Sample records for turbomachinery design quality

  1. Active subspaces for the optimal meanline design of unconventional turbomachinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahamonde Noriega, Juan S.; Pini, M.; de Servi, C.M.; Colonna di Paliano, Piero


    The preliminary fluid dynamic design of turbomachinery operating with non-standard working fluids and unusual operating conditions and specifications can be very challenging because of the lack of know-how and guidelines. Examples are the design of turbomachinery for small-capacity organic

  2. Review of design optimization methods for turbomachinery aerodynamics (United States)

    Li, Zhihui; Zheng, Xinqian


    In today's competitive environment, new turbomachinery designs need to be not only more efficient, quieter, and ;greener; but also need to be developed at on much shorter time scales and at lower costs. A number of advanced optimization strategies have been developed to achieve these requirements. This paper reviews recent progress in turbomachinery design optimization to solve real-world aerodynamic problems, especially for compressors and turbines. This review covers the following topics that are important for optimizing turbomachinery designs. (1) optimization methods, (2) stochastic optimization combined with blade parameterization methods and the design of experiment methods, (3) gradient-based optimization methods for compressors and turbines and (4) data mining techniques for Pareto Fronts. We also present our own insights regarding the current research trends and the future optimization of turbomachinery designs.

  3. Aerothermodynamics of turbomachinery: analysis and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Naixing


    ... Force 2.3.4 Rates of Work Done by the Viscous Stresses and Dissipation Function 2.3.5 Heat Transfer Term 2.4 Examples of Simplification of Viscous and Heat Transfer Terms 2.4.1 Three-Dimensional Flow in Turbomachinery Expressed by Using Arbitrary Non-Orthogonal Coordinates S1 Stream-Surface Flow S2 Stream-Surface Flow Annulus Wall Boundary L...

  4. SSME Investment in Turbomachinery Inducer Impeller Design Tools and Methodology (United States)

    Zoladz, Thomas; Mitchell, William; Lunde, Kevin


    Within the rocket engine industry, SSME turbomachines are the de facto standards of success with regard to meeting aggressive performance requirements under challenging operational environments. Over the Shuttle era, SSME has invested heavily in our national inducer impeller design infrastructure. While both low and high pressure turbopump failures/anomaly resolution efforts spurred some of these investments, the SSME program was a major benefactor of key areas of turbomachinery inducer-impeller research outside of flight manifest pressures. Over the past several decades, key turbopump internal environments have been interrogated via highly instrumented hot-fire and cold-flow testing. Likewise, SSME has sponsored the advancement of time accurate and cavitating inducer impeller computation fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. These investments together have led to a better understanding of the complex internal flow fields within aggressive high performing inducers and impellers. New design tools and methodologies have evolved which intend to provide confident blade designs which strike an appropriate balance between performance and self induced load management.

  5. Computer program simplifies design of rotating components of turbomachinery (United States)

    Lefevre, J. C.


    Digital computer program performs stress analysis and burst speed calculations on rotating axisymmetric turbomachinery components. The computer printout contains the displacement of each nodal point, the stress at the center of each element, the average tangential stress within the component, and the burst speed.

  6. Active subspaces for the preliminary fluid dynamic design of unconventional turbomachinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahamonde Noriega, Juan S.; Pini, M.; Colonna di Paliano, Piero


    The fluid dynamic preliminary design of unconventional turbomachinery is customary done with meanline design procedures coupled with gradient-free optimizers. This method features various drawbacks, since it might become computationally expensive, and it does not provide design insights or

  7. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide turbomachinery design for water-cooled Small Modular Reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jekyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik; Yoon, Ho Joon; Cha, Jae Eun


    Highlights: • We described the concept of coupling the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle to the water-cooled SMRs. • We describe a turbomachinery design code called KAISD T MD that can use real gases too. • We suggest changes to the S-CO 2 cycle layout with multiple-independent shafts. • KAIST T MD was used to design the turbomachinery of suggested layout. - Abstract: The Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycle has been gaining attention due to its compactness and high efficiency at moderate turbine inlet temperature. Previous S-CO 2 cycle research works in the field of nuclear engineering were focused on its application to the next generation reactor with higher turbine inlet temperature than the existing conventional water-cooled nuclear power plants. However, it was shown in authors’ previous paper that the advantages of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle can be also further applied to the water-cooled Small Modular Reactor (SMR) with a success, since SMR requires minimal overall footprint while retaining high performance. One of the major issues in the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle is the selection and design of appropriate turbomachinery for the designed cycle. Because most of the nuclear industry uses incompressible working fluids or ideal gases in the turbomachinery, a more detailed examination of the design of the turbomachinery is required for a power system that uses S-CO 2 as working fluid. This is because the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle high efficiency is the result of the non-ideal variation of properties near the CO 2 critical point. Thus, the major focus of this paper is to suggest the design of the turbomachinery necessary for the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle coupled to water cooled SMRs. For this reason, a S-CO 2 Brayton cycle turbomachinery design methodology was suggested and the suggested design methodology was first tested with the existing experimental data to verify its capability. After then, it was applied to the proposed reference system to demonstrate its

  8. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to the Design of Turbomachinery Airfoils (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan; Madavan, Nateri


    Artificial neural networks are widely used in engineering applications, such as control, pattern recognition, plant modeling and condition monitoring to name just a few. In this seminar we will explore the possibility of applying neural networks to aerodynamic design, in particular, the design of turbomachinery airfoils. The principle idea behind this effort is to represent the design space using a neural network (within some parameter limits), and then to employ an optimization procedure to search this space for a solution that exhibits optimal performance characteristics. Results obtained for design problems in two spatial dimensions will be presented.

  9. GPU-accelerated CFD Simulations for Turbomachinery Design Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aissa, M.H.


    Design optimization relies heavily on time-consuming simulations, especially when using gradient-free optimization methods. These methods require a large number of simulations in order to get a remarkable improvement over reference designs, which are nowadays based on the accumulated engineering

  10. Turbomachinery Design Using CFD (La Conception des Turbomachines par l’Aerodynamique Numerique). (United States)


    Dimensional Navier-Stokes Analyses and Experiments", ASME Journal of Turboma- chinery, Vol. 113, p 1 3 9 . Adamczyk, J. J., Celestina , M. L., Beach, T...Adamczyk J. J., Celestina M. L., Greitzer E. M. (1993). ity of 3D flows in compressors and turbines, including tip "The Role of Tip Clearance in High...last two decades, there are still some important aspects of turbomachinery design that CFD is not able to cope with Adamczyk, J. J., Celestina , M. L

  11. Computation of three-dimensional, rotational flow through turbomachinery blade rows for improved aerodynamic design studies (United States)

    Subramanian, S. V.; Bozzola, R.; Povinelli, L. A.


    The performance of a three dimensional computer code developed for predicting the flowfield in stationary and rotating turbomachinery blade rows is described in this study. The four stage Runge-Kutta numerical integration scheme is used for solving the governing flow equations and yields solution to the full, three dimensional, unsteady Euler equations in cylindrical coordinates. This method is fully explicit and uses the finite volume, time marching procedure. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the code, steady solutions were obtained for several cascade geometries under widely varying flow conditions. Computed flowfield results are presented for a fully subsonic turbine stator and a low aspect ratio, transonic compressor rotor blade under maximum flow and peak efficiency design conditions. Comparisons with Laser Anemometer measurements and other numerical predictions are also provided to illustrate that the present method predicts important flow features with good accuracy and can be used for cost effective aerodynamic design studies.

  12. Design for coupled-mode flutter and non-synchronous vibration in turbomachinery (United States)

    Clark, Stephen Thomas

    This research presents the detailed investigation of coupled-mode flutter and non-synchronous vibration in turbomachinery. Coupled-mode flutter and non-synchronous vibration are two aeromechanical challenges in designing turbomachinery that, when present, can cause engine blade failure. Regarding flutter, current industry design practices calculate the aerodynamic loads on a blade due to a single mode. In response to these design standards, a quasi three-dimensional, reduced-order modeling tool was developed for identifying the aeroelastic conditions that cause multi-mode flutter. This tool predicts the onset of coupled-mode flutter reasonable well for four different configurations, though certain parameters were tuned to agree with experimentation. Additionally, the results of this research indicate that mass ratio, frequency separation, and solidity have an effect on critical rotor speed for flutter. Higher mass-ratio blades require larger rotational velocities before they experience coupled-mode flutter. Similarly, increasing the frequency separation between modes and raising the solidity increases the critical rotor speed. Finally, and most importantly, design guidelines were generated for defining when a multi-mode flutter analysis is required in practical turbomachinery design. Previous work has shown that industry computational fluid dynamics can approximately predict non-synchronous vibration (NSV), but no real understanding of frequency lock-in and blade limit-cycle amplitude exists. Therefore, to understand the causes of NSV, two different reduced-order modeling approaches were used. The first approach uses a van der Pol oscillator to model a non-linear fluid instability. The van der Pol model is then coupled to a structural degree of freedom. This coupled system exhibits the two chief properties seen in experimental and computational non-synchronous vibration. Under various conditions, the fluid instability and the natural structural frequency will lock

  13. TADS: A CFD-Based Turbomachinery Analysis and Design System with GUI: Methods and Results. 2.0 (United States)

    Koiro, M. J.; Myers, R. A.; Delaney, R. A.


    The primary objective of this study was the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based turbomachinery airfoil analysis and design system, controlled by a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The computer codes resulting from this effort are referred to as TADS (Turbomachinery Analysis and Design System). This document is the Final Report describing the theoretical basis and analytical results from the TADS system developed under Task 10 of NASA Contract NAS3-27394, ADPAC System Coupling to Blade Analysis & Design System GUI, Phase II-Loss, Design and. Multi-stage Analysis. TADS couples a throughflow solver (ADPAC) with a quasi-3D blade-to-blade solver (RVCQ3D) or a 3-D solver with slip condition on the end walls (B2BADPAC) in an interactive package. Throughflow analysis and design capability was developed in ADPAC through the addition of blade force and blockage terms to the governing equations. A GUI was developed to simplify user input and automate the many tasks required to perform turbomachinery analysis and design. The coupling of the various programs was done in such a way that alternative solvers or grid generators could be easily incorporated into the TADS framework. Results of aerodynamic calculations using the TADS system are presented for a multistage compressor, a multistage turbine, two highly loaded fans, and several single stage compressor and turbine example cases.

  14. Turbomachinery Flow Physics and Dynamic Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Schobeiri, Meinhard T


    With this second revised and extended edition, the readers have a solid source of information for designing state-of-the art turbomachinery components and systems at hand.   Based on fundamental principles of turbomachinery thermo-fluid mechanics, numerous CFD based calculation methods are being developed to simulate the complex 3-dimensional, highly unsteady turbulent flow within turbine or compressor stages. The objective of this book is to present the fundamental principles of turbomachinery fluid-thermodynamic design process of turbine and compressor components, power generation and aircraft gas turbines in a unified and compact manner. The book provides senior undergraduate students, graduate students and engineers in the turbomachinery industry with a solid background of turbomachinery flow physics and performance fundamentals that are essential for understanding turbomachinery performance and flow complexes.   While maintaining the unifying character of the book structure in this second revised and e...

  15. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Ronald G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Wang, Chun Yun [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadak, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Todreas, Neil [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mirick, Bradley [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States); Demetri, Eli [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States); Koronowski, Martin [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States)


    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a Generation IV nuclear system. The availability of controllable helium turbomachinery and compact heat exchangers are thus the critical enabling technology for the gas turbine cycle. The development of an initial reference design for an indirect helium cycle has been accomplished with the overriding constraint that this design could be built with existing technology and complies with all current codes and standards. Using the initial reference design, limiting features were identified. Finally, an optimized reference design was developed by identifying key advances in the technology that could reasonably be expected to be achieved with limited R&D. This final reference design is an indirect, intercooled and recuperated cycle consisting of a three-shaft arrangement for the turbomachinery system. A critical part of the design process involved the interaction between individual component design and overall plant performance. The helium cycle overall efficiency is significantly influenced by performance of individual components. Changes in the design of one component, a turbine for example, often required changes in other components. To allow for the optimization of the overall design with these interdependencies, a detailed steady state and transient control model was developed. The use of the steady state and transient models as a part of an iterative design process represents a key contribution of this work. A dynamic model, MPBRSim, has been developed. The model integrates the reactor core and the power conversion system simultaneously. Physical parameters such as the heat exchangers; weights and practical performance maps such as the turbine characteristics and compressor characteristics are incorporated into the model. The individual component models as well as the fully integrated model of the

  16. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, Ronald G.; Chunyun Wang; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil


    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a Generation IV nuclear system. The availability of controllable helium turbomachinery and compact heat exchangers are thus the critical enabling technology for the gas turbine cycle. The development of an initial reference design for an indirect helium cycle has been accomplished with the overriding constraint that this design could be built with existing technology and complies with all current codes and standards. Using the initial reference design, limiting features were identified. Finally, an optimized reference design was developed by identifying key advances in the technology that could reasonably be expected to be achieved with limited R and D. This final reference design is an indirect, intercooled and recuperated cycle consisting of a three-shaft arrangement for the turbomachinery system. A critical part of the design process involved the interaction between individual component design and overall plant performance. The helium cycle overall efficiency is significantly influenced by performance of individual components. Changes in the design of one component, a turbine for example, often required changes in other components. To allow for the optimization of the overall design with these interdependencies, a detailed steady state and transient control model was developed. The use of the steady state and transient models as a part of an iterative design process represents a key contribution of this work. A dynamic model, MPBRSim, has been developed. The model integrates the reactor core and the power conversion system simultaneously. Physical parameters such as the heat exchangers; weights and practical performance maps such as the turbine characteristics and compressor characteristics are incorporated into the model. The individual component models as well as the fully integrated model of the

  17. Turbomachinery; Turbomaquinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)


    The fossil fuel power stations have a large number of rotary equipment that faces diverse problems that do necessary to improve the present practices of operation and maintenance. In this article are presented the main systems that the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) offers nowadays for the predictive maintenance of rotary equipment in fossil fuel power plants developed by the Management of Turbomachinery. The systems that are described are: the Portable one, the SICAD (Computerized System for Dynamic Analysis), the SMC (Continuous Monitoring System) and finally the SIMPER (Computer Information System for the Predictive Maintenance of Rotary Equipment) [Spanish] Las centrales termoelectricas cuentan con una gran cantidad de equipo rotatorio que enfrenta diversos problemas que hacen necesario mejorar las practicas actuales de operacion y mantenimiento. En este articulo se presentan los principales sistemas que ofrece actualmente el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para el mantenimiento predictivo de equipos rotatorios en centrales termoelectricas desarrollados en la Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria. Los sistemas que se describen son; el Portil, el Sicad ( Sistema Computarizado para Analisis Dinamico), el SMC ( Sistema de Monitoreo Continuo) y por ultimo el SIMPER (Sistema Informatico para el mantenimiento Predictivo de Equipo Rotatorio)

  18. Design and Calibration of a Full-Scale Active Magnetic Bearing-Based Test Facility for Investigating Rotordynamic Properties of Turbomachinery Seals in Multiphase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Andreas Jauernik; Mandrup-Poulsen, Christian; Nielsen, Kenny


    of the subsea installed rotating machinery. It is well known that careful design of turbomachinery seals, such as interstage and balance piston seals, is pivotal for the performance of pumps and compressors. Consequently, the ability to predict the complex interaction between fluid dynamics and rotordynamics...... leads to technical challenges for the subsea installed pumps and compressors that are now required to handle multiphase flow of varying gas to liquid ratios. This highlights the necessity for a strong research focus on multiphase flow impact on rotordynamic properties and thereby operational stability...

  19. Design and Calibration of a Full Scale Active Magnetic Bearing Based Test Facility for Investigating Rotordynamic Properties of Turbomachinery Seals in Multiphase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Andreas Jauernik; Mandrup-Poulsen, Christian; Nielsen, Kenny Krogh


    of the subsea installed rotating machinery. It is well known that careful design of turbomachinery seals, such as interstage and balance piston seals, is pivotal for the performance of pumps and compressors. Consequently, the ability to predict the complex interaction between fluid dynamics and rotordynamics...... leads to technical challenges for the subsea installed pumps and compressors that are now required to handle multiphase flow of varying gas to liquid ratios. This highlights the necessity for a strong research focus on multiphase flow impact on rotordynamic properties and thereby operational stability...

  20. Turbomachinery in Biofuel Production


    Görling, Martin


    The aim for this study has been to evaluate the integration potential of turbo-machinery into the production processes of biofuels. The focus has been on bio-fuel produced via biomass gasification; mainly methanol and synthetic natural gas. The research has been divided into two parts; gas and steam turbine applications. Steam power generation has a given role within the fuel production process due to the large amounts of excess chemical reaction heat. However, large amounts of the steam prod...

  1. Aerodynamical calculation of turbomachinery bladings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruehauf, H.H.


    Various flow models are presented in comparison to one another, these flow models being obtained from the basic equations of turbomachinery aerodynamics by means of a series of simplifying assumptions on the spatial distribution of the flow quantities. The simplifying assumptions are analysed precisely. With their knowledge it is possible to construct more accurate simplified flow models, which are necessary for the efficient aerodynamical development of highperformance turbomachinery bladings by means of numerical methods. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  2. TIGER: A graphically interactive grid system for turbomachinery applications (United States)

    Shih, Ming-Hsin; Soni, Bharat K.


    Numerical grid generation algorithm associated with the flow field about turbomachinery geometries is presented. Graphical user interface is developed with FORMS Library to create an interactive, user-friendly working environment. This customized algorithm reduces the man-hours required to generate a grid associated with turbomachinery geometry, as compared to the use of general-purpose grid generation softwares. Bezier curves are utilized both interactively and automatically to accomplish grid line smoothness and orthogonality. Graphical User Interactions are provided in the algorithm, allowing the user to design and manipulate the grid lines with a mouse.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Stuart; Robotham, Antony John


    This paper will consider how Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) processes can be used to improve the design quality of products at the concept stage. We appreciate that both QFD and DFMA are techniques that have been used for some time by mature product...... quality is maintained in design project work. The projects described have been carried out with products manufactured by small to medium sized enterprises (SME's), where we have found significant opportunities for product improvement. The quantitative nature of DFMA analysis results allows the novice...... for continuous improvement of their products. However, we consider that if novice designers are able to successfully utilise design tools like QFD and DFMA and achieve improvements in design quality, then SME’s have no excuses for ignoring the benefits they could bring to their own product development activity....

  4. Quality audit in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, G.T.


    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (explanation of firm's responsibility to design and procure naval nuclear reactor plant for the Ministry of Defence, whose quality assurance requirements are laid down in Defence Standards); principles of quality audit; audit procedure. (U.K.)


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Antony John


    and train future design practitioners to master this critical dimension of product development?The purpose of this paper is to consider the current status of Design for Quality, explore the skills designers require to be effective practitioners of Design for Quality, and to identify some of the challenges...... and the DFQ framework.Design Research needs to provide deeper insight in to the soft aspects of quality and DFQ, e.g. understanding the quality mind-set and how it is developed, understanding the perception of quality and its relationships to the product characteristics, and what mix of skills and knowledge......Building in high quality continues to be the driving force of new product development activity in industry. Yet Design for Quality does not appear to attract the attention or interest of many design researchers. If research attention is not paid to Design for Quality, how can we expect to educate...

  6. Rotordynamic instability problems in high-performance turbomachinery, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The first rotordynamics workshop proceedings (NASA CP-2133, 1980) emphasized a feeling of uncertainty in predicting the stability of characteristics of high-performance turbomachinery. In the second workshop proceedings (NASA CP-2250, 1982) these uncertainities were reduced through programs established to systematically resolve problems, with emphasis on experimental validiation of the forces that influence rotordynamics. In third proceedings (NASA CP-2338, 1984) many programs for predicting or measuring forces and force coefficients in high-performance turbomachinery produced results. Data became available for designing new machines with enhanced stability characteristics or for upgrading existing machines. The present workshop proceedings illustrates a continued trend toward a more unified view of rotordynamic instability problems and several encouraging new analytical developments

  7. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.


    This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbomachinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. This will be accomplished in a cooperative program by Penn State University and the Allison Engine Company. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tenor.

  8. Fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of turbomachinery

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, S Larry


    The new edition will continue to be of use to engineers in industry and technological establishments, especially as brief reviews are included on many important aspects of Turbomachinery, giving pointers towards more advanced sources of information. For readers looking towards the wider reaches of the subject area, very useful additional reading is referenced in the bibliography. The subject of Turbomachinery is in continual review, and while the basics do not change, research can lead to refinements in popular methods, and new data can emerge. This book has applications for professiona

  9. Development of advanced seals for space propulsion turbomachinery (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Liang, Anita D.; Childs, Dara W.; Proctor, Margaret P.


    Current activities in seals for space propulsion turbomachinery that NASA sponsors are surveyed. The overall objective is to provide the designer and researcher with the concepts and data to control seal dynamics and leakage. Included in the program are low-leakage seals, such as the brush seal, the 'ceramic rope' seal, low-leakage seals for liquid oxygen turbopumps, face seals for two phase flow, and swirl brakes for stability. Two major efforts are summarized: a seal dynamics in rotating machinery, and an effort in seal code development.

  10. Study of certain economic aspects of turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, S.W.; Clinch, J.M.


    The economics of underground pumped hydroelectric storage (UPHS) were analyzed in two ways. First, the cost effects of a variety of machinery-related factors on a UPHS plant were estimated. Second, four actual turbomachinery options were evaluated in terms of those factors. Preliminary conclusions about UPHS costs are as follows: the use of advanced turbomachinery is more economical than the use of state-of-art turbomachinery; plant-construction cost and the cost of the turbomachinery itself decrease as the operating head increases (The lowest costs now occur at a head range of 1200 to 1500 m for a UPHS plant designed on the single-drop principle. A machine's high charge/discharge ratio also lowers construction cost.); and pump/turbine efficiencies and charge/discharge ratios represent very important design parameters for UPHS applications. One of the advanced options considered, a two-stage reversible pump/turbine engineered for Argonne by the Allis-Chalmers Hydro-Turbine Division, appears to have the most cost-effective design for high-head applications (1000 to 2000 m). Further development of the two-stage concept promises future heads greater than 1500 m.

  11. Advanced Turbomachinery Components for Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Michael [Gas Technology Inst., Woodland Hills, CA (United States)


    Six indirectly heated supercritical CO2 (SCO2 ) Brayton cycles with turbine inlet conditions of 1300°F and 4000 psia with varying plant capacities from 10MWe to 550MWe were analyzed. 550 MWe plant capacity directly heated SCO2 Brayton cycles with turbine inlet conditions of 2500°F and 4000 psia were also analyzed. Turbomachinery configurations and conceptual designs for both indirectly and directly heated cycles were developed. Optimum turbomachinery and generator configurations were selected and the resulting analysis provides validation that the turbomachinery conceptual designs meet efficiency performance targets. Previously identified technology gaps were updated based on these conceptual designs. Material compatibility testing was conducted for materials typically used in turbomachinery housings, turbine disks and blades. Testing was completed for samples in unstressed and stressed conditions. All samples exposed to SCO2 showed some oxidation, the extent of which varied considerably between the alloys tested. Examination of cross sections of the stressed samples found no evidence of cracking due to SCO2 exposure.

  12. Identification of Turbomachinery Noise Sources Using Acoustical Holography, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Evaluation and enhancement of the acoustical performance of turbomachinery requires knowledge of the acoustic sources. However, the noise generation mechanisms...

  13. Reduced Order Modeling Methods for Turbomachinery Design (United States)


    fnp (x) ] (3.15...matrix becomes f =       F0 · · · 0 ... . . . 0 Fnp       (3.24) 102 F0 =       1 x11 · · · ... ... ... 1 x1nt · · · xnk1 ... xnknt...F1 =       0 1 0 ... ... ... 0 1 0 · · · ... · · · 0 ... 0       , Fnp =       0 · · · 0 ... ... ... 0 · · · 0 1 ...

  14. Wake Management Strategies for Reduction of Turbomachinery Fan Noise (United States)

    Waitz, Ian A.


    The primary objective of our work was to evaluate and test several wake management schemes for the reduction of turbomachinery fan noise. Throughout the course of this work we relied on several tools. These include 1) Two-dimensional steady boundary-layer and wake analyses using MISES (a thin-shear layer Navier-Stokes code), 2) Two-dimensional unsteady wake-stator interaction simulations using UNSFLO, 3) Three-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes rotor simulations using NEWT, 4) Internal blade passage design using quasi-one-dimensional passage flow models developed at MIT, 5) Acoustic modeling using LINSUB, 6) Acoustic modeling using VO72, 7) Experiments in a low-speed cascade wind-tunnel, and 8) ADP fan rig tests in the MIT Blowdown Compressor.

  15. Vibration Energy Harvesting Potential for Turbomachinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOICESCU


    Full Text Available The vibration energy harvesting process represents one of the research directions for increasing power efficiency of electric systems, increasing instrumentation nodes autonomy in hard to reach locations and decreasing total system mass by eliminating cables and higher-power adapters. Research based on the possibility of converting vibration energy into useful electric energy is used to evaluate the potential of its use on turbomachinery applications. Aspects such as the structure and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, harvesting networks, their setup and optimization, are considered. Finally, performance test results are shown using piezoelectric systems on a turbine engine.

  16. Aerodynamics of Advanced Axial-Flow Turbomachinery. (United States)


    of turbomachinery passages was undertaken. The experimental results thus obtained may provide further knowledge of the complex internal flow structure...10 0 rU)bU lL - )(- i 20L 2 , L L)L r C M NN P MiCO N - 0, U’ 1-CO r-T CA A r - - IN rl 04T)r 0 M r0 L’ L) 0N- 0 M- 0.W 0,N 0 -- 0-- 0 00 CA fCA~ m 0

  17. Vibration Control in Turbomachinery Using Active Magnetic Journal Bearings (United States)

    Knight, Josiah D.


    The effective use of active magnetic bearings for vibration control in turbomachinery depends on an understanding of the forces available from a magnetic bearing actuator. The purpose of this project was to characterize the forces as functions shaft position. Both numerical and experimental studies were done to determine the characteristics of the forces exerted on a stationary shaft by a magnetic bearing actuator. The numerical studies were based on finite element computations and included both linear and nonlinear magnetization functions. Measurements of the force versus position of a nonrotating shaft were made using two separate measurement rigs, one based on strain gage measurement of forces, the other based on deflections of a calibrated beam. The general trends of the measured principal forces agree with the predictions of the theory while the magnitudes of forces are somewhat smaller than those predicted. Other aspects of theory are not confirmed by the measurements. The measured forces in the normal direction are larger than those predicted by theory when the rotor has a normal eccentricity. Over the ranges of position examined, the data indicate an approximately linear relationship between the normal eccentricity of the shaft and the ratio of normal to principal force. The constant of proportionality seems to be larger at lower currents, but for all cases examined its value is between 0.14 and 0.17. The nonlinear theory predicts the existence of normal forces, but has not predicted such a large constant of proportionality for the ratio. The type of coupling illustrated by these measurements would not tend to cause whirl, because the coupling coefficients have the same sign, unlike the case of a fluid film bearing, where the normal stiffness coefficients often have opposite signs. They might, however, tend to cause other self-excited behavior. This possibility must be considered when designing magnetic bearings for flexible rotor applications, such as gas

  18. Determination of averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces according to results obtained by numerical simulation of flow in turbomachinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.


    Full Text Available In the increasing need for energy saving worldwide, the designing process of turbomachinery, as an essential part of thermal and hydroenergy systems, goes in the direction of enlarging efficiency. Therefore, the optimization of turbomachinery designing strongly affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. In the designing process of turbomachinery blade profiling, the model of axisymmetric fluid flows is commonly used in technical practice, even though this model suits only the profile cascades with infinite number of infinitely thin blades. The actual flow in turbomachinery profile cascades is not axisymmetric, and it can be fictively derived into the axisymmetric flow by averaging flow parameters in the blade passages according to the circular coordinate. Using numerical simulations of flow in turbomachinery runners, its operating parameters can be preliminarily determined. Furthermore, using the numerically obtained flow parameters in the blade passages, averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces in blade profile cascades can also be determined. The method of determination of averaged flow parameters and averaged meridian streamlines is presented in this paper, using the integral continuity equation for averaged flow parameters. With thus obtained results, every designer can be able to compare the obtained averaged flow surfaces with axisymmetric flow surfaces, as well as the specific work of elementary stages, which are used in the procedure of blade designing. Numerical simulations of flow in an exemplary axial flow pump, used as a part of the thermal power plant cooling system, were performed using Ansys CFX. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 kW to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia

  19. Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher


    Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

  20. Dynamics of face seals for high speed turbomachinery (United States)

    Leefe, Simon


    Face seals in rocket engine fuel and oxidizer turbopumps have been the subject of intense investigation for over 25 years. While advances have been made in the understanding of thin film lubrication between seal faces, valuable data has been produced on the friction and wear of material pairs in cryogenic environments; pioneering work has been done on the effect of lubricant phase change in seals, and many improvements have been made in mechanical seal design. Relatively superficial attention has been given to the vibrational dynamics of face seals in high-speed turbomachinery. BHR Group Ltd. (formerly BHRA) has recently completed the first stage of a study, commissioned by the European Space Agency, to investigate this area. This has involved the development of a two-dimensional adiabatic, turbulent lubrication model for thick gas film applications, the production of an integrated mathematical model of gas seal vibrational dynamics for thin film applications, implementation in software, the undertaking of an experimental program to validate software against variations in operating conditions and design variables, and suggestions for improved seal design.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Now more then ever the quality management need some changes, not because of generation changes but because of the new provocation ‘’ green products’’. The ‘’green products’’ provocation needs changes to be implemented in each manufacturing technology and also in quality management. The organization must to be flexible to costumers needs and also to the new trends in industrial fields. This new generation for quality management change appear as a result of new eco-age , when in every second a new method, a new discover in researching work will bring more and new solutions to similar problem but in different places. The paper present the investigation results in a common manufacture organization who produce industrial products and also the solutions propose by author to improve the quality products and organization quality management.

  2. Design quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the design phase of a nuclear plant, and is applicable to the design of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures, as identified by the owner. 1 fig

  3. Quality assurance in the design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, J.


    System- and product-related quality assurance measures are completing one another. Certainly it is possible to detect a lot of defects in the single technical document by well controlled product related quality inspections and to avoid the consequences of these defects; but also a not unimportant part of defects and deviations has its origin in system linked deficiencies. The latter can be detected more easily and more securely by means of system related reviews (System audit, Product audit). But also the sole implementation of system related quality assurance measures keeps the danger to get stuck only in formality and to loose all references to the specific characteristics of the product. (orig./RW)

  4. Design optimization for cost and quality: The robust design approach (United States)

    Unal, Resit


    Designing reliable, low cost, and operable space systems has become the key to future space operations. Designing high quality space systems at low cost is an economic and technological challenge to the designer. A systematic and efficient way to meet this challenge is a new method of design optimization for performance, quality, and cost, called Robust Design. Robust Design is an approach for design optimization. It consists of: making system performance insensitive to material and subsystem variation, thus allowing the use of less costly materials and components; making designs less sensitive to the variations in the operating environment, thus improving reliability and reducing operating costs; and using a new structured development process so that engineering time is used most productively. The objective in Robust Design is to select the best combination of controllable design parameters so that the system is most robust to uncontrollable noise factors. The robust design methodology uses a mathematical tool called an orthogonal array, from design of experiments theory, to study a large number of decision variables with a significantly small number of experiments. Robust design also uses a statistical measure of performance, called a signal-to-noise ratio, from electrical control theory, to evaluate the level of performance and the effect of noise factors. The purpose is to investigate the Robust Design methodology for improving quality and cost, demonstrate its application by the use of an example, and suggest its use as an integral part of space system design process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Akdogan Eker


    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between material chose and quality in mechanical engineering application like there is in all the other engineering applications. If this relation is balanced then engineering success increases. Material chose comes to fore in the design process most of the time. The two most important responsibilities of the design engineer in here is to chose suitable material and to know the production processes about design. The chose of material of a design that will fulfill the needs all through its life has great importance. It is needed to limit the material applicants by choosing the most suitable ones among variable material. Choosing materials that were examined before and whose behavior is well known provides the designer to feel confident. However since using highly successful materials would increase the competitive power of the designs; designers should follow the developments in materials and know the features of new materials. The description of these features can be interpreted within quality. Quality from the point of engineer is the total fulfillment of expectations.Engineer today are faced with very important problems such as fast technological innovations, a dynamic socio-economical environment, global rivalry. One of the life buoys they stick while trying to solve these problems is total method of quality control. Total Quality model which can provide higher competitive power compared to classical management model brings success only when applied with its whole components. "Approach toward prevention" and "measurement and statistics" have an important place among these elements. The first step of the approach toward prevention composes of design quality and Quality Function Deployment (QFD, or in other words The House of Quality method that will provide this. In this paper; considering the quality function deployment, how the chose of material are done in mechanical engineering applications will be explained.

  6. 10 conference and Latin American turbomachinery exhibition; 10 congreso y exposicion latinoamericana de turbomaquinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This conference was done to promote the exchange of experiences among specialists, users, manufactures and research institutions in the field of the turbomachinery. To spread the last researches and developments focus to the design and maintenance of steam, gas and hydraulic turbines, axial compressors and centrifugal pumps, fans, electric motors, auxiliary equipment and cogeneration. [Spanish] Este congreso se realizo con el fin de promover el intercambio de experiencias entre especialistas, usuarios, fabricantes e institutos de investigacion en el campo de la turbomaquinaria. Divulgar las ultimas investigaciones y desarrollos enfocados al diseno y mantenimiento de turbinas de vapor, de gas e hidraulicas, compresores axiales y centrifugos, bombas, ventiladores, motores electricos, equipos auxiliares y cogeneracion.

