Sample records for turbulent ambipolar diffusion

  1. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

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    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  2. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall


    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  3. Nonlinear ambipolar diffusion waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, J.T.; Rowlands, G.


    The evolution of a plasma perturbation in a neutral gas is considered using the ambipolar diffusion approximation. A nonlinear diffusion equation is derived and, in the one-dimensional case, exact solutions of shock type are obtained.

  4. Ambipolar diffusion in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.L. da.


    Is this thesis, a numerical method for the solution of the linear diffusion equation for a plasma containing two types of ions, with the possibility of charge exchange, has been developed. It has been shown that the decay time of the electron and ion densities is much smaller than that in a plasma containing only a single type of ion. A non-linear diffusion equation, which includes the effects of an external electric field varying linearly in time, to describe a slightly ionized plasma has also been developed. It has been verified that the decay of the electron density in the presence of such an electric field is very slow. (author)

  5. Letter to the EditiorTesting the hypothesis of the influence of neutral turbulence on the deduction of ambipolar diffusivities from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall


    Full Text Available Fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere are commonly used to determine ambipolar diffusivities and hence ambient temperature. Diffusivities are generally expected to increase exponentially with height through the region from which the meteor trail echoes are obtained, viz., typically 70-110km altitude for a ~30-MHz radar. In practice, however, this is more the exception: unexpectedly large diffusivities are obtained in the lower part of the regime, and unexpectedly low values are obtained in the upper part; only in the few kilometres on either side of the maximum in echo occurrence (viz., 90km for a 30-MHz radar does the diffusivity profile behave as expected. Hall (2002 hypothesised that neutral turbulence might be enhancing expansion of the meteor trail in the lower part of the regime. In this communication, due to results only available since the publication of Hall's suggestion, we are able to refute the hypothesis.

  6. Ambipolar diffusion regulated collapse of filaments threaded by perpendicular magnetic fields (United States)

    Burge, C. A.; Van Loo, S.; Falle, S. A. E. G.; Hartquist, T. W.


    Context. In giant molecular clouds (GMCs), the fractional ionisation is low enough that the neutral and charged particles are weakly coupled. A consequence of this is that the magnetic flux redistributes within the cloud, allowing an initially magnetically supported region to collapse. Aims: We aim to elucidate the effects of ambipolar diffusion on the evolution of infinitely long filaments and the effect of decaying turbulence on that evolution. Methods: First, in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a two-dimensional cylinder of an isothermal magnetised plasma with initially uniform density was allowed to evolve to an equilibrium state. Then, the response of the filament to ambipolar diffusion was followed using an adaptive mesh refinement multifluid MHD code. Various ambipolar resistivities were chosen to reflect different ratios of Jeans length to ambipolar diffusion length scale. To study the effect of turbulence on the ambipolar diffusion rate, we perturbed the equilibrium filament with a turbulent velocity field quantified by a rms sonic Mach number, Mrms, of 10, 3 or 1. Results: We numerically reproduce the density profiles for filaments that are in magnetohydrostatic and pressure equilibrium with their surroundings obtained in a published model and show that these equilibria are dynamically stable. If the effect of ambipolar diffusion is considered, these filaments lose magnetic support initiating cloud collapse. The filaments do not lose magnetic flux. Rather the magnetic flux is redistributed within the filament from the dense centre towards the diffuse envelope. The rate of the collapse is inversely proportional to the fractional ionisation and two gravitationally-driven ambipolar diffusion regimes for the collapse are observed as predicted in a published model. For high values of the ionisation coefficient, that is X ≥ 10-7, the gas is strongly coupled to the magnetic field and the Jeans length is larger than the ambipolar diffusion length scale. Then

  7. Fast-to-Alfvén Mode Conversion in the Presence of Ambipolar Diffusion (United States)

    Cally, Paul S.; Khomenko, Elena


    It is known that fast magnetohydrodynamic waves partially convert to upward and/or downward propagating Alfvén waves in a stratified atmosphere where Alfvén speed increases with height. This happens around the fast wave reflection height, where the fast wave’s horizontal phase speed equals the Alfvén speed (in a low-β plasma). Typically, this takes place in the mid to upper solar chromosphere for low-frequency waves in the few-millihertz band. However, this region is weakly ionized and thus susceptible to nonideal MHD processes. In this article, we explore how ambipolar diffusion in a zero-β plasma affects fast waves injected from below. Classical ambipolar diffusion is far too weak to have any significant influence at these low frequencies, but if enhanced by turbulence (in the quiet-Sun chromosphere but not in sunspot umbrae) or the production of sufficiently small-scale structure, can substantially absorb waves for turbulent ambipolar Reynolds numbers of around 20 or less. In that case, it is found that the mode conversion process is not qualitatively altered from the ideal case, though conversion to Alfvén waves is reduced because the fast wave flux reaching the conversion region is degraded. It is also found that any upward propagating Alfvén waves generated in this process are almost immune to further ambipolar attenuation, thereby reducing local ambipolar heating compared to cases without mode conversion. In that sense, mode conversion provides a form of “Alfvén cooling.”

  8. Thanatology in protoplanetary discs. The combined influence of Ohmic, Hall, and ambipolar diffusion on dead zones (United States)

    Lesur, Geoffroy; Kunz, Matthew W.; Fromang, Sébastien


    Protoplanetary discs are poorly ionised due to their low temperatures and high column densities and are therefore subject to three "non-ideal" magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects: Ohmic dissipation, ambipolar diffusion, and the Hall effect. The existence of magnetically driven turbulence in these discs has been a central question since the discovery of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Early models considered Ohmic diffusion only and led to a scenario of layered accretion, in which a magnetically "dead" zone in the disc midplane is embedded within magnetically "active" surface layers at distances of about 1-10 au from the central protostellar object. Recent work has suggested that a combination of Ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion can render both the midplane and surface layers of the disc inactive and that torques due to magnetically driven outflows are required to explain the observed accretion rates. We reassess this picture by performing three-dimensional numerical simulations that include all three non-ideal MHD effects for the first time. We find that the Hall effect can generically "revive" dead zones by producing a dominant azimuthal magnetic field and a large-scale Maxwell stress throughout the midplane, provided that the angular velocity and magnetic field satisfy Ω·B > 0. The attendant large magnetic pressure modifies the vertical density profile and substantially increases the disc scale height beyond its hydrostatic value. Outflows are produced but are not necessary to explain accretion rates ≲ 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. The flow in the disc midplane is essentially laminar, suggesting that dust sedimentation may be efficient. These results demonstrate that if the MRI is relevant for driving mass accretion in protoplanetary discs, one must include the Hall effect to obtain even qualitatively correct results. Appendices are available in electronic form at

  9. On the validity of the ambipolar diffusion assumption in the polar mesopause region

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    A. P. Ballinger


    Full Text Available The decay of underdense meteor trails in the polar mesopause region is thought to be predominantly due to ambipolar diffusion, a process governed by the ambient temperature and pressure. Hence, observations of meteor decay times have been used to indirectly measure the temperature of the mesopause region. Using meteor observations from a SKiYMET radar in northern Sweden during 2005, this study found that weaker meteor trails have shorter decay times (on average than relatively stronger trails. This suggests that processes other than ambipolar diffusion can play a significant role in trail diffusion. One particular mechanism, namely electron-ion recombination, is explored. This process is dependent on the initial electron density within the meteor trail, and can lead to a disproportionate reduction in decay time, depending on the strength of the meteor.

  10. Gravitational instability of filamentary molecular clouds, including ambipolar diffusion; non-isothermal filament (United States)

    Hosseinirad, Mohammad; Abbassi, Shahram; Roshan, Mahmood; Naficy, Kazem


    Recent observations of the filamentary molecular clouds show that their properties deviate from the isothermal equation of state. Theoretical investigations proposed that the logatropic and the polytropic equations of state with negative indexes can provide a better description for these filamentary structures. Here, we aim to compare the effects of these softer non-isothermal equations of state with their isothermal counterpart on the global gravitational instability of a filamentary molecular cloud. By incorporating the ambipolar diffusion, we use the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics framework for a filament that is threaded by a uniform axial magnetic field. We perturb the fluid and obtain the dispersion relation both for the logatropic and polytropic equations of state by taking the effects of magnetic field and ambipolar diffusion into account. Our results suggest that, in absence of the magnetic field, a softer equation of state makes the system more prone to gravitational instability. We also observed that a moderate magnetic field is able to enhance the stability of the filament in a way that is sensitive to the equation of state in general. However, when the magnetic field is strong, this effect is suppressed and all the equations of state have almost the same stability properties. Moreover, we find that for all the considered equations of state, the ambipolar diffusion has destabilizing effects on the filament.

  11. Ambipolar electric fields and turbulence studies in the Wisconsin levitated toroidal octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentrout, C.J.


    Detailed studies of hot ion plasmas (T/sub i/ > T/sub e/) in the poloidal field octupole show that the ambipolar electric field which is perpendicular to the flux surfaces is well explained by the observed properties of the microturbulence structures in the plasma. The turbulence structure has been measured by correlation techniques which are carefully described. In these experiments, signals were studied which are aperiodic in time and space, short lived compared to the decay times of the bulk plasma parameters, short ranged compared to the machine size, and are therefore classified as microturbulence structures. The resulting spatial and temporal correlation functions (CFs) are well fitted to a Gaussian function and the associated correlation lengths or times are the half width at half maximum of the CFs. The correlation length is measured to be the ion gyro radius for the hot hydrogen plasma and somewhat less for the helium plasma

  12. Atmospheric turbulence and diffusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosker, R.P. Jr.


    The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (well known in the atmospheric dispersion community as the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, ATDL) is one of several field facilities of NOAAs Air Resources Laboratory, headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. The laboratory conducts research on matters of atmospheric diffusion and turbulent exchange, concerning air quality. ATDD focuses attention on the physics of the lower atmosphere, with special emphasis on the processes contributing to atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and air-surface exchange, and on the development of predictive capabilities using the results of this research. Research is directed toward issues of national and global importance related to the missions of DOE, to DOE's Oak Ridge Field Office, and to NOAA. The program is divided into four major projects: plume transport and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer, complex topography, canopy micrometeorology, and air-surface exchange

  13. Turbulent diffusion of small particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, L.G.


    The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley.

  14. Turbulent diffusion of small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, L.G.


    The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley

  15. Basic issues of atmospheric turbulence and turbulent diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortak, H.


    A major concern of the institutions commissioned with the protection of the environment is the prognostication of the environment's exposure to various pollutant emissions. The transport and turbulent diffusion of air-borne substances largely take place within a planetary boundary layer of a thickness between 500 to 1,500 m in which the atmosphere continues to be in a turbulent state of flow. The basic theories for the origination and formation of turbulence in flow fields, for the application of these theories to turbulent flows over complex terrain structures and, finally, for the turbulent diffusion of air-borne substances within the planetary boundary layer are presented. (orig./PW) [de

  16. Energy balance in the solar transition region. I - Hydrostatic thermal models with ambipolar diffusion (United States)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.


    The energy balance in the lower transition region is analyzed by constructing theoretical models which satisfy the energy balance constraint. The energy balance is achieved by balancing the radiative losses and the energy flowing downward from the corona. This energy flow is mainly in two forms: conductive heat flow and hydrogen ionization energy flow due to ambipolar diffusion. Hydrostatic equilibrium is assumed, and, in a first calculation, local mechanical heating and Joule heating are ignored. In a second model, some mechanical heating compatible with chromospheric energy-balance calculations is introduced. The models are computed for a partial non-LTE approach in which radiation departs strongly from LTE but particles depart from Maxwellian distributions only to first order. The results, which apply to cases where the magnetic field is either absent, or uniform and vertical, are compared with the observed Lyman lines and continuum from the average quiet sun. The approximate agreement suggests that this type of model can roughly explain the observed intensities in a physically meaningful way, assuming only a few free parameters specified as chromospheric boundary conditions.

  17. Effect of turbulent collisions on diffusion in stationary plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, H.; Ishihara, O.


    Recently the velocity diffusion process was studied by the generalized Langevin equation derived by the projection operator method. The further study shows that the retarded frictional function plays an important role in suppressing particle diffusion in the velocity space in stronger turbulence as much as the resonance broadening effect. The retarded frictional effect, produced by the effective collisions due to the plasma turbulence is assumed to be a Gaussian, but non-Markovian and non-wide-sense stationary process. The relations between the proposed formulation and the extended resonance broadening theory is discussed. The authors also carry out test particle numerical experiment for Langmuir turbulence to test the theories. In a stronger turbulence a deviation of the diffusion rate from the one predicted by both the quasilinear and the extended resonance theories has been observed and is explained qualitatively by the present formulation

  18. Phase space diffusion in turbulent plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans


    Turbulent diffusion of charged test particles in electrostatic plasma turbulence is reviewed. Two different types of test particles can be distinguished. First passive particles which are subject to the fluctuating electric fields without themselves contributing to the local space charge....... In terms of these test particle types, two basically different problems can be formulated. One deals with the diffusion of a particle with respect to its point of release in phase space. Alternatively the relative diffusion between many, or just two, particles can be analyzed. Analytical expressions...

  19. ''The ambipolar diffusion time scale and the location of star formation in magnetic interstellar clouds'': Setting the record straight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouschovias, T.C.


    The point of a recent (1983) paper by Scott is that a previous paper (1979) by Mouschovias has concluded ''erroneously'' that star formation takes place off center in a cloud because of the use of an ''improver'' definition of a time scale for ambipolar diffusion. No such conclusion, Scott claims, follows from a ''proper'' definition, such as the ''traditional'' one by Spitzer. (i) Scott misrepresents the reasoning that led to the conclusion in the paper which he criticized. (ii) He is also wrong: both the ''traditional'' and the ''improper'' definitions vary similarly with radius, and both can have an off-center minimum; the spatial variation of the degree of ionization is the determining factor: not the specific value of the time scale at the origin, as Scott claims

  20. Microgravity Turbulent Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames (United States)


    A gas-jet diffusion flame is similar to the flame on a Bunsen burner, where a gaseous fuel (e.g., propane) flows from a nozzle into an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., air). The difference is that a Bunsen burner allows for (partial) premixing of the fuel and the air, whereas a diffusion flame is not premixed and gets its oxygen (principally) by diffusion from the atmosphere around the flame. Simple gas-jet diffusion flames are often used for combustion studies because they embody the mechanisms operating in accidental fires and in practical combustion systems. However, most practical combustion is turbulent (i.e., with random flow vortices), which enhances the fuel/air mixing. These turbulent flames are not well understood because their random and transient nature complicates analysis. Normal gravity studies of turbulence in gas-jet diffusion flames can be impeded by buoyancy-induced instabilities. These gravitycaused instabilities, which are evident in the flickering of a candle flame in normal gravity, interfere with the study of turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. By conducting experiments in microgravity, where buoyant instabilities are avoided, we at the NASA Lewis Research Center hope to improve our understanding of turbulent combustion. Ultimately, this could lead to improvements in combustor design, yielding higher efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Gas-jet diffusion flames are often researched as model flames, because they embody mechanisms operating in both accidental fires and practical combustion systems (see the first figure). In normal gravity laboratory research, buoyant air flows, which are often negligible in practical situations, dominate the heat and mass transfer processes. Microgravity research studies, however, are not constrained by buoyant air flows, and new, unique information on the behavior of gas-jet diffusion flames has been obtained.

  1. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion

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    Pope, S.B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ithaca, NY (United States)


    The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

  2. Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tsinober


    Full Text Available We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926. The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc. - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992 and Kit et al. (1993. The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.

  3. Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence (United States)

    Tsinober, A.

    We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926). The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc.) - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992) and Kit et al. (1993). The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry) and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson) which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.

  4. Phase space diffusion in turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecseli, H.L.


    Turbulent diffusion of charged test particles in electrostatic plasma turbulence is reviewed. Two different types of test particles can be distinguished. First passice particles which are subject to the fluctuating electric fields without themselves contributing to the local space charge. The second type are particles introduced at a prescribed phase space position at a certain time and which then self-consistently participate in the phase space dynamics of the turbulent. The latter ''active'' type of particles can be subjected to an effective frictional force due to radiation of plasma waves. In terms of these test particle types, two basically different problems can be formulated. One deals with the diffusion of a particle with respect to its point of release in phase space. Alternatively the relative diffusion between many, or just two, particles can be analyzed. Analytical expressions for the mean square particle displacements in phase space are discussed. More generally equations for the full probability densities are derived and these are solved analytically in special limits. (orig.)

  5. Diffusive separation of particles by diffusion in swirled turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, V.N.; Shiliaev, M.I.


    An analysis of the dynamics of turbulent flow and diffusive separation of solid particles in a centrifugal air separator (consisting of two flat disks rotating at the same angular velocity) is presented. A closed set of balances for all the components of the tensor of turbulent stresses, extended to the entire flow region, is employed in the numerical analysis of transition and turbulent air flows between the rotating disks. The analytical relationships obtained for the case of the mixed flow for the various components of the average velocity, energy of fluctuations, and turbulence level in the circumferential direction agreed well with the theoretical and experimental distributions of Bakke, et al. (1973). It is shown that at high Reynolds numbers the flow is isotropic, the dependence of the circumferential component of the average velocity obeys a power law, and the generation of the radial component is controlled by the local centrifugal field. The sharpness of particle separation was calculated by the eddy diffusion equation and was found to depend on the geometry and the operating conditions. 8 references

  6. The formation of rings and gaps in magnetically coupled disk-wind systems: ambipolar diffusion and reconnection (United States)

    Suriano, Scott S.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien


    Radial substructures in circumstellar disks are now routinely observed by ALMA. There is also growing evidence that disk winds drive accretion in such disks. We show through 2D (axisymmetric) simulations that rings and gaps develop naturally in magnetically coupled disk-wind systems on the scale of tens of au, where ambipolar diffusion (AD) is the dominant non-ideal MHD effect. In simulations where the magnetic field and matter are moderately coupled, the disk remains relatively laminar with the radial electric current steepened by AD into a thin layer near the midplane. The toroidal magnetic field sharply reverses polarity in this layer, generating a large magnetic torque that drives fast accretion, which drags the poloidal field into a highly pinched radial configuration. The reconnection of this pinched field creates magnetic loops where the net poloidal magnetic flux (and thus the accretion rate) is reduced, yielding dense rings. Neighbouring regions with stronger poloidal magnetic fields accrete faster, forming gaps. In better magnetically coupled simulations, the so-called `avalanche accretion streams' develop continuously near the disk surface, rendering the disk-wind system more chaotic. Nevertheless, prominent rings and gaps are still produced, at least in part, by reconnection, which again enables the segregation of the poloidal field and the disk material similar to the more diffusive disks. However, the reconnection is now driven by the non-linear growth of MRI channel flows. The formation of rings and gaps in rapidly accreting yet laminar disks has interesting implications for dust settling and trapping, grain growth, and planet formation.

  7. Stefan-Maxwell Relations and Heat Flux with Anisotropic Transport Coefficients for Ionized Gases in a Magnetic Field with Application to the Problem of Ambipolar Diffusion (United States)

    Kolesnichenko, A. V.; Marov, M. Ya.


    The defining relations for the thermodynamic diffusion and heat fluxes in a multicomponent, partially ionized gas mixture in an external electromagnetic field have been obtained by the methods of the kinetic theory. Generalized Stefan-Maxwell relations and algebraic equations for anisotropic transport coefficients (the multicomponent diffusion, thermal diffusion, electric and thermoelectric conductivity coefficients as well as the thermal diffusion ratios) associated with diffusion-thermal processes have been derived. The defining second-order equations are derived by the Chapman-Enskog procedure using Sonine polynomial expansions. The modified Stefan-Maxwell relations are used for the description of ambipolar diffusion in the Earth's ionospheric plasma (in the F region) composed of electrons, ions of many species, and neutral particles in a strong electromagnetic field.

  8. Measurement of ambipolar mobility-lifetime product and its significance for amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvain, E.; Hubin, J.


    In order to evaluate correctly the ambipolar diffusion length (L amb ) or the ambipolar drift length (L e ) from a steady state photocarrier grating (SSPG) diffusion or drift measurement, the condition of charge quasi-neutrality has to be maintained everywhere in the material (ambipolarity condition). This is shown theoretically, by calculating the experimentally accessible parameter (β) without assuming a priori that the ambipolarity condition holds. The effect of non-ambipolar behavior on the experimental plots, both for diffusion and drift is derived. Thereafter, measured SSPG plots for undoped a-Si:H are given, illustrating both ambipolar and non-ambipolar cases

  9. Experimental study of relative, turbulent diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Andersen, J.S.


    The purpose is to study relative turbulent diffusion under controlled, reproducible conditions in the laboratory in order to estimate the constant C in Richardson-Obukhov's law. We get C #approx# 0.4 -- 0.6. We furthermore measure the distance-neighbourfunction, which is the probability density...... system with two computers each equipped with a frame grabber card. In the search for the best experimentalmethods we have revised the concept of local homogeneity and derived a law for the velocity--acceleration structure function. A second by-product of this effort is a relatively simple derivation...

  10. Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence (United States)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew


    The improvements in experimental methods and high resolution image analysis are nowadays able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the turbulence over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [1], we compare the scaling shown by different mixing fronts driven by buoyancy that form a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing front. We use PIV and density front tracking in several experimental configurations akin to geophysical overturning [2-7]. We parametrize the role of unstable stratification by means of the Atwood number and compare both the scaling and the multifractal and the maximum local fractal structure functions of the different markers used to visualize the front. Both reactive and passive scalar tracers are used to investigate the mixing structure and the intermittency of the flow. Different initial conditions are compared and the mixing efficiency of the overal turbulent process evaluated [6-7]. An interesting approach, relating the Multi-Fractal dimension spectra, the intermittency and the spectral exponent is to find relationships that may be used to parameterise the sub-grid turbulence in terms of generalized diffusivities [4 ] that take into account the topology and the self-similarity of the Mixing RT and RM flows. As an example, a relationship between the diffusivity, the exponent β, the intermittency μ, and D(i), may be found for the volume fraction or the concentration, at the same time other locally measured parameters such as the enstrophy or the gradient alignment as well as their multi-fractal structures may turn out to be physically relevant indicators of the local turbulence and the mixing. Several methods of deriving local eddy diffusivity and local entrainment should give more realistic estimates of the spatial/temporal non-homogeneities (and intermittencies in the Kolmogorov 62 sense obtained as spatial correlations of the turbulent dissipation, or from structure functions) and these values may be used to parameterise turbulence at a variety

  11. Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting flows: Theory and numerical simulations. (United States)

    Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Liberman, M; Lipatnikov, A N; Rogachevskii, I; Yu, R


    The theory of turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures developed previously [T. Elperin et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 053001 (2014)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.90.053001] is generalized for large yet finite Reynolds numbers and the dependence of turbulent diffusion coefficient on two parameters, the Reynolds number and Damköhler number (which characterizes a ratio of turbulent and reaction time scales), is obtained. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a finite-thickness reaction wave for the first-order chemical reactions propagating in forced, homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible turbulence are performed to validate the theoretically predicted effect of chemical reactions on turbulent diffusion. It is shown that the obtained DNS results are in good agreement with the developed theory.

  12. A statistical theory on the turbulent diffusion of Gaussian puffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Larsen, S.E.; Pecseli, H.L.


    The relative diffusion of a one-dimensional Gaussian cloud of particles is related to a two-particle covariance function in a homogeneous and stationary field of turbulence. A simple working approximation is suggested for the determination of this covariance function in terms of entirely Eulerian fields. Simple expressions are derived for the growth of the puff's standard deviation for diffusion times that are small compared to the integral time scale of the turbulence. (Auth.)

  13. Turbulent flux and the diffusion of passive tracers in electrostatic turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, R.; Jessen, T.; Naulin, V.


    The connection between the diffusion of passive tracer particles and the anomalous turbulent flux in electrostatic drift-wave turbulence is investigated by direct numerical solutions of the 2D Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The probability density functions for the point-wise and flux surface...

  14. Contribution to the study of transverse turbulent diffusion in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Olivier


    In this research our objective is to study the turbulent diffusion in a water flow, in particular the transverse diffusion. According to formulae reviewed in literature the diffusion coefficients (K) may be expressed as a function of several velocity parameters. A synthetic formula depending on a macro-scale length of turbulence L x and a turbulent intensity √(u' 2 ) is proposed: K = β.L x .U-bar.(√(u' 2 /U-bar)) 2 . In order to validate this expression we performed two in situ experiments (one in a wide river and the other in an irrigation canal) with a double set of measurements: turbulent velocities and concentrations of a diffusing tracer. The first set gives us usable data in our formula. The results, compared with values available in literature, give a good agreement. Moreover it appears that it is possible to roughly divide the data in two groups according to (1) the cross section shape and (2) the bed roughness. The second set allows us to evaluate a global turbulent mixing coefficient. The coefficients calculated by the two methods are in accordance so our formula is validated. Nevertheless some problems appear because of what is called secondary currents and coherent structures as those seen above bed cracks in the Garonne river. Those phenomenon may play a major part upon turbulent diffusion in real streams. Although they were made conspicuous by an analysis of transverse velocity component, it has not been yet possible to quantify their effects. (author) [fr

  15. Diffusion of Sound Waves in a Turbulent Atmosphere (United States)

    Lyon, Richard H.


    The directional and frequency diffusion of a plane monochromatic 2 sound wave in statistically homogeneous, isotropic, and stationary turbulence is analyzed theoretically. The treatment is based on the diffusion equation for the energy density of sound waves, using the scattering cross section derived by Kraichnan for the type of turbulence assumed here. A form for the frequency-wave number spectrum of the turbulence is adopted which contains the pertinent parameters of the flow and is adapted to ease of calculation. A new approach to the evaluation of the characteristic period of the flow is suggested. This spectrum is then related to the scattering cross section. Finally, a diffusion equation is derived as a small-angle scattering approximation to the rigorous transport equation. The rate of spread of the incident wave in frequency and direction is calculated, as well as the power spectrum and autocorrelation for the wave.

  16. Rotational diffusion of particles in turbulence


    Meyer, Colin R.; Variano, Evan A.


    Through laboratory measurements, we compare the rotation of spherical and ellipsoidal particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. We find that the particles' angular velocity statistics are well described by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process. This theoretical model predicts that the Lagrangian autocovariance of particles' angular velocity will decay exponentially. We measure the autocovariance using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) applied to particles whose size is within ...

  17. Turbulent diffusion of lines and circulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyink, Gregory L. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)], E-mail:


    We study material lines and passive vectors in a model of turbulent flow at infinite-Reynolds number, the Kraichnan-Kazantsev ensemble of velocities that are white-noise in time and rough (Hoelder continuous) in space. It is argued that the phenomenon of 'spontaneous stochasticity' generalizes to material lines and that conservation of circulations generalizes to a 'martingale property' of the stochastic process of lines.

  18. Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.


    The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)

  19. Numerical vs. turbulent diffusion in geophysical flow modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Isidoro, M.; Maurizi, A.; Tampieri, F.


    Numerical advection schemes induce the spreading of passive tracers from localized sources. The effects of changing resolution and Courant number are investigated using the WAF advection scheme, which leads to a sub-diffusive process. The spreading rate from an instantaneous source is compared with the physical diffusion necessary to simulate unresolved turbulent motions. The time at which the physical diffusion process overpowers the numerical spreading is estimated, and is shown to reduce as the resolution increases, and to increase as the wind velocity increases.

  20. Electrostatic Turbulence and Anomalous Effects in Reconnection Diffusion Region (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Vaivads, A.; Li, W.; Divin, A. V.; Andre, M.; Markidis, S.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Peng, I. B.; Argall, M. R.; Ergun, R.; Le Contel, O.; Magnes, W.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.


    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process whereby microscopicplasma processes cause macroscopic changes in magnetic field topology,so that initially separated plasmas become magnetically connected.Waves can produce particle diffusion, and anomalous resistivity, aswell as heat the plasma and accelerate plasma particles, all of whichcan impact ongoing reconnection. We report electrostatic turbulencedeveloping within the diffusion region of asymmetric magnetopausereconnection using observations by the Magnetospheric Multiscalemission and large-scale particle-in-cell simulations, and characterizeanomalous effects and plasma heating within the diffusion region. Ourobservations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays animportant role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetricreconnection.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, T. P.; O'Sullivan, S.


    It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512 3 resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity, and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingly we find that, at least at these resolutions, the majority of the physics of multifluid turbulence can be captured by simply introducing fixed (in time and space) resistive terms into the induction equation without the need for a full multifluid MHD treatment. The velocity dispersion is also examined and, in common with previously published results, it is found not to be power law in nature.

  2. Simulations of anomalous ion diffusion in experimentally measured turbulent potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seidl, Jakub; Krlín, Ladislav; Pánek, Radomír; Pavlo, Pavol; Stöckel, Jan; Svoboda, V.


    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2009), s. 399-407 ISSN 1434-6060. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/23rd./. Prague, 16.06.2008-19.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0044; GA AV ČR IAA100430502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma turbulence * Lévy- walk * anomalous diffusion * plasma impurities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2009

  3. Turbulent diffusion modelling for windflow and dispersion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzis, J.G.


    The need for simple but reliable models for turbulent diffusion for windflow and atmospheric dispersion analysis is a necessity today if one takes into consideration the relatively high demand in computer time and costs for such an analysis, arising mainly from the often large solution domains needed, the terrain complexity and the transient nature of the phenomena. In the accident consequence assessment often there is a need for a relatively large number of cases to be analysed increasing further the computer time and costs. Within the framework of searching for relatively simple and universal eddy viscosity/diffusivity models, a new three dimensional non isotropic model is proposed applicable to any domain complexity and any atmospheric stability conditions. The model utilizes the transport equation for turbulent kinetic energy but introduces a new approach in effective length scale estimation based on the flow global characteristics and local atmospheric stability. The model is discussed in detail and predictions are given for flow field and boundary layer thickness. The results are compared with experimental data with satisfactory results

  4. Turbulent vertical diffusivity in the sub-tropical stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pisso


    Full Text Available Vertical (cross-isentropic mixing is produced by small-scale turbulent processes which are still poorly understood and paramaterized in numerical models. In this work we provide estimates of local equivalent diffusion in the lower stratosphere by comparing balloon borne high-resolution measurements of chemical tracers with reconstructed mixing ratio from large ensembles of random Lagrangian backward trajectories using European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysed winds and a chemistry-transport model (REPROBUS. We focus on a case study in subtropical latitudes using data from HIBISCUS campaign. An upper bound on the vertical diffusivity is found in this case study to be of the order of 0.5 m2 s−1 in the subtropical region, which is larger than the estimates at higher latitudes. The relation between diffusion and dispersion is studied by estimating Lyapunov exponents and studying their variation according to the presence of active dynamical structures.

  5. Scaling of turbulent flame speed for expanding flames with Markstein diffusion considerations (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Law, Chung K.


    In this paper we clarify the role of Markstein diffusivity, which is the product of the planar laminar flame speed and the Markstein length, on the turbulent flame speed and its scaling, based on experimental measurements on constant-pressure expanding turbulent flames. Turbulent flame propagation data are presented for premixed flames of mixtures of hydrogen, methane, ethylene, n-butane, and dimethyl ether with air, in near-isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. For each individual fuel-air mixture presented in this work and the recently published iso-octane data from Leeds, normalized turbulent flame speed data of individual fuel-air mixtures approximately follow a ReT,f0.5 scaling, for which the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property of the turbulence Reynolds number. At a given ReT,f, it is experimentally observed that the normalized turbulent flame speed decreases with increasing Markstein number, which could be explained by considering Markstein diffusivity as the leading dissipation mechanism for the large wave number flame surface fluctuations. Consequently, by replacing thermal diffusivity with the Markstein diffusivity in the turbulence Reynolds number definition above, it is found that normalized turbulent flame speeds could be scaled by ReT,M0.5 irrespective of the fuel, equivalence ratio, pressure, and turbulence intensity for positive Markstein number flames.

  6. Modelling thermal radiation in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames (United States)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Demarco, R.; Fuentes, A.


    This work focuses on the numerical modelling of radiative heat transfer in laboratory-scale buoyant turbulent diffusion flames. Spectral gas and soot radiation is modelled by using the Full-Spectrum Correlated-k (FSCK) method. Turbulence-Radiation Interactions (TRI) are taken into account by considering the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA), the resulting time-averaged Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) being solved by the Finite Volume Method (FVM). Emission TRIs and the mean absorption coefficient are then closed by using a presumed probability density function (pdf) of the mixture fraction. The mean gas flow field is modelled by the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) equation set closed by a buoyancy-modified k-ɛ model with algebraic stress/flux models (ASM/AFM), the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model coupled with a presumed pdf approach to account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions, and an acetylene-based semi-empirical two-equation soot model. Two sets of experimental pool fire data are used for validation: propane pool fires 0.3 m in diameter with Heat Release Rates (HRR) of 15, 22 and 37 kW and methane pool fires 0.38 m in diameter with HRRs of 34 and 176 kW. Predicted flame structures, radiant fractions, and radiative heat fluxes on surrounding surfaces are found in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data across all the flames. In addition further computations indicate that, for the present flames, the gray approximation can be applied for soot with a minor influence on the results, resulting in a substantial gain in Computer Processing Unit (CPU) time when the FSCK is used to treat gas radiation.

  7. Turbulent diffusion in the flame of a rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strekotin, V.V.; Telegin, A.A.; Lisin, F.N.; Malysheva, O.I.


    Experimental data on the distribution of velocities in the stream in the flow of air from models of a burner with a normal annular Laval nozzle and a burner with an increase in the angle of opening of the stream under supersonic conditions were obtained. The results of the work may be used in the design of burners for rotary kilns. According to the experimental data the coefficient of turbulent diffusion reaches a value of 0.0071 m/sup 2//sec for a pure flow and is reduced by 30% with an increase in the dust content from 0 to 1 kg/kg. It is desirable to use the data obtained in calculations of the flame processes and selection of means of intensification of the process of mixing of the fuel with the oxidizer in the presence of dust.

  8. Intrinsic Ambipolarity and Rotation in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Simakov, A. N.


    It is shown that collisional plasma transport is intrinsically ambipolar only in quasiaxisymmetric or quasihelically symmetric magnetic configurations. Only in such fields can the plasma rotate freely, and then only in the direction of quasisymmetry. In a non-quasi-symmetric magnetic field, the average radial electric field is determined by parallel viscosity, which in turn is usually governed by collisional processes. Locally, the radial electric field may be affected by turbulent Reynolds stress producing zonal flows, but on a radial average taken over several ion gyroradii, it is determined by parallel viscosity, at least if the turbulence is electrostatic and obeys the conventional gyrokinetic orderings. This differs from the situation in a tokamak, where there is no flow damping by parallel viscosity in the symmetry direction and the turbulent Reynolds stress may affect the global radial electric field

  9. Turbulent eddy diffusion models in exposure assessment - Determination of the eddy diffusion coefficient. (United States)

    Shao, Yuan; Ramachandran, Sandhya; Arnold, Susan; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy


    The use of the turbulent eddy diffusion model and its variants in exposure assessment is limited due to the lack of knowledge regarding the isotropic eddy diffusion coefficient, D T . But some studies have suggested a possible relationship between D T and the air changes per hour (ACH) through a room. The main goal of this study was to accurately estimate D T for a range of ACH values by minimizing the difference between the concentrations measured and predicted by eddy diffusion model. We constructed an experimental chamber with a spatial concentration gradient away from the contaminant source, and conducted 27 3-hr long experiments using toluene and acetone under different air flow conditions (0.43-2.89 ACHs). An eddy diffusion model accounting for chamber boundary, general ventilation, and advection was developed. A mathematical expression for the slope based on the geometrical parameters of the ventilation system was also derived. There is a strong linear relationship between D T and ACH, providing a surrogate parameter for estimating D T in real-life settings. For the first time, a mathematical expression for the relationship between D T and ACH has been derived that also corrects for non-ideal conditions, and the calculated value of the slope between these two parameters is very close to the experimentally determined value. The values of D T obtained from the experiments are generally consistent with values reported in the literature. They are also independent of averaging time of measurements, allowing for comparison of values obtained from different measurement settings. These findings make the use of turbulent eddy diffusion models for exposure assessment in workplace/indoor environments more practical.

  10. Subgrid models for mass and thermal diffusion in turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lim, Hyunkyung [STONY BROOK UNIV; Li, Xiao - Lin [STONY BROOK UNIV; Gilmm, James G [STONY BROOK UNIV


    We are concerned with the chaotic flow fields of turbulent mixing. Chaotic flow is found in an extreme form in multiply shocked Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows. The goal of a converged simulation for this problem is twofold: to obtain converged solutions for macro solution features, such as the trajectories of the principal shock waves, mixing zone edges, and mean densities and velocities within each phase, and also for such micro solution features as the joint probability distributions of the temperature and species concentration. We introduce parameterized subgrid models of mass and thermal diffusion, to define large eddy simulations (LES) that replicate the micro features observed in the direct numerical simulation (DNS). The Schmidt numbers and Prandtl numbers are chosen to represent typical liquid, gas and plasma parameter values. Our main result is to explore the variation of the Schmidt, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers by three orders of magnitude, and the mesh by a factor of 8 per linear dimension (up to 3200 cells per dimension), to allow exploration of both DNS and LES regimes and verification of the simulations for both macro and micro observables. We find mesh convergence for key properties describing the molecular level of mixing, including chemical reaction rates between the distinct fluid species. We find results nearly independent of Reynolds number for Re 300, 6000, 600K . Methodologically, the results are also new. In common with the shock capturing community, we allow and maintain sharp solution gradients, and we enhance these gradients through use of front tracking. In common with the turbulence modeling community, we include subgrid scale models with no adjustable parameters for LES. To the authors' knowledge, these two methodologies have not been previously combined. In contrast to both of these methodologies, our use of Front Tracking, with DNS or LES resolution of the momentum equation at or near the Kolmogorov scale, but without

  11. Particle deposition due to turbulent diffusion in the upper respiratory system (United States)

    Hamill, P.


    Aerosol deposition in the upper respiratory system (trachea to segmental bronchi) is considered and the importance of turbulent diffusion as a deposition mechanism is evaluated. It is demonstrated that for large particles (diameter greater than about 5 microns), turbulent diffusion is the dominant deposition mechanism in the trachea. Conditions under which turbulent diffusion may be important in successive generations of the pulmonary system are determined. The probability of particle deposition is compared with probabilities of deposition, as determined by the equations generally used in regional deposition models. The analysis is theoretical; no new experimental data is presented.

  12. Phase-space diffusion in turbulent plasmas: The random acceleration problem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.


    Phase-space diffusion of test particles in turbulent plasmas is studied by an approach based on a conditional statistical analysis of fluctuating electrostatic fields. Analytical relations between relevant conditional averages and higher-order correlations, , and triple...

  13. Measurement of current density fluctuations and ambipolar particle flux due to magnetic fluctuations in MST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Weimin.


    Studies of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport on Reversed Field Pinch plasmas were done on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Plasma current density and current density fluctuations were measured using a multi-coil magnetic probes. The low frequency (f parallel B r >. The result of zero net charged particle loss was obtained, meaning the flux is ambipolar. The ambipolarity of low frequency global tearing modes is satisfied through the phase relations determined by tearing instabilities. The ambipolarity of high frequency localized modes could be partially explained by the simple model of Waltz based on the radial average of small scale turbulence

  14. Residual sweeping errors in turbulent particle pair diffusion in a Lagrangian diffusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem A Malik

    Full Text Available Thomson, D. J. & Devenish, B. J. [J. Fluid Mech. 526, 277 (2005] and others have suggested that sweeping effects make Lagrangian properties in Kinematic Simulations (KS, Fung et al [Fung J. C. H., Hunt J. C. R., Malik N. A. & Perkins R. J. J. Fluid Mech. 236, 281 (1992], unreliable. However, such a conclusion can only be drawn under the assumption of locality. The major aim here is to quantify the sweeping errors in KS without assuming locality. Through a novel analysis based upon analysing pairs of particle trajectories in a frame of reference moving with the large energy containing scales of motion it is shown that the normalized integrated error [Formula: see text] in the turbulent pair diffusivity (K due to the sweeping effect decreases with increasing pair separation (σl, such that [Formula: see text] as σl/η → ∞; and [Formula: see text] as σl/η → 0. η is the Kolmogorov turbulence microscale. There is an intermediate range of separations 1 < σl/η < ∞ in which the error [Formula: see text] remains negligible. Simulations using KS shows that in the swept frame of reference, this intermediate range is large covering almost the entire inertial subrange simulated, 1 < σl/η < 105, implying that the deviation from locality observed in KS cannot be atributed to sweeping errors. This is important for pair diffusion theory and modeling. PACS numbers: 47.27.E?, 47.27.Gs, 47.27.jv, 47.27.Ak, 47.27.tb, 47.27.eb, 47.11.-j.

  15. Turbulent thermal diffusion of aerosols in geophysics and in laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eidelman


    Full Text Available We discuss a new phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion associated with turbulent transport of aerosols in the atmosphere and in laboratory experiments. The essence of this phenomenon is the appearance of a nondiffusive mean flux of particles in the direction of the mean heat flux, which results in the formation of large-scale inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of aerosols that accumulate in regions of minimum mean temperature of the surrounding fluid. This effect of turbulent thermal diffusion was detected experimentally. In experiments turbulence was generated by two oscillating grids in two directions of the imposed vertical mean temperature gradient. We used Particle Image Velocimetry to determine the turbulent velocity field, and an Image Processing Technique based on an analysis of the intensity of Mie scattering to determine the spatial distribution of aerosols. Analysis of the intensity of laser light Mie scattering by aerosols showed that aerosols accumulate in the vicinity of the minimum mean temperature due to the effect of turbulent thermal diffusion.

  16. Anomalous diffusion, clustering, and pinch of impurities in plasma edge turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priego, M.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.


    The turbulent transport of impurity particles in plasma edge turbulence is investigated. The impurities are modeled as a passive fluid advected by the electric and polarization drifts, while the ambient plasma turbulence is modeled using the two-dimensional Hasegawa-Wakatani paradigm for resistive......-diffusion analysis of the evolution of impurity puffs. Additional effects appear for inertial impurities as a consequence of compressibility. First, the density of inertial impurities is found to correlate with the vorticity of the electric drift velocity, that is, impurities cluster in vortices of a precise...

  17. Simulation of particle diffusion in a spectrum of electrostatic turbulence. Low frequency Bohm or percolation scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, J.D.; Misguich, J.H.


    An important point for turbulent transport consists in determining the scaling law for the diffusion coefficient D due to electrostatic turbulence. It is well-known that for weak amplitudes or large frequencies, the reduced diffusion coefficient has a quasi-linear like (or gyro-Bohm like) scaling, while for large amplitudes or small frequencies it has been traditionally believed that the scaling is Bohm-like. The aim of this work consists to test this prediction for a given realistic model. This problem is studied by direct simulation of particle trajectories. Guiding centre diffusion in a spectrum of electrostatic turbulence is computed for test particles in a model spectrum, by means of a new parallelized code RADIGUET 2. The results indicate a continuous transition for large amplitudes toward a value which is compatible with the Isichenko percolation prediction. (author)

  18. Numerical Test of Analytical Theories for Perpendicular Diffusion in Small Kubo Number Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A.


    In the literature, one can find various analytical theories for perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence. Besides quasi-linear theory, there are different versions of the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory and the unified nonlinear transport (UNLT) theory. For turbulence with high Kubo numbers, such as two-dimensional turbulence or noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, the aforementioned nonlinear theories provide similar results. For slab and small Kubo number turbulence, however, this is not the case. In the current paper, we compare different linear and nonlinear theories with each other and test-particle simulations for a noisy slab model corresponding to small Kubo number turbulence. We show that UNLT theory agrees very well with all performed test-particle simulations. In the limit of long parallel mean free paths, the perpendicular mean free path approaches asymptotically the quasi-linear limit as predicted by the UNLT theory. For short parallel mean free paths we find a Rechester and Rosenbluth type of scaling as predicted by UNLT theory as well. The original NLGC theory disagrees with all performed simulations regardless what the parallel mean free path is. The random ballistic interpretation of the NLGC theory agrees much better with the simulations, but compared to UNLT theory the agreement is inferior. We conclude that for this type of small Kubo number turbulence, only the latter theory allows for an accurate description of perpendicular diffusion.

  19. Numerical Test of Analytical Theories for Perpendicular Diffusion in Small Kubo Number Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)


    In the literature, one can find various analytical theories for perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence. Besides quasi-linear theory, there are different versions of the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory and the unified nonlinear transport (UNLT) theory. For turbulence with high Kubo numbers, such as two-dimensional turbulence or noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, the aforementioned nonlinear theories provide similar results. For slab and small Kubo number turbulence, however, this is not the case. In the current paper, we compare different linear and nonlinear theories with each other and test-particle simulations for a noisy slab model corresponding to small Kubo number turbulence. We show that UNLT theory agrees very well with all performed test-particle simulations. In the limit of long parallel mean free paths, the perpendicular mean free path approaches asymptotically the quasi-linear limit as predicted by the UNLT theory. For short parallel mean free paths we find a Rechester and Rosenbluth type of scaling as predicted by UNLT theory as well. The original NLGC theory disagrees with all performed simulations regardless what the parallel mean free path is. The random ballistic interpretation of the NLGC theory agrees much better with the simulations, but compared to UNLT theory the agreement is inferior. We conclude that for this type of small Kubo number turbulence, only the latter theory allows for an accurate description of perpendicular diffusion.

  20. Turbulent diffusion and transport from a CO2 lake in the deep ocean


    Haugan, Peter Mosby; Alendal, Guttorm


    If liquid CO2 is stored as a dense ‘‘lake’’ on the deep ocean floor, it is expected to dissolve in seawater. Ocean currents and turbulence can increase the net rate of CO2 release by several orders of magnitude compared to molecular diffusion. However, density stratification in the seawater created by dissolved CO2 will tend to reduce vertical mixing. A two-dimensional numerical study with a high-resolution advection-diffusion model, coupled with a general turbulence model, reveals significan...

  1. Effects of anisotropic turbulent thermal diffusion on spherical magnetoconvection in the Earth's core (United States)

    Ivers, D. J.; Phillips, C. G.


    We re-consider the plate-like model of turbulence in the Earth's core, proposed by Braginsky and Meytlis (1990), and show that it is plausible for core parameters not only in polar regions but extends to mid- and low-latitudes where rotation and gravity are not parallel, except in a very thin equatorial layer. In this model the turbulence is highly anisotropic with preferred directions imposed by the Earth's rotation and the magnetic field. Current geodynamo computations effectively model sub-grid scale turbulence by using isotropic viscous and thermal diffusion values significantly greater than the molecular values of the Earth's core. We consider a local turbulent dynamo model for the Earth's core in which the mean magnetic field, velocity and temperature satisfy the Boussinesq induction, momentum and heat equations with an isotropic turbulent Ekman number and Roberts number. The anisotropy is modelled only in the thermal diffusion tensor with the Earth's rotation and magnetic field as preferred directions. Nonlocal organising effects of gravity and rotation (but not aspect ratio in the Earth's core) such as an inverse cascade and nonlocal transport are assumed to occur at longer length scales, which computations may accurately capture with sufficient resolution. To investigate the implications of this anisotropy for the proposed turbulent dynamo model we investigate the linear instability of turbulent magnetoconvection on length scales longer than the background turbulence in a rotating sphere with electrically insulating exterior for no-slip and isothermal boundary conditions. The equations are linearised about an axisymmetric basic state with a conductive temperature, azimuthal magnetic field and differential rotation. The basic state temperature is a function of the anisotropy and the spherical radius. Elsasser numbers in the range 1-20 and turbulent Roberts numbers 0.01-1 are considered for both equatorial symmetries of the magnetic basic state. It is found

  2. Ambipolar potential formation in TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, D.L.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.


    TMX experimental data on ambipolar potential control and on the accompanying electrostatic confinement are reported. New results on the radial dependence of the central-cell confining potential are given. Radial and axial particle losses as well as scaling of the central-cell axial confinement are discussed

  3. Phase-space diffusion in turbulent plasmas: The random acceleration problem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.


    Phase-space diffusion of test particles in turbulent plasmas is studied by an approach based on a conditional statistical analysis of fluctuating electrostatic fields. Analytical relations between relevant conditional averages and higher-order correlations, , and trip...

  4. Numerical and experimental modelling of turbulent flow in curved channels and diffusers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Příhoda, Jaromír; Šulc, J.; Sedlář, M.; Zubík, P.


