trace impurities of helium, carbon and tungsten lead to impurity diffusion coefficients, inward pinch velocities due to density peaking, and thermo-diffusion terms which quantitatively agree with neoclassical predictions and NEO simulations (Belli et al 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 015015). The thermal screening factor appears to be less than predicted analytically in the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime, which can be detrimental to fusion performance. Finally, self-consistent nonlinear simulations have revealed that the tungsten impurity flux is not the sum of turbulent and neoclassical fluxes computed separately, as is usually assumed. The synergy partly results from the turbulence-driven in-out poloidal asymmetry of tungsten density. This result suggests the need for self-consistent simulations of impurity transport, i.e. including both turbulence and neoclassical physics, in view of quantitative predictions for ITER.
Banerjee, Supratik; Kritsuk, Alexei G.
2018-02-01
Three-dimensional, compressible, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence of an isothermal, self-gravitating fluid is analyzed using two-point statistics in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers (both kinetic and magnetic). Following an alternative formulation proposed by Banerjee and Galtier [Phys. Rev. E 93, 033120 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.033120; J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 50, 015501 (2017), 10.1088/1751-8113/50/1/015501], an exact relation has been derived for the total energy transfer. This approach results in a simpler relation expressed entirely in terms of mixed second-order structure functions. The kinetic, thermodynamic, magnetic, and gravitational contributions to the energy transfer rate can be easily separated in the present form. By construction, the new formalism includes such additional effects as global rotation, the Hall term in the induction equation, etc. The analysis shows that solid-body rotation cannot alter the energy flux rate of compressible turbulence. However, the contribution of a uniform background magnetic field to the flux is shown to be nontrivial unlike in the incompressible case. Finally, the compressible, turbulent energy flux rate does not vanish completely due to simple alignments, which leads to a zero turbulent energy flux rate in the incompressible case.
Velocity Statistics Distinguish Quantum Turbulence from Classical Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paoletti, M. S.; Fisher, Michael E.; Sreenivasan, K. R.; Lathrop, D. P.
2008-01-01
By analyzing trajectories of solid hydrogen tracers, we find that the distributions of velocity in decaying quantum turbulence in superfluid 4 He are strongly non-Gaussian with 1/v 3 power-law tails. These features differ from the near-Gaussian statistics of homogenous and isotropic turbulence of classical fluids. We examine the dynamics of many events of reconnection between quantized vortices and show by simple scaling arguments that they produce the observed power-law tails
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. V. S. Namboodiri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The study discusses the features of wind, turbulence, and surface roughness parameter over the coastal boundary layer of the Peninsular Indian Station, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS. Every 5 min measurements from an ultrasonic anemometer at 3.3 m agl from May 2007 to December 2012 are used for this work. Symmetries in mesoscale turbulence, stress off-wind angle computations, structure of scalar wind, resultant wind direction, momentum flux (M, Obukhov length (L, frictional velocity (u*, w-component, turbulent heat flux (H, drag coefficient (CD, turbulent intensities, standard deviation of wind directions (σθ, wind steadiness factor-σθ relationship, bivariate normal distribution (BND wind model, surface roughness parameter (z0, z0 and wind direction (θ relationship, and variation of z0 with the Indian South West monsoon activity are discussed.
Characteristics of turbulent velocity and temperature in a wall channel of a heated rod bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krauss, T.; Meyer, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)
1995-09-01
Turbulent air flow in a wall sub-channel of a heated 37-rod bundle (P/D = 1.12, W/D = 1.06) was investigated. measurements were performed with hot-wire probe with X-wires and a temperature wire. The mean velocity, the mean fluid temperature, the wall shear stress and wall temperature, the turbulent quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy, the Reynolds-stresses and the turbulent heat fluxes were measured and are discussed with respect to data from isothermal flow in a wall channel and heated flow in a central channel of the same rod bundle. Also, data on the power spectral densities of the velocity and temperature fluctuations are presented. These data show the existence of large scale periodic fluctuations are responsible for the high intersubchannel heat and momentum exchange.
Scaling laws of turbulence and heating of fast solar wind: the role of density fluctuations.
Carbone, V; Marino, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Noullez, A; Bruno, R
2009-08-07
Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasmas can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfvénic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same data set. Large-scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, thus play a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can, moreover, supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the nonadiabatic solar wind.
The influence of surface roughness on supersonic high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer flow
Latin, Robert Michael
A comprehensive study of rough-wall high-speed (M = 2.9) high Reynolds number (Re/m = 1.9e7) turbulent boundary layer flow was performed consisting of experimental, analytical, and numerical methods. Six wall topologies consisting of a smooth and five rough surfaces (two- and three-dimensional machined roughness plates; and 80, 36. and 20 grit sand-grain roughened plates) were studied. A confocal laser scan microscope was used to measure the topography of the sand-grain roughnesses. The experimental measurement techniques included a convention Pitot pressure probe, laser Doppler velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, color schlieren and laser sheet Mie scattering images. Mean measurements included velocity, Mach number, density, and mass flux. Turbulent measurements included velocity and mass flux turbulence intensities, kinematic Reynolds shear stress, compressible Reynolds shear stress in two planes, and the traverse apparent mass flux. Kinematic turbulent flow statistical properties were found to scale by local mean quantities and displayed a weak dependence on surface roughness. Turbulent flow statistical properties with the explicit appearance of density did not scale by local mean quantities, and had a strong linear dependence on roughness. Surface roughness also had a significant effect on the flow structure size, angles, and energy spectra. A theoretical analysis was performed and a new integral method for the estimation of skin friction was developed. The skin friction estimates were within 4% of compressible semi-empirical relations. A numerical study was performed which used a parabolized Navier-Stokes solver with two algebraic turbulence models and the Rotta model for surface roughness. A new method for the estimation of momentum loss improved the numerical flow predictability. The algebraic turbulence models predicted qualitatively correct profile shapes and accurately predicted the kinematic and compressible Reynolds shear stress levels for all but the
Stochastic differential equations and turbulent dispersion
Durbin, P. A.
1983-01-01
Aspects of the theory of continuous stochastic processes that seem to contribute to an understanding of turbulent dispersion are introduced and the theory and philosophy of modelling turbulent transport is emphasized. Examples of eddy diffusion examined include shear dispersion, the surface layer, and channel flow. Modeling dispersion with finite-time scale is considered including the Langevin model for homogeneous turbulence, dispersion in nonhomogeneous turbulence, and the asymptotic behavior of the Langevin model for nonhomogeneous turbulence.
Estuary Turbulence and Air-Water Carbon Dioxide Exchange
Orton, Philip Mark
The mixing of constituents between estuarine bottom and surface waters or between estuarine surface waters and the atmosphere are two topics of growing interest, in part due to the potentially important role of estuaries in global carbon budgets. These two types of mixing are typically driven by turbulence, and a research project was developed to improve the scientific understanding of atmospheric and tidal controls on estuary turbulence and airwater exchange processes. Highlights of method development and field research on the Hudson River estuary include several deployments of bottom mounted current profilers to quantify the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget, and construction and deployment of an instrumented catamaran that makes autonomous measurements of air-water CO2 exchange (FCO2), water TKE dissipation at 50 cm depth (epsilon50), and other physical properties just above and below the air-water interface. On the Hudson, wind correlates strongly with epsilon50, but surface water speed and airwater heat flux also have moderate correlations with epsilon50. In partially mixed estuaries such as the Hudson, as well as salt wedge estuaries, baroclinic pressure forcing typically causes spring ebb tides to have much stronger upper water column shear than flood tides. The Hudson data are used to show that this shear leads to local shear instability and stronger near-surface turbulence on spring ebbs. Also, buoyancy budget terms are compared to demonstrate how water-to-air heat fluxes can influence stratification and indirectly influence epsilon50. Looking more closely at the role of wind forcing, it is demonstrated that inland propagation of the sea breeze on warm sunny days leads to arrival in phase with peak solar forcing at seaward stations, but several hours later at up-estuary stations. Passage of the sea breeze front raises the air-water CO2 flux by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and drives epsilon50 comparable to spring tide levels in the upper meter of the water
Premixed autoignition in compressible turbulence
Konduri, Aditya; Kolla, Hemanth; Krisman, Alexander; Chen, Jacqueline
2016-11-01
Prediction of chemical ignition delay in an autoignition process is critical in combustion systems like compression ignition engines and gas turbines. Often, ignition delay times measured in simple homogeneous experiments or homogeneous calculations are not representative of actual autoignition processes in complex turbulent flows. This is due the presence of turbulent mixing which results in fluctuations in thermodynamic properties as well as chemical composition. In the present study the effect of fluctuations of thermodynamic variables on the ignition delay is quantified with direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence. A premixed syngas-air mixture is used to remove the effects of inhomogeneity in the chemical composition. Preliminary results show a significant spatial variation in the ignition delay time. We analyze the topology of autoignition kernels and identify the influence of extreme events resulting from compressibility and intermittency. The dependence of ignition delay time on Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers is also quantified. Supported by Basic Energy Sciences, Dept of Energy, United States.
Structure and modeling of turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, E.A.
1995-01-01
The open-quotes vortex stringsclose quotes scale l s ∼ LRe -3/10 (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES)
Energy transfer in compressible turbulence
Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre
1995-01-01
This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.
Turbulence Instrumentation for Stratospheric Airships
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Duell, Mark L; Saupe, Lawrence M; Barbeau, Brent E; Robinson, Kris D; Jumper, George Y
2007-01-01
.... The High Altitude Airship is designed to investigate these phenomena. In order to sense atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of the expected flight of the High Altitude Airship of around 65,000ft, a prototype ionic anemometer was constructed...
Stochastic Subspace Modelling of Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Pedersen, B. J.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2009-01-01
positive definite cross-spectral density matrix a frequency response matrix is constructed which determines the turbulence vector as a linear filtration of Gaussian white noise. Finally, an accurate state space modelling method is proposed which allows selection of an appropriate model order......, and estimation of a state space model for the vector turbulence process incorporating its phase spectrum in one stage, and its results are compared with a conventional ARMA modelling method.......Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount importance to the dynamic response of civil engineering structures. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and structural safety analysis. In the paper...
Turbulence in unmagnetized Vlasov plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, S.P.
1985-01-01
The classical technique of transformation and characteristics is employed to analyze the problem of strong turbulence in unmagnetized plasmas. The effect of resonance broadening and perturbation expansion are treated simultaneously, without time secularities. The renormalization procedure of Dupree and Tetreault is used in the transformed Vlasov equation to analyze the turbulence and to derive explicitly a diffusion equation. Analyses are extended to inhomogeneous plasmas and the relationship between the transformation and ponderomotive force is obtained. (author)
Topographic enhancement of vertical turbulent mixing in the Southern Ocean
Mashayek, A.; Ferrari, R.; Merrifield, S.; Ledwell, J. R.; St Laurent, L.; Garabato, A. Naveira
2017-03-01
It is an open question whether turbulent mixing across density surfaces is sufficiently large to play a dominant role in closing the deep branch of the ocean meridional overturning circulation. The diapycnal and isopycnal mixing experiment in the Southern Ocean found the turbulent diffusivity inferred from the vertical spreading of a tracer to be an order of magnitude larger than that inferred from the microstructure profiles at the mean tracer depth of 1,500 m in the Drake Passage. Using a high-resolution ocean model, it is shown that the fast vertical spreading of tracer occurs when it comes in contact with mixing hotspots over rough topography. The sparsity of such hotspots is made up for by enhanced tracer residence time in their vicinity due to diffusion toward weak bottom flows. The increased tracer residence time may explain the large vertical fluxes of heat and salt required to close the abyssal circulation.
Computer simulation of plasma turbulence in open systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigov, Yu.S.
1982-01-01
A short review of the results of kinetic simulation of collective phenomena in open plasma systems with the variable total energy and number of particles, i.e., the particle and energy fluxes on boundary surfaces and/or their internal sources and channels is given. Three specific problems are considered in different detail for such systems in one-dimensional geometry: the generation and evolution of double layers in a currently unstable plasma; the collisionless relaxation of strongly non-equilibrium electron distributions; the Langmuir collapse and strong electrostatic turbulence in systems with parametric excitation of a plasma by an external pumping wave and with cooling the fast non-Maxwell electrons. In all these cases the non-linearity and a collective character of processes give examples of new dissipative plasma structures that essentially widen our idea about the nature of the plasma turbulence in non-homogeneous open systems. (Auth.)
Small-scale turbulence, marine snow formation, and planktivorous feeding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiørboe, Thomas
1997-01-01
to demonstrate how phytoplankton cells may coagulate, how their stickiness may be measured, how coagulation determines the sedimentation of particulate matter in the ocean, and how it may control the population dynamics of phytoplankton. Subsequently the collision equations are used to describe how planktivorous......This paper examines how turbulence influences two very basic properties of planktonic ecosystems, namely trophic interactions and vertical flux of particulate material. It starts with a simple account of classical particle encounter theory which forms the basis of the substance of both problems....... Turbulent fluid motion will bring suspended particles to collide, and the basic equations describing the collision rate as a function of dissipation rate and particle size, concentration and motility will be presented. The classical (coagulation) theory is then applied to marine snow formation in the ocean...
Local time dependence of turbulent magnetic fields in Saturn's magnetodisc
Kaminker, V.; Delamere, P. A.; Ng, C. S.; Dennis, T.; Otto, A.; Ma, X.
2017-04-01
Net plasma transport in magnetodiscs around giant planets is outward. Observations of plasma temperature have shown that the expanding plasma is heating nonadiabatically during this process. Turbulence has been suggested as a source of heating. However, the mechanism and distribution of magnetic fluctuations in giant magnetospheres are poorly understood. In this study we attempt to quantify the radial and local time dependence of fluctuating magnetic field signatures that are suggestive of turbulence, quantifying the fluctuations in terms of a plasma heating rate density. In addition, the inferred heating rate density is correlated with magnetic field configurations that include azimuthal bend forward/back and magnitude of the equatorial normal component of magnetic field relative to the dipole. We find a significant local time dependence in magnetic fluctuations that is consistent with flux transport triggered in the subsolar and dusk sectors due to magnetodisc reconnection.
Turbulence in high-beta ASDEX upgrade advanced scenarios
Doerk, H.; Bock, A.; Di Siena, A.; Fable, E.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Stober, J.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team
2018-01-01
Recent experiments at ASDEX Upgrade achieve non-inductive operation in full tungsten wall conditions by applying electron cyclotron and neutral beam current drive. These discharges are characterised by a well-measured safety factor profile, which does not drop below one, and a good energy confinement. By reproducing the experimental heat fluxes, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations suggest that the observed strong peaking of the ion temperature in the core is caused by the stabilising impact of a significant beam ion content, as well as strong electromagnetic effects on turbulent transport. Quasilinear transport models are not yet applicable in this interesting and reactor relevant parameter regime, but available simulation data may serve as a testbed for improvements. As the present plasma is close to the kinetic ballooning (KBM) threshold, elevating the safety factor profile under otherwise identical conditions is proposed to clarify, whether profiles are ultimately limited by KBM turbulence, or by global stability constraints.
Transport of solar electrons in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablaßmayer, J.; Tautz, R. C., E-mail: robert.c.tautz@gmail.com [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Dresing, N., E-mail: dresing@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)
2016-01-15
The turbulent transport of solar energetic electrons in the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated by means of a test-particle Monte-Carlo simulation. The magnetic fields are modeled as a combination of the Parker field and a turbulent component. In combination with the direct calculation of diffusion coefficients via the mean-square displacements, this approach allows one to analyze the effect of the initial ballistic transport phase. In that sense, the model complements the main other approach in which a transport equation is solved. The major advancement is that, by recording the flux of particles arriving at virtual detectors, intensity and anisotropy-time profiles can be obtained. Observational indications for a longitudinal asymmetry can thus be explained by tracing the diffusive spread of the particle distribution. The approach may be of future help for the systematic interpretation of observations for instance by the solar terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) and advanced composition explorer (ACE) spacecrafts.
Split energy cascade in turbulent thin fluid layers
Musacchio, Stefano; Boffetta, Guido
2017-11-01
We discuss the phenomenology of the split energy cascade in a three-dimensional thin fluid layer by means of high resolution numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. We observe the presence of both an inverse energy cascade at large scales, as predicted for two-dimensional turbulence, and a direct energy cascade at small scales, as in three-dimensional turbulence. The inverse energy cascade is associated with a direct cascade of enstrophy in the intermediate range of scales. Notably, we find that the inverse cascade of energy in this system is not a purely 2D phenomenon, as the coupling with the 3D velocity field is necessary to guarantee the constancy of fluxes.
Turbulent solutal convection and surface patterning in solid dissolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, T.S.; Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.
1996-01-01
We describe experiments in which crystals of NaCl, KBr, and KCl are dissolved from below by aqueous solutions containing concentrations of the respective salts from zero concentration to near saturation. The solution near the solid-liquid interface is gravitationally unstable, producing turbulent hydrodynamic motion similar to thermal convection from a single surface cooled from above. The coupling of the fluid flow with the solid dissolution produces irregular patterns at the solid-liquid interface with a distribution of horizontal length scales. The dissolution mass flux and the pattern length scales are compared with a turbulent boundary layer model. Remarkable agreement is found, showing that the fluid motion controls both the dissolution rate and the interface patterning. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Kinetic transport in a magnetically confined and flux-constrained fusion plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darmet, G.
2007-11-01
This work deals with the kinetic transport in a fusion plasma magnetically confined and flux-constrained. The author proposes a new interpretation of the dynamics of zonal flows. The model that has been studied is a gyrokinetic model reduced to the transport of trapped ions. The inter-change stability that is generated allows the study of the kinetic transport of trapped ions. This model has a threshold instability and can be simulated over a few tens confining time for either thermal bath constraint or flux constraint. For thermal baths constraint, the simulation shows a metastable state where zonal flows are prevailing while turbulence is non-existent. In the case of a flux-constraint, zonal flows appear and relax by exchanging energy with system's kinetic energy and turbulence energy. The competition between zonal flows and turbulence can be then simulated by a predator-prey model. 2 regimes can be featured out: an improved confining regime where zonal flows dominate transport and a turbulent regime where zonal flows and turbulent transport are of the same magnitude order. We show that flux as well as the Reynolds tensor play an important role in the dynamics of the zonal flows and that the gyrokinetic description is relevant for all plasma regions. (A.C.)