  7. Foil Gas Thrust Bearings for High-Speed Turbomachinery (United States)

    Edmonds, Brian; DellaCorte, Christopher; Dykas, Brian


    A methodology has been developed for the design and construction of simple foil thrust bearings intended for parametric performance testing and low marginal costs, supporting continued development of oil-free turbomachinery. A bearing backing plate is first machined and surface-ground to produce flat and parallel faces. Partial-arc slots needed to retain the foil components are then machined into the plate by wire electrical discharge machining. Slot thicknesses achievable by a single wire pass are appropriate to accommodate the practical range of foil thicknesses, leaving a small clearance in this hinged joint to permit limited motion. The backing plate is constructed from a nickel-based superalloy (Inconel 718) to allow heat treatment of the entire assembled bearing, as well as to permit hightemperature operation. However, other dimensionally stable materials, such as precipitation-hardened stainless steel, can also be used for this component depending on application. The top and bump foil blanks are cut from stacks of annealed Inconel X-750 foil by the same EDM process. The bump foil has several azimuthal slits separating it into five individual bump strips. This configuration allows for variable bump spacing, which helps to accommodate the effects of the varying surface velocity, thermal crowning, centrifugal dishing, and misalignment. Rectangular tabs on the foil blanks fit into the backing plate slots. For this application, a rather traditional set of conventionally machined dies is selected, and bump foil blanks are pressed into the dies for forming. This arrangement produces a set of bump foil dies for foil thrust bearings that provide for relatively inexpensive fabrication of various bump configurations, and employing methods and features from the public domain.

  8. Ares Project Overview - Quality in Design (United States)

    Cianciola, Chris; Crane, Kenneth


    This presentation introduces the audience to the overall goals of the Ares Project, which include providing human access to low-Earth orbit, the Moon, and beyond. The presentation also provides an overview of with the vehicles that will execute those goals and progress made on the vehicles to date. The briefing will provide an introduction to Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen practices Ares will use to improve the overall effectiveness and quality of its efforts. Finally, the briefing includes a summary of Safety and Mission Assurance practices being implemented within[Ares to ensure safety and quality early in the design process. Integrating Safety and Mission Assurance in Design: This presentation describes how the Ares Projects are learning from the successes and failures of previous launch systems in order to maximize safety and reliability while maintaining fiscal responsibility. The Ares Projects are integrating Safer T and Mission Assurance into design activities and embracing independent assessments by Quality experts in thorough reviews of designs and processes. Incorporating Lean thinking into the design process, Ares is also streamlining existing processes and future manufacturing flows which will yield savings during production. Understanding the value of early involvement of Quality experts, the Ares Projects are leading launch vehicle development into the 21st century.

  9. Impact of intersection design on air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Peter


    During the period 2000-2009, the city of Groningen has been restructuring the beltway. The redesigning of the intersections and the impact on urban air quality was the motive for the research conducted. This thesis describes the effects of intersection design on the basis of the emissions of two

  10. Quality By Design: Concept To Applications. (United States)

    Swain, Suryakanta; Padhy, Rabinarayan; Jena, Bikash Ranjan; Babu, Sitty Manohar


    Quality by Design is associated to the modern, systematic, scientific and novel approach which is concerned with pre-distinct objectives that not only focus on product, process understanding but also leads to process control. It predominantly signifies the design and product improvement and the manufacturing process in order to fulfill the predefined manufactured goods or final products quality characteristics. It is quite essential to identify desire and required product performance report such as Target Product Profile, typical Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) and Critical Quality attributes (CQA). This review highlighted about the concepts of QbD design space, for critical material attributes (CMAs) as well as the critical process parameters that can totally affect the CQAs within which the process shall be unaffected and consistently manufacture the required product. Risk assessment tools and design of experiments are its prime components. This paper outlines the basic knowledge of QbD, the key elements; steps as well as various tools for QbD implementation in pharmaceutics field are presented briefly. In addition to this, quite a lot of applications of QbD in numerous pharmaceutical related unit operations are discussed and summarized. This article provides a complete data as well as the road map for universal implementation and application of QbD for pharmaceutical products. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  11. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael


    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle

  12. Prediction of Strutural Response and Fluid-Induced Vibration in Turbomachinery, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced turbomachinery components play a critical role in launch vehicle and spacecraft liquid rocket propulsion systems. To achieve desired efficiencies, extremely...

  13. Bike Infrastructures and Design Qualities: Enhancing Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.; Harder, Henrik


    Decisions on transportation projects are typically – alongside the project costs – based on the potential for the project to contribute to broad public policy goals. Information on how specific design qualities enhance cycling will help decision makers to develop better and more cost-effective bike...... infrastructures. This article aims to present findings of the research project titled Bikeability – funded by the Danish Research Council. The overall purpose of the Bikeability project is to investigate and document relations between cycling motivation from different socio- demographic groups and distinct design...... of safety in shared-used spaces. These are findings that should be taken into consideration by architects, planners and engineers when designing bike infrastructures. Bridging research and policy, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  14. Gas temperature measurements in short duration turbomachinery test facilities (United States)

    Cattafesta, L. N.; Epstein, A. H.


    Thermocouple rakes for use in short-duration turbomachinery test facilities have been developed using very fine thermocouples. Geometry variations were parametrically tested and showed that bare quartz junction supports (76 microns in diameter) yielded superior performance, and were rugged enough to survive considerable impact damage. Using very low cost signal conditioning electronics, temperature accuracies of 0.3 percent were realized yielding turbine efficiency measurements at the 1-percent level. Ongoing work to improve this accuracy is described.

  15. Design and implementation air quality monitoring robot (United States)

    Chen, Yuanhua; Li, Jie; Qi, Chunxue


    Robot applied in environmental protection can break through the limitations in working environment, scope and mode of the existing environmental monitoring and pollution abatement equipments, which undertake the innovation and improvement in the basin, atmosphere, emergency and pollution treatment facilities. Actually, the relevant technology is backward with limited research and investment. Though the device companies have achieved some results in the study on the water quality monitoring, pipeline monitoring and sewage disposal, this technological progress on the whole is still much slow, and the mature product has not been formed. As a result, the market urges a demand of a new type of device which is more suitable for environmental protection on the basis of robot successfully applied in other fields. This paper designs and realizes a tracked mobile robot of air quality monitoring, which can be used to monitor air quality for the pollution accident in industrial parks and regular management.

  16. Implementation of Speed Variation in the Structural Dynamic Assessment of Turbomachinery Flow-Path Components (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Davis, R. Benjamin; DeHaye, Michael


    During the design of turbomachinery flow path components, the assessment of possible structural resonant conditions is critical. Higher frequency modes of these structures are frequently found to be subject to resonance, and in these cases, design criteria require a forced response analysis of the structure with the assumption that the excitation speed exactly equals the resonant frequency. The design becomes problematic if the response analysis shows a violation of the HCF criteria. One possible solution is to perform "finite-life" analysis, where Miner's rule is used to calculate the actual life in seconds in comparison to the required life. In this situation, it is beneficial to incorporate the fact that, for a variety of turbomachinery control reasons, the speed of the rotor does not actually dwell at a single value but instead dithers about a nominal mean speed and during the time that the excitation frequency is not equal to the resonant frequency, the damage accumulated by the structure is diminished significantly. Building on previous investigations into this process, we show that a steady-state assumption of the response is extremely accurate for this typical case, resulting in the ability to quickly account for speed variation in the finite-life analysis of a component which has previously had its peak dynamic stress at resonance calculated. A technique using Monte Carlo simulation is also presented which can be used when specific speed time histories are not available. The implementation of these techniques can prove critical for successful turbopump design, as the improvement in life when speed variation is considered is shown to be greater than a factor of two

  17. Special Course on Inverse Methods for Airfoil Design for Aeronautical and Turbomachinery Applications (Methodes Inverses pour la Conception des Profils Porteurs pour des Applications dans les Domaines de l’Aeronautique et des Turbomachines) (United States)


    des pressions ct des vitesses. en tenant compte des performances souhait~es et du processus des pertes au nivcao de la couche timite. Loptimisation...directe qoi r~sutte du calcul inverse de la couche timite est d&crite, ainsi que Coptimisation itirative obtenue par minimalisation des pertes . Les deux...addition, the several cross numerical tools to be used in the design procedure. 4, .1-14 10. REFERENCES 13. Polito, L., "Un Metodo Esatto per it

  18. Indoor air quality – buildings design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhásová Šenitková Ingrid


    Full Text Available Growing attention is being paid to indoor air quality as one of the main health and well-being factors. The indoor research is concerned mostly to indoor air chemicals within indoor engineering related to building design. The providing good indoor air quality can be achieved effectively by avoiding or reducing indoor air pollution sources and by selecting low-polluting building materials, both being low-cost and energyefficient solutions. On the base of the last large experimental monitoring results, it was possible to know the level of selected indoor chemicals occurrence, rank them as well as to predict the tendencies of occurrence and establish the priorities for the future. There has been very limited attention to rigorous analysis of buildings actual environmental impacts to date. Healthy/green/sustainable building practices are typically applied in unsystematic and inconsistent ways often without resolution of inherent conflicts between and among such practices. Designers, products manufacturers, constructors, and owners declare their buildings and the applied technologies to be beneficial to the environment without validating those claims.

  19. Aceclofenac microspheres: Quality by design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Rameshwar K.; Naik, Jitendra B., E-mail:


    , containing aceclofenac was successfully prepared by single emulsion [oil-in-water (o/w)] solvent evaporation method. Plackett–Burman screening design is used to identify the formulation/process conditions that affect product quality. Eudragit® RS100 and polyvinyl alcohol (Surfactant) were identified as the significant factors determining the encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres. The microspheres were found to be discrete, oval with perfect prolonged drug release profile. The results in these studies helped in finding the optimum formulation/processing variables for enhancing the encapsulation efficiency of microspheres. - Highlights: • Aceclofenac microspheres were prepared by the o/w solvent evaporation method. • Seven independent variables were investigated by Plackett–Burman design (PBD). • The microspheres showed high % encapsulation efficiency (70.15% to 83.82%). • In-vitro study of the microspheres showed a sustained drug release pattern. • PBD is an efficient tool in the optimization of the experiments.

  20. Design and application of squeeze film dampers for turbomachinery stabilization (United States)

    Gunter, E. J.; Barrett, L. E.; Allaire, P. E.


    The steady-state transient response of the squeeze film damper bearing was investigated. Both the steady-state and transient equations for the hydrodynamic bearing forces are derived; the steady-state equations were used to determine the damper equivalent stiffness and damping coefficients. These coefficients are used to find the damper configuration which will provide the optimum support characteristics based on a stability analysis of the rotor-bearing system. The effects of end seals and cavitated fluid film are included. The transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems was conducted by coupling the damping and rotor equations and integrating forward in time. The effects of unbalance, cavitation, and retainer springs are included. Methods of determining the stability of a rotor-bearing system under the influence of aerodynamic forces and internal shaft friction are discussed.

  1. Product quality driven food process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.


    Consumers evaluate food products on their quality, and thus the product quality is a main target in industrial food production. In the last decade there has been a remarkable increase of interest of the food industry to put food product quality central in innovation. However, quality itself is

  2. HVAC design guidelines for effective indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladykas, M.P.


    Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore

  3. Flutter Analysis for Turbomachinery Using Volterra Series (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Yao, Weigang


    The objective of this paper is to describe an accurate and efficient reduced order modeling method for aeroelastic (AE) analysis and for determining the flutter boundary. Without losing accuracy, we develop a reduced order model based on the Volterra series to achieve significant savings in computational cost. The aerodynamic force is provided by a high-fidelity solution from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations; the structural mode shapes are determined from the finite element analysis. The fluid-structure coupling is then modeled by the state-space formulation with the structural displacement as input and the aerodynamic force as output, which in turn acts as an external force to the aeroelastic displacement equation for providing the structural deformation. NASA's rotor 67 blade is used to study its aeroelastic characteristics under the designated operating condition. First, the CFD results are validated against measured data available for the steady state condition. Then, the accuracy of the developed reduced order model is compared with the full-order solutions. Finally the aeroelastic solutions of the blade are computed and a flutter boundary is identified, suggesting that the rotor, with the material property chosen for the study, is structurally stable at the operating condition, free of encountering flutter.

  4. Designing and implementing a state quality award (United States)

    Dobson, E. N.


    To remain competitive in today's global economy, businesses need to ensure customer satisfaction by offering high-quality products and services. Governors and state governments can play a critical role in ensuring the economic health of the business in their state by encouraging the adoption of quality practices and recognizing successful efforts by firms to improve quality and productivity. The manual is intended to help state government officials and other individuals implement a state quality award program.

  5. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (United States)


    ..., Kansas 66101- 2907, (913) 551-7606. Monica Morales, Leader, Air Quality Colorado, Montana, North Planning...'s ``design value,'' which represents air quality in the area for the most recent 3 years).\\4\\ The... tables at the end of this designations rule. \\4\\ The air quality design value for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS...

  6. Quality of design and usability: a vitruvian twin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo


    This paper explores different indicators of quality of architectural design that are used in debates and design appraisals in the Netherlands. In addition to the old Vitruvian trilogy of utilitas, firmitas and venustas a plea is made for a broad view on quality of architectural design. Because

  7. Real-time measurement of perceptual qualities in conceptual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, M.; Ciftcioglu, O.


    Implications of design decisions are hard to oversee for designers. This is the case in particular with respect to decisions, which influence perception related qualities of designs. Such qualities are for example visual openness, visual privacy, and spatial intimacy. They are difficult to measure

  8. Computer programs: Mechanical and structural design criteria: A compilation (United States)


    Computerized design criteria for turbomachinery and the constraints imposed by very high rotational fields are presented along with a variety of computerized design criteria of interest to structural designers.

  9. Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid For 3-D Turbomachinery Flows (United States)

    Celestina, M. L.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rubin, S. G.


    A Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid (SDDMG) procedure was developed for three-dimensional viscous flow problems as they apply to turbomachinery flows. The procedure divides the computational domain into a coarse mesh comprised of uniformly spaced cells. To resolve smaller length scales such as the viscous layer near a surface, segments of the coarse mesh are subdivided into a finer mesh. This is repeated until adequate resolution of the smallest relevant length scale is obtained. Multigrid is used to communicate information between the different grid levels. To test the procedure, simulation results will be presented for a compressor and turbine cascade. These simulations are intended to show the ability of the present method to generate grid independent solutions. Comparisons with data will also be presented. These comparisons will further demonstrate the usefulness of the present work for they allow an estimate of the accuracy of the flow modeling equations independent of error attributed to numerical discretization.

  10. Active magnetic bearing for use in compressors and other turbomachinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennau, J.N.


    Active magnetic bearings and dry gas seals are now in operation on quite a number of compressors, turbines and generators, proving than an oil-free system is actually working and that furthermore, it has merits in energy savings, rotor dynamic monitoring and improved reliability. The technology of active magnetic bearing has been developed mainly in France after the Second World War for space application, but soon there appeared the large possibilities in industrial applications starting with the vacuum industry (turbomolecular pump), followed by the machine tool industry (high power and high speed milling and grinding spindles) and the large turbomachinery field (centrifugal compressors, blowers, steam and gas turbines, turbogenerators). Merits of the active magnetic bearing vary from one application to another, but they all derive from the fact that we have no contact between the rotor and the stator and that the electronic control of the bearings can cope with the rotor dynamics and provide useful information on the operating conditions

  11. Joining SI3N4 for Advanced Turbomachinery Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The main objective of this project was to develop reliable, low-cost techniques for joining silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) to itself and to metals. For Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to be widely used in advanced turbomachinery applications, joining techniques must be developed that are reliable, cost-effective, and manufacturable. This project addressed those needs by developing and testing two Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joining systems; oxynitride glass joining materials and high temperature braze alloys. Extensive measurements were also made of the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the braze materials. Finite element models were used to predict the magnitudes and positions of the stresses in the ceramic regions of ceramic-to-metal joints sleeve and butt joints, similar to the geometries used for stator assemblies.

  12. Meanline Analysis of Turbines with Choked Flow in the Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric S.


    The Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is a new meanline/streamline turbomachinery modeling tool being developed at NASA GRC. During the development process, a limitation of the code was discovered in relation to the analysis of choked flow in axial turbines. This paper describes the relevant physics for choked flow as well as the changes made to OTAC to enable analysis in this flow regime.

  13. Design Process Components and Perceived Product Quality : Can a Design Education Program Contribute to better Product Quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, B.N.E.


    In this PhD research the design process components that can contribute to a better perceived product quality are studied. First the design process components are determined. Secondly the effect of these components on the perceived quality is studied. This research is mainly based on design processes

  14. An overview of turbomachinery project in Malaysian oil and gas industry (United States)

    Abd. Rahman Sabri, Harris; Rahim, Abd. Rahman Abdul; Yew, Wong Kuan; Ismail, Syuhaida


    Being the most demanding, challenging and exciting engineering and technological advances has provided escalated interests amongst the engineers at large to venture into the oil and gas (O&G) industry. Although claimed as the most expensive industry in the world via the utilisation of critical equipments, the O&G industry is still recording notorius failures in its project management especially due to turbomachinery issues, the heart equipment of any O&G project. Therefore, it is important for this paper to review turbomachinery project as one of the long lead items during project executions that is also proven to be the most costly and expensive equipment. This paper therefore discusses the gaps in turbomachinery studies via literature review in highlighting its application in O&G projects. It is found that the main components of turbomachinery are driver and driven equipment, which are applied for mechanical equipment, Electric Power Generation and heat generation for Combined Cycled Configuration. Important variables for turbomachinery selection include: (1) process requirement; (2) site location; (3) driver selection; (4) equipment sparing philosophy; (5) efficiency and reliability; (6) operability and maintainability; and (7) cost. It is hoped that this paper would lead to the successful project management of turbomachinery in the O&G industry.

  15. The Impact of Culture on Instructional Design and Quality (United States)

    Sharif, Afsaneh; Gisbert, Merce


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cultural differences, i.e. different contexts and backgrounds, on instructional designers' perspectives of quality in online environments. Using a questionnaire developed based on the Quality Matters rubric, we found designers in Canada focus slightly more on Learner Support strategies…

  16. Spectrum analysis on quality requirements consideration in software design documents. (United States)

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Umemura, Masahiro; Ogata, Shinpei; Kaijiri, Kenji


    Software quality requirements defined in the requirements analysis stage should be implemented in the final products, such as source codes and system deployment. To guarantee this meta-requirement, quality requirements should be considered in the intermediate stages, such as the design stage or the architectural definition stage. We propose a novel method for checking whether quality requirements are considered in the design stage. In this method, a technique called "spectrum analysis for quality requirements" is applied not only to requirements specifications but also to design documents. The technique enables us to derive the spectrum of a document, and quality requirements considerations in the document are numerically represented in the spectrum. We can thus objectively identify whether the considerations of quality requirements in a requirements document are adapted to its design document. To validate the method, we applied it to commercial software systems with the help of a supporting tool, and we confirmed that the method worked well.

  17. Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools (United States)

    The information available here is presented as a tool to help school districts and facility planners design the next generation of learning environments so that the school facility will help, rather than hinder, schools in achieving their core mission

  18. Design an Indoor Air Quality Controller Based on LPC2478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuheng


    Full Text Available Indoor air quality is very important to our lives, because we spend most of our time indoor. In order to improve the air quality of indoor, this paper designs an indoor environment quality monitoring and controlling system based on ARM microcontroller LPC2478. It will do a real-time monitoring work for detecting the indoor environmental factors and comprehensively evaluate its air quality level. While the indoor air quality status is "poor", this intelligent system will automatically start the heat exchange ventilator for indoor environmental quality improvement. The results compared to traditional natural ventilation method show the better performance of proposed system.

  19. Aceclofenac microspheres: quality by design approach. (United States)

    Deshmukh, Rameshwar K; Naik, Jitendra B


    The purpose of this study was to prepare polymeric microspheres containing aceclofenac by single emulsion [oil-in-water (o/w)] solvent evaporation method. Two biocompatible polymers, ethylcellulose, and Eudragit® RS100 were used in combination. Seven processing factors were investigated by Plackett-Burman design (PBD) in order to enhance the encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres. A Plackett-Burman design was employed by using the Design-Expert® software (Version- The resultant microspheres were characterized for their size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. Imaging of particles was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Interaction between the drug and polymers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD). Graphical and mathematical analyses of the design showed that Eudragit® RS100, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were significant negative effect on the encapsulation efficiency and identified as the significant factor determining the encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres. The low magnitudes of error and the significant values of R(2) in the present investigation prove the high prognostic ability of the design. The microspheres showed high encapsulation efficiency (70.15% to 83.82%). The microspheres were found to be discrete, oval with smooth surface. The FTIR analysis confirmed the compatibility of aceclofenac with the polymers. The XRPD revealed the dispersion of drug within microspheres formulation. Perfect prolonged drug release profile over 12h was achieved by a combination of ethylcellulose, and Eudragit® RS100 polymers. In conclusion, polymeric microspheres containing aceclofenac can be successfully prepared using the technique of experimental design, and these results helped in finding the optimum formulation variables for encapsulation efficiency of microspheres. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of project design peer review to improve quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, F.E.


    DOE ORDER 5481.1B Safety Analysis and Review Systems and DOE ORDER 6430.1A General Design Criteria require that the design of facilities shall incorporate the necessary Quality Assurance review requirements to assure that the established program quality assurance objectives are met in the design criteria and the construction documents. The use of Project Design Peer Review to satisfy these requirements is presented. The University of California manages the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory. The 1988 University Seismic Safety Policy requires the use of independent Project Design Peer Review in its capital improvement and seismic reconstruction program

  1. Production Quality Control Of Microfluidic Chip Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido


    process chain, test geometries were designed and produced on the side of the functional features. The so called “Finger Print” of the lithography and molding processes was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated through scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The entire...

  2. Industrial aspects: materials, designing and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.


    First, this article reviews the evolution of the PWR fuel assembly manufactured by Westinghouse over 30 years and secondly gives a glimpse of the industrial organization of Westinghouse. The progressive changes in the design of the fuel assembly can be illustrated by the materials used: first Inconel then zircaloy-4, zirlo and now the optimized zirlo. The Westinghouse nuclear fuel destined to French pressurized reactors is fabricated in either Sweden (Vasteras) or in Spain (Juzbado). Fuel tubes are produced in Usa (Blairsville) or in Sweden (Sandvik). In the last 5 years Westinghouse has launched important programs for improving industrial processes and final products to reach customer satisfaction. (A.C.)

  3. Quality Functional Deployment as a Conceptual Aircraft Design Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Rendell


    Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) methodology was applied as a possible system integration tool for use during the conceptual configuration design phase of low speed High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAVs...

  4. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (United States)


    ...) 551-7606. Monica Morales, Leader, Air Quality Colorado, Montana, North Planning Unit, EPA Region 8... requirements of 40 CFR part 58, including Appendices A, C, and E, are used in design value calculations.\\8\\ \\8\\ A design value is the air quality value that is compared to the NAAQS to determine compliance. For...

  5. Dictionary quality and dictionary design: a methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although recent dictionaries for the ESL market have been praised for their innovative design features, the prime concern of users, lexicographers and metalexicographers is the functional quality of the dictionary products provided for the market. The functional quality of dictionaries and the scientific assessment thereof ...

  6. Quality management in construction project design and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose the use of simulation to improve design quality and to introduce new opportunities to use quality management throughout the various development stages of construction projects. The paper will attempt to identify...

  7. Forced response of turbomachinery part span shrouds-linked blading; Reponse forcee des aubages de turbomachines liaisonnes par nageoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravoux, J.


    This work treats of the design of blading systems fitted with part span shrouds (snubber) for turbo-machineries. The first chapter makes a status of the existing calculation techniques for blading systems. The second chapter presents the experimental system developed for the study, the different implementations of its exploitation and its potentialities. The third chapter presents the numerical and experimental results linked with a linear approach: this approach allows the validation of the experimental system and the adjustment of numerical models. The fourth chapter sets up and validates the numerical and experimental tools and techniques linked with the exhaustive exploitation of the system. Finally, a synthesis of the main results is presented with their perspectives for future works. (J.S.)

  8. Heat Treatment Used to Strengthen Enabling Coating Technology for Oil-Free Turbomachinery (United States)

    Edmonds, Brian J.; DellaCorte, Christopher


    The PS304 high-temperature solid lubricant coating is a key enabling technology for Oil- Free turbomachinery propulsion and power systems. Breakthroughs in the performance of advanced foil air bearings and improvements in computer-based finite element modeling techniques are the key technologies enabling the development of Oil-Free aircraft engines being pursued by the Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center. PS304 is a plasma spray coating applied to the surface of shafts operating against foil air bearings or in any other component requiring solid lubrication at high temperatures, where conventional materials such as graphite cannot function.

  9. On Design Experiment Teaching in Engineering Quality Cultivation (United States)

    Chen, Xiao


    Design experiment refers to that designed and conducted by students independently and is surely an important method to cultivate students' comprehensive quality. According to the development and requirements of experimental teaching, this article carries out a study and analysis on the purpose, significance, denotation, connotation and…

  10. Design decisions in workflow management and quality of work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, B.M.E. de; Batenburg, R.


    In this paper, the design and implementation of a workflow management (WFM) system in a large Dutch social insurance organisation is described. The effect of workflow design decisions on the quality of work is explored theoretically and empirically, using the model of Zur Mühlen as a frame of

  11. Research Capabilities for Oil-Free Turbomachinery Expanded by New Rotordynamic Simulator Facility (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.


    A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery shafting using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air journal bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings with a flexible inner sleeve surface using air as the lubricant. These bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. More recently, interest has been growing in applying foil bearings to aircraft gas turbine engines. They offer potential improvements in efficiency and power density, decreased maintenance costs, and other secondary benefits. The goal of applying foil air bearings to aircraft gas turbine engines prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility enables bearing designers to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target engine without the high cost of building actual flight hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. The rest of this article describes the new test rig and demonstrates some of its capabilities with an initial simulated shaft system. The test rig has two support structures, each housing a foil air journal bearing. The structures are designed to accept any size foil journal bearing smaller than 63 mm (2.5 in.) in diameter. The bearing support structures are mounted to a 91- by 152-cm (3- by 5-ft) table and can be separated by as much as 122 cm (4 ft) and as little as 20 cm (8 in.) to accommodate a wide range of shaft sizes. In the initial configuration, a 9.5-cm (3.75-in.) impulse air turbine drives the test shaft. The impulse turbine, as well as virtually any number of "dummy" compressor and turbine disks, can be mounted on the shaft inboard or outboard of the bearings. This flexibility allows researchers to simulate various engine shaft configurations. The bearing support structures include a unique bearing mounting

  12. Design and Development of Mobile Phone Using Quality Function Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ullah


    Full Text Available The paper presents design and development of mobile phone using Quality Function Deployment. Quality Function Deployment is one of the total quality management tools used to convert customers’ needs into design specifications. A market survey is conducted to find out the voice of customer. The Voice of the Customer is converted into customers’ needs. Relative importance is assigned to customers’ needs. A list of technical requirements that could fulfill the customers’ needs is produced. A relationship matrix is developed between the customers’ needs and the technical requirements. The relationship matrix is converted into the House of Quality. Output from the House of Quality is used in concept generation of mobile phone. Concept generation is followed by concept selection. Final improved model of the mobile phone is presented.

  13. [Bone biopsy needles: mechanical properties, needle design and specimen quality]. (United States)

    Keulers, A; Cunha-Cruz, V C; Bruners, P; Penzkofer, T; Braunschweig, T; Schmitz-Rode, T; Mahnken, A


    To quantitatively analyze differences in mechanical properties, needle design including signs of wear, subjective handling and specimen quality of bone biopsy needles. In this study 19 different bone biopsy systems (total 38; 2 /type) were examined. With each biopsy needle five consecutive samples were obtained from vertebral bodies of swine. During puncture a force-torques sensor measured the mechanical properties and subjective handling was assessed. Before and after each biopsy the needles were investigated using a profile projector and signs of wear were recorded. Afterwards, a pathologist semi-quantitatively examined the specimen regarding sample quality. The overall evaluation considered mechanical properties, needle wear, subjective handling and sample quality. Differences were assessed for statistical significance using ANOVA and t-test. Needle diameter (p = 0.003) as well as needle design (p = 0.008) affect the mechanical properties significantly. Franseen design is significantly superior to other needle designs. Besides, length reduction recorded by the profile projector, as a quality criterion showed notable distinctions in between the needle designs. Bone biopsy needles vary significantly in performance. Needle design has an important influence on mechanical properties, handling and specimen quality. Detailed knowledge of those parameters would improve selecting the appropriate bone biopsy needle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (United States)


    ... Nebraska. Street, Kansas City, KS 66101-2907, (913) 551-7606. Monica Morales, Leader, Air Quality Colorado..., C, and E are used in design value calculations.\\5\\ In some cases, states requested unclassifiable designations for areas around monitors with a design value exceeding the standard. EPA does not believe such a...

  15. Lessons Learned from Canadian Pre-Project Design Review - Quality assurance of design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Paul


    This presentation deals with lessons learned from Canadian pre-project design review. It provides an overview of the Canadian legislative and regulatory framework and the pre-licensing review process. It highlights 12 lessons learned from design reviews, including incomplete project quality assurance program, lack of definition of design management process, lack of implementing procedures, weaknesses in considerations of interconnections between systems, non-conformances related to control of design, and difficulties in addressing the functions and responsibilities of the design authority

  16. Quality assurance in the design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Safety Guide provides the requirements and recommendations related to the establishment and implementation of quality assurance for design of items for a nuclear power plant. The requirements of this Guide shall be applied to the extent necessary during all constituent activities of the nuclear power plant project, such as design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operations. Its requirements and recommendations shall be implemented, as appropriate, by the responsible organization or by its designated representatives: by plant designers, architect-engineers or manufacturers, when involved in performing design activities related to items to be manufactured; by site constructors, when involved in field engineering activities; by plant operators and other organizations, when involved in design activities related to plant modifications or to selection of spare or replacement parts; and by design consultants and other technical organizations, when performing any engineering activity that affects the work of other design organizations during various stages of nuclear power plant projects

  17. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.


    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  18. Six Sigma Quality Management System and Design of Risk-based Statistical Quality Control. (United States)

    Westgard, James O; Westgard, Sten A


    Six sigma concepts provide a quality management system (QMS) with many useful tools for managing quality in medical laboratories. This Six Sigma QMS is driven by the quality required for the intended use of a test. The most useful form for this quality requirement is the allowable total error. Calculation of a sigma-metric provides the best predictor of risk for an analytical examination process, as well as a design parameter for selecting the statistical quality control (SQC) procedure necessary to detect medically important errors. Simple point estimates of sigma at medical decision concentrations are sufficient for laboratory applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ensuring a High Quality Digital Device through Design for Testability


    Ngene, Christopher Umerah


    An electronic device is reliable if it is available for use most of the times throughout its life. The reliability can be affected by mishandling and use under abnormal operating conditions. High quality product cannot be achieved without proper verification and testing during the product development cycle. If the design is difficult to test, then it is very likely that most of the faults will not be detected before it is shipped to the customer. This paper describes how product quality can b...

  20. Comparative study of different analytical approaches for modelling the transmission of sound waves through turbomachinery stators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behn, Maximilian; Tapken, Ulf; Puttkammer, Peter; Hagmeijer, Rob; Thouault, Nicolas


    The present study is dealing with the analytical modelling of sound transmission through turbomachinery stators. Two-dimensional cascade models are applied in combination with a newly proposed impedance model to account for the effect of flow deflection on the propagation of acoustic modes in

  1. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Research Enhanced by Thrust Bearing Test Capability (United States)

    Bauman, Steven W.


    NASA Glenn Research Center s Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team is developing aircraft turbine engines that will not require an oil lubrication system. Oil systems are required today to lubricate rolling-element bearings used by the turbine and fan shafts. For the Oil-Free Turbomachinery concept, researchers combined the most advanced foil (air) bearings from industry with NASA-developed high-temperature solid lubricant technology. In 1999, the world s first Oil-Free turbocharger was demonstrated using these technologies. Now we are working with industry to demonstrate Oil-Free turbomachinery technology in a small business jet engine, the EJ-22 produced by Williams International and developed during Glenn s recently concluded General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program. Eliminating the oil system in this engine will make it simpler, lighter (approximately 15 percent), more reliable, and less costly to purchase and maintain. Propulsion gas turbines will place high demands on foil air bearings, especially the thrust bearings. Up until now, the Oil-Free Turbomachinery research team only had the capability to test radial, journal bearings. This research has resulted in major improvements in the bearings performance, but journal bearings are cylindrical, and can only support radial shaft loads. To counteract axial thrust loads, thrust foil bearings, which are disk shaped, are required. Since relatively little research has been conducted on thrust foil air bearings, their performance lags behind that of journal bearings.

  2. Recent developments in turbomachinery component materials and manufacturing challenges for aero engine applications (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Raghunandana, K.; Satish Shenoy, B.


    In the recent years the development of turbomachinery materials performance enhancement plays a vital role especially in aircraft air breathing engines like turbojet engine, turboprop engine, turboshaft engine and turbofan engines. Especially the transonic flow engines required highly sophisticated materials where it can sustain the entire thrust which can create by the engine. The main objective of this paper is to give an overview of the present cost-effective and technological capabilities process for turbomachinery component materials. Especially the main focus is given to study the Electro physical, Photonic additive removal process and Electro chemical process for turbomachinery parts manufacture. The aeronautical propulsion based technologies are reviewed thoroughly where in surface reliability, geometrical precession, and material removal and highly strengthened composite material deposition rates usually difficult to cut dedicated steels, Titanium and Nickel based alloys. In this paper the past aeronautical and propulsion mechanical based manufacturing technologies, current sophisticated technologies and also future challenging material processing techniques are covered. The paper also focuses on the brief description of turbomachinery components of shaping process and coating in aeromechanical applications.