    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2005), s. 429-440 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/02/0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent flow * curved channels and diffusers Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  5. Modelling Detailed-Chemistry Effects on Turbulent Diffusion Flames using a Parallel Solution-Adaptive Scheme (United States)

    Jha, Pradeep Kumar

    Capturing the effects of detailed-chemistry on turbulent combustion processes is a central challenge faced by the numerical combustion community. However, the inherent complexity and non-linear nature of both turbulence and chemistry require that combustion models rely heavily on engineering approximations to remain computationally tractable. This thesis proposes a computationally efficient algorithm for modelling detailed-chemistry effects in turbulent diffusion flames and numerically predicting the associated flame properties. The cornerstone of this combustion modelling tool is the use of parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) scheme with the recently proposed Flame Prolongation of Intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated-chemistry approach for modelling complex chemistry. The effect of turbulence on the mean chemistry is incorporated using a Presumed Conditional Moment (PCM) approach based on a beta-probability density function (PDF). The two-equation k-w turbulence model is used for modelling the effects of the unresolved turbulence on the mean flow field. The finite-rate of methane-air combustion is represented here by using the GRI-Mech 3.0 scheme. This detailed mechanism is used to build the FPI tables. A state of the art numerical scheme based on a parallel block-based solution-adaptive algorithm has been developed to solve the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) and other governing partial-differential equations using a second-order accurate, fully-coupled finite-volume formulation on body-fitted, multi-block, quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh for two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow geometries, respectively. A standard fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-marching scheme is used for time-accurate temporal discretizations. Numerical predictions of three different diffusion flames configurations are considered in the present work: a laminar counter-flow flame; a laminar co-flow diffusion flame; and a Sydney bluff-body turbulent reacting flow

  6. Adjoint Optimisation of the Turbulent Flow in an Annular Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Erik; Agular Knudsen, Christian; Kunoy, Jens Dahl


    In the present study, a numerical optimisation of guide vanes in an annular diffuser, is performed. The optimisation is preformed for the purpose of improving the following two parameters simultaneously; the first parameter is the uniformity perpen-dicular to the flow direction, a 1/3 diameter do...

  7. Turbulence structure and CO2 transfer at the air-sea interface and turbulent diffusion in thermally-stratified flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, S.


    in clarifying environmental flow phenomena. This report summarizes research on two turbulence structure and diffusion topics; turbulence structure and the gas transfer mechanism across the air-sea (air-water) interface and the heat and momentum transfer mechanism in thermally stratified flows. The first study shows the relationship between the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) transfer mechanism across a sheared air-water interface and the turbulence structure near the interface. The results revealed that the conventional proportional relationship between CO 2 transfer velocity across the air-sea interface and mean wind speed over the sea surface is incorrect. The second study numerically clarified the significant effects of molecular diffusivity (the Prandtl number) of active heat on heat transfer in stable thermally-stratified Hows. The results obtained from the two studies are described in the next two chapters. Since the results are mainly quoted from a series of previously published and in press works by Komori et al.'s research group (see references), this report might be considered as a summary of those works

  8. Emission, Structure and Optical Properties of Overfire Soot from Buoyant Turbulent Diffusion Flames (United States)

    Koylu, Umit Ozgur

    The present study investigated soot and carbon monoxide emissions, and evaluated the optical properties of soot, in the overfire region of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames burning in still air. Soot and carbon monoxide emissions, and the corresponding correlation between these emissions, were studied experimentally. The optical properties of soot were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The experiments involved gas (acetylene, propylene, ethylene, propane, methane) and liquid (toluene, benzene, n-heptane, iso-propanol, ethanol, methanol) fuels. The investigation was limited to the fuel-lean (overfire) region of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames burning in still air. Measurements included flame heights, characteristic flame residence times, carbon monoxide and soot concentrations, mixture fractions, ex-situ soot structure parameters (primary particle sizes, number of primary particles in aggregates, fractal dimensions), and in-situ optical cross sections (differential scattering, total scattering, and absorption) of soot in the overfire region of buoyant turbulent diffusion flames, emphasizing conditions in the long residence time regime where these properties are independent of position in the overfire region and flame residence time. The predictions of optical cross sections for polydisperse aggregates were based on Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for fractal aggregates; the predictions of this theory were evaluated by combining the TEM structure and the light scattering/extinction measurements. Carbon monoxide concentrations and mixture fractions were correlated in the overfire region of gas- and liquid -fueled turbulent diffusion flames. Soot volume fraction state relationships were observed for liquid fuels, supporting earlier observations for gas fuels. A strong correlation between carbon monoxide and soot concentrations was established in the fuel-lean region of both gas- and liquid-fueled turbulent diffusion flames. The structure and emission

  9. Numerical investigation of diffuser solidity effect on turbulent airflow and performance of the turbocharger compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehhat A.


    Full Text Available Low solidity diffuser in centrifugal compressors can achieve both high efficiency and wide operating ranges which is of great importance for turbocharger compressor. Low solidity is achieved by using a low chord to pitch ratio. In this work, a CFD simulation is carried out to examine the effect of solidity on airflow field of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor which consists of a simple-splitter impeller and a vaned diffuser. By changing the number of diffuser vanes while keeping the number of impeller blades constant, the solidity value of the diffuser is varied. The characteristics of the compressor are evaluated for 6, 8, 10 and 12 stator vanes which correspond to solidity of: 0.78, 1.04, 1.29 and 1.55, respectively. The spatial distribution of the pressure, velocity and turbulent kinetic energy show that the diffuser solidity has significant effect on flow field and compressor performance map. The compressor with a 6 vanes diffuser has higher efficiency and operates at a wider range of flow rate relative to that obtained with larger vans number. However a non-uniform flow at the compressor exit was observed with relatively high turbulent kinetic energy.

  10. Ambipolar phosphorene field effect transistor. (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Demarteau, Marcel; Roelofs, Andreas


    In this article, we demonstrate enhanced electron and hole transport in few-layer phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) using titanium as the source/drain contact electrode and 20 nm SiO2 as the back gate dielectric. The field effect mobility values were extracted to be ∼38 cm(2)/Vs for electrons and ∼172 cm(2)/Vs for the holes. On the basis of our experimental data, we also comprehensively discuss how the contact resistances arising due to the Schottky barriers at the source and the drain end effect the different regime of the device characteristics and ultimately limit the ON state performance. We also propose and implement a novel technique for extracting the transport gap as well as the Schottky barrier height at the metal-phosphorene contact interface from the ambipolar transfer characteristics of the phosphorene FETs. This robust technique is applicable to any ultrathin body semiconductor which demonstrates symmetric ambipolar conduction. Finally, we demonstrate a high gain, high noise margin, chemical doping free, and fully complementary logic inverter based on ambipolar phosphorene FETs.

  11. Forecasting turbulent modes with nonparametric diffusion models: Learning from noisy data (United States)

    Berry, Tyrus; Harlim, John


    In this paper, we apply a recently developed nonparametric modeling approach, the "diffusion forecast", to predict the time-evolution of Fourier modes of turbulent dynamical systems. While the diffusion forecasting method assumes the availability of a noise-free training data set observing the full state space of the dynamics, in real applications we often have only partial observations which are corrupted by noise. To alleviate these practical issues, following the theory of embedology, the diffusion model is built using the delay-embedding coordinates of the data. We show that this delay embedding biases the geometry of the data in a way which extracts the most stable component of the dynamics and reduces the influence of independent additive observation noise. The resulting diffusion forecast model approximates the semigroup solutions of the generator of the underlying dynamics in the limit of large data and when the observation noise vanishes. As in any standard forecasting problem, the forecasting skill depends crucially on the accuracy of the initial conditions. We introduce a novel Bayesian method for filtering the discrete-time noisy observations which works with the diffusion forecast to determine the forecast initial densities. Numerically, we compare this nonparametric approach with standard stochastic parametric models on a wide-range of well-studied turbulent modes, including the Lorenz-96 model in weakly chaotic to fully turbulent regimes and the barotropic modes of a quasi-geostrophic model with baroclinic instabilities. We show that when the only available data is the low-dimensional set of noisy modes that are being modeled, the diffusion forecast is indeed competitive to the perfect model.

  12. Non-thermal Dupree diffusivity and shielding effects on atomic collisions in Lorentzian turbulent plasmas (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae


    The influence of non-thermal Dupree turbulence and the plasma shielding on the electron-ion collision is investigated in Lorentzian turbulent plasmas. The second-order eikonal analysis and the effective interaction potential including the Lorentzian far-field term are employed to obtain the eikonal scattering phase shift and the eikonal collision cross section as functions of the diffusion coefficient, impact parameter, collision energy, Debye length and spectral index of the astrophysical Lorentzian plasma. It is shown that the non-thermal effect suppresses the eikonal scattering phase shift. However, it enhances the eikonal collision cross section in astrophysical non-thermal turbulent plasmas. The effect of non-thermal turbulence on the eikonal atomic collision cross section is weakened with increasing collision energy. The variation of the atomic cross section due to the non-thermal Dupree turbulence is also discussed. This research was supported by Nuclear Fusion Research Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant No. 2015M1A7A1A01002786).

  13. Study of turbulent diffusion at Guaruja coast, Sao Paulo (Brazil), by means of radioisotope technics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Sanchez, W.; Santos, J.L. dos; Merighi Junior, A.; Albuquerque, A.M. de.


    The determination of the laws that govern the solution and turbulent diffusion phenomena by means of the behavior of a radioactive solution ( 82 Br) instantaneously injected as a point source, in the litoral of Guaruja city, SP, under different oceanographic conditions is presented. The analysis of the data was based on the diffusion theory proposed by OKUBO. It was confirmed in all experiments, that the size of the radioactive 'cloud', indicated by its variance sigma rC' is a function of the local oceanographic conditions [pt

  14. Influence of the Solar Cycle on Turbulence Properties and Cosmic-Ray Diffusion (United States)

    Zhao, L.-L.; Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hu, Q.; Feng, X. S.


    The solar cycle dependence of various turbulence quantities and cosmic-ray (CR) diffusion coefficients is investigated by using OMNI 1 minute resolution data over 22 years. We employ Elsässer variables z ± to calculate the magnetic field turbulence energy and correlation lengths for both the inwardly and outwardly directed interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We present the temporal evolution of both large-scale solar wind (SW) plasma variables and small-scale magnetic fluctuations. Based on these observed quantities, we study the influence of solar activity on CR parallel and perpendicular diffusion using quasi-linear theory and nonlinear guiding center theory, respectively. We also evaluate the radial evolution of the CR diffusion coefficients by using the boundary conditions for different solar activity levels. We find that in the ecliptic plane at 1 au (1), the large-scale SW temperature T, velocity V sw, Alfvén speed V A , and IMF magnitude B 0 are positively related to solar activity; (2) the fluctuating magnetic energy density , residual energy E D , and corresponding correlation functions all have an obvious solar cycle dependence. The residual energy E D is always negative, which indicates that the energy in magnetic fluctuations is larger than the energy in kinetic fluctuations, especially at solar maximum; (3) the correlation length λ for magnetic fluctuations does not show significant solar cycle variation; (4) the temporally varying shear source of turbulence, which is most important in the inner heliosphere, depends on the solar cycle; (5) small-scale fluctuations may not depend on the direction of the background magnetic field; and (6) high levels of SW fluctuations will increase CR perpendicular diffusion and decrease CR parallel diffusion, but this trend can be masked if the background IMF changes in concert with turbulence in response to solar activity. These results provide quantitative inputs for both turbulence transport models and CR

  15. Diffusion and dispersion characteristics of hybridized discontinuous Galerkin methods for under-resolved turbulence simulations (United States)

    Moura, Rodrigo; Fernandez, Pablo; Mengaldo, Gianmarco


    We investigate the dispersion and diffusion characteristics of hybridized discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. This provides us with insights to develop robust and accurate high-order DG discretizations for under-resolved flow simulations. Using the eigenanalysis technique introduced in (Moura et al., JCP, 2015 and Mengaldo et al., Computers & Fluids, 2017), we present a dispersion-diffusion analysis for the linear advection-diffusion equation. The effect of the accuracy order, the Riemann flux and the viscous stabilization are investigated. Next, we examine the diffusion characteristics of hybridized DG methods for under-resolved turbulent flows. The implicit large-eddy simulation (iLES) of the inviscid and viscous Taylor-Green vortex (TGV) problems are considered to this end. The inviscid case is relevant in the limit of high Reynolds numbers Re , i.e. negligible molecular viscosity, while the viscous case explores the effect of Re on the accuracy and robustness of the simulations. The TGV cases considered here are particularly crucial to under-resolved turbulent free flows away from walls. We conclude the talk with a discussion on the connections between hybridized and standard DG methods for under-resolved flow simulations.

  16. Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Christophe


    This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including  physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...

  17. Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao


    The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree of turbulent flame puff interaction, and the turbulent flame puff celerity were determined from high-speed imaging of the luminous flame. All of the tests presented here were conducted with a fixed fuel injection velocity at a Reynolds number of 5000. The flame dimensions were generally found to be more impacted by swirl for the cases of longer injection time and faster co-flow flow rate. Flames with swirl exhibited a flame length up to 34% shorter compared to nonswirled flames. Both the turbulent flame puff separation and the flame puff celerity generally decreased when swirl was imposed. The decreased flame length, flame puff separation, and flame puff celerity are consistent with a greater momentum exchange between the flame and the surrounding co-flow, resulting from an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. Three scaling relations were developed to account for the impact of the injection time, the volumetric fuel-to-air flow rate ratio, and the jet-on fraction on the visible flame length. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Advection diffusion model for particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresta, P.; Lippolis, A.; Verzicco, R.; Soldati, A.


    In this paper, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Lagrangian Particle Tracking are used to precisely investigate the turbulent thermally driven flow and particles dispersion in a closed, slender cylindrical domain. The numerical simulations are carried out for Rayleigh (Ra) and Prandtl numbers (Pr) equal to Ra = 2X10 8 and Pr = 0.7, considering three sets of particles with Stokes numbers, based on Kolmogorov scale, equal to St k 1.3, St k 0.65 and St k = 0.13. This data are used to calculate a priori the drift velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient for the Advection Diffusion model. These quantities are function of the Stokes, Froude, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers only. One dimensional, time dependent, Advection- Diffusion Equation (ADE) is presented to predict particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard flow in the cylindrical domain. This archetype configuration models flow and aerosol dynamics, produced in case of accident in the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a nuclear reactor. ADE results show a good agreement with DNS data for all the sets of particles investigated. (author)

  19. Numerical modeling of soot formation in a turbulent C2H4/air diffusion flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manedhar Reddy Busupally


    Full Text Available Soot formation in a lifted C2H4-Air turbulent diffusion flame is studied using two different paths for soot nucleation and oxidation; by a 2D axisymmetric RANS simulation using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0. The turbulence-chemistry interactions are modeled using two different approaches: steady laminar flamelet approach and flamelet-generated manifold. Chemical mechanism is represented by POLIMI to study the effect of species concentration on soot formation. P1 approximation is employed to approximate the radiative transfer equation into truncated series expansion in spherical harmonics while the weighted sum of gray gases is invoked to model the absorption coefficient while the soot model accounts for nucleation, coagulation, surface growth, and oxidation. The first route for nucleation considers acetylene concentration as a linear function of soot nucleation rate, whereas the second route considers two and three ring aromatic species as function of nucleation rate. Equilibrium-based and instantaneous approach has been used to estimate the OH concentration for soot oxidation. Lee and Fenimore-Jones soot oxidation models are studied to shed light on the effect of OH on soot oxidation. Moreover, the soot-radiation interactions are also included in terms of absorption coefficient of soot. Furthermore, the soot-turbulence interactions have been invoked using a temperature/mixture fraction-based single variable PDF. Both the turbulence-chemistry interaction models are able to accurately predict the flame liftoff height, and for accurate prediction of flame length, radiative heat loss should be accounted in an accurate way. The soot-turbulence interactions are found sensitive to the PDF used in present study.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu


    The turbulent magnetic diffusivity in the solar convection zone is one of the most poorly constrained ingredients of mean-field dynamo models. This lack of constraint has previously led to controversy regarding the most appropriate set of parameters, as different assumptions on the value of turbulent diffusivity lead to radically different solar cycle predictions. Typically, the dynamo community uses double-step diffusivity profiles characterized by low values of diffusivity in the bulk of the convection zone. However, these low diffusivity values are not consistent with theoretical estimates based on mixing-length theory, which suggest much higher values for turbulent diffusivity. To make matters worse, kinematic dynamo simulations cannot yield sustainable magnetic cycles using these theoretical estimates. In this work, we show that magnetic cycles become viable if we combine the theoretically estimated diffusivity profile with magnetic quenching of the diffusivity. Furthermore, we find that the main features of this solution can be reproduced by a dynamo simulation using a prescribed (kinematic) diffusivity profile that is based on the spatiotemporal geometric average of the dynamically quenched diffusivity. This bridges the gap between dynamically quenched and kinematic dynamo models, supporting their usage as viable tools for understanding the solar magnetic cycle.

  1. Symposium on turbulence, diffusion, and air pollution, 4th, Reno, NV, January 15-18, 1979, preprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Papers on turbulence, diffusion and air pollution are presented. Major topics include point-source air quality models, point-source air quality studies, geothermal energy and cooling tower studies, wind energy studies, complex terrain diffusion models, complex terrain diffusion studies, the effects of air pollution on visibility, chemical transformations of pollutants, regional air quality studies, urban air quality studies, boundary layer models and experiments, air pollution removal, air quality studies using remote sensing techniques, large-scale and lakeshore air quality studies, the effects of buildings and terrain features on diffusion, and general air quality and diffusion studies

  2. Implicit coupling of turbulent diffusion with chemical reaction mechanisms for prognostic atmospheric dispersion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlowitz, D.R.


    In the last few decades the negative impact by humans on the thin atmospheric layer enveloping the earth, the basis for life on this planet, has increased steadily. In order to halt, or at least slow down this development, the knowledge and study of these anthropogenic influence has to be increased and possible remedies have to be suggested. An important tool for these studies are computer models. With their help the atmospheric system can be approximated and the various processes, which have led to the current situation can be quantified. They also serve as an instrument to assess short or medium term strategies to reduce this human impact. However, to assure efficiency as well as accuracy, a careful analysis of the numerous processes involved in the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere is called for. This should help to concentrate on the essentials and also prevent excessive usage of sometimes scarce computing resources. The basis of the presented work is the EUMAC Zooming Model (ETM), and particularly the component calculating the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, the model MARS. The model has two main parts: an explicit solver, where the advection and the horizontal diffusion of pollutants are calculated, and an implicit solution mechanism, allowing the joint computation of the change of concentration due to chemical reactions, coupled with the respective influence of the vertical diffusion of the species. The aim of this thesis is to determine particularly the influence of the horizontal components of the turbulent diffusion on the existing implicit solver of the model. Suggestions for a more comprehensive inclusion of the full three dimensional diffusion operator in the implicit solver are made. This is achieved by an appropriate operator splitting. A selection of numerical approaches to tighten the coupling of the diffusion processes with the calculation of the applied chemical reaction mechanisms are examined. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  3. Ambipolar Phosphorene Field Effect Transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Saptarshi [Center for Nanoscale Material and ‡Division of High Energy Physics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Demarteau, Marcel [Center for Nanoscale Material and ‡Division of High Energy Physics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Roelofs, Andreas [Center for Nanoscale Material and ‡Division of High Energy Physics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States


    Two dimensional materials provide an intriguing platform to investigate rich physical phenomena which could ultimately lead to the development of innovative nanotechnologies (1-17). Semiconducting black phosphorous (BP) with high carrier mobility (18-20), anisotropic transport (21, 22) and tunable bandgap (23, 24) is the most recent addition to this exotic class of two dimensional materials. In this article we experimentally demonstrate room temperature quasi ballistic transport of both holes and electrons in ionic liquid gated black phosphorous (BP) field effect transistors (FET) with sub-100nm channel length. The carrier mean free path (mfp) was found to be 15nm for the holes and 5nm for the electrons. By improving the carrier injection through superior electrostatic gate control (EOT=1.5nm), highly symmetric ambipolar conduction with record high hole current of ~0.78mA/µm and electron current of ~0.68mA/µm are achieved for VDD=0.2V. The extracted record low contact resistance of 220Ω-µm is similar to the state of the art Si technology. This is also the best contact resistance value achieved for any two dimensional metal-semiconductor interfaces. Finally, we provide an analytical framework to compare the experimental results with ballistic simulations which includes quantum capacitance considerations.

  4. Effect of turbulence and radiation models on combustion characteristics in propane–hydrogen diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, İlker; Taştan, Murat; İlbaş, Mustafa; Tarhan, Cevahir


    Highlights: • Numerical simulation of propane and propane–hydrogen blending fuel was performed. • The effects of turbulence and radiation model on combustion were examined. • Comparison showed that RNG and P–I models give a better agreement with measurements. • As burner and combustor fuel, hydrogen may be considered a good alternative. - Abstract: This paper presents numerical simulation results of propane, propane–hydrogen blending diffusion flames in a combustion chamber. The numerical simulations using Fluent CFD code were carried out by changing fuel blending from pure propane (100% C 3 H 8 ) to propane–hydrogen blending including 90% C 3 H 8 –10% H 2 , 80% C 3 H 8 –20% H 2 , 10% C 3 H 8 –90% H 2 , 20% C 3 H 8 –80% H 2 by volume. A two-dimensional axis-symmetric numerical model was solved to investigate the effects of the turbulence and radiation models on the combustion characteristics such as temperature, and gas concentration distributions. The combustion reaction scheme in the flame region was modeled using eddy dissipation model with global reaction scheme. The effects of two turbulence models including RNG k–ε, and Reynolds Stress Model, RSM, and two different radiation models including P–I and discrete transfer model were examined on combustion characteristics. The predictions are validated and compared with the published experimental and simulation results. Numerical results show that the velocity profiles, temperature gradients, CO 2 and O 2 concentrations profiles are overall agreement with published measurement and simulation results in the literature

  5. Evidence for equivalence of diffusion processes of passive scalar and magnetic fields in anisotropic Navier-Stokes turbulence. (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M


    The influence of the uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated by using the field theoretic renormalization group technique in the one-loop approximation of a perturbation theory. The infrared stable fixed point of the renormalization group equations, which drives the scaling properties of the model in the inertial range, is investigated as the function of the anisotropy parameters and it is shown that, at least at the one-loop level of approximation, the diffusion processes of the weak passive magnetic field in the anisotropically driven kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are completely equivalent to the corresponding diffusion processes of passively advected scalar fields in the anisotropic Navier-Stokes turbulent environments.

  6. Turbulent jet diffusion flame length evolution with cross flows in a sub-pressure atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Lu, Shouxiang; Ding, Hang


    Highlights: • Quantifying turbulent jet diffusion flame length with cross flows. • Unique data revealed for a sub-atmospheric pressure. • Non-dimensional global correlation proposed for flame trajectory-line length. - Abstract: This paper investigates the evolution characteristics of turbulent jet diffusion flame (flame trajectory-line length, flame height in vertical jet direction) with increasing cross flows in a sub-pressure (64 kPa) atmosphere. The combined effect of cross flow and a special sub-pressure atmosphere condition is revealed, where no data is available in the literatures. Experiments are carried out with a wind tunnel built specially in Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m; pressure: 64 kPa) and in Hefei city (altitude: 50 m; pressure: 100 kPa), using nozzles with diameter of 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm and propane as fuel. It is found that, as cross flow air speed increases from zero, the flame trajectory-line length firstly decreases and then becomes almost stable (for relative small nozzle, 3 mm in this study) or increases (for relative large nozzle, 4 mm and 5 mm in this study) beyond a transitional critical cross flow air speed in normal pressure, however decreases monotonically until being blown-out in the sub-pressure atmosphere. The flame height in jet direction decreases monotonically with cross air flow speed and then reaches a steady value in both pressures. For the transitional state of flame trajectory-line length with increasing cross air flow speed, the corresponding critical cross flow air speed is found to be proportional to the fuel jet velocity, meanwhile independent of nozzle diameter. Correlation models are proposed for the flame height in jet direction and the flame trajectory-line length for both ambient pressures, which are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Utilization of axisymmetrical models in the description of the fluctuating temperature field and in the calculation of turbulent thermal diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra Filho, J. de S.


    The fluctuating temperature field structure is studied for the case of turbulent circular pipe flow. Experimentally determined integral length scales are used in modeling this structure in terms of axisymmetric forms. It is found that the appropriate angle of axisymmetry is larger than the one for modeling the large scale velocity structure. The axisymmetric model is then used to examine the validity and the prediction capability of the Tyldesley and Silver's non-spherical eddy diffusivity theory. (Author) [pt

  8. Diffusion Processes in the A-Model of Vector Admixture: Turbulent Prandtl Number (United States)

    Jurčišinová, Eva; Jurčišin, Marián; Remecky, Richard


    Using analytical approach of the field theoretic renormalization-group technique in two-loop approximation we model a fully developed turbulent system with vector characteristics driven by stochastic Navier-Stokes equation. The behaviour of the turbulent Prandtl number PrA,t is investigated as a function of parameter A and spatial dimension d > 2 for three cases, namely, kinematic MHD turbulence (A = 1), the admixture of a vector impurity by the Navier-Stokes turbulent flow (A = 0) and the model of linearized Navier-Stokes equation (A = -1). It is shown that for A = -1 the turbulent Prandtl number is given already in the one-loop approximation and does not depend on d while turbulent Prandt numbers in first two cases show very similar behaviour as functions of dimension d in the two-loop approximation.

  9. Predictions of nitrogen oxides production in diffusion turbulent flames; Predictions de la production des oxydes d`azote dans les flammes turbulentes de diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, H.; Gokalp, I. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Laboratoire de Combustion Systemes Reactifs


    The suitability of the turbulent combustion flamelets model in order to predict the index of NO{sub x} production in turbulent flames of hydrogen diffusion is analyzed. In the flamelet approach, the turbulent flame is equivalent to a group of laminar flames submitted to a mechanical stretching which generates a chemical disequilibrium. This effect can be described by the stretching or by the scalar dissipation ratio. A numerical modeling is performed in order to evaluate the advantages of both approaches and to compare the behaviour of the NO{sub x} emission index with the experiments of Chen and Driscoll. This study shows that predictions of NO{sub x} emission indexes have a correct behaviour with respect to the Damkoehler number only when the scalar dissipation ratio is used as a parameter to describe the chemical state outside equilibrium. Predictions of the flamelet models are improving when the Damkoehler number increases. On the other hand, the absolute NO{sub x} concentrations are overestimated and can be due to the effects of differential diffusion. (J.S.) 14 refs.

  10. Development of Turbulent Diffusion Transfer Algorithms to Estimate Lake Tahoe Water Budget (United States)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, S. G.; Reuter, J. E.


    The evaporative loss is a dominant component in the Lake Tahoe hydrologic budget because watershed area (813km2) is very small compared to the lake surface area (501 km2). The 5.5 m high dam built at the lake's only outlet, the Truckee River at Tahoe City can increase the lake's capacity by approximately 0.9185 km3. The lake serves as a flood protection for downstream areas and source of water supply for downstream cities, irrigation, hydropower, and instream environmental requirements. When the lake water level falls below the natural rim, cessation of flows from the lake cause problems for water supply, irrigation, and fishing. Therefore, it is important to develop algorithms to correctly estimate the lake hydrologic budget. We developed a turbulent diffusion transfer model and coupled to the dynamic lake model (DLM-WQ). We generated the stream flows and pollutants loadings of the streams using the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) supported watershed model, Loading Simulation Program in C++ (LSPC). The bulk transfer coefficients were calibrated using correlation coefficient (R2) as the objective function. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for the meteorological inputs and model parameters. The DLM-WQ estimated lake water level and water temperatures were in agreement to those of measured records with R2 equal to 0.96 and 0.99, respectively for the period 1994 to 2008. The estimated average evaporation from the lake, stream inflow, precipitation over the lake, groundwater fluxes, and outflow from the lake during 1994 to 2008 were found to be 32.0%, 25.0%, 19.0%, 0.3%, and 11.7%, respectively.

  11. Models for the cross flow and the turbulent eddy diffusivity in bundles of rods with helical spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.


    The fuel elements of a LMFBR type reactor consist of a bundle of rods wrapped by helical wires that work as spacers. The bundle of rods is surrounded by an hexagonal duct. Models for the channel cross flow and for the turbulent eddy diffusivity were developed. In conjunction with these models, the flow redistribution factors permit to estabish a determinist method to calculate the temperature distribution. The obtained results are compared with experimental data available in the literature and with results given by other codes. Although these codes are based on much more complex models, the comparison was very satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  12. Ambipolar light-emitting organic field-effect transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rost, Constance; Karg, Siegfried; Riess, Walter; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Murgia, Mauro; Muccini, Michele


    We demonstrate a light-emitting organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with pronounced ambipolar current characteristics. The ambipolar transport layer is a coevaporated thin film of α-quinquethiophene (α-5T) as hole-transport material and N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide

  13. A numerical exercise for turbulent natural convection and pollutant diffusion in a two-dimensional partially partitioned cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobert, Patrice; Beghein, Claudine; Sergent, Anne [LEPTAB, Universite de La Rochelle (France); Le Quere, Patrick [LIMSI, CNRS, Orsay (France); Collignan, Bernard; Couturier, Stephane [CSTB, Marne La Vallee (France); Glockner, Stephane; Vincent, Stephane [MASTER, ENSCPB, Pessac (France); Groleau, Dominique; Lubin, Pierre [CERMA, CNRS, Nantes (France)


    We present the results of a numerical exercise aimed at comparing the predictions of different conventional turbulent modelling approaches for natural convection at Rayleigh numbers characteristic of applications such as energy savings, fire safety or thermal comfort. A two-dimensional configuration was considered that consists of two adjacent rooms separated by a lintel in which natural convection is induced through heating on their opposite sides and subjected to diffusion of a pollutant from one room to the other. Seven contributions are available. The comparison is carried out, in terms of local or global quantities, for the mean thermal and dynamic fields and for the unsteady diffusion of the pollutant from one room to the other. Characteristic differences between steady RANS and unsteady two-dimensional DNS and LES approaches are observed and discussed. (authors)

  14. Analysis of turbulent free jet hydrogen-air diffusion flames with finite chemical reaction rates (United States)

    Sislian, J. P.


    The nonequilibrium flow field resulting from the turbulent mixing and combustion of a supersonic axisymmetric hydrogen jet in a supersonic parallel coflowing air stream is analyzed. Effective turbulent transport properties are determined using the (K-epsilon) model. The finite-rate chemistry model considers eight reactions between six chemical species, H, O, H2O, OH, O2, and H2. The governing set of nonlinear partial differential equations is solved by an implicit finite-difference procedure. Radial distributions are obtained at two downstream locations of variables such as turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent dissipation rate, turbulent scale length, and viscosity. The results show that these variables attain peak values at the axis of symmetry. Computed distributions of velocity, temperature, and mass fraction are also given. A direct analytical approach to account for the effect of species concentration fluctuations on the mean production rate of species (the phenomenon of unmixedness) is also presented. However, the use of the method does not seem justified in view of the excessive computer time required to solve the resulting system of equations.

  15. Influence of high-intensity turbulence on laminar boundary layer development on a cylindrical leading edge: Enhancement to eddy diffusivity (United States)

    Pearson, Juli K.

    The growing demand for increased efficiency in turbine engine designs has sparked a growing interest for research of air flow around curved surfaces. The turbine's operating conditions result in material property constraints, especially in the first stage turbine vanes and blades. These turbine vane components experience extreme loading conditions of both high temperature and high turbulence intensities exiting the combustor. The surface of the turbine blades has cylindrical leading edges that promote stabilizing flow accelerations. These convex surfaces can cause a reduced eddy diffusivity across the boundary layer. This thesis reviews measurements of velocity and turbulence intensities taken just shy of the thirty degrees offset from the stagnation line of a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge under a wide range of turbulence and flow conditions flow conditions. Flow conditions and velocity measurements were gathered with respect to the distance to the surface. The length of the measurements extended from the surface to beyond the boundary layer's edge. The instrumentation used to collect data was a single wire driven by a constant temperature anemometer bridge. The hot wire is specially modified to measure data near the cylindrical leading edges curved surface. The traversing system allowed the acquisition of high-resolution boundary layer data. The traversing system was installed internally to the cylindrical leading edge to reduce probe blockage.

  16. Modelling chemical abundance distributions for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: the impact of turbulent metal diffusion (United States)

    Escala, Ivanna; Wetzel, Andrew; Kirby, Evan N.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Ma, Xiangcheng; Wheeler, Coral; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot


    We investigate stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs), including Fe and α-element abundances, in dwarf galaxies from the Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE) project. We examine both isolated dwarf galaxies and those that are satellites of a Milky Way-mass galaxy. In particular, we study the effects of including a sub-grid turbulent model for the diffusion of metals in gas. Simulations that include diffusion have narrower MDFs and abundance ratio distributions, because diffusion drives individual gas and star particles towards the average metallicity. This effect provides significantly better agreement with observed abundance distributions in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, including small intrinsic scatter in [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] of ≲0.1 dex. This small intrinsic scatter arises in our simulations because the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies is well mixed at nearly all cosmic times, such that stars that form at a given time have similar abundances to ≲0.1 dex. Thus, most of the scatter in abundances at z = 0 arises from redshift evolution and not from instantaneous scatter in the ISM. We find similar MDF widths and intrinsic scatter for satellite and isolated dwarf galaxies, which suggests that environmental effects play a minor role compared with internal chemical evolution in our simulations. Overall, with the inclusion of metal diffusion, our simulations reproduce abundance distribution widths of observed low-mass galaxies, enabling detailed studies of chemical evolution in galaxy formation.

  17. Analysis of turbulent free-jet hydrogen-air diffusion flames with finite chemical reaction rates (United States)

    Sislian, J. P.; Glass, I. I.; Evans, J. S.


    A numerical analysis is presented of the nonequilibrium flow field resulting from the turbulent mixing and combustion of an axisymmetric hydrogen jet in a supersonic parallel ambient air stream. The effective turbulent transport properties are determined by means of a two-equation model of turbulence. The finite-rate chemistry model considers eight elementary reactions among six chemical species: H, O, H2O, OH, O2 and H2. The governing set of nonlinear partial differential equations was solved by using an implicit finite-difference procedure. Radial distributions were obtained at two downstream locations for some important variables affecting the flow development, such as the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. The results show that these variables attain their peak values on the axis of symmetry. The computed distribution of velocity, temperature, and mass fractions of the chemical species gives a complete description of the flow field. The numerical predictions were compared with two sets of experimental data. Good qualitative agreement was obtained.

  18. Numerical study of turbulent normal diffusion flame CH4-air stabilized by coaxial burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riahi Zouhair


    Full Text Available The practical combustion systems such as combustion furnaces, gas turbine, engines, etc. employ non-premixed combustion due to its better flame stability, safety, and wide operating range as compared to premixed combustion. The present numerical study characterizes the turbulent flame of methane-air in a coaxial burner in order to determine the effect of airflow on the distribution of temperature, on gas consumption and on the emission of NOx. The results in this study are obtained by simulation on FLUENT code. The results demonstrate the influence of different parameters on the flame structure, temperature distribution and gas emissions, such as turbulence, fuel jet velocity, air jet velocity, equivalence ratio and mixture fraction. The lift-off height for a fixed fuel jet velocity is observed to increase monotonically with air jet velocity. Temperature and NOx emission decrease of important values with the equivalence ratio, it is maximum about the unity.

  19. Linear astrophysical dynamos in rotating spheres: Differential rotation, anisotropic turbulent magnetic diffusivity, and solar-stellar cycle magnetic parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.; Wang, Z.; Wu, F.


    Differential rotation dependence of the selection mechanism for magnetic parity of solar and stellar cycles is studied by assuming various differential rotation profiles inn the dynamo equation. The parity selection depends on propagation direction of oscillating magnetic fields in the form of dynamo waves which propagate along isorotation surfaces. When there is any radial gradient in the differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate either equatorward or poleward. In the former case, field systems of the two hemispheres approach each other and collide at the equator. Then, odd parity is selected. In the latter case, field systems of the two hemispheres recede from each other and do not collide at the equator, an even parity is selected. Thus the equatorial migration of wings of the butterfly iagram of the solar cycle and its odd parity are intrinsically related. In the case of purely latitudibnal differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate purely radially and growth rates of odd and even modes are nearly the same even when dynamo strength is weak when the parity selection mechanism should work most efficiently. In this case, anisotropy of turbulent diffusivity is a decisive factor to separate odd and even modes. Unlike in the case of radial-gradient-dominated differential rotation in which any difference between diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields enhancess the parity selection without changing the parity, the parity selection in the case of latitudinal-gradient-dominated differential rotation depends on the difference of diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields. When diffusivity for poloidal fields iss larger than that for toroidal fields, odd parity is selected; and when diffusivity for toroidal fields is larger, even parity is selected

  20. ExB-Shear Effects on Magnetic-Flutter Diffusion of Electron-Drift Trajectories in ITG Turbulence (United States)

    Dimits, A. M.; Nevins, W. M.; Wang, E.; Candy, J.; Holland, C.


    Magnetic-field stochasticity arises due to microtearing perturbations, which can be driven linearly or nonlinearly, even at very modest values of the plasma beta. The resulting magnetic-flutter contribution may or may not be a significant component of the overall electron (particle and thermal) transport. Initial investigations of the effect of ExB shear on electron-drift magnetic-flutter diffusion coefficient Dedr (r ,v||) using perturbed magnetic fields from GYRO simulations of ITG turbulence show two interesting results: 1) an absence of any peak in Dedr (r ,v||) at values of the ``resonant'' parallel velocity, v||, at which the ExB shear negates the magnetic shear, and 2) a significant increase in Dedr (r ,v||) for electrons with v|| surprisingly far from the resonant velocity. We explore these effects both through a more detailed quantification of the displacement and decorrelation rates of the orbits, as a function of parallel distance, and through a simplified model of electron drift motion in a poloidally localized turbulent magnetic field. Furthermore, we argue that a correct model will have ExB shearing of the perturbed magnetic field structures themselves, and we extend our investigations to include this effect. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by GA under Contract DE-FG03-95ER54309.

  1. Characteristic analysis of turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure; Takukakuka kukan kozo ni okeru ranryunetsu kakusan gensho no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, C.; Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    An analysis was made on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment structure necessary for designing calorific power and environment for functional systems used in marine vessels and off-shore structures. In a multi-compartment structure, the diffusion phenomenon is complex because of movement of air flow in turbulence and buoyancy resulted from non-isothermal condition. The phenomenon is largely affected by space shapes and walls, and the conditions in heat diffusion field is governed also by shapes of opening connecting the compartments. An analysis was made by using the SIMPLE method on turbulent heat diffusion in a multi-compartment space with high Raleigh number in which natural convection is dominant. If the opening is small, the Coanda effect appears, in which air flow passing through the opening rises along the wall, wherein a high-temperature layer is formed near the ceiling, making the heat diffusion inactive. If the opening is large, a jetting flow from the opening and a large circulating flow are created, which cause active advection mixture, making temperature gradient smaller in the upper layer. Heat transfer intensity in an opening on a partition wall decays in proportion with 1/4th power of the opening ratio. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Evaluation of tetroon flights and turbulent diffusion under weak wind conditions during the field experiment SIESTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Vogt, S.


    During several days in November 1985 an international field experiment took place in the Swiss plateau region near the cities of Aarau, Olten. As indicated by the name of the project SIESTA (SF 6 International Experiments in Stagnant Air) its aim is to obtain knowledge of the general nature of turbulence advection and atmospheric dispersion processes in a cold pool with very low wind speed and undefined wind direction. An outline of the general concept of the project is followed by a more detailed description of a special research activity with Radar tracked tetroons. In the second part of the report it is shown how to determine the horizontal dispersion parameter from the trajectories of the tetroon flights. Two different methods are described and the results of the flights performed during SIESTA are presented. (orig.) [de


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.; Esquivel, A.; Crutcher, R.


    Recent observational results for magnetic fields in molecular clouds reviewed by Crutcher seem to be inconsistent with the predictions of the ambipolar diffusion theory of star formation. These include the measured decrease in mass to flux ratio between envelopes and cores, the failure to detect any self-gravitating magnetically subcritical clouds, the determination of the flat probability distribution function (PDF) of the total magnetic field strengths implying that there are many clouds with very weak magnetic fields, and the observed scaling B∝ρ 2/3 that implies gravitational contraction with weak magnetic fields. We consider the problem of magnetic field evolution in turbulent molecular clouds and discuss the process of magnetic field diffusion mediated by magnetic reconnection. For this process that we termed 'reconnection diffusion', we provide a simple physical model and explain that this process is inevitable in view of the present-day understanding of MHD turbulence. We address the issue of the expected magnetization of cores and envelopes in the process of star formation and show that reconnection diffusion provides an efficient removal of magnetic flux that depends only on the properties of MHD turbulence in the core and the envelope. We show that as the amplitude of turbulence as well as the scale of turbulent motions decrease from the envelope to the core of the cloud, the diffusion of the magnetic field is faster in the envelope. As a result, the magnetic flux trapped during the collapse in the envelope is being released faster than the flux trapped in the core, resulting in much weaker fields in envelopes than in cores, as observed. We provide simple semi-analytical model calculations which support this conclusion and qualitatively agree with the observational results. Magnetic reconnection is also consistent with the lack of subcritical self-gravitating clouds, with the observed flat PDF of field strengths, and with the scaling of field strength

  4. Analytical-numerical method for treatment of turbulent diffusion of particles in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsov, L.J.


    This work deals with the problem of air pollution around a stationary punctual source. For description of air pollution from a punctual source a mathematical model is suggested, and for calculation of effluents concentration an analytical-numerical algorithm is given. In addition to the analitical treatment the mathematical model is far more flexible and complete. Eddy diffusivity is represented by an arbitrary function, and an arbitrary wind velocity profile ahs been proposed. The apsorption of the ground is introduced through a variable apsorption coefficient, and the sedimentation through the mean velocity of deposition. To determine the movement of particles a parabolic equation of diffusion is used. The method has been tested through calculation of effluents concentration for different values of physical parameters

  5. Multiscale numerical methods for passive advection-diffusion in incompressible turbulent flow fields (United States)

    Lee, Yoonsang; Engquist, Bjorn


    We propose a seamless multiscale method which approximates the macroscopic behavior of the passive advection-diffusion equations with steady incompressible velocity fields with multi-spatial scales. The method uses decompositions of the velocity fields in the Fourier space, which are similar to the decomposition in large eddy simulations. It also uses a hierarchy of local domains with different resolutions as in multigrid methods. The effective diffusivity from finer scale is used for the next coarser level computation and this process is repeated up to the coarsest scale of interest. The grids are only in local domains whose sizes decrease depending on the resolution level so that the overall computational complexity increases linearly as the number of different resolution grids increases. The method captures interactions between finer and coarser scales but has to sacrifice some of interactions between different scales. The proposed method is numerically tested with 2D examples including a successful approximation to a continuous spectrum flow.

  6. Outlook and emerging semiconducting materials for ambipolar transistors. (United States)

    Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Piliego, Claudia; Gao, Jia; Loi, Maria Antonietta


    Ambipolar or bipolar transistors are transistors in which both holes and electrons are mobile inside the conducting channel. This device allows switching among several states: the hole-dominated on-state, the off-state, and the electron-dominated on-state. In the past year, it has attracted great interest in exotic semiconductors, such as organic semiconductors, nanostructured materials, and carbon nanotubes. The ability to utilize both holes and electrons inside one device opens new possibilities for the development of more compact complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits, and new kinds of optoelectronic device, namely, ambipolar light-emitting transistors. This progress report highlights the recent progresses in the field of ambipolar transistors, both from the fundamental physics and application viewpoints. Attention is devoted to the challenges that should be faced for the realization of ambipolar transistors with different material systems, beginning with the understanding of the importance of interface modification, which heavily affects injections and trapping of both holes and electrons. The recent development of advanced gating applications, including ionic liquid gating, that open up more possibility to realize ambipolar transport in materials in which one type of charge carrier is highly dominant is highlighted. Between the possible applications of ambipolar field-effect transistors, we focus on ambipolar light-emitting transistors. We put this new device in the framework of its prospective for general lightings, embedded displays, current-driven laser, as well as for photonics-electronics interconnection. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ambipolar solution-processed hybrid perovskite phototransistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng


    Organolead halide perovskites have attracted substantial attention because of their excellent physical properties, which enable them to serve as the active material in emerging hybrid solid-state solar cells. Here we investigate the phototransistors based on hybrid perovskite films and provide direct evidence for their superior carrier transport property with ambipolar characteristics. The field-effect mobilities for triiodide perovskites at room temperature are measured as 0.18 (0.17) cm2 V−1 s−1 for holes (electrons), which increase to 1.24 (1.01) cm2 V−1 s−1 for mixed-halide perovskites. The photoresponsivity of our hybrid perovskite devices reaches 320 A W−1, which is among the largest values reported for phototransistors. Importantly, the phototransistors exhibit an ultrafast photoresponse speed of less than 10 μs. The solution-based process and excellent device performance strongly underscore hybrid perovskites as promising material candidates for photoelectronic applications.

  8. Anomalous diffusion and radial electric field generation due to edge plasma turbulence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Radomír; Krlín, Ladislav; Taskhakaya, D.; Kuhn, S.; Stöckel, Jan; Pavlo, Pavol; Tender, M.; Svoboda, Vojtěch; Petržílka, Václav


    Roč. 44, 1-3 (2004), s. 203-204 ISSN 0863-1042. [International Workshop on Plasma Edge Theory in Fusion Devices/9th./. San Diego, 03.09.2003-05.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1043201; GA ČR GP202/03/P062; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : anomalous diffusion * transport * radial electric field Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2004

  9. A Phenomenological Model for Prediction Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation of Turbulent Diffusion Combustion in a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Zhou


    Full Text Available A new phenomenological model, the TP (Temperature Phase model, is presented to carry out optimization calculations for turbulent diffusion combustion in a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature is the most important parameter in the TP model, which includes two parts: an auto-ignition and a soot model. In the auto-ignition phase, different reaction mechanisms are built for different zones. For the soot model, different methods are used for different temperatures. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimization. The results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP model, KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed. The results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and CFD (computational fluid dynamics and can be a useful tool to study turbulent diffusion combustion.

  10. Light-emitting ambipolar organic heterostructure field-effect transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rost, Constance; Karg, Siegfried; Riess, Walter; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Murgia, Mauro; Muccini, Michele


    We have investigated ambipolar charge injection and transport in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as prerequisites for a light-emitting organic field-effect transistor (LEOFET). OFETs containing a single material as active layer generally function either as a p- or an n-channel device.

  11. Bimolecular recombination in ambipolar organic field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrier, D.S.H.; Vries, T. de; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Geluk, E.-J.; Smits, E.C.P.; Kemerink, M.; Janssen, R.A.J.


    In ambipolar organic field effect transistors (OFET) the shape of the channel potential is intimately related to the recombination zone width W, and hence to the electron–hole recombination strength. Experimentally, the recombination profile can be assessed by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

  12. Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator. (United States)

    Zhu, Weinan; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Yang, Shixuan; Aldave, Sandra H; Kim, Joon-Seok; Sonde, Sushant; Tao, Li; Lu, Nanshu; Akinwande, Deji


    High-mobility two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are desirable for high-performance mechanically flexible nanoelectronics. In this work, we report the first flexible black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors (FETs) with electron and hole mobilities superior to what has been previously achieved with other more studied flexible layered semiconducting transistors such as MoS2 and WSe2. Encapsulated bottom-gated BP ambipolar FETs on flexible polyimide afforded maximum carrier mobility of about 310 cm(2)/V·s with field-effect current modulation exceeding 3 orders of magnitude. The device ambipolar functionality and high-mobility were employed to realize essential circuits of electronic systems for flexible technology including ambipolar digital inverter, frequency doubler, and analog amplifiers featuring voltage gain higher than other reported layered semiconductor flexible amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate the first flexible BP amplitude-modulated (AM) demodulator, an active stage useful for radio receivers, based on a single ambipolar BP transistor, which results in audible signals when connected to a loudspeaker or earphone. Moreover, the BP transistors feature mechanical robustness up to 2% uniaxial tensile strain and up to 5000 bending cycles.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence model (United States)

    Hammer, James


    K-epsilon models find wide application as approximate models of fluid turbulence. The models couple equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate to the usual fluid equations, where the turbulence is driven by Reynolds stress or buoyancy source terms. We generalize to the case with magnetic forces in a Z-pinch geometry (azimuthal fields), using simple energy arguments to derive the turbulent source terms. The field is presumed strong enough that 3 dimensional twisting or bending of the field can be ignored, i.e. the flow is of the interchange type. The generalized source terms show the familiar correspondence between magnetic curvature and acceleration as drive terms for Rayleigh-Taylor and sausage instability. The source terms lead naturally to a modification of Ohm's law including a turbulent electric field that allows magnetic field to diffuse through material. The turbulent magnetic diffusion parallels a corresponding ohmic heating term in the equation for the turbulent kinetic energy.