Quantify the complexity of turbulence
Tao, Xingtian; Wu, Huixuan
2017-11-01
Many researchers have used Reynolds stress, power spectrum and Shannon entropy to characterize a turbulent flow, but few of them have measured the complexity of turbulence. Yet as this study shows, conventional turbulence statistics and Shannon entropy have limits when quantifying the flow complexity. Thus, it is necessary to introduce new complexity measures- such as topology complexity and excess information-to describe turbulence. Our test flow is a classic turbulent cylinder wake at Reynolds number 8100. Along the stream-wise direction, the flow becomes more isotropic and the magnitudes of normal Reynolds stresses decrease monotonically. These seem to indicate the flow dynamics becomes simpler downstream. However, the Shannon entropy keeps increasing along the flow direction and the dynamics seems to be more complex, because the large-scale vortices cascade to small eddies, the flow is less correlated and more unpredictable. In fact, these two contradictory observations partially describe the complexity of a turbulent wake. Our measurements (up to 40 diameters downstream the cylinder) show that the flow's degree-of-complexity actually increases firstly and then becomes a constant (or drops slightly) along the stream-wise direction. University of Kansas General Research Fund.
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
An investigation of the numerical simulation with two-equation turbulence models of a three-dimensional hypersonic intersecting (SWTBL) shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flow is presented. The flows are solved with an efficient implicit upwind flux-difference split Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code. Numerical results are compared with experimental data for a flow at Mach 8.28 and Reynolds number 5.3x10(exp 6) with crossing shock-waves and expansion fans generated by two lateral 15 fins located on top of a cold-wall plate. This experiment belongs to the hypersonic database for modeling validation. Simulations show the development of two primary counter-rotating cross-flow vortices and secondary turbulent structures under the main vortices and in each corner singularity inside the turbulent boundary layer. A significant loss of total pressure is produced by the complex interaction between the main vortices and the uplifted jet stream of the boundary layer. The overall agreement between computational and experimental data is generally good. The turbulence modeling corrections show improvements in the predictions of surface heat transfer distribution and an increase in the strength of the cross-flow vortices. Accurate predictions of the outflow flowfield is found to require accurate modeling of the laminar/turbulent boundary layers on the fin walls.
Ventilation induced by finite mass flux plumes in enclosed spaces
Caulfield, Colm-Cille; Woods, Andrew
2000-11-01
Continuous isolated releases of finite quantities of dense (or buoyant) turbulent fluid within an enclosed ventilated space occur in a range of industrial and geophysical contexts. We analyse theoretically, numerically and experimentally the effect of turbulent plumes with finite source mass fluxes on the transient evolution of the ambient density within a confined ventilated space. We consider in detail flows with both one and two vents. For flows with sufficiently large source mass fluxes, the room becomes completely contaminated with the continuous releases approaching non-buoyant jet-like behaviour. For all the flows we consider, we develop simple reduced models which capture quantitatively the evolution of the bulk characteristics of the flow, and also agree well with data obtained from a sequence of analogue laboratory experiments.
MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Surface Fluxes, Time Average 1-hourly (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXFLX or tavg1_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...
MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Surface Fluxes, Monthly Mean (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXFLX or tavgM_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...
MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Surface Fluxes, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXFLX or tavgU_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...
Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure
Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita
2015-04-01
Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied
Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2016-01-01
The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.
Grisogono, Branko; Subanović, Nebojša; Koračin, Darko
1989-01-01
It is shown that the process of the air-cooling is dominated by the divergence of the longwave radiative flux in cases of night-time clear-sky conditions and with weak wind conditions. The parameterization of the longwave radiative flux divergence is derived according to the emissivity concept and the Stefan-Boltzman law, assuming that the water vapor is the only absorber of longwave radiative. The parameterization of the turbulent temperature flux divergence has been based on the O’Brie...
Lidar Scanning of Momentum Flux in the Marine Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael
Momentum flux measurements are important for describing the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer, modeling the atmospheric flow over water, the accounting of exchange processes between air and sea, etc. It is also directly related to the friction velocity, which is a velocity scale...... turbulence measurements from a sonic anemometer, showing high agreement. In this study, a conical scanning lidar is used to derive the momentum flux, which compares well to the estimations from the bulk-derived method, but it also shows a filtering effect due to the large spatial-averaging volume...
Fan, Xiang
2017-10-01
Concerns central to understanding turbulence and transport include: 1) Dynamics of dual cascades in EM turbulence; 2) Understanding `negative viscosity phenomena' in drift-ZF systems; 3) The physics of blobby turbulence (re: SOL). Here, we present a study of a simple model - that of Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (CHNS) Turbulence - which sheds important new light on these issues. The CHNS equations describe the motion of binary fluid undergoing a second order phase transition and separation called spinodal decomposition. The CHNS system and 2D MHD are analogous, as they both contain a vorticity equation and a ``diffusion'' equation. The CHNS system differs from 2D MHD by the appearance of negative diffusivity, and a nonlinear dissipative flux. An analogue of the Alfven wave exists in the 2D CHNS system. DNS shows that mean square concentration spectrum Hkψ scales as k - 7 / 3 in the elastic range. This suggests an inverse cascade of Hψ . However, the kinetic energy spectrum EkK scales as k-3 , as in the direct enstrophy cascade range for a 2D fluid (not MHD!). The resolution is that the feedback of capillarity acts only at blob interfaces. Thus, as blob merger progresses, the packing fraction of interfaces decreases, thus explaining the weakened surface tension feedback and the outcome for EkK. We also examine the evolution of scalar concentration in a single eddy in the Cahn-Hilliard system. This extends the classic problem of flux expulsion in 2D MHD. The simulation results show that a target pattern is formed. Target pattern is a meta stable state, since the band merger process continues on a time scale exponentially long relative to the eddy turnover time. Band merger resembles step merger in drift-ZF staircases. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubuit, N
2006-10-15
This work deals with the transport of impurities in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas. The accumulation of impurities in the core of the plasma would imply dramatic losses of energy that may lead to the extinction of the plasma. On the opposite, the injection of impurities in the plasma edge is considered as an efficient means to extract heat without damaging the first wall. The balance between these 2 contradictory constraints requires an accurate knowledge of the impurity transport inside the plasma. The effect of turbulence, the main transport mechanism for impurities is therefore a major issue. In this work, the complete formula of a turbulent flow of impurities for a given fluctuation spectrum has been inferred. The origin and features of the main accumulation processes have been identified. The main effect comes from the compressibility of the electrical shift speed in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. This compressibility appears to be linked to the curvature of the magnetic field. A less important effect is a thermal-diffusion process that is inversely proportional to the number of charges and then disappears for most type of impurities except the lightest. This effect implies an impurity flux proportional to the temperature gradient and its direction can change according to the average speed of fluctuations. A new version of the turbulence code TRB has been developed. This new version allows the constraints of the turbulence not by the gradients but by the flux which is more realistic. The importance of the processes described above has been confirmed by a comparison between calculation and experimental data from Tore-supra and the Jet tokamak. The prevailing role of the curvature of the magnetic field in the transport impurity is highlighted. (A.C.)
GENESIS OF INTERPLANETARY INTERMITTENT TURBULENCE: A CASE STUDY OF ROPE–ROPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Loew, Murray H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Feng, Heng Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Miranda, Rodrigo A. [UnB-Gama Campus, and Plasma Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics, University of Brasília (UnB), Brasília DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Muñoz, Pablo R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of La Serena, Av. Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Sibeck, David G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wu, De J., E-mail: abraham.chian@gmail.com [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2016-12-01
In a recent paper, the relation between current sheet, magnetic reconnection, and turbulence at the leading edge of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection was studied. We report here the observation of magnetic reconnection at the interface region of two interplanetary magnetic flux ropes. The front and rear boundary layers of three interplanetary magnetic flux ropes are identified, and the structures of magnetic flux ropes are reconstructed by the Grad–Shafranov method. A quantitative analysis of the reconnection condition and the degree of intermittency reveals that rope–rope magnetic reconnection is the most likely site for genesis of interplanetary intermittency turbulence in this event. The dynamic pressure pulse resulting from this reconnection triggers the onset of a geomagnetic storm.
The interaction of synthetic jets with turbulent boundary layers
Cui, Jing
In recent years, a promising approach to the control of wall bounded as well as free shear flows, using synthetic jet (oscillatory jet with zero-net-mass-flux) actuators, has received a great deal of attention. A variety of impressive flow control results have been achieved experimentally by many researchers including the vectoring of conventional propulsive jets, modification of aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies, control of lift and drag of airfoils, reduction of skin-friction of a flat plate boundary layer, enhanced mixing in circular jets, and control of external as well as internal flow separation and of cavity oscillations. More recently, attempts have been made to numerically simulate some of these flowfields. Numerically several of the above mentioned flow fields have been simulated primarily by employing the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations with a turbulence model and a limited few by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). In simulations, both the simplified boundary conditions at the exit of the jet as well as the details of the cavity and lip have been included. In this dissertation, I describe the results of simulations for several two- and three-dimensional flowfields dealing with the interaction of a synthetic jet with a turbulent boundary layer and control of separation. These simulations have been performed using the URANS equations in conjunction with either one- or a two-equation turbulence model. 2D simulations correspond to the experiments performed by Honohan at Georgia Tech. and 3D simulations correspond to the CFD validation test cases proposed in the NASA Langley Research Center Workshop---"CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control" held at Williamsburg VA in March 2004. The sources of uncertainty due to grid resolution, time step, boundary conditions, turbulence modeling etc. have been examined during the computations. Extensive comparisons for various flow variables are made with the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbet, X
2001-06-01
The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cottier, Pierre
2013-01-01
The magnetic confinement in tokamaks is for now the most advanced way towards energy production by nuclear fusion. Both theoretical and experimental studies showed that rotation generation can increase its performance by reducing the turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas. The rotation influence on the heat and particle fluxes is studied along with the angular momentum transport with the quasi-linear gyro-kinetic eigenvalue code QuaLiKiz. For this purpose, the QuaLiKiz code is modified in order to take the plasma rotation into account and compute the angular momentum flux. It is shown that QuaLiKiz framework is able to correctly predict the angular momentum flux including the E*B shear induced residual stress as well as the influence of rotation on the heat and particle fluxes. The major approximations of QuaLiKiz formalisms are reviewed, in particular the ballooning representation at its lowest order and the eigenfunctions calculated in the hydrodynamic limit. The construction of the quasi-linear fluxes is also reviewed in details and the quasi-linear angular momentum flux is derived. The different contributions to the turbulent momentum flux are studied and successfully compared both against non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations and experimental data. (author) [fr
Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.
2003-01-01
In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...
Turbulence vertical structure of the boundary layer during the afternoon transition
Darbieu, Clara; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Couvreux, Fleur; Durand, Pierre; Pino, David; Patton, Ned; Nilsson, Erik; Blay-Carreras, Estel; Gioli, Beniamino
2015-04-01
The transition from a well-mixed convective boundary layer to a residual layer overlying a stabilized nocturnal layer raises several issues, which remain difficult to address from both modeling and observational perspectives. The well mixed convective boundary layer is mainly forced by buoyancy, with fully developed turbulence. The daily decrease of the surface buoyancy flux leads to the decay of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and a possible change of the structure of the turbulence before it reaches the stable regime, with more anisotropy and intermittency. It is important to better understand these processes, as they can impact on the dispersion of tracers in the atmosphere, and on the development of the nocturnal and daytime boundary layers of the following days. The presented work is based on both observations from the BLLAST (Boundary Layer Later Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) experiment and Large-Eddy Simulation (NCAR LES code). The field campaign took place in summer 2011 in France, on the northern side of the Pyrenean foothills. A well-documented cloud-free weak wind day is considered here to analyze in details the evolution of the turbulence along the day, from midday to sunset. The case study combines observations of the mean structure and of the turbulence. It is the base of a complementary idealized numerical study with a large eddy simulation. From both observations and numerical simulations, the turbulence is described, according to time and height, with the characteristics of the spectral energy density, especially the typical turbulence lengthscales and the sharpness of the transition from energy-containing eddies to the inertial subrange. An analytical model proposed by Kristensen and Lenschow (1988) for homogeneous nonisotropic turbulence is used to approximate the observed and LES-modeled spectra and estimate their characteristics. The study points out the LES ability to reproduce the turbulence evolution throughout the afternoon. Two
Turbulent Concentration of mm-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scale-Dependent Cascades
Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.
2015-01-01
The initial accretion of primitive bodies (here, asteroids in particular) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" (or even a mm-to-cm-size barrier) in turbulent nebulae, making the preconditions for so-called "streaming instabilities" difficult to achieve even for so-called "lucky" particles. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, turbulent nebulae present further obstacles through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids. Theoretical understanding of nebula turbulence is itself in flux; recent models of MRI (magnetically-driven) turbulence favor low-or- no-turbulence environments, but purely hydrodynamic turbulence is making a comeback, with two recently discovered mechanisms generating robust turbulence which do not rely on magnetic fields at all. An important clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to large objects of this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. There is evidence that at least the ordinary chondrite parent bodies were initially composed entirely of a homogeneous mix of such particles. Thus, while they are arcane, turbulent concentration models acting directly on chondrule size particles are worthy of deeper study. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation can be
Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. J. Hovde
2009-07-01
.4, 0.73. The latter being very close to those estimated by drop sondes (2.4, 0.75 in the vertical direction. In addition, for each leg we estimate the energy flux, the sphero-scale and the critical transition scale. The latter varies quite widely from scales of kilometers to greater than several hundred kilometers. The overall conclusion is that up to the critical scale, the aircraft follows a fractal trajectory which may increase the intermittency of the measurements, but doesn't strongly affect the scaling exponents whereas for scales larger than the critical scale, the aircraft follows isobars whose exponents are different from those along isoheights (and equal to the vertical exponent perpendicular to the isoheights. We bolster this interpretation by considering the absolute slopes (|Δz/Δx| of the aircraft as a function of lag Δx and of scale invariant lag Δx/Δz^{1/Hz}.
We then revisit four earlier aircraft campaigns including GASP and MOZAIC showing that they all have nearly identical transitions and can thus be easily explained by the proposed combination of altitude/wind in an anisotropic but scaling turbulence. Finally, we argue that this reinterpretation in terms of wide range anisotropic scaling is compatible with atmospheric phenomenology including convection.
Jackson, R. H.; Nash, J. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Amundson, J. M.; Kienholz, C.; Skyllingstad, E. D.; Motyka, R. J.
2017-12-01
The exchanges of heat and freshwater at tidewater glacier termini are modulated by small-scale turbulent processes. However, few observations have been obtained near the ocean-glacier interface, limiting our ability to quantify turbulent fluxes or test melt parameterizations in ocean-glacier models. Here, we explore the turbulent plume dynamics at LeConte Glacier, Alaska with three extensive field campaigns in May, August and September (2016-17). Two autonomous vessels collected repeat transects of velocity and water properties near the glacier, often within 20 m of the terminus. Concurrent shipboard surveying measured turbulence with a vertical microstructure profiler, along with water properties and velocity. These high-resolution surveys provide a 3D view of the circulation and allow us to quantify turbulent fluxes in the near-glacier region. We observe two regimes at the terminus: an energetic upwelling plume driven by subglacial discharge at a persistent location, and submarine melt-driven convection along other parts of the terminus. We trace the evolution of the subglacial discharge plume as it flows away from the glacier, from an initial stage of vigorous mixing to a more quiescent outflow downstream. Resolving these spatial patterns of upwelling and mixing near glaciers is a key step towards understanding submarine melt rates and glacial fjord circulation.
Impact of Langmuir Turbulence on Upper Ocean Response to Hurricane Edouard: Model and Observations
Blair, A.; Ginis, I.; Hara, T.; Ulhorn, E.
2017-12-01
Tropical cyclone intensity is strongly affected by the air-sea heat flux beneath the storm. When strong storm winds enhance upper ocean turbulent mixing and entrainment of colder water from below the thermocline, the resulting sea surface temperature cooling may reduce the heat flux to the storm and weaken the storm. Recent studies suggest that this upper ocean turbulence is strongly affected by different sea states (Langmuir turbulence), which are highly complex and variable in tropical cyclone conditions. In this study, the upper ocean response under Hurricane Edouard (2014) is investigated using a coupled ocean-wave model with and without an explicit sea state dependent Langmuir turbulence parameterization. The results are compared with in situ observations of sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth from AXBTs, as well as satellite sea surface temperature observations. Overall, the model results of mixed layer deepening and sea surface temperature cooling under and behind the storm are consistent with observations. The model results show that the effects of sea state dependent Langmuir turbulence can be significant, particularly on the mixed layer depth evolution. Although available observations are not sufficient to confirm such effects, some observed trends suggest that the sea state dependent parameterization might be more accurate than the traditional (sea state independent) parameterization.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent concentric annular pipe flow Part 2: Heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin
2003-01-01
A direct numerical simulation is performed for turbulent heat transfer in a concentric annulus at Re D h =8900 and Pr=0.71 for two radius ratios (R 1 /R 2 =0.1 and 0.5) and wall heat flux ratio q * =1.0. Main emphasis is placed on the transverse curvature effect on near-wall turbulent thermal structures. Near-wall turbulent thermal structures close to the inner and outer walls are scrutinized by computing the lower-order statistics. The fluctuating temperature variance and turbulent heat flux budgets are illustrated to confirm the results of the lower-order statistics. Probability density functions of the splat/anti-splat process are investigated to analyze the transverse curvature effect on the strong relationship between sweep and splat events. The present numerical results show that the turbulent thermal structures near the outer wall are more activated than those near the inner wall, which may be attributed to the different vortex regeneration processes between the inner and outer walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.
2003-01-01
Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor
Interchange turbulence simulations for JET relevant parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, A.H.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Fundamenski, J.W.