  3. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (United States)


    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  4. QFD emphasis of IME design (United States)

    Erickson, C. M.; Martinez, A.


    The 1992 Integrated Modular Engine (IME) design concept, proposed to the Air Force Space Systems Division as a candidate for a National Launch System (NLS) upper stage, emphasized a detailed Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) procedure which set the basis for its final selection. With a list of engine requirements defined and prioritized by the customer, a QFD procedure was implemented where the characteristics of a number of engine and component configurations were assessed for degree of requirement satisfaction. The QFD process emphasized operability, cost, reliability and performance, with relative importance specified by the customer. Existing technology and near-term advanced technology were surveyed to achieve the required design strategies. In the process, advanced nozzles, advanced turbomachinery, valves, controls, and operational procedures were evaluated. The integrated arrangement of three conventional bell nozzle thrust chambers with two advanced turbopump sets selected as the configuration meeting all requirements was rated significantly ahead of the other candidates, including the Aerospike and horizontal flow nozzle configurations.

  5. The Process of Optimizing Mechanical Sound Quality in Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Holst, Thomas


    The research field concerning optimizing product sound quality is a relatively unexplored area, and may become difficult for designers to operate in. To some degree, sound is a highly subjective parameter, which is normally targeted sound specialists. This paper describes the theoretical...... and practical background for managing a process of optimizing the mechanical sound quality in a product design by using simple tools and workshops systematically. The procedure is illustrated by a case study of a computer navigation tool (computer mouse or mouse). The process is divided into 4 phases, which...... clarify the importance of product sound, defining perceptive demands identified by users, and, finally, how to suggest mechanical principles for modification of an existing sound design. The optimized mechanical sound design is followed by tests on users of the product in its use context. The result...

  6. The design & delivery of quality services: A paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B.H. Smith


    Full Text Available As result of the increasingly important role information technology (IT is playing in service provision, less person-to-person contact will in future be made during service provision. Highly skilled specialists will make the remaining contact. Emphasis will shift to speed of delivery, with logistics playing an important role. The designers of services must take these factors into account if they wish to design quality services.

  7. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge (United States)

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James


    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  8. Design and control of a DSTATCOM for power quality improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the design of a three phase DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator) and its control algorithm based on correlation and cross correlation function approach for power quality improvement under linear/ nonlinear loads in a distribution system. In this approach, an extraction of fundamental active and ...

  9. Ensuring suitable quality of clinical measurements through design. (United States)

    Orzechowski, Anthony; Petrides, Victoria; Scopp, Richard


    To design and deliver high quality, safe and effective products, manufacturers of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products follow a structured, traceable process for controlling the uncertainty of results reported from their measurement systems. This process and its results however, are not often shared in detail with those outside of the manufacturing company. The objective of this paper is to facilitate discussion by describing some of the best practices used during the IVD design and development process, highlighting some design challenges manufacturers face, and to offer ideas for how IVD manufacturers and laboratories could work together to drive further improvement to public health. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Transforming nanomedicine manufacturing toward Quality by Design and microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Bøtker, Johan Peter


    Abstract Nanopharmaceuticals aim at translating the unique features of nano-scale materials into therapeutic products and consequently their development relies critically on the progression in manufacturing technology to allow scalable processes complying with process economy and quality assurance....... The relatively high failure rate in translational nanopharmaceutical research and development, with respect to new products on the market, is at least partly due to immature bottom-up manufacturing development and resulting sub-optimal control of quality attributes in nanopharmaceuticals. Recently, quality......-oriented manufacturing of pharmaceuticals has undergone an unprecedented change toward process and product development interaction. In this context, Quality by Design (QbD) aims to integrate product and process development resulting in an increased number of product applications to regulatory agencies and stronger...

  11. Quality Affordable Housing: A Theoretical Framework for Planning and Design of Quality Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Sharipah Sultan Sidi


    Full Text Available The provision of adequate, good or quality housing for the population has always been a major challenge and task for most nations in the world particularly the developing countries. As such various measures have been undertaken towards this end. However, the major constraint or problem in this respect has always been in defining the criteria for quality housing and establishing the standards of quality housing particularly with respect to the parameters in the determination of quality as some of the parameters are subjective and contextual such as psychological, cultural and environmental aspects. This paper is aimed at discussing the concept of quality housing and establishing the parameters and theoretical framework which can be used by researchers, town planners, architects, policy makers and others in the formulation of criteria / guidelines for the planning and design of quality housing.

  12. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza


    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  13. Tailoring recombinant protein quality by rational media design. (United States)

    Brühlmann, David; Jordan, Martin; Hemberger, Jürgen; Sauer, Markus; Stettler, Matthieu; Broly, Hervé


    Clinical efficacy and safety of recombinant proteins are closely associated with their structural characteristics. The major quality attributes comprise glycosylation, charge variants (oxidation, deamidation, and C- & N-terminal modifications), aggregates, low-molecular-weight species (LMW), and misincorporation of amino acids in the protein backbone. Cell culture media design has a great potential to modulate these quality attributes due to the vital role of medium in mammalian cell culture. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the way both classical cell culture medium components and novel supplements affect the quality attributes of recombinant therapeutic proteins expressed in mammalian hosts, allowing rational and high-throughput optimization of mammalian cell culture media. A selection of specific and/or potent inhibitors and activators of oligosaccharide processing as well as components affecting multiple quality attributes are presented. Extensive research efforts in this field show the feasibility of quality engineering through media design, allowing to significantly modulate the protein function. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design. (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F


    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmaceutical product development: A quality by design approach. (United States)

    Pramod, Kannissery; Tahir, M Abu; Charoo, Naseem A; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed


    The application of quality by design (QbD) in pharmaceutical product development is now a thrust area for the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. International Conference on Harmonization and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) emphasized the principles and applications of QbD in pharmaceutical development in their guidance for the industry. QbD attributes are addressed in question-based review, developed by USFDA for chemistry, manufacturing, and controls section of abbreviated new drug applications. QbD principles, when implemented, lead to a successful product development, subsequent prompt regulatory approval, reduce exhaustive validation burden, and significantly reduce post-approval changes. The key elements of QbD viz., target product quality profile, critical quality attributes, risk assessments, design space, control strategy, product lifecycle management, and continual improvement are discussed to understand the performance of dosage forms within design space. Design of experiments, risk assessment tools, and process analytical technology are also discussed for their role in QbD. This review underlines the importance of QbD in inculcating science-based approach in pharmaceutical product development.

  16. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs. (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello


    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. CR mammography: Design and implementation of a quality control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Ramirez, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Villasenor-Navarro, Y.; Galvan, H. A.; Ruiz-Trejo, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Departamento de Radiodiagnostico, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, DF 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)


    Despite the recent acquisition of significant quantities of computed radiography CR equipment for mammography, Mexican regulations do not specify the performance requirements for digital systems such as those of CR type. The design of a quality control program QCP specific for CR mammography systems was thus considered relevant. International protocols were taken as reference to define tests, procedures and acceptance criteria. The designed QCP was applied in three CR mammography facilities. Important deficiencies in spatial resolution, noise, image receptor homogeneity, artifacts and breast thickness compensation were detected.

  18. Conceptual design of a regional water quality screening model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.


    This water quality assessment methodology is intended to predict concentrations at future times and to estimate the impacts on water quality of energy-related activities (including industrial boilers). Estimates of impacts on water quality at future times are based on incremental changes in pollutant inputs to the body water. Important features of the model are: use of measured concentrations to account for existing conditions; consideration of incremental changes in pollutant loads; emphasis on the energy sector and industrial boilers; analysis restricted to streams only; no attempt to fully account for pollutant behavior; and flexible design, so that future improvements can be incorporated. The basic approach is very similar to the one used by Argonne's ARQUAL model but will allow more complex pollutant behavior and more flexibility in use

  19. Design of common software for quality control of SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohua; Gao Ruzhen; Chen Shengzu


    The goal of this study is to design a common testing system for SPECT quality control according to NEMA standard. Using the system, the performances of different types of SPECT can be tested, so that the acceptance testing, performance comparing and routine quality control for SPECT can be normalized. The system was based on IBM PC series of microcomputer. Testing data are acquired from various types of SPECT, then transferred into IBM PC through interface and tested with an unique testing program. Two parts were included: interface and SPECT testing program. It emphatically studied the managing program of RS232 interface, designing skills and the mathematic patterns of SPECT testing program. The system which was composed of 11 subroutines can be used to measure the performances for both gamma camera and SPECT. The system was tested on OMEGA 500/MCS 560 SPECT and the results showed that it is effective, accurate and easy to use


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shilpa


    Full Text Available Robust design methodology aims at reducing the variability in the product performance in the presence of noise factors. Experiments involving simultaneous optimization of more than one quality characteristic are known as multiresponse experiments which are used in the development and improvement of industrial processes and products. In this paper, robust design methodology is applied to optimize the process parameters during a particular operation of rotary driving shaft manufacturing process. The three important quality characteristics of the shaft considered here are of type Nominal-the-best, Smaller-the-better and Fraction defective. Simultaneous optimization of these responses is carried out by identifying the control parameters and conducting the experimentation using L9 orthogonal array.

  1. A Digital Power Quality Monitoring Equipment Designed for Digital Substation (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xin; Geng, Jiewen


    Taking into account both current status and development trend of digital substation, this paper proposed a design of a new multi-channelled digital power quality monitoring equipment with high compatibility. The overall functional structure, hardware architecture, software architecture, interface architecture and some key techniques such as IEC 61850 modelling of transient event and harmonic measurement method under the condition of non-synchronous sampling are described in this paper.

  2. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhu


    Full Text Available Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  3. Design-for-Six-Sigma for Development of a Bioprocess Quality-by-Design Framework. (United States)

    Junker, Beth; Kosinski, Mike; Geer, David; Mahajan, Rajiv; Chartrain, Michel; Meyer, Brian; Dephillips, Peter; Wang, Yang; Henrickson, Randy; Ezis, Katie; Waskiewicz, Mark


    An initial quality-by-design (QbD) framework was assembled for biopharmaceutical product, process, and analytical development using the design-for-six-sigma (DFSS) methodology. This technique was both streamlined and efficient, which permitted development of a QbD framework with minimized team leader and member resources. DFSS also highly emphasized voice-of-the-customer, information considered crucial to development and implementation of a bioprocess QbD framework appropriate for current development needs of the organization and its regulatory environment. The bioprocess QbD final design and implementation plan was comprised of seven teams, constructed from six QbD elements plus a communication/training team. Each element's detailed design was evaluated against internal and external established best practices, the QbD charter, and design inputs. Gaps were identified and risks mitigated to assure robustness of the proposed framework. Aggregated resources and timing were estimated to obtain vital implementation sponsorship. Where possible, existing governance and information technology efforts were leveraged to minimize additional bioprocess resources required. Finally, metrics were selected to track success of pilots and eventual implementation. An initial quality-by-design (QbD) framework was assembled to guide biopharmaceutical product, process, and analytical development. QbD starts by defining the patient requirements which then are translated into required quality attributes for the product. The production process then is designed to consistently meet these quality requirements by identifying and understanding those parameters which influence them. A control strategy is developed that specifically relates each point of control to a desired quality measure. Overall, this approach results in a robust process, capable of reliably producing quality product. The bioprocess QbD framework was developed to guide implementation of the desired QbD strategy. It was

  4. Design: Vital step for Quality management system implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Evenilda Cruz Esmoris


    Full Text Available Sancti Spíritus´ Acopio, Beneficio y Comercialización de Productos Apícolas organization developed a Quality management system (QMS according to NC-ISO 9001:2008 ”Quality management systems - Requirements”. In this organization, QMS implementation is not only a strategy to increase competitiveness and clients satisfaction, but a requirement to improve its performance and constitutes a demand of international market because honey is an exportable product. This article presents QMS design according to the description of its key elements. Design was based on legal and regulatory requirements from corresponding organizations and technical orientations issued by the Empresa Nacional Apícola. Items taking into account were related with the definition of: scope (products, processes and areas; QMS processes and their relations (map; product related processes and activities; needed resources; responsibilities with QMS; barriers favorable forces to QMS implementation and documentation to support QMS processes. Use of a correct design allows a successful next steps implementation of QMS and complying with the Instituto Nacional de Normalización methodology.

  5. Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.


    The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile

  6. Design and quality control of an environmental data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The present work is focused on the design of a microcontroller based measurement system and the control quality to validate it. So, a mobile instrument called DALENPA was designed to measure and log the following data: atmospheric pressure, ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, air dose rate, geographical coordinates by an embedded GPS receiver. The instrument is autonomous in energy by solar panel and can be connected to a PC directly or by modem. After, the quality control is based on the calibartion in a secondary laboratory. The target is to get its calibration curve and the estimation of global uncertainties. This estimation wants to include all sources of uncertainty belonging to the instrument and the secondary laboratory, and follows the method estabilished by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The calibration curve is fitted by the least squares method with uncertainties in the two variables. We got an efficient instrument with uncertainties under the limits estabilished by the regulating standards [fr

  7. Implementation of quality by design toward processing of food products. (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Kapoor, Gautam


    Quality by design (QbD) is a systematic approach that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process control. It is an approach based on principles of sound science and quality risk management. As the food processing industry continues to embrace the idea of in-line, online, and/or at-line sensors and real-time characterization for process monitoring and control, the existing gaps with regard to our ability to monitor multiple parameters/variables associated with the manufacturing process will be alleviated over time. Investments made for development of tools and approaches that facilitate high-throughput analytical and process development, process analytical technology, design of experiments, risk analysis, knowledge management, and enhancement of process/product understanding would pave way for operational and economic benefits later in the commercialization process and across other product pipelines. This article aims to achieve two major objectives. First, to review the progress that has been made in the recent years on the topic of QbD implementation in processing of food products and second, present a case study that illustrates benefits of such QbD implementation.

  8. Incorporating Servqual-QFD with Taguchi Design for optimizing service quality design (United States)

    Arbi Hadiyat, M.


    Deploying good service design in service companies has been updated issue in improving customer satisfaction, especially based on the level of service quality measured by Parasuraman’s SERVQUAL. Many researchers have been proposing methods in designing the service, and some of them are based on engineering viewpoint, especially by implementing the QFD method or even using robust Taguchi method. The QFD method would found the qualitative solution by generating the “how’s”, while Taguchi method gives more quantitative calculation in optimizing best solution. However, incorporating both QFD and Taguchi has been done in this paper and yields better design process. The purposes of this research is to evaluate the incorporated methods by implemented it to a case study, then analyze the result and see the robustness of those methods to customer perception of service quality. Started by measuring service attributes using SERVQUAL and find the improvement with QFD, the deployment of QFD solution then generated by defining Taguchi factors levels and calculating the Signal-to-noise ratio in its orthogonal array, and optimized Taguchi response then found. A case study was given for designing service in local bank. Afterward, the service design obtained from previous analysis was then evaluated and shows that it was still meet the customer satisfaction. Incorporating QFD and Taguchi has performed well and can be adopted and developed for another research for evaluating the robustness of result.

  9. Quality improvement of melt extruded laminar systems using mixture design. (United States)

    Hasa, D; Perissutti, B; Campisi, B; Grassi, M; Grabnar, I; Golob, S; Mian, M; Voinovich, D


    This study investigates the application of melt extrusion for the development of an oral retard formulation with a precise drug release over time. Since adjusting the formulation appears to be of the utmost importance in achieving the desired drug release patterns, different formulations of laminar extrudates were prepared according to the principles of Experimental Design, using a design for mixtures to assess the influence of formulation composition on the in vitro drug release from the extrudates after 1h and after 8h. The effect of each component on the two response variables was also studied. Ternary mixtures of theophylline (model drug), monohydrate lactose and microcrystalline wax (as thermoplastic binder) were extruded in a lab scale vertical ram extruder in absence of solvents at a temperature below the melting point of the binder (so that the crystalline state of the drug could be maintained), through a rectangular die to obtain suitable laminar systems. Thanks to the desirability approach and a reliability study for ensuring the quality of the formulation, a very restricted optimal zone was defined within the experimental domain. Among the mixture components, the variation of microcrystalline wax content played the most significant role in overall influence on the in vitro drug release. The formulation theophylline:lactose:wax, 57:14:29 (by weight), selected based on the desirability zone, was subsequently used for in vivo studies. The plasma profile, obtained after oral administration of the laminar extruded system in hard gelatine capsules, revealed the typical trend of an oral retard formulation. The application of the mixture experimental design associated to a desirability function permitted to optimize the extruded system and to determine the composition space that ensures final product quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and Reduction of Turbomachinery Noise, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Noise has become a primary consideration in the design and development of many products, particulary in aerospace, automotive and consumer product industries....

  11. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design (United States)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana


    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  12. Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.


    Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making

  13. Application of Absorption Modeling in Rational Design of Drug Product Under Quality-by-Design Paradigm. (United States)

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Mitra, Amitava


    Physiologically based absorption models can be an important tool in understanding product performance and hence implementation of Quality by Design (QbD) in drug product development. In this report, we show several case studies to demonstrate the potential application of absorption modeling in rational design of drug product under the QbD paradigm. The examples include application of absorption modeling—(1) prior to first-in-human studies to guide development of a formulation with minimal sensitivity to higher gastric pH and hence reduced interaction when co-administered with PPIs and/or H2RAs, (2) design of a controlled release formulation with optimal release rate to meet trough plasma concentrations and enable QD dosing, (3) understanding the impact of API particle size distribution on tablet bioavailability and guide formulation design in late-stage development, (4) assess impact of API phase change on product performance to guide specification setting, and (5) investigate the effect of dissolution rate changes on formulation bioperformance and enable appropriate specification setting. These case studies are meant to highlight the utility of physiologically based absorption modeling in gaining a thorough understanding of the product performance and the critical factors impacting performance to drive design of a robust drug product that would deliver the optimal benefit to the patients.

  14. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)


    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  15. Analytical Quality by Design: A Tool for Regulatory Flexibility and Robust Analytics


    Peraman, Ramalingam; Bhadraya, Kalva; Padmanabha Reddy, Yiragamreddy


    Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a few new drug applications (NDA) with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD) based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design). It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR). Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach reduces the...

  16. Comparison of beam and shell theories for the vibrations of thin turbomachinery blades (United States)

    Leissa, A. W.; Ewing, M. S.


    Vibration analysis of turbomachinery blades has traditionally been carried out by means of beam theory. In recent years two-dimensional methods of blade vibration analysis have been developed, most of which utilize finite elements and tend to require considerable computation time. More recently a two-dimensional method of blade analysis has evolved which does not require finite elements and is based upon shell equations. The present investigation has the primary objective to demonstrate the accuracy and limitations of blade vibration analyses which utilize one-dimensional, beam theories. It is found that beam theory is generally inadequate to determine the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes of moderate to low aspect ratio turbomachinery blades. The shallow shell theory, by contrast, is capable of representing all the vibration modes accurately. However, the one-dimensional beam theory has an important advantage over the two-dimensional shell theory for blades and vibration modes. It uses fewer degrees of freedom, thus requiring less computer time.

  17. Development of quality-by-design analytical methods. (United States)

    Vogt, Frederick G; Kord, Alireza S


    Quality-by-design (QbD) is a systematic approach to drug development, which begins with predefined objectives, and uses science and risk management approaches to gain product and process understanding and ultimately process control. The concept of QbD can be extended to analytical methods. QbD mandates the definition of a goal for the method, and emphasizes thorough evaluation and scouting of alternative methods in a systematic way to obtain optimal method performance. Candidate methods are then carefully assessed in a structured manner for risks, and are challenged to determine if robustness and ruggedness criteria are satisfied. As a result of these studies, the method performance can be understood and improved if necessary, and a control strategy can be defined to manage risk and ensure the method performs as desired when validated and deployed. In this review, the current state of analytical QbD in the industry is detailed with examples of the application of analytical QbD principles to a range of analytical methods, including high-performance liquid chromatography, Karl Fischer titration for moisture content, vibrational spectroscopy for chemical identification, quantitative color measurement, and trace analysis for genotoxic impurities. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. CFD Applied for the Identification of Stiffness and Damping Properties for Smooth Annular Turbomachinery Seals in Multiphase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Andreas Jauernik; Ludiciani, Piero; Nielsen, Kenny Krogh


    This paper presents a first venture into quantifying stiffness and damping coefficients for turbomachinery seals in multiphase flow using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The study focusses on the simplest seal type: the smooth annular seal. The investigation is conducted for both wet-gas and ...

  19. Quality assurance in design: policy adopted by Vickers Barrow Engineering Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, J.H.


    The approach of the Engineering Company of the Shipbuilding Group to the establishment of design quality assurance is described. The introduction of a Design Quality Assurance Record (DQAR) is discussed and its manner of operation illustrated, taking a special pump design as an example. Future applications will include the shield and above-core structure of the first commercial fast reactor. (U.K.)

  20. A methodology to assess the impact of design patterns on software quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzoglou, Apostolos; Frantzeskou, Georgia; Stamelos, Ioannis

    Context Software quality is considered to be one of the most important concerns of software production teams. Additionally, design patterns are documented solutions to common design problems that are expected to enhance software quality. Until now, the results on the effect of design patterns on

  1. Development Design Model of Academic Quality Assurance at Private Islamic University Jakarta Indonesia (United States)

    Suprihatin, Krebet; Bin Mohamad Yusof, Hj. Abdul Raheem


    This study aims to evaluate the practice of academic quality assurance in design model based on seven aspects of quality are: curriculum design, teaching and learning, student assessment, student selection, support services, learning resources, and continuous improvement. The design study was conducted in two stages. The first stage is to obtain…

  2. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD approach to designing a prosthetic myoelectric hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Sofía Olaya Escobar


    Full Text Available This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD model based on computing with words. It is specifically used in the House of Quality (HOQ construction phase. It illustrates the methodology employed in designing a prosthetic myoelectric hand.

  3. Designing and implementing a trust-wide quality assurance programme. (United States)

    Coope, Sally-Ann


    Derbyshire Community Health Services (DCHS) NHS Foundation Trust provides a wide range of community-based health services. After the Care Quality Commission (CQC) found gaps in the trust's assurance process, its board decided to develop a method of continuous quality improvements that could be used as a basis for the trust's quality assurance system. The trust adapted and built on an acute model so it was suitable for community services. The final assurance system, Quality Always, has four elements: the clinical assessment and accreditation scheme; leadership development; 'champions' within clinical teams to support and promote the scheme; and dashboards to record and monitor progress. A system to recognise and reward achievement was essential for success. Quality Always has resulted in better care quality, an improved CQC rating, a sense of achievement among staff, the development of support networks, learning (especially among support staff) and good practice being shared.

  4. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Water Quality Standards - Table G Lake Classifications and Use Designations (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains Missouri Water Quality Standards (WQS) lake classifications and use designations described in the Missouri Code of State Regulations (CSR), 10...

  5. Quality system design and development for SSC superconductor cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, M.; Saito, S.; Sashida, T.; Koganeya, M.; Ayai, N.; Takai, K.; Nagata, M.


    In order to develop a quality system for the SSC superconductor cable, Sumitomo Electric followed a very formal, systematic approach, comparable to those employed for such major projects as developing a new car model. This paper presents our approach, as well as the resulting computerized environment for quality assurance (QA)

  6. Design Quality in the Context of Healthcare Environments: A Scoping Review. (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Heylighen, Ann; Nordin, Susanna; Elf, Marie


    We explored the concept of design quality in relation to healthcare environments. In addition, we present a taxonomy that illustrates the wide range of terms used in connection with design quality in healthcare. High-quality physical environments can promote health and well-being. Developments in healthcare technology and methodology put high demands on the design quality of care environments, coupled with increasing expectations and demands from patients and staff that care environments be person centered, welcoming, and accessible while also supporting privacy and security. In addition, there are demands that decisions about the design of healthcare architecture be based on the best available information from credible research and the evaluation of existing building projects. The basic principles of Arksey and O'Malley's model of scoping review design were used. Data were derived from literature searches in scientific databases. A total of 18 articles and books were found that referred to design quality in a healthcare context. Design quality of physical healthcare environments involves three different themes: (i) environmental sustainability and ecological values, (ii) social and cultural interactions and values, and (iii) resilience of the engineering and building construction. Design quality was clarified herein with a definition. Awareness of what is considered design quality in relation to healthcare architecture could help to design healthcare environments based on evidence. To operationalize the concept, its definition must be clear and explicit and able to meet the complex needs of the stakeholders in a healthcare context, including patients, staff, and significant others.

  7. Applying Quality Function Deployment in Industrial Design Curriculum Planning (United States)

    Liu, Shuo-Fang; Lee, Yann-Long; Lin, Yi-Zhi; Tseng, Chien-Feng


    Industrial design is a discipline that combines multiple professional fields. Enterprise demands for industrial design competencies also change over time; thus, the curriculum of industrial design education should be compatible with the current demands of the industry. However, scientific approaches have not been previously employed to plan…

  8. Design and control of a DSTATCOM for power quality improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Distribution Static Compensator) and its control algorithm based on correlation and cross correlation function approach for power quality improvement under linear/ nonlinear loads in a distribution system. In this approach, an extraction of fundamental ...

  9. Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa: Designing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , are required to submit information regarding water quality and the management thereof regularly to the national Blue Drop System (BDS). Since 2009, a trend has emerged in which urban municipalities have been shown to consistently ...

  10. Performance evaluation of turbomachinery in the petroleum exploration and production area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alisson Cardoso Gomes da [Petrobras Santos Basin Exploration and Production Operation Unit, Santos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [State University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], e-mail:


    In light of the recent discoveries of new oil and natural gas reserves in the coast of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states, it will be required a large amount of investments for the development of hydrocarbons exploration and production. In this scenario, the turbomachinery play a crucial role because of its strong influence in the areas of power generation and ensuring the flow of current oil and natural gas produced in offshore platforms to the continent. Among the turbomachinery, it is possible to highlight gas turbines and centrifugal compressors, since they have high reliability, high thermodynamic efficiency and great operation and maintenance flexibility. However, gas turbines and centrifugal compressors show performance characteristics that distinctly depend on ambient and operating conditions. They are not only influenced by site elevation, ambient temperature and relative humidity, but also by the speed of the driven equipment, the fuel and the load conditions. Because of that, performance testing of gas turbines and compressors has become increasingly common due to the need to verify efficiency, power, fuel flow, capacity and head of the packages upon delivery. This paper suggests the use of seven performance parameters that generally describe the performance of a gas turbine and centrifugal compressor. Special consideration will be given to show a comprehensive view of the physical models and mathematical formulations required for evaluating this seven performance parameters based on the basic relationships of pressure, temperature, flow and head. Since the test conditions are rarely fully controlled, it will be discussed an approach to perform measurement uncertainties analysis, with the interest of assuring results validity. Finally, the paper present some considerations for conduct a proper performance evaluation test. (author)

  11. A design procedure and handling quality criteria for lateral directional flight control systems (United States)

    Stein, G.; Henke, A. H.


    A practical design procedure for aircraft augmentation systems is described based on quadratic optimal control technology and handling-quality-oriented cost functionals. The procedure is applied to the design of a lateral-directional control system for the F4C aircraft. The design criteria, design procedure, and final control system are validated with a program of formal pilot evaluation experiments.

  12. Quality Assurance for Postgraduate Programs: Design of a Model Applied on a University in Chile (United States)

    Careaga Butter, Marcelo; Meyer Aguilera, Eduardo; Badilla Quintana, María Graciela; Jiménez Pérez, Laura; Sepúlveda Valenzuela, Eileen


    The quality of Education in Chile is a controversial topic that has been in the public debate in the last several years. To ensure quality in graduate programs, accreditation is compulsory. The current article presents a model to improve the process of self-regulation. The main objective was to design a Model of Quality Assurance for Postgraduate…

  13. The House of Quality: Using QFD for Instructional Design in Distance Education. (United States)

    Murgatroyd, Stephen


    Examines the use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) methods for the design, development, and delivery of courses and programs through distance education. Topics discussed include problems in implementing QFD; implementation of QFD in training design; and QFD's contribution to service quality improvement in distance education. (Contains 28…

  14. Software archeology: a case study in software quality assurance and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lloyd, Jane A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turner, Cameron J [COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


    Ideally, quality is designed into software, just as quality is designed into hardware. However, when dealing with legacy systems, demonstrating that the software meets required quality standards may be difficult to achieve. As the need to demonstrate the quality of existing software was recognized at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), an effort was initiated to uncover and demonstrate that legacy software met the required quality standards. This effort led to the development of a reverse engineering approach referred to as software archaeology. This paper documents the software archaeology approaches used at LANL to document legacy software systems. A case study for the Robotic Integrated Packaging System (RIPS) software is included.

  15. Creating Practitioners of Design for Quality through Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Antony John


    about the user-requirements in each life-phase of the product. One of our current research programmes involves identifying more effective means of recording the needs of the customer and maintaining the designer’s awareness of these throughout the design process. We believe the products designers create...

  16. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance


    World Bank


    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  17. Reliability-Based Design and Quality Control of Bored Piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, D.


    Bored piles are a type of deep foundations which have been and are being widely used in construction engineering such as high-rise buildings, bridges, jetties, and so on. Although bored piles have remarkable advantages over driven piles, the quality of bored piles is frequently affected by many

  18. Beyond image quality : Designing engaging interactions with digital products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ridder, H.; Rozendaal, M.C.


    Ubiquitous computing (or Ambient Intelligence) promises a world in which information is available anytime anywhere and with which humans can interact in a natural, multimodal way. In such world, perceptual image quality remains an important criterion since most information will be displayed

  19. Evaluation of advanced turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 3. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Pistner, C.


    This is the final report in a series of three on studies of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. All three reports address Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines. The first report covered single-stage regulated units; the second report covered two-stage regulated units; the present report covers multistage unregulated units. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines offer an economically attractive option for heads of 1000 to 1500 m. The feasibility of developing such machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1500 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six multistage pump/turbines. The designs are for nominal capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 1000, 1250, and 1500 m. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost with no unsolvable problems. Efficiencies of 85.8% and 88.5% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1500-m unit. Performances of the other five machines are at least comparable, and usually better. Over a 1000 to 1500-m head range, specific $/kW costs of the pump/turbines in mid-1978 US dollars vary from 19.0 to 23.1 for the 500-MW machines, and from 21.0 to 24.1 for the 350-MW machines.

  20. Resources for Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools (United States)

    The information available here is presented as a tool to help school districts and facility planners design the next generation of learning environments so that the school facility will help schools in achieving their core mission of educating children.

  1. Design and Fabrication of High-Temperature, Radial Magnetic Bearing for Turbomachinery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montague, Gerald


    ...) hold great promise for providing increased efficiency in machinery for many applications ranging from pebble-bed nuclear reactors and chemical processing to aircraft and unmanned aerial combat vehicle (UCAV) propulsion systems...

  2. Competency Requirements on Procurement Beyond 2010 : A case study on Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery in Finspong and Lincoln


    Handberg, Fredrik; Marklund, Josefine


    This Master’s thesis was commissioned by Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery,subdivision Industrial Gas Turbines (PGI4) in Finspong, Sweden, and in Lincoln, England. The company has been part of Siemens Power Generation Industrial Applications since its acquisition in 2003. In this connection, the strategic importance of procurement became more recognised and the procurement organisation has undergone many changes. Procurement, however, is a function very much affected by changes in the busines...

  3. High Fidelity Aeroelasticity Simulations of Aircraft and Turbomachinery with Fully-Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (United States)

    Gan, Jiaye

    The purpose of this research is to develop high fidelity numerical methods to investigate the complex aeroelasticity fluid-structural problems of aircraft and aircraft engine turbomachinery. Unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinates are solved to simulate the complex fluid dynamic problems in aeroelasticity. An efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme designed to minimize numerical dissipation is used as a Riemann solver to capture shock waves in transonic and supersonic flows. An improved hybrid turbulence modeling, delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES), is implemented to simulate shock induced separation and rotating stall flows. High order accuracy (3rd and 5th order) weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for inviscid flux and a conservative 2nd and 4th order viscous flux differencing are employed. To resolve the nonlinear interaction between flow and vibrating blade structures, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) procedure that solves the structural modal equations and time accurate Navier-Stokes equations simultaneously is adopted. A rotor/stator sliding interpolation technique is developed to accurately capture the blade rows interaction at the interface with general grid distribution. Phase lag boundary conditions (BC) based on the time shift (direct store) method and the Fourier series phase lag BC are applied to consider the effect of phase difference for a sector of annulus simulation. Extensive validations are conducted to demonstrate high accuracy and robustness of the high fidelity FSI methodology. The accuracy and robustness of RANS, URANS and DDES turbulence models with high order schemes for predicting the lift and drag of the DLR-F6 configuration are verified. The DDES predicts the drag very well whereas the URANS model significantly over predicts the drag. DDES of a finned projectile base flows is conducted to further validate the high fidelity methods with vortical flow. The


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Durmus


    Full Text Available Proposal: Architectural design companies increasingly recognize that time spent on management is not at the expense of their production and there are always better ways to organize business. Although architects have long placed a traditional emphasis on quality, quality management is still a new concept for the majority of architectural design companies, which have to organize relatively more complicated operations nowadays to meet their clients’ expectations. This study aims to understand how architectural design companies define quality and explores the extent to which Total Quality Management (TQM principles like continual improvement, employee involvement, customer satisfaction and others can be pertinent in these companies. Adopting a qualitative research strategy, the authors interviewed with the owner-managers of 10 widely-recognized architectural design companies of different size in Istanbul. The results from the content analysis of semi-structured interview data suggest that i TQM principles cannot be directly applied in architectural design companies without an appropriate translation; ii special characteristics of design services are important to explain quality-related perceptions of owner-managers; iii the owner-managers feel the pressure from the changing internal and external environmental conditions, however few of them adopt a systematic and documented approach to quality management. Architectural design offices which aim to establish a quality management system can benefit from this study to understand potential problem areas on their road.