  14. Reduction of ambipolar characteristics of vertical channel tunneling field-effect transistor by using dielectric sidewall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chun Woong; Cho, Il Hwan; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Ho


    Ambipolar characteristics of tunneling FETs have been improved by introducing a novel structure which contains dielectric sidewall in the gate region. In the ambipolar operation mode, gate field effect on intrinsic-drain junction region can be reduced with dielectric sidewall. As a result, ambipolar state tunneling probability is decreased at the intrinsic-drain junction. Since the sidewall region is located near the drain region, tunneling probability of source-intrinsic region is not affected by dielectric sidewall. This asymmetric characteristics means only ambipolar current of tunneling FETs can be prohibited by dielectric sidewall. Reduction of ambipolar characteristic of proposed structure has been evaluated with dimension and location of dielectric sidewall. Quantitative analysis of ambipolar characteristics is also investigated with tunneling. (paper)

  15. Electron physics and ambipolarity in the tokamak scrape-off layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, R.D. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Catto, P.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Models of the electron behavior in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of diverted and limited boundary conditions that occurs tokamak plasmas must retain the abrupt change in boundary conditions that occurs across the separatrix or last closed flux surface as well as the electron reflecting Debye sheath established at the limiter or divertor plates. The balance between ion radial diffusion and streaming to the plates sets the SOL width and the electrons must adjust the Debye sheath at the plates to main tain quasineutrality and ambipolarity in the SOL beyond the last closed flux surface. We consider the long mean-free-path limit where a bounce-averaged kinetic electron model results in a steady-state balance in the SOL between radial diffusive feed from the core and velocity space diffusive loss to the plates due to collisional detrapping. In this double diffusion model a velocity space boundary layer occurs about the trapped-passing boundary where strong velocity space gradients must balance the streaming of the newly de-trapped electrons to the plates. The behavior of the electron distribution function in the velocity provides the information needed to evaluate the Debye-sheath-dependent electron loss rate.

  16. Magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' experimental trap with ambipolar mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, G.I.; Lysyanskij, P.B.; Tadber, M.V.; Timoshin, I.Ya.; Shrajner, K.K.


    A magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' ambipolar trap under construction is described. The trap magnetic field configuration, geometry of the main coils and diagram of the whole device magnet system are outlined. Drift surface cross sections in the equatorial plane of the ring mirror device, in the median plane and at different distances from the trap median plane are presented. The magnet system design is described in brief

  17. Turbulent diffusion downstream of a linear heat source installed in a turbulent boundary layer; Diffusion turbulente en aval d`une source lineaire de chaleur placee dans une couche limite turbulente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kabiri, M.; Paranthoen, P.; Rosset, L.; Lecordier, J.C. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)


    An experimental study of heat transport downstream of a linear source installed in a turbulent boundary layer is performed. Second and third order momenta of velocity and temperature fields are presented and compared to gradient-type modeling. (J.S.) 7 refs.

  18. Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction (United States)

    Chen, J.-Y.


    Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, R. do Matao, 1226, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)


    The formation of protostellar disks out of molecular cloud cores is still not fully understood. Under ideal MHD conditions, the removal of angular momentum from the disk progenitor by the typically embedded magnetic field may prevent the formation of a rotationally supported disk during the main protostellar accretion phase of low-mass stars. This has been known as the magnetic braking problem and the most investigated mechanism to alleviate this problem and help remove the excess of magnetic flux during the star formation process, the so-called ambipolar diffusion (AD), has been shown to be not sufficient to weaken the magnetic braking at least at this stage of the disk formation. In this work, motivated by recent progress in the understanding of magnetic reconnection in turbulent environments, we appeal to the diffusion of magnetic field mediated by magnetic reconnection as an alternative mechanism for removing magnetic flux. We investigate numerically this mechanism during the later phases of the protostellar disk formation and show its high efficiency. By means of fully three-dimensional MHD simulations, we show that the diffusivity arising from turbulent magnetic reconnection is able to transport magnetic flux to the outskirts of the disk progenitor at timescales compatible with the collapse, allowing the formation of a rotationally supported disk around the protostar of dimensions {approx}100 AU, with a nearly Keplerian profile in the early accretion phase. Since MHD turbulence is expected to be present in protostellar disks, this is a natural mechanism for removing magnetic flux excess and allowing the formation of these disks. This mechanism dismisses the necessity of postulating a hypothetical increase of the ohmic resistivity as discussed in the literature. Together with our earlier work which showed that magnetic flux removal from molecular cloud cores is very efficient, this work calls for reconsidering the relative role of AD in the processes of star

  20. Ambipolar charge carrier transport in organic semiconductor blends of C{sub 60} and CuPc; Ambipolarer Ladungstransport in organischen Halbleiter-Mischschichten bestehend aus C{sub 60} und CuPc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronner, Markus


    In this work ambipolar charge carrier transport is realised in organic field effect transistors using mixtures of p-conductive copper phthalocyanine and n-conductive buckminster fullerene as active layer. These blends are known from research on organic solar cells and can be considered as a model system for ambipolar transport. The field effect mobilities for electrons and holes can be adjusted by the variation of the mixing ratio. Thereby balanced mobilities for both charge carrier types are possible. In this work the variation of mobility, threshold voltage and electronic energy levels with the mixing ratio is discussed. The charge carrier mobilities are strongly reduced upon dilution of the respective conducting phase by the other species. This shows that transport of each carrier species occurs by percolation through the respective phase in the blend. A strong correlation between contact resistance and mobility indicates that carrier injection is diffusion limited. A charge redistribution in the copper phthalocyanine causes a hole accumulation at the organic/organic interface and affects thereby the threshold voltage for holes. The electronic structure was investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that there is no chemical reaction between the different materials. The common work function of these blends changes linearly between the work functions of the neat materials. Moreover, a constant ionisation potential for the highest occupied molecular orbitals of the two materials and the core levels is obtained. Furthermore ambipolar inverters using mixed organic semiconductor layers were made and compared to complementary inverters consisting of discrete p- and n-channel transistors. The experimental findings and concomitant simulations demonstrate the need for balanced electron and hole mobilities in order to achieve symmetric inverter characteristics. However, they also reveal the superior performance of true complementary logic inverters towards

  1. Physics of non-diffusive turbulent transport of momentum and the origins of spontaneous rotation in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Güran, Ö.D.


    Recent results in the theory of turbulent momentum transport and the origins of intrinsic rotation are summarized. Special attention is focused on aspects of momentum transport critical to intrinsic rotation, namely the residual stress and the edge toroidal flow velocity pinch. Novel results...... include a systematic decomposition of the physical processes which drive intrinsic rotation, a calculation of the critical external torque necessary to hold the plasma stationary against the intrinsic residual stress, a simple model of net velocity scaling which recovers the salient features...

  2. Turbulence introduction to theory and applications of turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Westerweel, Jerry; Nieuwstadt, Frans T M


    This book provides a general introduction to the topic of turbulent flows. Apart from classical topics in turbulence, attention is also paid to modern topics. After studying this work, the reader will have the basic knowledge to follow current topics on turbulence in scientific literature. The theory is illustrated with a number of examples of applications, such as closure models, numerical simulations and turbulent diffusion, and experimental findings. The work also contains a number of illustrative exercises.

  3. High Speed Ultraviolet Phototransistors Based on an Ambipolar Fullerene Derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Wentao


    Combining high charge carrier mobility with ambipolar transport in light-absorbing organic semiconductors is highly desirable as it leads to enhanced charge photogeneration, and hence improved performance, in various optoelectronic devices including solar cells and photodetectors. Here we report the development of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)-based ultraviolet (UV) phototransistors with balanced electron and hole transport characteristics. The latter is achieved by fine-tuning the source–drain electrode work function using a self-assembled monolayer. Opto/electrical characterization of as-prepared ambipolar PC61BM phototransistors reveals promising photoresponse, particularly in the UV-A region (315–400 nm), with a maximum photosensitivity and responsivity of 9 × 103 and 3 × 103 A/W, respectively. Finally, the temporal response of the PC61BM phototransistors is found to be high despite the long channel length (10 s of μm) with typical switching times of <2 ms.

  4. Absence of carrier separation in ambipolar charge and spin drift in p{sup +}-GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadiz, F.; Paget, D.; Rowe, A. C. H.; Martinelli, L. [Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Arscott, S. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), Université de Lille, CNRS, Avenue Poincaré, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)


    The electric field-induced modifications of the spatial distribution of photoelectrons, photoholes, and electronic spins in optically pumped p{sup +} GaAs are investigated using a polarized luminescence imaging microscopy. At low pump intensity, application of an electric field reveals the tail of charge and spin density of drifting electrons. These tails disappear when the pump intensity is increased since a slight differential drift of photoelectrons and photoholes causes the buildup of a strong internal electric field. Spatial separation of photoholes and photoelectrons is very weak so that photoholes drift in the same direction as photoelectrons, thus exhibiting a negative effective mobility. In contrast, for a zero electric field, no significant ambipolar diffusive effects are found in the same sample.

  5. Stochastic differential equations and turbulent dispersion (United States)

    Durbin, P. A.


    Aspects of the theory of continuous stochastic processes that seem to contribute to an understanding of turbulent dispersion are introduced and the theory and philosophy of modelling turbulent transport is emphasized. Examples of eddy diffusion examined include shear dispersion, the surface layer, and channel flow. Modeling dispersion with finite-time scale is considered including the Langevin model for homogeneous turbulence, dispersion in nonhomogeneous turbulence, and the asymptotic behavior of the Langevin model for nonhomogeneous turbulence.

  6. Turbulent baker's maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, S.


    The authors formulate and study an elementary one-dimensional model mimicking some of the features of fluid turbulence. The underlying vorticity field corresponds to a parallel flow. Structure on all scales down to the numerical resolution is generated by the action of baker's maps acting on the vorticity of the flow. These transformations conserve kinetic energy locally in the Euler model, while viscous diffusion of vorticity occurs in the Navier-Stokes case. The authors apply the model to the study of homogeneous fully, developed turbulence, and to turbulent channel flow

  7. Turbulent current drive mechanisms (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua


    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  8. Photoelectrochemical processes in organic semiconductor: Ambipolar perylene diimide thin film (United States)

    Kim, Jung Yong; Chung, In Jae


    A thin film of N,N‧-dioctadecyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C18) is spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Using the PTCDI-C18/ITO electrode, we fabricate a photoelectrochemical cell with the ITO/PTCDI-C18/Redox Electrolyte/Pt configuration. The electrochemical properties of this device are investigated as a function of hydroquinone (HQ) concentration, bias voltage, and wavelength of light. Anodic photocurrent is observed at V ≥ -0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl, indicating that the PTCDI-C18 film acts as an n-type semiconductor as usual. However, when benzoquinone (BQ) is inserted into the electrolyte system instead of HQ, cathodic photocurrent is observed at V ≤ 0.0 V, displaying that PTCDI-C18 abnormally serves as a p-type semiconductor. Hence the overall results reveal that the PTCDI-C18 film can be an ambipolar functional semiconductor depending on the redox couple in the appropriate voltage.

  9. Gate engineered heterostructure junctionless TFET with Gaussian doping profile for ambipolar suppression and electrical performance improvement (United States)

    Aghandeh, Hadi; Sedigh Ziabari, Seyed Ali


    This study investigates a junctionless tunnel field-effect transistor with a dual material gate and a heterostructure channel/source interface (DMG-H-JLTFET). We find that using the heterostructure interface improves device behavior by reducing the tunneling barrier width at the channel/source interface. Simultaneously, the dual material gate structure decreases ambipolar current by increasing the tunneling barrier width at the drain/channel interface. The performance of the device is analyzed based on the energy band diagram at on, off, and ambipolar states. Numerical simulations demonstrate improvements in ION, IOFF, ION/IOFF, subthreshold slope (SS), transconductance and cut-off frequency and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Next, the workfunction optimization of dual material gate is studied. It is found that if appropriate workfunctions are selected for tunnel and auxiliary gates, the JLTFET exhibits considerably improved performance. We then study the influence of Gaussian doping distribution at the drain and the channel on the ambipolar performance of the device and find that a Gaussian doping profile and a dual material gate structure remarkably reduce ambipolar current. Gaussian doped DMG-H-JLTFET, also exhibits enhanced IOFF, ION/IOFF, SS and a low threshold voltage without degrading IOFF.

  10. Regulating charge injection in ambipolar organic field-effect transistors by mixed self-assembled monolayers. (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Park, Won-Tae; Cho, Ara; Choi, Eun-Young; Noh, Yong-Young


    We report on a technique using mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to finely regulate ambipolar charge injection in polymer organic field-effect transistors. Differing from the other works that employ single SAM specifically for efficient charge injection in p-type and n-type transistors, we blend two different SAMs of alkyl- and perfluoroalkyl thiols at different ratios and apply them to ambipolar OFETs and inverter. Thanks to the utilization of ambipolar semiconductor and one SAM mixture, the device and circuit fabrications are facile with only one step for semiconductor deposition and another for SAM treatment. This is much simpler with respect to the conventional scheme for the unipolar-device-based complementary circuitry that demands separate deposition and processing for individual p-channel and n-channel transistors. Our results show that the mixed-SAM treatments not only improve ambipolar charge injection manifesting as higher hole- and electron-mobility and smaller threshold voltage but also gradually tune the device characteristics to reach a desired condition for circuit application. Therefore, this simple but useful approach is promising for ambipolar electronics.

  11. Suppression of ambipolar current in tunnel FETs using drain-pocket: Proposal and analysis (United States)

    Garg, Shelly; Saurabh, Sneh


    In this paper, we investigate the impact of a drain-pocket (DP) adjacent to the drain region in Tunnel Field-Effect Transistors (TFETs) to effectively suppress the ambipolar current. Using calibrated two-dimensional device simulation, we examine the impact of DP in Double Gate TFET (DGTFET). We demonstrate the superiority of the DP technique over the existing techniques in controlling the ambipolar current. In particular, the addition of DP to a TFET is able to fully suppress the ambipolar current even when TFET is biased at high negative gate voltages and drain doping is kept as high as the source doping. Moreover, adding DP is complementary to the well-known technique of employ-ing source-pocket (SP) in a TFET since both need similar doping type and doping concentration.

  12. Enhancement of minority carrier injection in ambipolar carbon nanotube transistors using double-gate structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bongjun; Liang, Kelly; Dodabalapur, Ananth, E-mail: [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Geier, Michael L.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)


    We show that double-gate ambipolar thin-film transistors can be operated to enhance minority carrier injection. The two gate potentials need to be significantly different for enhanced injection to be observed. This enhancement is highly beneficial in devices such as light-emitting transistors where balanced electron and hole injections lead to optimal performance. With ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube semiconductors, we demonstrate that higher ambipolar currents are attained at lower source-drain voltages, which is desired for portable electronic applications, by employing double-gate structures. In addition, when the two gates are held at the same potential, the expected advantages of the double-gate transistors such as enhanced on-current are also observed.

  13. Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.


    Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations

  14. Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow (United States)

    Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Li, Hui; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe


    Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.

  15. Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Jiahe, E-mail:; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)


    Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.

  16. An efficient strategy for designing ambipolar organic semiconductor material: Introducing dehydrogenated phosphorus atoms into pentacene core (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Dan


    The charge transport properties of phosphapentacene (P-PEN) derivatives were systematically explored by theoretical calculation. The dehydrogenated P-PENs have reasonable frontier molecular orbital energy levels to facilitate both electron and hole injection. The reduced reorganization energies of dehydrogenated P-PENs could be intimately connected to the bonding nature of phosphorus atoms. From the idea of homology modeling, the crystal structure of TIPSE-4P-2p is constructed and fully optimized. Fascinatingly, TIPSE-4P-2p shows the intrinsic property of ambipolar transport in both hopping and band models. Thus, introducing dehydrogenated phosphorus atoms into pentacene core could be an efficient strategy for designing ambipolar material.

  17. Ambipolar organic thin-film transistor-based nano-floating-gate nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinhua; Wang, Wei; Ying, Jun; Xie, Wenfa


    An ambipolar organic thin-film transistor-based nano-floating-gate nonvolatile memory was demonstrated, with discrete distributed gold nanoparticles, tetratetracontane (TTC), pentacene as the floating-gate layer, tunneling layer, and active layer, respectively. The electron traps at the TTC/pentacene interface were significantly suppressed, which resulted in an ambipolar operation in present memory. As both electrons and holes were supplied in the channel and trapped in the floating-gate by programming/erasing operations, respectively, i.e., one type of charge carriers was used to overwrite the other, trapped, one, a large memory window, extending on both sides of the initial threshold voltage, was realized

  18. Azimuthal electric fields and ambipolarity in a multiple-helicity torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Shaing, K.C.


    In a torsatron there are multiple solutions to the ambipolarity relationship for the electric field. If the electric field is small over some region of space then the self-consistent poloidal electric field can be important and lead to potential islands. If the plasma is in the superbanana plateau regime, then slow resonant particles limit the rate of change of the electric field and, hence, give a minimum width for the spatial zone where the plasma is changing roots of the ambipolarity relationship

  19. Satellite sensing of submerged fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence (United States)

    Gibson, Carl H.


    Surface brightness anomalies from a submerged municipal wastewater outfall trapped by buoyancy in an area 0.1 km^2 are surprisingly detected from space satellites in areas > 200 km^2. How is this possible? Microstructure measurements near the outfall diffuser reveal enhanced turbulence and temperature dissipation rates above the 50 m trapping depth. Near-vertical radiation of internal waves by fossil and zombie turbulence microstructure patches produce wind ripple smoothing with 30-50 m internal wave patterns in surface Fourier brightness anomalies near the outfall. Detections at 10-14 km distances are at 100-220 m bottom boundary layer (BBL) fossil turbulence scales. Advected outfall fossils form zombie turbulence patches in internal wave patterns as they extract energy, vorticity, turbulence and ambient vertical internal wavelength information as their density gradients are tilted by the waves. As the zombies fossilize, patterned energy radiates near-vertically to produce the detected Fourier anomalies. Zombie turbulence patches beam extracted energy in a preferred direction with a special frequency, like energized metastable molecules in a chemical maser. Thus, kilowatts to produce the submerged field of advected fossil outfall turbulence patches are amplified by beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA) into megawatts of turbulence dissipation to affect sea surface brightness on wide surface areas using gigawatts of BBL fossil turbulence wave energy available.

  20. Ambipolar Cu- and Fe-phthalocyanine single-crystal field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, R.W.I.; Stassen, A.F.; Craciun, M.F.; Mulder, C.L.; Molinari, A.; Rogge, S.; Morpurgo, A.F.


    We report the observation of ambipolar transport in field-effect transistors fabricated on single crystals of copper- and iron-phthalocyanine, using gold as a high work-function metal for the fabrication of source and drain electrodes. In these devices, the room-temperature mobility of holes reaches

  1. Near-infrared light-emitting ambipolar organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Edsger C. P.; Setayesh, Sepas; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Buechel, Michael; Nijssen, Wim; Coehoorn, Reinder; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Boer, Bert; de Leeuw, Dago M.


    Near-IR light-emitting ambipolar OFETs are demonstrated, employing a squaraine derivative as the electroactive layer. Efficient control of the emission-region position in the channel is achieved by varying the drain/gate potentials. By using a transport model, combined with experimental results,

  2. High Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor of Random Network Carbon Nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Gao, Jia; Derenskyi, Vladimir; Gomulya, Widianta; Iezhokin, Igor; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Herrmann, Andreas; Loi, Maria Antonietta


    Ambipolar field-effect transistors of random network carbon nanotubes are fabricated from an enriched dispersion utilizing a conjugated polymer as the selective purifying medium. The devices exhibit high mobility values for both holes and electrons (3 cm(2)/V.s) with a high on/off ratio (10(6)). The

  3. Results of Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Atmospheric Turbulence, Internal Gravity Waves and Sporadic-E Layers by Resonant Scattering of Radio Waves on Artificial Periodic Irregularities (United States)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) formed by the powerful standing radio waves in the ionospheric plasma give the good chance for the lower ionosphere comprehensive studies. In this paper we present some applications of the API technique for experimental studies of sporadic E-layers (E _{s}), internal gravity waves and turbulent events in the lower ionosphere. API are formed in the field of the standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one from the ionosphere (in more details about the API technique one can see in the book Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Lambda or one-half the powerful wavelength lambda/2. API diagnostics are carried out at the API relaxation or decay stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. Based on the measurement of an amplitude and a phase of the API scattered signal their relaxation time and regular vertical plasma velocity are measured. In the E-region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the non-uniformly heated plasma. The relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The diffusion time is tau=(K (2) D _{a}) (-1) where K=2pi/Lambda and D _{a} is the ambipolar diffusion rate. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the API relaxation time in comparison the diffusion time. Determination of the turbulent velocity is based on this fact. The vertical plasma velocity is determined by measuring the phase of the scattered signal. Atmospheric waves having the periods from 5-10 minutes to 5-6 hours give the contribution to temporal variations of the velocity. Parameters and effects of atmospheric waves and the turbulence on the API relaxation process are presented. Determination of the masses of the

  4. Plasma turbulence in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Ibere L.; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Brasilio, Z.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    Full text. In this work we summarize the results from experiments on electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in tokamak plasmas. Spectral analyses show that these fluctuations are turbulent, having a broad spectrum of wavectors and a broad spectrum of frequencies at each wavector. The electrostatic turbulence induces unexpected anomalous particle transport that deteriorates the plasma confinement. The relationship of these fluctuations to the current state of plasma theory is still unclear. Furthermore, we describe also attempts to control this plasma turbulence with external magnetic perturbations that create chaotic magnetic configurations. Accordingly, the magnetic field lines may become chaotic and then induce a Lagrangian diffusion. Moreover, to discuss nonlinear coupling and intermittency, we present results obtained by using numerical techniques as bi spectral and wavelet analyses. (author)

  5. Ambipolar Organic Phototransistors with p-Type/n-Type Conjugated Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Light-Sensing Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungho


    Ambipolar organic phototransistors with sensing channel layers, featuring p-type and n-type conjugated polymer bulk heterojunctions, exhibit outstanding light-sensing characteristics in both p-channel and n-channel sensing operation modes.

  6. Turbulence in unmagnetized Vlasov plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.


    The classical technique of transformation and characteristics is employed to analyze the problem of strong turbulence in unmagnetized plasmas. The effect of resonance broadening and perturbation expansion are treated simultaneously, without time secularities. The renormalization procedure of Dupree and Tetreault is used in the transformed Vlasov equation to analyze the turbulence and to derive explicitly a diffusion equation. Analyses are extended to inhomogeneous plasmas and the relationship between the transformation and ponderomotive force is obtained. (author)

  7. Transport and Diffusion in Turbulent Fields Modeling and Measurements Techniques, (35th) Oholo Conference held in Eilat, Israel on October 28 - November 1, 1991. (United States)


    Convective Circulations - CC ( Estoque , 1968; Blackadar, 1979; Zhang and Anthes, 1982). - Turbulence Adjustment - TA (Klemp and Lilly, 1978; Stull...well-suited for numerical modeling. Estoque and Blackadar recognized that buoyant air parcels can rise from the surface layer to a range of...46, 2178-2207. Eringen, A.C., 1972: On nonlocal fluid mechanics. Int. J. Engng. Sci., 10, 561-575. Estoque , M.A., 1968: Vertical mixing due to

  8. Ambipolar insulator-to-metal transition in black phosphorus by ionic-liquid gating. (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro


    We report ambipolar transport properties in black phosphorus using an electric-double-layer transistor configuration. The transfer curve clearly exhibits ambipolar transistor behavior with an ON-OFF ratio of ∼5 × 10(3). The band gap was determined as ≅0.35 eV from the transfer curve, and Hall-effect measurements revealed that the hole mobility was ∼190 cm(2)/(V s) at 170 K, which is 1 order of magnitude larger than the electron mobility. By inducing an ultrahigh carrier density of ∼10(14) cm(-2), an electric-field-induced transition from the insulating state to the metallic state was realized, due to both electron and hole doping. Our results suggest that black phosphorus will be a good candidate for the fabrication of functional devices, such as lateral p-n junctions and tunnel diodes, due to the intrinsic narrow band gap.

  9. Interaction of ambipolar plasma flow with magnetic islands in a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Zarnstorff, M.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mynick, H.; Hudson, S.; Monticello, D.; Owen, L.


    A reference equilibrium for the US National Compact Stellarator Experiment is predicted to be sufficiently close to quasi-symmetry to allow the plasma to flow in the toroidal direction with little viscous damping, yet to have sufficiently large deviations from quasi-symmetry that nonambipolarity significantly affects the physics of the shielding of resonant magnetic perturbations by plasma flow. The unperturbed velocity profile is modified by the presence of an ambipolar potential, which broadens the profile and improves the shielding near the plasma edge. In the presence of a resonant magnetic field perturbation, nonambipolar transport produces a radial current, and the resulting jxB force resists departures from the ambipolar velocity and enhances the shielding. (author)

  10. Ambipolar potential measurement plans and instrumentation. Final report, 1 October 1980-30 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlbacka, G.; Stringfield, R.; Glaros, S.; Buck, V.; Larsen, J.; Burr, L.; Boyle, M.; Lepage, J.; Cirigliano, R.


    A Thomson parabola charged particle spectrometer was built with an energy resolution of 80 keV and an active silicon detector array that is read by a computer-compatible CAMAC. The instrument was checked out at the University of Rochester Omega Laser facility. Experiments to measure the ambipolar potential and the dE/dx thermonuclear target to within 50 keV are now possible. The ion temperature of the burn can be determined to within 10%

  11. Ambipolar field role in formation of electron distribution function in gas discharge plasma. (United States)

    Yuan, Chengxun; Bogdanov, E A; Kudryavtsev, A A; Rabadanov, K M; Zhou, Zhongxiang


    It is shown that the local approximation for electron distribution function (EDF) determination at plasma periphery, where the ambipolar field is dominant, is not applicable even at high pressures when the characteristic plasma size exceeds the energy relaxation length of the electrons R > λ ε . Therefore, consistent results can be obtained only when solving the complete kinetic equation in both energy and spatial variables (i.e. it is necessary to solve nonlocal kinetic equation).

  12. Thiophene-fused tetracene diimide with low band gap and ambipolar behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Qun


    The first tetracene diimide derivative fused with four thiophene rings, TT-TDI, was synthesized by an FeCl3 mediated oxidative cyclodehydrogenation reaction. TT-TDI exhibited a low band gap of 1.52 eV and amphoteric redox behavior. TT-TDI also showed a liquid crystalline property and ambipolar charge transport in thin film field-effect transistors. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Alterations in ambipolar characteristic of graphene due to adsorption of Escherichia coli bacteria (United States)

    Mulyana, Yana; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Okamoto, Naofumi; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamashita, Ichiro; Uraoka, Yukiharu


    In order to evaluate the interaction between biomaterials and graphene from the perspective of its ambipolar characteristic, we have investigated the alteration in ambipolarity of graphene-based field effect transistors (G-FET) after the adsorption of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria onto its graphene layer. We confirmed a positive shift in the ambipolar curve of the G-FETs after the adsorption of E. coli, presumably due to the negative charge of the adsorbed E. coli. However, we did not observe any decrease in the electron mobility or conductivity of the G-FETs, which implied that E. coli did not chemically react with the carbon atoms of graphene, nor introduce any damage on the graphene lattice, but were only physically adsorbed onto the graphene surface. These findings may extend the prominence of graphene as a stable yet sensitive material to be fully utilized in future biosensing applications. These results were then compared to those of ferritin adsorption, which is a protein shell and biomaterial like E. coli, and radical oxygen doping onto the graphene surface.

  14. High Turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    EuHIT, Collaboration


    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  15. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.


    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  16. Time-averaged probability density functions of soot nanoparticles along the centerline of a piloted turbulent diffusion flame using a scanning mobility particle sizer

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhury, Snehaunshu


    In this study, we demonstrate the use of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) as an effective tool to measure the probability density functions (PDFs) of soot nanoparticles in turbulent flames. Time-averaged soot PDFs necessary for validating existing soot models are reported at intervals of ∆x/D∆x/D = 5 along the centerline of turbulent, non-premixed, C2H4/N2 flames. The jet exit Reynolds numbers of the flames investigated were 10,000 and 20,000. A simplified burner geometry based on a published design was chosen to aid modelers. Soot was sampled directly from the flame using a sampling probe with a 0.5-mm diameter orifice and diluted with N2 by a two-stage dilution process. The overall dilution ratio was not evaluated. An SMPS system was used to analyze soot particle concentrations in the diluted samples. Sampling conditions were optimized over a wide range of dilution ratios to eliminate the effect of agglomeration in the sampling probe. Two differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) with different size ranges were used separately in the SMPS measurements to characterize the entire size range of particles. In both flames, the PDFs were found to be mono-modal in nature near the jet exit. Further downstream, the profiles were flatter with a fall-off at larger particle diameters. The geometric mean of the soot size distributions was less than 10 nm for all cases and increased monotonically with axial distance in both flames.

  17. Wave turbulence (United States)

    Nazarenko, Sergey


    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  18. Optimization of L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistor for ambipolar current suppression and Analog/RF performance enhancement (United States)

    Li, Cong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhuang, Yiqi; Yan, Zhirui; Guo, Jiaming; Han, Ru


    L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistor (LTFET) has larger tunnel area than planar TFET, which leads to enhanced on-current ION . However, LTFET suffers from severe ambipolar behavior, which needs to be further optimized for low power and high-frequency applications. In this paper, both hetero-gate-dielectric (HGD) and lightly doped drain (LDD) structures are introduced into LTFET for suppression of ambipolarity and improvement of analog/RF performance of LTFET. Current-voltage characteristics, the variation of energy band diagrams, distribution of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) generation and distribution of electric field are analyzed for our proposed HGD-LDD-LTFET. In addition, the effect of LDD on the ambipolar behavior of LTFET is investigated, the length and doping concentration of LDD is also optimized for better suppression of ambipolar current. Finally, analog/RF performance of HGD-LDD-LTFET are studied in terms of gate-source capacitance, gate-drain capacitance, cut-off frequency, and gain bandwidth production. TCAD simulation results show that HGD-LDD-LTFET not only drastically suppresses ambipolar current but also improves analog/RF performance compared with conventional LTFET.

  19. Cryogenic turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit


    Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.

  20. Aerotaxis in Bacterial Turbulence (United States)

    Fernandez, Vicente; Bisson, Antoine; Bitton, Cindy; Waisbord, Nicolas; Smriga, Steven; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman


    Concentrated suspensions of motile bacteria exhibit correlated dynamics on spatial scales much larger than an individual bacterium. The resulting flows, visually similar to turbulence, can increase mixing and decrease viscosity. However, it remains unclear to what degree the collective dynamics depend on the motile behavior of bacteria at the individual level. Using a new microfluidic device to create controlled horizontal oxygen gradients, we studied the two dimensional behavior of dense suspensions of Bacillus subtilis. This system makes it possible to assess the interplay between the coherent large-scale motions of the suspension, oxygen transport, and the directional response of cells to oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). At the same time, this device has enabled us to examine the onset of bacterial turbulence and its influence on the propagation of the diffusing oxygen front, as the bacteria begin in a dormant state and transition to swimming when exposed to oxygen.

  1. A new design approach for enhancement of DC/RF performance with improved ambipolar conduction of dopingless TFET (United States)

    Aslam, Mohd.; Yadav, Shivendra; Soni, Deepak; Sharma, Dheeraj


    In this article, we propose a new device structure to suppress ambipolar conduction with improved DC/RF performance of dopingless TFET (DL-TFET). Here gate underlapping technique is applied near drain side to suppress ambipolarity, which results improved Analog/RF performance of the device. In addition to gate underlapping technique, a novel initiative has also been taken by placing a metal angle (MA) in the oxide layer near source/channel interface to get excellent DC characteristics of the proposed device. Placement of MA is helpful to increase abruptness at source/channel interface for higher tunneling rate of charge carriers. Length variation of gate underlapping has been performed in the section of device optimization for reducing ambipolarity of the device. Simultaneously, variation in workfunction and position of metal angle is also analysed in this section to ease the fabrication complexity.

  2. 6,12-Diarylindeno[1,2-b]fluorenes: syntheses, photophysics, and ambipolar OFETs. (United States)

    Chase, Daniel T; Fix, Aaron G; Kang, Seok Ju; Rose, Bradley D; Weber, Christopher D; Zhong, Yu; Zakharov, Lev N; Lonergan, Mark C; Nuckolls, Colin; Haley, Michael M


    Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of 6,12-diarylindeno[1,2-b]fluorenes (IFs). Functionalization with electron donor and acceptor groups influences the ability of the IF scaffold to undergo two-electron oxidation and reduction to yield the corresponding 18- and 22-π-electron species, respectively. A single crystal of the pentafluorophenyl-substituted IF can serve as an active layer in an organic field-effect transistor (OFET). The important finding is that the single-crystal OFET yields an ambipolar device that is able to transport holes and electrons.

  3. A Selenophene-Based Low-Bandgap Donor-Acceptor Polymer Leading to Fast Ambipolar Logic

    KAUST Repository

    Kronemeijer, Auke J.


    Fast ambipolar CMOS-like logic is demonstrated using a new selenophene-based donor-acceptor polymer semiconductor. The polymer exhibits saturation hole and electron mobilities of 0.46 cm 2/Vs and 0.84 cm 2/Vs. Inverters are fabricated with high gains while three-stage ring oscillators show stable oscillation with an unprecedented maximum frequency of 182 kHz at a relatively low supply voltage of 50 V. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ambipolar transistor behavior in p-doped InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B. S.; Aagesen, M.; Soerensen, C. B.; Lindelof, P. E.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygaard, J.


    We present the electric properties of p-InAs nanowire field-effect transistors showing ambipolar conduction. Be doped nanowires are grown by the vapor-solid-solid mechanism using molecular beam epitaxy with in situ deposited Au catalyst particles. P-type conduction in InAs nanowires is challenging because of the Fermi-level pinning above the conduction band edge at the nanowire surface that leads to creation of an electron inversion layer. We demonstrate that this task is possible without a modified surface and report a strong temperature dependence (10-10 5 ) of the on-off ratio caused by the surface inversion layer

  5. Soliton turbulence (United States)

    Tchen, C. M.


    Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.

  6. Improved Tunnel-FET inverter performance with SiGe/Si heterostructure nanowire TFETs by reduction of ambipolarity (United States)

    Richter, S.; Trellenkamp, S.; Schäfer, A.; Hartmann, J. M.; Bourdelle, K. K.; Zhao, Q. T.; Mantl, S.


    Complementary MOSFET and Tunnel-FET inverters based on tri-gated strained Si nanowire arrays are demonstrated. The voltage transfer characteristics as well as the inverter supply currents of both inverter types are analyzed and compared. A degradation of the inverter output voltage is observed due to the ambipolar transfer characteristics of the symmetric homostructure TFET devices. Emulated TFET inverters based on the measured transfer characteristics of SiGe/Si heterostructure nanowire array n-channel TFETs with reduced ambipolarity demonstrate improved inverter switching for supply voltages down to VDD = 0.2 V.

  7. Turbulence modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, D.


    This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-ε two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (R ij -ε) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)

  8. Ambipolar Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Semiconductors for Solution-Processable Organic Field-Effect Transistors. (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Hwang, Hansu; Park, Won-Tae; Khim, Dongyoon; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Yunseul; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Noh, Yong-Young; Kim, Dong-Yu


    We report on the fabrication of an organic thin-film semiconductor formed using a blend solution of soluble ambipolar small molecules and an insulating polymer binder that exhibits vertical phase separation and uniform film formation. The semiconductor thin films are produced in a single step from a mixture containing a small molecular semiconductor, namely, quinoidal biselenophene (QBS), and a binder polymer, namely, poly(2-vinylnaphthalene) (PVN). Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on QBS/PVN blend semiconductor are then assembled using top-gate/bottom-contact device configuration, which achieve almost four times higher mobility than the neat QBS semiconductor. Depth profile via secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy images indicate that the QBS domains in the films made from the blend are evenly distributed with a smooth morphology at the bottom of the PVN layer. Bias stress test and variable-temperature measurements on QBS-based OFETs reveal that the QBS/PVN blend semiconductor remarkably reduces the number of trap sites at the gate dielectric/semiconductor interface and the activation energy in the transistor channel. This work provides a one-step solution processing technique, which makes use of soluble ambipolar small molecules to form a thin-film semiconductor for application in high-performance OFETs.

  9. Ambipolar Electric Field, Photoelectrons, and Their Role in Atmospheric Escape From Hot Jupiters (United States)

    Cohen, O.; Glocer, A.


    Atmospheric mass loss from Hot Jupiters can be large due to the close proximity of these planets to their host star and the strong radiation the planetary atmosphere receives. On Earth, a major contribution to the acceleration of atmospheric ions comes from the vertical separation of ions and electrons, and the generation of the ambipolar electric field. This process, known as the "polar wind," is responsible for the transport of ionospheric constituents to Earth's magnetosphere, where they are well observed. The polar wind can also be enhanced by a relatively small fraction of super-thermal electrons (photoelectrons) generated by photoionization.We formulate a simplified calculation of the effect of the ambipolar electric field and the photoelectrons on the ion scale height in a generalized manner. We find that the ion scale height can be increased by a factor of 2-15 due to the polar wind effects. We also estimate a lower limit of an order of magnitude increase of the ion density and the atmospheric mass-loss rate when polar wind effects are included.

  10. Ambipolar Graphene-Quantum Dot Hybrid Vertical Photodetector with a Graphene Electrode. (United States)

    Che, Yongli; Zhang, Yating; Cao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Haiting; Song, Xiaoxian; Cao, Mingxuan; Yu, Yu; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan


    A strategy to fabricate an ambipolar near-infrared vertical photodetector (VPD) by sandwiching a photoactive material as a channel film between the bottom graphene and top metal electrodes was developed. The channel length in the vertical architecture was determined by the channel layer thickness, which can provide an ultrashort channel length without the need for a high-precision manufacturing process. The performance of VPDs with two types of semiconductor layers, a graphene-PbS quantum dot hybrid (GQDH) and PbS quantum dots (QDs), was measured. The GQDH VPD showed better photoelectric properties than the QD VPD because of the high mobility of graphene doped in the channel. The GQDH VPD exhibited excellent photoresponse properties with a responsivity of 1.6 × 10 4 A/W in the p-type regime and a fast response speed with a rise time of 8 ms. The simple manufacture and the promising photoresponse of the GQDH VPDs reveal that an easy and effective way to fabricate high-performance ambipolar photodetectors was developed.

  11. Solution-processed ambipolar organic field-effect transistors and inverters. (United States)

    Meijer, E J; de Leeuw, D M; Setayesh, S; van Veenendaal, E; Huisman, B H; Blom, P W M; Hummelen, J C; Scherf, U; Kadam, J; Klapwijk, T M


    There is ample evidence that organic field-effect transistors have reached a stage where they can be industrialized, analogous to standard metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. Monocrystalline silicon technology is largely based on complementary MOS (CMOS) structures that use both n-type and p-type transistor channels. This complementary technology has enabled the construction of digital circuits, which operate with a high robustness, low power dissipation and a good noise margin. For the design of efficient organic integrated circuits, there is an urgent need for complementary technology, where both n-type and p-type transistor operation is realized in a single layer, while maintaining the attractiveness of easy solution processing. We demonstrate, by using solution-processed field-effect transistors, that hole transport and electron transport are both generic properties of organic semiconductors. This ambipolar transport is observed in polymers based on interpenetrating networks as well as in narrow bandgap organic semiconductors. We combine the organic ambipolar transistors into functional CMOS-like inverters.

  12. Anomalous Ambipolar Transport of Organic Semiconducting Crystals via Control of Molecular Packing Structures. (United States)

    Park, Beomjin; Kim, Kyunghun; Park, Jaesung; Lim, Heeseon; Lanh, Phung Thi; Jang, A-Rang; Hyun, Chohee; Myung, Chang Woo; Park, Seungkyoo; Kim, Jeong Won; Kim, Kwang S; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Lee, Geunsik; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Chan Eon; Kim, Jin Kon


    Organic crystals deposited on 2-dimensional (2D) van der Waals substrates have been widely investigated due to their unprecedented crystal structures and electrical properties. van der Waals interaction between organic molecules and the substrate induces epitaxial growth of high quality organic crystals and their anomalous crystal morphologies. Here, we report on unique ambipolar charge transport of a "lying-down" pentacene crystal grown on a 2D hexagonal boron nitride van der Waals substrate. From in-depth analysis on crystal growth behavior and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurement, it is revealed that the pentacene crystal at the initial growth stage have a lattice-strained packing structure and unique energy band structure with a deep highest occupied molecular orbital level compared to conventional "standing-up" crystals. The lattice-strained pentacene few layers enable ambipolar charge transport in field-effect transistors with balanced hole and electron field-effect mobilities. Complementary logic circuits composed of the two identical transistors show clear inverting functionality with a high gain up to 15. The interesting crystal morphology of organic crystals on van der Waals substrates is expected to attract broad attentions on organic/2D interfaces for their electronic applications.

  13. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens


    term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...

  14. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  15. Effect of the radial electric field on turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.


    For many years, the neoclassical transport theory for three- dimensional magnetic configurations, such as magnetic mirrors, ELMO Bumpy Tori (EBTs), and stellarators, has recognized the critical role of the radial electric field in the confinement. It was in these confinement devices that the first experimental measurements of the radial electric field were made and correlated with confinement losses. In tokamaks, the axisymmetry implies that the neoclassical fluxes are ambipolar and, as a consequence, independent of the radial electric field. However, axisymmetry is not strict in a tokamak with turbulent fluctuations, and near the limiter ambipolarity clearly breaks down. Therefore, the question of the effect of the radial electric field on tokamak confinement has been raised in recent years. In particular, the radial electric field has been proposed to explain the transition from L-mode to H-mode confinement. There is some initial experimental evidence supporting this type of explanation, although there is not yet a self-consistent theory explaining the generation of the electric field and its effect on the transport. Here, a brief review of recent results is presented. 27 refs., 4 figs

  16. Formation of a Stable p-n Junction in a Liquid-Gated MoS2 Ambipolar Transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Ye, J. T.; Yornogida, Y.; Takenobu, T.; Iwasa, Y.

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has gained attention because of its high mobility and circular dichroism. As a crucial step to merge these advantages into a single device, we present a method that electronically controls and locates p-n junctions in liquid-gated ambipolar MoS2 transistors. A

  17. The role of the ambipolar field in the formation of the EDF and the criteria of the local approximation (United States)

    Yuan, Chengxun; Rabadanov, K. M.; Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Zhou, Zhongxiang


    It is shown that in the situation when the ambipolar field exceeds the heating field the local approximation (LA) for determining the EDF is not applicable even if the energy relaxation length of the electron is relatively small. Therefore, accurate results can be obtained only solving the kinetic equation in energy and spatial variables.

  18. Analysis of charge injection and contact resistance as a function of electrode surface treatment in ambipolar polymer transistors (United States)

    Lee, Seon Jeng; Kim, Chaewon; Jung, Seok-Heon; Di Pietro, Riccardo; Lee, Jin-Kyun; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Miso; Lee, Mi Jung


    Ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have both of hole and electron enhancements in charge transport. The characteristics of conjugated diketopyrrolopyrrole ambipolar OFETs depend on the metal-contact surface treatment for charge injection. To investigate the charge-injection characteristics of ambipolar transistors, these devices are processed via various types of self-assembled monolayer treatments and annealing. We conclude that treatment by the self-assembled monolayer 1-decanethiol gives the best enhancement of electron charge injection at both 100 and 300 °C annealing temperature. In addition, the contact resistance is calculated by using two methods: One is the gated four-point probe (gFPP) method that gives the voltage drop between channels, and the other is the simultaneous contact resistance extraction method, which extracts the contact resistance from the general transfer curve. We confirm that the gFPP method and the simultaneous extraction method give similar contact resistance, which means that we can extract contact resistance from the general transfer curve without any special contact pattern. Based on these characteristics of ambipolar p- and n-type transistors, we fabricate inverter devices with only one active layer. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Origin of CH+ in diffuse molecular clouds. Warm H2 and ion-neutral drift (United States)

    Valdivia, Valeska; Godard, Benjamin; Hennebelle, Patrick; Gerin, Maryvonne; Lesaffre, Pierre; Le Bourlot, Jacques


    Context. Molecular clouds are known to be magnetised and to display a turbulent and complex structure where warm and cold phases are interwoven. The turbulent motions within molecular clouds transport molecules, and the presence of magnetic fields induces a relative velocity between neutrals and ions known as the ion-neutral drift (vd). These effects all together can influence the chemical evolution of the clouds. Aims: This paper assesses the roles of two physical phenomena which have previously been invoked to boost the production of CH+ under realistic physical conditions: the presence of warm H2 and the increased formation rate due to the ion-neutral drift. Methods: We performed ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations that include the heating and cooling of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM), and where we treat dynamically the formation of the H2 molecule. In a post-processing step we compute the abundances of species at chemical equilibrium using a solver that we developed. The solver uses the physical conditions of the gas as input parameters, and can also prescribe the H2 fraction if needed. We validate our approach by showing that the H2 molecule generally has a much longer chemical evolution timescale compared to the other species. Results: We show that CH+ is efficiently formed at the edge of clumps, in regions where the H2 fraction is low (0.3-30%) but nevertheless higher than its equilibrium value, and where the gas temperature is high (≳ 300 K). We show that warm and out of equilibrium H2 increases the integrated column densities of CH+ by one order of magnitude up to values still 3-10 times lower than those observed in the diffuse ISM. We balance the Lorentz force with the ion-neutral drag to estimate the ion-drift velocities from our ideal MHD simulations. We find that the ion-neutral drift velocity distribution peaks around 0.04 km s-1, and that high drift velocities are too rare to have a significant statistical impact on the

  20. Clumps in drift wave turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecseli, H. L.; Mikkelsen, Torben


    In a statistical analysis pair correlation of particles is eventually destroyed by small scale fluctuations giving rise to relative particle diffusion. However, in any one given realization of the statistical ensemble particles may remain correlated in certain regions of space. A perfectly frozen......, two-dimensional random flow serves as a particularly simple illustration. For this case particles can be trapped for all times in a local vortex (macro-clump). A small test-cloud of particles (micro-clump) chosen arbitrarily in a realization will on the other hand expand on average. A formulation...... is proposed in terms of conditional eddies, in order to discriminate turbulent flows where macro-clumps may be observed. The analysis is illustrated by results from experimental investigations of strongly turbulent, resistive drift-wave fluctuations. The related problem for electrostatic turbulence...

  1. Turbulent Flame Speed Scaling for Positive Markstein Number Expanding Flames in Near Isotropic Turbulence (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Law, Chung


    In this work we clarify the role of Markstein diffusivity on turbulent flame speed and it's scaling, from analysis and experimental measurements on constant-pressure expanding flames propagating in near isotropic turbulence. For all C0-C4 hydrocarbon-air mixtures presented in this work and recently published C8 data from Leeds, the normalized turbulent flame speed data of individual mixtures approximately follows the recent theoretical and experimental ReT, f 0 . 5 scaling, where the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property. We observe that for a constant ReT, f 0 . 5 , the normalized turbulent flame speed decreases with increasing Mk. This could be explained by considering Markstein diffusivity as the large wavenumber, flame surface fluctuation dissipation mechanism. As originally suggested by the theory, replacing thermal diffusivity with Markstein diffusivity in the turbulence Reynolds number definition above, the present and Leeds dataset could be scaled by the new ReT, f 0 . 5 irrespective of the fuel considered, equivalence ratio, pressure and turbulence intensity for positive Mk flames. This work was supported by the Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001198 and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  2. Ambipolar field-effect transistors by few-layer InSe with asymmetry contact metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Lin


    Full Text Available Group IIIA−VIA layered semiconductors (MX, where M = Ga and In, X = S, Se, and Te have attracted tremendous interest for their anisotropic optical, electronic, and mechanical properties. In this study, we demonstrated that metal and InSe junctions can lead to carrier behaviors in few-layered InSe FETs. These results indicate that the polarity of few-layered InSe FETs can be determined by using metals with different work functions. We adopted FET S/D metal contacts with asymmetric work functions to reduce the Schottky barriers of electrons and holes, and discovered that few-layered InSe FETs with carefully selected metal contacts can achieve ambipolar behaviors. These results indicate that group IIIA−VIA layered semiconductor FETs with asymmetry contact metals have great potential for applications in photovoltaic devices, optical sensors, and CMOS inverter circuits.