2007-01-01
The two dimensional, electrostatic edge-SOL turbulence code ESEL simulates the perpendicular dynamics of transport events in the SOL at the outboard midplane. Profiles of density n, electron temperature T e , and vorticity are evolved together with the fluctuations, without making a scale separation-ansatz, i.e., allowing relative fluctuation levels of order unity and profile variations by many orders of magnitude. Parallel losses in the SOL are described by the classical sub-sonic advection and Spitzer-Haearm diffusion, and are dependent on local values of n and T e , while perpendicular collisional dissipation is approximated by Pfirsch-Schlueter neoclassical diffusivities. ESEL simulations were performed with input parameters corresponding to high density JET ohmic discharges: n 0 = 10 19 m -3 , T e,0 = 45 eV, T i,0 = 80 eV, R 0 = 3 m, B 0 = 1.5 T, q 95 = 2.7. The resulting density, n = and temperature profiles, T = , where denotes a poloidal and temporal average, is shown, indicating a stronger decay of the profiles close to the separatrix than further outwards. Steeper temperature profiles reflect the slower loss of particles to the divertor as compared to loss of electron energy. Figure (b) depicts the radial profiles of the turbulent perpendicular energy fluxes in normalized units, split up into conductive 5/2n(bar) e v r >, convective 5/2 T e r > and fluctuating parts 5/2 r >, with T e and n being fluctuating parts of the two fields, respectively. Figure (c) displays the two effective diffusivities; the particle diffusivity part; D eff n(perpen.) = - r >/∂ r n and the heat diffusivity; 5/2D eff T(perpen.) = - r >/∂ r T. The corresponding effective velocities, v eff n(perpen.) = r >/n and v eff n(perpen.) = r >/T, are found to be nearly constant all over the SOL region with the values of 200 m/s and 300 m/s for the particle and heat velocities, respectively. The ESEL simulations for JET further predict parallel Mach numbers M ∼ 0.2 in agreement with
Turbulent/non-turbulent interfaces in jets and wakes
Zecchetto, Marco; Silva, Carlos; Lasef Team
2017-11-01
The characteristics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) at the edges of jets and wakes at high Reynolds numbers are compared by using new direct numerical simulations (DNS) of temporally evolving planar jets (PJET) and wakes (PWAKE). The new simulations attain a Reynolds number based on the Taylor micro-scale of Reλ 350 which are the highest Reynolds number used so far in numerical investigations of TNTI. The similarities and differences between the TNTIs from PJET and PWAKE are assessed in relation to i) their structure and scaling, ii) the vorticity dynamics and, iii) and entrainment velocity. Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FST); PRACE.
Analysis of a turbulent buoyant confined jet modeled using realizable k-ε model
El-Amin, Mohamed
2010-06-13
Through this paper, analyses of components of the unheated/heated turbulent confined jet are introduced and some models to describe them are developed. Turbulence realizable k-ε model is used to model the turbulence of this problem. Numerical simulations of 2D axisymmetric vertical hot water confined jet into a cylindrical tank have been done. Solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while velocity, pressure, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. For seeking verification, an experiment was conducted for measuring of the temperature of the same system, and comparison between the measured and simulated temperature shows a good agreement. Using the simulated results, some models are developed to describe axial velocity, centerline velocity, radial velocity, dynamic pressure, mass flux, momentum flux and buoyancy flux for both unheated (non-buoyant) and heated (buoyant) jet. Finally, the dynamics of the heated jet in terms of the plume function which is a universal quantity and the source parameter are studied and therefore the maximum velocity can be predicted theoretically. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Modeling studies of transport bifurcation phenomena in a collisional drift wave turbulence
Hajjar, Rima; Diamond, Patrick; Tynan, Georges; Ashourvan, Arash
2016-10-01
Self-organization of drift wave turbulence via particle transport and Reynolds stresses is a mechanism for turbulence suppression and reduction of cross field transport. This energy transfer mechanism between microscale drift waves and mesoscale zonal flows can create a transport bifurcation and trigger the formation of an internal transport barrier. We report here on studies investigating transport bifurcation dynamics in the CSDX linear device using a 1D reduced turbulence and mean field evolution model. This two-mixing scale Hasegawa-Wakatani based model evolves spatio-temporal variations of three plasma fields: the mean density n, the mean vorticity u and the turbulent potential enstrophy e. The model adopts inhomogeneous potential vorticity mixing on a mixing length the expression of which is related to the Rhines' scale and to the mode scale (i.e. is ∇n and ∇u dependent). The model is based on expressions for turbulent fluxes of n, u and e derived from mixing length concepts. Turbulent particle and enstrophy transport are written as diffusive, but a residual stress part is included in the expression for the vorticity flux. Mixed boundary conditions are used at both ends of the domain and an external boundary fueling source is added. Simulation results show a steepening in the particle density profiles with B along with the formation of a net flow shear layer resulting from the vorticity mixing. These results suggest that the system dynamic is capable of sustaining the plasma core by means of a purely diffusive particle flux, without any explicit inward particle pinch.
Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Braid, D.
2011-01-01
The flux of meteoroids, or number of meteoroids per unit area per unit time, is critical for calibrating models of meteoroid stream formation and for estimating the hazard to spacecraft from shower and sporadic meteors. Although observations of meteors in the millimetre to centimetre size range are common, flux measurements (particularly for sporadic meteors, which make up the majority of meteoroid flux) are less so. It is necessary to know the collecting area and collection time for a given set of observations, and to correct for observing biases and the sensitivity of the system. Previous measurements of sporadic fluxes are summarized in Figure 1; the values are given as a total number of meteoroids striking the earth in one year to a given limiting mass. The Gr n et al. (1985) flux model is included in the figure for reference. Fluxes for sporadic meteoroids impacting the Earth have been calculated for objects in the centimeter size range using Super-Schmidt observations (Hawkins & Upton, 1958); this study used about 300 meteors, and used only the physical area of overlap of the cameras at 90 km to calculate the flux, corrected for angular speed of meteors, since a large angular speed reduces the maximum brightness of the meteor on the film, and radiant elevation, which takes into account the geometric reduction in flux when the meteors are not perpendicular to the horizontal. They bring up corrections for both partial trails (which tends to increase the collecting area) and incomplete overlap at heights other than 90 km (which tends to decrease it) as effects that will affect the flux, but estimated that the two effects cancelled one another. Halliday et al. (1984) calculated the flux of meteorite-dropping fireballs with fragment masses greater than 50 g, over the physical area of sky accessible to the MORP fireball cameras, counting only observations in clear weather. In the micron size range, LDEF measurements of small craters on spacecraft have been used to
Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective
Levich, Eugene
2009-07-01
It is claimed that turbulence in fluids is inherently coherent phenomenon. The coherence shows up clearly as strongly correlated helicity fluctuations of opposite sign. The helicity fluctuations have cellular structure forming clusters that are actually observed as vorticity bands and coherent structures in laboratory turbulence, direct numerical simulations and most obviously in atmospheric turbulence. The clusters are named BCC - Beltrami Cellular Clusters - because of the observed nearly total alignment of the velocity and vorticity fields in each particular cell, and hence nearly maximal possible helicity in each cell; although when averaged over all the cells the residual mean helicity in general is small and does not play active dynamical role. The Beltrami like fluctuations are short-lived and stabilize only in small and generally contiguous sub-domains that are tending to a (multi)fractal in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers, Re → ∞. For the model of homogeneous isotropic turbulence the theory predicts the leading fractal dimension of BCC to be: DF = 2.5. This particular BCC is responsible for generating the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law energy spectrum. The most obvious role that BCC play dynamically is that the nonlinear interactions in them are relatively reduced, due to strong spatial alignment between the velocity field v(r, t) and the vorticity field ω(r, t) = curlv(r, t), while the physical quantities typically best characterizing turbulence intermittency, such as entrophy, vorticity stretching and generation, and energy dissipation are maximized in and near them. The theory quantitatively relates the reduction of nonlinear inter-actions to the BCC fractal dimension DF and subsequent turbulence intermittency. It is further asserted that BCC is a fundamental feature of all turbulent flows, e.g., wall bounded turbulent flows, atmospheric and oceanic flows, and their leading fractal dimension remains invariant and universal in these flows
Atmospheric turbulence and diffusion research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosker, R.P. Jr.
1993-01-01
The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (well known in the atmospheric dispersion community as the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, ATDL) is one of several field facilities of NOAAs Air Resources Laboratory, headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. The laboratory conducts research on matters of atmospheric diffusion and turbulent exchange, concerning air quality. ATDD focuses attention on the physics of the lower atmosphere, with special emphasis on the processes contributing to atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and air-surface exchange, and on the development of predictive capabilities using the results of this research. Research is directed toward issues of national and global importance related to the missions of DOE, to DOE's Oak Ridge Field Office, and to NOAA. The program is divided into four major projects: plume transport and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer, complex topography, canopy micrometeorology, and air-surface exchange
Clumps in drift wave turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecseli, H. L.; Mikkelsen, Torben
1986-01-01
In a statistical analysis pair correlation of particles is eventually destroyed by small scale fluctuations giving rise to relative particle diffusion. However, in any one given realization of the statistical ensemble particles may remain correlated in certain regions of space. A perfectly frozen......, two-dimensional random flow serves as a particularly simple illustration. For this case particles can be trapped for all times in a local vortex (macro-clump). A small test-cloud of particles (micro-clump) chosen arbitrarily in a realization will on the other hand expand on average. A formulation...... is proposed in terms of conditional eddies, in order to discriminate turbulent flows where macro-clumps may be observed. The analysis is illustrated by results from experimental investigations of strongly turbulent, resistive drift-wave fluctuations. The related problem for electrostatic turbulence...
Methane fluxes above the Hainich forest by True Eddy Accumulation and Eddy Covariance
Siebicke, Lukas; Gentsch, Lydia; Knohl, Alexander
2016-04-01
Understanding the role of forests for the global methane cycle requires quantifying vegetation-atmosphere exchange of methane, however observations of turbulent methane fluxes remain scarce. Here we measured turbulent fluxes of methane (CH4) above a beech-dominated old-growth forest in the Hainich National Park, Germany, and validated three different measurement approaches: True Eddy Accumulation (TEA, closed-path laser spectroscopy), and eddy covariance (EC, open-path and closed-path laser spectroscopy, respectively). The Hainich flux tower is a long-term Fluxnet and ICOS site with turbulent fluxes and ecosystem observations spanning more than 15 years. The current study is likely the first application of True Eddy Accumulation (TEA) for the measurement of turbulent exchange of methane and one of the very few studies comparing open-path and closed-path eddy covariance (EC) setups side-by-side. We observed uptake of methane by the forest during the day (a methane sink with a maximum rate of 0.03 μmol m-2 s-1 at noon) and no or small fluxes of methane from the forest to the atmosphere at night (a methane source of typically less than 0.01 μmol m-2 s-1) based on continuous True Eddy Accumulation measurements in September 2015. First results comparing TEA to EC CO2 fluxes suggest that True Eddy Accumulation is a valid option for turbulent flux quantifications using slow response gas analysers (here CRDS laser spectroscopy, other potential techniques include mass spectroscopy). The TEA system was one order of magnitude more energy efficient compared to closed-path eddy covariance. The open-path eddy covariance setup required the least amount of user interaction but is often constrained by low signal-to-noise ratios obtained when measuring methane fluxes over forests. Closed-path eddy covariance showed good signal-to-noise ratios in the lab, however in the field it required significant amounts of user intervention in addition to a high power consumption. We conclude
Finite Element Aircraft Simulation of Turbulence
1997-02-01
A Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence (SORBET) model has been : developed for realtime aircraft simulation that accommodates stochastic : turbulence and distributed discrete gusts as a function of the terrain. This : model is applicable to c...
Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Mimotakis, Paul
1998-01-01
.... New measures to characterize level sets in turbulence were developed and successfully employed to characterize experimental data of liquid-phase turbulent-jet flows as well as three-dimensional...
Frontogenesis and turbulent mixing
Zhang, S.; Chen, F.; Shang, Q.
2017-12-01
ageostrophic secondary circulation together with the cross-frontal ageostrophic speed. The mixed characteristic is weak in summer, but the large turbulent dissipation and mixing rate measured in the frontal region, which show that the front promoted exchange of material and energy in the upper ocean.
Xanthopoulos, P.; Merz, F.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.
2007-07-01
Ion-temperature-gradient turbulence constitutes a possibly dominant transport mechanism for optimized stellarators, in view of the effective suppression of neoclassical losses characterizing these devices. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation results for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator [G. Grieger , in Proceedings of the IAEA Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1990 (IAEA, Vienna, 1991) Vol. 3, p. 525]—assuming an adiabatic electron response—are presented. Several fundamental features are discussed, including the role of zonal flows for turbulence saturation, the resulting flux-gradient relationship, and the coexistence of ion-temperature-gradient modes with trapped ion modes in the saturated state.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... The most probable initial magnetic configuration of a CME is a flux rope consisting of twisted field lines which fill the whole volume of a dark coronal cavity. The flux ropes can be in stable equilibrium in the coronal magnetic field for weeks and even months, but suddenly they lose their stability and erupt with ...
Turbulence transport with nonlocal interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linn, R.R.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.; Turner, L.
1998-03-01
This preliminary report describes a variety of issues in turbulence transport analysis with particular emphasis on closure procedures that are nonlocal in wave-number and/or physical space. Anomalous behavior of the transport equations for large scale parts of the turbulence spectrum are resolved by including the physical space nonlocal interactions. Direct and reverse cascade processes in wave-number space are given a much richer potential for realistic description by the nonlocal formulations. The discussion also describes issues, many still not resolved, regarding new classes of self-similar form functions.
Plasma turbulence effects on aurorae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishin, E.V.; Telegin, V.A.
1989-01-01
Analysis of modern state of microprocesses physics in plasma of aurorare, initiated by energetic electron flow intrusion, is presented. It is shown that there is a number of phenomena, which cannot be explained under non-collision (collective) mechanisms of interaction are applied. Effects of plasma turbulence in the area of auroral arcs are considered. Introduction of a new structural element to auroral arc - plasma-turbulence (PT) layer is substantiated. Numerical simulation of electron kinetics, changes in neutral composition, as well as generation of IR- and UV-radiation in PT layer has been realized
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo D. Mininni
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of tackling the ill-posed inverse problem of motion estimation from image sequences, we propose to introduce prior knowledge on flow regularity given by turbulence statistical models. Prior regularity is formalised using turbulence power laws describing statistically self-similar structure of motion increments across scales. The motion estimation method minimises the error of an image observation model while constraining second-order structure function to behave as a power law within a prescribed range. Thanks to a Bayesian modelling framework, the motion estimation method is able to jointly infer the most likely power law directly from image data. The method is assessed on velocity fields of 2-D or quasi-2-D flows. Estimation accuracy is first evaluated on a synthetic image sequence of homogeneous and isotropic 2-D turbulence. Results obtained with the approach based on physics of fluids outperform state-of-the-art. Then, the method analyses atmospheric turbulence using a real meteorological image sequence. Selecting the most likely power law model enables the recovery of physical quantities, which are of major interest for turbulence atmospheric characterisation. In particular, from meteorological images we are able to estimate energy and enstrophy fluxes of turbulent cascades, which are in agreement with previous in situ measurements.
Edge turbulence control on the KT-5C tokamak by feedback using electrostatic probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhai Kan; Wang Cheng; Wen Yizi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Xu Zhizhan
1998-01-01
Experiments on edge turbulence control have been performed on the KT-5C tokamak by feedback using two sets of electrostatic probes as the driving probe and detective probe. The results indicate that the feedback can enhance or reduce the turbulence amplitude depending upon the phase shift and gain of the feedback network. When the feedback with 90 degree phase shift and with certain loop gain is applied, the spectrum component of turbulence is reduced obviously and the fluctuation amplitude of the electron density and electron temperature become lower by about 25%. consistently the particle flux across the magnetic field induced by the electrostatic fluctuation also decreases by about 25%. On the other hand, the feedback with 0 degree or 180 degree or -90 degree phase shift can enhance the amplitude of the edge turbulence. These results indicate a nonlinear mechanism of the influence of feedback on the edge turbulence, which to some extent also reflect a specific nonlinear characteristic of the edge turbulence
Numerical turbulent convective heat transfer and fluid flow in complex channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rokni, M.
1996-04-01
This investigation concerns numerical turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow in complex channels for fully developed periodic state. Numerical application of different turbulence models for forced convective heat transfer in three dimensional channels are presented. It also concerns prediction of secondary motions and temperature distribution in straight and corrugated ducts with different cross section area. The standard linear k-e and Speziale`s non-linear k-e models with wall functions are applied to calculate the turbulent shear stresses. SED, GGDH and WET models are used to predict the turbulent heat fluxes. The overall thermal-hydraulic performance is presented in terms of friction factor and Nu-number. Some formulas are also presented to estimate the Nu-number in various wavy channels. The numerical approach is based on the finite volume technique with non-staggered grid arrangement. Rhie-Chow interpolation with SIMPLEC-algorithm is used. The convective terms are treated by hybrid, MUSCL, van Leer and QUICK schemes while the diffusive terms are treated by central difference scheme. The fully developed turbulent state is achieved by imposing periodic conditions in the main flow direction. In general, a numerical method for calculation of turbulent convective heat transfer in complex channels is presented. 4 refs, 3 figs
Simulation of Deep Convective Clouds with the Dynamic Reconstruction Turbulence Closure
Shi, X.; Chow, F. K.; Street, R. L.; Bryan, G. H.