  5. Forward-Oriented Designing for Learning as a Means to Achieve Educational Quality (United States)

    Ghislandi, Patrizia M. M.; Raffaghelli, Juliana E.


    In this paper, we reflect on how Design for Learning can create the basis for a culture of educational quality. We explore the process of Design for Learning within a blended, undergraduate university course through a teacher-led inquiry approach, aiming at showing the connections between the process of Design for Learning and academic…

  6. Exploring simple assessment methods for lighting quality with architecture and design students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Merete


    Architecture and design students are frequently required to establish suitable lighting conditions for the buildings and spaces they design as part of their studio courses. While lighting design guidelines are avaiilable, students find out quickly, that lighting quality is a complex issue...... distribution within a visual field is discussed....

  7. Pharmaceutical quality by design: product and process development, understanding, and control. (United States)

    Yu, Lawrence X


    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pharmaceutical Quality by Design (QbD) and describe how it can be used to ensure pharmaceutical quality. The QbD was described and some of its elements identified. Process parameters and quality attributes were identified for each unit operation during manufacture of solid oral dosage forms. The use of QbD was contrasted with the evaluation of product quality by testing alone. The QbD is a systemic approach to pharmaceutical development. It means designing and developing formulations and manufacturing processes to ensure predefined product quality. Some of the QbD elements include: Defining target product quality profile; Designing product and manufacturing processes; Identifying critical quality attributes, process parameters, and sources of variability; Controlling manufacturing processes to produce consistent quality over time. Using QbD, pharmaceutical quality is assured by understanding and controlling formulation and manufacturing variables. Product testing confirms the product quality. Implementation of QbD will enable transformation of the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) into a science-based pharmaceutical quality assessment.

  8. design innovations towards enhancing the quality of living in multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    1Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Building Technology. 2Institute of ... The compound house is one of the most versatile housing designs that most low-income households presently enjoy in ... Since the compound housing principle is more towards communal living and the sharing of facilities, these.

  9. A Model for Quality Optimization in Software Design Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noppen, J.A.R.; van den Broek, P.M.; Aksit, Mehmet

    The main objective of software engineers is to design and implement systems that implement all functional and non-functional requirements. Unfortunately, it is very difficult or even generally impossible to deliver a software system that satisfies all the requirements. Even more seriously, failures

  10. Microfluidic chip designs process optimization and dimensional quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido


    , test geometries were designed and produced on the side of the functional features. The so-called “Finger Print” of the lithography and molding processes was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated through scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The entire process chain...

  11. Dealing with Imprecise Quality Factors in Software Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noppen, J.A.R.; van den Broek, P.M.; Aksit, Mehmet; Boehm, B.; Chulani, S.; Verner, J.; Wong, B.


    During the design of a software system impreciseness can manifest itself in for instance the requirements or performance estimations. While it is common to eliminate the impreciseness by information that can not be justified , it is better to model the impreciseness since it is the most accurate

  12. The SPS Beam quality monitor, from design to operation

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, G; Follin, F; Shaposhnikova, E


    The SPS Beam Quality Monitor is a system that monitors longitudinal beam parameters on a cycle-by-cycle basis and prevents extraction to the LHC in case the specifications are not met. This avoids losses, unnecessary stress of machine protection components and luminosity degradation, additionally helping efficiency during the filling process. The system has been operational since the 2009 LHC run, checking the beam pattern, its correct position with respect to the LHC references, individual bunch lengths and stability. In this paper the algorithms used, the hardware implementation and the operational aspects are presented.

  13. The interpretation of flying qualities requirements for flight control system design (United States)

    Rynaski, E. G.


    An experimental flight test program was designed for the Total In Flight Simulator (TIFS) directed toward the interface between flying qualities requirements and flight control system design criteria. The eventual goal is to provide an interpretation or translation of flying qualities requirements for use by the flight control system designer. Specifically, an angle of attack and pitch rate command system matrix involving both short term and long term dynamics are specified for evaluation. Flying qualities criteria and flight control system configuration or architecture can be independent was demonstrated. Finally, additional configurations are proposed to evaluate the efficacy of dynamic decoupling.

  14. New perspective in the design of quality management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández


    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the different trends and models of the current quality management systems, identifying areas of opportunity in these to establish proposals for care that give rise to a new management system, flexible, efficient and effective Supported by a system of sociotechnical work. The competitive climate in today's business has multiplied significantly in the face of the dynamics of change and the presence of ever shorter business cycles. It is a fact that in the last decades the market has been acquiring an increasing dynamism. Today, companies are developing in a more competitive national and international economy, with increasing demands for productivity, where market laws force them to deepen and change strategies and policies, to plan, create and innovate, to have a high degree of resilience and Sensitivity to anticipate future needs and to be able to survive and develop in a complex and increasingly competitive environment. In these times the markets are increasingly informed, so their expectations are increasingly demanding, for this reason is that quality becomes a differentiating element and at the same time the key factor of a company's lasting success.

  15. Design of a Secure System Considering Quality of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seondong Heo


    Full Text Available Improvements in networking technologies have provided users with useful information services. Such information services may bring convenience and efficiency, but might be accompanied by vulnerabilities to a variety of attacks. Therefore, a variety of research to enhance the security of the systems and get the services at the same time has been carried out. Especially, research on intrusion-tolerant systems (ITSs has been conducted in order to survive against every intrusion, rather than to detect and prevent them. In this paper, an ITS based on effective resource conversion (ERC is presented to achieve the goal of intrusion-tolerance. Instead of using the fixed number of virtual machines (VMs to process requests and recover as in conventional approaches, the ITS based on ERC can transform the assigned resources depending on the system status. This scheme is proved to maintain a certain level of quality of service (QoS and quality of security service (QoSS in threatening environments. The performance of ERC is compared with previous studies on ITS by CSIM 20, and it is verified that the proposed scheme is more effective in retaining a specific level of QoS and QoSS.

  16. Surface quality finish in laser cutting using Taguchi design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, V.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej


    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-19 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : cutting speed * factorial design * laser pulse width * orthogonal array * pulse repetition rate (PRR) or pulse frequency Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016

  17. Taguchi Approach to Design Optimization for Quality and Cost: An Overview (United States)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.


    Calibrations to existing cost of doing business in space indicate that to establish human presence on the Moon and Mars with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will require resources, felt by many, to be more than the national budget can afford. In order for SEI to succeed, we must actually design and build space systems at lower cost this time, even with tremendous increases in quality and performance requirements, such as extremely high reliability. This implies that both government and industry must change the way they do business. Therefore, new philosophy and technology must be employed to design and produce reliable, high quality space systems at low cost. In recognizing the need to reduce cost and improve quality and productivity, Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have initiated Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM is a revolutionary management strategy in quality assurance and cost reduction. TQM requires complete management commitment, employee involvement, and use of statistical tools. The quality engineering methods of Dr. Taguchi, employing design of experiments (DOE), is one of the most important statistical tools of TQM for designing high quality systems at reduced cost. Taguchi methods provide an efficient and systematic way to optimize designs for performance, quality, and cost. Taguchi methods have been used successfully in Japan and the United States in designing reliable, high quality products at low cost in such areas as automobiles and consumer electronics. However, these methods are just beginning to see application in the aerospace industry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the Taguchi methods for improving quality and reducing cost, describe the current state of applications and its role in identifying cost sensitive design parameters.

  18. Analytical Quality by Design: A Tool for Regulatory Flexibility and Robust Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Peraman


    Full Text Available Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA has approved a few new drug applications (NDA with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design. It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR. Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT results and out-of-specification (OOS results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10. Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT.

  19. Analytical Quality by Design: A Tool for Regulatory Flexibility and Robust Analytics (United States)

    Bhadraya, Kalva; Padmanabha Reddy, Yiragamreddy


    Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a few new drug applications (NDA) with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD) based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design). It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR). Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT) results and out-of-specification (OOS) results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD) in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10). Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT). PMID:25722723

  20. Packaging design as an implicit communicator : Effects on product quality inferences in the presence of explicit quality cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Iris; Fransen, Marieke L; Verlegh, Peeter W.J.; Smit, Edith G


    In this work we examine the interactive effect of packaging design and explicit packaging cues on quality inferences. Although the effect of explicit cues on product perception has been studied extensively, systematic research on this topic is still in its infancy. Furthermore, it has never been

  1. High quality Danish design with intelligent LED light. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Paul Michael; Dam-Hansen, C.; Thestrup, B.; Pedersen, Henrik (Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU Fotonik, Roskilde (Denmark)); Olsen, Jesper (JesperOlsen ApS, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Falleboe, H.; Andersen, Jakob (MORFOSO, Copenhagen (Denmark))


    Based on the results achieved in a previous project, which enabled a number of designers to be trained in the potential of LED lighting technology, this project developed intelligent LED fixtures for work purposes and for private homes. The two types of fixtures both meet the original project objective of good colour rendition with Ra indices above 90 and colour temperatures variable within the interval 3,300 to 4,400 K. Furthermore, with luminous efficacies of 60 lumen/W, both fixtures have energy efficiencies exceeding that of an average energy-friendly light source. (ln)

  2. A Control Law Design Method Facilitating Control Power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs: CRAFT (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Davidson, John B.


    A multi-input, multi-output control law design methodology, named "CRAFT", is presented. CRAFT stands for the design objectives addressed, namely, Control power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs. The methodology makes use of control law design metrics from each of the four design objective areas. It combines eigenspace assignment, which allows for direct specification of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, with a graphical approach for representing the metrics that captures numerous design goals in one composite illustration. Sensitivity of the metrics to eigenspace choice is clearly displayed, enabling the designer to assess the cost of design tradeoffs. This approach enhances the designer's ability to make informed design tradeoffs and to reach effective final designs. An example of the CRAFT methodology applied to an advanced experimental fighter and discussion of associated design issues are provided.

  3. 77 FR 9532 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Primary Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2 (United States)


    ...) 551-7606. Monica Morales, Leader, Air Quality Colorado, Montana, North Planning Unit, EPA Region 8... NAAQS and design values have not exceeded 42 percent of the 2010 NO 2 NAAQS. After considering state and...

  4. Research on knowledge support technology for product innovation design based on quality function knowledge deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang


    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the relationship between the process of product innovation design and knowledge, this article proposes a theoretical model of quality function knowledge deployment. In order to link up the product innovation design and the knowledge required by the designer, the iterative method of quality function knowledge deployment is refined, as well as the knowledge retrieval model and knowledge support model based on quality function knowledge deployment are established. In the whole life cycle of product design, in view of the different requirements for knowledge in conceptual design stage, components’ configuration stage, process planning stage, and production planning stage, the quality function knowledge deployment model could link up the required knowledge with the engineering characteristics, component characteristics, process characteristics, and production characteristics in the four stages using the mapping relationship between the function characteristics and the knowledge and help the designer to track the required knowledge for realizing product innovation design. In this article, an instance about rewinding machine is given to demonstrate the practicability and validity of product innovation design knowledge support technology based on quality function knowledge deployment.

  5. Design of Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Power Quality Disturbances using Simulink (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, G.; Reddy, Y. Rajasekhar; Harikrishna, Ch.


    Proliferation of electronic equipment in commercial and industrial processes has resulted in increasingly sensitive electrical loads to be fed from power distribution system which introduce contamination to voltage and current waveforms at the point of common coupling of industrial loads. The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is connected between two different feeders (lines), hence this method of connection of the UPQC is called as Interline UPQC (IUPQC).This paper proposes a new connection for a UPQC to improve the power quality of two feeders in a distribution system. Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner (IUPQC), specifically aims at the integration of series VSC and Shunt VSC to provide high quality power supply by means of voltage sag/swell compensation, harmonic elimination and power factor correction in a power distribution network, so that improved power quality can be made available at the point of common coupling. The structure, control and capability of the IUPQC are discussed in this paper. The efficiency of the proposed configuration has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK.

  6. Quality assurance program requirements (design and construction). Task RS 002-5. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This regulatory guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for complying with regard to establishing and implementing the requisite quality assurance program for the design and construction of nuclear power plants. Guidance for the establishment and execution of quality assurance programs during operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants have been or will be addressed in separate regulatory guides. Similarly, quality assurance provisions concerning fuel cycle facilities have been or will be addressed in separate regulatory guides

  7. Quality control of the structural design of Angra 2 and 3 power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, J.L.E.; Carvalho, S.R.B. de


    The quality control requirements for nuclear power plants are done by CNEN and might be followed by the organizations that are responsible for those activities, such as: design, suppliers, construction, fabrication, mounting, installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance, modification and decommissioning. The Promon's experience for using a quality control program in the structural design of Angra 2 and 3, and the verification system adopted, are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  8. 75 FR 78952 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants... (United States)


    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Commonwealth of Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative... Quality, 629 East Main Street, Richmond, Virginia 23219. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James B. Topsale...

  9. 75 FR 78916 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants... (United States)


    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, Commonwealth of Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative... 19103. Copies of the State submittal are available at the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality...

  10. Quality Matters: New Roles for Librarians Using Standards for Online Course Design (United States)

    Newby, Jill; Eagleson, Laurie; Pfander, Jeanne


    Quality Matters™ (QM) is a nationally recognized organization that certifies online courses for effective design, using an evidenced-based set of standards and a structured peer review process. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how academic librarians involved with online courses can adopt Quality Matters to build capacity for designing…

  11. Applying Quality Indicators to Single-Case Research Designs Used in Special Education: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Moeller, Jeremy D.; Dattilo, John; Rusch, Frank


    This study examined how specific guidelines and heuristics have been used to identify methodological rigor associated with single-case research designs based on quality indicators developed by Horner et al. Specifically, this article describes how literature reviews have applied Horner et al.'s quality indicators and evidence-based criteria.…

  12. New lighting for the design of high quality biomedical devices (United States)

    Jaffe, Claudia B.; Jaffe, Steven M.; Conner, Arlie R.


    Among the trends redefining 21st century biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics are the advent of low-cost portable analyzers. Because light is a powerful tool in many of today's most widely used life science instruments, high intensity, low cost light engines are essential to the design and proliferation of the newest bioanalytical instruments, medical devices and miniaturized analyzers. The development of new light technology represents a critical technical hurdle in the realization of point-of-care analysis. Lumencor has developed an inexpensive lighting solution, uniquely well suited to the production of safe, effective and commercially viable life science tools and biomedical devices. Lumencor's proprietary, solid-state light engine provides powerful, pure, stable, inexpensive light across the UV-Vis- NIR. Light engines are designed to directly replace the entire configuration of light management components with a single, simple unit. Power, spectral breadth and purity, stability and reliability data will demonstrate the advantages of these light engines for today's bioanalytical needs. Performance and cost analyses will be compared to traditional optical subsystems based on lamps, lasers and LEDs with respect to their suitability as sources for biomedical applications, implementation for development/evaluation of novel measurement tools and overall superior reliability. Next generation products based on such sources will be described to fulfill the demand for portable, hand-held analyzers and affordable devices with highly integrated light sources. A four color violet/cyan/green/red product will be demonstrated. A variety of multicolor prototypes, their spectral outputs and facile modulation will be discussed and their performance capabilities disclosed.

  13. Taguchi experimental design to determine the taste quality characteristic of candied carrot (United States)

    Ekawati, Y.; Hapsari, A. A.


    Robust parameter design is used to design product that is robust to noise factors so the product’s performance fits the target and delivers a better quality. In the process of designing and developing the innovative product of candied carrot, robust parameter design is carried out using Taguchi Method. The method is used to determine an optimal quality design. The optimal quality design is based on the process and the composition of product ingredients that are in accordance with consumer needs and requirements. According to the identification of consumer needs from the previous research, quality dimensions that need to be assessed are the taste and texture of the product. The quality dimension assessed in this research is limited to the taste dimension. Organoleptic testing is used for this assessment, specifically hedonic testing that makes assessment based on consumer preferences. The data processing uses mean and signal to noise ratio calculation and optimal level setting to determine the optimal process/composition of product ingredients. The optimal value is analyzed using confirmation experiments to prove that proposed product match consumer needs and requirements. The result of this research is identification of factors that affect the product taste and the optimal quality of product according to Taguchi Method.

  14. LINFLUX-AE: A Turbomachinery Aeroelastic Code Based on a 3-D Linearized Euler Solver (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, M. A.; Trudell, J. J.; Mehmed, O.; Stefko, G. L.


    This report describes the development and validation of LINFLUX-AE, a turbomachinery aeroelastic code based on the linearized unsteady 3-D Euler solver, LINFLUX. A helical fan with flat plate geometry is selected as the test case for numerical validation. The steady solution required by LINFLUX is obtained from the nonlinear Euler/Navier Stokes solver TURBO-AE. The report briefly describes the salient features of LINFLUX and the details of the aeroelastic extension. The aeroelastic formulation is based on a modal approach. An eigenvalue formulation is used for flutter analysis. The unsteady aerodynamic forces required for flutter are obtained by running LINFLUX for each mode, interblade phase angle and frequency of interest. The unsteady aerodynamic forces for forced response analysis are obtained from LINFLUX for the prescribed excitation, interblade phase angle, and frequency. The forced response amplitude is calculated from the modal summation of the generalized displacements. The unsteady pressures, work done per cycle, eigenvalues and forced response amplitudes obtained from LINFLUX are compared with those obtained from LINSUB, TURBO-AE, ASTROP2, and ANSYS.

  15. Vibrations and alternated stresses in turbomachineries; Vibrations et contraintes alternees dans les turbomachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudin, M. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)]|[FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France); Pugnet, J.M. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)]|[FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France)


    Vibration phenomena are sources of mechanical incidents in turbomachineries. A calculation of the Eigenmodes of machine parts and a knowledge of their possible excitation during the machine operation can greatly improve the reliability and availability of the equipments. The development of computer tools and in particular the use of finite-element codes has allowed a more and more precise calculation of Eigenmodes and Eigenfrequencies. However, the analysis of excitation sources remains sometimes insufficient to explain and anticipate some complex vibrational phenomena encountered in rotative machines. The aim of this paper is to present, using two different examples, the methodology to be used in order to perform a complete vibrational analysis of mechanical components. The following aspects are reviewed successively: 1 - the damped vibrational system: study of the free motion, study of the response to an harmonic forced excitation; 2 - vibrational analysis of turbine blades: steam turbine blades, Eigenmodes of mobile blades, excitation sources, Campbell diagram, calculation of static and dynamical stresses, Haigh diagram, acceptance criteria and safety coefficient, influence of corrosion; 3 - dynamical analysis of the bending of a lineshaft: different flexion Eigenmodes, stiffness and damping of bearings, calculation of flexion Eigenmodes, excitation sources, vibrational stability of the lineshaft and vibration level; 3 - generalization: vibration of blades, shaft dynamics, alternative machines. (J.S.) 10 refs.

  16. Quality Market: Design and Field Study of Prediction Market for Software Quality Control (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Janaki


    Given the increasing competition in the software industry and the critical consequences of software errors, it has become important for companies to achieve high levels of software quality. While cost reduction and timeliness of projects continue to be important measures, software companies are placing increasing attention on identifying the user…

  17. An economically designed, integrated quality and maintenance model using an adaptive Shewhart chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotidou, Sofia; Nenes, George


    This paper proposes a model for the economic design of a variable-parameter (Vp) Shewhart control chart used to monitor the mean in a process, where, apart from quality shifts, failures may also occur. Quality shifts result in poorer quality outcome, higher operational cost and higher failure rate. Thus, removal of such quality shifts, besides improving the quality of the outcome and reducing the quality cost, is also a preventive maintenance (PM) action since it reduces the probability of a failure and improves the equipment reliability. The proposed model allows the determination of the scheme parameters that minimize the total expected quality and maintenance cost of the procedure. The monitoring mechanism of the process employs an adaptive Vp-Shewhart control chart. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model, its optimal expected cost is compared against the optimum cost of a fixed-parameter (Fp) chart

  18. A quality by design approach to optimization of emulsions for electrospinning using factorial and D-optimal designs. (United States)

    Badawi, Mariam A; El-Khordagui, Labiba K


    Emulsion electrospinning is a multifactorial process used to generate nanofibers loaded with hydrophilic drugs or macromolecules for diverse biomedical applications. Emulsion electrospinnability is greatly impacted by the emulsion pharmaceutical attributes. The aim of this study was to apply a quality by design (QbD) approach based on design of experiments as a risk-based proactive approach to achieve predictable critical quality attributes (CQAs) in w/o emulsions for electrospinning. Polycaprolactone (PCL)-thickened w/o emulsions containing doxycycline HCl were formulated using a Span 60/sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) emulsifier blend. The identified emulsion CQAs (stability, viscosity and conductivity) were linked with electrospinnability using a 3(3) factorial design to optimize emulsion composition for phase stability and a D-optimal design to optimize stable emulsions for viscosity and conductivity after shifting the design space. The three independent variables, emulsifier blend composition, organic:aqueous phase ratio and polymer concentration, had a significant effect (pemulsion CQAs, the emulsifier blend composition exerting prominent main and interaction effects. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of emulsion-electrospun NFs and desirability functions allowed modeling of emulsion CQAs to predict electrospinnable formulations. A QbD approach successfully built quality in electrospinnable emulsions, allowing development of hydrophilic drug-loaded nanofibers with desired morphological characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Participatory Educational Design: How to Improve Mutual Learning and the Quality and Usability of the Design? (United States)

    Janssen, Fred J. J. M.; Könings, Karen D.; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.


    Many educational change proposals, designed to improve student learning, fail to be implemented in classrooms, which is a threat to the impact of educational policy on educational practice. This has led to a call for participatory educational design in which different stakeholders are involved in the generation and consideration of alternative…

  20. Improving quality and the assurance of quality in the design and construction of nuclear power plants: a report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, W.; Ankrum, T.; Brach, W.


    A study was conducted of existing and alternative programs for improving quality and the assurance of quality in the design and construction of commercial nuclear power plants. A primary focus of the study was to determine the underlying causes of major quality-related problems in the construction of some nuclear power plants and the untimely detection and correction of these problems. The study concluded that the root cause for major quality-related problems was the failure or inability of some utility managements to effectively implement a management system that ensured adequate control over all aspects of the project. These management shortcoming arose in part from inexperience on the part of some project teams in the construction of nuclear power plants. NRC's past licensing and inspection practices did not adequately screen construction permit applicants for overall capability to manage or provide effective management oversight over the construction project. The study recommends a number of improvements in industry and NRC programs. For industry, the study recommends self-imposed rising standards of excellence, treatment of quality assurance as a management tool, not a substitute for management, improved trend analysis and identification of root causes of quality problems, and a program of comprehensive third party audits of present and future construction projects. To improve NRC programs, the study recommends a heavier emphasis on team inspections and resident inspectors, an enhanced review of new applicant's capabilities to construct commercial nuclear power plants, more attention to management issues, improved diagnostic and trending capabilities, improved quality and quality assurance for operating reactors, and development of guidance to facilitate the prioritization of quality assurance measures commensurate with the importance of plant structures, systems, and components to the achievement of safety

  1. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 1. Single-stage regulated pump turbines for operating heads of 500 to 1000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Blomquist, C.A.; Degnan, J.R.


    High-head, large-capacity turbomachinery is needed for the concept of underground pumped hydroelectric storage to be technically and economically attractive. Single-stage, reversible, Francis-type pump turbines with adjustable wicket gates appear to offer the most economically attractive option for heads between about 500 and 1000 m. The feasibility of developing these types of machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1000 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six single-stage pump turbines. The designs are for capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 500, 750, and 1000 m. The report contains drawings of the machines along with material specifications and hydraulic performance data. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost. The stress and deflection responses of the 500-MW, 100-m-head pump turbine, determined by detailed finite element analysis techniques, give solid evidence of the integrity of the conceptual designs of the six units and indicate no unsolvable problems. Results of a life expectancy analysis of the wicket gates indicate that a near infinite life can be expected for these components when they are subjected to normal design loads. Efficiencies of 90.7 and 91.4% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1000-m-head unit. Performances of the other five machines are comparable. The specific costs of the pump turbines in mid-1978 US dollars per kW vary from 19.2 to 11.8 over a head range of from 500 to 1000 m for the 500-MW machines and from 20.0 to 12.3 for the 350-MW machines.

  2. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study (United States)

    Young, Mark R.


    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  3. Creating high-quality behavioural designs for software-intensive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gülesir, G.; America, Pierre; Benschop, Frank; van den Berg, Klaas; Aksit, Mehmet; van der Laar, Pierre; Punter, Teade


    In todays industrial practice, behavioral designs of software-intensive systems such as embedded systems are often imprecisely documented as plain text in a natural language such as English, supplemented with ad-hoc diagrams. Lack of quality in behavioral design documents causes poor communication

  4. Technical report of comparison in design control on R and D and industrial quality requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun


    This technical report provides the methods on how to establish the requirements on nuclear R and D facilities. This report applies to the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in research reactor. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of nuclear project

  5. Quality by Design Study of the Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry Response (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Teng; Zeng, Shanshan; Qu, Haibin


    A mass spectrometry method has been developed using the Quality by Design (QbD) principle. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was adopted to analyze a pharmaceutical preparation. A fishbone diagram for DART-MS and the Plackett-Burman design were utilized to evaluate the impact of a number of factors on the method performance. Multivariate regression and Pareto ranking analysis indicated that the temperature, determined distance, and sampler speed were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the Box-Behnken design combined with response surface analysis was then employed to study the relationships between these three factors and the quality of the DART-MS analysis. The analytical design space of DART-MS was thus constructed and its robustness was validated. In this presented approach, method performance was mathematically described as a composite desirability function of the critical quality attributes (CQAs). Two terms of method validation, including analytical repeatability and method robustness, were carried out at an operating work point. Finally, the validated method was successfully applied to the pharmaceutical quality assurance in different manufacturing batches. These results revealed that the QbD concept was practical in DART-MS method development. Meanwhile, the determined quality was controlled by the analytical design space. This presented strategy provided a tutorial to the development of a robust QbD-compliant mass spectrometry method for industrial quality control.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Wilson Taifa


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to customize user requirements and quality creation for design improvement of furniture. The major purpose has been achieved with the use of Quality Function Deployment technique and Kano Model. The study involved 564 students from 3 engineering colleges. Extensive user requirements were identified with the help of Questionnaires. The use of House of Quality, Kano Model and Pareto Diagram helped in prioritizing all important features which are needed in customizing user requirements. The prioritized requirements include ergonomic design, desk adjustability, comfortability, product corners (sharp corners and latest material. All these factors both got high relative and absolute weight. Therefore, more engineering efforts need to be directed towards these requirements for achieving user customization for design improvement. The developed House of Quality with the help of Kano Model results has proved to be a good tool in customizing user requirements.

  7. Design and Optimization of Capacitated Supply Chain Networks Including Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar


    Full Text Available This paper presents (1 a novel capacitated model for supply chain network design which considers manufacturing, distribution, and quality costs (named SCND-COQ model and (2 five combinatorial optimization methods, based on nonlinear optimization, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, which are used to solve realistic instances of practical size. The SCND-COQ model is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem which can be used at a strategic planning level to design a supply chain network that maximizes the total profit subject to meeting an overall quality level of the final product at minimum costs. The SCND-COQ model computes the quality-related costs for the whole supply chain network considering the interdependencies among business entities. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approaches is shown using numerical experiments. These methods allow solving more realistic (capacitated supply chain network design problems including quality-related costs (inspections, rework, opportunity costs, and others within a reasonable computational time.

  8. How to Measure Quality of Service Using Unstructured Data Analysis: A General Method Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sperková,


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to design a general method usable for measuring the quality of the service from the customer’s point of view with the help of content analytics. Large amount of unstructured data is created by customers of the service. This data can provide a valuable feedback from the service usage. Customers talk among themselves about their experiences and feelings from consumption of the service. The design of the method is based on a systematic literature review in the area of the service quality and unstructured data analysis. Analytics and quality measurement models are collected and critically evaluated regarding their potential use for measuring IT service quality. The method can be used by IT service provider to measure and monitor service quality based on World-of-Mouth in order to continual service improvement.

  9. Re-conceiving building design quality: A review of building users in their social context. (United States)

    Watson, Kelly J; Evans, James; Karvonen, Andrew; Whitley, Tim


    Considerable overlap exists between post-occupancy research evaluating building design quality and the concept of 'social value', popularised by its recent application to issues of the public realm. To outline this potential research agenda, the paper reviews design quality research on buildings in relation to users and their social context where the term 'social context' refers to building user group dynamics, a combination of organisational cultures, management strategies, and social norms and practices. The review is conducted across five key building types, namely housing, workplaces, healthcare, education, and the retail/service sector. Research commonalities and gaps are identified in order to build a more comprehensive picture of the design quality literature and its handling of users in their social context. The key findings concerning each building type are presented visually. It is concluded that the design quality field comprises a patchwork of relatively isolated studies of various building types, with significant potential for theoretical and empirical development through interdisciplinary collaboration. Users tend to be conceived as anonymous and autonomous individuals with little analysis of user identity or interaction. Further, the contextual impact of user group dynamics on the relationship between building design and building user is rarely addressed in the literature. Producing a more nuanced understanding of users in situ is proposed as an important area for future design quality research.

  10. Quality-Driven Model-Based Design of MultiProcessor Embedded Systems for Highlydemanding Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozwiak, Lech; Madsen, Jan


    opportunities have been created. The traditional applications can be served much better and numerous new sorts of embedded systems became technologically feasible and economically justified. Various monitoring, control, communication or multi-media systems that can be put on or embedded in (mobile, poorly......C optimization, adequate resolution of numerous complex design tradeoffs, reduction of the design productivity gap for the increasingly complex and sophisticated systems, reduction of the time-to market and development costs without compromising the system quality, etc. These challenges cannot be well addressed...... of contemporary and future embedded systems and introduction of the quality-driven model-based design methodology based on the paradigms of life-inspired systems and quality-driven design earlier proposed by the first presenter of this tutorial. Subsequently, the actual industrial Intel's ASIP-based MPSo...

  11. Designing a Clinical Data Warehouse Architecture to Support Quality Improvement Initiatives. (United States)

    Chelico, John D; Wilcox, Adam B; Vawdrey, David K; Kuperman, Gilad J


    Clinical data warehouses, initially directed towards clinical research or financial analyses, are evolving to support quality improvement efforts, and must now address the quality improvement life cycle. In addition, data that are needed for quality improvement often do not reside in a single database, requiring easier methods to query data across multiple disparate sources. We created a virtual data warehouse at NewYork Presbyterian Hospital that allowed us to bring together data from several source systems throughout the organization. We also created a framework to match the maturity of a data request in the quality improvement life cycle to proper tools needed for each request. As projects progress in the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control stages of quality improvement, there is a proper matching of resources the data needs at each step. We describe the analysis and design creating a robust model for applying clinical data warehousing to quality improvement.

  12. Design, analysis, and interpretation of field quality-control data for water-sampling projects (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Schertz, Terry L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.


    The process of obtaining and analyzing water samples from the environment includes a number of steps that can affect the reported result. The equipment used to collect and filter samples, the bottles used for specific subsamples, any added preservatives, sample storage in the field, and shipment to the laboratory have the potential to affect how accurately samples represent the environment from which they were collected. During the early 1990s, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented policies to include the routine collection of quality-control samples in order to evaluate these effects and to ensure that water-quality data were adequately representing environmental conditions. Since that time, the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Quality has provided training in how to design effective field quality-control sampling programs and how to evaluate the resultant quality-control data. This report documents that training material and provides a reference for methods used to analyze quality-control data.

  13. Quality by design approach in the optimization of the spray-drying process. (United States)

    Baldinger, Arnaud; Clerdent, Lucas; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi; Grohganz, Holger


    The aim of this study was to illustrate the influence of the processing parameters, inlet temperature, atomization air flow rate and feed flow rate, on critical quality attributes of spray-dried powders using design of experiments (DoE). Spray-dried powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Multivariate analysis of two different experimental designs was performed to elucidate the optimal process conditions. XRPD revealed that the spray-dried powders consisted of crystalline β-mannitol and amorphous trehalose. Non-invasive NIR measurement was successfully used for correlating the critical quality attribute particle size with size determined by laser diffraction. The full factorial design proved to be unsuitable due to the non-linear influence of factors. The composite face-centered design improved the quality of the models and showed both linear and non-linear influence of the parameters on the outcomes. A model explaining the influence of the factors on all quality attributes showed similar results as the models optimized for a single response. This study showed the applicability of DoE for the investigation of spray-dried powders. The knowledge of the interplay between process parameters and quality attributes will enable rational process design to achieve a desired outcome.

  14. People’s Preferences of Urban Design Qualities for Walking on a Commercial Street (United States)

    Ernawati, J.; Surjono; Sudarmo, B. S.


    This research aims to explore people’s preferences of urban design qualities for walking on a commercial street, with Kawi Street located in a commercial neighborhood in the town of Malang Indonesia as the case study. Based on a literature review, this study used eight urban design qualities, i.e., enclosure, legibility, human scale, transparency, complexity, coherence, linkage, and imageability. This study applied a survey research method using a self-administered paper-pencil questionnaire applying two measurement techniques: Likert scale was used to explore people’s evaluations of urban design qualities of the street, while multiple-rating scales were used to measure people’s preference for walking on the street. One hundred and ten people randomly selected as respondents. Regression analysis was employed to explore the influence of urban design qualities on people preference for walking. Results indicated four urban design qualities that affect people’s choice for walking on a commercial street, i.e., transparency, coherence, linkage, and imageability. Implications of the findings will be discussed in the paper.