  3. Light illumination effects in ambipolar FETs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene derivative composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibao, Miho; Morita, Takeomi; Takashima, Wataru; Kaneto, Keiichi


    The effects of light illumination on field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric methyl ester (PCBM) composite films have been studied. It is found that the light illumination on pure P3HT and PCBM generally resulted in decrease of the threshold voltages and increase of the mobilities by a little. In the composite film at the PCBM contents of x = [P3HT] / ([P3HT] + [PCBM]) = 0.67 ∼ 0.9, an ambipolar field transport appeared. The light illumination effect was observed remarkably in the shift of threshold voltage for the hole generation at x = 0.75. Variations of Hole and electron mobilities and threshold voltage of electron generation upon light illumination were basically similar to those of the pure materials. The results were discussed in terms of the light assisted carrier generation in field effects

  4. Azaisoindigo conjugated polymers for high performance n-type and ambipolar thin film transistor applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Wan


    Two new alternating copolymers, PAIIDBT and PAIIDSe have been prepared by incorporating a highly electron deficient azaisoindigo core. The molecular structure and packing of the monomer is determined from the single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both polymers exhibit high EAs and highly planar polymer backbones. When polymers are used as the semiconducting channel for solution-processed thin film transistor application, good properties are observed. A–A type PAIIDBT exhibits unipolar electron mobility as high as 1.0 cm2 V−1 s−1, D–A type PAIIDSe exhibits ambipolar charge transport behavior with predominately electron mobility up to 0.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 and hole mobility to 0.2 cm2 V−1 s−1. The robustness of the extracted mobility values are also commented on in detail. Molecular orientation, thin film morphology and energetic disorder of both polymers are systematically investigated.

  5. Side-chain and linkage-mediated effects of anthraquinone moieties on ambipolar poly(triphenylamine)-based volatile polymeric memory devices. (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Hao; Yen, Hung-Ju; Hu, Yi-Cheng; Liou, Guey-Sheng


    Two ambipolar and thermally stable poly(triphenylamine)s with pendent anthraquinone acceptors were readily synthesized and prepared for the investigation of side-chain and linkage-mediated effects on the memory behaviour.

  6. Spectral line profiles in weakly turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capes, H.; Voslamber, D.


    The unified theory of line broadening by electron perturbers is generalized to include the case of a weakly turbulent plasma. The collision operator in the line shape expression is shown to be the sum of two terms, both containing effects arising from the non-equilibrium nature of the plasma. One of the two terms represents the influence of individual atom-particle interactions occuring via the nonequilibrium dielectric plasma medium. The other term is due to the interaction of the atom with the turbulent waves. Both terms contain damping and diffusion effects arising from the plasma turbulence

  7. Turbulent energy generated by accelerations and shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaelian, K.O.


    The turbulent energy generated at the interface between two fluids undergoing a constant acceleration or a shock is calculated. Assuming linear density profiles in the mixed region we find E/sub turbulent//E/sub directed/ = 2.3A 2 % (constant acceleration) and 9.3A 2 % (shock), where A is the Atwood number. Diffusion models predict somewhat less turbulent energy and a density profile with a tail extending into the lower density fluid. Eddy sizes are approximately 27% (constant acceleration) and 17% (shock) of the mixing depth into the heavier fluid. 6 refs., 3 figs

  8. Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (United States)

    Montgomery, David C.


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.

  10. Turbulence modification and multiphase turbulence transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, D.C.; Kataoka, I.; Serizawa, A.


    It is shown here that in the derivation of turbulence transport models for multiphase flows, terms naturally appear that can be interpreted as related to turbulence modification of one field by the other. We obtain two such terms, one suggesting turbulence enhancement due to instabilities in two-phase flow, the second one showing turbulence damping due to the presence of the other field, both in gas-particle and gas-liquid cases

  11. Multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.


    A recent hydrodynamic theory of multicomponent diffusion in multitemperature gas mixtures [J. D. Ramshaw, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 18, 121 (1993)] is generalized to include the velocity-dependent Lorentz force on charged species in a magnetic field B. This generalization is used to extend a previous treatment of ambipolar diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas [J. D. Ramshaw and C. H. Chang, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13, 489 (1993)] to situations in which B and the electrical current density are nonzero. General expressions are thereby derived for the species diffusion fluxes, including thermal diffusion, in both single- and two-temperature multicomponent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is shown that the usual zero-field form of the Stefan-Maxwell equations can be preserved in the presence of B by introducing generalized binary diffusion tensors dependent on B. A self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation is presented that provides explicit approximate expressions for the diffusion fluxes. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are exploited to obtain an ideal MHD description in which the electron diffusion coefficients drop out, resistive effects vanish, and the electric field reduces to a particularly simple form. This description should be well suited for numerical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Quantitative photography of intermittency in surface wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, W.; Budakian, R.; Putterman, S.J.


    At high amplitudes of excitation surface waves on water distribute their energy according to a Kolmogorov type of turbulent power spectrum. We have used diffusing light photography to measure the power spectrum and to quantify the presence of large structures in the turbulent state

  13. Compressible turbulence in one dimension (United States)

    Fleischer, Jason Wolf


    The Burgers' model of compressible fluid dynamics in one dimension is extended to include the effects of pressure back-reaction. The new system consists of two coupled equations: Burgers' equation with a pressure gradient (essentially the 1-D Navier-Stokes equation) and an advection-diffusion equation for the pressure field. It presents a minimal model of both adiabatic gas dynamics and compressible magnetohydrodynamics. From the magnetic perspective, it is the simplest possible system which allows for Alfvenization, i.e. energy transfer between the fluid and the magnetic field. For the special case of equal fluid viscosity and (magnetic) diffusivity, the system is completely integrable, reducing to two decoupled Burgers' equations in the characteristic variables v +/- vsound ( v +/- vAlfven). For arbitrary diffusivities, renormalized perturbation theory is used to calculate the effective transport coefficients for forced Burgerlence. It is shown that energy equi- dissipation, not equipartition, is fundamental to the turbulent state. Both energy and dissipation are localized to shock-like structures, in which wave steepening is inhibited by small-scale forcing and by pressure back-reaction. The spectral forms predicted by theory are confirmed by numerical simulations. It is shown that the velocity structures lead to an asymmetric velocity PDF, as in Burgers' turbulence. Pressure fluctuations, however, are symmetrically distributed. A Fokker-Planck calculation of these distributions is compared and contrasted with a path integral approach. The latter instanton solution suggests that the system maintains its characteristic directions in steady-state turbulence, supporting the results from perturbation theory. Implications for the spectra of turbulence and self-organization phenomena in compressible fluids and plasmas are also discussed.

  14. Finite-element numerical modeling of atmospheric turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Lee, H. N.; Kao, S. K.


    A dynamic turbulent boundary-layer model in the neutral atmosphere is constructed, using a dynamic turbulent equation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum derived from the relationship among the turbulent dissipation rate, the turbulent kinetic energy and the eddy viscosity coefficient, with aid of the turbulent second-order closure scheme. A finite-element technique was used for the numerical integration. In preliminary results, the behavior of the neutral planetary boundary layer agrees well with the available data and with the existing elaborate turbulent models, using a finite-difference scheme. The proposed dynamic formulation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum is particularly attractive and can provide a viable alternative approach to study atmospheric turbulence, diffusion and air pollution.

  15. High performance of low band gap polymer-based ambipolar transistor using single-layer graphene electrodes. (United States)

    Choi, Jong Yong; Kang, Woonggi; Kang, Boseok; Cha, Wonsuk; Son, Seon Kyoung; Yoon, Youngwoon; Kim, Hyunjung; Kang, Youngjong; Ko, Min Jae; Son, Hae Jung; Cho, Kilwon; Cho, Jeong Ho; Kim, BongSoo


    Bottom-contact bottom-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are fabricated using a low band gap pDTTDPP-DT polymer as a channel material and single-layer graphene (SLG) or Au source/drain electrodes. The SLG-based ambipolar OFETs significantly outperform the Au-based ambipolar OFETs, and thermal annealing effectively improves the carrier mobilities of the pDTTDPP-DT films. The difference is attributed to the following facts: (i) the thermally annealed pDTTDPP-DT chains on the SLG assume more crystalline features with an edge-on orientation as compared to the polymer chains on the Au, (ii) the morphological features of the thermally annealed pDTTDPP-DT films on the SLG electrodes are closer to the features of those on the gate dielectric layer, and (iii) the SLG electrode provides a flatter, more hydrophobic surface that is favorable for the polymer crystallization than the Au. In addition, the preferred carrier transport in each electrode-based OFET is associated with the HOMO/LUMO alignment relative to the Fermi level of the employed electrode. All of these experimental results consistently explain why the carrier mobilities of the SLG-based OFET are more than 10 times higher than those of the Au-based OTFT. This work demonstrates the strong dependence of ambipolar carrier transport on the source/drain electrode and annealing temperature.

  16. Medium band gap polymer based solution-processed high-κ composite gate dielectrics for ambipolar OFET (United States)

    Canımkurbey, Betül; Unay, Hande; Çakırlar, Çiğdem; Büyükköse, Serkan; Çırpan, Ali; Berber, Savas; Altürk Parlak, Elif


    The authors present a novel ambipolar organic filed-effect transistors (OFETs) composed of a hybrid dielectric thin film of Ta2O5:PMMA nanocomposite material, and solution processed poly(selenophene, benzotriazole and dialkoxy substituted [1,2-b:4, 5-b‧] dithiophene (P-SBTBDT)-based organic semiconducting material as the active layer of the device. We find that the Ta2O5:PMMA insulator shows n-type conduction character, and its combination with the p-type P-SBTBDT organic semiconductor leads to an ambipolar OFET device. Top-gated OFETs were fabricated on glass substrate consisting of interdigitated ITO electrodes. P-SBTBDT-based material was spin coated on the interdigitated ITO electrodes. Subsequently, a solution processed Ta2O5:PMMA nanocomposite material was spin coated, thereby creating the gate dielectric layer. Finally, as a gate metal, an aluminum layer was deposited by thermal evaporation. The fabricated OFETs exhibited an ambipolar performance with good air-stability, high field-induced current and relatively high electron and hole mobilities although Ta2O5:PMMA nanocomposite films have slightly higher leakage current compared to the pure Ta2O5 films. Dielectric properties of the devices with different ratios of Ta2O5:PMMA were also investigated. The dielectric constant varied between 3.6 and 5.3 at 100 Hz, depending on the Ta2O5:PMMA ratio.

  17. MoS2/Rubrene van der Waals Heterostructure: Toward Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors and Inverter Circuits. (United States)

    He, Xuexia; Chow, WaiLeong; Liu, Fucai; Tay, BengKang; Liu, Zheng


    2D transition metal dichalcogenides are promising channel materials for the next-generation electronic device. Here, vertically 2D heterostructures, so called van der Waals solids, are constructed using inorganic molybdenum sulfide (MoS 2 ) few layers and organic crystal - 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene). In this work, ambipolar field-effect transistors are successfully achieved based on MoS 2 and rubrene crystals with the well balanced electron and hole mobilities of 1.27 and 0.36 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. The ambipolar behavior is explained based on the band alignment of MoS 2 and rubrene. Furthermore, being a building block, the MoS 2 /rubrene ambipolar transistors are used to fabricate CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) inverters that show good performance with a gain of 2.3 at a switching threshold voltage of -26 V. This work paves a way to the novel organic/inorganic ultrathin heterostructure based flexible electronics and optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology (United States)

    Herring, J. R.


    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  19. Using random walk models to simulate the vertical distribution of particles in a turbulent water column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre


    Random walk simulation has the potential to be an extremely powerful tool in the investigation of turbulence in environmental processes. However, care must be taken in applying such simulations to the motion of particles in turbulent marine systems where turbulent diffusivity is commonly spatiall...

  20. Techniques for studying gravity waves and turbulence (United States)

    Geller, M. A.


    Gravity waves and their associated breaking into turbulence are very important in producing the overall picture of middle atmosphere global dynamics and associated transport. It is shown in this research that MST radars represent a most powerful technique for obtaining the needed parameters for gravity-wave-induced drag and diffusion effects as well as measuring wave accelerations and diffusion directly. A mathematical solution to this problem is that of radiative equilibrium with a balanced thermal wind.

  1. The ambipolar evolution of a high-performance WSe2 transistor assisted by a ferroelectric polymer (United States)

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Sixin; Gong, Fan; Wu, Guangjian; Meng, Caimin; Liu, Lan; Wang, Lin; Lin, Tie; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Wang, Xingjun; Hu, Weida; Wang, Jianlu; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Chu, Junhao


    In recent years, the electrical characteristics of WSe2 field-effect transistors (FETs) have been widely investigated with various dielectrics. Among them, being able to perfectly tune the polarity of WSe2 is meaningful and promising work. In this work, we systematically study the electrical properties of bilayer WSe2 FETs modulated by ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)). Compared to traditional gate dielectric SiO2, the P(VDF-TrFE) can not only tune both electron and hole concentrations to the same high level, but also improve the hole mobility of bilayer WSe2 to 265.96 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 under SiO2 gating. Its drain current on/off ratio is also improved to 2 × 105 for p-type and 4 × 105 for n-type driven by P(VDF-TrFE). More importantly, the ambipolar behaviors of bilayer WSe2 are effectively achieved and maintained because of the remnant polarization field of P(VDF-TrFE). This work indicates that WSe2 FETs with P(VDF-TrFE) gating have huge potential for complementary logic transistor applications, and paves an effective way to achieve in-plane p–n junctions.

  2. On/off-current Ratio and Ambipolar Behavior of Narrow Bandgap III-V Nanowire FETs (United States)

    Zhao, Yanjie; Candebat, Drew; Delker, Collin; Zi, Yunlong; Janes, David; Appenzeller, Joerg; Yang, Chen


    III-V nanowires (NW) are promising candidates for future device applications due to the high bulk mobility. Yet the small bandgap may result in undesirable high off-current. Here we establish a simple but reliable model that quantitatively explains how channel bandgap and Schottky barriers at metal contacts affect the ambipolar characteristics and the achievable on/off-current ratios of NW-FETs. Thus one can gain insights of the expected transfer characteristics of a given channel material with certain device structure, and the optimal choice of materials for different device applications in ultimately scaled cases. The physics of electron transport in both ideal case (no Schottky barrier) and practical case (with Schottky barrier) is studied. The impact of Schottky barriers is evaluated by numerical calculation of the tunneling current, and is found to play a critical role for the different characteristics observed. A universal plot of on/off ratio vs. bandgap is presented. The excellent agreement between our simulation predictions and experiment results from InAs, InSb, Ge NWs and CNTs highlights the potential of our approach for understanding narrow bandgap NW-FETs, bridging material development and device applications, and guiding future transistor design.

  3. Ambipolarity reduction in DMG asymmetric vacuum dielectric Schottky Barrier GAA MOSFET to improve hot carrier reliability (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Haldar, Subhasis; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.


    An explicit surface potential and subthreshold current model for novel Dual Metal Gate (DMG) Asymmetric Vacuum (AV) as gate dielectric Schottky Barrier (SB) Cylindrical Gate All Around (CGAA) MOSFET with the incorporation of localized charges (Nf) is developed to provide excellent immunity against threshold voltage (Vth) degradation due to hot carriers. Hot carrier induced Localized Charges (LC) either positive or negative leads to degrade the threshold of the device. The major advantage of the proposed DMG-AV-SB-CGAA MOSFET is that it mitigates the ambipolar behavior thus offering very good on current to off current ratio; and also reduces the electron temperature which leads to less hot carrier generation thus lesser degradation in Vth and improved Hot Carrier reliability. The surface potential is determined for three different regions by solving 1-D Poisson's and 2-D Laplace equation through separation of variable method to facilitate an optimal model for calculating the subthreshold drain current from Si-SiO2 interface boundary. The developed model results are in good agreement with that of ATLAS-TCAD simulation.

  4. Ambipolar nonvolatile memory based on a quantum-dot transistor with a nanoscale floating gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che, Yongli; Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan; Cao, Xiaolong; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo


    Using only solution processing methods, we developed ambipolar quantum-dot (QD) transistor floating-gate memory (FGM) that uses Au nanoparticles as a floating gate. Because of the bipolarity of the active channel of PbSe QDs, the memory could easily trap holes or electrons in the floating gate by programming/erasing (P/E) operations, which could shift the threshold voltage both up and down. As a result, the memory exhibited good programmable memory characteristics: a large memory window (ΔV th  ∼ 15 V) and a long retention time (>10 5  s). The magnitude of ΔV th depended on both P/E voltages and the bias voltage (V DS ): ΔV th was a cubic function to V P/E and linearly depended on V DS . Therefore, this FGM based on a QD transistor is a promising alternative to its inorganic counterparts owing to its advantages of bipolarity, high mobility, low cost, and large-area production.

  5. Fabrication of ambipolar gate-all-around field-effect transistors using silicon nanobridge arrays (United States)

    Oh, Jin Yong; Park, Jong-Tae; Islam, M. Saif


    Nanowire bridges have been almost dormant in a nanostructured device community due to the challenges in reproducible growth and device fabrication. In this work, we present simple methods for creating silicon nanobridge arrays with repeatability, and demonstrate integration of gate-all-around field-effect-transistors in the arrays. P-type silicon nanowires air-bridges were synthesized using gold nanoparticles via the VLS technique on the array of predefined silicon electrode-pairs, and then surrounding gates were formed on the suspended air-bridge nanowires. The nanowire air-bridge field-effect-transistors with the surrounding gate exhibited p-type accumulation-mode characteristics with a subthreshold swing of 187 mV/dec and an on/off current ratio of 1.6×106. Despite the surrounding gate that helps gate biases govern the channel, off current substantially increased as drain bias increases. This ambipolar current-voltage property was attributable to gate-induced-drain-leakage at the overlap of gate and drain electrodes and trap-assisted tunneling at the nanowire and electrode connection.

  6. Ambipolar nonvolatile memory based on a quantum-dot transistor with a nanoscale floating gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Yongli; Zhang, Yating, E-mail:; Song, Xiaoxian; Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan [Institute of Laser and Opto-Electronics, College of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronics Information Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cao, Xiaolong [Institute of Laser and Opto-Electronics, College of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronics Information Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); Dai, Haitao [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Junbo [Center of Material Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)


    Using only solution processing methods, we developed ambipolar quantum-dot (QD) transistor floating-gate memory (FGM) that uses Au nanoparticles as a floating gate. Because of the bipolarity of the active channel of PbSe QDs, the memory could easily trap holes or electrons in the floating gate by programming/erasing (P/E) operations, which could shift the threshold voltage both up and down. As a result, the memory exhibited good programmable memory characteristics: a large memory window (ΔV{sub th} ∼ 15 V) and a long retention time (>10{sup 5 }s). The magnitude of ΔV{sub th} depended on both P/E voltages and the bias voltage (V{sub DS}): ΔV{sub th} was a cubic function to V{sub P/E} and linearly depended on V{sub DS}. Therefore, this FGM based on a QD transistor is a promising alternative to its inorganic counterparts owing to its advantages of bipolarity, high mobility, low cost, and large-area production.

  7. Spin-valley dynamics of electrically driven ambipolar carbon-nanotube quantum dots (United States)

    Osika, E. N.; Chacón, A.; Lewenstein, M.; Szafran, B.


    An ambipolar n-p double quantum dot defined by potential variation along a semiconducting carbon-nanotube is considered. We focus on the (1e,1h) charge configuration with a single excess electron of the conduction band confined in the n-type dot and a single missing electron in the valence band state of the p-type dot for which lifting of the Pauli blockade of the current was observed in the electric-dipole spin resonance (Laird et al 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 565). The dynamics of the system driven by periodic electric field is studied with the Floquet theory and the time-dependent configuration interaction method with the single-electron spin-valley-orbitals determined for atomistic tight-binding Hamiltonian. We find that the transitions lifting the Pauli blockade are strongly influenced by coupling to a vacuum state with an empty n dot and a fully filled p dot. The coupling shifts the transition energies and strongly modifies the effective g factors for axial magnetic field. The coupling is modulated by the bias between the dots but it appears effective for surprisingly large energy splitting between the (1e,1h) ground state and the vacuum (0e, 0h) state. Multiphoton transitions and high harmonic generation effects are also discussed.

  8. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering (United States)

    Dell'Erba, Giorgio; Luzio, Alessandro; Natali, Dario; Kim, Juhwan; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Noh, Yong-Young; Caironi, Mario


    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μe) and hole (μh) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μh = 0.29 cm2/V s and μe = 0.001 cm2/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μe = 0.12 cm2/V s and μh = 8 × 10-4 cm2/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic.

  9. Cascade of circulations in fluid turbulence. (United States)

    Eyink, Gregory L


    Kelvin's theorem on conservation of circulations is an essential ingredient of Taylor's theory of turbulent energy dissipation by the process of vortex-line stretching. In previous work, we have proposed a nonlinear mechanism for the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem in ideal turbulence at infinite Reynolds number. We develop here a detailed physical theory of this cascade of circulations. Our analysis is based upon an effective equation for large-scale coarse-grained velocity, which contains a turbulent-induced vortex force that can violate Kelvin's theorem. We show that singularities of sufficient strength, which are observed to exist in turbulent flow, can lead to nonvanishing dissipation of circulation for an arbitrarily small coarse-graining length in the effective equations. This result is an analog for circulation of Onsager's theorem on energy dissipation for singular Euler solutions. The physical mechanism of the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem is diffusion of lines of large-scale vorticity out of the advected loop. This phenomenon can be viewed as a classical analog of the Josephson-Anderson phase-slip phenomenon in superfluids due to quantized vortex lines. We show that the circulation cascade is local in scale and use this locality to develop concrete expressions for the turbulent vortex force by a multiscale gradient expansion. We discuss implications for Taylor's theory of turbulent dissipation and we point out some related cascade phenomena, in particular for magnetic flux in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

  10. Turbulence and cloud droplets in cumulus clouds (United States)

    Saito, Izumi; Gotoh, Toshiyuki


    In this paper, we report on the successful and seamless simulation of turbulence and the evolution of cloud droplets to raindrops over 10 minutes from microscopic viewpoints by using direct numerical simulation. Included processes are condensation-evaporation, collision-coalescence of droplets with hydrodynamic interaction, Reynolds number dependent drag, and turbulent flow within a parcel that is ascending within a self-consistently determined updraft inside a cumulus cloud. We found that the altitude and the updraft velocity of the parcel, the mean supersaturation, and the liquid water content are insensitive to the turbulence intensity, and that when the turbulence intensity increases, the droplet number density swiftly decreases while the spectral width of droplets rapidly increases. This study marks the first time the evolution of the mass density distribution function has been successfully calculated from microscopic computations. The turbulence accelerated to form a second peak in the mass density distribution function, leading to the raindrop formation, and the radius of the largest drop was over 300 μm at the end of the simulation. We also found that cloud droplets modify the turbulence in a way that is unlike the Kolmogorov-Obukhov-Corrsin theory. For example, the temperature and water vapor spectra at low wavenumbers become shallower than {k}-5/3 in the inertial-convective range, and decrease slower than exponentially in the diffusive range. This spectra modification is explained by nonlinear interactions between turbulent mixing and the evaporation-condensation process associated with large numbers of droplets.

  11. Turbulence-chemistry interactions in reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, R.S.; Carter, C.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    Interactions between turbulence and chemistry in nonpremixed flames are investigated through multiscalar measurements. Simultaneous point measurements of major species, NO, OH, temperature, and mixture fraction are obtained by combining spontaneous Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). NO and OH fluorescence signals are converted to quantitative concentrations by applying shot-to-shot corrections for local variations of the Boltzmann fraction and collisional quenching rate. These measurements of instantaneous thermochemical states in turbulent flames provide insights into the fundamental nature of turbulence-chemistry interactions. The measurements also constitute a unique data base for evaluation and refinement of turbulent combustion models. Experimental work during the past year has focused on three areas: (1) investigation of the effects of differential molecular diffusion in turbulent combustion: (2) experiments on the effects of Halon CF{sub 3}Br, a fire retardant, on the structure of turbulent flames of CH{sub 4} and CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}; and (3) experiments on NO formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames.

  12. Flux driven turbulence in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Ottaviani, M.; Sarazin, Y.; Beyer, P.; Benkadda, S.; Waltz, R.E.


    This work deals with tokamak plasma turbulence in the case where fluxes are fixed and profiles are allowed to fluctuate. These systems are intermittent. In particular, radially propagating fronts, are usually observed over a broad range of time and spatial scales. The existence of these fronts provide a way to understand the fast transport events sometimes observed in tokamaks. It is also shown that the confinement scaling law can still be of the gyroBohm type in spite of these large scale transport events. Some departure from the gyroBohm prediction is observed at low flux, i.e. when the gradients are close to the instability threshold. Finally, it is found that the diffusivity is not the same for a turbulence calculated at fixed flux than at fixed temperature gradient, with the same time averaged profile. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)


    We study statistical properties of synchrotron polarization emitted from media with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We use both synthetic and MHD turbulence simulation data for our studies. We obtain the spatial spectrum and its derivative with respect to the wavelength of synchrotron polarization arising from both synchrotron radiation and Faraday rotation fluctuations. In particular, we investigate how the spectrum changes with frequency. We find that our simulations agree with the theoretical predication in Lazarian and Pogosyan. We conclude that the spectrum of synchrotron polarization and its derivative can be very informative tools to obtain detailed information about the statistical properties of MHD turbulence from radio observations of diffuse synchrotron polarization. They are especially useful for recovering the statistics of a turbulent magnetic field as well as the turbulent density of electrons. We also simulate interferometric observations that incorporate the effects of noise and finite telescope beam size, and demonstrate how we recover statistics of underlying MHD turbulence.

  14. High Reynolds Number Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smits, Alexander J


    The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...

  15. Turbulent flow computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drikakis, D; Geurts, Bernard


    ... discretization 3 A test-case: turbulent channel flow 4 Conclusions 75 75 82 93 98 4 Analysis and control of errors in the numerical simulation of turbulence Sandip Ghosal 1 Introduction 2 Source...

  16. High Performance Ambipolar Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene Copolymer Field-Effect Transistors with Balanced Hole and Electron Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhuoying; Lee, Mi Jung; Ashraf, Raja Shahid


    Ambipolar OFETs with balanced hole and electron field-effect mobilities both exceeding 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 are achieved based on a single-solution-processed conjugated polymer, DPPT-TT, upon careful optimization of the device architecture, charge injection, and polymer processing. Such high-performance......Ambipolar OFETs with balanced hole and electron field-effect mobilities both exceeding 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 are achieved based on a single-solution-processed conjugated polymer, DPPT-TT, upon careful optimization of the device architecture, charge injection, and polymer processing. Such high......-performance OFETs are promising for applications in ambipolar devices and integrated circuits, as well as model systems for fundamental studies....

  17. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Erba, Giorgio; Natali, Dario [Center for Nano Science and Technology PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Luzio, Alessandro; Caironi, Mario, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Nano Science and Technology PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Kim, Juhwan; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Dong-Yu [Heeger Center for Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yong-Young, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, Dongguk University, 26 Pil-dong, 3-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)


    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μ{sub e}) and hole (μ{sub h}) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μ{sub h} = 0.29 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub e} = 0.001 cm{sup 2}/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μ{sub e} = 0.12 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub h} = 8 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic.

  18. MarsCAT: Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Pinsky, L.; Li, L.; Jackson, D. R.; Chen, J.; Reed, H.; Moldwin, M.; Kasper, J. C.; Sheehan, J. P.; Forbes, J.; Heine, T.; Case, A. W.; Stevens, M. L.; Sibeck, D. G.


    The MarsCAT (Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster) Mission is a two 6U CubeSat mission to study the ionosphere of Mars proposed for the NASA SIMPLeX opportunity. The mission will investigate the plasma and magnetic structure of the Martian ionosphere, including transient plasma structures, magnetic field structure and dynamics, and energetic particle activity. The transit plan calls for a piggy back ride with Mars 2020 using a CAT burn for MOI, the first demonstration of CubeSat propulsion for interplanetary travel. MarsCAT will make correlated multipoint studies of the ionosphere and magnetic field of Mars. Specifically, the two spacecraft will make in situ observations of the plasma density, temperature, and convection in the ionosphere of Mars. They will also make total electron content measurements along the line of sight between the two spacecraft and simultaneous 3-axis local magnetic field measurements in two locations. Additionally, MarsCAT will demonstrate the performance of new CubeSat telemetry antennas designed at the University of Houston that are designed to be low profile, rugged, and with a higher gain than conventional monopole (whip) antennas. The two MarsCAT CubeSats will have five science instruments: a 3-axis DC magnetometer, adouble-Langmuir probe, a Faraday cup, a solid state energetic particle detector (Science Enhancement Option), and interspacecraft total electron content radio occulation experiment. The MarsCAT spacecraft will be solar powered and equipped with a CAT thruster that can provide up to 4.8 km/s of delta-V, which is sufficient to achieve Mars orbit using the Mars 2020 piggyback. They have an active attitude control system, using a sun sensor and flight-proven star tracker for determination, and momentum wheels for 3-axis attitude control.

  19. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob


    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  20. Global variation of meteor trail plasma turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Dyrud


    Full Text Available We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere, will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent? What are the factors influencing the development of turbulence? and how do these trails vary on a global scale? Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars. Turbulence also influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails; this fact is important for the inference of mesospheric temperatures from the trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and on the observation of non-specular meteor trails. We demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends for non-specular and specular meteor trails.

  1. Theory of resistivity-gradient-driven turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.; Carreras, B.A.; Callen, J.D.


    A theory of the nonlinear evolution and saturation of resistivity driven turbulence, which evolves from linear rippling instabilities, is presented. The nonlinear saturation mechanism is identified both analytically and numerically. Saturation occurs when the turbulent diffusion of the resistivity is large enough so that dissipation due to parallel electron thermal conduction balances the nonlinearly modified resistivity gradient driving term. The levels of potential, resistivity, and density fluctuations at saturation are calculated. A combination of computational modeling and analytic treatment is used in this investigation.

  2. Progress in turbulence research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, P.


    Recent developments in experiments and eddy simulations, as an introduction to a discussion of turbulence modeling for engineers is reviewed. The most important advances in the last decade rely on computers: microcomputers to control laboratory experiments, especially for multidimensional imaging, and supercomputers to simulate turbulence. These basic studies in turbulence research are leading to genuine breakthroughs in prediction methods for engineers and earth scientists. The three main branches of turbulence research: experiments, simulations (numerically-accurate three-dimensional, time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, with any empiricism confined to the smallest eddies), and modeling (empirical closure of time-averaged equations for turbulent flow) are discussed. 33 refs

  3. Homogeneous turbulence dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sagaut, Pierre


    This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence  and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...

  4. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  5. Transport of Charged Particles in Turbulent Magnetic Fields (United States)

    Parashar, T.; Subedi, P.; Sonsrettee, W.; Blasi, P.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.; Chuychai, P.; Dmitruk, P.; Wan, M.; Chhiber, R.


    Magnetic fields permeate the Universe. They are found in planets, stars, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium. The magnetic field found in these astrophysical systems are usually chaotic, disordered, and turbulent. The investigation of the transport of cosmic rays in magnetic turbulence is a subject of considerable interest. One of the important aspects of cosmic ray transport is to understand their diffusive behavior and to calculate the diffusion coefficient in the presence of these turbulent fields. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here, we will particularly focus on calculating diffusion coefficients of charged particles and magnetic field lines in a fully three-dimensional isotropic turbulent magnetic field with no mean field, which may be pertinent to many astrophysical situations. For charged particles in isotropic turbulence we identify different ranges of particle energy depending upon the ratio of the Larmor radius of the charged particle to the characteristic outer length scale of the turbulence. Different theoretical models are proposed to calculate the diffusion coefficient, each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical ideas are tested against results of detailed numerical experiments using Monte-Carlo simulations of particle propagation in stochastic magnetic fields. We also discuss two different methods of generating random magnetic field to study charged particle propagation using numerical simulation. One method is the usual way of generating random fields with a specified power law in wavenumber space, using Gaussian random variables. Turbulence, however, is non-Gaussian, with variability that comes in bursts called intermittency. We therefore devise a way to generate synthetic intermittent fields which have many properties of realistic turbulence. Possible applications of such synthetically generated intermittent fields are

  6. Ambipolar transport in CVD grown MoSe2 monolayer using an ionic liquid gel gate dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliris N. Ortiz


    Full Text Available CVD grown MoSe2 monolayers were electrically characterized at room temperature in a field effect transistor (FET configuration using an ionic liquid (IL as the gate dielectric. During the growth, instead of using MoO3 powder, ammonium heptamolybdate was used for better Mo control of the source and sodium cholate added for lager MoSe2 growth areas. In addition, a high specific capacitance (∼7 μF/cm2 IL was used as the gate dielectric to significantly reduce the operating voltage. The device exhibited ambipolar charge transport at low voltages with enhanced parameters during n- and p-FET operation. IL gating thins the Schottky barrier at the metal/semiconductor interface permitting efficient charge injection into the channel and reduces the effects of contact resistance on device performance. The large specific capacitance of the IL was also responsible for a much higher induced charge density compared to the standard SiO2 dielectric. The device was successfully tested as an inverter with a gain of ∼2. Using a common metal for contacts simplifies fabrication of this ambipolar device, and the possibility of radiative recombination of holes and electrons could further extend its use in low power optoelectronic applications.

  7. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling


    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production...... subrange. The spectra of velocity and potential fluctuations interact in the coupling subrange, and the energy is transferred along the spectrum in the inertia subrange. Applying the method of cascade decomposition, the spectral laws k-3, k-3, k-2 are obtained for the velocity fluctuations, and k-3, k-5, k......-3/2 for the potential fluctuations in the production, coupling and inertia subranges, respectively. The coefficient of Bohm diffusion is reproduced, and its role in electrostatic coupling is derived. Comparison is made with measured power laws reported in the literature, from Q-devices, hot...

  8. Single-particle dispersion in compressible turbulence (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Xiao, Zuoli


    Single-particle dispersion statistics in compressible box turbulence are studied using direct numerical simulation. Focus is placed on the detailed discussion of effects of the particle Stokes number and turbulent Mach number, as well as the forcing type. When solenoidal forcing is adopted, it is found that the single-particle dispersion undergoes a transition from the ballistic regime at short times to the diffusive regime at long times, in agreement with Taylor's particle dispersion argument. The strongest dispersion of heavy particles is announced when the Stokes number is of order 1, which is similar to the scenario in incompressible turbulence. The dispersion tends to be suppressed as the Mach number increases. When hybrid solenoidal and compressive forcing at a ratio of 1/2 is employed, the flow field shows apparent anisotropic property, characterized by the appearance of large shock wave structures. Accordingly, the single-particle dispersion shows extremely different behavior from the solenoidal forcing case.

  9. Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Kupka, Friedrich


    What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...

  10. Chaotic radiation/turbulence interactions in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.


    In this paper, the authors present a review of their recent efforts to model chaotic radiation-turbulence interactions in flames. The main focus is to characterize soot volume fraction fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames, as they strongly contribute to these interaction. The approach is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuations of properties in turbulent flames are deterministic in nature, rather than random. The authors first discuss the theoretical details and then they briefly outline the experiments conducted to measure the scattered light signals from fluctuating soot particles along the axis of an ethylene-air diffusion flame. They compare the power spectra and time series obtained from experiments against the ad-hoc and rigorous models derived using a series of logistic maps. These logistic maps can be used in simulation of the fluctuations in these type of flames, without extensive computational effort or sacrifice of physical detail. Availability of accurate models of these kinds allows investigation of radiation-turbulence interactions at a more fundamental level than it was previously possible.

  11. Stochastic model of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarzhi, S.I.; Cadjan, M.; Fedotov, S.


    We propose a stochastic model to describe the random character of the dissipation process in Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing. The parameter alpha, used conventionally to characterize the mixing growth-rate, is not a universal constant and is very sensitive to the statistical properties of the dissipation. The ratio between the rates of momentum loss and momentum gain is the statistic invariant and a robust parameter to diagnose with or without turbulent diffusion accounted for

  12. Turbulent shear layers in confining channels (United States)

    Benham, Graham; Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso; Hewitt, Ian; Please, Colin; Style, Rob; Bird, Paul


    The development of shear layers are ubiquitous in a wide range of situations, from diffusers, nozzles, turbines and ducts to urban air flow and geophysical flows. In this talk we present a simple model for the development of shear layers between flows that mix in confining channels. The model, comprising two plug flow regions separated by a linear shear layer, shows good agreement with both laboratory experiments and computational turbulence modelling (at a fraction of the computation time). Such efficient models, capable of capturing and exhibiting the main characteristics of the turbulent shear layers, are expected to be useful for both modelling and design purposes. We demonstrate the latter by showing how the model can be utilised to optimise pressure recovery in diffusers with non-uniform inflows. EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Industrially Focused Mathematical Modelling, VerdErg Renewable Energy Limited, John Fell Fund (Oxford University Press).

  13. Turbulent shear flows 6; International Symposium, 6th, Universite de Toulouse III, France, Sept. 7-9, 1987, Selected Papers (United States)

    Andre, Jean-Claude; Cousteix, Jean; Durst, Franz; Launder, Brian E.; Schmidt, Frank W.


    The conference presents papers on scalar transport and geophysical flows, aerodynamic flows, complex flows, and numerical simulation. Particular attention is given to an eigenfunction analysis of turbulent thermal convection, turbulent diffusion behind a heated line source in a nearly homogeneous turbulent shear flow, and the evolution of axisymmetric wakes from attached and separated flows. Other topics include the vortex street and turbulent wakes behind a circular cylinder placed inside a rotating rectangular channel and a numerical study of a stably stratified mixing layer.

  14. A turbulent two-phase flow model for nebula flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champney, J.M.; Cuzzi, J.N.


    A new and very efficient turbulent two-phase flow numericaly model is described to analyze the environment of a protoplanetary nebula at a stage prior to the formation of planets. Focus is on settling processes of dust particles in flattened gaseous nebulae. The model employs a perturbation technique to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulations of such flows where small variations of physical quantities occur over large distance ranges. The particles are allowed to be diffused by gas turbulence in addition to settling under gravity. Their diffusion coefficients is related to the gas turbulent viscosity by the non-dimensional Schmidt number. The gas turbulent viscosity is determined by the means of the eddy viscosity hypothesis that assumes the Reynolds stress tensor proportional to the mean strain rate tensor. Zero- and two-equation turbulence models are employed. Modeling assumptions are detailed and discussed. The numerical model is shown to reproduce an existing analytical solution for the settling process of particles in an inviscid nebula. Results of nebula flows are presented taking into account turbulence effects of nebula flows. Diffusion processes are found to control the settling of particles. 24 refs

  15. Models for turbulent flows with variable density and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.P.


    Models for transport processes and combustion in turbulent flows are outlined with emphasis on the situation where the fuel and air are injected separately. Attention is restricted to relatively simple flames. The flows investigated are high Reynolds number, single-phase, turbulent high-temperature flames in which radiative heat transfer can be considered negligible. Attention is given to the lower order closure models, algebraic stress and flux models, the k-epsilon turbulence model, the diffusion flame approximation, and finite rate reaction mechanisms

  16. Stochastic partial differential equations in turbulence related problems (United States)

    Chow, P.-L.


    The theory of stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) and problems relating to turbulence are discussed by employing the theories of Brownian motion and diffusion in infinite dimensions, functional differential equations, and functional integration. Relevant results in probablistic analysis, especially Gaussian measures in function spaces and the theory of stochastic PDEs of Ito type, are taken into account. Linear stochastic PDEs are analyzed through linearized Navier-Stokes equations with a random forcing. Stochastic equations for waves in random media as well as model equations in turbulent transport theory are considered. Markovian models in fully developed turbulence are discussed from a stochastic equation viewpoint.

  17. Switching and memory characteristics of thin films of an ambipolar organic compound: effects of device processing and electrode materials (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Won; Pearson, Christopher; Moon, Tae Jung; Fisher, Alison L.; Petty, Michael C.


    We report on the effects of device processing conditions, and of changing the electrode materials, on the switching and negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviour of metal/organic thin film/metal structures. The organic material was an ambipolar molecule containing both electron transporting (oxadiazole) and hole transporting (carbazole) chemical groups. Switching and NDR effects are observed for device architectures with both electrodes consisting of aluminium; optimized switching behaviour is achieved for structures incorporating gold nanoparticles. If one of the Al electrodes is replaced by a higher work function metal or coated with an electron-blocking layer, switching and NDR are no longer observed. The results are consistent with a model based on the creation and destruction of Al filaments within the thin organic layer.

  18. Surface potential based modeling of charge, current, and capacitances in DGTFET including mobile channel charge and ambipolar behaviour (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh


    We present a surface potential based analytical model for double gate tunnel field effect transistor (DGTFET) for the current, terminal charges, and terminal capacitances. The model accounts for the effect of the mobile charge in the channel and captures the device physics in depletion as well as in the strong inversion regime. The narrowing of the tunnel barrier in the presence of mobile charges in the channel is incorporated via modeling of the inverse decay length, which is constant under channel depletion condition and bias dependent under inversion condition. To capture the ambipolar current behavior in the model, tunneling at the drain junction is also included. The proposed model is validated against TCAD simulation data and it shows close match with the simulation data.

  19. Environmental turbulence and climate-weather scaling (United States)

    Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Cherubini, Claudia; Jebbad, Raghda; Mosso, Cessar; Benjamin, Juan Jose; Jorge, Joan; Diez, Margarita; Redondo, Jose M.


    .M.and Babiano A. Structure functions in complex flows . Applied Scientific Research 59, 299.1998. [3]. Castilla R., Onate E. and Redondo J.M. Models, Experiments and Computations in Turbulence. CIMNE, Barcelona. 2007. P. 255. [4]. Nicolleau, F.C.G.A.; Cambon, C.; Redondo, J.M.; Vassilicos, J.C.; Reeks, M.; Nowakowski,A.F. (Eds.)(2012) New Approaches in Modeling Multiphase Flows and Dispersion in Turbulence, Fractal Methods and Synthetic Turbulence. ERCOFTAC Series. [5]. Fraunie P., Berreba S. Chashechkin Y., Velasco D. and Redondo J.M. (2008) LES and laboratory experiments on the decay of grid wakes in strongly stratied fows. Il Nuovo Cimento 31, 909-930 [6]. Gonzlez-Nieto, P., Cano J.L., and J. M. Redondo. (2008) Buoyant Mixing Processes Generated in Turbulent Plume Arrays. Fsica de la Tierra 19, 2008: 205-217. [7]. Redondo J.M. and Babiano A.: Turbulent Diffusion in the Environment, 2001, Fragma, Madrid.

  20. Importance of thermal diffusion in the gravo-magnetic limit cycle


    Owen, James E.; Armitage, Philip J.


    We consider the role of thermal diffusion due to turbulence and radiation on accretion bursts that occur in protoplanetary discs which contain dead zones. Using 1D viscous disc models we show that diffusive radial transport of heat is important during the gravo-magnetic limit cycle, and can strongly modify the duration and frequency of accretion outbursts. When the Prandtl number is large - such that turbulent diffusion of heat is unimportant - radial radiative diffusion reduces the burst dur...

  1. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B


    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  2. Interchange turbulence model for the edge plasma in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufferand, H.; Marandet, Y. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, Marseille (France); Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Bucalossi, J.; Fedorczak, N.; Gunn, J.; Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Colin, C.; Galassi, D.; Leybros, R.; Serre, E. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, M2P2, Marseille (France)


    Cross-field transport in edge tokamak plasmas is known to be dominated by turbulent transport. A dedicated effort has been made to simulate this turbulent transport from first principle models but the numerical cost to run these simulations on the ITER scale remains prohibitive. Edge plasma transport study relies mostly nowadays on so-called transport codes where the turbulent transport is taken into account using effective ad-hoc diffusion coefficients. In this contribution, we propose to introduce a transport equation for the turbulence intensity in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE to describe the interchange turbulence properties. Going beyond the empirical diffusive model, this system automatically generates profiles for the turbulent transport and hence reduces the number of degrees of freedom for edge plasma transport codes. We draw inspiration from the k-epsilon model widely used in the neutral fluid community. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Light particles in turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagendra Prakash, Vivek


    This thesis deals with the broad topic of particles in turbulence, which has applications in a diverse number of fields. A vast majority of fluid flows found in nature and in the industry are turbulent and contain dispersed elements. In this thesis, I have focused on light particles (air bubbles in

  4. Dynamic paradigm of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Alfred M.


    In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced

  5. Gyrokinetic simulation of microtearing turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerk, Hauke


    radially global implementation of collisions is successfully benchmarked against the PIC code Orb5. Validation of the collision operator is of relevance for microturbulence simulations as well, since collisional effects, for example, play an important role in the instability mechanism of microtearing modes. Considering plasma parameters that are realistic for the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade, a standard tokamak device, microtearing modes are found in Gene simulations. These parameters are also relevant for certain ITER scenarios. The most unstable toroidal wavelength lies somewhat above the ion gyroradius, but much finer radial scales are developed. Although this inherent multiscale feature causes nonlinear simulations to be extremely challenging, such gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence succeed for the first time in the coarse of this work. An outstanding feature of these simulations is that the radial transport of (electron) heat is well described by a simple diffusivity model, as long as the magnetic field fluctuations exceed a certain threshold. The employed Rechester-Rosenbluth type of model crucially relies on magnetic field stochasticity. To show that this condition is fulfilled, the value for the magnetic field diffusivity is computed from the simulation data. Since the resulting transport level is found to be experimentally relevant, our simulations establish microtearing turbulence as an additional candidate to explain enhanced electron thermal transport in standard tokamaks.

  6. Turbulence modeling of natural convection in enclosures: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong O


    In this paper a review of recent developments of turbulence models for natural convection in enclosures is presented. The emphasis is placed on the effect of the treatments of Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux on the stability and accuracy of the solution for natural convection in enclosures. The turbulence models considered in the preset study are the two-layer k -ε model, the shear stress transport (SST) model, the elliptic-relaxation (V2-f) model and the elliptic-blending second-moment closure (EBM). Three different treatments of the turbulent heat flux are the generalized gradient diffusion hypothesis (GGDH), the algebraic flux model (AFM) and the differential flux model (DFM). The mathematical formulation of the above turbulence models and their solution method are presented. Evaluation of turbulence models are performed for turbulent natural convection in a 1:5 rectangular cavity ( Ra = 4.3x10 10 ) and in a square cavity with conducting top and bottom walls ( Ra =1.58x10 9 ) and the Rayleigh-Benard convection ( Ra = 2x10 6 ∼ Ra =10 9 ). The relative performances of turbulence models are examined and their successes and shortcomings are addressed

  7. Turbulent Flame Speed and Self Similarity of Expanding Premixed Flames (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung


    In this study we present experimental turbulent flame speed data measured in constant-pressure expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogenous isotropic turbulence, in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. The cold flow is characterized by high speed particle image velocimetry while the flame propagation rate is obtained by tracking high speed Schlieren images of unity Lewis number methane-air flames over wide ranges of pressure and turbulence intensity. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from expanding flames and those from Bunsen geometries can be scaled by a single parameter: the turbulent Reynolds number utilizing recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the G equation, after correcting for gas expansion effects.

  8. Turbulent dispersion from line sources in grid turbulence (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sharadha; Pope, Stephen B.