2017-12-01
The terra incognita (TI), or gray zone, in simulations is a range of grid spacing comparable to the most energetic eddy diameter. Spacing in mesoscale and simulations is much larger than the eddies, and turbulence is parameterized with one-dimensional vertical-mixing. Large eddy simulations (LES) have grid spacing much smaller than the energetic eddies, and use three-dimensional models of turbulence. Studies of convective weather use convection-permitting resolutions, which are in the TI. Neither mesoscale-turbulence nor LES models are designed for the TI, so TI turbulence parameterization needs to be discussed. Here, the effects of sub-filter scale (SFS) closure schemes on the simulation of deep tropical convection are evaluated by comparing three closures, i.e. Smagorinsky model, Deardorff-type TKE model and the dynamic reconstruction model (DRM), which partitions SFS turbulence into resolvable sub-filter scales (RSFS) and unresolved sub-grid scales (SGS). The RSFS are reconstructed, and the SGS are modeled with a dynamic eddy viscosity/diffusivity model. The RSFS stresses/fluxes allow backscatter of energy/variance via counter-gradient stresses/fluxes. In high-resolution (100m) simulations of tropical convection use of these turbulence models did not lead to significant differences in cloud water/ice distribution, precipitation flux, or vertical fluxes of momentum and heat. When model resolutions are coarsened, the Smagorinsky and TKE models overestimate cloud ice and produces large-amplitude downward heat flux in the middle troposphere (not found in the high-resolution simulations). This error is a result of unrealistically large eddy diffusivities, i.e., the eddy diffusivity of the DRM is on the order of 1 for the coarse resolution simulations, the eddy diffusivity of the Smagorinsky and TKE model is on the order of 100. Splitting the eddy viscosity/diffusivity scalars into vertical and horizontal components by using different length scales and strain rate
Benchmarking gyrokinetic simulations in a toroidal flux-tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Y.; Parker, S. E.; Wan, W. [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Bravenec, R. [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)
2013-09-15
A flux-tube model is implemented in the global turbulence code GEM [Y. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 220, 839 (2007)] in order to facilitate benchmarking with Eulerian codes. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. The initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ∇B, etc.) to be equal to the values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. This implementation shows disagreement with Eulerian codes in linear simulations. An alternative flux-tube model based on a complete local equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation [J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 105009 (2009)] is then implemented. This results in better agreement between Eulerian codes and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The PIC algorithm based on the v{sub ||}-formalism [J. Reynders, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1992] and the gyrokinetic ion/fluid electron hybrid model with kinetic electron closure [Y. Chan and S. E. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 18, 055703 (2011)] are also implemented in the flux-tube geometry and compared with the direct method for both the ion temperature gradient driven modes and the kinetic ballooning modes.
Turbulent pressure fluctuations measured during CHATS
Steven P. Oncley; William J. Massman; Edward G. Patton
2008-01-01
Fast-response pressure fluctuations were included in the Canopy Horizontal Array of Turbulence Study (CHATS) at several heights within and just above the canopy in a walnut orchard. Two independent systems were intercompared and then separated. We present an evaluation of turbulence statistics - including the pressure transport term in the turbulence kinetic energy...
PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW EVOLUTION IN TURBULENT ENVIRONMENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunningham, Andrew J.; Frank, Adam; Carroll, Jonathan; Blackman, Eric G.; Quillen, Alice C.
2009-01-01
The link between turbulence in star-forming environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows, we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers'-type turbulence and produces a driving scale length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star-forming environments. In the last section, we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets cannot be the source of turbulence.
Entrainment by turbulent plumes
Parker, David; Burridge, Henry; Partridge, Jamie; Linden, Paul
2017-11-01
Plumes are of relevance to nature and real consequence to industry. While the Morton, Taylor & Turner (1956) plume model is able to estimate the mean physical flux parameters, the process of entrainment is only parametrised in a time-averaged sense and a deeper understanding is key to understanding how they evolve. Various flow configurations, resulting in different entrainment values, are considered; we perform simultaneous PIV and plume-edge detection on saline plumes in water resulting from a point source, a line source and a line source where a vertical wall is placed immediately adjacent. Of particular interest is the effect the large scale eddies, forming at the edge of the plume and engulfing ambient fluid, have on the entrainment process. By using velocity statistics in a coordinate system based on the instantaneous scalar edge of the plume the significance of this large scale engulfment is quantified. It is found that significant mass is transported outside the plumes, in particular in regions where large scale structures are absent creating regions of relatively high-momentum ambient fluid. This suggests that the large scale processes, whereby ambient fluid is engulfed into the plume, contribute significantly to the entrainment.
Framework for simulating droplet vaporization in turbulent flows
Palmore, John; Desjardins, Olivier
2017-11-01
A framework for performing direct numerical simulations of droplet vaporization is presented. The work is motivated by spray combustion in engines wherein fuel droplets vaporize in a turbulent gas flow. The framework is built into a conservative finite volume code for simulating low Mach number turbulent multiphase flows. Phase tracking is performed using a discretely conservative geometric volume of fluid method, while the transport of mass fraction and temperature is performed using the BQUICK scheme. Special attention is given to the implementation of transport equations near the interface to ensure the consistency between fluxes of mass, momentum, and scalars. The effect of evaporation on the flow appears as a system of coupled source terms which depend on the local thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases. The sources are implemented implicitly using an unconditionally stable, monotone scheme. Two methodologies for resolving the system's thermodynamic equilibrium are compared for their accuracy, robustness, and computational expense. Verification is performed by comparing results to known solutions in one and three dimensions. Finally, simulations of droplets vaporizing in turbulence are demonstrated, and trends for mass fraction and temperature fields are discussed.
Recent Progress in BOUT + + boundary plasma turbulence simulations
Xu, X. Q.; BOUT++ Team
2017-10-01
BOUT + + has been developed and applied for a range of problems that impact on boundary plasma turbulence and transport. A summary of simulation progress and results will be presented including, but not limited to: (1) Modeling tokamak boundary plasma turbulence and understanding its role in setting divertor heat flux widths; (2) Self-consistent calculation of the radial electric field with ion orbit loss mechanism; (3) Simulating the DIII-D and EAST grassy ELM regime; (4) Simulation comparison of EHO state and broadband MHD phase in near-zero torque QH-mode on DIII-D; (5) Simulation of the ELMs triggering by lithium pellet on EAST tokamak; (6) Ideal MHD Stability and Characteristics of Edge Localized Modes on CFETR Our latest transport module solves a set of transport equations with quasi-neutral constraint using vorticity formulation under the BOUT + + framework. This new capability enables BOUT + + team to simulate boundary plasma transport across the separatrix with self-consistent electric and magnetic drifts, ion orbit loss, and sheath boundary conditions in the scrape-off-layer. Preliminary results of the coupled turbulence and transport simulations will also presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
On spectral scaling laws for incompressible anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galtier, Sebastien; Pouquet, Annick; Mangeney, Andre
2005-01-01
A heuristic model is given for anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics turbulence in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field B 0 e parallel . The model is valid for both moderate and strong B 0 and is able to describe both the strong and weak wave turbulence regimes as well as the transition between them. The main ingredient of the model is the assumption of constant ratio at all scales between the linear wave period and the nonlinear turnover time scale. Contrary to the model of critical balance introduced by Goldreich and Sridhar [Astrophys. J. 438, 763 (1995)], it is not assumed, in addition, that this ratio be equal to unity at all scales. This allows us to make use of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan phenomenology; it is then possible to recover the widely observed anisotropic scaling law k parallel ∝k perpendicular 2/3 between parallel and perpendicular wave numbers (with reference to B 0 e parallel and to obtain for the total-energy spectrum E(k perpendicular ,k parallel )∼k perpendicular -α k parallel -β the universal prediction, 3α+2β=7. In particular, with such a prediction, the weak Alfven wave turbulence constant-flux solution is recovered and, for the first time, a possible explanation to its precursor found numerically by Galtier et al. [J. Plasma Phys. 63, 447 (2000)] is given.
Lipkens, B; Blackstock, D T
1998-09-01
A model experiment was reported to be successful in simulating the propagation of sonic booms through a turbulent atmosphere [B. Lipkens and D. T. Blackstock, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 148-158 (1998)]. In this study the effect on N wave characteristics of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence are investigated. The main parameters of interest are the rise time and the peak pressure. The effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance is to flatten the rise time and peak pressure distributions. Rise time and peak pressure distributions always have positive skewness after propagation through turbulence. Average rise time grows with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. The scattering of rise time data is one-sided, i.e., rise times are almost always increased by turbulence. Average peak pressure decreases slowly with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. For the reported data a threefold increase in average rise time is observed and a maximum decrease of about 20% in average peak pressure. Rise times more than ten times that of the no turbulence value are observed. At most, the maximum peak pressure doubles after propagation through turbulence, and the minimum peak pressure values are about one-half the no-turbulence values. Rounded waveforms are always more common than peaked waveforms.
Transport-Statistics and Energetics in Stable-Continuous Turbulence
Bergmann, Juan Carlos
2010-05-01
Continuous turbulence (CT) is the basic condition for relatively simple quantifications in stable stratification, e.g., Monin-Obukhov (MO) theory. From a statistical point of view, CT guarantees spatial and temporal randomness of variables, which is an important basis for quantitative considerations. Also, the entire concept of an exchange (diffusion) coefficient can only be applied under randomness conditions. Thus, there is equivalence of diffusion and random walk (RW), as demonstrated by Einstein in his annum mirabilis 1905. In stable stratification, the limitation of vertical displacements by surface-distance is supplemented by buoyancy-effects. The latter can be quantified by the energy balance of vertical displacements: Vertical turbulent kinetic energy (VTKE) is transformed to potential energy (PE). This transformation happens in combination with deflection of vertical motion by the random interactions of fluid parcels that also happen in neutrality. By application of the RW-definition of the diffusion coefficient it is possible to implement the buoyancy-related limitations (energy balance) to the determination of the exchange coefficient, most simply in the stable limit z >> L. Determination of the exchange coefficient in its turn automatically yields the profile-constant. Depending on a dimensionless turbulence parameter (ratio of average-square vertical velocity to squared friction velocity), the most probable approximate value of the profile-constant is 2.9. This value is within the traditional experimental range (2.0 to 12) but clearly below the ‘community's' favourite range of 5 to 6. Due to an involved approximation, the value of 2.9 is systematically over-estimated, so that the RW result is not compatible with larger values. The applied energy-balance formulation necessarily has to reflect the energetic processes. In the usual concept of energetics, shear-produced TKE is absorbed by the buoyancy flux (BF) and -BF acts as source of turbulent
Dissipative structures in magnetorotational turbulence
Ross, Johnathan; Latter, Henrik N.
2018-03-01
Via the process of accretion, magnetorotational turbulence removes energy from a disk's orbital motion and transforms it into heat. Turbulent heating is far from uniform and is usually concentrated in small regions of intense dissipation, characterised by abrupt magnetic reconnection and higher temperatures. These regions are of interest because they might generate non-thermal emission, in the form of flares and energetic particles, or thermally process solids in protoplanetary disks. Moreover, the nature of the dissipation bears on the fundamental dynamics of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) itself: local simulations indicate that the large-scale properties of the turbulence (e.g. saturation levels, the stress-pressure relationship) depend on the short dissipative scales. In this paper we undertake a numerical study of how the MRI dissipates and the small-scale dissipative structures it employs to do so. We use the Godunov code RAMSES and unstratified compressible shearing boxes. Our simulations reveal that dissipation is concentrated in ribbons of strong magnetic reconnection that are significantly elongated in azimuth, up to a scale height. Dissipative structures are hence meso-scale objects, and potentially provide a route by which large scales and small scales interact. We go on to show how these ribbons evolve over time — forming, merging, breaking apart, and disappearing. Finally, we reveal important couplings between the large-scale density waves generated by the MRI and the small-scale structures, which may illuminate the stress-pressure relationship in MRI turbulence.
Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas
Horton, Wendell
2012-01-01
This book explains how magnetized plasmas self-organize in states of electromagnetic turbulence that transports particles and energy out of the core plasma faster than anticipated by the fusion scientists designing magnetic confinement systems in the 20th century. It describes theory, experiments and simulations in a unified and up-to-date presentation of the issues of achieving nuclear fusion power.
Evaluation of turbulence mitigation methods
van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Huebner, Claudia S.; Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; Schwering, Piet B. W.
2014-05-01
Atmospheric turbulence is a well-known phenomenon that diminishes the recognition range in visual and infrared image sequences. There exist many different methods to compensate for the effects of turbulence. This paper focuses on the performance of two software-based methods to mitigate the effects of low- and medium turbulence conditions. Both methods are capable of processing static and dynamic scenes. The first method consists of local registration, frame selection, blur estimation and deconvolution. The second method consists of local motion compensation, fore- /background segmentation and weighted iterative blind deconvolution. A comparative evaluation using quantitative measures is done on some representative sequences captured during a NATO SET 165 trial in Dayton. The amount of blurring and tilt in the imagery seem to be relevant measures for such an evaluation. It is shown that both methods improve the imagery by reducing the blurring and tilt and therefore enlarge the recognition range. Furthermore, results of a recognition experiment using simulated data are presented that show that turbulence mitigation using the first method improves the recognition range up to 25% for an operational optical system.
5th European Turbulence Conference
1995-01-01
Under the auspices of the Euromech Committee, the Fifth European Turbulence Conference was held in Siena on 5-8 July 1994. Following the previous ETC meeting in Lyon (1986), Berlin (1988), Stockholm (1990) and Delft (1992), the Fifth ETC was aimed at providing a review of the fundamental aspects of turbulence from a theoretical, numerical and experimental point of view. In the magnificent town of Siena, more than 250 scientists from all over the world, spent four days discussing new ideas on turbulence. As a research worker in the field of turbulence, I must say that the works presented at the Conference, on which this book is based, covered almost all areas in this field. I also think that this book provides a major opportunity to have a complete overview of the most recent research works. I am extremely grateful to Prof. C. Cercignani, Dr. M. Loffredo, and Prof. R. Piva who, as members of the local organizing committee, share the success of the Conference. I also want to thank Mrs. Liu' Catena, for her inva...
Tackling turbulent flows in engineering
Dewan, Anupam
2011-01-01
Focusing on the engineering aspects of fluid turbulence, this volume offers solutions to the problem in a number of settings. Emphasizing real-world applications rather than mathematics, it will be a must-read text in both industrial and academic environments.
Topology optimization of turbulent flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dilgen, Cetin B.; Dilgen, Sumer B.; Fuhrman, David R.
2018-01-01
The aim of this work is to present a fast and viable approach for taking into account turbulence in topology optimization of complex fluid flow systems, without resorting to any simplifying assumptions in the derivation of discrete adjoints. Topology optimization is an iterative gradient...
Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.
1995-01-01
In this paper, the radial correlation length of an electrostatic drift wave turbulence is analytically determined in various regimes. The analysis relies on the calculation of a range of mode non linear interaction, which is an instantaneous correlation length. The link with the usual correlation length has not been investigated yet. (TEC). 5 refs
Turbulent magnetohydrodynamics in liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berhanu, Michael
2008-01-01
In electrically conducting fluids, the electromagnetic field is coupled with the fluid motion by induction effects. We studied different magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, using two experiments involving turbulent flows of liquid metal. The first mid-sized uses gallium. The second, using sodium, is conducted within the VKS (Von Karman Sodium) collaboration. It has led to the observation of the dynamo effect, namely converting a part of the kinetic energy of the fluid into magnetic energy. We have shown that, depending on forcing conditions, a statistically stationary dynamo, or dynamical regimes of magnetic field can be generated. In particular, polarity reversals similar to those of Earth's magnetic field were observed. Meanwhile, experiment with Gallium has been developed to study the effects of electromagnetic induction by turbulent flows in a more homogeneous and isotropic configuration than in the VKS experiment. Using data from these two experiments, we studied the advection of magnetic field by a turbulent flow and the induced fluctuations. The development of probes measuring electrical potential difference allowed us to further highlight the magnetic braking of a turbulent flow of Gallium by Lorentz force. This mechanism is involved in the saturation of the dynamo instability. (author) [fr
Turbulence in the Heliospheric Jets
Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Opher, M.; Hassam, A.; Ohia, O.
2016-12-01
The conventional picture of the heliosphere is that of a comet-shaped structure with an extended tail produced by the relative motion of the sun through the local interstellar medium (LISM). Recent MHD simulations of the global heliosphere have revealed, however, that the heliosphere drives magnetized jets to the North and South similar to those driven by the Crab Nebula and other astrophysical objects. These simulations reveal that the jets become turbulent with scale lengths as large as 100AU [1,2]. An important question is what drives this large-scale turbulence, what are the implications for mixing of interstellar and heliospheric plasma and does this turbulence drive energetic particles? An analytic model of the heliospheric jets in the simple limit in which the interstellar flow and magnetic field are neglected yields an equilibrium state that can be analyzed to explore potential instabilities [3]. Calculations suggest that because the axial magnetic field within the jets is small, the dominant instability is the sausage mode, driven by the azimuthal solar magnetic field. Other drive mechanisms, including Kelvin Helmholtz, are also being explored. 3D MHD and Hall MHD simulations are being carried out to explore the development of this turbulence, its impact on the mixing of interstellar and heliosheath plasma and the production of energetic particles. [1] Opher et al ApJ Lett. 800, L28, 2015[2] Pogorelov et al ApJ Lett. 812,L6, 2015[3] Drake et al ApJ Lett. 808, L44, 2015
Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Since the discovery of pulsars in 1967, many years of work on interstellar scintillation suggested that small-scale interstellar turbulence must have a hydromagnetic origin; but the IK spectrum was too ﬂat and the ideas on anisotropic spectra too qualitative to explain the observations. In response, new theories of balanced ...
Wind effect in turbulence parametrization
Colombini, M.; Stocchino, A.
2005-09-01
The action of wind blowing over a closed basin ultimately results in a steady shear-induced circulation pattern and in a leeward rising of the free surface—and a corresponding windward lowering—known as wind set-up. If the horizontal dimensions of the basin are large with respect to the average flow depth, the occurrence of local quasi-equilibrium conditions can be expected, i.e. the flow can be assumed to be locally driven only by the wind stress and by the opposing free surface gradient due to set-up. This wind-induced flow configuration shows a strong similarity with turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow, the one dimensional flow between parallel plates generated by the simultaneous action of a constant pressure gradient and of the shear induced by the relative motion of the plates. A two-equation turbulence closure is then employed to perform a numerical study of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows for different values of the ratio of the shear stresses at the two walls. The resulting eddy viscosity vertical distributions are analyzed in order to devise analytical profiles of eddy viscosity that account for the effect of wind. The results of this study, beside allowing for a physical insight on the turbulence process of this class of flows, will allow for a more accurate description of the wind effect to be included in the formulation of quasi-3D and 3D models of lagoon hydrodynamics.
Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
solar-wind turbulence show that there is more power in Alfvén waves that travel away from the. Sun than towards it. .... to ˆz is called the Alfvén wave, and the other orthogonal component is called the Slow. (magnetosonic) ...... advanced in the text suffices for our phenomenological account in this review. [46] A Beresnyak ...
Stochastic acceleration by hydromagnetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulsrud, R.M.
1979-03-01
A general theory for particle acceleration by weak hydromagnetic turbulence with a given spectrum of waves is described. Various limiting cases, corresponding to Fermi acceleration and magnetic pumping, are discussed and two numerical examples illustrating them are given. An attempt is made to show that the expression for the rate of Fermi acceleration is valid for finite amplitudes
Turbulent transport of large particles in the atmospheric boundary layer
Richter, D. H.; Chamecki, M.