  15. Modeling in the quality by design environment: Regulatory requirements and recommendations for design space and control strategy appointment. (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica


    Mathematical models can be used as an integral part of the quality by design (QbD) concept throughout the product lifecycle for variety of purposes, including appointment of the design space and control strategy, continual improvement and risk assessment. Examples of different mathematical modeling techniques (mechanistic, empirical and hybrid) in the pharmaceutical development and process monitoring or control are provided in the presented review. In the QbD context, mathematical models are predominantly used to support design space and/or control strategies. Considering their impact to the final product quality, models can be divided into the following categories: high, medium and low impact models. Although there are regulatory guidelines on the topic of modeling applications, review of QbD-based submission containing modeling elements revealed concerns regarding the scale-dependency of design spaces and verification of models predictions at commercial scale of manufacturing, especially regarding real-time release (RTR) models. Authors provide critical overview on the good modeling practices and introduce concepts of multiple-unit, adaptive and dynamic design space, multivariate specifications and methods for process uncertainty analysis. RTR specification with mathematical model and different approaches to multivariate statistical process control supporting process analytical technologies are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The utilization of parallel processing in solving the inviscid form of the average-passage equation system for multistage turbomachinery (United States)

    Mulac, Richard A.; Celestina, Mark L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Misegades, Kent P.; Dawson, Jef M.


    A procedure is outlined which utilizes parallel processing to solve the inviscid form of the average-passage equation system for multistage turbomachinery along with a description of its implementation in a FORTRAN computer code, MSTAGE. A scheme to reduce the central memory requirements of the program is also detailed. Both the multitasking and I/O routines referred to in this paper are specific to the Cray X-MP line of computers and its associated SSD (Solid-state Storage Device). Results are presented for a simulation of a two-stage rocket engine fuel pump turbine.

  17. Utilization of parallel processing in solving the inviscid form of the average-passage equation system for multistage turbomachinery (United States)

    Mulac, Richard A.; Celestina, Mark L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Misegades, Kent P.; Dawson, Jef M.


    A procedure is outlined which utilizes parallel processing to solve the inviscid form of the average-passage equation system for multistage turbomachinery along with a description of its implementation in a FORTRAN computer code, MSTAGE. A scheme to reduce the central memory requirements of the program is also detailed. Both the multitasking and I/O routines referred to are specific to the Cray X-MP line of computers and its associated SSD (Solid-State Disk). Results are presented for a simulation of a two-stage rocket engine fuel pump turbine.

  18. The quality estimation of exterior wall’s and window filling’s construction design (United States)

    Saltykov, Ivan; Bovsunovskaya, Maria


    The article reveals the term of “artificial envelope” in dwelling building. Authors offer a complex multifactorial approach to the design quality estimation of external fencing structures, which is based on various parameters impact. These referred parameters are: functional, exploitation, cost, and also, the environmental index is among them. The quality design index Qк is inputting for the complex characteristic of observed above parameters. The mathematical relation of this index from these parameters is the target function for the quality design estimation. For instance, the article shows the search of optimal variant for wall and window designs in small, middle and large square dwelling premises of economic class buildings. The graphs of target function single parameters are expressed for the three types of residual chamber’s dimensions. As a result of the showing example, there is a choice of window opening’s dimensions, which make the wall’s and window’s constructions properly correspondent to the producible complex requirements. The authors reveal the comparison of recommended window filling’s square in accordance with the building standards, and the square, due to the finding of the optimal variant of the design quality index. The multifactorial approach for optimal design searching, which is mentioned in this article, can be used in consideration of various construction elements of dwelling buildings in accounting of suitable climate, social and economic construction area features.

  19. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Technologies for Long-Life, Maintenance-Free Power Generation Applications (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher


    Turbines have long been used to convert thermal energy to shaft work for power generation. Conventional turbines rely upon oil-lubricated rotor supports (bearings, seals, etc.) to achieve low wear, high efficiency and reliability. Emerging Oil-Free technologies such as gas foil bearings and magnetic bearings offer a path for reduced weight and complexity and truly maintenance free systems. Oil-Free gas turbines, using gaseous and liquid fuels are commercially available in power outputs to at least 250kWe and are gaining acceptance for remote power generation where maintenance is a challenge. Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbines are an approach to power generation that is well suited for long life space missions. In these systems, a recirculating gas is heated by nuclear, solar or other heat energy source then fed into a high-speed turbine that drives an electrical generator. For closed cycle systems such as these, the working fluid also passes through the bearing compartments thus serving as a lubricant and bearing coolant. Compliant surface foil gas bearings are well suited for the rotor support systems of these advanced turbines. Foil bearings develop a thin hydrodynamic gas film that separates the rotating shaft from the bearing preventing wear. During start-up and shut down when speeds are low, rubbing occurs. Solid lubricants are used to reduce starting torque and minimize wear. Other emerging technologies such as magnetic bearings can also contribute to robust and reliable Oil-Free turbomachinery. In this presentation, Oil-Free technologies for advanced rotor support systems will be reviewed as will the integration and development processes recommended for implementation.

  20. Shielding of Turbomachinery Broadband Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Stead, Daniel J.; Pope, D. Stuart


    The results of an experimental study on the effects of engine placement and vertical tail configuration on shielding of exhaust broadband noise radiation are presented. This study is part of the high fidelity aeroacoustic test of a 5.8% scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft configuration performed in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. Broadband Engine Noise Simulators (BENS) were used to determine insertion loss due to shielding by the HWB airframe of the broadband component of turbomachinery noise for different airframe configurations and flight conditions. Acoustics data were obtained from flyover and sideline microphones traversed to predefined streamwise stations. Noise measurements performed for different engine locations clearly show the noise benefit associated with positioning the engine nacelles further upstream on the HWB centerbody. Positioning the engine exhaust 2.5 nozzle diameters upstream (compared to 0.5 nozzle diameters downstream) of the HWB trailing edge was found of particular benefit in this study. Analysis of the shielding performance obtained with and without tunnel flow show that the effectiveness of the fuselage shielding of the exhaust noise, although still significant, is greatly reduced by the presence of the free stream flow compared to static conditions. This loss of shielding is due to the turbulence in the model near-wake/boundary layer flow. A comparison of shielding obtained with alternate vertical tail configurations shows limited differences in level; nevertheless, overall trends regarding the effect of cant angle and vertical location are revealed. Finally, it is shown that the vertical tails provide a clear shielding benefit towards the sideline while causing a slight increase in noise below the aircraft.

  1. The development of quality management techniques in civil engineering design and site supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.J.


    Quality assurance techniques have developed considerably over the past few years, and in particular the application of Quality Management within a service industry such as civil engineering has evolved into a well developed management control system. James Williamson and Partners were the first members of the Association of Consulting Engineers successfully to achieve third party accreditation with BSI for civil and structural design. The initial system was generated for work on Torness Power Station in the early 1980s, and the firm has, in the last ten years, developed a flexible quality system to effectively control and co-ordinate complex projects. This paper discusses the use of quality assurance (QA) techniques in a civil engineering design office, looking at a few areas where the requirements of BS 5750 and BS 5882 are difficult to interpret. Some observations are also made on the adoption of QA for site supervision. (author)

  2. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, Rebecca


    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  3. Application of Quality by Design: Development to Manufacturing of Diclofenac Sodium Topical Gel. (United States)

    Khanolkar, Aruna; Thorat, Viraj; Raut, Preeti; Samanta, Gautam


    The objective of the present study was to develop and optimize generic topical gel formulation of diclofenac sodium through quality by design approaches. The quality target product profile was set for the critical quality attributes of the gel. The key material variables like hydrophilic gelling agent carbopol and penetration enhancer kolliphor were optimized using design of experiments. A central composite design was used considering viscosity and cumulative percent diffusion of the drug after 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h as responses. The p values for all models generated for different responses were statistically significant (simulation and the Cpk values for all the responses were more than 1.33.

  4. Testing Requirements to Manage Data Exchange Specifications in Enterprise Integration - A Schema Design Quality Focus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Ivezic, Nenad [ORNL; Buhwan, Jeong [POSTECH University, South Korea


    In this paper, we describe the requirements to test W3C XML Schema usage when defining message schemas for data exchange in any large and evolving enterprise integration project. We then decompose the XML Schema testing into four (4) aspects including the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification grammar, the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification semantics, the message schema conformance to design quality testing, and canonical semantics testing of the message schema. We describe these four testing aspects in some detail and point to other related efforts. We further focus to provide some technical details for the message schema design quality testing. As a future work, we describe the requirements for canonical semantics testing and potential solution approaches. Finally, we describe an implementation architecture for the message schema design quality testing.

  5. Quality assurance in the procurement, design and manufacture of nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations for quality assurance programmes that are relevant for the unique features of the procurement, design, manufacture, inspection, testing, packaging, shipping, storage, and receiving inspection of fuel assemblies for nuclear power plants. The generic quality assurance requirements of the Code and related Safety Guides are referred to where applicable, and are duplicated in this document where increased emphasis is desirable

  6. New Microstrip Antenna Design Approach Based On Harmonics Analysis.And Radiation Monitoring Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafaa Hamrouni


    Full Text Available Use of advanced design system and micro processed technology enhance the performance of transmission sub- system quality and control electromagnetic waves propagation in space but at the same time resulting into transmitted waves quality problems for utility. One of the major issues of transmission quality is harmonics in transmission subsystem. Through mandatory regulations harmonics in the transmission subsystem must be prevented to ensure good propagation quality. In this work we present the design and characteristics of three types of tested Microstrip Antenna MA. In the first place longitudinally magnetized ferrite patch antenna is presented. We can control outside the resonance frequency by changing the tensor permeability which is a function of the magnetization of the ferrite substrate. The wavelength in the ferrite is short as the magnetization becomes stronger. This antenna becomes multi-band used in transmission subsystems as well as IEEE standard transmission quality. A microstrip antenna ultra-wideband double circular slit fed with a coplanar line CPW is designed and successful results are demonstrated. The proposed antenna is characterized by simplicity of design and food a very low cost and a relatively stable radiation pattern in this part of the bandwidth. In the last part we present simulations under HFSS antenna guide wave empty or filled with metamaterials to periodic square openings. This paper presents a new approach to design Microstrip Antenna for wireless transmission subsystems radiation quality monitoring and analysis considering harmonics. Successful results allow us develop a wide ultra antenna band. This is an innovative approach in telecommunication field in terms of radiated elements which thereby improves waves propagation quality. A case study of microstrip antenna performance is presented which encompasses the effects of harmonics on Antenna waveguide to metamaterial ultra broad- band and double slit ULB patch

  7. Modal control theory and application to aircraft lateral handling qualities design (United States)

    Srinathkumar, S.


    A multivariable synthesis procedure based on eigenvalue/eigenvector assignment is reviewed and is employed to develop a systematic design procedure to meet the lateral handling qualities design objectives of a fighter aircraft over a wide range of flight conditions. The closed loop modal characterization developed provides significant insight into the design process and plays a pivotal role in the synthesis of robust feedback systems. The simplicity of the synthesis algorithm yields an efficient computer aided interactive design tool for flight control system synthesis.

  8. A slow fashion design model for bluejeans using house of quality approach (United States)

    Nergis, B.; Candan, C.; Sarısaltık, S.; Seneloglu, N.; Bozuk, R.; Amzayev, K.


    The purpose of this study was to develop a slow fashion design model using the house of quality model (HOQ) to provide fashion designers a tool to improve the overall sustainability of denim jeans for Y generation consumers in Turkish market. In doing so, a survey was conducted to collect data on the design & performance expectations as well as the perception of slow fashion in design process of denim jeans of the targeted consumer group. The results showed that Y generation in the market gave the most importance to the sustainable production techniques when identifying slow fashion.

  9. A quality by design study applied to an industrial pharmaceutical fluid bed granulation. (United States)

    Lourenço, Vera; Lochmann, Dirk; Reich, Gabriele; Menezes, José C; Herdling, Thorsten; Schewitz, Jens


    The pharmaceutical industry is encouraged within Quality by Design (QbD) to apply science-based manufacturing principles to assure quality not only of new but also of existing processes. This paper presents how QbD principles can be applied to an existing industrial pharmaceutical fluid bed granulation (FBG) process. A three-step approach is presented as follows: (1) implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) monitoring tools at the industrial scale process, combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) of process and PAT data to increase the process knowledge; (2) execution of scaled-down designed experiments at a pilot scale, with adequate PAT monitoring tools, to investigate the process response to intended changes in Critical Process Parameters (CPPs); and finally (3) the definition of a process Design Space (DS) linking CPPs to Critical to Quality Attributes (CQAs), within which product quality is ensured by design, and after scale-up enabling its use at the industrial process scale. The proposed approach was developed for an existing industrial process. Through enhanced process knowledge established a significant reduction in product CQAs, variability already within quality specifications ranges was achieved by a better choice of CPPs values. The results of such step-wise development and implementation are described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast analysis of glibenclamide and its impurities: quality by design framework in capillary electrophoresis method development. (United States)

    Furlanetto, Sandra; Orlandini, Serena; Pasquini, Benedetta; Caprini, Claudia; Mura, Paola; Pinzauti, Sergio


    A fast capillary zone electrophoresis method for the simultaneous analysis of glibenclamide and its impurities (I(A) and I(B)) in pharmaceutical dosage forms was fully developed within a quality by design framework. Critical quality attributes were represented by I(A) peak efficiency, critical resolution between glibenclamide and I(B), and analysis time. Experimental design was efficiently used for rapid and systematic method optimization. A 3(5)//16 symmetric screening matrix was chosen for investigation of the five selected critical process parameters throughout the knowledge space, and the results obtained were the basis for the planning of the subsequent response surface study. A Box-Behnken design for three factors allowed the contour plots to be drawn and the design space to be identified by introduction of the concept of probability. The design space corresponded to the multidimensional region where all the critical quality attributes reached the desired values with a degree of probability π ≥ 90%. Under the selected working conditions, the full separation of the analytes was obtained in less than 2 min. A full factorial design simultaneously allowed the design space to be validated and method robustness to be tested. A control strategy was finally implemented by means of a system suitability test. The method was fully validated and was applied to real samples of glibenclamide tablets.

  11. Critical to quality in telemedicine service management: application of DFSS (Design for Six Sigma) and SERVQUAL). (United States)

    Yun, Eun Kyoung; Chun, Kee Moon


    Telemedicine generally refers to the use of communications and information technologies for the delivery of health care. owever, telemedicine is not merely a simple combination of health care and technology. The researchers propose a systematic approach for assessing needs of telemedicine customers, called critical-to-quality (CTQ) in Six Sigma, with a purpose of continuous quality improvement. The combination approach using DFSS (Design for Six Sigma) and SERVQUAL (Service Quality Framework) was applied to define the critical quality attributes of telemedicine service management and to match them with the current telemedicine process. With a step-by-step procedure, telemedicine service process was reviewed and all the important CTQ candidates identified via a case study. The findings suggest that nurses need further understanding and research methods that will improve and manage the quality of health care service in various medical fields.

  12. Design and methods of the Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA), 2014 (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Van Metre, Peter C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Button, Daniel T.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Qi, Sharon L.; Bradley, Paul M.


    During 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain regions of the southeastern United States. This Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA) simultaneously characterized watershed and stream-reach water-quality stressors along with instream biological conditions, in order to better understand regional stressor-effects relations. The goal of SESQA is to provide communities and policymakers with information about those human and environmental factors that have the greatest impact on stream quality across the region. The SESQA design focused on hydrologic alteration and urbanization because of their importance as ecological stressors of particular concern to Southeast region resource managers.

  13. Active power line conditioners design, simulation and implementation for improving power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Revuelta, Patricio Salmeron; Litrán, Salvador Pérez


    Active Power Line Conditioners: Design, Simulation and Implementation for Improving Power Quality presents a rigorous theoretical and practical approach to active power line conditioners, one of the subjects of most interest in the field of power quality. Its broad approach offers a journey that will allow power engineering professionals, researchers, and graduate students to learn more about the latest landmarks on the different APLC configurations for load active compensation. By introducing the issues and equipment needs that arise when correcting the lack of power quality in power grids

  14. Robust design in generelaised linear models for improving the quality of polyurethane soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Armando Mares


    Full Text Available In a process that manufactures polyurethane soles by casting, a number of problems lead to different types of defects on the sole, causing significant economic losses for the company. In order to improve the product quality and decrease the number of defects, this study conducts an experimental design in the context of robust design. Since the response variable is binary, the statistical analysis was performed using generalised linear models. The operational methodology reduced the percentage of defects, while combining the experimental technique and control systems to achieve superior quality and a consequent reduction in costs.

  15. Quality by Design approach for studying the impact of formulation and process variables on product quality of oral disintegrating films. (United States)

    Mazumder, Sonal; Pavurala, Naresh; Manda, Prashanth; Xu, Xiaoming; Cruz, Celia N; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R


    The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of formulation and process variables on the quality of oral disintegrating films (ODF) using Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Lamotrigine (LMT) was used as a model drug. Formulation variable was plasticizer to film former ratio and process variables were drying temperature, air flow rate in the drying chamber, drying time and wet coat thickness of the film. A Definitive Screening Design of Experiments (DoE) was used to identify and classify the critical formulation and process variables impacting critical quality attributes (CQA). A total of 14 laboratory-scale DoE formulations were prepared and evaluated for mechanical properties (%elongation at break, yield stress, Young's modulus, folding endurance) and other CQA (dry thickness, disintegration time, dissolution rate, moisture content, moisture uptake, drug assay and drug content uniformity). The main factors affecting mechanical properties were plasticizer to film former ratio and drying temperature. Dissolution rate was found to be sensitive to air flow rate during drying and plasticizer to film former ratio. Data were analyzed for elucidating interactions between different variables, rank ordering the critical materials attributes (CMA) and critical process parameters (CPP), and for providing a predictive model for the process. Results suggested that plasticizer to film former ratio and process controls on drying are critical to manufacture LMT ODF with the desired CQA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Impact of National Ambient Air Quality Standards Nonattainment Designations on Particulate Pollution and Health. (United States)

    Zigler, Corwin M; Choirat, Christine; Dominici, Francesca


    Despite dramatic air quality improvement in the United States over the past decades, recent years have brought renewed scrutiny and uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of specific regulatory programs for continuing to improve air quality and public health outcomes. We employ causal inference methods and a spatial hierarchical regression model to characterize the extent to which a designation of "nonattainment" with the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 2005 causally affected ambient PM2.5 and health outcomes among over 10 million Medicare beneficiaries in the Eastern United States in 2009-2012. We found that, on average across all retained study locations, reductions in ambient PM2.5 and Medicare health outcomes could not be conclusively attributed to the nonattainment designations against the backdrop of other regional strategies that impacted the entire Eastern United States. A more targeted principal stratification analysis indicates substantial health impacts of the nonattainment designations among the subset of areas where the designations are estimated to have actually reduced ambient PM2.5 beyond levels achieved by regional measures, with noteworthy reductions in all-cause mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and respiratory tract infections. These findings provide targeted evidence of the effectiveness of local control measures after nonattainment designations for the 1997 PM2.5 air quality standard.

  17. Design and Development of a Nearable Wireless System to Control Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Lighting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone


    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the project “open source smart lamp” aimed at designing and developing a smart object able to manage and control the indoor environmental quality (IEQ of the built environment. A first version of this smart object, built following a do-it-yourself (DIY approach using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, and techniques of additive manufacturing, allows the adjustment of the indoor thermal comfort quality (ICQ, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. As is well known, the IEQ is a holistic concept including indoor air quality (IAQ, indoor lighting quality (ILQ and acoustic comfort, besides thermal comfort. The upgrade of the smart lamp bridges the gap of the first version of the device providing the possibility of interaction with the air exchange unit and lighting system in order to get an overview of the potential of a nearable device in the management of the IEQ. The upgraded version was tested in a real office equipped with mechanical ventilation and an air conditioning system. This office was occupied by four workers. The experiment is compared with a baseline scenario and the results show how the application of the nearable device effectively optimizes both IAQ and ILQ.

  18. Design and Development of a Nearable Wireless System to Control Indoor Air Quality and Indoor Lighting Quality. (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Galanos, Theodore; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo


    The article describes the results of the project "open source smart lamp" aimed at designing and developing a smart object able to manage and control the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of the built environment. A first version of this smart object, built following a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, and techniques of additive manufacturing, allows the adjustment of the indoor thermal comfort quality (ICQ), by interacting directly with the air conditioner. As is well known, the IEQ is a holistic concept including indoor air quality (IAQ), indoor lighting quality (ILQ) and acoustic comfort, besides thermal comfort. The upgrade of the smart lamp bridges the gap of the first version of the device providing the possibility of interaction with the air exchange unit and lighting system in order to get an overview of the potential of a nearable device in the management of the IEQ. The upgraded version was tested in a real office equipped with mechanical ventilation and an air conditioning system. This office was occupied by four workers. The experiment is compared with a baseline scenario and the results show how the application of the nearable device effectively optimizes both IAQ and ILQ.

  19. Design verification of the CANFLEX fuel bundle - quality assurance requirements for mechanical flow testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, P.; Oldaker, I.E.; Chung, C.H.; Suk, H.C.


    As part of the design verification program for the new fuel bundle, a series of out-reactor tests was conducted on the CANFLEX 43-element fuel bundle design. These tests simulated current CANDU 6 reactor normal operating conditions of flow, temperature and pressure. This paper describes the Quality Assurance (QA) Program implemented for the tests that were run at the testing laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Korea Atomic energy Research Institute (KAERI). (author)

  20. Quality-by-design approach for the development of telmisartan potassium tablets. (United States)

    Oh, Ga-Hui; Park, Jin-Hyun; Shin, Hye-Won; Kim, Joo-Eun; Park, Young-Joon


    A quality-by-design approach was adopted to develop telmisartan potassium (TP) tablets, which were bioequivalent with the commercially available Micardis ® (telmisartan free base) tablets. The dissolution pattern and impurity profile of TP tablets differed from those of Micardis ® tablets because telmisartan free base is poorly soluble in water. After identifying the quality target product profile and critical quality attributes (CQAs), drug dissolution, and impurities were predicted to be risky CQAs. To determine the exact range and cause of risks, we used the risk assessment (RA) tools, preliminary hazard analysis and failure mode and effect analysis to determine the parameters affecting drug dissolution, impurities, and formulation. The range of the design space was optimized using the face-centered central composite design among the design of experiment (DOE) methods. The binder, disintegrant, and kneading time in the wet granulation were identified as X values affecting Y values (disintegration, hardness, friability, dissolution, and impurities). After determining the design space with the desired Y values, the TP tablets were formulated and their dissolution pattern was compared with that of the reference tablet. The selected TP tablet formulated using design space showed a similar dissolution to that of Micardis ® tablets at pH 7.5. The QbD approach TP tablet was bioequivalent to Micardis ® tablets in beagle dogs.

  1. Design of water quality monitoring networks with two information scenarios in tropical Andean basins. (United States)

    Bastidas, Juan Carlos; Vélez, Jorge Julián; Zambrano, Jeannette; Londoño, Adela


    Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km 2 watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km 2 watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River). Monitoring design for the undocumented basin incorporated mathematical expressions for physical, anthropological, and historical factors-and was based on clear objectives for diagnosis and intervention of water pollution. Network redesign identified network redundancy, which resulted in a 64% reduction in the number of water quality monitoring stations along the channel, and a 78% reduction of stations throughout the basin. Most tropical drainage basins throughout the world have little to no prior water quality data. But even in well-studied drainage basins like the Chinchiná River, which is among the most thoroughly studied basins in Colombia, redesign of historical and existing monitoring networks will become a standard tool to advance the restoration of polluted surface waters, not only in Colombia, but also throughout the world.

  2. Design of a quality assurance system in the nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rojas Palacios, L.


    A)For the first time a project on nuclear fuel fabrication is going to be lead in this country. For this reason the work is oriented to establish a quality assurance system for the different stages of fuel fabrication. C) The work of this thesis was developed first by means of an analysis of quality philosophies of Deming, Ishikawa, Juran and Crosby from which several important points were stracted to be used in the designed quality system. Metrology and normalization are so important for quality control that a study of them is made considering definitions, unit systems and type of errors (for Metrology) as well as standards for quality systems, qualification, destructive and non destructive tests, shipment, packing for nuclear power plants. With the standards as a basis, the working strategy for the system was reached, as well as the design of control cards and the design of documents for inspection control, personnel and its documentation and finally the diagrams for each one of the fabrication stages

  3. Analytical Quality by Design Approach to Test Method Development and Validation in Drug Substance Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. V. S. S. Raman


    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industry has been emerging rapidly for the last decade by focusing on product Quality, Safety, and Efficacy. Pharmaceutical firms increased the number of product development by using scientific tools such as QbD (Quality by Design and PAT (Process Analytical Technology. ICH guidelines Q8 to Q11 have discussed QbD implementation in API synthetic process and formulation development. ICH Q11 guidelines clearly discussed QbD approach for API synthesis with examples. Generic companies are implementing QbD approach in formulation development and even it is mandatory for USFDA perspective. As of now there is no specific requirements for AQbD (Analytical Quality by Design and PAT in analytical development from all regulatory agencies. In this review, authors have discussed the implementation of QbD and AQbD simultaneously for API synthetic process and analytical methods development. AQbD key tools are identification of ATP (Analytical Target Profile, CQA (Critical Quality Attributes with risk assessment, Method Optimization and Development with DoE, MODR (method operable design region, Control Strategy, AQbD Method Validation, and Continuous Method Monitoring (CMM. Simultaneous implementation of QbD activities in synthetic and analytical development will provide the highest quality product by minimizing the risks and even it is very good input for PAT approach.

  4. Designing relevant biochars to revitalize soil quality: Current status and advances (United States)

    Chemical and physical properties of biochars can be designed to improve specific soil quality issues. In order to make appropriate biochar selections, evaluations are required of different feedstocks, pyrolysis conditions, and gross biochar particle sizes. We conducted laboratory soil incubations us...

  5. 78 FR 40015 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants... (United States)


    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; District of Columbia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units AGENCY: Environmental... negative declaration for hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerator (HMIWI) units within the District of...

  6. 77 FR 3389 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants... (United States)


    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, State of West Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units, Plan Revision... final action to approve a revision to the West Virginia hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerator...

  7. 78 FR 40087 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants... (United States)


    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; District of Columbia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units AGENCY: Environmental...) section 111(d)/129 negative declaration for the District of Columbia for hospital/medical/infectious waste...

  8. 75 FR 73967 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants... (United States)


    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants, State of Delaware; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative Declaration... Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  9. 75 FR 73996 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants... (United States)


    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; State of Delaware; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator (HMIWI) Units, Negative Declaration... Resources and Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER...

  10. 77 FR 3422 - Approval and Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants... (United States)


    ... Promulgation of State Air Quality Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; State of West Virginia; Control of Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Units, Plan Revision... revision to the West Virginia hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerator (HMIWI) Section 111(d)/ 129...

  11. Experimental Designs and Psychometric Techniques for the Study of Ride Quality (United States)


    A major variable in both the cost of any new transportation system and rider acceptance of the system is the ride quality of its vehicles. At this time, there exists no set of objective criteria which would allow the transportation system designer to...

  12. Quality Matters™: An Educational Input in an Ongoing Design-Based Research Project (United States)

    Adair, Deborah; Shattuck, Kay


    Quality Matters (QM) has been transforming established best practices and online education-based research into an applicable, scalable course level improvement process for the last decade. In this article, the authors describe QM as an ongoing design-based research project and an educational input for improving online education.

  13. Designing socially sound poultry farming : matching hen ethology, farm management and landscape quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.


    In order to receive a licence to produce, poultry farmers have to take into account societal demands, among others: animal welfare, healthy working conditions for the workers and landscape quality. A way to reach a combination of these goals is to create a design for the poultry house and outdoor

  14. Incorporating Total Quality Management in an Engineering Design Course. Report 5-1993. (United States)

    Wilczynski, V.; And Others

    One definition of creativity is the conviction that each and every existing idea can be improved. It is proposed that creativity in an engineering design process can be encouraged by the adoption of Total Quality Management (TQM) methods based on a commitment to continuous improvement. This paper addresses the introduction and application of TQM…

  15. Standards Based Design: Teaching K-12 Educators to Build Quality Online Courses (United States)

    Quiroz, René E.; Ritter, Nicola L.; Li, Yun; Newton, Rhonda C.; Palkar, Trupti


    The number of online courses, programs, and schools are growing exponentially in K-12 education. Given the unique nature of online courses and the distinct skills necessary to create a quality online course, it is essential that effective professional development be provided for teachers designing online courses. Online courses need to be of the…

  16. Design Factors Influencing Quality of Building Projects in Nigeria: Consultants' Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukumon Oyedele


    Full Text Available Various factors identified from the literature that caninfluence quality of building projects in Nigeria have beenstudied by means of questionnaire survey sent to architects,engineers and quantity surveyors in the industry. From atotal response of 107 consultants, the importance of eachfactor was obtained via severity and frequency responsesof the factors. Data analysis includes comparisons ofranking among consultants using severity, frequency andimportance indexes, correlation analysis, and percentagerank agreement factor (PRAF to measure the agreement inthe importance ranking among the consultants.Correlation results between the professionals are architects/quantity surveyors (0.75, architects/engineers (0.21 ,and engineers/quantity surveyors (0.24. The percentagerank agreement factor (PRAF shows that the five mostimportant factors affecting quality are 'design changes'(78.9%; 'inadequate involvement of other professionalsduring the design stage' (78.9%; 'insufficient andunrealistic constraints of project cost' (71.1 %; 'poor levelof commitment to quality improvement among designprofessionals' (63.2%; and 'making design decisions oncost and not value of work' (55.3%. The results of this studywould provide feedback for the clients, project and qualitymangers and all the consultants in the industry, so thateffective management of quality can be ensured from theconceptual-design stage of the project.

  17. An Electronic Service Quality Reference Model for Designing E-Commerce Websites Which Maximizes Customer Satisfaction (United States)

    Shaheen, Amer N.


    This research investigated Electronic Service Quality (E-SQ) features that contribute to customer satisfaction in an online environment. The aim was to develop an approach which improves E-CRM processes and enhances online customer satisfaction. The research design adopted mixed methods involving qualitative and quantitative methods to…

  18. Design of video quality metrics with multi-way data analysis a data driven approach

    CERN Document Server

    Keimel, Christian


    This book proposes a data-driven methodology using multi-way data analysis for the design of video-quality metrics. It also enables video- quality metrics to be created using arbitrary features. This data- driven design approach not only requires no detailed knowledge of the human visual system, but also allows a proper consideration of the temporal nature of video using a three-way prediction model, corresponding to the three-way structure of video. Using two simple example metrics, the author demonstrates not only that this purely data- driven approach outperforms state-of-the-art video-quality metrics, which are often optimized for specific properties of the human visual system, but also that multi-way data analysis methods outperform the combination of two-way data analysis methods and temporal pooling. .

  19. Quality function deployment QFD: benefits and limitations when applied to designing myoelectric prosthesis hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Sofía Olaya Escobar


    Full Text Available Quality, cost and time spent in developing products have a direct impact on a company's productivity, market share and profitability. Greater attention must be paid to quality and quicker responses made as customers become more aware of satisfying their longings. This means that a company must be first in delivering a product or service which customers desire if ti wishes to gain and maintain market share. A company's market share and profit margin will depend on the balance and optimisation achieved between quality, cost and time. It is thus important to implant a method like Quality Function Deployment (QFD leading to planning product development during eartly design stages and consequently establish such equilibrium. This article's purpose is to present benefits and limitations regarding QFD; one should be aware of them and QFD development when identifying the most viable to be applied according to each company's inherent characteristics.

  20. Application of quality by design concepts in the development of fluidized bed granulation and tableting processes. (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Medarevic, Djordje; Krstic, Marko; Djuric, Zorica; Ibric, Svetlana


    This study illustrates the application of experimental design and multivariate data analysis in defining design space for granulation and tableting processes. According to the quality by design concepts, critical quality attributes (CQAs) of granules and tablets, as well as critical parameters of granulation and tableting processes, were identified and evaluated. Acetaminophen was used as the model drug, and one of the study aims was to investigate the possibility of the development of immediate- or extended-release acetaminophen tablets. Granulation experiments were performed in the fluid bed processor using polyethylene oxide polymer as a binder in the direct granulation method. Tablets were compressed in the laboratory excenter tablet press. The first set of experiments was organized according to Plackett-Burman design, followed by the full factorial experimental design. Principal component analysis and partial least squares regression were applied as the multivariate analysis techniques. By using these different methods, CQAs and process parameters were identified and quantified. Furthermore, an in-line method was developed to monitor the temperature during the fluidized bed granulation process, to foresee possible defects in granules CQAs. Various control strategies that are based on the process understanding and assure desired quality attributes of the product are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Detailed design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System for commuter aircraft (United States)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent E.; Downing, David R.


    The design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is documented. The RQAS is designed for a Cessna 402B, an 8 passenger prop twin representative to this class of aircraft. The purpose of the RQAS is the reduction of vertical and lateral accelerations of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The detailed design of the hardware (the aircraft modifications, the Ride Quality Instrumentation System (RQIS), and the required computer software) is examined. The aircraft modifications, consisting of the dedicated control surfaces and the hydraulic actuation system, were designed at Cessna Aircraft by Kansas University-Flight Research Laboratory. The instrumentation system, which consist of the sensor package, the flight computer, a Data Acquisition System, and the pilot and test engineer control panels, was designed by NASA-Langley. The overall system design and the design of the software, both for flight control algorithms and ground system checkout are detailed. The system performance is predicted from linear simulation results and from power spectral densities of the aircraft response to a Dryden gust. The results indicate that both accelerations are possible.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko D. Jovanović


    Full Text Available Quality of product design, which is expected from manufacturers on world market these days, could be provided exclusively by integral approach to product design. Such approach aims to achievement of optimal design solution of product, which is in line with a number of requirements, conditions and limitations of functionality, technology, market and usage. Only those manufacturers who are able to provide such approach to product design have prospective on market. This paper deals with a case study of neglect of integral approach to product design and its consequencies, in order to spread awareness of necessity of its adoption. Scope of this case study is focused on bridge crane whose working vibrations are meant to be potential cause of occupational desease of spinal column of crane operator.