    Probability density function (PDF) calculations are reported for the dispersion from line sources in decaying grid turbulence. The calculations are performed using a modified form of the interaction by exchange with the conditional mean (IECM) mixing model. These flows pose a significant challenge to statistical models because the scalar length scale (of the initial plume) is much smaller than the turbulence integral scale. Consequently, this necessitates incorporating the effects of molecular diffusion in order to model laboratory experiments. Previously, Sawford [Flow Turb. Combust. 72, 133 (2004)] performed PDF calculations in conjunction with the IECM mixing model, modeling the effects of molecular diffusion as a random walk in physical space and using a mixing time scale empirically fit to the experimental data of Warhaft [J. Fluid Mech. 144, 363 (1984)]. The resulting transport equation for the scalar variance contains a spurious production term. In the present work, the effects of molecular diffusion are instead modeled by adding a conditional mean scalar drift term, thus avoiding the spurious production of scalar variance. A laminar wake model is used to obtain an analytic expression for the mixing time scale at small times, and this is used as part of a general specification of the mixing time scale. Based on this modeling, PDF calculations are performed, and comparison is made primarily with the experimental data of Warhaft on single and multiple line sources and with the previous calculations of Sawford. A heated mandoline is also considered with comparison to the experimental data of Warhaft and Lumley [J. Fluid Mech. 88, 659 (1978)]. This establishes the validity of the proposed model and the significant effect of molecular diffusion on the decay of scalar fluctuations. The following are the significant predictions of the model. For the line source, the effect of the source size is limited to early times and can be completely accounted for by simple

  9. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert


    presentations were published in the Book of Abstracts, International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', August 18-26, 2007, Copyright 2007 Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, ISBN 92-95003-36-5. This Topical Issue consists of nearly 60 articles accepted for publication in the Conference Proceedings and reflects a substantial part of the Conference contributions. The articles cover a broad variety of TMB-2007 themes and are sorted alphabetically by the last name of the first author within each of the following topics: Canonical Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing (invariant, scaling, spectral properties, scalar transports) Wall-bounded Flows (structure and fundamentals, unsteady boundary layers, super-sonic flows, shock - boundary layer interaction) Interfacial Dynamics (Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities) Unsteady Turbulent Processes (turbulence and turbulent mixing in unsteady, multiphase and anisotropic flows) High Energy Density Physics (laser-material interaction, Z-pinches, laser-driven, heavy-ion and magnetic fusion) Astrophysics (supernovae, interstellar medium, star formation, stellar interiors, early Universe, cosmic micro-wave background) Magneto-hydrodynamics (magneto-convection, magneto-rotational instability, accretion disks, dynamo) Plasmas in Ionosphere (coupled plasmas, anomalous resistance, ionosphere) Physics of Atmosphere (environmental fluid dynamics, forecasting, data analysis, error estimate) Geophysics (turbulent convection in stratified, rotating and active flows) Combustion (dynamics of flames, fires, blast waves and explosions) Mathematical Aspects of Multi-Scale Dynamics (vortex dynamics, singularities, discontinuities, asymptotic dynamics, weak solutions, well- and ill-posedness) Statistical Approaches, Stochastic Processes and Probabilistic Description (uncertainty quantification, anomalous diffusion, long-tail distributions, wavelets) Advanced Numerical Simulations

  10. Gyrokinetic Studies of Turbulence in Steep Gradient Region: Role of Turbulence Spreading and E x B Shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Diamond, P.H.; Rewoldt, G.; Wang, W.X.; Ethier, S.; Gurcan, O.; Lee, W.W.; Tang, W.M.


    An integrated program of gyrokinetic particle simulation and theory has been developed to investigate several outstanding issues in both turbulence and neoclassical physics. Gyrokinetic particle simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence spreading using the GTC code and its related dynamical model have been extended to the case with radially increasing ion temperature gradient, to study the inward spreading of edge turbulence toward the core. Due to turbulence spreading from the edge, the turbulence intensity in the core region is significantly enhanced over the value obtained from simulations of the core region only. Even when the core gradient is within the Dimits shift regime (i.e., self-generated zonal flows reduce the transport to a negligible value), a significant level of turbulence and transport is observed in the core due to spreading from the edge. The scaling of the turbulent front propagation speed is closer to the prediction from our nonlinear diffusion model than one based on linear toroidal coupling. A calculation of ion poloidal rotation in the presence of sharp density and toroidal angular rotation frequency gradients from the GTC-Neo particle simulation code shows that the results are significantly different from the conventional neoclassical theory predictions. An energy conserving set of a fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to edge turbulence, is being derived via the phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method. Our generalized ordering takes the ion poloidal gyroradius to be on the order of the radial electric field gradient length

  11. Turbulence modeling needs of commercial CFD codes: Complex flows in the aerospace and automotive industries (United States)

    Befrui, Bizhan A.


    This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: STAR-CD computational features; STAR-CD turbulence models; common features of industrial complex flows; industry-specific CFD development requirements; applications and experiences of industrial complex flows, including flow in rotating disc cavities, diffusion hole film cooling, internal blade cooling, and external car aerodynamics; and conclusions on turbulence modeling needs.

  12. Flame Speed and Self-Similar Propagation of Expanding Turbulent Premixed Flames (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.


    In this Letter we present turbulent flame speeds and their scaling from experimental measurements on constant-pressure, unity Lewis number expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and the thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from the present expanding flames and those from the Bunsen geometry in the literature can be unified by a turbulent Reynolds number based on flame length scales using recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the transformed G equation.

  13. Ambilpolar Electric Field and Diffusive Cooling of Electrons in Meteor Trails (United States)

    Pasko, V. P.; Kelley, M. C.


    Kelley and Price [GRL, 44, 2987, 2017] recently indicated that ambipolar electric fields may play a role in dynamics of dense plasmas generated by meteors. In the present work we discuss time dynamics of relaxation of electron temperature in meteor trails under relatively common conditions when meteor trail diffusion is not affected by the geomagnetic field (i.e., at low altitudes where both electrons and ions are not magnetized, or at higher altitudes in the plane defined by the trail and magnetic field when meteor trail is not aligned with the geomagnetic field [Ceplecha et al., Space Sci. Rev., 84, 327, 1998, and references therein]). The rate of ambipolar diffusion is a function of temperature and pressure [e.g., Hocking et al., Ann. Geophys., 34, 1119, 2016; Silber et al., Mon. Not. RAS, 469, 1869, 2017] and there is a significant spectroscopic evidence of initial plasma temperatures in meteor trails on the order 4400 deg K [Jennikens et al., Astrobiology, 4, 81, 2004]. For a representative altitude of 105 km chosen for our studies the results are consistent with previous analysis conducted in [Baggeley and Webb, J. Atm. Terr. Phys., 39, 1399, 1977; Ceplecha et al., 1998] indicating that the electron temperature remains elevated for significant time durations measured in tens of milliseconds. Our results indicate that in terms of their magnitudes the ambipolar electric fields can exceed the critical breakdown field of air, consistent with ideas expressed by Kelley and Price [GRL, 44, 2987, 2017], however, under considered conditions these fields lead to acceleration of electron cooling, with electron temperatures falling below the ambient air temperature (below 224 deg K at 105 km altitude). These effects are referred to as diffusive cooling [e.g., Rozhansky and Tsendin, Transport phenomena in partially ionized plasma, Taylor & Francis, 2001, p. 449] and represent a process in which diffusing electrons move against the force acting on them from ambipolar

  14. Non-gaussian turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K.S. [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B.J. [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)


    The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)

  15. Turbulence new approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Belotserkovskii, OM; Chechetkin, VM


    The authors present the results of numerical experiments carried out to examine the problem of development of turbulence and convection. On the basis of the results, they propose a physical model of the development of turbulence. Numerical algorithms and difference schema for carrying out numerical experiments in hydrodynamics, are proposed. Original algorithms, suitable for calculation of the development of the processes of turbulence and convection in different conditions, even on astrophysical objects, are presented. The results of numerical modelling of several important phenomena having both fundamental and applied importance are described.

  16. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd


    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  17. Turbulent current layer equilibrium and current layer of the Earth magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, E.E.; Ovchinnikov, I.L.


    Analysis of distribution of plasma and magnetic field concentration in the unidimensional current layer under the condition of equality of the current inflowing into the layer and the counter diffusion current by various dependences of the regular velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient on the magnetic field. Corresponding two-dimensional solutions are obtained in the tail approximation. Comparison of the model turbulent current layer with characteristics of the plasma layer of the Earth magnetosphere tail is carried out. 16 refs., 3 figs

  18. Switching between attractive and repulsive Coulomb-interaction-mediated drag in an ambipolar GaAs/AlGaAs bilayer device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, B.; Croxall, A. F.; Waldie, J., E-mail:; Sfigakis, F.; Farrer, I.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Das Gupta, K. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)


    We present measurements of Coulomb drag in an ambipolar GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well structure that can be configured as both an electron-hole bilayer and a hole-hole bilayer, with an insulating barrier of only 10 nm between the two quantum wells. Coulomb drag resistivity is a direct measure of the strength of interlayer particle-particle interactions. We explore the strongly interacting regime of low carrier densities (2D interaction parameter r{sub s} up to 14). Our ambipolar device design allows a comparison between the effects of the attractive electron-hole and repulsive hole-hole interactions and also shows the effects of the different effective masses of electrons and holes in GaAs.

  19. Effect of asymmetrical double-pockets and gate-drain underlap on Schottky barrier tunneling FET: Ambipolar conduction vs. high frequency performance (United States)

    Shaker, Ahmed; Ossaimee, Mahmoud; Zekry, A.


    In this paper, a proposed structure based on asymmetrical double pockets SB-TFET with gate-drain underlap is presented. 2D extensive modeling and simulation, using Silvaco TCAD, were carried out to study the effect of both underlap length and pockets' doping on the transistor performance. It was found that the underlap from the drain side suppresses the ambipolar conduction and doesn't enhance the high-frequency characteristics. The enhancement of the high-frequency characteristics could be realized by increasing the doping of the drain pocket over the doping of the source pocket. An optimum choice was found which gives the conditions of minimum ambipolar conduction, maximum ON current and maximum cut-off frequency. These enhancements render the device more competitive as a nanometer transistor.

  20. Ambipolar blends of CuPc and C60: charge carrier mobility, electronic structure and its implications for solar cell applications


    Bruetting, W.; Bronner, M.; Goetzenbrugger, M.; Opitz, A.


    Ambipolar transport has been realised in blends of the molecular hole conductor Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and the electron conducting fullerene C60. Charge carrier mobilities and the occupied electronic levels have been analyzed as a function of the mixing ratio using field-effect transistor measurements and photoelectron spectroscopy. These results are discussed in the context of photovoltaic cells based on these materials.

  1. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua


    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  2. Modelling of structural effects on chemical reactions in turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammelsaeter, H.R.


    Turbulence-chemistry interactions are analysed using algebraic moment closure for the chemical reaction term. The coupling between turbulence and chemical length and time scales generate a complex interaction process. This interaction process is called structural effects in this work. The structural effects are shown to take place on all scales between the largest scale of turbulence and the scales of the molecular motions. The set of equations describing turbulent correlations involved in turbulent reacting flows are derived. Interactions are shown schematically using interaction charts. Algebraic equations for the turbulent correlations in the reaction rate are given using the interaction charts to include the most significant couplings. In the frame of fundamental combustion physics, the structural effects appearing on the small scales of turbulence are proposed modelled using a discrete spectrum of turbulent scales. The well-known problem of averaging the Arrhenius law, the specific reaction rate, is proposed solved using a presumed single variable probability density function and a sub scale model for the reaction volume. Although some uncertainties are expected, the principles are addressed. Fast chemistry modelling is shown to be consistent in the frame of algebraic moment closure when the turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for in the turbulent diffusion. The modelling proposed in this thesis is compared with experimental data for an laboratory methane flame and advanced probability density function modelling. The results show promising features. Finally it is shown a comparison with full scale measurements for an industrial burner. All features of the burner are captured with the model. 41 refs., 33 figs.

  3. Dynamic simulation for distortion image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects (United States)

    Du, Huijie; Fei, Jindong; Qing, Duzheng; Zhao, Hongming; Yu, Hong; Cheng, Chen


    The imaging through atmospheric turbulence is an inevitable problem encountered by infrared imaging sensors working in the turbulence atmospheric environment. Before light-rays enter the window of the imaging sensors, the atmospheric turbulence will randomly interfere with the transmission of the light waves came from the objects, causing the distribution of image intensity values on the focal plane to diffuse, the peak value to decrease, the image to get blurred, and the pixels to deviate, and making image identification very difficult. Owing to the fact of the long processing time and that the atmospheric turbulent flow field is unknown and hard to be described by mathematical models, dynamic simulation for distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects is much more difficult and challenging in the world. This paper discusses the dynamic simulation for distortion Image of turbulence atmospheric transmission effect. First of all, with the data and the optical transmission model of the turbulence atmospheric, the ray-tracing method is applied to obtain the propagation path of optical ray which propagates through the high-speed turbulent flow field, and then to calculate the OPD from the reference wave to the reconverted wave front and obtain the point spread function (PSF). Secondly, infrared characteristics models of typical scene were established according to the theory of infrared physics and heat conduction, and then the dynamic infrared image was generated by OpenGL. The last step is to obtain the distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects .With the data of atmospheric transmission computation, infrared simulation image of every frame was processed according to the theory of image processing and the real-time image simulation, and then the dynamic distortion simulation images with effects of blurring, jitter and shifting were obtained. Above-mentioned simulation method can provide the theoretical bases for recovering

  4. A group-kinetic theory of turbulent collective collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchen, C.M.; Misguich, J.H.


    The main objective is the derivation of the kinetic equation of turbulence which has a memory in the turbulent collision integral. We consider the basic pair-interaction, and the interaction between a fluctuation and the organized cluster of other fluctuations in the collection systems, called the multiple interaction. By a group-scaling procedure, a fluctuation is decomposed into three groups to represent the three coupled transport processes of evolution, transport coefficient, and relaxation. The kinetic equation of the scaled singlet distribution is capable of investigating the spectrum of turbulence without the need of the knowledge of the pair distribution. The exact propagator describes the detailed trajectory in the phase space, and is fundamental to the Lagrangian-Eulerian transformation. We calculate the propagator and its scaled groups by means of a probability of retrograde transition. Thus our derivation of the kinetic equation of the distribution involves a parallel development of the kinetic equations of the propagator and the transition probability. In this way, we can avoid the assumptions of independence and normality. Our result shows that the multiple interaction contributes to a shielding and an enchancement of the collision in weak turbulence and strong turbulence, respectively. The weak turbulence is dominated by the wave resonance, and the strong turbulence is dominated by the diffusion

  5. Synthesis of diketopyrrolopyrrole based copolymers via the direct arylation method for p-channel and ambipolar OFETs. (United States)

    Sonar, Prashant; Foong, Thelese Ru Bao; Dodabalapur, Ananth


    In this paper, we have synthesized two novel diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based donor–acceptor (D–A) copolymers poly{3,6-dithiophene-2-yl-2,5-di(2-octyl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-1,5-bis(dodecyloxy)naphthalene} (PDPPT-NAP) and poly{3,6-dithiophene-2-yl-2,5-di(2-butyldecyl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-2-dodecyl-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole} (PDPPT-BTRZ) via direct arylation organometallic coupling. Both copolymers contain a common electron withdrawing DPP building block which is combined with electron donating alkoxy naphthalene and electron withdrawing alkyl-triazole comonomers. The number average molecular weight (M(n)) determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for polymer PDPPT-NAP is around 23400 g mol(−1) whereas for polymer PDPPT-BTRZ it is 18600 g mol(−1). The solid state absorption spectra of these copolymers show a wide range of absorption from 400 nm to 1000 nm with optical band gaps calculated from absorption cut off values in the range of 1.45–1.30 eV. The HOMO values determined for PDPPT-NAP and PDPPT-BTRZ copolymers from photoelectron spectroscopy in air (PESA) data are 5.15 eV and 5.25 eV respectively. These polymers exhibit promising p-channel and ambipolar behaviour when used as an active layer in organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) devices. The highest hole mobility measured for polymer PDPPT-NAP is around 0.0046 cm(2) V(−1) s(−1) whereas the best ambipolar performance was calculated for PDPPT-BTRZ with a hole and electron mobility of 0.01 cm(2) V(−1) s(−1) and 0.006 cm(2) V(−1) s(−1) .

  6. Drift turbulence of plasma as a gas of vortex ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburdzhaniya, G.


    This paper shows that in the magnetoactive plasma the short-wavelength nonlinear vortex structures can form the drift turbulence. It has been established that the vortex structures, interacting between and with plasma particles, exite the wide density pulsation spectrum and lead to the anomalous diffusion of the particles. (author). 28 refs

  7. Mass transfer from smooth alabaster surfaces in turbulent flows (United States)

    Opdyke, Bradley N.; Gust, Giselher; Ledwell, James R.


    The mass transfer velocity for alabaster plates in smooth-wall turbulent flow is found to vary with the friction velocity according to an analytic solution of the advective diffusion equation. Deployment of alabaster plates on the sea floor can perhaps be used to estimate the viscous stress, and transfer velocities for other species.

  8. Global Plasma Turbulence Simulations of q=3 Sawtoothlike Events in the RTP Tokamak (United States)

    de Baar, M. R.; Thyagaraja, A.; Hogeweij, G. M.; Knight, P. J.; Min, E.


    A two-fluid computer model of electromagnetic tokamak turbulence, CUTIE, is used to study the dynamic structure and turbulent transport in the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project tokamak. A discharge with dominant, off-axis electron cyclotron heating is the main focus of the simulations which were extended over several resistive diffusion times. CUTIE reproduces the turbulent transport and MHD phenomena of the experiment. The noninductive components of the current density profile, viz., the dynamo current and the bootstrap current, are identified as key players in the turbulent transport and its suppression and in off-axis MHD events.

  9. Group-kinetic theory of turbulence (United States)

    Tchen, C. M.


    The two phases are governed by two coupled systems of Navier-Stokes equations. The couplings are nonlinear. These equations describe the microdynamical state of turbulence, and are transformed into a master equation. By scaling, a kinetic hierarchy is generated in the form of groups, representing the spectral evolution, the diffusivity and the relaxation. The loss of memory in formulating the relaxation yields the closure. The network of sub-distributions that participates in the relaxation is simulated by a self-consistent porous medium, so that the average effect on the diffusivity is to make it approach equilibrium. The kinetic equation of turbulence is derived. The method of moments reverts it to the continuum. The equation of spectral evolution is obtained and the transport properties are calculated. In inertia turbulence, the Kolmogoroff law for weak coupling and the spectrum for the strong coupling are found. As the fluid analog, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation has a driving force in the form of emission of solitons by velocity fluctuations, and is used to describe the microdynamical state of turbulence. In order for the emission together with the modulation to participate in the transport processes, the non-homogeneous Schrodinger equation is transformed into a homogeneous master equation. By group-scaling, the master equation is decomposed into a system of transport equations, replacing the Bogoliubov system of equations of many-particle distributions. It is in the relaxation that the memory is lost when the ensemble of higher-order distributions is simulated by an effective porous medium. The closure is thus found. The kinetic equation is derived and transformed into the equation of spectral flow.

  10. High-performance ambipolar self-assembled Au/Ag nanowire based vertical quantum dot field effect transistor. (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan


    Most lateral PbSe quantum dot field effect transistors (QD FETs) show a low on current/off current (I on/I off) ratio in charge transport measurements. A new strategy to provide generally better performance is to design PbSe QD FETs with vertical architecture, in which the structure parameters can be tuned flexibly. Here, we fabricated a novel room-temperature operated vertical quantum dot field effect transistor with a channel of 580 nm, where self-assembled Au/Ag nanowires served as source transparent electrodes and PbSe quantum dots as active channels. Through investigating the electrical characterization, the ambipolar device exhibited excellent characteristics with a high I on/I off current ratio of about 1 × 10(5) and a low sub-threshold slope (0.26 V/decade) in the p-type regime. The all-solution processing vertical architecture provides a convenient way for low cost, large-area integration of the device.

  11. Quantum and Classical Magnetoresistance in Ambipolar Topological Insulator Transistors with Gate-tunable Bulk and Surface Conduction (United States)

    Tian, Jifa; Chang, Cuizu; Cao, Helin; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Yong P.


    Weak antilocalization (WAL) and linear magnetoresistance (LMR) are two most commonly observed magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena in topological insulators (TIs) and often attributed to the Dirac topological surface states (TSS). However, ambiguities exist because these phenomena could also come from bulk states (often carrying significant conduction in many TIs) and are observable even in non-TI materials. Here, we demonstrate back-gated ambipolar TI field-effect transistors in (Bi0.04Sb0.96)2Te3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3(111), exhibiting a large carrier density tunability (by nearly 2 orders of magnitude) and a metal-insulator transition in the bulk (allowing switching off the bulk conduction). Tuning the Fermi level from bulk band to TSS strongly enhances both the WAL (increasing the number of quantum coherent channels from one to peak around two) and LMR (increasing its slope by up to 10 times). The SS-enhanced LMR is accompanied by a strongly nonlinear Hall effect, suggesting important roles of charge inhomogeneity (and a related classical LMR), although existing models of LMR cannot capture all aspects of our data. Our systematic gate and temperature dependent magnetotransport studies provide deeper insights into the nature of both MR phenomena and reveal differences between bulk and TSS transport in TI related materials. PMID:24810663

  12. Optically Induced PN Junction Diode and Photovoltaic Response on Ambipolar MoSe2 Field-effect Transistor (United States)

    Pradhan, Nihar; Lu, Zhengguang; Rhodes, Daniel; Terrones, Mauricio; Smirnov, Dmitry; Balicas, Luis


    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have emerged as an attractive material for electronic and optoelectronic devices due to their sizable band gap, flexibility and reduced dimensionality, which makes them promising candidates for applications in translucent optoelectronics components, such as solar cells and light emitting diodes. Here, we present an optically induced diode like response and concomitant photovoltaic effect in few-atomic layers molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) field-effect transistors. Compared to recently reported PN junctions based on TMDs, ambipolar MoSe2 shows nearly ideal diode rectification under illumination, with a sizable photovoltaic efficiency. The observed light induced diode response under fixed gate voltage, yields a maximum open circuit voltage 0.28V and short circuit current 230nA at 30uW incident laser power. The sense of current rectification can be altered by changing the polarity of the applied gate voltage (Vbg) . At Vbg = 0V the highest electrical power obtained is 175pW corresponding to a maximum photovoltaic efficiency of 0.01%. These values increased to 11nW and 0.05% under a Vbg = -7.5V. At an excitation voltage 1V we observed maximum photocurrent responsivity surpassing 100mA/W with corresponding external quantum efficiency ~ 30%.

  13. Flexible ambipolar organic field-effect transistors with reverse-offset-printed silver electrodes for a complementary inverter. (United States)

    Park, Junsu; Kim, Minseok; Yeom, Seung-Won; Ha, Hyeon Jun; Song, Hyenggun; Min Jhon, Young; Kim, Yun-Hi; Ju, Byeong-Kwon


    We report ambipolar organic field-effect transistors and complementary inverter circuits with reverse-offset-printed (ROP) Ag electrodes fabricated on a flexible substrate. A diketopyrrolopyrrole-based co-polymer (PDPP-TAT) was used as the semiconductor and poly(methyl methacrylate) was used as the gate insulator. Considerable improvement is observed in the n-channel electrical characteristics by inserting a cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as the electron-injection/hole-blocking layer at the interface between the semiconductors and the electrodes. The saturation mobility values are 0.35 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the p-channel and 0.027 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for the n-channel. A complementary inverter is demonstrated based on the ROP process, and it is selectively controlled by the insertion of Cs2CO3 onto the n-channel region via thermal evaporation. Moreover, the devices show stable operation during the mechanical bending test using tensile strains ranging from 0.05% to 0.5%. The results confirm that these devices have great potential for use in flexible and inexpensive integrated circuits over a large area.

  14. Turbulence in Natural Environments (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha

    Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be

  15. Suprathermal ion transport in turbulent magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovet, A. D.


    Suprathermal ions, which have an energy greater than the quasi-Maxwellian background plasma temperature, are present in many laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In fusion devices, they are generated by the fusion reactions and auxiliary heating. Controlling their transport is essential for the success of future fusion devices that could provide a clean, safe and abundant source of electric power to our society. In space, suprathermal ions include energetic solar particles and cosmic rays. The understanding of the acceleration and transport mechanisms of these particles is still incomplete. Basic plasma devices allow detailed measurements that are not accessible in astrophysical and fusion plasmas, due to the difficulty to access the former and the high temperatures of the latter. The basic toroidal device TORPEX offers an easy access for diagnostics, well characterized plasma scenarios and validated numerical simulations of its turbulence dynamics, making it the ideal platform for the investigation of suprathermal ion transport. This Thesis presents three-dimensional measurements of a suprathermal ion beam injected in turbulent TORPEX plasmas. The combination of uniquely resolved measurements and first principle numerical simulations reveals the general non-diffusive nature of the suprathermal ion transport. A precise characterization of their transport regime shows that, depending on their energies, suprathermal ions can experience either a super diffusive transport or a subdiffusive transport in the same background turbulence. The transport character is determined by the interaction of the suprathermal ion orbits with the turbulent plasma structures, which in turn depends on the ratio between the ion energy and the background plasma temperature. Time-resolved measurements reveal a clear difference in the intermittency of suprathermal ions time-traces depending on the transport regime they experience. Conditionally averaged measurements uncover the influence of

  16. Prospects of Measuring the Angular Power Spectrum of the Diffuse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Diffuse Galactic Syncrotron Emission (DGSE) is the most important diffuse foreground component for future cosmological 21-cm observations. The DGSE is also an important probe of the cosmic ray electron and magnetic field distributions in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) of our galaxy. In this paper we briefly ...

  17. Analytic Method for Pressure Recovery in Truncated Diffusers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prediction method is presented for the static pressure recovery in subsonic axisymmetric truncated conical diffusers. In the analysis, a turbulent boundary layer is assumed at the diffuser inlet and a potential core exists throughout the flow. When flow separation occurs, this approach cannot be used to predict the maximum ...

  18. Implications of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory for plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, David


    A brief discussion of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory is given with particular reference to the two dimensional case. The MHD turbulence is introduced with possible applications of techniques developed in Navier-Stokes theory. Turbulence in Vlasov plasma is also discussed from the point of view of the ''direct interaction approximation'' (DIA). (A.K.)

  19. Turbulent black holes. (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis


    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  20. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)


    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  1. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.


    This document deals with correlation length of electrostatic turbulence. First, the model of drift waves turbulence is presented. Then, the radial correlation length is determined analytically with toroidal coupling and non linear coupling. (TEC). 5 refs

  2. Statistical theory of Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, D.F.; Rose, H.A.; Goldman, M.V.


    A statistical theory of Langmuir turbulence is developed by applying a generalization of the direction interaction approximation (DIA) of Kraichnan to the Zakharov equations describing Langmuir turbulence. 7 references

  3. Turbulence and energy confinement in TORE SUPRA ohmic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Laviron, C.; Devynck, P.; Saha, S.K.; Capes, H.; Chen, X.P.; Coulon, J.P.; Gil, C.; Harris, G.; Hutter, T.; Pecquet, A.L.


    Results on confinement and turbulence from a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra are discussed. The attention is focused on the saturation of the energy confinement time and it is emphasized that this saturation could be explained by a saturation of the electron heat diffusivity. Ion behaviour is indeed governed by dilution and equipartition effects. Although the ion heat transport is never neoclassical, there is no enhanced degradation at the saturation. This behaviour is confirmed by turbulence measurements given by CO 2 laser coherent scattering. The density fluctuations level follows the electron heat diffusivity variations with the average density. Waves propagating in the ion diamagnetic direction are always present in turbulence frequency spectra. Thus, the saturation cannot be explained by the onset of an ion turbulence. The existence of an ion turbulence at the edge at all densities cannot be excluded. However, this ion feature in scattering spectra could be explained by a Doppler shift associated to an inversion point of the radial electric field at the edge

  4. Effect of eddy diffusivity ratio on underwater optical scintillation index. (United States)

    Elamassie, Mohammed; Uysal, Murat; Baykal, Yahya; Abdallah, Mohamed; Qaraqe, Khalid


    The performance of underwater optical wireless communication systems is severely affected by the turbulence that occurs due to the fluctuations in the index of refraction. Most previous studies assume a simplifying, yet inaccurate, assumption in the turbulence spectrum model that the eddy diffusivity ratio is equal to unity. It is, however, well known that the eddy diffusivities of temperature and salt are different from each other in most underwater environments. In this paper, we obtain a simplified spatial power spectrum model of turbulent fluctuations of the seawater refraction index as an explicit function of eddy diffusivity ratio. Using the derived model, we obtain the scintillation index of optical plane and spherical waves and investigate the effect of the eddy diffusivity ratio.

  5. Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.; Parashar, T. N.; Chhiber, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Sonsrettee, W. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Panyapiwat Institute of Management, Nonthaburi 11120 (Thailand); Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5—I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ruffolo, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Montgomery, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Física Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wan, M. [Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China)


    The investigation of the diffusive transport of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider the diffusion of charged particles in fully three-dimensional isotropic turbulent magnetic fields with no mean field, which may be pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We identify different ranges of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. Two different theoretical models are proposed to calculate the diffusion coefficient, each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared to those from computer simulations, showing good agreement.

  6. Plasma turbulence calculations on supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Dominguez, N.; Drake, J.B.; Garcia, L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Sidikman, K.


    Although the single-particle picture of magnetic confinement is helpful in understanding some basic physics of plasma confinement, it does not give a full description. Collective effects dominate plasma behavior. Any analysis of plasma confinement requires a self-consistent treatment of the particles and fields. The general picture is further complicated because the plasma, in general, is turbulent. The study of fluid turbulence is a rather complex field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples back to the fluid. Since the fluid is not a perfect conductor, this turbulence can lead to changes in the topology of the magnetic field structure, causing the magnetic field lines to wander radially. Because the plasma fluid flows along field lines, they carry the particles with them, and this enhances the losses caused by collisions. The changes in topology are critical for the plasma confinement. The study of plasma turbulence and the concomitant transport is a challenging problem. Because of the importance of solving the plasma turbulence problem for controlled thermonuclear research, the high complexity of the problem, and the necessity of attacking the problem with supercomputers, the study of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement devices is a Grand Challenge problem

  7. An overview of turbulence compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Iersel, M. van; Doelman, N.J.


    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theories have since found applications in many areas of astrophysics. Spacecraft measurements of solar-wind turbulence show that there is more power in Alfvén waves that travel away from the. Sun than towards it. Theories of imbalanced MHD turbulence have now been proposed to address interplanetary turbulence.

  9. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza str. 13, Craiova (Romania); Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)


    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  10. What is turbulence and which way does it cascade? (United States)

    Gibson, Carl


    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion, where the inertial vortex forces v x curl v of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. In the beginning at Planck conditions, it is assumed that the relevant dimensional parameters were the speed of light c, the Planck constant h, the Newton constant G, and the Boltzmann constant k. The first turbulence appeared at 10-43 s, 10-35 m, 1032 K when the Kolmogorov scale first matched the horizon scale ct. Inertial vortex forces of adjacent fluid particles with the same spin cause them to merge, so the turbulence cascade is always from small scales to large, as observed, contrary to the standard Taylor-Lumley model which must be abandoned. Adjacent fluid particles with opposite spin repel each other and are repelled by walls, which explains boundary layer separation and turbulent diffusion. The second turbulence appeared at 1012 seconds at density 10-17 kg m-3 with the fragmentation of protogalaxies along fossil big bang turbulence vortex lines. Life began at 1013 seconds in Jeans mass clumps of a trillion planets.

  11. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for Advanced Scientific. Research. She is currently working on problems of flow stability, transition to turbulence and vortex dynamics. Rama Govindarajan. This article is intended to introduce the young reader to the ... T applied by the engines and the drag force D due to the resistance of the air, i.e., under cruise condi~ions,.

  12. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  13. Stochastic modelling of turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    previously been shown to be closely connected to the energy dissipation. The incorporation of the small scale dynamics into the spatial model opens the door to a fully fledged stochastic model of turbulence. Concerning the interaction of wind and wind turbine, a new method is proposed to extract wind turbine...

  14. Turbulence compressibility corrections (United States)

    Coakley, T. J.; Horstman, C. C.; Marvin, J. G.; Viegas, J. R.; Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Kussoy, M. I.


    The basic objective of this research was to identify, develop and recommend turbulence models which could be incorporated into CFD codes used in the design of the National AeroSpace Plane vehicles. To accomplish this goal, a combined effort consisting of experimental and theoretical phases was undertaken. The experimental phase consisted of a literature survey to collect and assess a database of well documented experimental flows, with emphasis on high speed or hypersonic flows, which could be used to validate turbulence models. Since it was anticipated that this database would be incomplete and would need supplementing, additional experiments in the NASA Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) were also undertaken. The theoretical phase consisted of identifying promising turbulence models through applications to simple flows, and then investigating more promising models in applications to complex flows. The complex flows were selected from the database developed in the first phase of the study. For these flows it was anticipated that model performance would not be entirely satisfactory, so that model improvements or corrections would be required. The primary goals of the investigation were essentially achieved. A large database of flows was collected and assessed, a number of additional hypersonic experiments were conducted in the Ames HWT, and two turbulence models (kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models with corrections) were determined which gave superior performance for most of the flows studied and are now recommended for NASP applications.

  15. Turbulence, bubbles and drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland


    In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study

  16. Knudsen Reactivity Reduction: Kinetic Theory of Diffusion Process (United States)

    Nelson, Eric; Dodd, Evan; Molvig, Kim; Albright, Brian; Hoffman, Nelson; Zimmerman, George; Williams, Ed


    Previous work that found significant fusion reactivity reduction due to Knudsen layer losses [1], utilized a twice simplified treatment of the loss process that first went to the diffusion limit of the transport and then replaced the spatial kinetic diffusion operator by a local loss process. The derivation of kinetic diffusion utilized a stochastic differential equation technique to show that convection in combination with pitch-angle scattering yields spatial diffusion asymptotically over long time and spatial intervals. The same technique can be extended to include the independent energy scattering stochastic process. For the linear Fokker-Planck equation that governs the tail ions this gives a very efficient (particle like) numerical technique that can solve the complete ion tail problem in the three phase space dimensions of pitch-angle, energy, and spatial coordinate. The method allows inclusion of a temperature gradient and specified ambipolar electric fields. We present simulation results of the depleted tail distributions and fusion reactivities, and compare with the predictions of the simple local loss method.[4pt] [1] Kim Molvig, Nelson N. Hoffman, Brian J. Albright, Eric M. Nelson, and, Robert J. Webster (submitted to Physical Review Letters, 2012)

  17. The influence of heat transfer and the variations of the properties of the fluids in turbulent flow in tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, G.J.; Sielwa, J.T.


    The study is presented of the effects of heat transfer and the variations of the properties of the fluids in turbulent flow in tube. One model for the turbulent Eddy viscosity and termal Eddy diffusivity developed by CEBECI; NA and HABIB was utilized. The theoretical results agree well with experimental results [pt

  18. Interchange turbulence simulations for JET relevant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Fundamenski, J.W.


    The two dimensional, electrostatic edge-SOL turbulence code ESEL simulates the perpendicular dynamics of transport events in the SOL at the outboard midplane. Profiles of density n, electron temperature T e , and vorticity are evolved together with the fluctuations, without making a scale separation-ansatz, i.e., allowing relative fluctuation levels of order unity and profile variations by many orders of magnitude. Parallel losses in the SOL are described by the classical sub-sonic advection and Spitzer-Haearm diffusion, and are dependent on local values of n and T e , while perpendicular collisional dissipation is approximated by Pfirsch-Schlueter neoclassical diffusivities. ESEL simulations were performed with input parameters corresponding to high density JET ohmic discharges: n 0 = 10 19 m -3 , T e,0 = 45 eV, T i,0 = 80 eV, R 0 = 3 m, B 0 = 1.5 T, q 95 = 2.7. The resulting density, n = and temperature profiles, T = , where denotes a poloidal and temporal average, is shown, indicating a stronger decay of the profiles close to the separatrix than further outwards. Steeper temperature profiles reflect the slower loss of particles to the divertor as compared to loss of electron energy. Figure (b) depicts the radial profiles of the turbulent perpendicular energy fluxes in normalized units, split up into conductive 5/2n(bar) e v r >, convective 5/2 T e r > and fluctuating parts 5/2 r >, with T e and n being fluctuating parts of the two fields, respectively. Figure (c) displays the two effective diffusivities; the particle diffusivity part; D eff n(perpen.) = - r >/∂ r n and the heat diffusivity; 5/2D eff T(perpen.) = - r >/∂ r T. The corresponding effective velocities, v eff n(perpen.) = r >/n and v eff n(perpen.) = r >/T, are found to be nearly constant all over the SOL region with the values of 200 m/s and 300 m/s for the particle and heat velocities, respectively. The ESEL simulations for JET further predict parallel Mach numbers M ∼ 0.2 in agreement with

  19. Internal wave turbulence near a Texel beach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Haren

    Full Text Available A summer bather entering a calm sea from the beach may sense alternating warm and cold water. This can be felt when moving forward into the sea ('vertically homogeneous' and 'horizontally different', but also when standing still between one's feet and body ('vertically different'. On a calm summer-day, an array of high-precision sensors has measured fast temperature-changes up to 1 °C near a Texel-island (NL beach. The measurements show that sensed variations are in fact internal waves, fronts and turbulence, supported in part by vertical stable stratification in density (temperature. Such motions are common in the deep ocean, but generally not in shallow seas where turbulent mixing is expected strong enough to homogenize. The internal beach-waves have amplitudes ten-times larger than those of the small surface wind waves. Quantifying their turbulent mixing gives diffusivity estimates of 10(-4-10(-3 m(2 s(-1, which are larger than found in open-ocean but smaller than wave breaking above deep sloping topography.

  20. Statistical steady states in turbulent droplet condensation (United States)

    Bec, Jeremie; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Siewert, Christoph


    We investigate the general problem of turbulent condensation. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. This leads to propose a Lagrangian stochastic model consisting of a set of integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution.

  1. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer


    Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

  2. Turbulent mixing and removal of ozone within an Amazon rainforest canopy (United States)

    Freire, L. S.; Gerken, T.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.; Wei, D.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Dias, N. L.; Acevedo, O. C.; Chamecki, M.


    Simultaneous profiles of turbulence statistics and mean ozone mixing ratio are used to establish a relation between eddy diffusivity and ozone mixing within the Amazon forest. A one-dimensional diffusion model is proposed and used to infer mixing time scales from the eddy diffusivity profiles. Data and model results indicate that during daytime conditions, the upper (lower) half of the canopy is well (partially) mixed most of the time and that most of the vertical extent of the forest can be mixed in less than an hour. During nighttime, most of the canopy is predominantly poorly mixed, except for periods with bursts of intermittent turbulence. Even though turbulence is faster than chemistry during daytime, both processes have comparable time scales in the lower canopy layers during nighttime conditions. Nonchemical loss time scales (associated with stomatal uptake and dry deposition) for the entire forest are comparable to turbulent mixing time scale in the lower canopy during the day and in the entire canopy during the night, indicating a tight coupling between turbulent transport and dry deposition and stomatal uptake processes. Because of the significant time of day and height variability of the turbulent mixing time scale inside the canopy, it is important to take it into account when studying chemical and biophysical processes happening in the forest environment. The method proposed here to estimate turbulent mixing time scales is a reliable alternative to currently used models, especially for situations in which the vertical distribution of the time scale is relevant.

  3. Magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.


    By using measurements with the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the Imp 6 satellite a study has been conducted of the spectrum of electrostatic plasma waves in the terrestrial magnetosheath. Electrostatic plasma wave turbulence is almost continuously present throughout the magnetosheath with broadband (20 Hz to 70 kHz) rms field intensities typically 0.01--1.0 mV m -1 . Peak intensities of about 1.0 mV m -1 near the electron plasma frequency (30--60 kHz) have been detected occasionally. Two or three components can usually be identified in the spectrum of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence: a high-frequency (> or =30kHz) component peaking at the electron plasma frequency f/sub p/e, a low-frequency component with a broad intensity maximum below the nominal ion plasma frequency f/sub p/i (approx. f/sub p/e/43), and a less well defined intermediate component in the range f/sub p/i < f< f/sub p/e. The intensity distribution of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence clearly shows that the low-frequency component is associated with the bow shock, suggesting that the ion heating begun at the shock continues into the downstream magnetosheath. Electrostatic waves below 1 kHz are polarized along the magnetic field direction, a result consistent with the polarization of electrostatic waves at the shock. The high- and intermediate-frequency components are features of the magnetosheath spectrum which are not characteristic of the shock spectrum but are often detected in the upstream solar wind. The intensity distribution of electrostatic turbulence at the magnetosheath plasma frequency has no apparent correlation with the shock, indicating that electron plasma oscillations are a general feature of the magnetosheath. The plasma wave noise shows a tendency to decrease toward the dawn and dusk regions, consistent with a general decrease in turbulence away from the subsolar magnetosheath

  4. Control of Ambipolar Transport in SnO Thin-Film Transistors by Back-Channel Surface Passivation for High Performance Complementary-like Inverters. (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Dai, Mingzhi; Lu, Yicheng; Wang, Mei


    For ultrathin semiconductor channels, the surface and interface nature are vital and often dominate the bulk properties to govern the field-effect behaviors. High-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) rely on the well-defined interface between the channel and gate dielectric, featuring negligible charge trap states and high-speed carrier transport with minimum carrier scattering characters. The passivation process on the back-channel surface of the bottom-gate TFTs is indispensable for suppressing the surface states and blocking the interactions between the semiconductor channel and the surrounding atmosphere. We report a dielectric layer for passivation of the back-channel surface of 20 nm thick tin monoxide (SnO) TFTs to achieve ambipolar operation and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) like logic devices. This chemical passivation reduces the subgap states of the ultrathin channel, which offers an opportunity to facilitate the Fermi level shifting upward upon changing the polarity of the gate voltage. With the advent of n-type inversion along with the pristine p-type conduction, it is now possible to realize ambipolar operation using only one channel layer. The CMOS-like logic inverters based on ambipolar SnO TFTs were also demonstrated. Large inverter voltage gains (>100) in combination with wide noise margins are achieved due to high and balanced electron and hole mobilities. The passivation also improves the long-term stability of the devices. The ability to simultaneously achieve field-effect inversion, electrical stability, and logic function in those devices can open up possibilities for the conventional back-channel surface passivation in the CMOS-like electronics.

  5. The nonlinear ambipolar drift and periodic structure of non-self-sustained discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dem'yanov, A.V.; Mazalov, D.A.; Napartovich, A.P.


    Gas discharge is well known to be strongly nonlinear self-organizing system. The diverse nonlinear structures, observed at different conditions (arc, stationary and non-stationary strata, hot spot patterns on the electrodes and so on), are usually explained by the theory taking into account the processes of diffusion and thermoconductivity. In plasma of high pressure discharge these processes become negligible within the characteristic intervals. At these conditions electron drift becomes the main process. Owing to the continuity of full current and plasma quasineutrality there appear effective flows of convective type with the rate depending on the concentration of charged particles. It is this reason that is responsible for the observed structure of the non-moving luminous layers in non-self-sustained discharge in 10%H 2 +Ar mixture under p≥l atm. The present report shows the results of detail experimental and theoretical study of this phenomenon. The experiments have been carried out on the setup with the discharge gap of about 1 cm or of much greater size. Mach-Zender interferometer and an image-converter intensifier operating as a strip or framing camera. The experiments have been carried out under the pressure 1-3 atm. They show that the stationary layers sequentially appear one after another along the direction from the cathode to the anode. Interferometry shows that there is a gas density modulation corresponding to the periodical structure of fringes. The picture of Fig.1 is a typical interferogram, and that of Fig.2 is a gas density distribution restored from it

  6. Ambipolar gate effect and low temperature magnetoresistance of ultrathin La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 films. (United States)

    Eblen-Zayas, M; Bhattacharya, A; Staley, N E; Kobrinskii, A L; Goldman, A M


    Ultrathin La(0.8)Ca(0.2)MnO(3) films have been measured in a field-effect geometry. The gate electric field produces a significant ambipolar decrease in resistance at low temperatures. This is attributed to the development of a pseudogap in the density of states and the coupling of localized charge to strain. Within a mixed phase scenario, the gate effect and magnetoresistance are interpreted in the framework of a "general susceptibility," which describes how phase boundaries move through a hierarchical pinning landscape.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Min-Kai; Kratter, Kaitlin M., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    Low mass, self-gravitating accretion disks admit quasi-steady, “gravito-turbulent” states in which cooling balances turbulent viscous heating. However, numerical simulations show that gravito-turbulence cannot be sustained beyond dynamical timescales when the cooling rate or corresponding turbulent viscosity is too large. The result is disk fragmentation. We motivate and quantify an interpretation of disk fragmentation as the inability to maintain gravito-turbulence due to formal secondary instabilities driven by: (1) cooling, which reduces pressure support; and/or (2) viscosity, which reduces rotational support. We analyze the axisymmetric gravitational stability of viscous, non-adiabatic accretion disks with internal heating, external irradiation, and cooling in the shearing box approximation. We consider parameterized cooling functions in 2D and 3D disks, as well as radiative diffusion in 3D. We show that generally there is no critical cooling rate/viscosity below which the disk is formally stable, although interesting limits appear for unstable modes with lengthscales on the order of the disk thickness. We apply this new linear theory to protoplanetary disks subject to gravito-turbulence modeled as an effective viscosity, and cooling regulated by dust opacity. We find that viscosity renders the disk beyond ∼60 au dynamically unstable on radial lengthscales a few times the local disk thickness. This is coincident with the empirical condition for disk fragmentation based on a maximum sustainable stress. We suggest turbulent stresses can play an active role in realistic disk fragmentation by removing rotational stabilization against self-gravity, and that the observed transition in behavior from gravito-turbulent to fragmenting may reflect instability of the gravito-turbulent state itself.

  8. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre


    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  9. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre


    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a ΛΛ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  10. Turbulence Interface Simulation by Lagrangian Blocks (United States)

    Chu, V. H.


    Most computational fluid-dynamics codes are developed using the Eulerian description. To find the numerical solution, fluxes are estimated on the surface of the finite volume using a truncation series. Spurious numerical oscillations and artificial numerical diffusion are consequences, particularly in regions across flow discontinuities. Diffusion often is introduced synthetically in many schemes to gain computational stability. Occasional switching to a diffusive upwind scheme, for example, is one classic strategy to manage the numerical oscillations [see e.g., Ghannadi & Chu 2015]. Lagrangian-block simulation offers an alternative that could minimize the spurious oscillations and false diffusive error. The blocks move in the direction of the flow. The squares of the block widths expand in proportion to the diffusivities. The block simulation procedure consists of (i) Lagrangian advection and diffusion, (ii) division into portions, and (iii) reassembly of the portions into new blocks. The blocks are renewed in each time increment to prevent excessive distortion. Details of the Lagrangian-block simulations method have been given in a series of papers by Tan & Chu (2012), Chu & Altai (2012, 2015}. In this paper, the exchanges across turbulence interfaces are considered for two problems. The first series of the simulations are conducted to find the mass and momentum exchanges across a shallow flow of two different depth. In the simulations, the advection and diffusion of three separated systems of blocks that contain the mass, momentum and potential vorticity are carried out using the Lagrangian-block simulation method. The simulation results are compared with data obtained from a previous laboratory investigation and related to the shear instability problem in rotating shear flow previously considered by Chu (2014). The second problem involves the turbulence generation across the interface of an internal waves. The simulation shows the development of gravitational

  11. Statistical theory of subcritically-excited strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka


    A statistical theory of nonlinear-nonequilibrium plasma state with strongly developed turbulence and with strong inhomogeneity of the system has been developed. A unified theory for both the thermally excited fluctuations and the strongly turbulent fluctuations is presented. With respect to the turbulent fluctuations, the coherent part to a certain test mode is renormalized as the drag to the test mode, and the rest, the incoherent part, is considered to be a random noise. The renormalized operator includes the effect of nonlinear destabilization as well as the decorrelation by turbulent fluctuations. Formulation is presented by deriving an Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution function. Equilibrium distribution function of fluctuations is obtained. Transition from the thermal fluctuations, that is governed by the Boltzmann distribution, to the turbulent fluctuation is clarified. The distribution function for the turbulent fluctuation has tail component and the width of which is in the same order as the mean fluctuation level itself. The Lyapunov function is constructed for the strongly turbulent plasma, and it is shown that an approach to a certain equilibrium distribution is assured. The result for the most probable state is expressed in terms of 'minimum renormalized dissipation rate', which is given by the ratio of the nonlinear decorrelation rate of fluctuation energy and the random excitation rate which includes both the thermal noise and turbulent self-noise effects. Application is made for example to the current-diffusive interchange mode turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas. The applicability of this method covers plasma turbulences in much wider circumstance as well as neutral fluid turbulence. This method of analyzing strong turbulence has successfully extended the principles of statistical physics, i.e., Kubo-formula, Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production rate. The condition for the turbulence transition is analogous to

  12. Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion (United States)

    Baumert, H. Z.