2017-12-01
To describe the transport of heavy dust particles in the atmosphere, assumptions must typically be made in order to connect the micro-scale emission processes with the larger-scale atmospheric motions. In the context of numerical models, this can be thought of as the transport process which occurs between the domain bottom and the first vertical grid point. For example, in the limit of small particles (both low inertia and low settling velocity), theory built upon Monin-Obukhov similarity has proven effective in relating mean dust concentration profiles to surface emission fluxes. For increasing particle mass, however, it becomes more difficult to represent dust transport as a simple extension of the transport of a passive scalar due to issues such as the crossing trajectories effect. This study focuses specifically on the problem of large particle transport and dispersion in the turbulent boundary layer by utilizing direct numerical simulations with Lagrangian point-particle tracking to determine under what, if any, conditions the large dust particles (larger than 10 micron in diameter) can be accurately described in a simplified Eulerian framework. In particular, results will be presented detailing the independent contributions of both particle inertia and particle settling velocity relative to the strength of the surrounding turbulent flow, and consequences of overestimating surface fluxes via traditional parameterizations will be demonstrated.
The negative role of turbulence in estuarine mass transport
Nunes Vaz, Richard A.; Lennon, Geoffrey W.; de Silva Samarasinghe, Jayantha R.
1989-04-01
It is competition between the various stratifying and mixing influences which determines the character of stratification in an estuary. Borrowing concepts which have been successfully applied to the discussion of stratification in shelf seas, a quantitative basis for determining the potential energy associated with vertical structure in estuaries is derived. The formulation, along similar lines to that of Bowden (1981), provides a simple but comprehensive method of incorporating many relevant stratifying and mixing influences in a given problem, and is also shown to be capable of rearrangement into forms akin to the estuarine Richardson number which is commonly found in discussions of estuarine statification. The paper argues, based on a survey of the literature, that in wide, relatively well-mixed estuaries, the greatest longitudinal mass flux occurs at times when stratification is most developed, that is, when the turbulent kinetic energy in the water column is at a minimum. Modulation of turbulence, principally at various tidal frequencies, causes a pulsing of the mass flux in which the contribution of each pulse increases non-linearly as the period of the modulation increases. Some, possibly significant, changes to the state of stratification and to the corresponding mass transport may occur in association with slack water periods. However, the spring-neap cycle is proposed to have a far greater influence on stratification, mass transport and the long-term mass balance in estuaries, and recent observational studies lend support to this position.
Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
E.A. Belli, G.W. Hammett and W. Dorland
2008-01-01
The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ∼ κ -1.5 or κ -2.0 , depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows
Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belli, E. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hammett, G. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Dorland, W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2008-08-01
The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ^{-1.5} or κ^{-2.0}, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.
Simulation of a Wall-Bounded Flow using a Hybrid LES/RAS Approach with Turbulence Recycling
Quinlan, Jesse R.; Mcdaniel, James; Baurle, Robert A.
2012-01-01
Simulations of a supersonic recessed-cavity flow are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/ Reynolds-averaged simulation approach utilizing an inflow turbulence recycling procedure and hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Calorically perfect air enters the three-dimensional domain at a free stream Mach number of 2.92. Simulations are performed to assess grid sensitivity of the solution, efficacy of the turbulence recycling, and effect of the shock sensor used with the hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Analysis of the turbulent boundary layer upstream of the rearward-facing step for each case indicates excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Mean velocity and pressure results are compared to Reynolds-averaged simulations and experimental data for each case, and these comparisons indicate good agreement on the finest grid. Simulations are repeated on a coarsened grid, and results indicate strong grid density sensitivity. The effect of turbulence recycling on the solution is illustrated by performing coarse grid simulations with and without inflow turbulence recycling. Two shock sensors, one of Ducros and one of Larsson, are assessed for use with the hybridized inviscid flux reconstruction scheme.
Primordial magnetic field amplification from turbulent reheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra
2010-01-01
We analyze the possibility of primordial magnetic field amplification by a stochastic large scale kinematic dynamo during reheating. We consider a charged scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. During inflation this field is assumed to be in its vacuum state. At the transition to reheating the state of the field changes to a many particle/anti-particle state. We characterize that state as a fluid flow of zero mean velocity but with a stochastic velocity field. We compute the scale-dependent Reynolds number Re(k), and the characteristic times for decay of turbulence, t d and pair annihilation t a , finding t a d . We calculate the rms value of the kinetic helicity of the flow over a scale L and show that it does not vanish. We use this result to estimate the amplification factor of a seed field from the stochastic kinematic dynamo equations. Although this effect is weak, it shows that the evolution of the cosmic magnetic field from reheating to galaxy formation may well be more complex than as dictated by simple flux freezing
Thermal turbulent convection: thermal plumes and fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, M.
2007-10-01
In this study we investigate the phenomenon of thermal turbulent convection in new and unprecedented ways. The first system we studied experimentally is an infinite vertical channel, where a constant vertical mean gradient of temperature exists. Inside this channel the average mass flux is null. The results obtained from our measurements reveal that the flow is mainly inertial; indeed the dissipative coefficients (here the viscosity) play a role only to define a coherence length L. This length is the distance over which the thermal plumes can be considered as 'free falling' objects. The horizontal transport, of heat and momentum, is entirely due to fluctuations. The associated 'mixing length' is small compared to the channel width. In the other hand, the vertical heat transport is due to coherent structures: the heat plumes. Those objects were also investigated in a Lagrangian study of the flow in the bulk of a Rayleigh-Benard cell. The probe, which has the same density as the fluid used in this experiment, is a sphere of 2 cm in diameter with embarked thermometers and radio-emitter. The heat plumes transport it, which allows a statistical study of such objects. (author)
Satellite evidence for no change in terrestrial latent heat flux in the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tion transpiration and regulates climate change by altering the exchange of terrestrial energy, water and carbon .... by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping. Studies (GIMMS) group at NASA GSFC at a spa- ..... meter (AMSR) Science Team meeting; Earth Observer. 13 3–9. Mahrt L 2010 Computing turbulent fluxes ...
Multi-sensor remote sensing parameterization of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces
Faivre, R.D.
2014-01-01
The parameterization of heat transfer by remote sensing, and based on SEBS scheme for turbulent heat fluxes retrieval, already proved to be very convenient for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) over homogeneous land surfaces. However, the use of such a method over heterogeneous landscapes (e.g.
Aquatic Eddy Correlation: Quantifying the Artificial Flux Caused by Stirring-Sensitive O
Holtappels, M.; Noss, C.; Hancke, K.; Cathalot, C.; McGinnis, D.F.; Lorke, A.; Glud, R.N.
2015-01-01
In the last decade, the aquatic eddy correlation (EC) technique has proven to be a powerful approach for non-invasive measurements of oxygen fluxes across the sediment water interface. Fundamental to the EC approach is the correlation of turbulent velocity and oxygen concentration fluctuations
Environmental controls on ozone fluxes in a poplar plantation in Western Europe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zona, D.; Gioli, B.; Fares, S.
2014-01-01
development. Largest O-3 uptakes were recorded at the beginning of the growing season in correspondence to a minimum stomatal uptake. Wind speed was the most important control and explained 44% of the variability in the nighttime O-3 fluxes, suggesting that turbulent mixing and the mechanical destruction of O...
Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.
Simulation and modeling of turbulent flows
Gatski, Thomas B; Lumley, John L
1996-01-01
This book provides students and researchers in fluid engineering with an up-to-date overview of turbulent flow research in the areas of simulation and modeling. A key element of the book is the systematic, rational development of turbulence closure models and related aspects of modern turbulent flow theory and prediction. Starting with a review of the spectral dynamics of homogenous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows, succeeding chapters deal with numerical simulation techniques, renormalization group methods and turbulent closure modeling. Each chapter is authored by recognized leaders in their respective fields, and each provides a thorough and cohesive treatment of the subject.
An introduction to turbulence and its measurement
Bradshaw, P
1971-01-01
An Introduction to Turbulence and Its Measurement is an introductory text on turbulence and its measurement. It combines the physics of turbulence with measurement techniques and covers topics ranging from measurable quantities and their physical significance to the analysis of fluctuating signals, temperature and concentration measurements, and the hot-wire anemometer. Examples of turbulent flows are presented. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the physics of turbulence, paying particular attention to Newton's second law of motion, the Newtonian viscous f
Maximal mixing rate in turbulent stably stratified Couette flow
Caulfield, C. P.; Kerswell, R. R.
2001-11-01
A rigorous upper bound on the long-time-averaged vertical buoyancy flux is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations for a Boussinesq fluid confined between two parallel horizontal plates a distance d apart, maintained at a constant statically stabilizing temperature difference Δ T and driven at a constant relative velocity Δ U. The upper bound on the volume and long-time-averaged vertical buoyancy flux \\cal B := limt arrow ∞ 1/t int^t0 g/ρ0 dtildet is \\cal B <= \\cal B_max=(1-16√2/Re) (Δ U)^3 /(64 √2d) where Re=Δ Ud/ν and ρ0 is some reference density. Significantly, \\cal B_max is independent of the bulk Richardson number of the flow and is achieved by an optimal solution with a mixing efficiency (or flux Richardson number) which approaches 0.5 as the Reynolds number becomes large. The time-averaged turbulent dissipation of kinetic energy and the time-averaged vertical buoyancy flux are then in equipartition for the optimising flow.
Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoric, M.M.
1981-01-01
This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)
Experiments in turbulent pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torbergsen, Lars Even
1998-12-31
This thesis reports experimental results for the mean velocity and turbulence statistics in two straight pipe sections for bulk Reynolds numbers in the range 22000 to 75000. The flow was found consistent with a fully developed state. Detailed turbulence spectra were obtained for low and moderate turbulent Reynolds number. For the pipe centre line location at R{sub {lambda}} = 112, a narrow range in the streamwise power spectrum applied to the -5/3 inertial subrange. However this range was influenced both by turbulence production and viscous dissipation, and therefore did not reflect a true inertial range. The result indicates how the intermediate range between the production and dissipative scales can be misinterpreted as an inertial range for low and moderate R{sub {lambda}}. To examine the universal behaviour of the inertial range, the inertial scaling of the streamwise power spectrum is compared to the inertial scaling of the second order longitudinal velocity structure function, which relate directly by a Fourier transform. Increasing agreement between the Kolmogorov constant C{sub K} and the second order structure function scaling constant C{sub 2} was observed with increasing R{sub {lambda}}. The result indicates that a true inertial range requires several decades of separation between the energy containing and dissipative scales. A method for examining spectral anisotropy is reported and applied to turbulence spectra in fully developed pipe flow. It is found that the spectral redistribution from the streamwise to the two lateral spectra goes primarily to the circumferential component. Experimental results are reported for an axisymmetric contraction of a fully developed pipe flow. 67 refs., 75 figs., 9 tabs.
Modelling thermal radiation in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames
Consalvi, J. L.; Demarco, R.; Fuentes, A.
2012-10-01
This work focuses on the numerical modelling of radiative heat transfer in laboratory-scale buoyant turbulent diffusion flames. Spectral gas and soot radiation is modelled by using the Full-Spectrum Correlated-k (FSCK) method. Turbulence-Radiation Interactions (TRI) are taken into account by considering the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA), the resulting time-averaged Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) being solved by the Finite Volume Method (FVM). Emission TRIs and the mean absorption coefficient are then closed by using a presumed probability density function (pdf) of the mixture fraction. The mean gas flow field is modelled by the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) equation set closed by a buoyancy-modified k-ɛ model with algebraic stress/flux models (ASM/AFM), the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model coupled with a presumed pdf approach to account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions, and an acetylene-based semi-empirical two-equation soot model. Two sets of experimental pool fire data are used for validation: propane pool fires 0.3 m in diameter with Heat Release Rates (HRR) of 15, 22 and 37 kW and methane pool fires 0.38 m in diameter with HRRs of 34 and 176 kW. Predicted flame structures, radiant fractions, and radiative heat fluxes on surrounding surfaces are found in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data across all the flames. In addition further computations indicate that, for the present flames, the gray approximation can be applied for soot with a minor influence on the results, resulting in a substantial gain in Computer Processing Unit (CPU) time when the FSCK is used to treat gas radiation.
Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.
1986-06-01
A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs
Gao, Zhongming; Liu, Heping; Russell, Eric S.; Huang, Jianping; Foken, Thomas; Oncley, Steven P.
2016-02-01
The effects of large eddies on turbulence structures and flux transport were studied using data collected over a flat cotton field during the Energy Balance Experiment 2000 in the San Joaquin Valley of California in August 2000. Flux convergence (FC; larger fluxes at 8.7 m than 2.7 m) and divergence (FD) in latent heat flux (LE) were observed in a disturbed, unstable atmospheric surface layer, and their magnitudes largely departed from the prediction of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. From our wavelet analysis, it was identified that large eddies affected turbulence structures, scalar distribution, and flux transport differently at 8.7 m and 2.7 m under the FC and FD conditions. Using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition, time series data were decomposed into large eddies and small-scale background turbulence, the time-domain characteristics of large eddies were examined, and the flux contribution by large eddies was also determined quantitatively. The results suggest that large eddies over the frequency range of 0.002 Hz < f < 0.02 Hz (predominantly 300-400 m) enhanced the vertical velocity spectra more significantly at 8.7 m than 2.7 m, leading to an increased magnitude of the cospectra and thus LE at 8.7 m. In the FD case, however, these large eddies were not present and even suppressed in the vertical velocity spectra at 8.7 m. Consequently, the cospectra divergence over the low-frequency ranges primarily caused the LE divergence. This work implies that large eddies may either improve or degrade the surface energy balance closure by increasing or decreasing turbulent fluxes, respectively.
Atmospheric Forcing of the Winter Air–Sea Heat Fluxes over the Northern Red Sea
Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.
2013-03-01
The influence of the atmospheric circulation on the winter air–sea heat fluxes over the northern Red Sea is investigated during the period 1985–2011. The analysis based on daily heat flux values reveals that most of the net surface heat exchange variability depends on the behavior of the turbulent components of the surface flux (the sum of the latent and sensible heat). The large-scale composite sea level pressure (SLP) maps corresponding to turbulent flux minima and maxima show distinct atmospheric circulation patterns associated with each case. In general, extreme heat loss (with turbulent flux lower than −400 W m−2) over the northern Red Sea is observed when anticyclonic conditions prevail over an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to eastern Asia along with a recession of the equatorial African lows system. Subcenters of high pressure associated with this pattern generate the required steep SLP gradient that enhances the wind magnitude and transfers cold and dry air masses from higher latitudes. Conversely, turbulent flux maxima (heat loss minimization with values from −100 to −50 W m−2) are associated with prevailing low pressures over the eastern Mediterranean and an extended equatorial African low that reaches the southern part of the Red Sea. In this case, a smooth SLP field over the northern Red Sea results in weak winds over the area that in turn reduce the surface heat loss. At the same time, southerlies blowing along the main axis of the Red Sea transfer warm and humid air northward, favoring heat flux maxima.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...
2004-01-01
Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo
Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux
Cao, Jun
2011-01-01
Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understa...
Theoretical magnetic flux emergence
MacTaggart, David
2011-01-01
Magnetic flux emergence is the subject of how magnetic fields from the solar interior can rise and expand into the atmosphere to produce active regions. It is the link that joins dynamics in the convection zone with dynamics in the atmosphere. In this thesis, we study many aspects of magnetic flux emergence through mathematical modelling and computer simulations. Our primary aim is to understand the key physical processes that lie behind emergence. The first chapter intro...
Cheung, Mark C. M.; Isobe, Hiroaki
2014-07-01
Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field) in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.
Bonan, Gordon B.; Patton, Edward G.; Harman, Ian N.; Oleson, Keith W.; Finnigan, John J.; Lu, Yaqiong; Burakowski, Elizabeth A.
2018-04-01
Land surface models used in climate models neglect the roughness sublayer and parameterize within-canopy turbulence in an ad hoc manner. We implemented a roughness sublayer turbulence parameterization in a multilayer canopy model (CLM-ml v0) to test if this theory provides a tractable parameterization extending from the ground through the canopy and the roughness sublayer. We compared the canopy model with the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) at seven forest, two grassland, and three cropland AmeriFlux sites over a range of canopy heights, leaf area indexes, and climates. CLM4.5 has pronounced biases during summer months at forest sites in midday latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, gross primary production, nighttime friction velocity, and the radiative temperature diurnal range. The new canopy model reduces these biases by introducing new physics. Advances in modeling stomatal conductance and canopy physiology beyond what is in CLM4.5 substantially improve model performance at the forest sites. The signature of the roughness sublayer is most evident in nighttime friction velocity and the diurnal cycle of radiative temperature, but is also seen in sensible heat flux. Within-canopy temperature profiles are markedly different compared with profiles obtained using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, and the roughness sublayer produces cooler daytime and warmer nighttime temperatures. The herbaceous sites also show model improvements, but the improvements are related less systematically to the roughness sublayer parameterization in these canopies. The multilayer canopy with the roughness sublayer turbulence improves simulations compared with CLM4.5 while also advancing the theoretical basis for surface flux parameterizations.
Optimization of magnetic amplification by flow constraints in turbulent liquid sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nornberg, M. D.; Taylor, N. Z.; Forest, C. B.; Rahbarnia, K.; Kaplan, E.
2014-01-01
Direct measurements of the vector turbulent emf in a driven two-vortex flow of liquid sodium were performed in the Madison Dynamo Experiment [K. Rahbarnia et al., Astrophys. J. 759, 80 (2012)]. The measured turbulent emf is anti-parallel with the mean current and is almost entirely described by an enhanced resistivity, which increases the threshold for a kinematic dynamo. We have demonstrated that this enhanced resistivity can be mitigated by eliminating the largest-scale eddies through the introduction of baffles. By tailoring the flow to reduce large-scale components and control the helical pitch, we have reduced the power required to drive the impellers, doubled the magnetic flux generated by differential rotation, and increased the decay time of externally applied magnetic fields. Despite these improvements, the flows remain sub-critical to the dynamo instability due to the reemergence of turbulent fluctuations at high flow speeds
Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Dynamos
Shebalin, John V.