  3. Best of failure analysis of turbomachinery components. Highlights from two decades' of laboratory practice; Best of Schadensanalyse an Turbomaschinen. Die Highlights aus 20 Jahren Laborpraxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidel, Andreas; Cagliyan, Erhan; Gaedicke, Tobias; Giller, Madleine; Hartanto, Vincentius; Kramm, Christine; Riesenbeck, Susanne; Ullrich, Thomas; Wallich, Sebastian; Woehl, Eric [Siemens AG, Power and Gas, Berlin (Germany). Werkstoffprueflabor


    In this contribution, the most interesting and educational failure cases are presented that the author came across during his over twenty years of laboratory practice as manager of the Materials Testing Laboratory of the Berlin Gas Turbine Plant of Siemens' Power and Gas Division. The case studies are presented and categorised in accordance with VDI Guideline 3822, the German failure analyst's guide to the subject of how to organise and run a root cause failure analysis. An effort was made to have each of the main four categories of failure causes represented, namely failures due to mechanical loading, corrosive failures, failures due to thermal loading, and tribological failures. Case studies include turbomachinery components that failed due to tensile overload, stress corrosion cracking, intergranular corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, hot cracking, fretting, erosion, and galling. Affected components include valves, retaining rings, tubing and piping, burners, rotor disks, lifting lugs, and casings. Some of the presented cases were published in the new section ''Failure Analysis'' of Practical Metallography between October 2011 and the present time. Others were oral presentations at the Metallography conferences and at the annual failure analysis conferences ''VDI Jahrestagung Schadensanalyse'', held during that time. The focus of discussion of the failure cases in this paper is the metallurgical evaluation of failure causes. This is the approach taken in many small and industrial laboratories. A holistic approach of a failure case, which includes calculation and simulation methods such as finite element analysis, and which also implies a knowledge of the service stresses intended by design as well as the actual loading situation of the failed part, is not the aim of this contribution.

  4. Design and implementation of pay-for-quality in primary healthcare: A case study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi


    Full Text Available Background The common methods of payment to healthcare providers such as capitation and salary are not designed to be stimulation for high quality healthcare. The pay-for -quality (P4Q programs are designed to provide the financial incentives to the service providers in order to improve quality of services based on specified criteria. Aims This study describes the design and implementation of a P4Q program in the primary healthcare (PHc in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Methods The present study is a case study that describes the process of designing and implementing the P4Q program in PHC in East-Azerbaijan province in 2015. To design the P4Q program, after identifying core components of the program through literature review and Focus Group Discussion (FGD, final decision about each component was made by achieving consensus from a panel of recognised experts in the area of PHc. Altogether two FGD and seven expert panel sessions were hold in EAPHC in order to design the P4Q program. Results Key components of P4Q program were selected by qualitative studies and the results were categorized in five headings including P4Q formula, quality measures, payment strategy, data reporting and performance evaluation. The formula consists of five elements including fixed payment, individual, team and organization performance and managerial appraisal. A total of 37 measures, which covers the domains of quality of PHc, human resource development and responsibility were selected. ‘Improvement’ and ‘absolute level of measures’ were selected as the payment strategy. The methods of data reporting included valid questionnaire, organization’s documents and medical records. The final P4Q program was used for paying incentives to all primary health care providers in public health centres affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Conclusion Designing and implementing the P4Q program led to a shift in paying the incentives to healthcare providers

  5. Application of the Quality by Design Approach to the Freezing Step of Freeze-Drying: Building the Design Space. (United States)

    Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto


    The present work shows a rational method for the development of the freezing step of a freeze-drying cycle. The current approach to the selection of freezing conditions is still empirical and non-systematic, thus resulting in poor robustness of control strategy. The final aim of this work is to fill this gap, describing a rational procedure, based on mathematical modelling, for properly choosing the freezing conditions. Mechanistic models are used for the prediction of temperature profiles during freezing and dimension of ice crystals being formed. Mathematical description of the drying phase of freeze-drying is also coupled with results obtained by freezing models, thus providing a comprehensive characterization of the lyophilization process. In this framework, deep understanding of the phenomena involved is required, and, according to the Quality by Design approach, this knowledge can be used to build the design space. The step by step procedure for building the design space for freezing is thus described and examples of applications are provided. The calculated design space is validated upon experimental data and we show that it allows easy control of the freezing process and fast selection of appropriate operating conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Testing the quality of images for permanent magnet desktop MRI systems using specially designed phantoms. (United States)

    Qiu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guozhu; Min, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Pengcheng


    Our aim was to measure the performance of desktop magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems using specially designed phantoms, by testing imaging parameters and analysing the imaging quality. We designed multifunction phantoms with diameters of 18 and 60 mm for desktop MRI scanners in accordance with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) report no. 28. We scanned the phantoms with three permanent magnet 0.5 T desktop MRI systems, measured the MRI image parameters, and analysed imaging quality by comparing the data with the AAPM criteria and Chinese national standards. Image parameters included: resonance frequency, high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast object detectability, slice thickness, geometrical distortion, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and image uniformity. The image parameters of three desktop MRI machines could be measured using our specially designed phantoms, and most parameters were in line with MRI quality control criterion, including: resonance frequency, high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast object detectability, slice thickness, geometrical distortion, image uniformity and slice position accuracy. However, SNR was significantly lower than in some references. The imaging test and quality control are necessary for desktop MRI systems, and should be performed with the applicable phantom and corresponding standards.

  7. A design of wireless sensor networks for a power quality monitoring system. (United States)

    Lim, Yujin; Kim, Hak-Man; Kang, Sanggil


    Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator.

  8. A Design of Wireless Sensor Networks for a Power Quality Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggil Kang


    Full Text Available Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator.

  9. The Influence of the Design of Web Survey Questionnaires on the Quality of Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Ganassali


    Full Text Available he first objective of this article is to propose a conceptual framework of the effects of on-line questionnaire design on the quality of collected responses. Secondly, we present the results of an experiment where different protocols have been tested and compared in a randomised design using the basis of several quality indexes. Starting from some previous categorizations, and from the main factors identified in the literature, we first propose an initial global framework of the questionnaire and question characteristics in a web survey, divided into five groups of factors. Our framework was built to follow the response process successive stages of the contact between the respondent and the questionnaire itself. Then, because it has been studied in the survey methodology literature in a very restricted way, the concept of `response quality' is discussed and extended with some more `qualitative' criteria that could be helpful for researchers and practitioners, in order to obtain a deeper assessment of the survey output. As an experiment, on the basis of the factors chosen as major characteristics of the questionnaire design, eight versions of a questionnaire related to young people's consumption patterns were created. The links to these on-line questionnaires were sent in November 2005 to a target of 10,000 young people. The article finally presents the results of our study and discusses the conclusions. Very interesting results come to light; especially regarding the influence of length, interaction and question wording dimensions on response quality. We discuss the effects of Web-questionnaire design characteristics on the quality of data.

  10. Implementation of Quality by Design for Formulation of Rebamipide Gastro-retentive Tablet. (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Myung; Seo, Jeong-Woong; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Chun-Woong; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Eun-Seok


    The purpose of the present study was to develop a rebamipide (RBM) gastro-retentive (GR) tablet by implementing quality by design (QbD). RBM GR tablets were prepared using a sublimation method. Quality target product profile (QTPP) and critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the RBM GR tablets were defined according to the preliminary studies. Factors affecting the CQAs were prioritized using failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). Design space and optimum formulation were established through a mixture design. The validity of the design space was confirmed using runs within the area. The QTPP of the RBM GR tablets was the orally administered GR tablet containing 300 mg of RBM taken once daily. Based on the QTPP, dissolution rate, tablet friability, and floating property were chosen as CQAs. According to the risk assessment, the amount of sustained-release agent, sublimating material, and diluent showed high-risk priority number (RPN) values above 40. Based on the RPN, these factors were further investigated using mixture design methodology. Design space of formulations was depicted as an overlaid contour plot and the optimum formulation to satisfy the desired responses was obtained by determining the expected value of each response. The similarity factor (f2) of the release profile between predicted response and experimental response was 89.463, suggesting that two release profiles are similar. The validity of the design space was also confirmed. Consequently, we were able to develop the RBM GR tablets by implementing the QbD concept. These results provide useful information for development of tablet formulations using the QbD.

  11. Statistical thinking and knowledge management for quality-driven design and manufacturing in pharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Korakianiti, Evdokia; Rekkas, Dimitrios


    The purpose of this article is to present the evolution of quality principles and how they have been implemented in the pharmaceutical industry. The article discusses the challenges that the FDA PAT Guidance and the ICH Q8, Q9 and Q10 Guidelines present to industry and provides a comprehensive overview of the basic tools that can be used to effectively build quality into products. The principles of the design of experiments, the main tools for statistical process analysis and control, and the requisite culture change necessary to facilitate statistical, knowledge-based management are also addressed.

  12. Developing a quality by design approach to model tablet dissolution testing: an industrial case study. (United States)

    Yekpe, Ketsia; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Bataille, Bernard; Gosselin, Ryan; Sharkawi, Tahmer; Simard, Jean-Sébastien; Cournoyer, Antoine


    This study applied the concept of Quality by Design (QbD) to tablet dissolution. Its goal was to propose a quality control strategy to model dissolution testing of solid oral dose products according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The methodology involved the following three steps: (1) a risk analysis to identify the material- and process-related parameters impacting the critical quality attributes of dissolution testing, (2) an experimental design to evaluate the influence of design factors (attributes and parameters selected by risk analysis) on dissolution testing, and (3) an investigation of the relationship between design factors and dissolution profiles. Results show that (a) in the case studied, the two parameters impacting dissolution kinetics are active pharmaceutical ingredient particle size distributions and tablet hardness and (b) these two parameters could be monitored with PAT tools to predict dissolution profiles. Moreover, based on the results obtained, modeling dissolution is possible. The practicality and effectiveness of the QbD approach were demonstrated through this industrial case study. Implementing such an approach systematically in industrial pharmaceutical production would reduce the need for tablet dissolution testing.

  13. Quantifying the Impact of Feedstock Quality on the Design of Bioenergy Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar


    Full Text Available Logging residues, which refer to the unused portions of trees cut during logging, are important sources of biomass for the emerging biofuel industry and are critical feedstocks for the first-type biofuel facilities (e.g., corn-ethanol facilities. Logging residues are under-utilized sources of biomass for energetic purposes. To support the scaling-up of the bioenergy industry, it is essential to design cost-effective biofuel supply chains that not only minimize costs, but also consider the biomass quality characteristics. The biomass quality is heavily dependent upon the moisture and the ash contents. Ignoring the biomass quality characteristics and its intrinsic costs may yield substantial economic losses that will only be discovered after operations at a biorefinery have begun. This paper proposes a novel bioenergy supply chain network design model that minimizes operational costs and includes the biomass quality-related costs. The proposed model is unique in the sense that it supports decisions where quality is not unrealistically assumed to be perfect. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is proven by assessing a case study in the state of Tennessee, USA. The results demonstrate that the ash and moisture contents of logging residues affect the performance of the supply chain (in monetary terms. Higher-than-target moisture and ash contents incur in additional quality-related costs. The quality-related costs in the optimal solution (with final ash content of 1% and final moisture of 50% account for 27% of overall supply chain cost. Based on the numeral experimentation, the total supply chain cost increased 7%, on average, for each additional percent in the final ash content.

  14. Downstream processing from hot-melt extrusion towards tablets: A quality by design approach. (United States)

    Grymonpré, W; Bostijn, N; Herck, S Van; Verstraete, G; Vanhoorne, V; Nuhn, L; Rombouts, P; Beer, T De; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C


    Since the concept of continuous processing is gaining momentum in pharmaceutical manufacturing, a thorough understanding on how process and formulation parameters can impact the critical quality attributes (CQA) of the end product is more than ever required. This study was designed to screen the influence of process parameters and drug load during HME on both extrudate properties and tableting behaviour of an amorphous solid dispersion formulation using a quality-by-design (QbD) approach. A full factorial experimental design with 19 experiments was used to evaluate the effect of several process variables (barrel temperature: 160-200°C, screw speed: 50-200rpm, throughput: 0.2-0.5kg/h) and drug load (0-20%) as formulation parameter on the hot-melt extrusion (HME) process, extrudate and tablet quality of Soluplus ® -Celecoxib amorphous solid dispersions. A prominent impact of the formulation parameter on the CQA of the extrudates (i.e. solid state properties, moisture content, particle size distribution) and tablets (i.e. tabletability, compactibility, fragmentary behaviour, elastic recovery) was discovered. The resistance of the polymer matrix to thermo-mechanical stress during HME was confirmed throughout the experimental design space. In addition, the suitability of Raman spectroscopy as verification method for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentration in solid dispersions was evaluated. Incorporation of the Raman spectroscopy data in a PLS model enabled API quantification in the extrudate powders with none of the DOE-experiments resulting in extrudates with a CEL content deviating>3% of the label claim. This research paper emphasized that HME is a robust process throughout the experimental design space for obtaining amorphous glassy solutions and for tabletting of such formulations since only minimal impact of the process parameters was detected on the extrudate and tablet properties. However, the quality of extrudates and tablets can be optimized

  15. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys. (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Bedrick, Edward J; Pagano, Marcello


    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we compare these latter cluster LQAS methodologies and provide recommendations for choosing a cluster LQAS design. We compare technical differences in the three methods and determine situations in which the choice of method results in a substantively different design. We consider two different aspects of the methods: the distributional assumptions and the clustering parameterization. Further, we provide software tools for implementing each method and clarify misconceptions about these designs in the literature. We illustrate the differences in these methods using vaccination and nutrition cluster LQAS surveys as example designs. The cluster methods are not sensitive to the distributional assumptions but can result in substantially different designs (sample sizes) depending on the clustering parameterization. However, none of the clustering parameterizations used in the existing methods appears to be consistent with the observed data, and, consequently, choice between the cluster LQAS methods is not straightforward. Further research should attempt to characterize clustering patterns in specific applications and provide suggestions for best-practice cluster LQAS designs on a setting-specific basis.

  16. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Hund

    Full Text Available Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we compare these latter cluster LQAS methodologies and provide recommendations for choosing a cluster LQAS design. We compare technical differences in the three methods and determine situations in which the choice of method results in a substantively different design. We consider two different aspects of the methods: the distributional assumptions and the clustering parameterization. Further, we provide software tools for implementing each method and clarify misconceptions about these designs in the literature. We illustrate the differences in these methods using vaccination and nutrition cluster LQAS surveys as example designs. The cluster methods are not sensitive to the distributional assumptions but can result in substantially different designs (sample sizes depending on the clustering parameterization. However, none of the clustering parameterizations used in the existing methods appears to be consistent with the observed data, and, consequently, choice between the cluster LQAS methods is not straightforward. Further research should attempt to characterize clustering patterns in specific applications and provide suggestions for best-practice cluster LQAS designs on a setting-specific basis.

  17. Development of rapidly dissolving pellets within the Quality by Design approach. (United States)

    Karatzas, A A; Politis, S N; Rekkas, D M


    The purpose of this study was the development of novel, fast disintegrating, effervescent pellets by employing the direct pelletization technique as a single step process. In line with the Quality by Design (QbD) regulatory framework, statistical experimental design was extensively applied to correlate significant formulation and process variables with the critical quality attributes of the product. Pellets were studied with regards to sphericity, size and size distribution. In contrast to the existing multiparticulate platforms, this development integrated only water-soluble excipients to facilitate the multifunctional use of the final dosage form. The application of a screening fractional factorial design augmented to a full factorial design set the roadmap for the rational selection of the composition and process parameters, revealing in parallel the positive contribution of the powder feeder on the CQAs, when the critical process and formulation factors were properly adjusted. The response surface methodology was exploited for the final process optimization phase, which allowed the construction of appropriate mathematical models connecting the input variables and the CQAs under study. The implementation of the desirability function, lead to the optimum formulation and process settings for the production of pellets with narrow size distribution and geometric mean diameter of approximately 800 μm. In conclusion, using a lean approach supported by design of experiments (DoE) techniques within the QbD framework, a novel multifunctional formulation platform has been developed.

  18. Quality indicators for the design and implementation of simulation experiences: a Delphi study. (United States)

    Arthur, Carol; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Kable, Ashley


    Simulation is widely used in nursing education. Previous studies have examined the impact of simulation on the acquisition of psychomotor skills, knowledge, critical thinking and non-technical skills such as teamwork. Challenges associated with the integration of simulation into nursing curricula have also been examined, however only limited research addresses the most effective simulation design and teaching strategies for quality educational outcomes. This paper reports a Delphi study that synthesises expert opinion on the pedagogical principles and teaching strategies that are indicative of quality in simulation based learning activities. The resultant set of Quality Indicator Statements is presented and opportunities for application and further research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality uncertainty and allocation of decision rights in the European protected designation of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Martino


    Full Text Available The paper considers some issue in the governance of the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO. The PDO systems are the outcomes of both farmers and consumers expectations and connect the valorisation of the agricultural and rural resources of given territories to the quality of typical products. A critical point in the governance of the PDO systems is represented by the connection between the quality strategies and the uncertainty. The paper argues that the PDO systems can be thought of as strictly coordinated subsystems in which the ex post governance play a critical role in coping with quality uncertainty. The study suggests that the society's inducements given raise to complex organizational systems in which the allocation of decision rights to PDO collective organizations play a major role. The empirical analysis is carried out by examining ten Italian PDO systems in order to identify the decision rights allocated.

  20. Quality at the source (QATS) system design under six sigma methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, F.; Ballasteros, I.; Maricalva, J.


    One of the main objectives in the manufacturing of fuel assemblies, is to fulfill the customer expectations with a product that assures its reliability during its stay in the NPP. By mean of the QATS System design under 6-Sigma methodology, all the customer requirements are included in the product specifications and drawings. Product characteristics and process variables are classified and process capability is evaluated. All this information permits to identify CTQ's (Critical to Quality) product characteristics and process variables, and to define a quality system (QATS) based in the process and on-line characteristics control handled by the manufacturing workers. At the end, this system ensures a continuous product quality improvement, and a strong commitment with the customer requirements. (author)

  1. IEA Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao


    with heat recovery systems, one of the next focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or to make it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it has no have adverse effects...... on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Annex 68, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy...... the hygrothermal parameters, the chemical conditions, ventilation and the wellbeing of occupants. A flagship outcome of the project is anticipated to be a guidebook on design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings to achieve high IAQ with smallest possible energy consumption....

  2. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao


    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...... studies. A flagship outcome of the project will be a guidebook on design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings to achieve high IAQ with least possible energy consumption. The paper illustrates the working program of each of these activities....

  3. Quality Improvement Project to Improve Patient Satisfaction With Pain Management: Using Human-Centered Design. (United States)

    Trail-Mahan, Tracy; Heisler, Scott; Katica, Mary


    In this quality improvement project, our health system developed a comprehensive, patient-centered approach to improving inpatient pain management and assessed its impact on patient satisfaction across 21 medical centers. Using human-centered design principles, a bundle of 6 individual and team nursing practices was developed. Patient satisfaction with pain management, as measured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems pain composite score, increased from the 25th to just under the 75th national percentile.

  4. Design, construction and quality control of resistive-Micromegas anode boards for the ATLAS experiment (United States)

    Kuger, F.; Iengo, P.


    For the upcoming upgrade of the forward muon stations of the ATLAS detector, 1280m2 of Micromegas chambers have to be constructed. The industrialization of anode board production is an essential precondition. Design and construction methods of these boards have been optimized towards mass production. In parallel quality control procedures have been developed and established. The first set of large size Micromegas anode boards has finally been produced in industries and demonstrates the feasibility of the project on full-scale.

  5. Quality Control in Survey Design: Evaluating a Survey of Educators’ Attitudes Concerning Differentiated Compensation


    Kelly D. Bradley; Michael Peabody; Shannon O. Sampson


    This study utilized the Rasch model to assess the quality of a survey instrument designed to measure attitudes of administrators and teachers concerning a differentiated teacher compensation program piloted in Kentucky.  Researchers addressing potentially contentious issues should ensure their methods stand up to rigorous criticism.  The results indicate that the rating scale does not function as expected, with items being too easy to endorse.  Future iterations of this survey should be revis...

  6. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High-Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mullen, Nasim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California.

  7. Quality Management, Environmental Management and Organizational Design in the Hotel Industry: A Qualitative Study


    Tarí, Juan-José; Molina-Azorín, José F.; López-Gamero, María D.; Pereira-Moliner, Jorge; Pertusa-Ortega, Eva


    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the paper analyzes the relationship between quality management and environmental management and their effects on hotel performance. Second, the article examines the relationship between these two management systems and organizational design. The paper uses an exploratory, qualitative approach based on interviews with managers and experts in the hotel industry. Based on a content analysis of interviews, the results lead to several propositions. Spec...

  8. Indoor air quality handbook: for designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this handbook is to assist designers, builders, and users of energy efficient residences to achieve the goals of energy efficiency and maintenance of high indoor air quality simultaneously. The handbook helps in identifying and controlling potential problems of indoor air quality. It identifies sources and discusses effective ways to decrease concentrations of air contaminants. It focuses on indoor air quality in both single and multifamily energy-efficient residences. Information about commercial structures such as hospitals and office buildings is presented when it also applies to residences. Basic concepts of contaminants and their concentrations, sources and removal mechanisms, contaminant distribution, heat transfer, and air exchange are discussed. The effects of the building system on indoor air quality are examined. The effects of the external environment, building envelope, environmental control systems, interior design, furnishings, and inhabitants on the emission, dispersion, and removal of indoor air contaminants as well as direct and indirect effects of energy-efficient features are discussed. The health effects of specific air contaminants and the health standards developed for them are examined. Available methods for predicting and measuring contaminants and for evaluating human responses are discussed. Methods and equipment available for the control of indoor air pollution once the contaminants have been identified are also evaluated. The potential legal aspects, including regulatory intervention and civil lawsuits, of failure to evaluate and control indoor air pollution are discussed. A list of references, a glossary, and an index are also included

  9. Shift work and quality of sleep: effect of working in designed dynamic light. (United States)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Markvart, Jakob; Holst, René; Thomsen, Tina Damgaard; Larsen, Jette West; Eg, Dorthe Maria; Nielsen, Lisa Seest


    To examine the effect of designed dynamic light on staff's quality of sleep with regard to sleep efficiency, level of melatonin in saliva, and subjective perceptions of quality of sleep. An intervention group working in designed dynamic light was compared with a control group working in ordinary institutional light at two comparable intensive care units (ICUs). The study included examining (1) melatonin profiles obtained from saliva samples, (2) quality of sleep in terms of sleep efficiency, number of awakenings and subjective assessment of sleep through the use of sleep monitors and sleep diaries, and (3) subjective perceptions of well-being, health, and sleep quality using a questionnaire. Light conditions were measured at both locations. A total of 113 nurses (88 %) participated. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding personal characteristics, and no significant differences in total sleep efficiency or melatonin level were found. The intervention group felt more rested (OR 2.03, p = 0.003) and assessed their condition on awakening as better than the control group (OR 2.35, p = 0.001). Intervention-ICU nurses received far more light both during day and evening shifts compared to the control-ICU. The study found no significant differences in monitored sleep efficiency and melatonin level. Nurses from the intervention-ICU subjectively assessed their sleep as more effective than participants from the control-ICU.

  10. The 18 basic requirement of quality assurance for American design NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliza, Ana Rosa


    On April 17th, 1969, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published in the U.S. Federal Register (FR), Volume 34, Number 73, a proposed amendment to 10CFR50 to insert Appendix B - 'Quality assurance criteria for Nuclear Power Plant'. This Appendix was officially approved on June 27th, 1970 and published in the FR, volume 35, number 125. Appendix B is the Quality Assurance document for U.S. nuclear facilities. This document establishes eighteen basic requirements (BR) to design, construction, manufacture and operation of structures, systems and components (SSC) related to safety. The 18 BR describe 'what' shall be done, but not 'how' to do. In order to standardize the actions of nuclear facilities during 10 CFR 50 App B implementation, the industry has developed some documents, the main ones are: ASME NQA-1 (Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications) and the series ANSI N 45.2 (Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities). Both documents are approved by the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). The NRC is the licensing body of U.S. nuclear facilities. In Brazil, the licensing body is CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear). This paper describes the 18 BR for American Designed Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), applicable to Angra-1 NPP. (author)

  11. Coupled, parabolic-marching method for the prediction of three-dimensional viscous incompressible turbomachinery flows. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirtley, K.R.


    A new coupled parabolic-marching method was developed to solve the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for turbulent turbomachinery flows. Earlier space-marching methods were analyzed to determine their global stability during multiple passes of the computational domain. The methods were found to be unconditionally unstable even when an extra equation for the pressure, namely the Poisson equation for the pressure, was used between passes of the domain. Relaxation of one constraint during the solution process was found to be necessary for the successful calculation of a complex flow.Thus, the method of pseudocompressibility was introduced into the partially parabolized Navier-Stokes equation to relax the mass flow constraint during a forward-marching integration as well as globally stable during successive passes of the domain. With consistent discretization, the new method was found to be convergent.

  12. Numerical simulation and modeling of the unsteady flow in turbomachinery; Numerische Simulation und Modellierung der instationaeren Stroemung in Turbomaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eulitz, F.


    The present work is devoted to the development of a computational technique for the Reynolds-averaged, time-resolved simulation of the undsteady, viscous flow in turbomachinery. After identification of model criteria, a novel turbulence and transition model, based on the extension of a one-equation turbulence model, is derived in order to incorporate the Reynolds-averaged effects of boundary-layer transition in unsteady turbomachinery flow. Preserving low numerical dissipation and dispersion errors, the explicit time integration method is accelerated through a time-consistent two-grid approach to allow for an efficient use of parallel computers. The model development is carefully assessed by considering various test cases of steady and unsteady turbine flow with various transition modes or of transonic channel flow with self-excited shock-oscillation. The application of the computational technique is demonstrated for the case of a single-stage, transonic compressor component and of a three-stage low-pressure turbine at low Reynolds-number operation. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wird ein numerisches Verfahren zur zeitgenauen Simulation der instationaeren, reibungsbehafteten Stroemung in Turbomaschinen auf Grundlage der Reynolds-gemittelten Navier-Stokes-Gleichungen entwickelt. Nach Aufarbeitung der Modellierungsanforderungen wird basierend auf einem Eingleichungsturbulenzmodell ein neuartiges Turbulenz- und Transitionsmodell abgeleitet, mit dem verschiedene Transitionsmoden der instationaeren Turbomaschinenstroemung in ihrer Reynolds-gemittelten Wirkung beschrieben werden koennen. Durch einen zeitkonsistenten Zweigitter-Ansatz wird die Zeitintegration fuer Navier-Stokes-Simulationen auf Parallelrechnern unter Wahrung geringer numerischer Phasen- und Amplitudenfehler beschleunigt. Die Entwicklung wird an einer Reihe von Testfaellen, zur stationaeren und instationaeren Turbinenstroemung mit unterschiedlicher Grenzschichttransition oder zur transsonischen

  13. Designing for movement quality in exergames: lessons learned from observing senior citizens playing stepping games. (United States)

    Skjæret, Nina; Nawaz, Ather; Ystmark, Kristine; Dahl, Yngve; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Svanæs, Dag; Vereijken, Beatrix


    Exergames are increasingly used as an exercise intervention to reduce fall risk in elderly. However, few exergames have been designed specifically for elderly, and we lack knowledge about the characteristics of the movements elicited by exergames and thereby about their potential to train functions important for fall risk reduction. This study investigates game elements and older players' movement characteristics during stepping exergames in order to inform exergame design for movement quality in the context of fall preventive exercise. Fourteen senior citizens (mean age 73 years ± 5.7, range 65 - 85) played 3 stepping exergames in a laboratory. Each of the exergames was described with respect to 7 game elements (physical space, sensing hardware technology, game graphics and sound, model of user, avatar/mapping of movements, game mechanism and game narrative). Five movement characteristics (weight shift; variation in step length, speed, and movement direction; visual independency) were scored on a 5-point Likert scale based on video observations of each player and each game. Disagreement between raters was resolved by agreement. Differences in scores for the 3 exergames were analyzed with a multivariate one-way ANOVA. The Mole received the highest sum score and the best score on each of the 5 movement characteristics (all p values movement direction (both p values movement quality positively as indexed by multiple weight shifts and variation in stepping size, direction, and speed. Furthermore, players' movements improved when playing speed-affected game progression and when the game narrative was related to a natural context. Comparing differences in game elements with associated differences in game movement requirements provides valuable insights about how to design for movement quality in exergames. This provided important lessons for the design of exergames for fall-preventive exercise in senior citizens and illustrates the value of including analyses of

  14. Integrating Kano’s Model into Quality Function Deployment for Product Design: A Comprehensive Review (United States)

    Ginting, Rosnani; Hidayati, Juliza; Siregar, Ikhsan


    Many methods and techniques are adopted by some companies to improve the competitiveness through the fulfillment of customer satisfaction by enhancement and improvement the product design quality. Over the past few years, several researcher have studied extensively combining Quality Function Deployment and Kano’s model as design techniques by focusing on translating consumer desires into a product design. This paper presents a review and analysis of several literatures that associated to the integration methodology of Kano into the QFD process. Various of international journal articles were selected, collected and analyzed through a number of relevant scientific publications. In-depth analysis was performed, and focused in this paper on the results, advantages and drawbacks of its methodology. In addition, this paper also provides the analysis that acquired in this study related to the development of the methodology. It is hopedd this paper can be a reference for other researchers and manufacturing companies to implement the integration method of QFD- Kano for product design.

  15. Design of the data quality control system for the ALICE O2 (United States)

    von Haller, Barthélémy; Lesiak, Patryk; Otwinowski, Jacek; ALICE Collaboration


    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A major upgrade of the experiment is planned for 2019-20. In order to cope with a 100 times higher data rate and with the continuous readout of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), it is necessary to upgrade the Online and Offline computing to a new common system called O2. The online Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) and the offline Quality Assurance (QA) are critical aspects of the data acquisition and reconstruction software chains. The former intends to provide shifters with precise and complete information in order to quickly identify and overcome problems while the latter aims at providing good quality data for physics analyses. DQM and QA typically involve the gathering of data, its distributed analysis by user-defined algorithms, the merging of the resulting objects and their visualization. This paper discusses the architecture and the design of the data Quality Control system that regroups the DQM and QA. In addition it presents the main design requirements and early results of a working prototype. A special focus is put on the merging of monitoring objects generated by the QC tasks. The merging is a crucial and challenging step of the O2 system, not only for QC but also for the calibration. Various scenarios and implementations have been made and large-scale tests carried out. This document presents the final results of this extensive work on merging. We conclude with the plan of work for the coming years that will bring the QC to production by 2019.

  16. Designing Excellence and Quality Model for Training Centers of Primary Health Care: A Delphi Method Study. (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar-Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Shahgoli, Javad; Rahbar, Mohammad Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Ahadi, Hamid-Reza; Azami-Aghdash, Saber


    Excellence and quality models are comprehensive methods for improving the quality of healthcare. The aim of this study was to design excellence and quality model for training centers of primary health care using Delphi method. In this study, Delphi method was used. First, comprehensive information were collected using literature review. In extracted references, 39 models were identified from 34 countries and related sub-criteria and standards were extracted from 34 models (from primary 39 models). Then primary pattern including 8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards was developed as a Delphi questionnaire and evaluated in four stages by 9 specialists of health care system in Tabriz and 50 specialists from all around the country. Designed primary model (8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards) were concluded with 8 criteria, 45 sub-criteria, and 192 standards after 4 stages of evaluations by specialists. Major criteria of the model are leadership, strategic and operational planning, resource management, information analysis, human resources management, process management, costumer results, and functional results, where the top score was assigned as 1000 by specialists. Functional results had the maximum score of 195 whereas planning had the minimum score of 60. Furthermore the most and the least sub-criteria was for leadership with 10 sub-criteria and strategic planning with 3 sub-criteria, respectively. The model that introduced in this research has been designed following 34 reference models of the world. This model could provide a proper frame for managers of health system in improving quality.

  17. Design of a tuned mass damper for high quality factor suspension modes in Advanced LIGO. (United States)

    Robertson, N A; Fritschel, P; Shapiro, B; Torrie, C I; Evans, M


    We discuss the requirements, design, and performance of a tuned mass damper which we have developed to damp the highest frequency pendulum modes of the quadruple suspensions which support the test masses in the two advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The design has to meet the requirements on mass, size, and level of damping to avoid unduly compromising the suspension thermal noise performance and to allow retrofitting of the dampers to the suspensions with minimal changes to the existing suspensions. We have produced a design satisfying our requirements which can reduce the quality factor of these modes from ∼500 000 to less than 10 000, reducing the time taken for the modes to damp down from several hours to a few minutes or less.

  18. Improving the process quality using statistical design of experiments: a case study. (United States)

    Antony, J; Roy, R K


    A technique known as Statistical design of experiments is a powerful technique for process characterization, optimization, and modeling. It has been widely accepted in manufacturing industry for improving product performance and reliability, process capability, and yield. This article illustrates the application of statistical design of experiments based on the Taguchi approach in a certain company that manufactures electromagnetic clutch coils. The objective of the study was to improve the quality of the existing process and thereby achieve heightened customer satisfaction for the product. An eight-trial experiment was conducted with the aim of reducing the number of rejects from the process. The expected savings per month was estimated to be over $11,500. The results of the study have provided a greater stimulus for the wider application of statistical design of experiments in other core processes within the company.