    This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes (vortex filaments, excitations) as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations and with Landau's two-fluid theory of liquid helium. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the turbulent kinetic energy to follow t-1. With an adiabatic wall condition it predicts the logarithmic law with von Kármán's constant as 1/\\sqrt {2\\,\\pi }= 0.399 . Likewise rotating couples form localized dissipative patches almost at rest (→ intermittency) wherein under local quasi-steady conditions the spectrum evolves into an ‘Apollonian gear’ as discussed first by Herrmann (1990 Correlation and Connectivity (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 108-20). Dissipation happens exclusively at scale zero and at finite scales this system is frictionless and reminds of Prigogine's (1947 Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles (Liege: Desoer) p 143) law of minimum (here: zero) entropy production. The theory predicts further the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum (a Kolmogorov constant) as \\frac {1}{3}(4\\,\\pi )^{2/3}=1.802 , well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and direct numerical simulation results.

  13. Turbulence and Dispersion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lateral spreading appears similar to diffusion. If a lump of sugar is placed in a beaker containing water, it will slowly dissolve and spread or diffuse into water. Even- tually the concentration of sugar in water will be the constant [2J. 2 Smoke is essentially a gas- eous stream consisting of very tiny particles of soot. As they.

  14. Dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in turbulent vortex cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Christian; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio


    Turbulence and coherent circulation structures, such as submesoscale and mesoscale eddies, convective plumes and Langmuir cells, play a critical role in shaping phytoplankton spatial distribution and population dynamics. We use a framework of advection-reaction-diffusion equations to investigate...... the effects of turbulent transport on the phytoplankton population growth and its spatial structure in a vertical two-dimensional vortex flow field. In particular, we focus on how turbulent flow velocities and sinking influence phytoplankton growth and biomass aggregation. Our results indicate that conditions...... in mixing and growth of phytoplankton can drive different vertical spatial structures in the mixed layer, with the depth of the mixed layer being a critical factor to allow coexistence of populations with different sinking speed. With increasing mixed layer depth, positive growth for sinking phytoplankton...

  15. Area of turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.   The last day of data collection, tired but satisfied after seven intense days of measurements. Around the cryostat, from left to right: Philippe-E. Roche, Éléonore Rusaouen (CNRS),
Olivier Pirotte, Jean-Marc Quetsch (CERN), Nicolas Friedlin (CERN),
Vladislav Benda (CERN). Not in the photo: Laurent Le Mao (CERN), Jean-Marc Debernard (CERN), 
Jean-Paul Lamboy (CERN), Nicolas Guillotin (CERN), Benoit Chabaud (Grenoble Uni), and Gregory Garde (CNRS). CERN has a unique cryogenic facility in hall SM18, consisting of 21 liquid-helium-cooled test stations. While this equipment was, of course, designed for testing parts of CERN's acce...

  16. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S


    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  17. Aerodynamic effects in isotope separation by gaseous diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert, L.A.; Prosperetti, A.; Fiocchi, R.


    The turbulent flow of an isotopic mixture in a porous-walled pipe is considered in the presence of suction through the wall. A simple model is formulated for the evaluation of aerodynamic effects on the separation efficiency. The predictions of the model are found to compare very favourably with experiment. In the limit of small suction velocities, results obtained by other investigators for diffusion in a turbulent steam are recovered. (author)

  18. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.


    confined plasmas, magneto-convection, magneto-rotational instability, dynamo; Canonical plasmas: coupled plasmas, anomalous resistance, ionosphere; Physics of atmosphere: environmental fluid dynamics, weather forecasting, turbulent flows in stratified media and atmosphere, non-Boussinesq convection; Geophysics and Earth science: mantle-lithosphere tectonics, oceanography, turbulent convection under rotation, planetary interiors; Combustion: dynamics of flames and fires, deflagration-to-detonation transition, blast waves and explosions, flows with chemical reactions, flows in jet engines; Mathematical aspects of non-equilibrium dynamics: vortex dynamics, singularities, discontinuities, asymptotic dynamics, weak solutions, well- and ill-posedness, continuous transports out of thermodynamic equilibrium; Stochastic processes and probabilistic description: long-tail distributions and anomalous diffusion, data assimilation and processing methodologies, error estimate and uncertainty quantification, statistically unsteady processes; Advanced numerical simulations: continuous DNS/LES/RANS, molecular dynamics, Monte-Carlo, predictive modeling, validation and verification of numerical models; Experimental diagnostics: model experiments in high energy density and low energy density regimes, plasma diagnostics, fluid flow visualizations and control, opto-fluidics, novel optical methods, holography, advanced technologies. TMB-2009 was organized by the following members of the Organizing Committee: Snezhana I Abarzhi (chairperson, Chicago, USA) Malcolm J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) Sergei I Anisimov (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) Hiroshi Azechi (Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) Serge Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) Christopher J Keane (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) Robert Rosner (Argonne National Laboratory, USA) Katepalli R Sreenivasan (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy) Alexander

  19. Magnetic fields in diffuse media

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, Elisabete; Melioli, Claudio


    This volume presents the current knowledge of magnetic fields in diffuse astrophysical media. Starting with an overview of 21st century instrumentation to observe astrophysical magnetic fields, the chapters cover observational techniques, origin of magnetic fields, magnetic turbulence, basic processes in magnetized fluids, the role of magnetic fields for cosmic rays, in the interstellar medium and for star formation. Written by a group of leading experts the book represents an excellent overview of the field. Nonspecialists will find sufficient background to enter the field and be able to appreciate the state of the art.

  20. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian, E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Niceno, Bojan, E-mail: [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety


    After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 15}. Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu{sub i}). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v{sup 2} -f (commonly called as v{sup 2}-f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)

  1. Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan


    After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10 8 to 10 15 . Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu i ). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v 2 -f (commonly called as v 2 -f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)

  2. Study on copper phthalocyanine and perylene-based ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors produced using neutral beam deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Do; Shin, Eun-Sol; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Choi, Jong-Ho, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    The neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method has been applied to the production and characterization of ambipolar, heterojunction-based organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) with a top-contact, multi-digitated, long-channel geometry. Organic thin films of n-type N,N′-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide and p-type copper phthalocyanine were successively deposited on the hydroxyl-free polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-coated SiO{sub 2} dielectrics using the NCBD method. Characterization of the morphological and structural properties of the organic active layers was performed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various device parameters such as hole- and electron-carrier mobilities, threshold voltages, and electroluminescence (EL) were derived from the fits of the observed current-voltage and current-voltage-light emission characteristics of OLEFETs. The OLEFETs demonstrated good field-effect characteristics, well-balanced ambipolarity, and substantial EL under ambient conditions. The device performance, which is strongly correlated with the surface morphology and the structural properties of the organic active layers, is discussed along with the operating conduction mechanism.

  3. Novel red phosphorescent polymers bearing both ambipolar and functionalized Ir(III) phosphorescent moieties for highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes. (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Lian, Meng; Yu, Yue; Yan, Xiaogang; Xu, Xianbin; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin


    A series of novel red phosphorescent polymers is successfully developed through Suzuki cross-coupling among ambipolar units, functionalized Ir(III) phosphorescent blocks, and fluorene-based silane moieties. The photophysical and electrochemical investigations indicate not only highly efficient energy-transfer from the organic segments to the phosphorescent units in the polymer backbone but also the ambipolar character of the copolymers. Benefiting from all these merits, the phosphorescent polymers can furnish organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with exceptional high electroluminescent (EL) efficiencies with a current efficiency (η L ) of 8.31 cd A(-1) , external quantum efficiency (η ext ) of 16.07%, and power efficiency (η P ) of 2.95 lm W(-1) , representing the state-of-the-art electroluminescent performances ever achieved by red phosphorescent polymers. This work here might represent a new pathway to design and synthesize highly efficient phosphorescent polymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Floating-Gate Manipulated Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterojunction for Nonvolatile Ambipolar Schottky Junction Memories, Memory Inverter Circuits, and Logic Rectifiers. (United States)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Zong, Qijun; Zhang, Zengxing


    The Schottky junction is an important unit in electronics and optoelectronics. However, its properties greatly degrade with device miniaturization. The fast development of circuits has fueled a rapid growth in the study of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, which may lead to breakthroughs in the semiconductor industry. Here we report a floating-gate manipulated nonvolatile ambipolar Schottky junction memory from stacked all-2D layers of graphene-BP/h-BN/graphene (BP, black phosphorus; h-BN, hexagonal boron nitride) in a designed floating-gate field-effect Schottky barrier transistor configuration. By manipulating the voltage pulse applied to the control gate, the device exhibits ambipolar characteristics and can be tuned to act as graphene-p-BP or graphene-n-BP junctions with reverse rectification behavior. Moreover, the junction exhibits good storability properties of more than 10 years and is also programmable. On the basis of these characteristics, we further demonstrate the application of the device to dual-mode nonvolatile Schottky junction memories, memory inverter circuits, and logic rectifiers.

  5. Fast electron generation and transport in a turbulent, magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneking, W.R.


    The nature of fast electron generation and transport in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated using two electron energy analyzer (EEA) probes and a thermocouple calorimeter. The parallel velocity distribution of the fast electron population is well fit by a drifted Maxwellian distribution with temperature of about 100 eV and drift velocity of about 2 x 10 6 m/s. Cross-calibration of the EEA with the calorimeter provides a measurement of the fast electron perpendicular temperature of 30 eV, much lower than the parallel temperature, and is evidence that the kinetic dynamo mechanism (KDT) is not operative in MST. The fast electron current is found to match to the parallel current at the edge, and the fast electron density is about 4 x 10 11 cm -3 independent of the ratio of the applied toroidal electric field to the critical electric field for runaways. First time measurements of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport are reported. By correlating electron current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the transported flux of electrons is found to be negligible outside r/a∼0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a∼0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient. Evidence exists that the reduction of the transport is due to the presence of a radial ambipolar electric field of magnitude 500 V/m, that acts to equilibrate the ion and electron transport rates. The convective energy transport associated with the measured particle transport is large enough to account for the observed magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport in MST

  6. Fast electron generation and transport in a turbulent, magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoneking, Matthew Randall [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The nature of fast electron generation and transport in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated using two electron energy analyzer (EEA) probes and a thermocouple calorimeter. The parallel velocity distribution of the fast electron population is well fit by a drifted Maxwellian distribution with temperature of about 100 eV and drift velocity of about 2 x 106 m/s. Cross-calibration of the EEA with the calorimeter provides a measurement of the fast electron perpendicular temperature of 30 eV, much lower than the parallel temperature, and is evidence that the kinetic dynamo mechanism (KDT) is not operative in MST. The fast electron current is found to match to the parallel current at the edge, and the fast electron density is about 4 x 1011 cm-3 independent of the ratio of the applied toroidal electric field to the critical electric field for runaways. First time measurements of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport are reported. By correlating electron current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the transported flux of electrons is found to be negligible outside r/a~0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a~0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient. Evidence exists that the reduction of the transport is due to the presence of a radial ambipolar electric field of magnitude 500 V/m, that acts to equilibrate the ion and electron transport rates. The convective energy transport associated with the measured particle transport is large enough to account for the observed magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport in MST.

  7. Turbulence in the solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Roberto


    This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...

  8. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server


    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  9. GRILLIX. A 3D turbulence code for magnetic fusion devices based on a field line map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmeir, Andreas Korbinian


    The complex geometry in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks poses problems to existing turbulence codes. The usually employed field aligned coordinates become ill defined at the separatrix. Therefore the parallel code GRILLIX was developed, which is based on a field line map. This allows simulations in additional complex geometries, especially across the separatrix. A new discretisation, based on the support operator method, for the highly anisotropic diffusion was developed and applied to a simple turbulence model (Hasegawa-Wakatani).

  10. Numerical simulation of a laboratory-scale turbulent V-flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Shepherd, I.G.; Johnson, M.; Cheng, R.K.; Grcar,J.F.; Beckner, V.E.; Lijewski, M.J.


    We present a three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a laboratory-scale rod-stabilized premixed turbulent V-flame. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number model with detailed chemical kinetics and a mixture model for differential species diffusion. The algorithm is based on a second-order projection formulation and does not require an explicit subgrid model for turbulence or turbulence chemistry interaction. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to dynamically resolve the flame and turbulent structures. Here, we briefly discuss the numerical procedure and present detailed comparisons with experimental measurements showing that the computation is able to accurately capture the basic flame morphology and associated mean velocity field. Finally, we discuss key issues that arise in performing these types of simulations and the implications of these issues for using computation to form a bridge between turbulent flame experiments and basic combustion chemistry.

  11. Topographic enhancement of vertical turbulent mixing in the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Mashayek, A.; Ferrari, R.; Merrifield, S.; Ledwell, J. R.; St Laurent, L.; Garabato, A. Naveira


    It is an open question whether turbulent mixing across density surfaces is sufficiently large to play a dominant role in closing the deep branch of the ocean meridional overturning circulation. The diapycnal and isopycnal mixing experiment in the Southern Ocean found the turbulent diffusivity inferred from the vertical spreading of a tracer to be an order of magnitude larger than that inferred from the microstructure profiles at the mean tracer depth of 1,500 m in the Drake Passage. Using a high-resolution ocean model, it is shown that the fast vertical spreading of tracer occurs when it comes in contact with mixing hotspots over rough topography. The sparsity of such hotspots is made up for by enhanced tracer residence time in their vicinity due to diffusion toward weak bottom flows. The increased tracer residence time may explain the large vertical fluxes of heat and salt required to close the abyssal circulation.

  12. Transport of solar electrons in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablaßmayer, J.; Tautz, R. C., E-mail: [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Dresing, N., E-mail: [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)


    The turbulent transport of solar energetic electrons in the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated by means of a test-particle Monte-Carlo simulation. The magnetic fields are modeled as a combination of the Parker field and a turbulent component. In combination with the direct calculation of diffusion coefficients via the mean-square displacements, this approach allows one to analyze the effect of the initial ballistic transport phase. In that sense, the model complements the main other approach in which a transport equation is solved. The major advancement is that, by recording the flux of particles arriving at virtual detectors, intensity and anisotropy-time profiles can be obtained. Observational indications for a longitudinal asymmetry can thus be explained by tracing the diffusive spread of the particle distribution. The approach may be of future help for the systematic interpretation of observations for instance by the solar terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) and advanced composition explorer (ACE) spacecrafts.

  13. Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo


    Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re r = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in the

  14. Urban Effects on Transport and Diffusion of Smokes and Toxic Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, D. M; Klipp, C. L; Chang, S. S; Huynh, G. D; Williamson, C. C


    .... The Joint Urban 2003 (JUT) project, a cooperative undertaking to study turbulent transport and diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer conducted in Oklahoma City in the summer of 2003, afforded the Army Research Laboratory (ARL...

  15. Analytical solutions for the fractional diffusion-advection equation describing super-diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Francisco


    Full Text Available This paper presents the alternative construction of the diffusion-advection equation in the range (1; 2. The fractional derivative of the Liouville-Caputo type is applied. Analytical solutions are obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions. In the range (1; 2 the concentration exhibits the superdiffusion phenomena and when the order of the derivative is equal to 2 ballistic diffusion can be observed, these behaviors occur in many physical systems such as semiconductors, quantum optics, or turbulent diffusion. This mathematical representation can be applied in the description of anomalous complex processes.

  16. Transport of and radiation production by transrelativistic and nonrelativistic particles moving through sub-Larmor-scale electromagnetic turbulence. (United States)

    Keenan, Brett D; Ford, Alexander L; Medvedev, Mikhail V


    Plasmas with electromagnetic fields turbulent at sub-Larmor scales are a feature of a wide variety of high-energy-density environments and are essential to the description of many astrophysical and laboratory plasma phenomena. Radiation from particles, whether they are relativistic or nonrelativistic, moving through small-scale magnetic turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation. The radiation, carrying information on the statistical properties of the magnetic turbulence, is also intimately related to the particle diffusive transport. We have investigated, both theoretically and numerically, the transport of nonrelativistic and trans-relativistic particles in plasmas with high-amplitude isotropic sub-Larmor-scale magnetic turbulence, and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. Consequently, the diffusive and radiative properties of plasmas turbulent on sub-Larmor scales may serve as a powerful tool to diagnosis laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  17. Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galtier


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.

  18. Turbulent dispersion of many particles (United States)

    Pratt, J.; Busse, A.; Muller, W. C.


    We demonstrate the utility of the convex hull to analyze dispersion of groups of many Lagrangian tracer particles in turbulence. We examine dispersion in turbulent flows driven by convection, relevant to geophysical flows and the spread of contaminants in the atmosphere, and in turbulent flows affected by magnetic fields, relevant to stellar winds and stellar interiors. Convex hull analysis can provide new information about local dispersion, in the form of the surface area and volume for a cluster of particles. We use dispersive information to examine the local anisotropy that occurs in these turbulent settings, and to understand fundamental characteristics of heat transfer and the small-scale dynamo.

  19. Asymptotic expansion and statistical description of turbulent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, W.K. III.


    A new approach to studying turbulent systems is presented in which an asymptotic expansion of the general dynamical equations is performed prior to the application of statistical methods for describing the evolution of the system. This approach has been applied to two specific systems: anomalous drift wave turbulence in plasmas and homogeneous, isotropic turbulence in fluids. For the plasma case, the time and length scales of the turbulent state result in the asymptotic expansion of the Vlasov/Poisson equations taking the form of nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. Questions regarding this theory and modern Hamiltonian perturbation methods are discussed and resolved. A new alternative Hamiltonian method is described. The Eulerian Direct Interaction Approximation (EDIA) is slightly reformulated and applied to the equations of nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. Using a similarity transformation technique, expressions for the thermal diffusivity are derived from the EDIA equations for various geometries, including a tokamak. In particular, the unique result for generalized geometry may be of use in evaluating fusion reactor designs and theories of anomalous thermal transport in tokamaks. Finally, a new and useful property of the EDIA is pointed out. For the fluid case, an asymptotic expansion is applied to the Navier-Stokes equation and the results lead to the speculation that such an approach may resolve the problem of predicting the Kolmogorov inertial range energy spectrum for homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. 45 refs., 3 figs

  20. Numerical simulation of compressible, turbulent, two-phase flow (United States)

    Coakley, t. J.; Champney, J. M.


    A computer program for numerically simulating compressible, turbulent, two-phase flows is described and applied. Special attention is given to flows in which dust is ingested into the turbulent boundary layer behind shock waves moving over the earth's surface. it is assumed that the two phases are interpenetrating continua which are coupled by drag forces and heat transfer. The particle phase is assumed to be dilute, and turbulent effects are modeled by zero- and two-equation eddy viscosity models. An important feature of the turbulence modeling is the treatment of surface boundary conditions which control the ingestion of particles into the boundary layer by turbulent friction and diffusion. The numerical method uses second-order implicit upwind differencing of the inviscid terms of the equations and second-order central differencing of the viscous terms. A diagonal form of the implicit algorithm is used to improve efficiency, and the transformation to a curvilinear coordinate system is accomplished by the finite volume techniques. Applications to a series of representative flows include a two-phase nozzle flow, the steady flow of air over a sand bed, and the air flow behind a normal shock wave in uniform motion over a sand bed. Results of the latter two applications are compared with experimental results.

  1. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation


    King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.


    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, . Most analog models of planetary dynamos, however, use moderate fluids, and the systematic influence of reducing is not well understood. We perform rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium over a range of nondimensional bu...

  2. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)


    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  3. Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, M.


    Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry Atmospheric turbulence is the main vertical transport mechanism in the atmospheric boundary layer. The surface fluxes related to this turbulent transport are the sensible (

  4. Turbulence closure: turbulence, waves and the wave-turbulence transition – Part 1: Vanishing mean shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Baumert


    Full Text Available This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from internal waves to turbulence. This energy source is in addition to the traditional shear production. The second variable of the new two-equation model is the turbulent enstrophy (Ω. Compared to the traditional shear-only case, the Ω-equation is modified to account for the effect of the waves on the turbulence time and space scales. This modification is based on the assumption of a non-zero constant flux Richardson number in the limit of vanishing mean shear when turbulence is produced exclusively by internal waves. This paper is part 1 of a continuing theoretical development. It accounts for mean shear- and internal wave-driven mixing only in the two limits of mean shear and no waves and waves but no mean shear, respectively.

    The new model reproduces the wave-turbulence transition analyzed by D'Asaro and Lien (2000b. At small energy density E of the internal wave field, the turbulent dissipation rate (ε scales like ε~E2. This is what is observed in the deep sea. With increasing E, after the wave-turbulence transition has been passed, the scaling changes to ε~E1. This is observed, for example, in the highly energetic tidal flow near a sill in Knight Inlet. The new model further exhibits a turbulent length scale proportional to the Ozmidov scale, as observed in the ocean, and predicts the ratio between the turbulent Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales well within the range observed in the ocean.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro


    We perform a linear stability analysis of a dust layer in a turbulent gas disk. Youdin investigated the secular gravitational instability (GI) of a dust layer using hydrodynamic equations with a turbulent diffusion term. We obtain essentially the same result independently of Youdin. In the present analysis, we restrict the area of interest to small dust particles, while investigating the secular GI in a more rigorous manner. We discuss the time evolution of the dust surface density distribution using a stochastic model and derive the advection-diffusion equation. The validity of the analysis by Youdin is confirmed in the strong drag limit. We demonstrate quantitatively that the finite thickness of a dust layer weakens the secular GI and that the density-dependent diffusion coefficient changes the growth rate. We apply the results obtained to the turbulence driven by the shear instability and find that the secular GI is faster than the radial drift when the gas density is three times as large as that in the minimum-mass disk model. If the dust particles are larger than chondrules, the secular GI grows within the lifetime of a protoplanetary disk.

  6. Relativistic diffusion. (United States)

    Haba, Z


    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  7. Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helene; Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.


    Conditional structures, or eddies, in turbulent flows are discussed with special attention to electrostatic turbulence in plasmas. The potential variation of these eddies is obtained by sampling the fluctuations only when a certain condition is satisfied in a reference point. The resulting...

  8. Active turbulence in active nematics (United States)

    Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.


    Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.

  9. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.


    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  10. Magnetized Turbulent Dynamo in Protogalaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid Malyshkin; Russell M. Kulsrud


    The prevailing theory for the origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they have been amplified to their present values by the turbulent dynamo inductive action in the protogalactic and galactic medium. Up to now, in calculation of the turbulent dynamo, it has been customary to assume that there is no back reaction of the magnetic field on the turbulence, as long as the magnetic energy is less than the turbulent kinetic energy. This assumption leads to the kinematic dynamo theory. However, the applicability of this theory to protogalaxies is rather limited. The reason is that in protogalaxies the temperature is very high, and the viscosity is dominated by magnetized ions. As the magnetic field strength grows in time, the ion cyclotron time becomes shorter than the ion collision time, and the plasma becomes strongly magnetized. As a result, the ion viscosity becomes the Braginskii viscosity. Thus, in protogalaxies the back reaction sets in much earlier, at field strengths much lower than those which correspond to field-turbulence energy equipartition, and the turbulent dynamo becomes what we call the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In this paper we lay the theoretical groundwork for the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In particular, we predict that the magnetic energy growth rate in the magnetized dynamo theory is up to ten times larger than that in the kinematic dynamo theory. We also briefly discuss how the Braginskii viscosity can aid the development of the inverse cascade of magnetic energy after the energy equipartition is reached.

  11. Statistical theory of subcritically-excited strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, S.I.; Itoh, K.


    A statistical theory of nonlinear-nonequilibrium plasma state with strongly developed turbulence and with strong inhomogeneity of the system has been developed. A Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution function of the magnitude of turbulence is deduced. In the statistical description, both the contributions of thermal excitation and turbulence are kept. From the Fokker-Planck equation, the transition probability between the thermal fluctuation and turbulent fluctuation is derived. With respect to the turbulent fluctuations, the coherent part to a certain test mode is renormalized as the drag to the test mode, and the rest, the incoherent part, is considered to be a random noise. The renormalized operator includes the effect of nonlinear destabilization as well as the decorrelation by turbulent fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution function describes the thermal fluctuation, self-sustained turbulence and the hysteresis between them as a function of the plasma gradient. The plasma inhomogeneity is the controlling parameter that governs the turbulence. The formula of transition probability recovers the Arrhenius law in the thermodynamical equilibrium limit. In the presence of self-noise, the transition probability deviates form the exponential law and provides a power law. Application is made to the submarginal interchange mode turbulence, being induced by the turbulent current-diffusivity, in inhomogeneous plasmas. The power law dependence of the transition probability is obtained on the distance between the pressure gradient and the critical gradient for linear instability. Thus a new type of critical exponent is explicitly deduced in the phenomena of subcritical excitation of turbulence. The method provides an extension of the nonequilibrium statistical physics to the far-nonequilibrium states. (orig.)

  12. Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence (United States)

    Soulopoulos, N.; Kerl, J.; Sponfeldner, T.; Beyrau, F.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Vassilicos, J. C.


    A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Matthaeus, W. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Laboratory, Newark, DE 19711 (United States); Rice, D. R. [Northwestern University, 633 Clark St., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)


    By analyzing the motions of test particles observed remotely in the tail of Comet Encke, we demonstrate that the solar wind undergoes turbulent processing enroute from the Sun to the Earth and that the kinetic energy entrained in the large-scale turbulence is sufficient to explain the well-known anomalous heating of the solar wind. Using the heliospheric imaging (HI-1) camera on board NASA's STEREO-A spacecraft, we have observed an ensemble of compact features in the comet tail as they became entrained in the solar wind near 0.4 AU. We find that the features are useful as test particles, via mean-motion analysis and a forward model of pickup dynamics. Using population analysis of the ensemble's relative motion, we find a regime of random-walk diffusion in the solar wind, followed, on larger scales, by a surprising regime of semiconfinement that we attribute to turbulent eddies in the solar wind. The entrained kinetic energy of the turbulent motions represents a sufficient energy reservoir to heat the solar wind to observed temperatures at 1 AU. We determine the Lagrangian-frame diffusion coefficient in the diffusive regime, derive upper limits for the small scale coherence length of solar wind turbulence, compare our results to existing Eulerian-frame measurements, and compare the turbulent velocity with the size of the observed eddies extrapolated to 1 AU. We conclude that the slow solar wind is fully mixed by turbulence on scales corresponding to a 1–2 hr crossing time at Earth; and that solar wind variability on timescales shorter than 1–2 hr is therefore dominated by turbulent processing rather than by direct solar effects.

  14. Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces (United States)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald


    Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.

  15. The role of magnetic turbulence in astrophysical jet launching and cosmic ray transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, Fabien


    The first part of my thesis shows how Keplerian discs can launch MHD jets, under some conditions. The key points of this first part are the adding of viscosity inside the disc and a relevant energy equation, In particular, I have shown both analytically and numerically that the angular momentum transport is constrained by the MHD turbulence properties. I have also shown that one must take into account a relevant energy equation in order to have a more realistic description of jets observed in the Universe. Moreover, some energy turbulent transport mechanisms cannot be described in a simple MHD approach. In order to better understand the interaction between a turbulent magnetic field and charged particles, I have undertaken a study dealing with spatial and angular diffusion of hadrons with a chaotic magnetic field generated by a magnetic turbulence. In this study, it clearly appears that the spatial diffusion coefficient along the mean magnetic field extrapolate the results of quasi-linear theory for weak turbulence. At the opposite, in the inertial range, the spatial diffusion coefficient across the mean magnetic field is inconsistent with such a theory. Indeed the spatial diffusion coefficient across the mean magnetic field has a behaviour that can be interpreted as a chaotic diffusion regime as the one predicted by Rechester and Rosenbluth. Moreover, outside this range, the behaviours of all spatial diffusion coefficients are different of those expected in the framework of quasi-linear theory. At last, it has been found that a Bohm diffusion regime never occurs whatever the magnetic chaos. (author) [fr

  16. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.


    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  17. Study of edge turbulence in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarazin, Y.


    The aim of this work is to propose a new frame to study turbulent transport in plasmas. In order to avoid the restraint of scale separability the forcing by flux is used. A critical one-dimension self-organized cellular model is developed. In keeping with experience the average transport can be described by means of diffusion and convection terms whereas the local transport could not. The instability due to interchanging process is thoroughly studied and some simplified equations are derived. The proposed model agrees with the following experimental results: the relative fluctuations of density are maximized on the edge, the profile shows an exponential behaviour and the amplitude of density fluctuations depends on ionization source strongly. (A.C.)

  18. High performance weak donor-acceptor polymers in thin film transistors: effect of the acceptor on electronic properties, ambipolar conductivity, mobility, and thermal stability. (United States)

    Yuen, Jonathan D; Fan, Jian; Seifter, Jason; Lim, Bogyu; Hufschmid, Ryan; Heeger, Alan J; Wudl, Fred


    We have studied the electronic, physical, and transistor properties of a family of donor-acceptor polymers consisting of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) coupled with different accepting companion units in order to determine the effects of donor-acceptor interaction. Using the electronically neutral benzene (B), the weakly accepting benzothiadiazole (BT), and the strongly accepting benzobisthiadiazole (BBT), the accepting strength of the companion unit was systematically modulated. All polymers exhibited excellent transistor performance, with mobilities above 0.1 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), even exceeding 1 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) for one of the BBT-containing polymers. We find that the BBT is the strongest acceptor, enabling the BBT-containing polymers to be strongly ambipolar. The BBT moiety also strengthens interchain interactions, which provides higher thermal stability and performance for transistors with BBT-containing polymers as the active layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. The electric wind of Venus: A global and persistent "polar wind"-like ambipolar electric field sufficient for the direct escape of heavy ionospheric ions (United States)

    Collinson, Glyn A.; Frahm, Rudy A.; Glocer, Alex; Coates, Andrew J.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Barabash, Stas; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Fedorov, Andrei; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Gilbert, Lin K.; Khazanov, George; Nordheim, Tom A.; Mitchell, David; Moore, Thomas E.; Peterson, William K.; Winningham, John D.; Zhang, Tielong L.


    Understanding what processes govern atmospheric escape and the loss of planetary water is of paramount importance for understanding how life in the universe can exist. One mechanism thought to be important at all planets is an "ambipolar" electric field that helps ions overcome gravity. We report the discovery and first quantitative extraterrestrial measurements of such a field at the planet Venus. Unexpectedly, despite comparable gravity, we show the field to be five times stronger than in Earth's similar ionosphere. Contrary to our understanding, Venus would still lose heavy ions (including oxygen and all water-group species) to space, even if there were no stripping by the solar wind. We therefore find that it is possible for planets to lose heavy ions to space entirely through electric forces in their ionospheres and such an "electric wind" must be considered when studying the evolution and potential habitability of any planet in any star system.

  20. The Electric Wind of Venus: A global and persistent "polar wind" like ambipolar electric field sufficient for the direct escape of heavy ionospheric ions (United States)

    Collinson, G.; Frahm, R.; Glocer, A.; Coates, A. J.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Barbash, S.; Fedorov, A.; Futaana, Y.; Gilbert, L.; Khazanov, G. V.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Nordheim, T.; Mitchell, D. L.; Moore, T. E.; Peterson, W.; Winningham, D.; Zhang, T.


    Understanding what processes govern atmospheric escape and the loss of planetary water is of paramount importance for understanding how life in the universe can exist. One mechanism thought to be important at all planets is an "ambipolar" electric field that helps ions overcome gravity. We report the discovery and first quantitative extraterrestrial measurements of such a field at the planet Venus. Unexpectedly, despite comparable gravity, we show the field to be five times stronger than in Earth's similar ionosphere. Contrary to our understanding, Venus would still lose heavy ions (including oxygen and all water-group species) to space, even if there were no stripping by the solar wind. We therefore find it is possible for planets to lose heavy ions to space entirely through electric forces in their ionospheres, and such an "electric wind" must be considered when studying the evolution and potential habitability of any planet in any star system

  1. The Electric Wind of Venus: A Global and Persistent Polar Wind -Like Ambipolar Electric Field Sufficient for the Direct Escape of Heavy Ionospheric Ions (United States)

    Collinson, Glyn A.; Frahm, Rudy A.; Glocer, Alex; Coates, Andrew J.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Barabash, Stas; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Federov, Andrei; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Gilbert, Lin K.; hide


    Understanding what processes govern atmospheric escape and the loss of planetary water is of paramount importance for understanding how life in the universe can exist. One mechanism thought to be important at all planets is an ambipolar electric field that helps ions overcome gravity. We report the discovery and first quantitative extraterrestrial measurements of such a field at the planet Venus. Unexpectedly, despite comparable gravity, we show the field to be five times stronger than in Earths similar ionosphere. Contrary to our understanding, Venus would still lose heavy ions (including oxygen and all water-group species) to space, even if there were no stripping by the solar wind. We therefore find that it is possible for planets to lose heavy ions to space entirely through electric forces in their ionospheres and such an electric wind must be considered when studying the evolution and potential habitability of any planet in any star system.

  2. Multipassage diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalis, A.; Rouviere, R.; Simon, G.


    A multipassage diffuser having 2p passages comprises a leak-tight cylindrical enclosure closed by a top cover and a bottom end-wall, parallel porous tubes which are rigidly assembled in sectors between tube plates and through which the gas mixture flows, the tube sectors being disposed at uniform intervals on the periphery of the enclosure. The top tube plates are rigidly fixed to an annular header having the shape of a half-torus and adapted to communicate with the tubes of the corresponding sector. Each passage is constituted by a plurality of juxtaposed sectors in which the mixture circulates in the same direction, the header being divided into p portions limited by radial partition-walls and each constituting two adjacent passages. The diffuser is provided beneath the bottom end-wall with p-1 leak-tight chambers each adapted to open into two different portions of the header, and with two collector-chambers each fitted with a nozzle for introducing the gas mixture and discharging the fraction of the undiffused mixture. By means of a central orifice formed in the bottom end-wall the enclosure communicates with a shaft for discharging the diffused fraction of the gas mixture

  3. Solid-State Organization and Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors of Benzothiadiazole-Cyclopentadithiophene Copolymer with Long Branched Alkyl Side Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baumgarten


    Full Text Available The solid-state organization of a benzothiadiazole-cyclopentadithiophene copolymer with long, branched decyl-tetradecyl side chains (CDT-BTZ-C14,10 is investigated. The C14,10 substituents are sterically demanding and increase the π-stacking distance to 0.40 nm from 0.37 nm for the same polymer with linear hexadecyls (C16. Despite the bulkiness, the C14,10 side chains tend to crystallize, leading to a small chain-to-chain distance between lamellae stacks and to a crystal-like microstructure in the thin film. Interestingly, field-effect transistors based on solution processed layers of CDT-BTZ-C14,10 show ambipolar behavior in contrast to CDT-BTZ-C16 with linear side chains, for which hole transport was previously observed. Due to the increased π-stacking distance, the mobilities are only 6 × 10−4 cm²/Vs for electrons and 6 × 10−5 cm²/Vs for holes, while CDT-BTZ-C16 leads to values up to 5.5 cm²/Vs. The ambipolarity is attributed to a lateral shift between stacked backbones provoked by the bulky C14,10 side chains. This reorganization is supposed to change the transfer integrals between the C16 and C14,10 substituted polymers. This work shows that the electronic behavior in devices of one single conjugated polymer (in this case CDT-BTZ can be controlled by the right choice of the substituents to place the backbones in the desired packing.

  4. Turbulent deflagrations, autoignitions, and detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Bradley, Derek


    Measurements of turbulent burning velocities in fan-stirred explosion bombs show an initial linear increase with the fan speed and RMS turbulent velocity. The line then bends over to form a plateau of high values around the maximum attainable burning velocity. A further increase in fan speed leads to the eventual complete quenching of the flame due to increasing localised extinctions because of the flame stretch rate. The greater the Markstein number, the more readily does flame quenching occur. Flame propagation along a duct closed at one end, with and without baffles to increase the turbulence, is subjected to a one-dimensional analysis. The flame, initiated at the closed end of the long duct, accelerates by the turbulent feedback mechanism, creating a shock wave ahead of it, until the maximum turbulent burning velocity for the mixture is attained. With the confining walls, the mixture is compressed between the flame and the shock plane up to the point where it might autoignite. This can be followed by a deflagration to detonation transition. The maximum shock intensity occurs with the maximum attainable turbulent burning velocity, and this defines the limit for autoignition of the mixture. For more reactive mixtures, autoignition can occur at turbulent burning velocities that are less than the maximum attainable one. Autoignition can be followed by quasi-detonation or fully developed detonation. The stability of ensuing detonations is discussed, along with the conditions that may lead to their extinction. © 2012 by Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

  5. Numerical methods for turbulent flow (United States)

    Turner, James C., Jr.


    It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.

  6. Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric


    When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.

  7. Transition to turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeau, Y.


    In this work it is reviewed a few known types of transition to turbulence, as the cascade of period doubling and the intermittent transition. This happens in dynamical systems with a few degrees of freedom, as modelled by the iteration of non linear maps. Then it is presented specific transitions for systems with many degrees of freedom. It is condidered first the occurence of a low frequency broadband noise in large cells at the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection; then the transition by intermittent bursts in parallel flows. In this last case, one is concerned with localized and finite amplitude perturbations. Simple geometric arguments show that these fluctuations, when they are isolated and with a well definite relative speed, exist for a single value of the Reynolds number only [fr

  8. Is Molecular Cloud Turbulence Driven by External Supernova Explosions? (United States)

    Seifried, Daniel; Walch, Stefanie; Haid, Sebastian; Girichidis, Philipp; Naab, Thorsten


    We present high-resolution (∼0.1 pc), hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical simulations to investigate whether the observed level of molecular cloud (MC) turbulence can be generated and maintained by external supernova (SN) explosions. The MCs are formed self-consistently within their large-scale galactic environment following the non-equilibrium formation of H2 and CO, including (self-) shielding and important heating and cooling processes. The MCs inherit their initial level of turbulence from the diffuse ISM, where turbulence is injected by SN explosions. However, by systematically exploring the effect of individual SNe going off outside the clouds, we show that at later stages the importance of SN-driven turbulence is decreased significantly. This holds for different MC masses as well as for MCs with and without magnetic fields. The SN impact also decreases rapidly with larger distances. Nearby SNe (d ∼ 25 pc) boost the turbulent velocity dispersions of the MC by up to 70% (up to a few km s‑1). For d > 50 pc, however, their impact decreases fast with increasing d and is almost negligible. For all probed distances the gain in velocity dispersion decays rapidly within a few 100 kyr. This is significantly shorter than the average timescale for an MC to be hit by a nearby SN under solar neighborhood conditions (∼2 Myr). Hence, at these conditions SNe are not able to sustain the observed level of MC turbulence. However, in environments with high gas surface densities and SN rates, like the Central Molecular Zone, observed elevated MC dispersions could be triggered by external SNe.

  9. Statistical properties of turbulence: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the turbulent advection of passive scalars, turbulence in the one-dimensional Burgers equation, and fluid turbulence in the presence of polymer ... However, it is not easy to state what would consti- tute a solution of the turbulence ...... flow with Lagrangian tracers and use a cubic spline interpolation method to calculate their ...

  10. Control of transversal instabilities in reaction-diffusion systems


    Molnos, Sonja; Löber, Jakob; Totz, Jan Frederik; Engel, Harald


    In two-dimensional reaction-diffusion systems, local curvature perturbations in the shape of traveling waves are typically damped out and disappear in the course of time. If, however, the inhibitor diffuses much faster than the activator, transversal instabilities can arise, leading from flat to folded, spatio-temporally modulated wave shapes and to spreading spiral turbulence. For experimentally relevant parameter values, the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction (PBZR) does not exhib...

  11. Sub-grid-scale description of turbulent magnetic reconnection in magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmer, F., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Büchner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Yokoi, N. [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)


    Magnetic reconnection requires, at least locally, a non-ideal plasma response. In collisionless space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence could transport energy from large to small scales where binary particle collisions are rare. We have investigated the influence of small scale magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) turbulence on the reconnection rate in the framework of a compressible MHD approach including sub-grid-scale (SGS) turbulence. For this sake, we considered Harris-type and force-free current sheets with finite guide magnetic fields directed out of the reconnection plane. The goal is to find out whether unresolved by conventional simulations MHD turbulence can enhance the reconnection process in high-Reynolds-number astrophysical plasmas. Together with the MHD equations, we solve evolution equations for the SGS energy and cross-helicity due to turbulence according to a Reynolds-averaged turbulence model. The SGS turbulence is self-generated and -sustained through the inhomogeneities of the mean fields. By this way, the feedback of the unresolved turbulence into the MHD reconnection process is taken into account. It is shown that the turbulence controls the regimes of reconnection by its characteristic timescale τ{sub t}. The dependence on resistivity was investigated for large-Reynolds-number plasmas for Harris-type as well as force-free current sheets with guide field. We found that magnetic reconnection depends on the relation between the molecular and apparent effective turbulent resistivity. We found that the turbulence timescale τ{sub t} decides whether fast reconnection takes place or whether the stored energy is just diffused away to small scale turbulence. If the amount of energy transferred from large to small scales is enhanced, fast reconnection can take place. Energy spectra allowed us to characterize the different regimes of reconnection. It was found that reconnection is even faster for larger Reynolds numbers controlled by the molecular

  12. Wind energy impact of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan


    This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application

  13. Turbulence via information field dynamics (United States)

    Ensslin, Torsten A.


    Turbulent flows exhibit-scale free regimes, for which information on the statistical properties of the dynamics exists for many length-scales. The simulation of turbulent systems can benefit from the inclusion of such information on sub-grid process. How can statistical information about the flow on small scales be optimally be incorporated into simulation schemes? Information field dynamics (IFD) is a novel information theoretical framework to design schemes that exploit such statistical knowledge on sub-grid flow fluctuations. In this talk, I will introduce the basic idea of IFD, present its first toy applications, and discuss the next steps towards its usage in complex turbulence simulations.

  14. On Lean Turbulent Combustion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LEVENTIU


    Full Text Available This paper investigates a lean methane-air flame with different chemical reaction mechanisms, for laminar and turbulent combustion, approached as one and bi-dimensional problem. The numerical results obtained with Cantera and Ansys Fluent software are compared with experimental data obtained at CORIA Institute, France. First, for laminar combustion, the burn temperature is very well approximated for all chemical mechanisms, however major differences appear in the evaluation of the flame front thickness. Next, the analysis of turbulence-combustion interaction shows that the numerical predictions are suficiently accurate for small and moderate turbulence intensity.

  15. Measurement of heat and momentum eddy diffusivities in recirculating LMFBR outlet plenum flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, V.P.; Golay, M.W.


    An optical technique has been developed for the measurement of the eddy diffusivity of heat in a transparent flowing medium. The method uses a combination of two established measurement tools: a Mach-Zehnder interferometer for the monitoring of turbulently fluctuating temperature and a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) for the measurement of turbulent velocity fluctuations. The technique is applied to the investigation of flow fields characteristic of the LMFBR outlet plenum. The study is accomplished using air as the working fluid in a small scale Plexiglas test section. Lows are introduced into both the 1 / 15 scale FFTF outlet plenum and the 3 / 80 scale CRBR geometry plenum at inlet Reynolds numbers of 22,000. Measurements of the eddy diffusivity of heat and the eddy diffusivity of momentum are performed at a total of 11 measurement stations. Significant differences of the turbulence parameters are found between the two geometries, and the higher chimney structure of the CRBR case is found to be the major cause of the distinction. Spectral intensity studies of the fluctuating electronic analog signals of velocity and temperature are also performed. Error analysis of the overall technique indicates an experimental error of 10% in the determination of the eddy diffusivity of heat and 6% in the evaluation of turbulent momentum viscosity. In general it is seen that the turbulence in the cases observed is not isotropic, and use of isotropic turbulent heat and momentum diffusivities in transport modelling would not be a valid procedure

  16. Measurement of heat and momentum eddy diffusivities in recirculating LMFBR outlet plenum flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manno, V.P.; Golay, M.W.


    An optical technique has been developed for the measurement of the eddy diffusivity of heat in a transparent flowing medium. The method uses a combination of two established measurement tools: a Mach-Zehnder interferometer for the monitoring of turbulently fluctuating temperature and a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) for the measurement of turbulent velocity fluctuations. The technique is applied to the investigation of flow fields characteristic of the LMFBR outlet plenum. The study is accomplished using air as the working fluid in a small scale Plexiglas test section. Lows are introduced into both the /sup 1///sub 15/ scale FFTF outlet plenum and the /sup 3///sub 80/ scale CRBR geometry plenum at inlet Reynolds numbers of 22,000. Measurements of the eddy diffusivity of heat and the eddy diffusivity of momentum are performed at a total of 11 measurement stations. Significant differences of the turbulence parameters are found between the two geometries, and the higher chimney structure of the CRBR case is found to be the major cause of the distinction. Spectral intensity studies of the fluctuating electronic analog signals of velocity and temperature are also performed. Error analysis of the overall technique indicates an experimental error of 10% in the determination of the eddy diffusivity of heat and 6% in the evaluation of turbulent momentum viscosity. In general it is seen that the turbulence in the cases observed is not isotropic, and use of isotropic turbulent heat and momentum diffusivities in transport modelling would not be a valid procedure.

  17. Velocity Statistics Distinguish Quantum Turbulence from Classical Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, M. S.; Fisher, Michael E.; Sreenivasan, K. R.; Lathrop, D. P.


    By analyzing trajectories of solid hydrogen tracers, we find that the distributions of velocity in decaying quantum turbulence in superfluid 4 He are strongly non-Gaussian with 1/v 3 power-law tails. These features differ from the near-Gaussian statistics of homogenous and isotropic turbulence of classical fluids. We examine the dynamics of many events of reconnection between quantized vortices and show by simple scaling arguments that they produce the observed power-law tails

  18. One-dimensional Turbulence Models of Type I X-ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Chen


    Type I X-ray bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary star system. Observations and simulations of these phenomena are of great importance for understanding the fundamental properties of neutron stars and dense matter because the equation of state for cold dense matter can be constrained by the mass-radius relationship of neutron stars. During the bursts, turbulence plays a key role in mixing the fuels and driving the unstable nuclear burning process. This dissertation presents one-dimensional models of photospheric radius expansion bursts with a new approach to simulate turbulent advection. Compared with the traditional mixing length theory, the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model represents turbulent motions by a sequence of maps that are generated according to a stochastic process. The light curves I obtained with the ODT models are in good agreement with those of the KEPLER model in which the mixing length theory and various diffusive processes are applied. The abundance comparison, however, indicates that the differences in turbulent regions and turbulent diffusivities result in more 12 C survival during the bursts in the ODT models, which can make a difference in the superbursts phenomena triggered by unstable carbon burning.

  19. One-dimensional Turbulence Models of Type I X-ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Chen [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Type I X-ray bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary star system. Observations and simulations of these phenomena are of great importance for understanding the fundamental properties of neutron stars and dense matter because the equation of state for cold dense matter can be constrained by the mass-radius relationship of neutron stars. During the bursts, turbulence plays a key role in mixing the fuels and driving the unstable nuclear burning process. This dissertation presents one-dimensional models of photospheric radius expansion bursts with a new approach to simulate turbulent advection. Compared with the traditional mixing length theory, the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model represents turbulent motions by a sequence of maps that are generated according to a stochastic process. The light curves I obtained with the ODT models are in good agreement with those of the KEPLER model in which the mixing length theory and various diffusive processes are applied. The abundance comparison, however, indicates that the differences in turbulent regions and turbulent diffusivities result in more 12C survival during the bursts in the ODT models, which can make a difference in the superbursts phenomena triggered by unstable carbon burning.

  20. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence (United States)

    Vanon, R.


    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling timescale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  1. Drift-wave turbulence and zonal flow generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.


    Drift-wave turbulence in a plasma is analyzed on the basis of the wave Liouville equation, describing the evolution of the distribution function of wave packets (quasiparticles) characterized by position x and wave vector k. A closed kinetic equation is derived for the ensemble-averaged part of this function by the methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It has the form of a non-Markovian advection-diffusion equation describing coupled diffusion processes in x and k spaces. General forms of the diffusion coefficients are obtained in terms of Lagrangian velocity correlations. The latter are calculated in the decorrelation trajectory approximation, a method recently developed for an accurate measure of the important trapping phenomena of particles in the rugged electrostatic potential. The analysis of individual decorrelation trajectories provides an illustration of the fragmentation of drift-wave structures in the radial direction and the generation of long-wavelength structures in the poloidal direction that are identified as zonal flows

  2. Compressing Turbulence Effect in FSO using New Modulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nawawi Norizan


    Full Text Available Diffusers transmitter modulation to reduce the effect of atmospheric turbulence in free space optical communication system is described in this paper. This technique uses dual transmitters and dual receivers which are using differential mode for detection. The combination of these components produce superior modulation method especially to reduce scintillation index, to overcome signal detection with fix zero threshold and improve power received. In order to improve the performance of free space optical system, these three elements play an important role. The analysis result show that for receiving power dual diffuser modulation at 3 km distance propagation is 4.59dBm compared to conventional OOK using diffuser which only −7.6dBm and equivalent to 3dBm improvement or up to 40 percent better.