2014-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much
Neutron flux monitoring device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimazu, Yoichiro.
1995-01-01
In a neutron flux monitoring device, there are disposed a neutron flux measuring means for outputting signals in accordance with the intensity of neutron fluxes, a calculation means for calculating a self power density spectrum at a frequency band suitable to an object to be measured based on the output of the neutron flux measuring means, an alarm set value generation means for outputting an alarm set value as a comparative reference, and an alarm judging means for comparing the alarm set value with the outputted value of the calculation means to judge requirement of generating an alarm and generate an alarm in accordance with the result of the judgement. Namely, the time-series of neutron flux signals is put to fourier transformation for a predetermined period of time by the calculation means, and from each of square sums for real number component and imaginary number component for each of the frequencies, a self power density spectrum in the frequency band suitable to the object to be measured is calculated. Then, when the set reference value is exceeded, an alarm is generated. This can reliably prevent generation of erroneous alarm due to neutron flux noises and can accurately generate an alarm at an appropriate time. (N.H.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Naotaka.
1993-01-01
The device of the present invention greatly saves an analog processing section such as an analog filter and an analog processing circuit. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux detection means for detecting neutron fluxed in the reactor, (2) a digital filter means for dividing signals corresponding to the detected neutron fluxes into predetermined frequency band regions, (3) a calculation processing means for applying a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band regions to the neutron flux detection signals divided by the digital filter means. With such a constitution, since the neutron detection signals are processed by the digital filter means, the accuracy is improved and the change for the property of the filter is facilitated. Further, when a neutron flux level is obtained, a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band region can be conducted without the analog processing circuit. Accordingly, maintenance and accuracy are improved by greatly decreasing the number of parts. Further, since problems inherent to the analog circuit are solved, neutron fluxes are monitored at high reliability. (I.S.)
Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans
2017-04-01
The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model is employed to improve the estimation of the net all-wave radiation balance, whereas the Element Surface Temperature Method (ESTM), adjusted to satellite observations is used to improve the estimation the estimation of the net change in heat storage. Furthermore the estimation of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes is based on the Aerodynamic Resistance Method (ARM). Based on these outcomes, QF is estimated by regressing the sum of the turbulent heat fluxes versus the available energy. In-situ flux measurements are used to evaluate URBANFLUXES outcomes, whereas uncertainties are specified and analyzed. URBANFLUXES is expected to prepare the ground for further innovative exploitation of EO in scientific activities (climate variability studies at local and regional scales) and future and emerging applications (sustainable urban planning, mitigation technologies) to benefit climate change mitigation/adaptation. This study presents the results of the second phase of the project and detailed information on URBANFLUXES is available at: http://urbanfluxes.eu
Effects of Langmuir Turbulence on Reactive Tracers in the Upper Ocean
Smith, K.; Hamlington, P.; Niemeyer, K.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Lovenduski, N. S.
2017-12-01
Reactive tracers such as carbonate chemical species play important roles in the oceanic carbon cycle, allowing the ocean to hold 60 times more carbon than the atmosphere. However, uncertainties in regional ocean sinks for anthropogenic CO2 are still relatively high. Many carbonate species are non-conserved, flux across the air-sea interface, and react on time scales similar to those of ocean turbulent processes, such as small-scale wave-driven Langmuir turbulence. All of this complexity gives rise to heterogeneous tracer distributions that are not fully understood and can greatly affect the rate at which CO2 fluxes across the air-sea interface. In order to more accurately model the biogeochemistry of the ocean in Earth system models (ESMs), a better understanding of the fundamental interactions between these reactive tracers and relevant turbulent processes is required. Research on reacting flows in other contexts has shown that the most significant tracer-flow couplings occur when coherent structures in the flow have timescales that rival reaction time scales. Langmuir turbulence, a 3D, small-scale, wave-driven process, has length and time scales on the order of O(1-100m) and O(1-10min), respectively. Once CO2 transfers across the air-sea interface, it reacts with seawater in a series of reactions whose rate limiting steps have time scales of 10-25s. This similarity in scales warrants further examination into interactions between these small-scale physical and chemical processes. In this presentation, large eddy simulations are used to examine the evolution of reactive tracers in the presence of realistic upper ocean wave- and shear-driven turbulence. The reactive tracers examined are those specifically involved in non-biological carbonate chemistry. The strength of Langmuir turbulence is varied in order to determine a relationship between the degree of enhancement (or reduction) of carbon that is fluxed across the air-sea interface due to the presence of Langmuir
PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert
2008-10-01
The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the
Marvin, J. G.; Horstman, C. C.; Rubesin, M. W.; Coakley, T. J.; Kussoy, M. I.
1975-01-01
An experiment designed to test and guide computations of the interaction of an impinging shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer is described. Detailed mean flow-field and surface data are presented for two shock strengths which resulted in attached and separated flows, respectively. Numerical computations, employing the complete time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations along with algebraic eddy-viscosity and turbulent Prandtl number models to describe shear stress and heat flux, are used to illustrate the dependence of the computations on the particulars of the turbulence models. Models appropriate for zero-pressure-gradient flows predicted the overall features of the flow fields, but were deficient in predicting many of the details of the interaction regions. Improvements to the turbulence model parameters were sought through a combination of detailed data analysis and computer simulations which tested the sensitivity of the solutions to model parameter changes. Computer simulations using these improvements are presented and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birkenmeier, Gregor
2012-01-01
For more than 60 years, fusion scientists try to confine a plasma by means of external magnetic fields in order to achieve appropriately high densities and temperatures for the ignition of nuclear fusion. Despite of great progress in the design of confinement concepts, which are considered for the confinement of burning plasmas in the near future, theoretical plasma physics promises further confinement improvements using novel magnetic field geometries. Therefor, the key is the minimization of turbulent transport by choosing appropiate magnetic field geometries, which necessitates a fundamental understanding of the influence of magnetic field geometry on plasma turbulence. There are several theoretical works on turbulent plasma dynamics in three-dimensional geometries, but only a few experimental studies for validation of the theoretical results exist. Hence, the present work aims at providing experimental data for comparison with theory and to gain insights into the interplay between drift-wave turbulence and magnetic field geometry. By means of two multi-probe arrays, local density and potential fluctuations are measured in low-temperature plasmas at 128 positions on a single flux surface of the stellarator TJ-K with high temporal resolution. Using methods of statistical timeseries analysis structure sizes and dynamic properties of the drift-wave turbulence in TJ-K are determined. Thereby, it is shown that the size of turbulent structures perpendicular to the magnetic field is reduced in regions of high absolute local magnetic shear. In addition, a poloidal displacement with respect to the magnetic field lines and a complex propagation pattern of parallelly extended turbulent structures is found. Also, poloidal profiles of turbulent transport are calculated from the probe data. The maximum transport is found to be poloidally localized in a region of negative normal curvature (unfavourable curvature). In addition, the results point to an influence of geodesic
Plasma Turbulence in Earth's Magnetotail Observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission
Mackler, D. A.; Avanov, L. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Pollock, C. J.
2017-12-01
Magnetic reconnection, a process in which the magnetic topology undergoes multi-scale changes, is a significant mechanism for particle energization as well as energy dissipation. Reconnection is observed to occur in thin current sheets generated between two regions of magnetized plasma merging with a non-zero shear angle. Within a thinning current sheet, the dominant scale size approaches first the ion and then electron kinetic scale. The plasma becomes demagnetized, field lines transform, then once again the plasma becomes frozen-in. The reconnection process accelerates particles, leading to heated jets of plasma. Turbulence is another fundamental process in collision less plasmas. Despite decades of turbulence studies, an essential science question remains as to how turbulent energy dissipates at small scales by heating and accelerating particles. Turbulence in both plasmas and fluids has a fundamental property in that it follows an energy cascade into smaller scales. Energy introduced into a fluid or plasma can cause large scale motion, introducing vorticity, which merge and interact to make increasingly smaller eddies. It has been hypothesized that turbulent energy in magnetized plasmas may be dissipated by magnetic reconnection, just as viscosity dissipates energy in neutral fluid turbulence. The focus of this study is to use the new high temporal resolution suite of instruments on board the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to explore this hypothesis. An observable feature of the energy cascade in a turbulent magnetized plasma is its similarity to classical hydrodynamics in that the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of turbulent fluctuations follows a Kolmogorov-like power law (Image-5/3). We use highly accurate (0.1 nT) Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM) data to derive the PSD as a function of frequency in the magnetic fluctuations. Given that we are able to confirm the turbulent nature of the flow field; we apply the method of Partial Variance of Increments (PVI
The spatio-temporal structure of electrostatic turbulence in the WEGA stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsen, Stefan
2008-03-15
The main object of this work is to provide a detailed characterisation of electrostatic turbulence in WEGA and to identify the underlying instability mechanism driving turbulence. The spatio-temporal structure of turbulence is studied using multiple Langmuir probes providing a sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution. Turbulence in WEGA is dominated by drift wave dynamics. The phase shift between density and potential fluctuations is close to zero, fluctuations are mainly driven by the density gradient, and the phase velocity of turbulent structures points in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift. The structure of turbulence is studied mainly in the plasma edge region inside the last closed flux surface. WEGA can be operated in two regimes differing in the magnetic field strength by almost one order of magnitude (57 mT and 500 mT, respectively). At 57 mT large structures with a poloidal extent comparable to the machine dimensions are observed, whereas at 500 mT turbulent structures are much smaller. The poloidal structure size scales nearly linearly with the inverse magnetic field strength. This scaling may be argued to be related to the drift wave dispersion scale, {rho}{sub s}={radical}(m{sub i}k{sub B}T{sub e})/(qB). However, the structure size remains unchanged when the ion mass is changed by using different discharge gases. Inside the last closed flux surface the poloidal E x B drift in WEGA is negligible. The three-dimensional structure is studied in detail using probes which are toroidally separated but aligned along connecting magnetic field lines. A small but finite parallel wavenumber is found. The ratio between the average parallel and perpendicular wavenumber is in the order of anti {kappa} {sub parallel} / anti {kappa}{sub {theta}} {approx} 10{sup -2}. The parallel phase velocity of turbulent structures is in-between the ion sound velocity and the Alfven velocity. In the parallel dynamics a fundamental difference between the two
Wang, Yinjun; Xu, Xiangde; Liu, Huizhi; Li, Yueqing; Li, Yaohui; Hu, Zeyong; Gao, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yaoming; Sun, Jihua; Lenschow, Donald H.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Zhou, Mingyu; Bian, Xindi; Zhao, Ping
2016-08-01
Based on the results from 11 flux sites during the third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Experiment (TIPEX III), land surface parameters and the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer over the TP and surrounding region are analyzed. Monin-Obukhov similarity theory has been used to calculate the aerodynamic roughness length z0m and the excess resistance to heat transfer kB- 1 = ln(z0m/z0h), and the factors that cause variations of z0m and kB- 1 are investigated. The main drivers for the diurnal variations of surface albedo (α) at different sites are solar elevation, solar radiation, and soil moisture. The eddy correlation method is utilized to inversely calculate bulk transfer coefficients for momentum (CD) and heat (CH) at different sites. The relationships between CD and CH and the wind speed at 10 m follow a power law for unstable stratification. For stable stratification, both CD and CH increase with increasing wind speed when wind speed is less than 5 m/s. Diurnal variations of turbulent fluxes are compared at different sites, and the relationships between turbulent fluxes and other variables are analyzed. Wind speed variance normalized by the friction velocity (σu/u*, σv/u*, σw/u*) for neutral stratification (Cu1, Cv1, Cw1), and temperature and humidity variance normalized by a temperature and humidity scale (σT/T*, σq/q*) under free convection (z/L < -0.1) (CT, Cq) are fitted with similarity relations. The differences in similarity constants (Cu1, Cv1, Cw1, CT, Cq) at different sites are discussed. For stable stratification, cases are divided into weakly stable conditions and intermittent turbulence, and the critical values for these two states are determined. Shear and buoyancy terms in the turbulence kinetic energy equation for different stratifications are analyzed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Bocquet
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A multi-step procedure for investigating ozone surface fluxes over polar snow by the tower gradient method was developed and evaluated. These measurements were then used to obtain five months (April–August 2004 of turbulent ozone flux data at the Summit research camp located in the center of the Greenland ice shield. Turbulent fluxes were determined by the gradient method incorporating tower measurements of (a ozone gradients measured by commercial ultraviolet absorption analyzers, (b ambient temperature gradients using aspirated thermocouple sensors, and (c wind speed gradients determined by cup anemometers. All gradient instruments were regularly inter-compared by bringing sensors or inlets to the same measurement height. The developed protocol resulted in an uncertainty on the order of 0.1 ppbv for 30-min averaged ozone gradients that were used for the ozone flux calculations. This protocol facilitated a lower sensitivity threshold for the ozone flux determination of ∼8 × 10^{−3}μg m^{−2} s^{−1}, respectively ∼0.01 cm s^{−1} for the ozone deposition velocity for typical environmental conditions encountered at Summit. Uncertainty in the 30-min ozone exchange measurements (evaluated by the Monte Carlo statistical approach was on the order of 10^{−2} cm s^{−1}. This uncertainty typically accounted to ~20–100% of the ozone exchange velocities that were determined. These measurements are among the most sensitive ozone deposition determinations reported to date. This flux experiment allowed for measurements of the relatively low ozone uptake rates encountered for polar snow, and thereby the study of their environmental and spring-versus-summer dependencies.
Itsweire, E. C.; Holt, S. E.; Koseff, J. R.; Ferziger, J. H.
1990-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of the time evolution of homogeneous stably stratified turbulent shear flows have been performed for several Richardson numbers Ri and Reynolds numbers R(sub lambda) in earlier works. The results show excellent agreement with length scale models developed from laboratory experiments to characterize oceanic turbulence. When the Richardson number Ri is less than the stationary value Ri(sub s), the turbulence intensity grows at all scales, and the growth rate appears to be a function of Ri. The size of the vertical density inversions also increases. On the other hand, when Ri is greater than or equal to Ri(sub s) the largest turbulent eddies become vertically constrained by buoyancy when the Ellison (turbulence) scale L(sub E) and the Ozmidov (buoyancy) scale L(sub O) are equal. At this point, the mixing efficiency is maximal and corresponds to a flux Richardson number R(sub f) = 0.20. The vertical mass flux becomes counter-gradient when epsilon = 19(nu)N(exp 2) and vertical density overturns are suppressed in less than half a Brunt-Vaisala period. The results of the simulations were also recast in terms of the Hydrodynamic Phase Diagram introduced in fossil turbulence models. The so-called point of fossilization occurs when epsilon = 4DCN(exp 2); Gibson proposed 13DCN(exp 2). This value is in agreement with indirect laboratory observations and field observations. Finally, the validity of the steady-state models to estimate vertical eddy diffusivities in the oceanic thermocline is discussed.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXFLX or tavgU_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXFLX or tavgM_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXFLX or tavg1_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...
Fast Propagation in Fluid Transport Models with Evolution of Turbulence Saturation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Bruna, D.
2012-01-01
This report compiles and extends two works on models that reproduce the experimental facts of non local transport and pulse propagation in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The works are based on fluid transport models, originally designed to explain the formation of edge or internal transport barriers, that include fast evolution equations for the particle and heat fluxes. The heating of the plasma core in response to a sudden edge cooling or the propagation of turbulent fronts around transport barriers are a consequence of the competing roles of linear drive and non-linear reduction of the turbulent fluxes. Possibilities to use the models to interpret TJ-II plasmas are discussed. (Author) 62 refs.
Fast Propagation in Fluid Transport Models with Evolution of Turbulence Saturation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Bruna, D.
2012-07-01
This report compiles and extends two works on models that reproduce the experimental facts of non local transport and pulse propagation in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The works are based on fluid transport models, originally designed to explain the formation of edge or internal transport barriers, that include fast evolution equations for the particle and heat fluxes. The heating of the plasma core in response to a sudden edge cooling or the propagation of turbulent fronts around transport barriers are a consequence of the competing roles of linear drive and non-linear reduction of the turbulent fluxes. Possibilities to use the models to interpret TJ-II plasmas are discussed. (Author) 62 refs.
Buoyant production and consumption of turbulence kinetic energy in cloud-topped mixed layers
Randall, D. A.
1984-01-01
It is pointed out that studies of the entraining planetary boundary layer (PBL) have generally emphasized the role of buoyancy fluxes in driving entrainment. The buoyancy flux is proportional to the rate of conversion of the potential energy of the mean flow into the kinetic energy of the turbulence. It is not unusual for conversion to proceed in both directions simultaneously. This occurs, for instance, in both clear and cloudy convective mixed layers which are capped by inversions. A partitioning of the net conversion into positive parts, generating turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and negative parts (TKE-consuming), would make it possible to include the positive part in the gross production rate, and closure would be achieved. Three different approaches to partitioning have been proposed. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the three partitioning theories. Particular attention is given to the cloud-topped mixed layer because in this case the differences between two partitioning approaches are most apparent.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.; Jenko, F.; Peeters, A.; Teo, A.C-Y.
2001-01-01
(1) Computations of turbulence from the electromagnetic gyrofluid model are performed in a flux surface geometry representing the actual MHD equilibrium of the ASDEX Upgrade edge flux surfaces. The transition to ideal ballooning seen in simple geometries as the plasma beta rises is suppressed, leaving the transport at quantitatively realistic levels. Computations for core parameters at half-radius geometry show significant contribution due to the finite beta electron dynamics, possibly removing the standard ITG threshold. (2) Strong inward vorticity transport in edge turbulence, resulting from ion diamagnetic flows, may lead to a build up of mean ExB vorticity fast enough to cause an H-mode transition. (3) Friction of mean ion flows against neutrals involves both toroidal and poloidal flow components, leading to a finite radial current due to a given ExB profile even with zero poloidal rotation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.; Jenko, F.; Peeters, A.G.; Teo, A.C.Y.