  19. Credible checklists and quality questionnaires a user-centered design method

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Chauncey


    Credible Checklists and Quality Questionnaires starts off with an examination of the critical but commonly overlooked checklist method. In the second chapter, questionnaires and surveys are discussed. Asking questions sounds simple, but the hard truth is that asking questions (and designing questionnaires) is a difficult task. This chapter discusses being mindful of the choice of words, order of questions and how early questions influence later questions, answer scales and how they impact the user response, questionnaire design, and much more. The final chapter provides examples of some common questionnaires (both free and fee-based) for assessing the usability of products. After reading this book, readers will be able to use these user design tools with greater confidence and certainty.

  20. Performance based building design to ensure building quality: from standardization to LEAN construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Zanchetta


    Full Text Available The discipline of architectural design is influenced by the standardization activities concerning the construction and the development of tools for the coordination in the design process such as Building Information Modeling. The two disciplines contribute reciprocally to the achievement of the overall quality of the building process. To do so, it is strategic to develop researches on the following aspects: - definition of frameworks for the connection of the building system requirements to space and technology unit that defines it; - development of an inventory of interoperable and compliant technical solutions; - implementation of the discipline of model checking for project validation; and methodologies of comparison between intervention models; - implementation of collaborative environments for verification of compatibility between programs and regulations in order to identify the optimal design solution.

  1. Universal Design as a Booster for Housing Quality and Architectural Practice. (United States)

    Denizou, Karine


    Norwegian central government has for the last decade increasingly focused on universal design. Fundamental changes in the Norwegian building code and corresponding regulations in 2010 give an apparently clear framework for the implementation of accessibility and universal design. However, it seems that neither increased awareness of accessibility requirements and universal design, nor compliance with the building code guarantees improvement of housing quality and usability. The Norwegian regulations have gone further in the direction of performance requirements than most other countries. This applies to all types of requirements, including requirements for usability, functionality and accessibility. Hardly any specifications are to be found in the regulations. Ideally, this lack of specifications should give designers the opportunity to develop innovative answers and hence to respond to different contexts and needs. Still, many architects and builders ask for clear specifications, in order to simplify and speed up design processes and make control of solutions easier. Many architects understand guidelines as minimum requirements, and are thus reproducing the identical solutions without considering the context and the needs of the users. They see accessibility as another regulatory pressure and requirements as restrictions rather than positive incentives. However, there are examples of designers who have internalised the regulatory framework and thus are able to create and integrate inclusive design in their daily work. Based on recent research conducted by SINTEF Building and Infrastructure and financed by the Norwegian State Housing Bank, this paper presents examples of practice where dwellings have been developed within a framework of universal design. Focus of the research has been on the approach of the design team and their understanding and use of the regulatory framework in order to create better homes in dialogue with the building authorities. Main

  2. Re-design of apple pia packaging using quality function deployment method (United States)

    Pulungan, M. H.; Nadira, N.; Dewi, I. A.


    This study was aimed to identify the attributes for premium apple pia packaging, to determine the technical response to be carried out by Permata Agro Mandiri Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) and to design a new apple pie packaging acceptable by the SME. The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method was employed to improve the apple pia packaging design, which consisted of seven stages in data analysis. The results indicated that whats attribute required by the costumers include graphic design, dimensions, capacity, shape, strength, and resistance of packaging. While, the technical responses to be conducted by the SMEs were as follows: attractive visual packaging designs, attractive colors, clear images and information, packaging size dimensions, a larger capacity packaging (more product content), ergonomic premium packaging, not easily torn, and impact resistant packaging materials. The findings further confirmed that the design of premium apple pia packaging accepted by the SMES was the one with the capacity of ten apple pia or 200 g weight, and with rectangular or beam shape form. The packaging material used was a duplex carton with 400 grammage (g/m2), the outer part of the packaging was coated with plastic and the inside was added with duplex carton. The acceptable packaging dimension was 30 cm x 5 cm x 3 cm (L x W x H) with a mix of black and yellow color in the graphical design.

  3. Green design application on campus to enhance student’s quality of life (United States)

    Tamiami, H.; Khaira, F.; Fachrudin, A.


    Green design becomes an important thing to applied in the building. Green building will provide comfortability and enhance Quality of Life (QoL) for the users. The purpose of this research is to analyze how green design application on campus to enhance student’s QoL. This research conducted in three campuses which located in North Sumatera Province, namely Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU), Universitas Negeri Medan (Unimed) and Universitas Medan Area (UMA) which have a lot of vegetation, open space, and multi-mass buildings. This research compared the green design application to QoL from three universities. Green design in this research that become independent variables focus on the energy efficiency and conservation (EEC), indoor health and comfort (IHC) and building environment management (BEM) with dependent variable is QoL. This research uses quantitative methods with questionnaire survey techniques. The population is students from the three universities with the sample of each University is 50 samples. The analysis uses multiple regression analysis. The results show that green design application may enhance QoL of students. The campus should have a good green design application to enhance QoL of students and give them comfortability.

  4. A quality by design approach using artificial intelligence techniques to control the critical quality attributes of ramipril tablets manufactured by wet granulation. (United States)

    Aksu, Buket; Paradkar, Anant; de Matas, Marcel; Özer, Özgen; Güneri, Tamer; York, Peter


    Quality by design (QbD) is an essential part of the modern approach to pharmaceutical quality. This study was conducted in the framework of a QbD project involving ramipril tablets. Preliminary work included identification of the critical quality attributes (CQAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs) based on the quality target product profiles (QTPPs) using the historical data and risk assessment method failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). Compendial and in-house specifications were selected as QTPPs for ramipril tablets. CPPs that affected the product and process were used to establish an experimental design. The results thus obtained can be used to facilitate definition of the design space using tools such as design of experiments (DoE), the response surface method (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The project was aimed at discovering hidden knowledge associated with the manufacture of ramipril tablets using a range of artificial intelligence-based software, with the intention of establishing a multi-dimensional design space that ensures consistent product quality. At the end of the study, a design space was developed based on the study data and specifications, and a new formulation was optimized. On the basis of this formulation, a new laboratory batch formulation was prepared and tested. It was confirmed that the explored formulation was within the design space.

  5. Presentation of a quality organisation pattern for the design, manufacturing and implementation of complex measuring chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervault, V.; Piguet, M.


    The EFMT (Experience Feedback, Measures-Tests) branch of EDF Research and Development Division designs and installs instrumentation systems for power generation sites. These systems include either testing (thermal and mechanical operation surveys) or process control instruments. The context in which instrumentation is developed and used has much varied during the past few years from both technical and organisational viewpoint. An instrumentation system consists of a set of measuring chains associated to communication supports and an acquisition software; the technical knowledge involved are highly diversified: measurement, field bus, computing, data processing... Customers now include quality requirements in their specifications and often make reference to standards of the EN 29000 series. The EFMT Branch has defined a quality approach applicable to instrumentation field which aims at ensuring the technical success (namely to attain the expected characteristics) and meeting customers' quality requirements. This approach based upon project management techniques defines the design implementation and operating process phases. It emphasizes a global approach to instrumentation while promoting the communication between the partners in a project. This paper presents the whole approach and underlines its critical phases: users' requirements, testing and acceptance procedures. (authors). 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. A new roadmap for biopharmaceutical drug product development: Integrating development, validation, and quality by design. (United States)

    Martin-Moe, Sheryl; Lim, Fredric J; Wong, Rita L; Sreedhara, Alavattam; Sundaram, Jagannathan; Sane, Samir U


    Quality by design (QbD) is a science- and risk-based approach to drug product development. Although pharmaceutical companies have historically used many of the same principles during development, this knowledge was not always formally captured or proactively submitted to regulators. In recent years, the US Food and Drug Administration has also recognized the need for more controls in the drug manufacturing processes, especially for biological therapeutics, and it has recently launched an initiative for Pharmaceutical Quality for the 21st Century to modernize pharmaceutical manufacturing and improve product quality. In the biopharmaceutical world, the QbD efforts have been mainly focused on active pharmaceutical ingredient processes with little emphasis on drug product development. We present a systematic approach to biopharmaceutical drug product development using a monoclonal antibody as an example. The approach presented herein leverages scientific understanding of products and processes, risk assessments, and rational experimental design to deliver processes that are consistent with QbD philosophy without excessive incremental effort. Data generated using these approaches will not only strengthen data packages to support specifications and manufacturing ranges but hopefully simplify implementation of postapproval changes. We anticipate that this approach will positively impact cost for companies, regulatory agencies, and patients, alike. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Helping patients choose: how to improve the design of comparative scorecards of hospital quality. (United States)

    Fasolo, Barbara; Reutskaja, Elena; Dixon, Anna; Boyce, Tammy


    To understand how the public understand comparative quality information as presented on NHS Choices, the Department of Health website in England. We explore what quality information people value, how they understand different measures of quality, and their preferences for different types of information. Seven focus groups were conducted. Participants' preferences for types of information changed at different stages of the focus groups. Participants attempted to compare hospitals option-wise, building up an overall picture of the hospital's performance. Faced with abundance of conflicting criteria, participants attempted to make trade offs, but found it difficult. Older and less numerate participants used summative measures to overcome this difficulty. Some indicators were poorly understood and the multiplicity of formats and labels was confusing. Missing data were mistrusted. The presentation of information affects what information people value, how they understand and process it. The design of scorecards is crucial in order to support use of scorecards for informed patient choice. We offer guidelines for changing presentation of comparative quality information with the aim to improve its use by patients when choosing between hospitals, especially online. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-board concept - a scenario based approach for supporting product quality and life cycle oriented design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Antony John; Hertzum, Morten


    , creating a shared quality mindset amongst design-ers, and developing creativity and synthesis in product design. The appropriateness of scenarios for supporting life cycle oriented design will be ar-gued and preliminary results from early experi-mentation will be presented.Initial results lead us......This paper will describe the multi-board concept, which is a working approach for supporting life cycle oriented design and product quality. Aspects of this concept include construction of a common working environment where multiple display boards depict scenarios of the product life cycle...... to believe that the multi-board concept promises to be a useful means of communication amongst the design team. We be-lieve that it fosters a thorough understanding of life cycle events, which, in turn, inspires the design of innovative products of the highest quality....

  9. Analysis of the macroscopic mechanisms produced by rotor/stator interactions in turbomachinery; Analyse des mecanismes macroscopiques produits par les interactions rotot/stator dans les turbomachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callot, St.


    Unsteady phenomena produced by the relative motion between fixed and moving rows in turbomachinery is characterized by different scales in space and time. From the numerical point of view, taking into account those effects requires new models. The purpose of this work is a better understanding of the unsteady mechanisms in a multistage turbomachinery. In order to cast of any restricting hypothesis over the spatial periodicities, numerical simulations are operated over the whole circumference of each row. In the single stage case, it is shown that the unsteady flow presents a phase-lagged periodic condition which may be described by the double Fourier decomposition proposed by Tyler and Sofrin. The spatial modes precise the interaction between rows and a comparison is made with the Adamczyk's decomposition. The numerical simulation of a one and a half stage brings an extension of the analysis of the interactions in a multistage machine. (author)

  10. Application of the non lineal dynamics to the design of processes in the administration of quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domech More, Jesus


    The design of processes is a fundamental pillar inside a System of Total Administration of Quality. The great majority of the problems that you/they happen in an organization - 85% - they are caused by the processes, not for the employees. When the processes are not well designed the problems arise: errors, waste, losses of time, delays, duplication take place of the work, flaws of teams and in the worst cases, the client's dissatisfaction. This influences negatively in the Costs of Non conformity. In the work he/she thinks about the possibility to apply the techniques from the non lineal dynamics to the one design of processes like a complex but realer tool that the statistical techniques. As study object the process of production of lead containers is used (means of shielding) that are used to carry radioisotopes in the System of Health of Cuba. He/she intends a model of non lineal dynamics of the process that allows to evaluate what so predictable it is the chosen system (entrance Control to the matter prevails) and which the one will be behavior average of the same one based in the complex interactions that arise in the relationships client-supplier, operative-machine, supplier-supplier, operative-environment and operative-method. Each one of these interactions constitutes a source of uncertainty in the one. I process and he/she has a weight on the temporary dynamics of the characteristic of real quality (homogeneity of the shielding) in the process


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Sawant


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the use of CAE for improving some of the quality dimensions of the business process, such as reliability and quick response to market. To establish this, a software based approach is developed coupled with interface with CAD environment by using RAD technology. This system would help enable the rapid design and generation of model of a critical component like the rotor of a submersible pump. The parametric design of the critical component i.e. mo tor is established and software solution for the same is developed. The dimensions of the rotor are critical and interdependent. The flexibility thus obtained using the software will facilitate fast design of a submersible pump. This case study has been carried at M/s. Vira Pumps, Kolhapur, India. The company manufactures and exports different types of submersible pumps and motors to many countries. The company is working in this area from last 35 years. Being an ISO 9001 certified company there is an on going continual improvement process in all its areas of operation. ISO 9001:2008 specifies requirements for a quality management system where an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product that meets customer requirements, and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the quick reply and improved reliability of the product with CAE.

  12. Design and Analysis of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Fed Unified Power Quality Conditioner (United States)

    Dash, Santanu Kumar; Ray, Pravat Kumar


    This paper proposes the integration scheme and operation of the Unified Power Quality conditioner (UPQC) with Photovoltaic source as distributed generations for power quality improvement. Thus, it provides a novel PV-grid integration configuration and prevents any adverse situation related to current or voltage in power system. Voltage related issues are maintained by the series part of UPQC and the current related issues are handles by shunt part of the UPQC. The various operation modes of PV-UPQC schemes are broadly classified according to the direction of power flow, (i) Interconnected mode, (ii) Islanding mode. PV-UPQC has advantage over the conventional UPQC scheme as it has developed the capability to compensate the voltage interruption problems Control algorithms for shunt and series part of the UPQC is implemented. Development of the proposed configuration has been designed in the laboratory with control algorithm implemented in dSPACE and results are discussed.

  13. CADDS [Computer-aided Drafting and Design System] brings quality and precision to the Canadian Maple [research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, D.


    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) has found that using the ''intelligent'' Computer-Aided Drafting and Design System (CADDS) helped address design problems at an early stage and led to productivity gains of around 50 per cent. Other bonuses were the quality and precision of the designs and documents produced. Its application to the MAPLE research reactor project is described. (author)

  14. Quality by design case study: an integrated multivariate approach to drug product and process development. (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Kaul, Goldi; Cai, Chunsheng; Chatlapalli, Ramarao; Hernandez-Abad, Pedro; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Nagi, Arwinder


    To facilitate an in-depth process understanding, and offer opportunities for developing control strategies to ensure product quality, a combination of experimental design, optimization and multivariate techniques was integrated into the process development of a drug product. A process DOE was used to evaluate effects of the design factors on manufacturability and final product CQAs, and establish design space to ensure desired CQAs. Two types of analyses were performed to extract maximal information, DOE effect & response surface analysis and multivariate analysis (PCA and PLS). The DOE effect analysis was used to evaluate the interactions and effects of three design factors (water amount, wet massing time and lubrication time), on response variables (blend flow, compressibility and tablet dissolution). The design space was established by the combined use of DOE, optimization and multivariate analysis to ensure desired CQAs. Multivariate analysis of all variables from the DOE batches was conducted to study relationships between the variables and to evaluate the impact of material attributes/process parameters on manufacturability and final product CQAs. The integrated multivariate approach exemplifies application of QbD principles and tools to drug product and process development.

  15. Virtual classroom design for Blended Learning: Human Development and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Morales Intriago


    Full Text Available The explosive development in all areas of knowledge has evolved the scenarios of generation and transfer of knowledge, in terms of media, channels and supports, parallel to this appear new resources that optimize the processes of vocational training, whether formal, non-formal and informal. The EVA or Virtual Learning Environments evolve the traditional way of teaching a Blended environment, which is, combining classroom education with online training processes. The present work designs a training process set in Blended Learning for the subject Human Development and Quality of Life, summarizing in 8 steps the construction of the virtual and face-to-face environment, where starting from the common to the specific, the system is described systemically. The methodology applied in the present work was of Bibliographic and documentary type. To achieve the proposed objective, a systemic design was designed that divided the research into two stages: the exploration stage and the design stage. In the exploration stage, a large bibliographical collection was revised and in the design stage the virtual classroom model of the subject was constructed. Product of the investigation is a guide that guides step by step in the construction of virtual environments set in the Blended Learning.

  16. Using implementation tools to design and conduct quality improvement projects for faster and more effective improvement. (United States)

    Ovretveit, John; Mittman, Brian; Rubenstein, Lisa; Ganz, David A


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to enable improvers to use recent knowledge from implementation science to carry out improvement changes more effectively. It also highlights the importance of converting research findings into practical tools and guidance for improvers so as to make research easier to apply in practice. Design/methodology/approach This study provides an illustration of how a quality improvement (QI) team project can make use of recent findings from implementation research so as to make their improvement changes more effective and sustainable. The guidance is based on a review and synthesis of improvement and implementation methods. Findings The paper illustrates how research can help a quality project team in the phases of problem definition and preparation, in design and planning, in implementation, and in sustaining and spreading a QI. Examples of the use of different ideas and methods are cited where they exist. Research limitations/implications The example is illustrative and there is little limited experimental evidence of whether using all the steps and tools in the one approach proposed do enable a quality team to be more effective. Evidence supporting individual guidance proposals is cited where it exists. Practical implications If the steps proposed and illustrated in the paper were followed, it is possible that quality projects could avoid waste by ensuring the conditions they need for success are in place, and sustain and spread improvement changes more effectively. Social implications More patients could benefit more quickly from more effective implementation of proven interventions. Originality/value The paper is the first to describe how improvement and implementation science can be combined in a tangible way that practical improvers can use in their projects. It shows how QI project teams can take advantage of recent advances in improvement and implementation science to make their work more effective and sustainable.

  17. Application of the QFD as a design approach to ensure comfort in using hand tools : Can the design team complete the House of Quality appropriately?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Morel, K.P.N.; Eikelenberg, N.L.W.; Vink, P.


    Quality Function Deployment is proposed as an effective design method to integrate ergonomics needs and comfort into hand tool design because it explicitly addresses the translation of customer needs into engineering characteristics. A crucial step during QFD concerns the linking of engineering

  18. [Design and implementation of a questionnaire to evaluate the dietary quality of school meals]. (United States)

    de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, M Alicia; Ojeda Sainz, Berta; Carreño Enciso, Laura; de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Redondo del Río, Paz


    The school canteen provides a substantial proportion of the daily nutritional intake for many children. There are nutritional standards for school meals, however, it is still difficult to assess the dietary quality. To design a questionnaire for assessing the dietary quality of school meals, quickly and easily. A dietary questionnaire (COMES) was designed on the basis of the current recommendations. COMES consist of 15 items related to the food-frequency and to other characteristics of school meals. Then, a longitudinal prospective study was performed in order to analyze, with COMES, 36 school meals of 4 catering companies from Castilla y León during the academic years 2006-2007 to 2010-2011. Differences in dietary quality menus according to the management system of catering companies (in situ vs. transported) were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. The significance was reached at p products was higher to the recommended in 97,2%, 94,4% and 27,8% of the analyzed menus, respectively. By contrast, the frequency intake of fish, fruit, legume, and vegetable garnishes were lower to the recommended in 83,3%, 94,4%, 91,7% and 75% of menus, respectively. Nevertheless, recommendations established by our consensus document for school meals are complied for all food groups, except for dairy and fruits. The variety of foods and culinary techniques were appropriate. No significant differences were found in the COMES score according to the management system (p=0,87), although catering system provides higher dietary quality. A new tool to assess quickly and easily the nutritional quality of school meals has been proposed. The assessment of the frequency intake of the most problematic foods for schoolchildren with this scale is much more demanding than the current recommendations. Even so, menus analyzed showed an acceptable quality in terms of variety of foods and culinary techniques, although milk frequency in the menus was excessive at the expense

  19. Application of Devices and Systems Designed for Power Quality Monitoring and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Gil


    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems associated with increasing demands on the equipment and systems for power quality assessment (PQ, installed at power substations. Difficulties are signaled due to current lack of standards defining the test methodology of measuring devices. The necessary device properties and the structure of a large system operated in real time and designed to assess the PQ are discussed. The usefulness of multi-channel analyzers featuring the identification and registration of transients is pointed out. The desirability of synchrophasor assessment implementation and device integration by standard PN-EN 61850 with other SAS devices is also justified.

  20. LLL's Quality Assurance Program and the design of specific systems: Tritium Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.P.


    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory operates a Tritium Handling Facility for several programs. Besides the tritium work for the weapons program, basic research is conducted on all phases of tritium. Additional work is being conducted for the laser fusion program and the controlled thermonuclear program. The Quality Assurance Program for the tritium facility and how it is being implemented on specific tritium handling systems are described. The program is intended to prevent or mitigate the consequences of accidents by rigidly controlling the design, fabrication, procurement, construction and operation of safety-related critical structures, systems, and components of such facilities. (CH)

  1. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 2. Two-stage regulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, C.A.; Frigo, A.A.; Degnan, J.R.


    This UPHS report applies to Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines regulated with gating systems. The first report, however, covered single-stage regulations; this report covers two-stage regulations. Development of a two-stage regulated pump/turbine appears to be attractive because the proposed single-drop UPHS concept requires turbomachinery with a head range of 1000 to 2000 m. With turbomachinery of this range available, the single-drop scheme offers a simple and economic UPHS option. Six different two-stage, top-gated pump/turbines have been analyzed: three that generate 500 MW and three that generate 350 MW. In each capacity, one machine has an operating head of 1000 m, another has a head of 1250 m, and the third has a head of 1500 m. The rated efficiencies of the machines vary from about 90% (1000-m head) to about 88% (1500-m head). Costs in 1978 $/kW for the three 500-MW units are: 20.5 (1000 m), 16.5 (1250 m), and 13.5 (1500 m). Corresponding costs for the three 350-MW units are 23, 18, and 14 $/kW. No major turbomachinery obstacles are foreseen that could hamper development of these pump/turbines. Further model testing and development are needed before building them.

  2. Informational Reinforcement of Students’ Course Design Aimed at Promoting Engineers Training Quality in Technical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Guzanov


    Full Text Available Using the modern information technologies in educational process is regarded as one of the main directions in training the qualified specialists with systematic engineering thinking. The optimum combination of various educational technologies and computerized resources can improve teaching quality and promote students’ professional level. Taking as an example one of the basic technical disciplines of the engineering training curriculum at a technical higher school, the authors describe the computerized technology facilitating the course design. The technology in question - the «Reduktor» courseware - adapts the complex product of Autodesk –AutoCAD for educational purposes. The above program is the enhanced interface of AutoCAD, linked to the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and the reference data library used for designing the reduction gear. The experimental research, based on the qualimetric approach and continuous diagnostic and prognostic monitoring of the key indices of knowledge acquisition, proves the effectiveness of informational reinforcement of students self-dependent work. 

  3. Predicted accommodative response from image quality in young eyes fitted with different dual-focus designs. (United States)

    Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; Amorim-de-Sousa, Ana; González-Méijome, José M


    To investigate the separated and combined influences of inner zone (IZ) diameter and effective add power of dual-focus contact lenses (CL) in the image quality at distance and near viewing, in a functional accommodating model eye. Computational wave-optics methods were used to define zonal bifocal pupil functions, representing the optic zones of nine dual-focus centre-distance CLs. The dual-focus pupil functions were defined having IZ diameters of 2.10 mm, 3.36 mm and 4.00 mm, with add powers of 1.5 D, 2.0 D and 2.5 D (dioptres), for each design, that resulted in a ratio of 64%/36% between the distance and treatment zone areas, bounded by a 6 mm entrance pupil. A through-focus routine was implemented in MATLAB to simulate the changes in image quality, calculated from the Visual Strehl ratio, as the eye with the dual-focus accommodates, from 0 to -3.00 D target vergences. Accommodative responses were defined as the changes in the defocus coefficient, combined with a change in fourth and sixth order spherical aberration, which produced a peak in image quality at each target vergence. Distance viewing image quality was marginally affected by IZ diameter but not by add power. Near image quality obtained when focussing the image formed by the near optics was only higher by a small amount compared to the other two IZ diameters. The mean ± standard deviation values obtained with the three adds were 0.28 ± 0.02, 0.23 ± 0.02 and 0.22 ± 0.02, for the small, medium and larger IZ diameters, respectively. On the other hand, near image quality predicted by focussing the image formed by the distance optics was considerably lower relatively to the other two IZ diameters. The mean ± standard deviation values obtained with the three adds were 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.38 ± 0.00 and 0.54 ± 0.01, for the small, medium and larger IZ diameters, respectively. During near viewing through dual-focus CLs, image quality depends on the diameter of the most inner zone of the CL, while add power

  4. Eco-design of low energy mechanical milling through implementation of quality function deployment and design for sustainability (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Hanif Abd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Selamat, Siti Norhana; Hassan, Mohd Fahrul; Rahim, Abd Khalil Abd; Ahmad, Mohd Fauzi; Ismail, Al Emran; Omar, Badrul; Mokhtar, Mohd Faiz; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Yokoyama, Seiji


    Malaysia as a developing country favor energy demand by years which created mainly from fossil fuel. Unfortunately, the action leads to significant increment in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission that causing the global warming. The most promising mitigation strategy is by deploying Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology where mineral carbonation was identified as the safest method for permanent storage and does not require continuous monitoring. Accordingly, National Green Technology was launched in 2009 to support the growth of green technology development in Malaysia as a carbon mitigation strategy. Thus, this paper aims to propose the development of a conceptual eco-design for Low Energy Mechanical Milling (LEMM). The concept was proposed by using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) tool with combination of sustainability determinants (DFS) namely economic, environmental and social which evaluated using Solidworks 2015 sustainability assessment. The results show the new product targets for LEMM in prior on energy consumption (MJ), selling price (MYR), material cost (MYR), carbon footprint (kg CO2) with weightage of 5.2, 4.2, 3.6 and 3.6 respectively. The implementation of DFS criteria into the QFD promote to reduce material used by 16%, 35% reduction of carbon footprint, 28% less energy consumption, 28% lower air acidification, 77% of water eutrophication declined and increased recyclability by 15%.

  5. Modelling of the meridian flow in nominal and partial flow in axial and helico-centrifugal turbomachinery; Modelisation en regime nominal et partiel de l'ecoulement meridien dans les turbomachines axiales et helicocentrifuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercolino, J.


    In this study, a fast analysis code for the meridian flow inside turbo-machineries has been developed. This code is based on the resolution of the averaged dynamical equations controlling the internal stationary and non-viscous flow in the relative reference frame. A linear combination of momentum equations has been used in the axial and radial directions to avoid the source term of the equations to become singular. The model developed is particularly adapted to the general case of compression machines, i.e.the mixed machines. Starting with the hypothesis of a finite number of blading and assuming an axisymmetric flow, the equations allowing to calculate the blading forces and the simplified kinematics of blade-to-blade flow have been developed. This kinematics takes into consideration the geometrical data supplied by manufacturers or by global design softwares. This last approach ensures a very efficient link in the framework of turbomachine design projects where the blades geometry is introduced in a very simple way for a first optimization approach. The results obtained seem to be very consistent in nominal flow but also in partial flow conditions as shown by the qualitative comparisons with test results. (J.S.)

  6. Mobile Tourism Guide in the Context of Thai National Parks: The Effects of Mobile Design Qualities in TAM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakulmaykee Numtip


    Full Text Available This study aims to predict the level of international tourists’ intention to use MTG in the context of Thai national parks, and investigates the roles of mobile design qualities (content quality, appearance quality, and interaction quality through perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use on intention. The mixed-method via exploratory sequential design is conducted this study. The qualitative approach is started in the first stage then quantitative approach is employed to analyze the large sample size. This study extends the TAM2 with mobile design qualities. The results shows the high level of international tourist’ intention to use MTG. It indicates that the international tourists will intent to the mobile tourism guide (MTG, if the MTG is provided for them. The direct factors of tourists’ intention are perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use, mobile content quality and mobile appearance quality. The most direct effect is mobile content quality. The qualities of content and appearance have the positive roles on perceived usefulness, while the qualities of appearance and interaction have the indirect effects through perceived ease-of-use on tourists’ intention. The proposed model provides the body of knowledge in the context of MTG, especially the factors of international tourists’ intention to use MTG.

  7. The Design of Mechatronics Simulator for Improving the Quality of Student Learning Course in Mechatronics (United States)

    Kustija, J.; Hasbullah; Somantri, Y.


    Learning course on mechatronics specifically the Department of Electrical Engineering Education FPTK UPI still using simulation-aided instructional materials and software. It is still not maximizing students’ competencies in mechatronics courses required to skilfully manipulate the real will are implemented both in industry and in educational institutions. The purpose of this study is to submit a design of mechatronic simulator to improve student learning outcomes at the course mechatronics viewed aspects of cognitive and psychomotor. Learning innovation products resulting from this study is expected to be a reference and a key pillar for all academic units at UPI in implementing the learning environment. The method used in this research is quantitative method with the approach of Research and Development (R and D). Steps being taken in this study includes a preliminary study, design and testing of the design of mechatronic simulator that will be used in the course of mechatronics in DPTE FPTK UPI. Results of mechatronic design simulator which has been in testing using simulation modules and is expected to motivate students to improve the quality of learning good study results in the course of mechatronic expected to be realized.

  8. A design space exploration for control of Critical Quality Attributes of mAb. (United States)

    Bhatia, Hemlata; Read, Erik; Agarabi, Cyrus; Brorson, Kurt; Lute, Scott; Yoon, Seongkyu


    A unique "design space (DSp) exploration strategy," defined as a function of four key scenarios, was successfully integrated and validated to enhance the DSp building exercise, by increasing the accuracy of analyses and interpretation of processed data. The four key scenarios, defining the strategy, were based on cumulative analyses of individual models developed for the Critical Quality Attributes (23 Glycan Profiles) considered for the study. The analyses of the CQA estimates and model performances were interpreted as (1) Inside Specification/Significant Model (2) Inside Specification/Non-significant Model (3) Outside Specification/Significant Model (4) Outside Specification/Non-significant Model. Each scenario was defined and illustrated through individual models of CQA aligning the description. The R(2), Q(2), Model Validity and Model Reproducibility estimates of G2, G2FaGbGN, G0 and G2FaG2, respectively, signified the four scenarios stated above. Through further optimizations, including the estimation of Edge of Failure and Set Point Analysis, wider and accurate DSps were created for each scenario, establishing critical functional relationship between Critical Process Parameters (CPPs) and Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs). A DSp provides the optimal region for systematic evaluation, mechanistic understanding and refining of a QbD approach. DSp exploration strategy will aid the critical process of consistently and reproducibly achieving predefined quality of a product throughout its lifecycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and Development of a Low-Cost, Portable Monitoring Device for Indoor Environment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Tiele


    Full Text Available This article describes the design and development of a low-cost, portable monitoring system for indoor environment quality (IEQ. IEQ is a holistic concept that encompasses elements of indoor air quality (IAQ, indoor lighting quality (ILQ, acoustic comfort, and thermal comfort (temperature and relative humidity. The unit is intended for the monitoring of temperature, humidity, PM2.5, PM10, total VOCs (×3, CO2, CO, illuminance, and sound levels. Experiments were conducted in various environments, including a typical indoor working environment and outdoor pollution, to evaluate the unit’s potential to monitor IEQ parameters. The developed system was successfully able to monitor parameter variations, based on specific events. A custom IEQ index was devised to rate the parameter readings with a simple scoring system to calculate an overall IEQ percentage. The advantages of the proposed system, with respect to commercial units, is associated with better customisation and flexibility to implement a variety of low-cost sensors. Moreover, low-cost sensor modules reduce the overall cost to provide a comprehensive, portable, and real-time monitoring solution. This development facilities researchers and interested enthusiasts to become engaged and proactive in participating in the study, management, and improvement of IEQ.

  10. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody (United States)

    Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Vaziri, Behrouz; Maleknia, Shayan; Heydari, Amir; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun


    Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB) multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44) cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb) titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds. PMID:26480023

  11. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Torkashvand

    Full Text Available Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44 cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  12. Tailoring groundwater quality monitoring to vulnerability: a GIS procedure for network design. (United States)

    Preziosi, E; Petrangeli, A B; Giuliano, G


    Monitoring networks aiming to assess the state of groundwater quality and detect or predict changes could increase in efficiency when fitted to vulnerability and pollution risk assessment. The main purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology aiming at integrating aquifers vulnerability and actual levels of groundwater pollution in the monitoring network design. In this study carried out in a pilot area in central Italy, several factors such as hydrogeological setting, groundwater vulnerability, and natural and anthropogenic contamination levels were analyzed and used in designing a network tailored to the monitoring objectives, namely, surveying the evolution of groundwater quality relating to natural conditions as well as to polluting processes active in the area. Due to the absence of an aquifer vulnerability map for the whole area, a proxi evaluation of it was performed through a geographic information system (GIS) methodology, leading to the so called "susceptibility to groundwater quality degradation". The latter was used as a basis for the network density assessment, while water points were ranked by several factors including discharge, actual contamination levels, maintenance conditions, and accessibility for periodical sampling in order to select the most appropriate to the network. Two different GIS procedures were implemented which combine vulnerability conditions and water points suitability, producing two slightly different networks of 50 monitoring points selected out of the 121 candidate wells and springs. The results are compared with a "manual" selection of the points. The applied GIS procedures resulted capable to select the requested number of water points from the initial set, evaluating the most confident ones and an appropriate density. Moreover, it is worth underlining that the second procedure (point distance analysis [PDA]) is technically faster and simpler to be performed than the first one (GRID + PDA).

  13. Conceptual designs for waste quality checking facilities for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driver, S.; Griffiths, M.; Leonard, C.D.; Smith, D.L.G.