  3. Dissipative processes in interchange driven scrape-off layer turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fundamenski, W.; Garcia, Odd Erik; Naulin, Volker


    First principles expressions are given for the parameters governing collisional diffusion and parallel losses of mass, momentum and energy in tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) plasmas. These dissipative, or damping, coefficients are based on neoclassical perpendicular transport (Pfirsch......-Schluter diffusion) and classical parallel transport (sub-sonic advection and Spitzer-Harm diffusion). When numerical values derived from these expressions are used to compute damping coefficients for the edge-SOL electrostatic (ESEL) turbulence code, simulations correctly reproduce the radial profiles of particle...... and L-mode plasmas on JET, although the particle density e-folding length is over-estimated by a factor of 3; this discrepancy is largely removed by reducing the parallel density gradient length by a factor measuring the poloidal asymmetry (ballooning) of filament displacements. These encouraging...

  4. Regularization modeling for large-eddy simulation of diffusion flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; Wesseling, P.; Oñate, E.; Périaux, J.

    We analyze the evolution of a diffusion flame in a turbulent mixing layer using large-eddy simulation. The large-eddy simulation includes Leray regularization of the convective transport and approximate inverse filtering to represent the chemical source terms. The Leray model is compared to the more

  5. Premixed autoignition in compressible turbulence (United States)

    Konduri, Aditya; Kolla, Hemanth; Krisman, Alexander; Chen, Jacqueline


    Prediction of chemical ignition delay in an autoignition process is critical in combustion systems like compression ignition engines and gas turbines. Often, ignition delay times measured in simple homogeneous experiments or homogeneous calculations are not representative of actual autoignition processes in complex turbulent flows. This is due the presence of turbulent mixing which results in fluctuations in thermodynamic properties as well as chemical composition. In the present study the effect of fluctuations of thermodynamic variables on the ignition delay is quantified with direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence. A premixed syngas-air mixture is used to remove the effects of inhomogeneity in the chemical composition. Preliminary results show a significant spatial variation in the ignition delay time. We analyze the topology of autoignition kernels and identify the influence of extreme events resulting from compressibility and intermittency. The dependence of ignition delay time on Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers is also quantified. Supported by Basic Energy Sciences, Dept of Energy, United States.

  6. Structure and modeling of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, E.A.


    The open-quotes vortex stringsclose quotes scale l s ∼ LRe -3/10 (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES)

  7. Energy transfer in compressible turbulence (United States)

    Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre


    This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.

  8. Turbulence Instrumentation for Stratospheric Airships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duell, Mark L; Saupe, Lawrence M; Barbeau, Brent E; Robinson, Kris D; Jumper, George Y


    .... The High Altitude Airship is designed to investigate these phenomena. In order to sense atmospheric turbulence at altitudes of the expected flight of the High Altitude Airship of around 65,000ft, a prototype ionic anemometer was constructed...

  9. Stochastic Subspace Modelling of Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Pedersen, B. J.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.


    positive definite cross-spectral density matrix a frequency response matrix is constructed which determines the turbulence vector as a linear filtration of Gaussian white noise. Finally, an accurate state space modelling method is proposed which allows selection of an appropriate model order......, and estimation of a state space model for the vector turbulence process incorporating its phase spectrum in one stage, and its results are compared with a conventional ARMA modelling method.......Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount importance to the dynamic response of civil engineering structures. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and structural safety analysis. In the paper...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jungyeon; Yoo, Hyunju


    Turbulence dynamo deals with the amplification of a seed magnetic field in a turbulent medium and has been studied mostly for uniform or spatially homogeneous seed magnetic fields. However, some astrophysical processes (e.g., jets from active galaxies, galactic winds, or ram-pressure stripping in galaxy clusters) can provide localized seed magnetic fields. In this paper, we numerically study amplification of localized seed magnetic fields in a turbulent medium. Throughout the paper, we assume that the driving scale of turbulence is comparable to the size of the system. Our findings are as follows. First, turbulence can amplify a localized seed magnetic field very efficiently. The growth rate of magnetic energy density is as high as that for a uniform seed magnetic field. This result implies that magnetic field ejected from an astrophysical object can be a viable source of a magnetic field in a cluster. Second, the localized seed magnetic field disperses and fills the whole system very fast. If turbulence in a system (e.g., a galaxy cluster or a filament) is driven at large scales, we expect that it takes a few large-eddy turnover times for the magnetic field to fill the whole system. Third, growth and turbulence diffusion of a localized seed magnetic field are also fast in high magnetic Prandtl number turbulence. Fourth, even in decaying turbulence, a localized seed magnetic field can ultimately fill the whole system. Although the dispersal rate of the magnetic field is not fast in purely decaying turbulence, it can be enhanced by an additional forcing.

  11. How to calculate the neoclassical viscosity, diffusion, and current coefficients in general toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H.; Nishimura, S.


    A novel method to obtain the full neoclassical transport matrix for general toroidal plasmas by using the solution of the linearized drift kinetic equation with the pitch-angle-scattering collision operator is shown. In this method, the neoclassical coefficients for both poloidal and toroidal viscosities in toroidal helical systems can be obtained, and the neoclassical transport coefficients for the radial particle and heat fluxes and the bootstrap current with the non-diagonal coupling between unlike-species particles are derived from combining the viscosity-flow relations, the friction-flow relations, and the parallel momentum balance equations. Since the collisional momentum conservation is properly retained, the well-known intrinsic ambipolar condition of the neoclassical particle fluxes in symmetric systems is recovered. Thus, these resultant neoclassical diffusion and viscosity coefficients are applicable to evaluating accurately how the neoclassical transport in quasi-symmetric toroidal systems deviates from that in exactly-symmetric systems. (author)

  12. Quantify the complexity of turbulence (United States)

    Tao, Xingtian; Wu, Huixuan


    Many researchers have used Reynolds stress, power spectrum and Shannon entropy to characterize a turbulent flow, but few of them have measured the complexity of turbulence. Yet as this study shows, conventional turbulence statistics and Shannon entropy have limits when quantifying the flow complexity. Thus, it is necessary to introduce new complexity measures- such as topology complexity and excess information-to describe turbulence. Our test flow is a classic turbulent cylinder wake at Reynolds number 8100. Along the stream-wise direction, the flow becomes more isotropic and the magnitudes of normal Reynolds stresses decrease monotonically. These seem to indicate the flow dynamics becomes simpler downstream. However, the Shannon entropy keeps increasing along the flow direction and the dynamics seems to be more complex, because the large-scale vortices cascade to small eddies, the flow is less correlated and more unpredictable. In fact, these two contradictory observations partially describe the complexity of a turbulent wake. Our measurements (up to 40 diameters downstream the cylinder) show that the flow's degree-of-complexity actually increases firstly and then becomes a constant (or drops slightly) along the stream-wise direction. University of Kansas General Research Fund.

  13. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction (United States)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.


    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.

  14. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ


    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  15. Turbulent conductivity in parallel with iso-velocities in a planar established flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien, F.


    In this thesis are presented the experimental results obtained during the study of the turbulent diffusion of heat using a wire source in a flat air flow. The Taylor statistical theory laws are well respected in the domain studied. The experiments have made it possible to evaluate the influence of the Reynolds number and of the distance from the wall on the quadratic values of velocity fluctuations and on the Lagrange turbulence scales. In particular, the author has found a correlation between the Lagrange scales and the friction coefficient when the Reynolds number varies. A diffusion law is derived from the Taylor theory; it makes it possible to explain more clearly the idea of turbulent conductivity. (author) [fr

  16. Structure of turbulent non-premixed flames modeled with two-step chemistry (United States)

    Chen, J. H.; Mahalingam, S.; Puri, I. K.; Vervisch, L.


    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent diffusion flames modeled with finite-rate, two-step chemistry, A + B yields I, A + I yields P, were carried out. A detailed analysis of the turbulent flame structure reveals the complex nature of the penetration of various reactive species across two reaction zones in mixture fraction space. Due to this two zone structure, these flames were found to be robust, resisting extinction over the parameter ranges investigated. As in single-step computations, mixture fraction dissipation rate and the mixture fraction were found to be statistically correlated. Simulations involving unequal molecular diffusivities suggest that the small scale mixing process and, hence, the turbulent flame structure is sensitive to the Schmidt number.

  17. Effects of turbulence model selection on the prediction of complex aerodynamic flows (United States)

    Coakley, T. J.; Bergmann, M. Y.


    Numerical simulations of viscous transonic flow over a circular-arc airfoil and in a diffuser are described. The simulations are made with a new computer program designed to serve as a tool in the development of improved turbulence models for complex flows. The program incorporates zero-, one-, and two-equation eddy viscosity models and includes a variety of subsonic and supersonic boundary conditions. The airfoil flow contains a shock-separated boundary-layer interaction that has resisted previous attempts at simulation. The diffuser flow also contains a shock-boundary-layer interaction, which has not been simulated previously. Calculations using standard turbulence models, developed originally for incompressible unseparated flows, are described. Results indicate that although there are interesting differences in predictions between the various models, none of them predict the flows accurately. Suggestions for improved turbulence models are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Katz and Omar Knio


    The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions

  19. a Numerical Method for Turbulent Combustion Problems (United States)

    Song, Yu.

    This dissertation presents a random numerical method which combines a random vortex method and a random choice method. With the assumption of incompressibility, the equations governing the fluid motion can be uncoupled from the equations governing the chemical reaction. A hybrid random vortex method is used for solving Navier -Stokes equation which governs the fluid motion. Combustion process is governed by reaction-diffusion system for the conservation of energy and the various chemical species participating in reaction. A random choice method is used for the modeling reaction-diffusion equations. The random choice method is tested and the numerical solutions are compared with the results by either the other numerical methods or exact solutions, good improvement and agreement have been obtained. For physical problem in two or more space dimensions, extension of the random choice method requires splitting the source terms into an x-sweep followed by a y-sweep. The splitting of the source term is also examined for an equation with an exact solution. The combustion model is applied to the problem of combustion in a circular cylinder with cylinder heated or kept cold. The flame profiles are obtained and effect of the turbulent is observed. The method is also applied to the ignition of a Bunsen burner. The correct modeling of mixing layer at the edge of the burner is found important in this application. Flame propagation profiles are obtained and have good agreement with experiments.

  20. Recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, P.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    This report contains viewgraphs of recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport. Localized nonlinear structures occur under a variety of circumstances in turbulent, magnetically confined plasmas, arising in both kinetic and fluid descriptions, i.e., in either wave-particle or three-wave coupling interactions. These structures are non wavelike. They cannot be incorporated in the collective wave response, but interact with collective modes through their shielding by the plasma dielectric. These structures are predicted to modify turbulence-driven transport in a way that in consistent with, or in some cases are confirmed by recent experimental observations. In kinetic theory, non wavelike structures are localized perturbations of phase space density. There are two types of structures. Holes are self-trapped, while clumps have a self-potential that is too weak to resist deformation and mixing by ambient potential fluctuations. Clumps remain correlated in turbulence if their spatial extent is smaller than the correlation length of the scattering fields. In magnetic turbulence, clumps travel along stochastic magnetic fields, shielded by the plasma dielectric. A drag on the clump macro-particle is exerted by the shielding, inducing emission into the collective response. The emission in turn damps back on the particle distribution via Landau dampling. The exchange of energy between clumps and particles, as mediated by the collective mode, imposes constraints on transport. For a turbulent spectrum whose mean wavenumber along the equilibrium magnetic field is nonzero, the electron thermal flux is proportional to the ion thermal velocity. Conventional predictions (which account only for collective modes) are larger by the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Recent measurements are consistent with the small flux. In fluid plasma,s localized coherent structures can occur as intense vortices.

  1. Low-Mach-number turbulence in interstellar gas revealed by radio polarization gradients. (United States)

    Gaensler, B M; Haverkorn, M; Burkhart, B; Newton-McGee, K J; Ekers, R D; Lazarian, A; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Robishaw, T; Dickey, J M; Green, A J


    The interstellar medium of the Milky Way is multiphase, magnetized and turbulent. Turbulence in the interstellar medium produces a global cascade of random gas motions, spanning scales ranging from 100 parsecs to 1,000 kilometres (ref. 4). Fundamental parameters of interstellar turbulence such as the sonic Mach number (the speed of sound) have been difficult to determine, because observations have lacked the sensitivity and resolution to image the small-scale structure associated with turbulent motion. Observations of linear polarization and Faraday rotation in radio emission from the Milky Way have identified unusual polarized structures that often have no counterparts in the total radiation intensity or at other wavelengths, and whose physical significance has been unclear. Here we report that the gradient of the Stokes vector (Q, U), where Q and U are parameters describing the polarization state of radiation, provides an image of magnetized turbulence in diffuse, ionized gas, manifested as a complex filamentary web of discontinuities in gas density and magnetic field. Through comparison with simulations, we demonstrate that turbulence in the warm, ionized medium has a relatively low sonic Mach number, M(s) ≲ 2. The development of statistical tools for the analysis of polarization gradients will allow accurate determinations of the Mach number, Reynolds number and magnetic field strength in interstellar turbulence over a wide range of conditions.

  2. Turbulence characteristics of flow in an open channel with temporally varying mobile bedforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmaiahgari Prashanth Reddy


    Full Text Available Turbulence of flow over mobile bedforms in natural open channels is not yet clearly understood. An attempt is made in this paper to determine the effect of naturally formed mobile bedforms on velocities, turbulent intensities and turbulent stresses. Instantaneous velocities are measured using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV to evaluate the turbulence structure of free surface flow over a fixed (immobile bed, a weakly mobile bed and a temporally varying mobile bed with different stages of bedform development. This paper documents the vertical distribution of velocity, turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress and higher-order moments including skewness and turbulent diffusion factors. Analysis of the velocity distributions shows a substantial decrease of velocity near the bed with increasing bedform mobility due to increased friction. A modified logarithmic law with a reduced von Kármán constant and increased velocity shift is proposed for the case of the mobile bedforms. A significant increase in the Reynolds shear stress is observed in the mobile bedforms experiments accompanied by changes over the entire flow depth compared to an immobile bed. The skewness factor distribution was found to be different in the case of the flow over the mobile bedforms. All higher-order turbulence descriptors are found to be significantly affected by the formation of temporally varying and non-equilibrium mobile bedforms. Quadrant analysis indicates that sweep and outward events are found to be dominant in strongly mobile bedforms and govern the bedform mobility.

  3. Mixing model with multi-particle interactions for Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T., E-mail:; Nagata, K. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    We report on the numerical study of the mixing volume model (MVM) for molecular diffusion in Lagrangian simulations of turbulent mixing problems. The MVM is based on the multi-particle interaction in a finite volume (mixing volume). A priori test of the MVM, based on the direct numerical simulations of planar jets, is conducted in the turbulent region and the interfacial layer between the turbulent and non-turbulent fluids. The results show that the MVM predicts well the mean effects of the molecular diffusion under various numerical and flow parameters. The number of the mixing particles should be large for predicting a value of the molecular diffusion term positively correlated to the exact value. The size of the mixing volume relative to the Kolmogorov scale η is important in the performance of the MVM. The scalar transfer across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface is well captured by the MVM especially with the small mixing volume. Furthermore, the MVM with multiple mixing particles is tested in the hybrid implicit large-eddy-simulation/Lagrangian-particle-simulation (LES–LPS) of the planar jet with the characteristic length of the mixing volume of O(100η). Despite the large mixing volume, the MVM works well and decays the scalar variance in a rate close to the reference LES. The statistics in the LPS are very robust to the number of the particles used in the simulations and the computational grid size of the LES. Both in the turbulent core region and the intermittent region, the LPS predicts a scalar field well correlated to the LES.

  4. Density Gradient Stabilization of Electron Temperature Gradient Driven Turbulence in a Spherical Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Y; Mazzucato, E; Guttenfelder, W; Bell, R E; Domier, C W; LeBlanc, B P; Lee, K C; Luhmann Jr, N C; Smith, D R


    In this letter we report the first clear experimental observation of density gradient stabilization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in a fusion plasma. It is observed that longer wavelength modes, k⊥ρs ≤10, are most stabilized by density gradient, and the stabilization is accompanied by about a factor of two decrease in the plasma effective thermal diffusivity.

  5. Turbulence Amplification with Incidence at the Leading Edge of a Compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth V. Hobson


    Full Text Available Detailed measurements, with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter and a thermal anemometer were made near the suction surface leading edge of controlled-diffusion airfoils in cascade. The Reynolds number was near 700,000, Mach number equal to 0.25, and freestream turbulence was at 1.5% ahead of the cascade.

  6. Model for transversal turbulent mixing in axial flow in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carajilescov, P.


    The present work consists in the development of a model for the transversal eddy diffusivity to account for the effect of turbulent thermal mixing in axial flows in rod bundles. The results were compared to existing correlations that are currently being used in reactor thermalhydraulic analysis and considered satisfactory. (author)

  7. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping Chen


    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  8. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation. (United States)

    King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M


    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, Pr rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium (Pr = 0.025) over a range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing (Ra) and rotation periods (E). Our primary diagnostic is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal differs substantially from that of moderate Pr fluids, such as water. In particular, a transition between rotationally constrained and weakly rotating turbulent states is identified, and this transition differs substantially from that observed in moderate Pr fluids. This difference, we hypothesize, may explain the different classes of magnetic fields observed on the Gas and Ice Giant planets, whose dynamo regions consist of Pr 1 fluids, respectively.

  9. Connection between encounter volume and diffusivity in geophysical flows (United States)

    Rypina, Irina I.; Smith, Stefan G. Llewellyn; Pratt, Larry J.


    Trajectory encounter volume - the volume of fluid that passes close to a reference fluid parcel over some time interval - has been recently introduced as a measure of mixing potential of a flow. Diffusivity is the most commonly used characteristic of turbulent diffusion. We derive the analytical relationship between the encounter volume and diffusivity under the assumption of an isotropic random walk, i.e., diffusive motion, in one and two dimensions. We apply the derived formulas to produce maps of encounter volume and the corresponding diffusivity in the Gulf Stream region of the North Atlantic based on satellite altimetry, and discuss the mixing properties of Gulf Stream rings. Advantages offered by the derived formula for estimating diffusivity from oceanographic data are discussed, as well as applications to other disciplines.

  10. Intermittency in non-homogeneous Wake and Jet Turbulence (United States)

    Mahjoub, O. B.; Sekula, E.; Redondo, J. M.


    The scale to scale transfer and the structure functions are calculated and from these the intermittency parametres [1[3]. The estimates of turbulent diffusivity could also be measured. Some two point correlations and time lag calculations are used to investigate the local mixedness [4,5] and the temporal and spatial integral length scales obtained from both Lagrangian and Eulerian correlations and functions. We compare these results with both theoretical and experimental ones in the Laboratory with a wind tunnel at the wake of a grid or cillinder with and withoutand a near Wall. The a theoretical description of how to simulate intermittency following the model of Babiano et al. (1996) and the role of locality in higher order exponents is applied to the different flows. The information about turbulent jets is needed in several configurations providing basic information about the turbulent free jet, the circular jet and the turbulent wall jet. The experimental measurements of turbulent velocity is based on Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter measurements of the jet centerline and off centered radial positions in the tank at several distances from the wall. Spectral and structure function analysis are useful to determine the flow mixing ability using also flow visualization [6,7]. Results of experiments include the velocity distribution, entrainment angle of the jets, jet and wake average and fluctuating velocity, PDF's, Skewness and Kurthosis, velocity and vorticity standard deviation, boundary layers function and turbulence intensity . Different range of Wake and Jet flows show a maximum of turbulent intensity at a certain distance from the wall as it breaks the flow simmetry and adds large scale vorticity in the different experiments, these efects are also believed to occur in Geo-Astrophysical flows. [1] Babiano, A. (2002), On Particle dispersion processes in two-dimensional turbulence. In Turbulent mixing in geophysical flows. Eds. Linden P.F. and Redondo J.M., p. 2

  11. Acoustically assisted diffusion through membranes and biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floros, J.D.; Liang, H.


    Part of a special section on the symposium ''Ultrasonic Applications in the Food Industry.'' The use of high-intensity ultrasound in food processing is reviewed. Acoustic radiation, or sound, can be used to monitor various operations or products or to alter a process or product; however, the direct use of sound to improve food processes is not very popular. High-intensity acoustic radiation induces various changes as it passes through a medium, largely as a result of heating, cavitation, agitation and shear stresses, compression and rarefaction, and turbulence. The diffusion of sound through a medium is influenced by factors such as the temperature, acoustic intensity, acoustic frequency, direction of the acoustic wave, pulsation of the acoustic wave, and properties of the medium. Some potential applications of acoustic energy in food processes are increased drying efficiency, acceleration of diffusion through polymeric and biological membranes, and enhanced diffusion through porous materials

  12. Modeling of the L.F. turbulent spectrum during ohmic discharges, auxiliary heating and disruptions in Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truc, A.


    The spectrum of low frequency turbulence in the TFR tokamak, as observed along a central chord by a CO 2 laser light diffusion diagnostic, appears to be representable by four monomial branches joining to three vertices. This schematic representation permits to follow more easily the evolution of the turbulence during the life of the plasma, including the ohmic regime, the transitions to auxiliary heating and the minor and major disruptions

  13. Stochastic catastrophe theory and instabilities in plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, Milan; Skoric, Milos


    Full text: A Langevin equation (LE) describing evolution of turbulence amplitude in plasma is analyzed from the aspect of stochastic catastrophe theory (SCT) so that turbulent plasma is considered as a stochastic gradient system. According to SCT the dynamics of the system is completely determined by the stochastic potential function and the maximum likelihood estimates of stable and unstable equilibria are associated with the modes and anti-modes, respectively, of the system's stationary probability density function. First order phase transitions occur at degenerate equilibrium points and the potential function at these points may be represented in a generic way. Since the diffusion function of plasma LE is not constant the probability density function (pdf) is not a reliable estimator of the number of stable states. We show that the generalized pdf represented as the product of the stationary pdf and the diffusion function is a reliable estimator of the stable states and that it can be evaluated from the zero mean crossing analysis of plasma turbulence signal. Stochastic bifurcations, and particularly the sudden (catastrophic) ones, are recognized from the pdf's obtained by the zero crossing analysis and we illustrate the applications of SCT in plasma turbulence on data obtained from the MAST (Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak) for low (L), high (H) and unstable dithering (L/H) confinement regimes. The relationship of the transformation invariant zero-crossing function and SCT is shown to provide important information about the nature of edge localized modes (ELMs) and L-H transition. Finally we show that ELMs occur as a result of catastrophic (hard) bifurcations ruling out the self-organized criticality scenario for their origin. (author)

  14. Reinvestigation on mixing length in an open channel turbulent flow (United States)

    Kundu, Snehasis; Kumbhakar, Manotosh; Ghoshal, Koeli


    The present study proposes a model on vertical distribution of streamwise velocity in an open channel turbulent flow through a newly proposed mixing length, which is derived for both clear water and sediment-laden turbulent flows. The analysis is based on a theoretical consideration which explores the effect of density stratification on the streamwise velocity profile. The derivation of mixing length makes use of the diffusion equation where both the sediment diffusivity and momentum diffusivity are taken as a function of height from the channel bed. The damping factor present in the mixing length of sediment-fluid mixture contains velocity and concentration gradients. This factor is capable of describing the dip-phenomenon of velocity distribution. From the existing experimental data of velocity, the mixing length data are calculated. The pattern shows that mixing length increases from bed to the dip-position, having a larger value at dip-position and then decreases up to the water surface with a zero value thereat. The present model agrees well with these data sets and this behavior cannot be described by any other existing model. Finally, the proposed mixing length model is applied to find the velocity distribution in wide and narrow open channels. The derived velocity distribution is compared with laboratory channel data of velocity, and the comparison shows good agreement.

  15. Theory of neoclassical ion temperature-gradient-driven turbulence (United States)

    Kim, Y. B.; Diamond, P. H.; Biglari, H.; Callen, J. D.


    The theory of collisionless fluid ion temperature-gradient-driven turbulence is extended to the collisional banana-plateau regime. Neoclassical ion fluid evolution equations are developed and utilized to investigate linear and nonlinear dynamics of negative compressibility ηi modes (ηi≡d ln Ti/d ln ni). In the low-frequency limit (ωB2p. As a result of these modifications, growth rates are dissipative, rather than sonic, and radial mode widths are broadened [i.e., γ˜k2∥c2s(ηi -(2)/(3) )/μi, Δx˜ρs(Bt/Bp) (1+ηi)1/2, where k∥, cs, and ρs are the parallel wave number, sound velocity, and ion gyroradius, respectively]. In the limit of weak viscous damping, enhanced neoclassical polarization persists and broadens radial mode widths. Linear mixing length estimates and renormalized turbulence theory are used to determine the ion thermal diffusivity in both cases. In both cases, a strong favorable dependence of ion thermal diffusivity on Bp (and hence plasma current) is exhibited. Furthermore, the ion thermal diffusivity for long wavelength modes exhibits favorable density scaling. The possible role of neoclassical ion temperature-gradient-driven modes in edge fluctuations and transport in L-phase discharges and the L to H transition is discussed.

  16. An experimental and numerical study of developed single phase axial turbulent flow in a smooth rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, J.D.


    A combined experimental and numerical model of a turbulent single phase coolant, flowing axially along the fuel pins of a nuclear reactor, was developed. The experimental rig represented two interconnected subchannels of a square array at a pitch/diameter ratio of 1.193. Air was the working fluid, and measurements were made of the mean radial velocity profiles, wall shear stress variation, turbulence velocity spectra and intensities. The numerically predicted wall shear distribution and mean velocity profiles, obtained using an empirical two-dimensional mixing length and eddy diffusivity concept to represent fluid turbulence, showed good agreement with the experimental results. (Author)

  17. Cascades, ``Blobby'' Turbulence, and Target Pattern Formation in Elastic Systems: A New Take on Classic Themes in Plasma Turbulence (United States)

    Fan, Xiang


    Concerns central to understanding turbulence and transport include: 1) Dynamics of dual cascades in EM turbulence; 2) Understanding `negative viscosity phenomena' in drift-ZF systems; 3) The physics of blobby turbulence (re: SOL). Here, we present a study of a simple model - that of Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (CHNS) Turbulence - which sheds important new light on these issues. The CHNS equations describe the motion of binary fluid undergoing a second order phase transition and separation called spinodal decomposition. The CHNS system and 2D MHD are analogous, as they both contain a vorticity equation and a ``diffusion'' equation. The CHNS system differs from 2D MHD by the appearance of negative diffusivity, and a nonlinear dissipative flux. An analogue of the Alfven wave exists in the 2D CHNS system. DNS shows that mean square concentration spectrum Hkψ scales as k - 7 / 3 in the elastic range. This suggests an inverse cascade of Hψ . However, the kinetic energy spectrum EkK scales as k-3 , as in the direct enstrophy cascade range for a 2D fluid (not MHD!). The resolution is that the feedback of capillarity acts only at blob interfaces. Thus, as blob merger progresses, the packing fraction of interfaces decreases, thus explaining the weakened surface tension feedback and the outcome for EkK. We also examine the evolution of scalar concentration in a single eddy in the Cahn-Hilliard system. This extends the classic problem of flux expulsion in 2D MHD. The simulation results show that a target pattern is formed. Target pattern is a meta stable state, since the band merger process continues on a time scale exponentially long relative to the eddy turnover time. Band merger resembles step merger in drift-ZF staircases. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  18. TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators (United States)

    Proll, J. H. E.; Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Faber, B. J.


    With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is addressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X (Beidler et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 148) and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT (Spong et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 711) code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stellarator experiment HSX (Anderson et al 1995 Fusion Technol. 27 273) is presented for which a reduction of the linear growth rates is achieved over a broad range of the operational parameter space. As an important consequence of this property, the turbulent heat flux levels are reduced compared with the initial configuration.

  19. Turbulent/non-turbulent interfaces in jets and wakes (United States)

    Zecchetto, Marco; Silva, Carlos; Lasef Team


    The characteristics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) at the edges of jets and wakes at high Reynolds numbers are compared by using new direct numerical simulations (DNS) of temporally evolving planar jets (PJET) and wakes (PWAKE). The new simulations attain a Reynolds number based on the Taylor micro-scale of Reλ 350 which are the highest Reynolds number used so far in numerical investigations of TNTI. The similarities and differences between the TNTIs from PJET and PWAKE are assessed in relation to i) their structure and scaling, ii) the vorticity dynamics and, iii) and entrainment velocity. Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FST); PRACE.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo


    We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function (Σ-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100 pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50 pc. At low densities (n ∼ –3 ), the n-PDF is well described by a lognormal distribution for an average local Mach number ranging from ∼0.2 to ∼5.5. As a consequence of the nonlinear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution of the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well-known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n ∼> 7.1 cm –3 ) goes from ∼1.1 to ∼16.9 and the shape of the high-density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case, the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities, the Σ-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all of the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different from those of the isothermal case.

  1. Eddy turbulence parameters inferred from radar observations at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vlasov


    Full Text Available Significant electron density striations, neutral temperatures 27 K above nominal, and intense wind shear were observed in the E-region ionosphere over the Jicamarca Radio Observatory during an unusual event on 26 July 2005 (Hysell et al., 2007. In this paper, these results are used to estimate eddy turbulence parameters and their effects. Models for the thermal balance in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere and the charged particle density in the E region are developed here. The thermal balance model includes eddy conduction and viscous dissipation of turbulent energy as well as cooling by infrared radiation. The production and recombination of ions and electrons in the E region, together with the production and transport of nitric oxide, are included in the plasma density model. Good agreement between the model results and the experimental data is obtained for an eddy diffusion coefficient of about 1×103 m2/s at its peak, which occurs at an altitude of 107 km. This eddy turbulence results in a local maximum of the temperature in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere and could correspond either to an unusually high mesopause or to a double mesosphere. Although complicated by plasma dynamic effects and ongoing controversy, our interpretation of Farley-Buneman wave phase velocity (Hysell et al., 2007 is consistent with a low Brunt-Väisälä frequency in the region of interest. Nitric oxide transport due to eddy diffusion from the lower thermosphere to the mesosphere causes electron density changes in the E region whereas NO density modulation due to irregularities in the eddy diffusion coefficient creates variability in the electron density.

  2. Eddy turbulence parameters inferred from radar observations at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vlasov


    Full Text Available Significant electron density striations, neutral temperatures 27 K above nominal, and intense wind shear were observed in the E-region ionosphere over the Jicamarca Radio Observatory during an unusual event on 26 July 2005 (Hysell et al., 2007. In this paper, these results are used to estimate eddy turbulence parameters and their effects. Models for the thermal balance in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere and the charged particle density in the E region are developed here. The thermal balance model includes eddy conduction and viscous dissipation of turbulent energy as well as cooling by infrared radiation. The production and recombination of ions and electrons in the E region, together with the production and transport of nitric oxide, are included in the plasma density model. Good agreement between the model results and the experimental data is obtained for an eddy diffusion coefficient of about 1×103 m2/s at its peak, which occurs at an altitude of 107 km. This eddy turbulence results in a local maximum of the temperature in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere and could correspond either to an unusually high mesopause or to a double mesosphere. Although complicated by plasma dynamic effects and ongoing controversy, our interpretation of Farley-Buneman wave phase velocity (Hysell et al., 2007 is consistent with a low Brunt-Väisälä frequency in the region of interest. Nitric oxide transport due to eddy diffusion from the lower thermosphere to the mesosphere causes electron density changes in the E region whereas NO density modulation due to irregularities in the eddy diffusion coefficient creates variability in the electron density.

  3. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction. (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl


    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  4. Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective (United States)

    Levich, Eugene


    It is claimed that turbulence in fluids is inherently coherent phenomenon. The coherence shows up clearly as strongly correlated helicity fluctuations of opposite sign. The helicity fluctuations have cellular structure forming clusters that are actually observed as vorticity bands and coherent structures in laboratory turbulence, direct numerical simulations and most obviously in atmospheric turbulence. The clusters are named BCC - Beltrami Cellular Clusters - because of the observed nearly total alignment of the velocity and vorticity fields in each particular cell, and hence nearly maximal possible helicity in each cell; although when averaged over all the cells the residual mean helicity in general is small and does not play active dynamical role. The Beltrami like fluctuations are short-lived and stabilize only in small and generally contiguous sub-domains that are tending to a (multi)fractal in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers, Re → ∞. For the model of homogeneous isotropic turbulence the theory predicts the leading fractal dimension of BCC to be: DF = 2.5. This particular BCC is responsible for generating the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law energy spectrum. The most obvious role that BCC play dynamically is that the nonlinear interactions in them are relatively reduced, due to strong spatial alignment between the velocity field v(r, t) and the vorticity field ω(r, t) = curlv(r, t), while the physical quantities typically best characterizing turbulence intermittency, such as entrophy, vorticity stretching and generation, and energy dissipation are maximized in and near them. The theory quantitatively relates the reduction of nonlinear inter-actions to the BCC fractal dimension DF and subsequent turbulence intermittency. It is further asserted that BCC is a fundamental feature of all turbulent flows, e.g., wall bounded turbulent flows, atmospheric and oceanic flows, and their leading fractal dimension remains invariant and universal in these flows

  5. An Experimental Investigation of Premixed Combustion in Extreme Turbulence (United States)

    Wabel, Timothy Michael

    not a valid criteria for broken reactions in the Bunsen geometry. Several measures of the turbulent burning velocity, including the global consumption speed and the extent of flamelet wrinkling, were measured at these conditions. Reaction layers for the burning velocity measurements were provided by the OH PLIF. The measurements showed that the global consumption speed continues to increase for all levels of turbulence intensity u'/SL. In contrast, the flame surface wrinkling rapidly increases the flame surface area for u'/SL < 10, but the flame surface area does not increase further at larger turbulence intensities. This indicates that the flame is not in the laminar flamelet regime, and the consumption rate per unit of flame surface area must be increased. The turbulent diffusivity is thought to be the mechanism enhancing the consumption rate, which is a scenario first hypothesized by Damkohler. The flame structure and burning velocity measurements motivated the measurements of the evolution of turbulence through regions of very thick preheat layers. This measurement utilized simultaneous PIV and formaldehyde PLIF in order to obtain conditioned statistics of the turbulence as a function of eta, the distance from the reaction layer. Together, the results tell a consistent story, and deepen our understanding of premixed combustion at large turbulent Reynolds number.

  6. Effective diffusion of aircraft emissions at micro- and mesoscales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerz, T.; Duerbeck, T.; Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere


    The project aimed to determine the transport, mixing and effective diffusion of aircraft exhaust from the airplane to the range of atmospheric mesoscale flow, i.e., from seconds and meters to hours and tens of kilometers. By means of a chain of large-eddy simulations the dynamics in the wake embedded in a stably stratified, sheared and turbulent atmosphere is calculated including the dilution of a chemically inert species (e.g. CO{sub 2}) concentration. The numerical data are compared to in-situ measured data. From the concentration fields various dilution and diffusion measures are obtained. It is found that the evolving wingtip vortices produced by the lift of the aircraft distort and attract the exhaust jets immediately. The largest fraction of the exhaust is trapped close to the vortex cores (primary wake) after 20 s where it is not further mixed and diluted with ambient air until the vortices collapse. However, the baroclinic torque at the border between vortex and surrounding air detrains about 10 to 30% of the exhaust mass (depending on atmospheric turbulence and stratification) from the vortices into the so-called secondary wake where it mixes rapidly. In the period between 1.5 and 3 minutes the organized vortices collapse into unorganized turbulence either by small-scale turbulent friction or by a large-scale oscillation driven by atmospheric turbulence. The trapped emissions are now released and further distributed and mixed by turbulence and shear in a stably stratified atmosphere. Under flow conditions typically found at cruising heights the emissions reach background concentrations between 2 and 12 hours for windshear between 0.002 and 0.01 s{sup -1} and the spatial plume extension does not exceed the lower mesoscale range (20 km horizontally and 0.3 km vertically). The outcome of the project in terms of dilution, effective diffusion and entrainment rate is summarized. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  7. Rossby wave, drift wave and zonal flow turbulence (United States)

    Slobinsky, Demian G.

    mechanisms, extracting energy from the drift waves as they grow. Eventually the turbulence is completely suppressed and the zonal flows saturate. The turbulence spectrum is shown to diffuse in a manner which has been mathematically predicted. The insights gained from this simple model could provide a basis for equivalent studies in more sophisticated plasma and geophysical fluid dynamics models in an effort to fully understand the zonal flow generation, the turbulent transport suppression and the zonal flow saturation processes in both the plasma and geophysical contexts.

  8. Turbulence in Three Dimensional Simulations of Magnetopause Reconnection (United States)

    Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Swisdak, M.; Burch, J. L.; Cassak, P.; Dahlin, J. T.; Ergun, R.


    We present two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the 16 October 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event. While the two-dimensional simulation is laminar, turbulence develops at both the x-line and along the magnetic separatrices in the three-dimensional simulation. This turbulence is electromagnetic in nature, is characterized by a wavevector k given by kρ e ˜(m_e/m_i)0.25 with ρ e the electron Larmor radius, and appears to have the ion pressure gradient as its source of free energy. Taken together, these results suggest the instability is a variant of the lower-hybrid drift instability. The turbulence produces electric field fluctuations in the out-of-plane direction (the direction of the reconnection electric field) with an amplitude of around ± 10 mV/m, which is much greater than the reconnection electric field of around 0.1 mV/m. Such large values of the out-of-plane electric field have been identified in the MMS data. The turbulence in the simulation controls the scale lengths of the density profile and current layers in asymmetric reconnection, driving them closer to √ {ρ eρ_i } than the ρ e or de scalings seen in 2D reconnection simulations, where de is the electron inertial length. The turbulence is strong enough to make the magnetic field around the reconnection island chaotic and produces both anomalous resistivity and anomalous viscosity. Each contribute significantly to breaking the frozen-in condition in the electron diffusion region. The crescent-shaped features in velocity space seen both in MMS observations and in two-dimensional simulations survive, even in the turbulent environment of the three-dimensional system. We compare and contrast these results to a three-dimensional simulation of the 8 December 2015 MMS magnetopause reconnection event in which the reconnecting and out-of-plane guide fields are comparable. LHDI is still present in this event, although its appearance is modified by the presence of the guide

  9. Turbulent and neoclassical toroidal momentum transport in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiteboul, J.


    then analyzed and, although the conventional gyro-Bohm scaling is recovered on average, local processes are found to be clearly non-diffusive. The impact of scrape-off layer flows on core toroidal rotation is also analyzed by modifying the boundary conditions in GYSELA. Finally, the equilibrium magnetic field in tokamaks, which is not rigorously axisymmetric, provides another means of breaking the toroidal symmetry, through purely collisional processes. This effect is found to contribute significantly to toroidal momentum transport and can compete with the turbulence-driven toroidal rotation in tokamaks. (author)

  10. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent flow through entire stage in a multistage centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.; Islam, M.F.; Liu, P.


    A three-dimensional turbulent flow through a multistage centrifugal pump is numerically simulated using a commercial CFD software package. The simulation and analysis include flow fields in rotating impeller and stationary diffuser and is completed in a multiple reference frame. The standard k-ε turbulence model is applied. The analysis of the simulation reveals that the reverse flows exist in the zone near the impeller exit and diffuser entrance, resulting in flow field asymmetric and unsteady. There is a considerable interference on velocity field at impeller exit due to the interaction between impeller blades and diffuser vanes. The hydraulic performance is connected and evaluated with the 3-D computational flow field. The current computation is verified by comparing predicted and measured head. (author)

  11. Finite Element Aircraft Simulation of Turbulence (United States)


    A Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence (SORBET) model has been : developed for realtime aircraft simulation that accommodates stochastic : turbulence and distributed discrete gusts as a function of the terrain. This : model is applicable to c...

  12. Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mimotakis, Paul


    .... New measures to characterize level sets in turbulence were developed and successfully employed to characterize experimental data of liquid-phase turbulent-jet flows as well as three-dimensional...

  13. Frontogenesis and turbulent mixing (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Chen, F.; Shang, Q.


    ageostrophic secondary circulation together with the cross-frontal ageostrophic speed. The mixed characteristic is weak in summer, but the large turbulent dissipation and mixing rate measured in the frontal region, which show that the front promoted exchange of material and energy in the upper ocean.

  14. Evaluation of turbulent transport and flame surface dissipation using direct numerical simulation of turbulent combustion; Evaluation des termes de transport et de dissipation de surface de flamme par simulation numerique directe de la combustion turbulente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughanem, H.


    The assumption of gradient transport for the mean reaction progress variable has a limited domain of validity in premixed turbulent combustion. The existence of two turbulent transport regimes, gradient and counter-gradient, is demonstrated in the present work using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of plane flame configurations. The DNS data base describes the influence of the heat release factor, of the turbulence-to-flame velocity ratio, and of an external pressure gradient. The simulations reveal a strong correlation between the regime of turbulent transport and the turbulent flame speed and turbulent flame thickness. These effects re not well described by current turbulent combustion models. A conditional approach `fresh gases / burnt gases` is proposed to overcome these difficulties. Furthermore, he development of flame instabilities in turbulent configurations is also observed in the simulations. A criterion is derived that determines the domain of occurrence of these instabilities (Darrieus- Landau instabilities, Rayleigh- Taylor instabilities, thermo-diffusive instabilities). This criterion suggests that the domain of occurrence of flame instabilities is not limited to small Reynolds numbers. (author) 98 refs.

  15. On the phase lag of turbulent dissipation in rotating tidal flows (United States)

    Zhang, Qianjiang; Wu, Jiaxue


    Field observations of rotating tidal flows in a shallow tidally swept sea reveal that a notable phase lag of both shear production and turbulent dissipation increases with height above the seafloor. These vertical delays of turbulent quantities are approximately equivalent in magnitude to that of squared mean shear. The shear production approximately equals turbulent dissipation over the phase-lag column, and thus a main mechanism of phase lag of dissipation is mean shear, rather than vertical diffusion of turbulent kinetic energy. By relating the phase lag of dissipation to that of the mean shear, a simple formulation with constant eddy viscosity is developed to describe the phase lag in rotating tidal flows. An analytical solution indicates that the phase lag increases linearly with height subjected to a combined effect of tidal frequency, Coriolis parameter and eddy viscosity. The vertical diffusion of momentum associated with eddy viscosity produces the phase lag of squared mean shear, and resultant delay of turbulent quantities. Its magnitude is inhibited by Earth's rotation. Furthermore, a theoretical formulation of the phase lag with a parabolic eddy viscosity profile can be constructed. A first-order approximation of this formulation is still a linear function of height, and its magnitude is approximately 0.8 times that with constant viscosity. Finally, the theoretical solutions of phase lag with realistic viscosity can be satisfactorily justified by realistic phase lags of dissipation.

  16. Turbulence transport with nonlocal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, R.R.; Clark, T.T.; Harlow, F.H.; Turner, L.


    This preliminary report describes a variety of issues in turbulence transport analysis with particular emphasis on closure procedures that are nonlocal in wave-number and/or physical space. Anomalous behavior of the transport equations for large scale parts of the turbulence spectrum are resolved by including the physical space nonlocal interactions. Direct and reverse cascade processes in wave-number space are given a much richer potential for realistic description by the nonlocal formulations. The discussion also describes issues, many still not resolved, regarding new classes of self-similar form functions.

  17. Plasma turbulence effects on aurorae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, E.V.; Telegin, V.A.


    Analysis of modern state of microprocesses physics in plasma of aurorare, initiated by energetic electron flow intrusion, is presented. It is shown that there is a number of phenomena, which cannot be explained under non-collision (collective) mechanisms of interaction are applied. Effects of plasma turbulence in the area of auroral arcs are considered. Introduction of a new structural element to auroral arc - plasma-turbulence (PT) layer is substantiated. Numerical simulation of electron kinetics, changes in neutral composition, as well as generation of IR- and UV-radiation in PT layer has been realized

  18. Electron diffusion due to electromagnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, T.


    Cross field electron diffusion induced by low frequency electromagnetic field fluctuations is investigated by the test particle approach based on the drift kinetic equation with the number conserving Krook collision term within the limit of quasilinear analysis in slab geometry. The diffusion coefficient is described in terms of a form factor which consists of three portions; the wave number and frequency spectra of density fluctuations, the effect of longitudinal wave-particle interaction, and the transverse dispersion function. The transverse dispersion gives the plasma skin depth as the characteristic scale length, which yields the Alcator-like scaling of the diffusion coefficient. The form factor shows a resonance-like behavior due to the magnetic part of fluctuations at the drift frequency, which indicates the importance of density fluctuations near the frequency in the electromagnetic plasma turbulence. This resonance is enhanced with increasing the plasma pressure, and finally the transition of the Alcator scaling is possible in the case of narrow band turbulence. The transitions of the Alcator scaling by the effect of collision is also derived in the single mode approximation. (author)

  19. Effects of germane flow rate in electrical properties of a-SiGe:H films for ambipolar thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Miguel, E-mail: [Centro de Investigaciones en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Rosales, Pedro, E-mail: [National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (INAOE), Electronics Department, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Torres, Alfonso [National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (INAOE), Electronics Department, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Flores, Francisco [Centro de Investigaciones en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Molina, Joel; Moreno, Mario [National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (INAOE), Electronics Department, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Luna, Jose [Centro de Investigaciones en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Orduña, Abdu [Centro de Investigación en Biotecnología Aplicada (CIBA), IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala 72197 (Mexico)


    In this work, the study of germane flow rate in electrical properties of a-SiGe:H films is presented. The a-SiGe:H films deposited by low frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 300 °C were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, measurements of temperature dependence of conductivity and UV–visible spectroscopic ellipsometry. After finding the optimum germane flow rate conditions, a-SiGe:H films were deposited at 200 °C and analyzed. The use of a-SiGe:H films at 200 °C as active layer of low-temperature ambipolar thin-film transistors (TFTs) was demonstrated. The inverted staggered a-SiGe:H TFTs with Spin-On Glass as gate insulator were fabricated. These results suggest that there is an optimal Ge content in the a-SiGe:H films that improves its electrical properties. - Highlights: • As the GeH{sub 4} flow rate increases the content of oxygen decreases. • Ge-H bonds show the highest value in a-SiGe:H films with GeH{sub 4} flow of 105 sccm. • Films with GeH{sub 4} flow of 105 sccm show the highest activation energy. • An optimum incorporation of germanium is obtained with GeH{sub 4} flow rate of 105 sccm. • At 200 °C the optimum condition of the a-SiGe:H films remain with no changes.

  20. Ambipolar organic heterojunction transistors based on F16CuPc/CuPc with a MoO3 buffer layer (United States)

    Mingdong, Yi; Ning, Zhang; Linghai, Xie; Wei, Huang


    We fabricated heterojunction organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and hexadecafluorophtholocyaninatocopper (F16CuPc) as hole transport layer and electron transport layer, respectively. Compared with F16CuPc based OFETs, the electron field-effect mobility in the heterojunction OFETs increased from 3.1 × 10-3 to 8.7 × 10-3 cm2/(V·s), but the p-type behavior was not observed. To enhanced the hole injection, we modified the source-drain electrodes using the MoO3 buffer layer, and the hole injection can be effectively improved. Eventually, the ambipolar transport characteristics of the CuPc/F16CuPc based OFETs with a MoO3 buffer layer were achieved, and the field-effect mobilities of electron and hole were 2.5 × 10-3 and 3.1 × 10-3 cm2/(V·s), respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61475074, 61204095).

  1. Cyano-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) single-crystal with balanced hole and electron injection and transport for ambipolar field-effect transistors. (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Tang, Jia; Xu, Yuanxiang; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Yan; Xie, Zengqi; Ma, Yuguang


    High and balanced hole and electron mobilities were achieved in OFETs based on the high photoluminescence of a 1,4-bis(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)benzene single-crystal with symmetric electrodes. For electron and hole, the operation voltage in the OFETs based on symmetric gold electrodes was 30 and -20 V, respectively. The accumulation threshold voltage is low enough for the OFETs to operate in an ambipolar model with the source/drain voltage (Vds) around 50 V despite the high injection barrier. The highest electron and hole mobility was 0.745 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 0.239 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and the current density reached 90.7 and 27.4 A cm(-2), respectively with an assumed 10 nm accumulation layer. The high mobility comes from the strong π-π interactions. In addition, the highly ordered hydrogen bonding matrix may create an efficient route to pump the charge to the inner layer which can improve the injection ability.

  2. Cylindrical gate all around Schottky barrier MOSFET with insulated shallow extensions at source/drain for removal of ambipolarity: a novel approach (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Pratap, Yogesh; Haldar, Subhasis; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.