1999-01-01
(1) Computations of turbulence from the electromagnetic gyro fluid model are performed in a flux surface geometry representing the actual MHD equilibrium of the ASDEX Upgrade edge flux surfaces. The transition to ideal ballooning seen in simple geometries as the plasma beta rises is suppressed, leaving the transport at quantitatively realistic levels. Computations for core parameters at half-radius geometry show significant contribution due to the finite beta electron dynamics, possibly removing the standard ITG threshold. (2) Strong inward vorticity transport in edge turbulence, resulting from ion diamagnetic flows, may lead to a build up of mean ExB vorticity fast enough to cause an H-mode transition. (3) Friction of mean ion flows against neutrals involves both toroidal and poloidal flow components, leading to a finite radial current due to a given ExB profile even with zero poloidal rotation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.; Liu, Y.; Derosa, M. L.; Yeates, A.; Owens, M. J.
2017-01-01
The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.
Stable low-dissipation schemes for turbulent compressible flows
Subbareddy, Pramod Kumar V.
Shock capturing schemes, which are commonly used in compressible flow simulations, introduce excessive amounts of numerical viscosity which smears out small scale flow features. A few low-dissipation methods have been proposed in the recent literature. They are more selective in the sense that they explicitly identify the portion of the numerical flux that is diffusive and damp its effect in 'smooth' regions of the flow. This work employs flux vector splitting methods; the dissipative portions of the Steger-Warming schemes are explicitly identified and various shock detection switches are explored. For high Reynolds number flows, especially when the energetic scales are close to the Nyquist limits of the grids used, aliasing errors become noticeable. These high frequency oscillations that arise due to the nonlinear nature of the Navier-Stokes equations cause solutions to become unstable. When dissipative methods are used, these errors are suppressed; however when using low-dissipation schemes, they can be prominent and need to be addressed by some other means. In this thesis, we focus on methods that enhance stability by enforcing 'secondary conservation' - the fluxes are constrained in such a way that a conservation law for a secondary, positive quantity is also satisified. In particular, we focus on kinetic energy, and a fully discrete (in time and space) 'kinetic energy consistent' scheme is derived and tested. Hybrid RAMS-LES methods such as Detached Eddy Simulations are necessary in order to make simulations of high speed flows with attached boundary layers affordable. A popular DES model is based on the Spalart-Allmaras RANS equation; a minor modification to the length scale makes the model behave in a hybrid manner. The S-A model itself was constructed using mostly empirical arguments by the authors. This model is analyzed and its connection to other turbulence models, in particular, the ksgs equation, is explored. A dynamic version of the model is proposed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark C.
2016-01-01
Displacement height (d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently pred...... height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (‘mixing-layer’) form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as correspondence to previous (stress-based) formulations.......Displacement height (d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently...... predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how...
Realization of a Tunable Dissipation Scale in a Turbulent Cascade using a Quantum Gas
Navon, Nir; Eigen, Christoph; Zhang, Jinyi; Lopes, Raphael; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2017-04-01
Many turbulent flows form so-called cascades, where excitations injected at large length scales, are transported to gradually smaller scales until they reach a dissipation scale. We initiate a turbulent cascade in a dilute Bose fluid by pumping energy at the container scale of an optical box trap using an oscillating magnetic force. In contrast to classical fluids where the dissipation scale is set by the viscosity of the fluid, the turbulent cascade of our quantum gas finishes when the particles kinetic energy exceeds the laser-trap depth. This mechanism thus allows us to effectively tune the dissipation scale where particles (and energy) are lost, and measure the particle flux in the cascade at the dissipation scale. We observe a unit power-law decay of the particle-dissipation rate with trap depth, which confirms the surprising prediction that in a wave-turbulent direct energy cascade, the particle flux vanishes in the ideal limit where the dissipation length scale tends to zero.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joong Hun Bae; Jung Yul Yoo; Haecheon Choi
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The influence of variable fluid property on turbulent convective heat transfer is investigated using direct numerical simulations. We consider thermally-developing flows of air and supercritical-pressure CO 2 in a vertical annular channel where the inner wall is heated with a constant heat flux and the outer wall is insulated. Turbulence statistics show that the heat and momentum transport characteristics of variable-property flows are significantly different from those of constant-property flows. The difference is mainly caused by the spatial and temporal variations of fluid density. The non-uniform density distribution causes fluid particles to be accelerated either by expansion or buoyancy force, while the temporal density fluctuations change the heat and momentum transfer via transport of turbulent mass flux, ρ'u' i . Both effects of the spatial and temporal variations of density are shown to be important in the analysis of turbulent convective heat transfer for supercritical-pressure fluids. For variable-property heated air flows, however, the effect of temporal density fluctuations can be neglected at low Mach number, which is in good accordance with the Morkovin's hypothesis. (authors)
Active control for turbulent premixed flame simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.
2004-03-26
Many turbulent premixed flames of practical interest are statistically stationary. They occur in combustors that have anchoring mechanisms to prevent blow-off and flashback. The stabilization devices often introduce a level of geometric complexity that is prohibitive for detailed computational studies of turbulent flame dynamics. As a result, typical detailed simulations are performed in simplified model configurations such as decaying isotropic turbulence or inflowing turbulence. In these configurations, the turbulence seen by the flame either decays or, in the latter case, increases as the flame accelerates toward the turbulent inflow. This limits the duration of the eddy evolutions experienced by the flame at a given level of turbulent intensity, so that statistically valid observations cannot be made. In this paper, we apply a feedback control to computationally stabilize an otherwise unstable turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. For the simulations, we specify turbulent in flow conditions and dynamically adjust the integrated fueling rate to control the mean location of the flame in the domain. We outline the numerical procedure, and illustrate the behavior of the control algorithm. We use the simulations to study the propagation and the local chemical variability of turbulent flame chemistry.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gryning, Sven-Erik; Thomson, D. W.
1979-01-01
For an ongoing elevated-source, urban-scale tracer experiment, an instrument system to measure the three-dimensional wind velocity and the turbulent sensible heat flux was developed. The wind velocity was measured with a combination of cup anemometer, propeller (vertical) and vane sensor. The tem......For an ongoing elevated-source, urban-scale tracer experiment, an instrument system to measure the three-dimensional wind velocity and the turbulent sensible heat flux was developed. The wind velocity was measured with a combination of cup anemometer, propeller (vertical) and vane sensor...
John Leask Lumley: Whither Turbulence?
Leibovich, Sidney; Warhaft, Zellman
2018-01-01
John Lumley's contributions to the theory, modeling, and experiments on turbulent flows played a seminal role in the advancement of our understanding of this subject in the second half of the twentieth century. We discuss John's career and his personal style, including his love and deep knowledge of vintage wine and vintage cars. His intellectual contributions range from abstract theory to applied engineering. Here we discuss some of his major advances, focusing on second-order modeling, proper orthogonal decomposition, path-breaking experiments, research on geophysical turbulence, and important contributions to the understanding of drag reduction. John Lumley was also an influential teacher whose books and films have molded generations of students. These and other aspects of his professional career are described.
Model for Simulation Atmospheric Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundtang Petersen, Erik
1976-01-01
A method that produces realistic simulations of atmospheric turbulence is developed and analyzed. The procedure makes use of a generalized spectral analysis, often called a proper orthogonal decomposition or the Karhunen-Loève expansion. A set of criteria, emphasizing a realistic appearance...... eigenfunctions and estimates of the distributions of the corresponding expansion coefficients. The simulation method utilizes the eigenfunction expansion procedure to produce preliminary time histories of the three velocity components simultaneously. As a final step, a spectral shaping procedure is then applied....... The method is unique in modeling the three velocity components simultaneously, and it is found that important cross-statistical features are reasonably well-behaved. It is concluded that the model provides a practical, operational simulator of atmospheric turbulence....
Transition and turbulence (hydrodynamic visualizations)
Werle, Henri
The very extensive Reynolds number domain (10 to the 4th power less than or equal to Re sub L greater than or equal to 10 to the 6th power) of the TH2 water tunnel at Chatillon, allowed for laminar-turbulent transition phenomena to be studied systematically by visualizations and with methods previously developed in the TH1 water tunnel. These tests concern a wide variety of models including, Flate plate type models (smooth or grooved, with curved afterbody or right base), cylindrical pod type models (smooth or grooved, with curved afterbody or plane base), and models of different shapes (recall). The purpose of these tests is to provide a visualization of these transition and turbulence phenomena in order to better understand the phenomena.
Turbulence Interface Simulation by Lagrangian Blocks
Chu, V. H.
2015-12-01
Most computational fluid-dynamics codes are developed using the Eulerian description. To find the numerical solution, fluxes are estimated on the surface of the finite volume using a truncation series. Spurious numerical oscillations and artificial numerical diffusion are consequences, particularly in regions across flow discontinuities. Diffusion often is introduced synthetically in many schemes to gain computational stability. Occasional switching to a diffusive upwind scheme, for example, is one classic strategy to manage the numerical oscillations [see e.g., Ghannadi & Chu 2015]. Lagrangian-block simulation offers an alternative that could minimize the spurious oscillations and false diffusive error. The blocks move in the direction of the flow. The squares of the block widths expand in proportion to the diffusivities. The block simulation procedure consists of (i) Lagrangian advection and diffusion, (ii) division into portions, and (iii) reassembly of the portions into new blocks. The blocks are renewed in each time increment to prevent excessive distortion. Details of the Lagrangian-block simulations method have been given in a series of papers by Tan & Chu (2012), Chu & Altai (2012, 2015}. In this paper, the exchanges across turbulence interfaces are considered for two problems. The first series of the simulations are conducted to find the mass and momentum exchanges across a shallow flow of two different depth. In the simulations, the advection and diffusion of three separated systems of blocks that contain the mass, momentum and potential vorticity are carried out using the Lagrangian-block simulation method. The simulation results are compared with data obtained from a previous laboratory investigation and related to the shear instability problem in rotating shear flow previously considered by Chu (2014). The second problem involves the turbulence generation across the interface of an internal waves. The simulation shows the development of gravitational
Turbulent diffusion of small particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margolin, L.G.
1977-11-01
The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley.
Turbulent diffusion of small particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Margolin, L.G.
1977-11-01
The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley
Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, H.; Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.
1987-01-01
Low‐frequency electrostatic turbulence generated by the ion–ion beam instability was investigated experimentally in a double‐plasma device. Real time signals were recorded and examined by a conditional statistical analysis. Conditionally averaged potential distributions reveal the formation...... and propagation of structures with a relatively long lifetime. Various methods for making a conditional analysis are discussed and compared. The results are discussed with reference to ion phase space vortices and clump formation in collisionless plasmas....
Numerical experiments modelling turbulent flows
Trefilík, Jiří; Kozel, Karel; Příhoda, Jaromír
2014-03-01
The work aims at investigation of the possibilities of modelling transonic flows mainly in external aerodynamics. New results are presented and compared with reference data and previously achieved results. For the turbulent flow simulations two modifications of the basic k - ω model are employed: SST and TNT. The numerical solution was achieved by using the MacCormack scheme on structured non-ortogonal grids. Artificial dissipation was added to improve the numerical stability.
Numerical experiments modelling turbulent flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trefilík Jiří
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The work aims at investigation of the possibilities of modelling transonic flows mainly in external aerodynamics. New results are presented and compared with reference data and previously achieved results. For the turbulent flow simulations two modifications of the basic k – ω model are employed: SST and TNT. The numerical solution was achieved by using the MacCormack scheme on structured non-ortogonal grids. Artificial dissipation was added to improve the numerical stability.
Compressible turbulence in one dimension
Fleischer, Jason Wolf
1999-11-01
The Burgers' model of compressible fluid dynamics in one dimension is extended to include the effects of pressure back-reaction. The new system consists of two coupled equations: Burgers' equation with a pressure gradient (essentially the 1-D Navier-Stokes equation) and an advection-diffusion equation for the pressure field. It presents a minimal model of both adiabatic gas dynamics and compressible magnetohydrodynamics. From the magnetic perspective, it is the simplest possible system which allows for Alfvenization, i.e. energy transfer between the fluid and the magnetic field. For the special case of equal fluid viscosity and (magnetic) diffusivity, the system is completely integrable, reducing to two decoupled Burgers' equations in the characteristic variables v +/- vsound ( v +/- vAlfven). For arbitrary diffusivities, renormalized perturbation theory is used to calculate the effective transport coefficients for forced Burgerlence. It is shown that energy equi- dissipation, not equipartition, is fundamental to the turbulent state. Both energy and dissipation are localized to shock-like structures, in which wave steepening is inhibited by small-scale forcing and by pressure back-reaction. The spectral forms predicted by theory are confirmed by numerical simulations. It is shown that the velocity structures lead to an asymmetric velocity PDF, as in Burgers' turbulence. Pressure fluctuations, however, are symmetrically distributed. A Fokker-Planck calculation of these distributions is compared and contrasted with a path integral approach. The latter instanton solution suggests that the system maintains its characteristic directions in steady-state turbulence, supporting the results from perturbation theory. Implications for the spectra of turbulence and self-organization phenomena in compressible fluids and plasmas are also discussed.
Non-kinematic Flux-transport Dynamos Including the Effects of Diffusivity Quenching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ichimura, Chiaki; Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2017-04-10
Turbulent magnetic diffusivity is quenched when strong magnetic fields suppress turbulent motion in a phenomenon known as diffusivity quenching. Diffusivity quenching can provide a mechanism for amplifying magnetic field and influencing global velocity fields through Lorentz force feedback. To investigate this effect, we conducted mean field flux-transport dynamo simulations that included the effects of diffusivity quenching in a non-kinematic regime. We found that toroidal magnetic field strength is amplified by up to approximately 1.5 times in the convection zone as a result of diffusivity quenching. This amplification is much weaker than that in kinematic cases as a result of Lorentz force feedback on the system’s differential rotation. While amplified toroidal fields lead to the suppression of equatorward meridional flow locally near the base of the convection zone, large-scale equatorward transport of magnetic flux via meridional flow, which is the essential process of the flux-transport dynamo, is sustainable in our calculations.
Secondary instability in drift wave turbulence as a mechanism for avalanche and zonal flow formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, P.H.; Champeaux, S.; Malkov, M.
2001-01-01
We report on recent developments in the theory of secondary instability in drift-ITG turbulence. Specifically, we explore secondary instability as a mechanism for avalanche formation. A theory of radially extended streamer cell formation and self-regulation is presented. Aspects of streamer structure and dynamics are used to estimate the variance of the drift-wave induced flux. The relation between streamer cell structures and the avalanche concept is discussed, as are the implications of our results for transport modeling. (author)
Turbulent Liquid Metal Dynamo Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, Cary
2007-01-01
The self-generation of magnetic fields in planets and stars--the dynamo effect--is a long-standing problem of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Until recently, research on the self-excitation process has been primarily theoretical. In this talk, I will begin with a tutorial on how magnetic fields are generated in planets and stars, describing the 'Standard Model' of self-excitation known as the alpha-omega dynamo. In this model, axisymmetric differential rotation can produce the majority of the magnetic field, but some non-axisymmetric, turbulence driven currents are also necessary. Understanding the conversion of turbulent kinetic energy in the fluid motion into electrical currents and thus magnetic fields, is a major challenge for both experiments and theory at this time. I will then report on recent results from a 1 meter diameter, spherical, liquid sodium dynamo experiment at the University of Wisconsin, in which the first clear evidence for these turbulence driven currents has been observed.
Reduced Models for Gyrokinetic Turbulence
Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre; Morel, Pierre; Gravier, Etienne
2009-09-01
Turbulent transport is a key issue for controlled thermonuclear fusion based on magnetic confinement. The thermal confinement of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by the turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. It has long been acknowledged, that the prediction of turbulent transport requires to solve Vlasov-type gyrokinetic equations. Although the kinetic description is more accurate than fluid models (Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), gyro-fluid), because among other things it takes into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction, kinetic modeling has the drawback of a huge demand on computer resources. A unifying approach consists in considering water-bag-like weak solutions of kinetic collisionless equations, which allow to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations, while keeping its kinetic behaviour. As a result this exact reduction induces a multi-fluid numerical resolution cost. Therefore, finding water-bag-like weak solutions of the gyrokinetic equations leads to the birth of the gyro-water-bag model. This model is suitable for studying linear and nonlinear low-frequency micro-instabilities and the associated anomalous transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Here we present the derivation of nonlinear gyro-water-bag models and their numerical approximations by backward Runge-Kutta semi-Lagrangian methods and forward Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin schemes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arbeiter, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gordeev, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: gordeev@irs.fzk.de; Heinzel, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Slobodtchouk, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2006-02-15
The aim of the present work is to choose an optimal use of CFD codes for thermohydraulic calculation of the helium cooled fusion reactor components, such as divertor module, test blanket module and International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) test modules. In spite of common features (intense heat flux, nuclear heating of the structure, helium-cooling), all these components have different boundary conditions, such as helium temperature, pressure and heating rate and different geometries. It is the reason for the appearance of some effects in the flow influencing significantly the heat transfer. A number of turbulence models offered by the commercial STAR-CD code were tested on the experiments carried out in the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) and on the experimental data from the scientific publications. Results of different turbulence models are compared and analysed. For geometrically simple channel flows with significant gas property variation low-Re number k-{epsilon} models with damping functions give more accurate results and are more appropriate for the conditions of the IFMIF HFTM. The heat transfer in regions with flow impingement is well predicted by turbulence models, which include different limiters in the turbulence production. Most reliable turbulence models were chosen for the thermohydraulic analysis.
Investigation of three-dimensional turbulent structures in the torsatron TJ-K
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahdizadeh, N.
2007-02-14
In this work, for the first time, the three-dimensional nature of drift waves has been verified experimentally inside the confinement region of the toroidal plasma in TJ-K. The perpendicular dynamics of turbulence has been studied with the focus on the poloidal wavenumber spectra and the scaling of the turbulent structure with the drift scale. To this end, a 64 tip Langmuir probe array has been used, which is poloidally positioned on a flux surface. For the first time, the parallel dynamics of turbulence has been investigated in the core of a toroidally confined plasma. In contrast to previous experiments, multi-probe measurements were carried out to get simultaneous information on the shape and the propagation direction of the turbulent structures. The results for the parallel wave number and the parallel propagation velocity have been compared with results from the simulation code GEM3. It is demonstrated that the propagation in the direction parallel to the magnetic field is affected by Alfven dynamics. Together, these results strongly confirm previous investigations, which have demonstrated the importance of drift-wave turbulence in TJ-K and therefore also in fusion edge plasma. (orig.)