    In this paper TCAD-based simulation of a novel insulated shallow extension (ISE) cylindrical gate all around (CGAA) Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET has been reported, to eliminate the suicidal ambipolar behavior (bias-dependent OFF state leakage current) of conventional SB-CGAA MOSFET by blocking the metal-induced gap states as well as unwanted charge sharing between source/channel and drain/channel regions. This novel structure offers low barrier height at the source and offers high ON-state current. The I ON/I OFF of ISE-CGAA-SB-MOSFET increases by 1177 times and offers steeper subthreshold slope (~60 mV/decade). However a little reduction in peak cut off frequency is observed and to further improve the cut-off frequency dual metal gate architecture has been employed and a comparative assessment of single metal gate, dual metal gate, single metal gate with ISE, and dual metal gate with ISE has been presented. The improved performance of Schottky barrier CGAA MOSFET by the incorporation of ISE makes it an attractive candidate for CMOS digital circuit design. The numerical simulation is performed using the ATLAS-3D device simulator.

  3. Theoretical study of stability and charge-transport properties of coronene molecule and some of its halogenated derivatives: A path to ambipolar organic-based materials? (United States)

    Sancho-García, J. C.; Pérez-Jiménez, A. J.


    We have carefully investigated the structural and electronic properties of coronene and some of its fluorinated and chlorinated derivatives, including full periphery substitution, as well as the preferred orientation of the non-covalent dimer structures subsequently formed. We have paid particular attention to a set of methodological details, to first obtain single-molecule magnitudes as accurately as possible, including next the use of modern dispersion-corrected methods to tackle the corresponding non-covalently bound dimers. Generally speaking, this class of compounds is expected to self-assembly in neighboring π-stacks with dimer stabilization energies ranging from -20 to -30 kcal mol-1 at close distances around 3.0-3.3 Å. Then, in a further step, we have also calculated hole and electron transfer rates of some suitable candidates for ambipolar materials, and corresponding charge mobility values, which are known to critically depend on the supramolecular organization of the samples. For coronene and per-fluorinated coronene, we have found high values for their hopping rates, although slightly smaller for the latter due to an increase (decrease) of the reorganization energies (electronic couplings).

  4. Effects of germane flow rate in electrical properties of a-SiGe:H films for ambipolar thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, Miguel; Rosales, Pedro; Torres, Alfonso; Flores, Francisco; Molina, Joel; Moreno, Mario; Luna, Jose; Orduña, Abdu


    In this work, the study of germane flow rate in electrical properties of a-SiGe:H films is presented. The a-SiGe:H films deposited by low frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 300 °C were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, measurements of temperature dependence of conductivity and UV–visible spectroscopic ellipsometry. After finding the optimum germane flow rate conditions, a-SiGe:H films were deposited at 200 °C and analyzed. The use of a-SiGe:H films at 200 °C as active layer of low-temperature ambipolar thin-film transistors (TFTs) was demonstrated. The inverted staggered a-SiGe:H TFTs with Spin-On Glass as gate insulator were fabricated. These results suggest that there is an optimal Ge content in the a-SiGe:H films that improves its electrical properties. - Highlights: • As the GeH 4 flow rate increases the content of oxygen decreases. • Ge-H bonds show the highest value in a-SiGe:H films with GeH 4 flow of 105 sccm. • Films with GeH 4 flow of 105 sccm show the highest activation energy. • An optimum incorporation of germanium is obtained with GeH 4 flow rate of 105 sccm. • At 200 °C the optimum condition of the a-SiGe:H films remain with no changes

  5. Ambipolar field effect in the ternary topological insulator (BixSb1–x)2Te3 by composition tuning

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng


    Topological insulators exhibit a bulk energy gap and spin-polarized surface states that lead to unique electronic properties 1-9, with potential applications in spintronics and quantum information processing. However, transport measurements have typically been dominated by residual bulk charge carriers originating from crystal defects or environmental doping 10-12, and these mask the contribution of surface carriers to charge transport in these materials. Controlling bulk carriers in current topological insulator materials, such as the binary sesquichalcogenides Bi 2Te 3, Sb 2Te 3 and Bi 2Se 3, has been explored extensively by means of material doping 8,9,11 and electrical gating 13-16, but limited progress has been made to achieve nanostructures with low bulk conductivity for electronic device applications. Here we demonstrate that the ternary sesquichalcogenide (Bi xSb 1-x) 2Te 3 is a tunable topological insulator system. By tuning the ratio of bismuth to antimony, we are able to reduce the bulk carrier density by over two orders of magnitude, while maintaining the topological insulator properties. As a result, we observe a clear ambipolar gating effect in (Bi xSb 1-x) 2Te 3 nanoplate field-effect transistor devices, similar to that observed in graphene field-effect transistor devices 17. The manipulation of carrier type and density in topological insulator nanostructures demonstrated here paves the way for the implementation of topological insulators in nanoelectronics and spintronics. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Turbulent pressure fluctuations measured during CHATS (United States)

    Steven P. Oncley; William J. Massman; Edward G. Patton


    Fast-response pressure fluctuations were included in the Canopy Horizontal Array of Turbulence Study (CHATS) at several heights within and just above the canopy in a walnut orchard. Two independent systems were intercompared and then separated. We present an evaluation of turbulence statistics - including the pressure transport term in the turbulence kinetic energy...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Frank, Adam; Carroll, Jonathan; Blackman, Eric G.; Quillen, Alice C.


    The link between turbulence in star-forming environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows, we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers'-type turbulence and produces a driving scale length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star-forming environments. In the last section, we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets cannot be the source of turbulence.

  8. On the Values for the Turbulent Schmidt Number in Environmental Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Gualtieri


    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has consolidated as a tool to provide understanding and quantitative information regarding many complex environmental flows. The accuracy and reliability of CFD modelling results oftentimes come under scrutiny because of issues in the implementation of and input data for those simulations. Regarding the input data, if an approach based on the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations is applied, the turbulent scalar fluxes are generally estimated by assuming the standard gradient diffusion hypothesis (SGDH, which requires the definition of the turbulent Schmidt number, Sct (the ratio of momentum diffusivity to mass diffusivity in the turbulent flow. However, no universally-accepted values of this parameter have been established or, more importantly, methodologies for its computation have been provided. This paper firstly presents a review of previous studies about Sct in environmental flows, involving both water and air systems. Secondly, three case studies are presented where the key role of a correct parameterization of the turbulent Schmidt number is pointed out. These include: (1 transverse mixing in a shallow water flow; (2 tracer transport in a contact tank; and (3 sediment transport in suspension. An overall picture on the use of the Schmidt number in CFD emerges from the paper.

  9. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  10. Numerical turbulent convective heat transfer and fluid flow in complex channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, M.


    This investigation concerns numerical turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow in complex channels for fully developed periodic state. Numerical application of different turbulence models for forced convective heat transfer in three dimensional channels are presented. It also concerns prediction of secondary motions and temperature distribution in straight and corrugated ducts with different cross section area. The standard linear k-e and Speziale`s non-linear k-e models with wall functions are applied to calculate the turbulent shear stresses. SED, GGDH and WET models are used to predict the turbulent heat fluxes. The overall thermal-hydraulic performance is presented in terms of friction factor and Nu-number. Some formulas are also presented to estimate the Nu-number in various wavy channels. The numerical approach is based on the finite volume technique with non-staggered grid arrangement. Rhie-Chow interpolation with SIMPLEC-algorithm is used. The convective terms are treated by hybrid, MUSCL, van Leer and QUICK schemes while the diffusive terms are treated by central difference scheme. The fully developed turbulent state is achieved by imposing periodic conditions in the main flow direction. In general, a numerical method for calculation of turbulent convective heat transfer in complex channels is presented. 4 refs, 3 figs

  11. Wave optics simulation of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle effects in CO2 lidar. (United States)

    Nelson, D H; Walters, D L; Mackerrow, E P; Schmitt, M J; Quick, C R; Porch, W M; Petrin, R R


    Laser speckle can influence lidar measurements from a diffuse hard target. Atmospheric optical turbulence will also affect the lidar return signal. We present a numerical simulation that models the propagation of a lidar beam and accounts for both reflective speckle and atmospheric turbulence effects. Our simulation is based on implementing a Huygens-Fresnel approximation to laser propagation. A series of phase screens, with the appropriate atmospheric statistical characteristics, are used to simulate the effect of atmospheric turbulence. A single random phase screen is used to simulate scattering of the entire beam from a rough surface. We compare the output of our numerical model with separate CO(2) lidar measurements of atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle. We also compare the output of our model with separate analytical predictions for atmospheric turbulence and reflective speckle. Good agreement was found between the model and the experimental data. Good agreement was also found with analytical predictions. Finally, we present results of a simulation of the combined effects on a finite-aperture lidar system that are qualitatively consistent with previous experimental observations of increasing rms noise with increasing turbulence level.

  12. Three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence measurements of turbulent chemical plumes (United States)

    True, Aaron; Crimaldi, John


    In order to find prey, mates, and suitable habitat, many organisms must navigate through complex chemical plume structures in turbulent flow environments. In this context, we investigate the spatial and temporal structure of chemical plumes released isokinetically into fractal-grid-generated turbulence in an open channel flow. We first utilized particle image velocimetry (PIV) to characterize flow conditions (mean free stream velocities, turbulence intensities, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates, Taylor Reynolds numbers). We then implemented a newly developed high-resolution, high-speed, volumetric scanning laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system for near time-resolved measurements of three-dimensional chemical plume structures. We investigated cases with and without a cylinder wake, and compare statistical (mean, variance, intermittency, probability density functions) and spectral (power spectrum of concentration fluctuations) characteristics of the chemical plume structure. Stretching and folding of complex three-dimensional filament structures during chaotic turbulent mixing is greatly enhanced in the cylinder wake case. In future experiments, we will implement simultaneous PIV and LIF, enabling computation of the covariance of the velocity and chemical concentration fluctuations and thus estimation of turbulent eddy diffusivities. NSF PHY 1555862.

  13. Model experiment to study sonic boom propagation through turbulence. Part II. Effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence. (United States)

    Lipkens, B; Blackstock, D T


    A model experiment was reported to be successful in simulating the propagation of sonic booms through a turbulent atmosphere [B. Lipkens and D. T. Blackstock, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 148-158 (1998)]. In this study the effect on N wave characteristics of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence are investigated. The main parameters of interest are the rise time and the peak pressure. The effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance is to flatten the rise time and peak pressure distributions. Rise time and peak pressure distributions always have positive skewness after propagation through turbulence. Average rise time grows with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. The scattering of rise time data is one-sided, i.e., rise times are almost always increased by turbulence. Average peak pressure decreases slowly with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. For the reported data a threefold increase in average rise time is observed and a maximum decrease of about 20% in average peak pressure. Rise times more than ten times that of the no turbulence value are observed. At most, the maximum peak pressure doubles after propagation through turbulence, and the minimum peak pressure values are about one-half the no-turbulence values. Rounded waveforms are always more common than peaked waveforms.

  14. High range free space optic transmission using new dual diffuser modulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman A.K


    Full Text Available Free space optical communication fsoc is vulnerable with fluctuating atmospheric. This paper focus analyzes the finding of new technique dual diffuser modulation (ddm to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect. The performance of fsoc under the presence of atmospheric turbulence will cause the laser beam keens to (a beam wander, (b beam spreading and (c scintillation. The most deteriorate the fsoc is scintillation where it affected the wavefront cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. Ddm approach enhances the detecting bit ‘1’ and bit ‘0’ and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on signal-to-noise (snr and bit error rate (ber where the numerical result shows that the ddm technique able to improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  15. Dissipative structures in magnetorotational turbulence (United States)

    Ross, Johnathan; Latter, Henrik N.


    Via the process of accretion, magnetorotational turbulence removes energy from a disk's orbital motion and transforms it into heat. Turbulent heating is far from uniform and is usually concentrated in small regions of intense dissipation, characterised by abrupt magnetic reconnection and higher temperatures. These regions are of interest because they might generate non-thermal emission, in the form of flares and energetic particles, or thermally process solids in protoplanetary disks. Moreover, the nature of the dissipation bears on the fundamental dynamics of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) itself: local simulations indicate that the large-scale properties of the turbulence (e.g. saturation levels, the stress-pressure relationship) depend on the short dissipative scales. In this paper we undertake a numerical study of how the MRI dissipates and the small-scale dissipative structures it employs to do so. We use the Godunov code RAMSES and unstratified compressible shearing boxes. Our simulations reveal that dissipation is concentrated in ribbons of strong magnetic reconnection that are significantly elongated in azimuth, up to a scale height. Dissipative structures are hence meso-scale objects, and potentially provide a route by which large scales and small scales interact. We go on to show how these ribbons evolve over time — forming, merging, breaking apart, and disappearing. Finally, we reveal important couplings between the large-scale density waves generated by the MRI and the small-scale structures, which may illuminate the stress-pressure relationship in MRI turbulence.

  16. Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Wendell


    This book explains how magnetized plasmas self-organize in states of electromagnetic turbulence that transports particles and energy out of the core plasma faster than anticipated by the fusion scientists designing magnetic confinement systems in the 20th century. It describes theory, experiments and simulations in a unified and up-to-date presentation of the issues of achieving nuclear fusion power.

  17. Evaluation of turbulence mitigation methods (United States)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Huebner, Claudia S.; Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; Schwering, Piet B. W.


    Atmospheric turbulence is a well-known phenomenon that diminishes the recognition range in visual and infrared image sequences. There exist many different methods to compensate for the effects of turbulence. This paper focuses on the performance of two software-based methods to mitigate the effects of low- and medium turbulence conditions. Both methods are capable of processing static and dynamic scenes. The first method consists of local registration, frame selection, blur estimation and deconvolution. The second method consists of local motion compensation, fore- /background segmentation and weighted iterative blind deconvolution. A comparative evaluation using quantitative measures is done on some representative sequences captured during a NATO SET 165 trial in Dayton. The amount of blurring and tilt in the imagery seem to be relevant measures for such an evaluation. It is shown that both methods improve the imagery by reducing the blurring and tilt and therefore enlarge the recognition range. Furthermore, results of a recognition experiment using simulated data are presented that show that turbulence mitigation using the first method improves the recognition range up to 25% for an operational optical system.

  18. 5th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server


    Under the auspices of the Euromech Committee, the Fifth European Turbulence Conference was held in Siena on 5-8 July 1994. Following the previous ETC meeting in Lyon (1986), Berlin (1988), Stockholm (1990) and Delft (1992), the Fifth ETC was aimed at providing a review of the fundamental aspects of turbulence from a theoretical, numerical and experimental point of view. In the magnificent town of Siena, more than 250 scientists from all over the world, spent four days discussing new ideas on turbulence. As a research worker in the field of turbulence, I must say that the works presented at the Conference, on which this book is based, covered almost all areas in this field. I also think that this book provides a major opportunity to have a complete overview of the most recent research works. I am extremely grateful to Prof. C. Cercignani, Dr. M. Loffredo, and Prof. R. Piva who, as members of the local organizing committee, share the success of the Conference. I also want to thank Mrs. Liu' Catena, for her inva...

  19. Tackling turbulent flows in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dewan, Anupam


    Focusing on the engineering aspects of fluid turbulence, this volume offers solutions to the problem in a number of settings. Emphasizing real-world applications rather than mathematics, it will be a must-read text in both industrial and academic environments.

  20. Topology optimization of turbulent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilgen, Cetin B.; Dilgen, Sumer B.; Fuhrman, David R.


    The aim of this work is to present a fast and viable approach for taking into account turbulence in topology optimization of complex fluid flow systems, without resorting to any simplifying assumptions in the derivation of discrete adjoints. Topology optimization is an iterative gradient...

  1. Magnetic turbulence and anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.


    The self consistency conditions for magnetic turbulence are reviewed. The main features of magnetic topology involving stochastic flux lines are summarized. Two driving sources are considered: thermal effects which require large scale residual islands and electron diamagnetism which involves fluctuation scales smaller than the ion Larmor radius and a β p threshold of order one. Stability criteria and transport coefficients are given

  2. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.


    In this paper, the radial correlation length of an electrostatic drift wave turbulence is analytically determined in various regimes. The analysis relies on the calculation of a range of mode non linear interaction, which is an instantaneous correlation length. The link with the usual correlation length has not been investigated yet. (TEC). 5 refs

  3. Turbulent magnetohydrodynamics in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhanu, Michael


    In electrically conducting fluids, the electromagnetic field is coupled with the fluid motion by induction effects. We studied different magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, using two experiments involving turbulent flows of liquid metal. The first mid-sized uses gallium. The second, using sodium, is conducted within the VKS (Von Karman Sodium) collaboration. It has led to the observation of the dynamo effect, namely converting a part of the kinetic energy of the fluid into magnetic energy. We have shown that, depending on forcing conditions, a statistically stationary dynamo, or dynamical regimes of magnetic field can be generated. In particular, polarity reversals similar to those of Earth's magnetic field were observed. Meanwhile, experiment with Gallium has been developed to study the effects of electromagnetic induction by turbulent flows in a more homogeneous and isotropic configuration than in the VKS experiment. Using data from these two experiments, we studied the advection of magnetic field by a turbulent flow and the induced fluctuations. The development of probes measuring electrical potential difference allowed us to further highlight the magnetic braking of a turbulent flow of Gallium by Lorentz force. This mechanism is involved in the saturation of the dynamo instability. (author) [fr

  4. Turbulence in the Heliospheric Jets (United States)

    Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Opher, M.; Hassam, A.; Ohia, O.


    The conventional picture of the heliosphere is that of a comet-shaped structure with an extended tail produced by the relative motion of the sun through the local interstellar medium (LISM). Recent MHD simulations of the global heliosphere have revealed, however, that the heliosphere drives magnetized jets to the North and South similar to those driven by the Crab Nebula and other astrophysical objects. These simulations reveal that the jets become turbulent with scale lengths as large as 100AU [1,2]. An important question is what drives this large-scale turbulence, what are the implications for mixing of interstellar and heliospheric plasma and does this turbulence drive energetic particles? An analytic model of the heliospheric jets in the simple limit in which the interstellar flow and magnetic field are neglected yields an equilibrium state that can be analyzed to explore potential instabilities [3]. Calculations suggest that because the axial magnetic field within the jets is small, the dominant instability is the sausage mode, driven by the azimuthal solar magnetic field. Other drive mechanisms, including Kelvin Helmholtz, are also being explored. 3D MHD and Hall MHD simulations are being carried out to explore the development of this turbulence, its impact on the mixing of interstellar and heliosheath plasma and the production of energetic particles. [1] Opher et al ApJ Lett. 800, L28, 2015[2] Pogorelov et al ApJ Lett. 812,L6, 2015[3] Drake et al ApJ Lett. 808, L44, 2015

  5. Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the discovery of pulsars in 1967, many years of work on interstellar scintillation suggested that small-scale interstellar turbulence must have a hydromagnetic origin; but the IK spectrum was too flat and the ideas on anisotropic spectra too qualitative to explain the observations. In response, new theories of balanced ...

  6. Wind effect in turbulence parametrization (United States)

    Colombini, M.; Stocchino, A.


    The action of wind blowing over a closed basin ultimately results in a steady shear-induced circulation pattern and in a leeward rising of the free surface—and a corresponding windward lowering—known as wind set-up. If the horizontal dimensions of the basin are large with respect to the average flow depth, the occurrence of local quasi-equilibrium conditions can be expected, i.e. the flow can be assumed to be locally driven only by the wind stress and by the opposing free surface gradient due to set-up. This wind-induced flow configuration shows a strong similarity with turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow, the one dimensional flow between parallel plates generated by the simultaneous action of a constant pressure gradient and of the shear induced by the relative motion of the plates. A two-equation turbulence closure is then employed to perform a numerical study of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows for different values of the ratio of the shear stresses at the two walls. The resulting eddy viscosity vertical distributions are analyzed in order to devise analytical profiles of eddy viscosity that account for the effect of wind. The results of this study, beside allowing for a physical insight on the turbulence process of this class of flows, will allow for a more accurate description of the wind effect to be included in the formulation of quasi-3D and 3D models of lagoon hydrodynamics.

  7. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct ...

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solar-wind turbulence show that there is more power in Alfvén waves that travel away from the. Sun than towards it. .... to ˆz is called the Alfvén wave, and the other orthogonal component is called the Slow. (magnetosonic) ...... advanced in the text suffices for our phenomenological account in this review. [46] A Beresnyak ...

  9. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...

  10. Stochastic acceleration by hydromagnetic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.


    A general theory for particle acceleration by weak hydromagnetic turbulence with a given spectrum of waves is described. Various limiting cases, corresponding to Fermi acceleration and magnetic pumping, are discussed and two numerical examples illustrating them are given. An attempt is made to show that the expression for the rate of Fermi acceleration is valid for finite amplitudes

  11. Soliton and strong Langmuir turbulence in solar flare processes (United States)

    Song, M. T.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.


    The occurrence of modulational instability in the current sheet of a solar flare is investigated. Special attention is given to the plasma microinstability in this sheet and its relation to the flare process. It is found that solitons or strong Langmuir turbulence are likely to occur in the diffusion region under solar flare conditions in which the electric resistivity could be enhanced by several orders of magnitude in the region, resulting in significant heating and stochastic acceleration of particles. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the transition of the magnetic field velocity and plasma density from the outer MHD region into the diffusive region and then back out again with the completion of the energy conversion process. This is all made possible by an increase in resistivity of four to five orders of magnitude over the classical value.

  12. Size scaling of turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhihong


    Transport scaling with respect to tokamak device size is critically examined for electrostatic ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with adiabatic electrons using first-principles gyrokinetic particle simulations, which use up to one billion particles to address realistic parameters of reactor-grade plasmas. Results of these large scale simulations, varying ρ* (ion gyroradius normalized by tokamak minor radius) while keeping other dimensionless plasma parameters fixed, show that the fluctuation scale length is microscopic and transport is diffusive in the presence of zonal flows. The local transport coefficient exhibits a gradual transition from a Bohm-like scaling for device sizes corresponding to present-day tokamak experiments to a gyro-Bohm scaling for future larger devices. The device size where this transition occurs is much larger than that expected from linear ITG theory for profile variations. Our simulations include a heat bath/source to prevent profile relaxation and are in the strong turbulence regime far away from ITG marginality. The effects of kinetic electrons on electrostatic ITG-TEM (trapped electron mode) driven turbulence will also be presented. (author)

  13. Effects of pressure on syngas/air turbulent nonpremixed flames (United States)

    Lee, Bok Jik; Im, Hong G.; Ciottoli, Pietro Paolo; Valorani, Mauro


    Large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent non-premixed jet flames were conducted to investigate the effects of pressure on the syngas/air flame behavior. The software to solve the reactive Navier-Stokes equations was developed based on the OpenFOAM framework, using the YSLFM library for the flamelet-based chemical closure. The flamelet tabulation is obtained by means of an in-house code designed to solve unsteady flamelets of both ideal and real fluid mixtures. The validation of the numerical setup is attained by comparison of the numerical results with the Sandia/ETH-Zurich experimental database of the CO/H2/N2 non-premixed, unconfined, turbulent jet flame, referred to as "Flame A". Two additional simulations, at pressure conditions of 2 and 5 atm, are compared and analyzed to unravel computational and scientific challenges in characterizing turbulent flames at high pressures. A set of flamelet solutions, representative of the jet flames under review, are analyzed following a CSP approach. In particular, the Tangential Stretching Rate (TSR), representing the reciprocal of the most energetic time scale associated with the chemical source term, and its extension to reaction-diffusion systems (extended TSR), are adopted.

  14. PIV measurement of turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, T; Guo, F; Chen, B; Zhang, X


    Turbulent mixing layer flow with polymer additives was experimentally investigated by PIV in present paper. The velocity ratio between high and low speed is 4:1 and the Reynolds number for pure water case based on the velocity differences of two steams and hydraulic diameter of the channel ranges from 14667∼73333. Flow field and turbulent quantities of turbulent mixing layer with 200ppm polymer additives were measured and compared with pure water mixing layer flow. It is shown that the dynamic development of mixing layer is greatly influenced by polymer addictives. The smaller vortices are eliminated and the coherent structure is much clearer. Similar with pure water case, Reynolds stress and vorticity still concentrate in a coniform area of central part of mixing layer and the width will increase with the Reynolds number increasing. However, compared with pure water case, the coniform width of polymer additives case is larger, which means the polymer additives will lead to the diffusion of coherent structure. The peak value of vorticity in different cross section will decrease with the development of mixing layer. Compared with pure water case, the vorticity is larger at the beginning of the mixing layer but decreases faster in the case with polymer additives.

  15. Simulation and modeling of turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B; Lumley, John L


    This book provides students and researchers in fluid engineering with an up-to-date overview of turbulent flow research in the areas of simulation and modeling. A key element of the book is the systematic, rational development of turbulence closure models and related aspects of modern turbulent flow theory and prediction. Starting with a review of the spectral dynamics of homogenous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows, succeeding chapters deal with numerical simulation techniques, renormalization group methods and turbulent closure modeling. Each chapter is authored by recognized leaders in their respective fields, and each provides a thorough and cohesive treatment of the subject.

  16. An introduction to turbulence and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bradshaw, P


    An Introduction to Turbulence and Its Measurement is an introductory text on turbulence and its measurement. It combines the physics of turbulence with measurement techniques and covers topics ranging from measurable quantities and their physical significance to the analysis of fluctuating signals, temperature and concentration measurements, and the hot-wire anemometer. Examples of turbulent flows are presented. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the physics of turbulence, paying particular attention to Newton's second law of motion, the Newtonian viscous f

  17. Determining Pitch-angle Diffusion Coefficients from Test Particle Simulations (United States)

    Ivascenko, Alex; Lange, Sebastian; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami


    The transport and acceleration of charged particles in turbulent media are topics of great interest in space physics and interstellar astrophysics. These processes are dominated by the scattering of particles off magnetic irregularities. The scattering process itself is usually described by small-angle scattering, with the pitch-angle coefficient {D}μ μ playing a major role. Since the diffusion coefficient {D}μ μ can be determined analytically only for the approximation of quasilinear theory, the determination of this coefficient from numerical simulations has become more important. So far these simulations have yielded particle tracks for small-scale scattering, which can then be interpreted using the running diffusion coefficients. This method has a limited range of validity. This paper presents two new methods that allow for the calculation of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient from numerical simulations. These methods no longer analyze particle trajectories and instead examine the change of particle distribution functions. It is shown that these methods provide better resolved results and allow for the analysis of strong turbulence. The application of these methods to Monte Carlo simulations of particle scattering and hybrid MHD-particle simulations is presented. Both analysis methods are able to recover the diffusion coefficients used as input for the Monte Carlo simulations and provide better results in MHD simulations, especially for stronger turbulence.

  18. Simulation of Deep Convective Clouds with the Dynamic Reconstruction Turbulence Closure (United States)

    Shi, X.; Chow, F. K.; Street, R. L.; Bryan, G. H.


    The terra incognita (TI), or gray zone, in simulations is a range of grid spacing comparable to the most energetic eddy diameter. Spacing in mesoscale and simulations is much larger than the eddies, and turbulence is parameterized with one-dimensional vertical-mixing. Large eddy simulations (LES) have grid spacing much smaller than the energetic eddies, and use three-dimensional models of turbulence. Studies of convective weather use convection-permitting resolutions, which are in the TI. Neither mesoscale-turbulence nor LES models are designed for the TI, so TI turbulence parameterization needs to be discussed. Here, the effects of sub-filter scale (SFS) closure schemes on the simulation of deep tropical convection are evaluated by comparing three closures, i.e. Smagorinsky model, Deardorff-type TKE model and the dynamic reconstruction model (DRM), which partitions SFS turbulence into resolvable sub-filter scales (RSFS) and unresolved sub-grid scales (SGS). The RSFS are reconstructed, and the SGS are modeled with a dynamic eddy viscosity/diffusivity model. The RSFS stresses/fluxes allow backscatter of energy/variance via counter-gradient stresses/fluxes. In high-resolution (100m) simulations of tropical convection use of these turbulence models did not lead to significant differences in cloud water/ice distribution, precipitation flux, or vertical fluxes of momentum and heat. When model resolutions are coarsened, the Smagorinsky and TKE models overestimate cloud ice and produces large-amplitude downward heat flux in the middle troposphere (not found in the high-resolution simulations). This error is a result of unrealistically large eddy diffusivities, i.e., the eddy diffusivity of the DRM is on the order of 1 for the coarse resolution simulations, the eddy diffusivity of the Smagorinsky and TKE model is on the order of 100. Splitting the eddy viscosity/diffusivity scalars into vertical and horizontal components by using different length scales and strain rate

  19. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.


    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  20. Experiments in turbulent pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torbergsen, Lars Even


    This thesis reports experimental results for the mean velocity and turbulence statistics in two straight pipe sections for bulk Reynolds numbers in the range 22000 to 75000. The flow was found consistent with a fully developed state. Detailed turbulence spectra were obtained for low and moderate turbulent Reynolds number. For the pipe centre line location at R{sub {lambda}} = 112, a narrow range in the streamwise power spectrum applied to the -5/3 inertial subrange. However this range was influenced both by turbulence production and viscous dissipation, and therefore did not reflect a true inertial range. The result indicates how the intermediate range between the production and dissipative scales can be misinterpreted as an inertial range for low and moderate R{sub {lambda}}. To examine the universal behaviour of the inertial range, the inertial scaling of the streamwise power spectrum is compared to the inertial scaling of the second order longitudinal velocity structure function, which relate directly by a Fourier transform. Increasing agreement between the Kolmogorov constant C{sub K} and the second order structure function scaling constant C{sub 2} was observed with increasing R{sub {lambda}}. The result indicates that a true inertial range requires several decades of separation between the energy containing and dissipative scales. A method for examining spectral anisotropy is reported and applied to turbulence spectra in fully developed pipe flow. It is found that the spectral redistribution from the streamwise to the two lateral spectra goes primarily to the circumferential component. Experimental results are reported for an axisymmetric contraction of a fully developed pipe flow. 67 refs., 75 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Evaluation Of Gas Diffusion Through Plastic Materials Used In Experimental And Sampling Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter


    . Calculations show that diffusion of oxygen through plastic tubing and reactors into anoxic water can be a serious problem for a series of plastic materials. Comparison of the method for turbulent and laminar flow in tubings shows that the difference is insignificant for most cases. Calculations show also......Plastic materials are often used in experimental and sampling equipment. Plastics are not gas tight, since gases are able to diffuse through the walls of tubing and containers made of plastic. Methods for calculating the significance of gas diffusion through the walls of containers and the walls...... of tubings for both turbulent and laminar flow conditions is presented. A more complex model for diffusion under laminar flow conditions is developed. A comprehensive review on gas diffusion coefficients for the main gases (O2, N2, CO2, CH4 etc.) and for a long range of plastic materials is also presented...

  2. Non-kinematic Flux-transport Dynamos Including the Effects of Diffusivity Quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, Chiaki; Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)


    Turbulent magnetic diffusivity is quenched when strong magnetic fields suppress turbulent motion in a phenomenon known as diffusivity quenching. Diffusivity quenching can provide a mechanism for amplifying magnetic field and influencing global velocity fields through Lorentz force feedback. To investigate this effect, we conducted mean field flux-transport dynamo simulations that included the effects of diffusivity quenching in a non-kinematic regime. We found that toroidal magnetic field strength is amplified by up to approximately 1.5 times in the convection zone as a result of diffusivity quenching. This amplification is much weaker than that in kinematic cases as a result of Lorentz force feedback on the system’s differential rotation. While amplified toroidal fields lead to the suppression of equatorward meridional flow locally near the base of the convection zone, large-scale equatorward transport of magnetic flux via meridional flow, which is the essential process of the flux-transport dynamo, is sustainable in our calculations.

  3. Transport-Statistics and Energetics in Stable-Continuous Turbulence (United States)

    Bergmann, Juan Carlos


    Continuous turbulence (CT) is the basic condition for relatively simple quantifications in stable stratification, e.g., Monin-Obukhov (MO) theory. From a statistical point of view, CT guarantees spatial and temporal randomness of variables, which is an important basis for quantitative considerations. Also, the entire concept of an exchange (diffusion) coefficient can only be applied under randomness conditions. Thus, there is equivalence of diffusion and random walk (RW), as demonstrated by Einstein in his annum mirabilis 1905. In stable stratification, the limitation of vertical displacements by surface-distance is supplemented by buoyancy-effects. The latter can be quantified by the energy balance of vertical displacements: Vertical turbulent kinetic energy (VTKE) is transformed to potential energy (PE). This transformation happens in combination with deflection of vertical motion by the random interactions of fluid parcels that also happen in neutrality. By application of the RW-definition of the diffusion coefficient it is possible to implement the buoyancy-related limitations (energy balance) to the determination of the exchange coefficient, most simply in the stable limit z >> L. Determination of the exchange coefficient in its turn automatically yields the profile-constant. Depending on a dimensionless turbulence parameter (ratio of average-square vertical velocity to squared friction velocity), the most probable approximate value of the profile-constant is 2.9. This value is within the traditional experimental range (2.0 to 12) but clearly below the ‘community's' favourite range of 5 to 6. Due to an involved approximation, the value of 2.9 is systematically over-estimated, so that the RW result is not compatible with larger values. The applied energy-balance formulation necessarily has to reflect the energetic processes. In the usual concept of energetics, shear-produced TKE is absorbed by the buoyancy flux (BF) and -BF acts as source of turbulent

  4. Electrostatic turbulence in the Tokamak TBR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.M. de.


    Characteristics of turbulence at plasma edge of tokamak TBR - 1 are determined from measurements of potentials and density fluctuations, done with a square array of four single Langmuir probes. Two adjacent probes are used to measure the floating potential of the plasma in either poloidal or toroidal directions, the remaining two probes are used to measure saturation current also in poloidal and toroidal directions. Using multiple shot data from the four probe array the radial fluctuation density (n ∼ ) and floating potential (φ ∼ ) profiles are estimated. Analysing the fluctuations spectra the wavenumber-frequency spectrum S(k,ω) from two points measurements is determined. An extension of the cross-correlation concept to a three points correlations leads to the estimation of the fluctuation induced particle flux, from which the particle diffusion coefficient and the convected heat flux can be estimated. All this measurements were performed with and without a resonant magnetic field to verify the eventual influence of this field on the data already mentioned. It was verified that the particle flux is outward and due to electrostatic fluctuations with frequencies lower than 150 khz. (author)

  5. Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Dynamos (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.


    Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much

  6. Nonlinear turbulence theory and simulation of Buneman instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, P. H.; Umeda, T.


    In the present paper, the weak turbulence theory for reactive instabilities, formulated in a companion paper [P. H. Yoon, Phys. Plasmas 17, 112316 (2010)], is applied to the strong electron-ion two-stream (or Buneman) instability. The self-consistent theory involves quasilinear velocity space diffusion equation for the particles and nonlinear wave kinetic equation that includes quasilinear (or induced emission) term as well as nonlinear wave-particle interaction term (or a term that represents an induced scattering off ions). We have also performed one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation in order to benchmark the theoretical analysis. Under the assumption of self-similar drifting Gaussian distribution function for the electrons it is shown that the current reduction and the accompanying electron heating as well as electric field turbulence generation can be discussed in a self-consistent manner. Upon comparison with the Vlasov simulation result it is found that quasilinear wave kinetic equation alone is insufficient to account for the final saturation amplitude. Upon including the nonlinear scattering term in the wave kinetic equation, however, we find that a qualitative agreement with the simulation is recovered. From this, we conclude that the combined quasilinear particle diffusion plus induced emission and scattering (off ions) processes adequately account for the nonlinear development of the Buneman instability.

  7. Coherent structure generation in near-wall turbulence (United States)

    Schoppa, W.; Hussain, F.


    We present a new mechanism for generation of near-wall streamwise vortices which dominate turbulence phenomena in boundary layers using linear perturbation analysis and direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow. The base flow, consisting of the mean velocity profile and low-speed streaks (free from any initial vortices), is shown to be linearly unstable to sinuous normal modes only for relatively strong streaks, i.e. for wall inclination angles of streak vortex lines exceeding 50°. Analysis of streaks extracted from fully developed near-wall turbulence indicates that about 20% of streak regions in the buffer layer exceed the strength threshold for instability. More importantly, these unstable streaks exhibit only moderate (twofold) normal-mode amplification, the growth being arrested by self-annihilation of streak-flank normal vorticity due to viscous cross-diffusion. We present here an alternative, streak transient growth (STG) mechanism, capable of producing much larger (tenfold) linear ampliflcation of x-dependent disturbances. Note the distinction of STG responsible for perturbation growth on a streak velocity distribution U(y, z) from prior transient growth analyses of the (streakless) mean velocity U(y). We reveal that streamwise vortices are generated from the more numerous normal-mode-stable streaks, via a new STG-based scenario: (i) transient growth of perturbations leading to formation of a sheet of streamwise vorticity [omega]x (by a ‘shearing’ mechanism of vorticity generation), (ii) growth of sinuous streak waviness and hence [partial partial differential]u/[partial partial differential]x as STG reaches nonlinear amplitude, and (iii) the [omega]x sheet’s collapse via stretching by [partial partial differential]u/[partial partial differential]x (rather than rollup) into streamwise vortices. Significantly, the three-dimensional features of the (instantaneous) streamwise vortices of x-alternating sign generated by STG agree well with

  8. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.


    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  9. Turbulent Mixing and Flow Resistance over Dunes and Scours (United States)

    Dorrell, R. M.; Arfaie, A.; Burns, A. D.; Eggenhuisen, J. T.; Ingham, D. B.; McCaffrey, W. D.


    Flows in both submarine and fluvial channels are subject to lower boundary roughness. Lower boundary roughness occurs as frictional roughness suffered by the flow as it moves over the bed (skin friction) or drag suffered by the flow as it moves past a large obstacle (form drag). Critically, to overcome such roughness the flow must expend (lose) energy and momentum. However, whilst overcoming bed roughness the degree of turbulent mixing in the flow may be enhanced increasing the potential energy of the flow. This is of key importance to density driven flows as the balance between kinetic energy lost and potential energy gained (through turbulent diffusion of suspended particulate material) may critically affect the criterion for autosuspension. Moreover, this effect of lower boundary roughness may go as far as helping to explain why, even on shallow slopes, channelized submarine density currents can run out over ultra long distances. Such effects are also important in fluvial systems, where they will be responsible for maximizing or minimizing sediment capacity and competence in different flow environments. Numerical simulations are performed at a high Reynolds number (O (106)) for a series of crestal length to height ratio (c/h) at a fixed width to height ratio (w/h). Here, we present key findings of shear flow over a range of idealized bedform shapes. We show how the total basal shear stress is split into skin friction and form drag and identify how the respective magnitudes vary as a function of bedform shape and scale. Moreover we demonstrate how said bedforms affect the balance of energy lost (frictional) and energy gained (turbulent mixing). Overall, results demonstrate a slow reduction in turbulent mixing and flow resistance with decreasing bedform side slope angle. This suggests that both capacity and competence of the flow may be reduced through decrease in of the potential energy of the flow as a result of change in slope angles.

  10. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction


    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl


    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring — perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial d...

  11. Turbulent transport of impurities in a magnetized plasma; Transport turbulent d'impuretes dans un plasma magnetise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubuit, N


    This work deals with the transport of impurities in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas. The accumulation of impurities in the core of the plasma would imply dramatic losses of energy that may lead to the extinction of the plasma. On the opposite, the injection of impurities in the plasma edge is considered as an efficient means to extract heat without damaging the first wall. The balance between these 2 contradictory constraints requires an accurate knowledge of the impurity transport inside the plasma. The effect of turbulence, the main transport mechanism for impurities is therefore a major issue. In this work, the complete formula of a turbulent flow of impurities for a given fluctuation spectrum has been inferred. The origin and features of the main accumulation processes have been identified. The main effect comes from the compressibility of the electrical shift speed in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. This compressibility appears to be linked to the curvature of the magnetic field. A less important effect is a thermal-diffusion process that is inversely proportional to the number of charges and then disappears for most type of impurities except the lightest. This effect implies an impurity flux proportional to the temperature gradient and its direction can change according to the average speed of fluctuations. A new version of the turbulence code TRB has been developed. This new version allows the constraints of the turbulence not by the gradients but by the flux which is more realistic. The importance of the processes described above has been confirmed by a comparison between calculation and experimental data from Tore-supra and the Jet tokamak. The prevailing role of the curvature of the magnetic field in the transport impurity is highlighted. (A.C.)

  12. Active control for turbulent premixed flame simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.


    Many turbulent premixed flames of practical interest are statistically stationary. They occur in combustors that have anchoring mechanisms to prevent blow-off and flashback. The stabilization devices often introduce a level of geometric complexity that is prohibitive for detailed computational studies of turbulent flame dynamics. As a result, typical detailed simulations are performed in simplified model configurations such as decaying isotropic turbulence or inflowing turbulence. In these configurations, the turbulence seen by the flame either decays or, in the latter case, increases as the flame accelerates toward the turbulent inflow. This limits the duration of the eddy evolutions experienced by the flame at a given level of turbulent intensity, so that statistically valid observations cannot be made. In this paper, we apply a feedback control to computationally stabilize an otherwise unstable turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. For the simulations, we specify turbulent in flow conditions and dynamically adjust the integrated fueling rate to control the mean location of the flame in the domain. We outline the numerical procedure, and illustrate the behavior of the control algorithm. We use the simulations to study the propagation and the local chemical variability of turbulent flame chemistry.

  13. EСological forecasting of admixtures in an open turbulent flow based on correlation function and turbulent diffusion coefficient ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ ПРОГНОЗИРОВАНИЕ ПРИМЕСЕЙ В ТУРБУЛЕНТНОМ ОТКРЫТОМ ПОТОКЕ ПО КОРРЕЛЯЦИОННОЙ ФУНКЦИИ И КОЭФФИЦИЕНТУ ТУРБУЛЕНТНОЙ ДИФФУЗИИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volgina Lyudmila Vsevolodovna


    Full Text Available Operation of anthropogenic industrial facilities misbalances the natural environment. The study of interaction between production facilities and the natural environment is performed using mathematical modeling techniques. In ecological forecasting, mathematical models are used to simulate the pattern of outspread of various pollutions into the air, water and soils. Mathematical models are employed to identify changes of environmental parameters and to measure the environmental friendliness of production processes.The research into projected or existing waste generation patterns can be used to assess or predict the scope of damage inflicted on the nature and the society and to provide recommendations concerning selection of process technologies. Any flow of fluid or gas is turbulent in almost every case, while the presence of solid particles reduces the amplitude of pulsation speed in a turbulent flow. The calculation of time or distance of travel of contaminants is based on the coefficient of turbulent diffusion. The coefficient of turbulent diffusion in a turbulent flow is no constant value. MGSU laboratory of hydraulics conducted experimental studies of open streams in a rectangular channel to identify patterns of correlation curves and limitations of applicability of well-known formulas. In furtherance of three main geometric constraints of patterns of correlation curves, turbulent flows can be conditionally divided into three types. Types of correlation functions and shapes of vortices are driven by the distance at which the mixture will spread over the turbulent flow. Therefore, the tasks of the theory of diffusion can be classified depending on the purposes of research.Функционирование антропогенных промышленных объектов приводит к нарушению баланса природной среды. Исследование взаимодействия производственных

  14. The structure concept in the description of mixing turbulence: the 2SFK model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llor, A.; Poujade, O.; Lardjane, N.


    To meet our modelling needs on turbulent flows produced by gravitational instabilities (of Rayleigh-Taylor or Richtmyer-Meshkov type), we have developed an original approach, designated as 2SFK for '2-structure, 2-fluid, 2-turbulent'. We provide the physical elements, theoretical, experimental, and numerical, which support this choice. A full description being out of question here, we give the principles of the model derivation, which hinges around an averaging conditioned by presence functions of the large structures in the flow, and discuss its distinctive properties compared to usual 'single-fluid' models. Numerical 1-dimension results on elementary flows illustrate the satisfactory behaviour of the model. All along this article, emphasis is given on the peculiar characteristics of turbulence in the Rayleigh-Taylor flow (possibly under variable acceleration): energy balance, characteristic size of large eddies, directed transport, enhanced diffusion, etc. (authors)

  15. Numerical simulations of turbulence in RTP discharges with dominant off-axis ECH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Baar, Marco R.; Hogeweij, Pick G.M.; Lopes Cardozo, Niek J. [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Thyagaraja, Anantanarayanan; Knight, Peter J. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)


    A two-fluid computer model, CUTIE, of saturated global tokamak turbulence is used to study the transition from an Ohmic to an Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) type-D discharge (a discharge with dominant, off-axis ECH featuring steady state hollow temperature profiles). The simulations were done for a few current diffusion times. In particular the role of the evolving q-profile in the self-organization of the plasma has been studied. The dynamics of the bootstrap current, the turbulence drive terms, the ExB flow and the dynamo terms in the induction equation will be discussed. The effect of MHD activity on turbulent transport has been investigated. It will be explained why CUTIE 1) produces barriers near simple rational q values as in RTP, and 2) naturally generates the required advective transport to support off-axis maxima in T{sub e}. (author)

  16. John Leask Lumley: Whither Turbulence? (United States)

    Leibovich, Sidney; Warhaft, Zellman


    John Lumley's contributions to the theory, modeling, and experiments on turbulent flows played a seminal role in the advancement of our understanding of this subject in the second half of the twentieth century. We discuss John's career and his personal style, including his love and deep knowledge of vintage wine and vintage cars. His intellectual contributions range from abstract theory to applied engineering. Here we discuss some of his major advances, focusing on second-order modeling, proper orthogonal decomposition, path-breaking experiments, research on geophysical turbulence, and important contributions to the understanding of drag reduction. John Lumley was also an influential teacher whose books and films have molded generations of students. These and other aspects of his professional career are described.

  17. Model for Simulation Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik


    A method that produces realistic simulations of atmospheric turbulence is developed and analyzed. The procedure makes use of a generalized spectral analysis, often called a proper orthogonal decomposition or the Karhunen-Loève expansion. A set of criteria, emphasizing a realistic appearance...... eigenfunctions and estimates of the distributions of the corresponding expansion coefficients. The simulation method utilizes the eigenfunction expansion procedure to produce preliminary time histories of the three velocity components simultaneously. As a final step, a spectral shaping procedure is then applied....... The method is unique in modeling the three velocity components simultaneously, and it is found that important cross-statistical features are reasonably well-behaved. It is concluded that the model provides a practical, operational simulator of atmospheric turbulence....

  18. Transition and turbulence (hydrodynamic visualizations) (United States)

    Werle, Henri

    The very extensive Reynolds number domain (10 to the 4th power less than or equal to Re sub L greater than or equal to 10 to the 6th power) of the TH2 water tunnel at Chatillon, allowed for laminar-turbulent transition phenomena to be studied systematically by visualizations and with methods previously developed in the TH1 water tunnel. These tests concern a wide variety of models including, Flate plate type models (smooth or grooved, with curved afterbody or right base), cylindrical pod type models (smooth or grooved, with curved afterbody or plane base), and models of different shapes (recall). The purpose of these tests is to provide a visualization of these transition and turbulence phenomena in order to better understand the phenomena.

  19. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence (United States)

    Yokoi, N.


    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  20. Microscopic Foundation and Simulation of Coupled Carrier-Temperature Diffusions in Semiconductor Lasers (United States)

    Li, J.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)


    and energy relaxation rates. These rates expressed as functions of temperatures and densities lead to microscopic expressions for self- and mutual-diffusion coefficients in the coupled density-temperature diffusion equations. Approximations for reducing the general two-component description of the electron-hole plasma (EHP) to a single-component one are discussed. In particular, we show that a special single-component reduction is possible when e-h scattering dominates over c-LO phonon scattering. The ambipolar diffusion approximation is also discussed and we show that the ambipolar diffusion coefficients are independent of e-h scattering, even though the diffusion coefficients of individual components depend sensitively on the e-h scattering rates. Our discussions lead to new perspectives into the roles played in the single-component reduction by the electron-hole correlation in momentum space induced by scatterings and the electron-hole correlation in real space via internal static electrical field. Finally, the theory is completed by coupling the diffusion equations to the lattice temperature equation and to the effective optical polarization which in turn couples to the laser field. The equations derived above are implemented in various limiting cases to a typical diode laser to study the consequences of nonlinear diffusion and the cross diffusion terms on laser behavior, especially the dynamic behavior of a diode laser under modulation. Detailed results will be presented by comparing with the standard rate equation results.