Turbulent heat transport in two- and three-dimensional temperature fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samaraweera, Don Sarath Abesiri [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1978-03-01
A fundamental numerical study of turbulent heat and mass transport processes in two- and three-dimensional convective flows is presented. The model of turbulence employed is the type referred to as a second-order closure. In this scheme transport equations for all nonzero components of the Reynolds stress tensor, for the isotropic dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, for all nonzero scalar flux tensor components and for the mean square scalar fluctuations are solved by a finite difference method along with the mean momentum and mean enthalpy (or concentration) equations. The model used for the stresses was developed earlier. Parallel ideas were utilised in obtaining a model for turbulent heat and mass transfer processes. The study has focused especially on the problem of nonaxisymmetric convective heat and mass transport in pipes, which arises when the boundary conditions are not axisymmetric. The few available experimental data on such situations have indicated anisotropy in effective diffusivities. To expand the available data base an experiment was conducted to obtain heat transfer measurements in strong three-dimensional heating conditions. Numerical procedures especially suitable for incorporation of second-order turbulent closure models have been developed. The effect of circumferential conduction in the tube material, which is influential in the asymmetric heating data currently available, was accounted for directly by extending the finite difference calculations into the pipe wall. The principal goal of predicting three-dimensional scalar transfer has been achieved.
Investigation of three-dimensional turbulent structures in the torsatron TJ-K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahdizadeh, N.
2007-01-01
In this work, for the first time, the three-dimensional nature of drift waves has been verified experimentally inside the confinement region of the toroidal plasma in TJ-K. The perpendicular dynamics of turbulence has been studied with the focus on the poloidal wavenumber spectra and the scaling of the turbulent structure with the drift scale. To this end, a 64 tip Langmuir probe array has been used, which is poloidally positioned on a flux surface. For the first time, the parallel dynamics of turbulence has been investigated in the core of a toroidally confined plasma. In contrast to previous experiments, multi-probe measurements were carried out to get simultaneous information on the shape and the propagation direction of the turbulent structures. The results for the parallel wave number and the parallel propagation velocity have been compared with results from the simulation code GEM3. It is demonstrated that the propagation in the direction parallel to the magnetic field is affected by Alfven dynamics. Together, these results strongly confirm previous investigations, which have demonstrated the importance of drift-wave turbulence in TJ-K and therefore also in fusion edge plasma. (orig.)
Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence
Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the
Mathematical and physical theory of turbulence
Cannon, John
2006-01-01
Although the current dynamical system approach offers several important insights into the turbulence problem, issues still remain that present challenges to conventional methodologies and concepts. These challenges call for the advancement and application of new physical concepts, mathematical modeling, and analysis techniques. Bringing together experts from physics, applied mathematics, and engineering, Mathematical and Physical Theory of Turbulence discusses recent progress and some of the major unresolved issues in two- and three-dimensional turbulence as well as scalar compressible turbulence. Containing introductory overviews as well as more specialized sections, this book examines a variety of turbulence-related topics. The authors concentrate on theory, experiments, computational, and mathematical aspects of Navier-Stokes turbulence; geophysical flows; modeling; laboratory experiments; and compressible/magnetohydrodynamic effects. The topics discussed in these areas include finite-time singularities a...
Current-driven turbulence in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kluiver, H. de.
1977-10-01
Research on plasma heating in linear and toroidal systems using current-driven turbulence is reviewed. The motivation for this research is presented. Relations between parameters describing the turbulent plasma state and macroscopic observables are given. Several linear and toroidal devices used in current-driven turbulence studies are described, followed by a discussion of special diagnostic methods used. Experimental results on the measurement of electron and ion heating, anomalous plasma conductivity and associated turbulent fluctuation spectra are reviewed. Theories on current-driven turbulence are discussed and compared with experiments. It is demonstrated from the experimental results that current-driven turbulence occurs not only for extreme values of the electric field but also for an experimentally much more accessible and wide range of parameters. This forms a basis for a discussion on possible future applications in fusion-oriented plasma research
Turbulence-Free Double-slit Interferometer
Smith, Thomas A.; Shih, Yanhua
2018-02-01
Optical turbulence can be detrimental for optical observations. For instance, atmospheric turbulence may reduce the visibility or completely blur out the interference produced by an interferometer in open air. However, a simple two-photon interference theory based on Einstein's granularity picture of light makes a turbulence-free interferometer possible; i.e., any refraction index, length, or phase variations along the optical paths of the interferometer do not have any effect on its interference. Applying this mechanism, the reported experiment demonstrates a two-photon double-slit interference that is insensitive to atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence-free mechanism and especially the turbulence-free interferometer would be helpful in optical observations that require high sensitivity and stability such as for gravitational-wave detection.
Turbulence-Free Double-slit Interferometer.
Smith, Thomas A; Shih, Yanhua
2018-02-09
Optical turbulence can be detrimental for optical observations. For instance, atmospheric turbulence may reduce the visibility or completely blur out the interference produced by an interferometer in open air. However, a simple two-photon interference theory based on Einstein's granularity picture of light makes a turbulence-free interferometer possible; i.e., any refraction index, length, or phase variations along the optical paths of the interferometer do not have any effect on its interference. Applying this mechanism, the reported experiment demonstrates a two-photon double-slit interference that is insensitive to atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence-free mechanism and especially the turbulence-free interferometer would be helpful in optical observations that require high sensitivity and stability such as for gravitational-wave detection.
Sudden viscous dissipation in compressing plasma turbulence
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel
2015-11-01
Compression of a turbulent plasma or fluid can cause amplification of the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the turnover and viscous dissipation times of the turbulent eddies. The consideration of compressing turbulent flows in inviscid fluids has been motivated by the suggestion that amplification of turbulent kinetic energy occurred on experiments at the Weizmann Institute of Science Z-Pinch. We demonstrate a sudden viscous dissipation mechanism whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, which further increases the temperature, feeding back to further enhance the dissipation. Application of this mechanism in compression experiments may be advantageous, if the plasma can be kept comparatively cold during much of the compression, reducing radiation and conduction losses, until the plasma suddenly becomes hot. This work was supported by DOE through contract 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836) and by the DTRA.
Imposing resolved turbulence in CFD simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, L.; Sørensen, Niels N.
2011-01-01
In large‐eddy simulations, the inflow velocity field should contain resolved turbulence. This paper describes and analyzes two methods for imposing resolved turbulence in the interior of the domain in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The intended application of the methods is to impose...... resolved turbulence immediately upstream of the region or structure of interest. Comparing to the alternative of imposing the turbulence at the inlet, there is a large potential to reduce the computational cost of the simulation by reducing the total number of cells. The reduction comes from a lower demand...... of modifying the source terms. None of the two methods can impose synthetic turbulence with good results, but it is shown that by running the turbulence field through a short precursor simulation, very good results are obtained. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Near-wall turbulence model and its application to fully developed turbulent channel and pipe flows
Kim, S.-W.
1990-01-01
A near-wall turbulence model and its incorporation into a multiple-timescale turbulence model are presented. The near-wall turbulence model is obtained from a k-equation turbulence model and a near-wall analysis. In the method, the equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and turbulent kinetic energy are integrated up to the wall, and the energy transfer and the dissipation rates inside the near-wall layer are obtained from algebraic equations. Fully developed turbulent channel and pipe flows are solved using a finite element method. The computational results compare favorably with experimental data. It is also shown that the turbulence model can resolve the overshoot phenomena of the turbulent kinetic energy and the dissipation rate in the region very close to the wall.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence...
Turbulence-wave interactions associated to drainage flows observed during the BLLAST field campaign
Yagüe, Carlos; Sun, Jielun; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.
2016-04-01
Gravity waves are often observed in the Nocturnal Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer (SBL). One of the main topics in SBL studies, which is still far from being well understood, is the interaction between these waves and the turbulence present at the lower troposphere [1]. However it is not easy to establish the origin of these waves and how they interact with turbulence. Following the case study occurred along the evening transition of 2nd July 2011 over the area of Lannemezan (France) during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign [2], in the present work we have extended the study to all the cases found along the campaign, where the evening transition of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer was followed by the formation of drainage flows. Different multiscale techniques (Wavelet Transform -WT- and MultiResolution Flux Decomposition -MRFD-) have been applied to the extensive records of instrumentation deployed at BLLAST. In this way, we can underline the different features related to surface turbulent parameters in the SBL, where several of the studied processes showed an interaction, producing important variations in turbulence with height and between sites along the steep terrain. [1] Sun, J., C. J. Nappo, L. Mahrt, D. Belusic, B. Grisogono, D. R. Stauffer, M. Pulido, C. Staquet, Q. Jiang, A. Pouquet, C. Yagüe, B. Galperin, R. B. Smith, J. J. Finnigan, S.D. Mayor, G. Svensson, A. A. Grachev, and W.D.Neff. (2015): Review of wave-turbulence interactions in the stable atmospheric boundary layer, Rev. Geophys., 53, 956-993, doi:10.1002/2015RG000487. [2] Román-Cascón, C., Yagüe, C., Mahrt, L., Sastre, M., Steeneveld, G.-J., Pardyjak, E., van de Boer, A., and Hartogensis, O (2015).: Interactions among drainage flows, gravity waves and turbulence: a BLLAST case study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9031-9047, doi:10.5194/acp-15-9031-2015.
First steps towards modeling of ion-driven turbulence in Wendelstein 7-X
Warmer, F.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Proll, J. H. E.; Beidler, C. D.; Turkin, Y.; Wolf, R. C.
2018-01-01
Due to foreseen improvement of neoclassical confinement in optimised stellarators—like the newly commissioned Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) experiment in Greifswald, Germany—it is expected that turbulence will significantly contribute to the heat and particle transport, thus posing a limit to the performance of such devices. In order to develop discharge scenarios, it is thus necessary to develop a model which could reliably capture the basic characteristics of turbulence and try to predict the levels thereof. The outcome will not only be affordable, using only a fraction of the computational cost which is normally required for repetitive direct turbulence simulations, but would also highlight important physics. In this model, we seek to describe the ion heat flux caused by ion temperature gradient (ITG) micro-turbulence, which, in certain heating scenarios, can be a strong source of free energy. With the aid of a relatively small number of state-of-the-art nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, an initial critical gradient model (CGM) is devised, with the aim to replace an empirical model, stemming from observations in prior stellarator experiments. The novel CGM, in its present form, encapsulates all available knowledge about ion-driven 3D turbulence to date, also allowing for further important extensions, towards an accurate interpretation and prediction of the ‘anomalous’ transport. The CGM depends on the stiffness of the ITG turbulence scaling in W7-X, and implicitly includes the nonlinear zonal flow response. It is shown that the CGM is suitable for a 1D framework turbulence modeling.
Sonic boom propagation through atmospheric turbulence
Yamashita, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Shigeru; 山下, 博; 大林, 茂
2009-01-01
The effect of the homogeneous atmospheric turbulence on the sonic boom propagation has been investigated. The turbulence field is represented by a finite sum of discrete Fourier modes based on the von Karman and Pao energy spectrum. The sonic boom signature is calculated by the modified Waveform Parameter Method, considering the turbulent velocities. The results show that in 59 % of the cases, the intensity of the sonic boom had decreased, and in other 41 % of the cases had increased the soni...
Penetration of superfluid turbulence through porous filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foreman, L.R.; Snyder, H.A.
1979-01-01
The equilibrium concentration of superfluid turbulence on two sides of small-pore filters is studied as a function of pore size. The filter forms a common wall between two second-sound resonance cavities. The attenuation of standing waves of second sound is used to detect the turbulence which is created in the superfluid with a rotating paddle. We find that superfluid turbulence does not pass through filters of 7.5 nm diameter, but penetrates filters with 50-nm pores
A numerical study of tokamak edge turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Shuanghui; Huang Lin; Qiu Xiaoming
1993-01-01
The tokamak edge turbulence which contains resistivity and impurity gradients and impurity radiation driven sources is studied numerically. The effect of ohmic dissipation on the evolution and saturation of this turbulence is investigated. The ohmic effect drops the saturation levels of fluctuations efficiently in high density tokamaks (such as Alcator), indicating that the ohmic effect plays an important role in the evolution of tokamak edge turbulence in high density devices
Numerical Study of a Convective Turbulence Encounter
Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.
2002-01-01
A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The specific case was encountered during one of NASA's flight tests and was characterized by severe turbulence. The event was associated with overshooting convective turrets that contained low to moderate radar reflectivity. Model comparisons with observations are quite favorable. Turbulence hazard metrics are proposed and applied to the numerical data set. Issues such as adequate grid size are examined.
Numerical test of weak turbulence theory
Payne, G. L.; Nicholson, D. R.; Shen, Mei-Mei
1989-01-01
The analytic theory of weak Langmuir turbulence is well known, but very little has previously been done to compare its predictions with numerical solutions of the basic dynamical evolution equations. In this paper, numerical solutions of the statistical weak turbulence theory are compared with numerical solutions of the Zakharov model of Langmuir turbulence, and good agreement in certain regimes of very weak field strength is found.
Modeling turbulence structure. Chemical kinetics interaction in turbulent reactive flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magnussen, B.F. [The Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)
1997-12-31
The challenge of the mathematical modelling is to transfer basic physical knowledge into a mathematical formulation such that this knowledge can be utilized in computational simulation of practical problems. The combustion phenomena can be subdivided into a large set of interconnected phenomena like flow, turbulence, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, radiation, extinction, ignition etc. Combustion in one application differs from combustion in another area by the relative importance of the various phenomena. The difference in fuel, geometry and operational conditions often causes the differences. The computer offers the opportunity to treat the individual phenomena and their interactions by models with wide operational domains. The relative magnitude of the various phenomena therefore becomes the consequence of operational conditions and geometry and need not to be specified on the basis of experience for the given problem. In mathematical modelling of turbulent combustion, one of the big challenges is how to treat the interaction between the chemical reactions and the fluid flow i.e. the turbulence. Different scientists adhere to different concepts like the laminar flamelet approach, the pdf approach of the Eddy Dissipation Concept. Each of these approaches offers different opportunities and problems. All these models are based on a sound physical basis, however none of these have general validity in taking into consideration all detail of the physical chemical interaction. The merits of the models can only be judged by their ability to reproduce physical reality and consequences of operational and geometric conditions in a combustion system. The presentation demonstrates and discusses the development of a coherent combustion technology for energy conversion and safety based on the Eddy Dissipation Concept by Magnussen. (author) 30 refs.
Anisotropy of turbulence in wind turbine wakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez-Elvira, Rafael [Comision Nacional de Energia (Spain); Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio; Manuel, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Julio [Departamento de Mecanica, ETSII, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2005-10-01
This work is mainly dedicated to the study of non-isotropic characteristics of turbulence in wind turbine wakes, specifically the shear layer of the near wake. A calculation method based on an explicit algebraic model for the components of the turbulent stress tensor is proposed, and the results are found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results. Analytical expressions for the estimation of an upper limit of the global turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the individual contributions of each diagonal term in the turbulent stress tensor are proposed. Their predictions are compared with experimental results.
Characteristics of airflow turbulence behind HEPA filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, S.; Yuasa, K.; Arai, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Suwa, Y.
1994-01-01
The characteristics of airflow turbulence in unidirectional cleanroom are described in this paper. First, the airflow turbulence distribution is measured in a cleanbooth with a hot-wire anemometer. Through the analysis of turbulence intensity, the shape of pleated HEPA filter is found out to be an important factor of eddy generation in airflow, Secondly, turbulence distribution behind HEPA filter is measured in detail. It concludes that the shear stress, caused by the airflow difference between pleated concave and convex part of HEPA filter, makes eddy generation in airflow behind HEPA filter
Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-01
Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.
Oceanic turbulence - Big bangs or continuous creation?
Caldwell, D. R.
1983-01-01
A hypothesis concerning the turbulence characteristics of 'microstructure' patches in the ocean is proposed in which a turbulence field is driven at the same time and scale at which it is observed. The driving energy is converted into turbulence kinetic energy in such a way that the observed overturning thickness scale is linearly related to the length scale. This hypothesis is contrasted with that of Gibson (1982), in which the 'patches' are produced by rare, powerful turbulence generators that have 'fossilized' prior to their observation. Careful attention is given to the sampling process and its assumptions.
Turbulent Reacting Flows at High Speed
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Brown, Garry
2001-01-01
.... To accomplish this goal, expertise in chemical kinetics, experimental fluid mechanics and combustion, and computational fluid mechanics were brought together to make a systematic attack on turbulent...
UAV multirotor platform for accurate turbulence measurements in the atmosphere
Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Wilhelm, Lionel; Sin, Kevin Edgar; Hofer, Matthias; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2017-04-01
the most important turbulence statistics such as turbulence intensity or momentum and heat turbulent fluxes. Some example measurements of turbulence around a wind turbine will be shown as well in order to showcase the potential of this UAV platform.
Complexity methods applied to turbulence in plasma astrophysics
Vlahos, L.; Isliker, H.
2016-09-01
In this review many of the well known tools for the analysis of Complex systems are used in order to study the global coupling of the turbulent convection zone with the solar atmosphere where the magnetic energy is dissipated explosively. Several well documented observations are not easy to interpret with the use of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or Kinetic numerical codes. Such observations are: (1) The size distribution of the Active Regions (AR) on the solar surface, (2) The fractal and multi fractal characteristics of the observed magnetograms, (3) The Self-Organised characteristics of the explosive magnetic energy release and (4) the very efficient acceleration of particles during the flaring periods in the solar corona. We review briefly the work published the last twenty five years on the above issues and propose solutions by using methods borrowed from the analysis of complex systems. The scenario which emerged is as follows: (a) The fully developed turbulence in the convection zone generates and transports magnetic flux tubes to the solar surface. Using probabilistic percolation models we were able to reproduce the size distribution and the fractal properties of the emerged and randomly moving magnetic flux tubes. (b) Using a Non Linear Force Free (NLFF) magnetic extrapolation numerical code we can explore how the emerged magnetic flux tubes interact nonlinearly and form thin and Unstable Current Sheets (UCS) inside the coronal part of the AR. (c) The fragmentation of the UCS and the redistribution of the magnetic field locally, when the local current exceeds a Critical threshold, is a key process which drives avalanches and forms coherent structures. This local reorganization of the magnetic field enhances the energy dissipation and influences the global evolution of the complex magnetic topology. Using a Cellular Automaton and following the simple rules of Self Organized Criticality (SOC), we were able to reproduce the statistical characteristics of the