    This report summarises work carried out on the design of facilities for the quality checking of Intermediate and Low Level Radioactive Waste and Hazardous Waste. The procedures used for the quality checking of these categories of waste are summarised. Three building options are considered: a separate LLW facility, a combined facility for LLW and HW and a Waste Quality Checking Facility for the three categories of waste. Budget Cost Estimates for the three facilities are given based on 1991 prices. (author)

  14. Design and methods of the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA), 2013 (United States)

    Garrett, Jessica D.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Nowell, Lisa H.


    During 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Project (NAWQA), in collaboration with the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA), and the EPA Office of Pesticide Programs assessed stream quality across the Midwestern United States. This Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA) simultaneously characterized watershed and stream-reach water-quality stressors along with instream biological conditions, to better understand regional stressor-effects relations. The MSQA design focused on effects from the widespread agriculture in the region and urban development because of their importance as ecological stressors of particular concern to Midwest region resource managers.A combined random stratified selection and a targeted selection based on land-use data were used to identify and select sites representing gradients in agricultural intensity across the region. During a 14-week period from May through August 2013, 100 sites were selected and sampled 12 times for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment. This 14-week water-quality “index” period culminated with an ecological survey of habitat, periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish at all sites. Sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing. Of the 100 sites, 50 were selected for the MSQA random stratified group from 154 NRSA sites planned for the region, and the other 50 MSQA sites were selected as targeted sites to more evenly cover agricultural and urban stressor gradients in the study area. Of the 50 targeted sites, 12 were in urbanized watersheds and 21 represented “good” biological conditions or “least disturbed” conditions. The remaining 17 targeted sites were selected to improve coverage of the agricultural intensity gradient or because of historical data collection to provide temporal context for the

  15. Ecological relevance of current water quality assessment unit designations in impaired rivers (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn


    Managers often nest sections of water bodies together into assessment units (AUs) to monitor and assess water quality criteria. Ideally, AUs represent an extent of waters with similar ecological, watershed, habitat and land-use conditions and no overlapping characteristics with other waters. In the United States, AUs are typically based on political or hydrologic boundaries rather than on ecologically relevant features, so it can be difficult to detect changes in impairment status. Our goals were to evaluate if current AU designation criteria of an impaired water body in southeastern Idaho, USA that, like many U.S. waters, has three-quarters of its mainstem length divided into two AUs. We focused our evaluation in southeastern Idaho's Portneuf River, an impaired river and three-quarters of the river is divided into two AUs. We described biological and environmental conditions at multiple reaches within each AU. We used these data to (1) test if variability at the reach-scale is greater within or among AUs and, (2) to evaluate alternate AU boundaries based on multivariate analyses of reach-scale data. We found that some biological conditions had greater variability within an AU than between AUs. Multivariate analyses identified alternative, 2- and 3-group, AUs that reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the current AU designations in the mainstem Portneuf River contain ecologically distinct sections of river and that the existing AU boundaries should be reconsidered in light of the ecological conditions measured at the reach scale. Variation in biological integrity within designated AUs may complicate water quality and biological assessments, influence management decisions or affect where monitoring or mitigation resources are directed.

  16. Designing Groundwater Monitoring Networks for Regional-Scale Water Quality Assessment: A Bayesian Approach (United States)

    Pinto, M. J.; Wagner, B. J.


    The design of groundwater monitoring networks is an important concern of regional-scale water-quality assessment programs because of the high cost of data collection. The work presented here addresses regional-scale design issues using ground-water simulation and optimization set within a Bayesian framework. The regional-scale design approach focuses on reducing the uncertainty associated with a fundamental quantity: the proportion of a subsurface water resource which exceeds a specified threshold concentration, such as a mandated maximum contaminant level. This proportion is hereafter referred to as the threshold proportion. The goal is to identify optimal or near-optimal sampling designs that reduce the threshold proportion uncertainty to an acceptable level. In the Bayesian approach, there is a probability density function (pdf) associated with the unknown threshold proportion before sampling. This function is known as the prior pdf. The form of the prior pdf, which is dependent on the information available regarding the distribution of water quality within the aquifer system, controls the amount of sampling needed. In the absence of information, the form of the prior pdf is uniform; however, if a ground-water flow and transport model is available, a Monte Carlo analysis of ground-water flow and transport simulations can be used to generate a prior pdf which is non-uniform and which contains the information available regarding solute sources, pathways and transport. After sampling, the prior pdf is conditioned on the sampling data. The conditional distribution is known as the posterior pdf. In most cases there is a reduction in uncertainty associated with conditioning. The reduction in uncertainty achieved after collecting samples can be explored for different combinations of prior pdf distribution and sampling method. Three scenarios are considered: (i) uniform prior pdf with random sampling; (ii) non-uniform prior pdf with random sampling; and (iii) non


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barroso Krause


    Full Text Available The need to produce more sustainable buildings has been influencing the design decisions all over the world. That’s why it is imperative, in Brazil, the development of strategies and method to aid the decision making during the design process, focused on high quality environmental. This paper presents a decision support tool based on the principles of sustainable construction developed by the Project, Architecture and Sustainability Research Group (GPAS of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. The methodology has been developed for the selection of a preliminary design of a laboratory to be built at Rio Technology Park at the University campus. The support provided by GPAS occurred in three stages: the elaboration of the Reference Guide for the competitors, the development of a methodology to evaluate the proposed solutions (based on environmental performance criteria and the assistance of the members of jury in the trial phase. The theoretical framework was based upon the concepts of the bioclimatic architecture, the procedures specified by the certification HQE® (Haute Qualité Environnementale and the method suggested by the ADDENDA® architecture office. The success of this experience points out the possibility to future application in similar cases.

  18. Analytical quality-by-design approach for sample treatment of BSA-containing solutions. (United States)

    Taevernier, Lien; Wynendaele, Evelien; D Hondt, Matthias; De Spiegeleer, Bart


    The sample preparation of samples containing bovine serum albumin (BSA), e.g., as used in transdermal Franz diffusion cell (FDC) solutions, was evaluated using an analytical quality-by-design (QbD) approach. Traditional precipitation of BSA by adding an equal volume of organic solvent, often successfully used with conventional HPLC-PDA, was found insufficiently robust when novel fused-core HPLC and/or UPLC-MS methods were used. In this study, three factors (acetonitrile (%), formic acid (%) and boiling time (min)) were included in the experimental design to determine an optimal and more suitable sample treatment of BSA-containing FDC solutions. Using a QbD and Derringer desirability ( D ) approach, combining BSA loss, dilution factor and variability, we constructed an optimal working space with the edge of failure defined as D <0.9. The design space is modelled and is confirmed to have an ACN range of 83±3% and FA content of 1±0.25%.

  19. Capitalized design of smart medicine box for elderly person based on quality function deployment (QFD) (United States)

    Lestari, Brina Cindy; Dewi, Dyah Santhi; Widodo, Rusminto Tjatur


    The elderly who has a particular disease need to take some medicines in everyday with correct dosages and appropriate by time schedules. However, the elderly frequently forget to take medicines because of their memory weakened. Consequently, the product innovation of elderly healthcare is required for helping elderly takes some medicine more easily. This research aims to develop a smart medicine box by applying quality function deployment method. The first step is identifying elderly requirements through an ethnographic approach by interviewing thirty-two of elderly people as respondents. Then, the second step is translated elderly requirements to technical parameter for designing a smart medicine box. The smart box design is focused on two main requirements which have highest importance rating including alarm reminder for taking medicine and automatic medicine box. Finally, the prototype design has been created and tested by using usability method. The result shown that 90% from ten respondents have positive respond on the feature of smart medicine box. The voice of alarm reminder smart medicine box is easy to understand by elderly people for taking medicines.

  20. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.


    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  1. High-Temperature Solid Lubricants Developed by NASA Lewis Offer Virtually "Unlimited Life" for Oil-Free Turbomachinery (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.


    The NASA Lewis Research Center is capitalizing on breakthroughs in foil air bearing performance, tribological coatings, and computer analyses to formulate the Oil-free Turbomachinery Program. The program s long-term goal is to develop an innovative, yet practical, oil-free aeropropulsion gas turbine engine that floats on advanced air bearings. This type of engine would operate at higher speeds and temperatures with lower weight and friction than conventional oil-lubricated engines. During startup and shutdown, solid lubricant coatings are required to prevent wear in such engines before the self-generating air-lubrication film develops. NASA s Tribology Branch has created PS304, a chrome-oxide-based plasma spray coating specifically tailored for shafts run against foil bearings. PS304 contains silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic (BaF2/CaF2) lubricant additives that, together, provide lubrication from cold start temperatures to over 650 C, the maximum use temperature for foil bearings. Recent lab tests show that bearings lubricated with PS304 survive over 100 000 start-stop cycles without experiencing any degradation in performance due to wear. The accompanying photograph shows a test bearing after it was run at 650 C. The rubbing process created a "polished" surface that enhances bearing load capacity.

  2. Quality Assurance in Higher Education: The Evolution of Systems and Design Ideals. (United States)

    Bogue, E. Grady


    Discussion of quality assurance in colleges and universities looks at theories and definitions of quality; four approaches to quality (traditional peer review, the assessment-and-outcomes movement, the Total Quality Management movement, and accountability and performance indicator reporting); the moral and ethical dimensions of quality; and ideals…

  3. 76 FR 6056 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air... (United States)


    ... Planning Texas. Section, EPA Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202, (214) 665-7242. Monica Morales... monitored air quality data for 2006-2008 indicating a violation of the NAAQS (2006-2008 design value of 48... NAAQS, with a 2007-2009 design value of 40 [micro]g/m\\3\\. In October of 2009, EPA notified the Governor...

  4. Quality Certification, Institutions and Innovation in Local Agro-Food Systems: Protected Designations of Origin of Olive Oil in Spain (United States)

    Canada, Javier Sanz; Vazquez, Alfredo Macias


    This article examines the interrelations between establishment of territorial quality certification systems (Protected Designations of Origin or PDOs), diffusion of innovations through local agro-food chains, and the role of the institutions overseeing geographical designations. Empirical analysis is applied to olive oil PDOs in Spain and entails…

  5. Improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction following the move to single-family room NICU design. (United States)

    Watson, Jo; DeLand, Marion; Gibbins, Sharyn; MacMillan York, Elizabeth; Robson, Kate


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in staff quality of work life and parent satisfaction when a neonatal intensive care unit moved from an open-bay design to a single-room model of care. This descriptive study measured staff quality of work life and family satisfaction before and at 2 time periods after the relocation of a perinatal centre and the introduction of single-family room care. Differences in work life quality and satisfaction were determined using 2-sample t-tests. There were improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction at both time periods following the move. Lessons learned may be of value to other units considering such a move. A neonatal intensive care unit designed to contribute to parental and staff well-being is a model to be considered for future neonatal designs.

  6. Service Quality Robust Design by the Integration of Taguchi Experiments and SERVQUAL Approach in a Travel Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nassibeh janatyan


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to address how robust design of service quality dimensions can be obtained. Service Quality Robust Design has been conducted by the integration of Taguchi Design of Experiments and SERVQUAL approach in Iran Travel Agency. Five basic dimensions of service quality, i.e. reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, tangibles and price have been assumed as control factors. Response factor has been defined as two alternatives i the sum of customer expectations, and ii the sum of service quality gaps. In this investigation assumed that noise factor is not existed. The advantage of this paper is to improve the average and standard deviation simultaneously. Signal to noise ratio has been computed and the desired mix of the levels of service quality dimensions has been addressed. The main findings of this research includes the desired mix of the levels of service quality dimensions based on the sum of customer expectations and the desired mix of the levels of service quality dimensions based on the sum of service quality gaps. Comparing the two sets of findings helps the agency to analyze the cost of attracting new customers or retaining regular customers.

  7. Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals (United States)

    Kilkenny, Carol; Parsons, Nick; Kadyszewski, Ed; Festing, Michael F. W.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Fry, Derek; Hutton, Jane; Altman, Douglas G.


    For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%), to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer reviewers and

  8. Comparison of HTGR fuel design, manufacture and quality control methods between Japan and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xioming; Takahashi, Masashi; Ueta, Shouhei; Sawa, Kazuhiro


    The first-loading fuel for the HTTR was started to fabricate at Nuclear Fuel Industries (NFI) in 1995 and the HTTR reached criticality in 1998. Meanwhile, 10 MW high temperature reactor (HTR-10) was constructed in Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University, and the first-loading fuel was fabricated concurrently. The HTR-10 reached criticality in December 2000. Though fuel type is different, i.e., pin-in-block type for the HTTR and pebble bed type for the HTR-10, the fabrication method of TRISO coated fuel particles is similar to each other. This report describes comparison of fuel design, fabrication process and quality inspection between them. (author)

  9. Design of RF chopper system for improving beam quality in FEL injector with thermionic gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Qin, B.; Tan, P.; Hu, T.; Pei, Y.; Zhang, F.


    For a linac-based Free Electron Laser (FEL), good beam quality largely contributes to the success of the final radiation. An imperfection confronted with the HUST THz-FEL facility is the long beam tail that emerges in the electron gun and exists through the whole beam line. This paper proposes to deploy a chopper system after the electron gun to truncate the beam tails before they enter into the linac. Physical dimensions of the chopper cavity are discussed in detail and we have developed and derived new analytical expressions applying to all frequencies for the optimal design. Also, technical issues of the cavity are considered. Beam dynamic simulation is performed to examine the truncation effect and the results show that more than 78% of the beam tail can be removed effectively, while preserving the emittance and energy spread in acceptable level

  10. Design of slotted high quality factor photonic-crystal nanocavities embedded in electro-optic polymers (United States)

    Nakadai, Masahiro; Konoike, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu


    We improve design quality factors of slotted photonic crystal nanocavities embedded in electro-optic polymers (EOPs), which enables control of resonant wavelengths without the use of light-absorbing free carriers. We form nanocavities by modifying single- and double-slotted line-defect waveguides with lattice-constant modulations analytically determined based on dispersions of the waveguides. A double-slotted nanocavity achieves a fourfold increase in Q factor (36 million) compared to a single-slotted nanocavity with similar modulation of lattice constants. Both structures can realize large concentration of light in the EOP region (50%), and resonant wavelength modulations of ∼0.01% are expected with applied voltage of 2 V.

  11. Application of the QFD as a design approach to ensure comfort in using hand tools: can the design team complete the House of Quality appropriately? (United States)

    Kuijt-Evers, L F M; Morel, K P N; Eikelenberg, N L W; Vink, P


    Quality Function Deployment is proposed as an effective design method to integrate ergonomics needs and comfort into hand tool design because it explicitly addresses the translation of customer needs into engineering characteristics. A crucial step during QFD concerns the linking of engineering characteristics to customer needs in the House of Quality by the design team. It is generally assumed (looking at all the QFD success stories) that design teams can accurately predict the correlations between customer needs and engineering characteristics (also referred to as "Whats"/"Hows" correlations). This paper explicitly tests this assumption by comparing the "Whats"/"Hows" correlations estimated by a design team with those observed in a systematic user evaluation study, which has not been done before. Testing the assumption is important, because inaccurate estimates may lead to ergonomically ineffective (re)design of hand tools and a waste of company resources. Results revealed that the design team's correlation estimates were not as accurate as is generally assumed. Twenty-five percent of the estimates differed significantly with those observed in the user evaluation study. Thus, QFD is a useful method to assist design teams in designing ergonomically more comfortable hand tools, but only on the condition that the correlations between customer needs and engineering characteristics are validated, preferably by means of a systematic user evaluation study.

  12. Quality and innovation between tipical products exploiting and new food design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dalla Rosa


    Full Text Available Scientific approach is often ignored in the production of typical and marginal foods which come from empiric trial and procedures consolidated along the time. At the beginning of the twentieth century food science starter influencing food production and processing by a multidisciplinary approach aiming at the safety guarantee of industrial products intended for large scale consumption. In the last decades researchers started taking into account traditional and marginal food products by an accurate scientific approach aiming to their exploitation and to define their quality and safety parameters. Scientific approach to marginal products can be schematically divided in two levels: analytical and technological/engineering. In general, the analytical approach focuses on chemical aspects, physical properties, aromatic and sensorial characteristics and on the microbiological and genetic characterizations. 

    The technological/engineering approach must be considered a san integration of the knowledge both about the finished product and the production process and consists of: the definition of markers connecting quality to first matter; the study of seasonal and annual variability; the search for correlations among process/environment/quality on molecular basis; the pointing out of markers to set traceability systems up; the definition of key-factors to characterize the land according to its food production as an impulse for the development of other sectors such as tourism. Finally, innovation in the sector of traditional and marginal production should concern the definition of chemicalphysical and sensorial characteristics, the rationalization of traditional processes and the introduction of new compatible technology phases, the introduction of new packaging forms to elongate the shelf life and to enlarge distribution areas guaranteeing, at the same time, the maintenance of product peculiarity and typicality. New food design is one of the most

  13. Regularization design for high-quality cone-beam CT of intracranial hemorrhage using statistical reconstruction (United States)

    Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.


    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with pathologies such as hemorrhagic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Multi-detector CT is the current front-line imaging modality for detecting ICH (fresh blood contrast 40-80 HU, down to 1 mm). Flat-panel detector (FPD) cone-beam CT (CBCT) offers a potential alternative with a smaller scanner footprint, greater portability, and lower cost potentially well suited to deployment at the point of care outside standard diagnostic radiology and emergency room settings. Previous studies have suggested reliable detection of ICH down to 3 mm in CBCT using high-fidelity artifact correction and penalized weighted least-squared (PWLS) image reconstruction with a post-artifact-correction noise model. However, ICH reconstructed by traditional image regularization exhibits nonuniform spatial resolution and noise due to interaction between the statistical weights and regularization, which potentially degrades the detectability of ICH. In this work, we propose three regularization methods designed to overcome these challenges. The first two compute spatially varying certainty for uniform spatial resolution and noise, respectively. The third computes spatially varying regularization strength to achieve uniform "detectability," combining both spatial resolution and noise in a manner analogous to a delta-function detection task. Experiments were conducted on a CBCT test-bench, and image quality was evaluated for simulated ICH in different regions of an anthropomorphic head. The first two methods improved the uniformity in spatial resolution and noise compared to traditional regularization. The third exhibited the highest uniformity in detectability among all methods and best overall image quality. The proposed regularization provides a valuable means to achieve uniform image quality in CBCT of ICH and is being incorporated in a CBCT prototype for ICH imaging.

  14. Development and testing of a measure designed to assess the quality of care transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Coleman


    Full Text Available Background: To improve the quality of care delivered to older persons receiving care across multiple settings, interventions are needed. However, the absence of a patient-centred measure specifically designed to assess this care has constrained innovation. Objective: To develop a rigorously designed and tested measure, the Care Transition Measure (CTM. Setting: A large, integrated managed care organisation in Colorado with approximately 55,000 members over the age of 65 years. Participants: Patients 65 years and older who were recently discharged from hospital and received subsequent skilled nursing care in a facility or in the home. Methods: Six focus groups of older persons and their caregivers (n=49 were established. Standard qualitative analytic techniques were applied to written transcripts and four key domains were identified: (1 information transfer; (2 patient and caregiver preparation; (3 self-management support; and (4 empowerment to assert preferences. Specific CTM items were developed, pilot tested, and refined. Psychometric testing, conducted in a different population but selected using the same entry criteria (n=60, included content and construct validity, intra-item variation, and floor/ceiling properties. Results: Older patients and clinicians found the measure to be highly relevant and comprehensive (i.e. content validity. Construct validity was assessed by comparing items from the CTM to selected items from a measure developed by Hendriks and colleagues (Medical Care 2001; 39(3: 270–283. Inter-item Spearman correlations ranged 0.388–0.594. No significant floor or ceiling effects were detected. Conclusions: The CTM was developed with substantial input from older patients and their caregivers. Psychometric testing suggested that the measure was valid. The CTM may serve to fill an important gap in health system performance evaluation by measuring the quality of care delivered across settings.

  15. Design and use of an automatic multisampler for water quality evaluation (United States)

    Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Crisafi, E.


    The new coastal monitoring network developed by the PI-MIUR Cluster 10 project (presented during EGS XXVII General Assembly) showed its first results not only in terms of functionality, but also as a test bed for newly developed instruments and applications. To better assess seawater quality, fixed samples collected at regular time intervals are needed; since 1997, a first generation of autonomous multisampler has been designed and built in our laboratory; it worked on surface samples from a Straits of Messina's site heavily affected by an urban waste. In 2001-2002, in the framework of the SAM - Cluster 10 Project, funded by Italian MIUR, a new device generation has been developed. Remotely programmable, the instrument is able to collect and fix at pre-established times up to eight 250ml volumes for further laboratory analysis (for instance using an immunofluorescence protocol specific for Escherichia coli, or phytoplankton studies) . As designed, the system doesn't require any additional step for maintenance, except for the recharge with new bottles. The possibility of setting sampling times according to user needs makes this instrument highly flexible in its potential applications. Low energy consumption and easy utilisation characterise the system developed, based on a 386 CPU and programmable via GSM modem with a peculiar set of macro-commands that can be issued also as SMS. Samples are taken using a device pumping water from five depths into a measurement chamber hosting a multiparametric probe; on-line nutrient analysis can be performed on the same water using a specifically developed instrument with a presampler-buffer interfaced to a colorimetric analyser. Coupling the above mentioned devices with new analytical protocols expressly developed for rapid assessment of water quality, it is simple to obtain data series about environmental status, notice pollution episodes as soon as they happen, follow their temporal evolution, and establish in near real

  16. Slim edge studies, design and quality control of planar ATLAS IBL pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Tobias


    One of the four large experiments at the LHC at CERN is the ATLAS detector, a multi purpose detector. Its pixel detector, composed of three layers, is the innermost part of the tracker. As it is closest to the interaction point, it represents a basic part of the track reconstruction. Besides the requested high resolution one main requirement is the radiation hardness. In the coming years the radiation damage will cause deteriorations of the detector performance. With the planned increase of the luminosity, especially after the upgrade to the High Luminosity LHC, this radiation damage will be even intensified. This circumstance necessitates a new pixel detector featuring improved radiation hard sensors and read-out chips. The present shutdown of the LHC is already utilized to insert an additional b-layer (IBL) into the existing ATLAS pixel detector. The current n-in-n pixel sensor design had to be adapted to the new read-out chip and the module specifications. The new stave geometry requests a reduction of the inactive sensor edge. In a prototype wafer production all modifications have been implemented. The sensor quality control was supervised which led to the decision of the final sensor thickness. In order to evaluate the performance of the sensor chip assemblies with an innovative slim edge design, they have been operated in test beam setups before and after irradiation. Furthermore, the quality control of the planar IBL sensor wafer production was supervised from the stage of wafer delivery to that before the flip chip process to ensure a sufficient amount of functional sensors for the module production.

  17. Design of Simple Instrumentation System for the Quality Analysis of Milk (Casein Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sangam


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a simple instrumentation system for the analysis of casein concentration in the milk. Casein is one of the major constituent of milk and its concentration describes the quality of the milk. Normally casein is analyzed by conventional analytical methods or by using Spectrophotometric methods. Here an attempt has been made to develop a simple portable system using optical instrumentation technique. The objective of the developed system is the real time analysis of the casein concentration of the milk at the field. The system involves UV light source, UV filter, cuvette, photo detector, display unit, data Acquisition Card (DAC as peripheral with USB port. Appropriate program has been developed in visual studio 6 and turbo C. Repeated number of real time analysis was carried out for different samples of milk; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with the amount determined by standard conventional methods with an accuracy of ±1.5 %, and the response time is within 100 seconds. This system can be used in the field for the quality analysis of milk as an independent unit and can also be interfaced to PC with USB port. The system has good accuracy, less response time and low cost.

  18. Analysis of the HVAC system's sound quality using the design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Gil; Sim, Hyun Jin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae Eun; Choi, Byoung Jae; Oh, Jae Eung


    Human hearing is very sensitive to sound, so a subjective index of sound quality is required. Each situation of sound evaluation is composed of Sound Quality (SQ) metrics. When substituting the level of one frequency band, we could not see the tendency of substitution at the whole frequency band during SQ evaluation. In this study, the Design of Experiments (DOE) is used to analyze noise from an automotive Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. The frequency domain is divided into 12 equal parts, and each level of the domain is given an increase or decrease due to the change in frequency band based on the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound of the SQ analyzed. By using DOE, the number of tests is effectively reduced by the number of experiments, and the main result is a solution at each band. SQ in terms of the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound at each band, the change in band (increase or decrease in sound pressure) or no change in band will have the most effect on the identifiable characteristics of SQ. This will enable us to select the objective frequency band. Through the results obtained, the physical level changes in arbitrary frequency domain sensitivity can be determined

  19. Design of high quality doped CeO2 solid electrolytes with nanohetero structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Ou, D.R.; Ye, F.; Drennan, J.


    Doped cerium (CeO 2 ) compounds are fluorite related oxides which show oxide ionic conductivity higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia in oxidizing atmosphere. As a consequence of this, a considerable interest has been shown in application of these materials for low (400-650 o C) temperature operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this paper, our experimental data about the influence of microstructure at the atomic level on electrochemical properties were reviewed in order to develop high quality doped CeO 2 electrolytes in fuel cell applications. Using this data in the present paper, our original idea for a design of nanodomain structure in doped CeO 2 electrolytes was suggested. The nanosized powders and dense sintered bodies of M doped CeO 2 (M:Sm,Gd,La,Y,Yb, and Dy) compounds were fabricated. Also nanostructural features in these specimens were introduced for conclusion of relationship between electrolytic properties and domain structure in doped CeO 2 . It is essential that the electrolytic properties in doped CeO 2 solid electrolytes reflect in changes of microstructure even down to the atomic scale. Accordingly, a combined approach of nanostructure fabrication, electrical measurement and structure characterization was required to develop superior quality doped CeO 2 electrolytes in the fuel cells. (author)

  20. Development and characterization of a cell culture manufacturing process using quality by design (QbD) principles. (United States)

    Marasco, Daniel M; Gao, Jinxin; Griffiths, Kristi; Froggatt, Christopher; Wang, Tongtong; Wei, Gan


    The principles of quality by design (QbD) have been applied in cell culture manufacturing process development and characterization in the biotech industry. Here we share our approach and practice in developing and characterizing a cell culture manufacturing process using QbD principles for establishing a process control strategy. Process development and characterization start with critical quality attribute identification, followed by process parameter and incoming raw material risk assessment, design of experiment, and process parameter classification, and conclude with a design space construction. Finally, a rational process control strategy is established and documented.

  1. A Validation of Object-Oriented Design Metrics as Quality Indicators (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.; Briand, Lionel C.; Melo, Walcelio


    This paper presents the results of a study in which we empirically investigated the suits of object-oriented (00) design metrics introduced in another work. More specifically, our goal is to assess these metrics as predictors of fault-prone classes and, therefore, determine whether they can be used as early quality indicators. This study is complementary to the work described where the same suite of metrics had been used to assess frequencies of maintenance changes to classes. To perform our validation accurately, we collected data on the development of eight medium-sized information management systems based on identical requirements. All eight projects were developed using a sequential life cycle model, a well-known 00 analysis/design method and the C++ programming language. Based on empirical and quantitative analysis, the advantages and drawbacks of these 00 metrics are discussed. Several of Chidamber and Kamerer's 00 metrics appear to be useful to predict class fault-proneness during the early phases of the life-cycle. Also, on our data set, they are better predictors than 'traditional' code metrics, which can only be collected at a later phase of the software development processes.

  2. The Design of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Water Quality Monitoring (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Liu, Rong; Liu, Shujin


    This paper describes the development of a civilian-used autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for water quality monitoring at reservoirs and watercourses that can obtain realtime visual and locational information. The mechanical design was completed with CAD software Solidworks. Four thrusters—two horizontal and two vertical—on board enable the vehicle to surge, heave, yaw, and pitch. A specialized water sample collection compartment is designed to perform water collection at target locations. The vehicle has a central controller—STM32—and a sub-coordinate controller—Arduino MEGA 2560—that coordinates multiple sensors including an inertial sensor, ultrasonic sensors, etc. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the inertial sensor enable the vehicle’s localization. Remote operators monitor and control the vehicle via a host computer system. Operators choose either semi-autonomous mode in which they set target locations or manual mode. The experimental results show that the vehicle is able to perform well in either mode.

  3. Isothermal microcalorimetry as a quality by design tool to determine optimal blending sequences. (United States)

    Al-Hallak, M H D Kamal; Azarmi, Shirzad; Xu, Zhenghe; Maham, Yadollah; Löbenberg, Raimar


    This study was designed to assess the value of isothermal microcalorimetry (ITMC) as a quality by design (QbD) tool to optimize blending conditions during tablet preparation. Powder mixtures that contain microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and prednisone were prepared as 1:1:1 ratios using different blending sequences. ITMC was used to monitor the thermal activity of the powder mixtures before and after each blending process. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were performed on all final powder mixtures. Final powder mixtures were used to prepare tablets with 10 mg prednisone content, and dissolution tests were performed on all tablet formulations. Using ITMC, it was observed that the powder mixtures had different thermal activity depending on the blending sequences of the ingredients. All mixtures prepared by mixing prednisone with DCPD in the first stage were associated with relatively fast and significant heat exchange. In contrast, mixing prednisone with MCC in the first step resulted in slower heat exchange. Powder mixture with high thermal activity showed extra DSC peaks, and their dissolution was generally slower compared to the other tablets. Blending is considered as a critical parameter in tablet preparation. This study showed that ITMC is a simple and efficient tool to monitor solid-state reactions between excipients and prednisone depending on blending sequences. ITMC has the potential to be used in QbD approaches to optimize blending parameters for prednisone tablets.

  4. Design, construction, and quality tests of the large Al-alloy mandrels for the CMS coil

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Gaddi, A; Lauro, A; Levesy, B; Loche, L; Rondeaux, F; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S; Valle, N


    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Almost all large indirectly cooled solenoids constructed to date (e.g., Zeus, Aleph, Delphi, Finuda, Babar) comprise Al-alloy mandrels fabricated by welding together plates bent to the correct radius. The external cylinder of CMS will consist of five modules having an inner diameter of 6.8 m, a thickness of 50 mm and an individual length of 2.5 m. It will be manufactured by bending and welding thick plates (75 mm) of the strain hardened aluminum alloy EN AW-5083-H321. The required high geometrical tolerances and mechanical strength (a yield strength of 209 MPa at 4.2 K) impose a critical appraisal of the design, the fabrication techniques, the welding procedures and the quality controls. The thick flanges at both ends of each module will be fabricated as seamless rolled rings, circu...

  5. Architecture and Design of Expert System for Quality of Life Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article presents an architectural framework of an expert system (ES in the social area domain and describes the design of the ES, using the shell Expert System for Text Animation (ESTA. The designed system is intended for the evaluation of quality of life (QL. The development of ES for QL evaluation is a new information technology derived from artificial intelligent research, using ESTA system with application in social area domain. The proposed ES contains knowledge about sets of factors (objective conditions and subjective perception and indicators, which may be used to QL measure, as followings: equal protection of the law; freedom from discrimination; right to be treated equally without regard to gender, race, language, religion, political beliefs, nationality, socio-economic status and more; right to privacy; freedom of thought; free choice of employment; right to fair pay; equal pay for equal work; right to vote; right to rest and leisure; right to education. The system is developed in the ESTA, which is Visual Prolog 7.3 Application. The knowledge for the ES will be acquired from domain experts, texts and other related sources.

  6. Examining Design and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Rubric Measuring Research Quality across Multiple Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilee J. Bresciani


    Full Text Available The paper presents a rubric to help evaluate the quality of research projects. The rubric was applied in a competition across a variety of disciplines during a two-day research symposium at one institution in the southwest region of the United States of America. It was collaboratively designed by a faculty committee at the institution and was administered to 204 undergraduate, master, and doctoral oral presentations by approximately 167 different evaluators. No training or norming of the rubric was given to 147 of the evaluators prior to the competition. The findings of the inter-rater reliability analysis reveal substantial agreement among the judges, which contradicts literature describing the fact that formal norming must occur prior to seeing substantial levels of inter-rater reliability. By presenting the rubric along with the methodology used in its design and evaluation, it is hoped that others will find this to be a useful tool for evaluating documents and for teaching research methods.

  7. Laboratory facility design and microbial indoor air quality in selected hospital laboratories. (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kiennukul, Nuchanard; Vatthanasomboon, Pisit


    Hospital laboratory is one of workplace areas contaminated with a variety of biohazards. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbial air quality and facility design in the laboratories of four selected governmental hospitals (Hospitals A, B, C, and D) in Bangkok, Thailand. One hundred eighty-eight indoor air samples were collected from 40 laboratory rooms to investigate bacterial and fungal counts using the Millipore air tester. Forty air samples were collected from the waiting areas of those laboratories, and 16 outdoor air samples were collected to use for comparison. Additionally, those laboratory facilities were assessed following biosafety facility design (10 items). Results indicated that the facility design of laboratory in the Hospital A met most of items of the biosafety facility criteria. The rest met only seven items of the criteria. Means +/- standard deviation (SD) of bacterial counts of 253.1 +/- 247.7 cfu/m3, 236.8 +/- 200.1 cfu/m3, 304.4 +/- 264.2 cfu/m3, and 146.7 +/- 127.0 cfu/m3, and fungal counts of 500.8 +/- 64.2 cfu/ m3, 425.0 +/- 21.2 cfu/m3, 357.0 +/- 121.2 cfu/m3, and 355.7 +/- 86.8 cfu/m3 were found in hospital laboratories A, B, C and D, respectively. The isolated colonies of bacteria and fungi were identified as group or genus. It was found that the most common bacteria was Staphylococcus spp (84.1%, 76.0%, 72.1% and 80.5%, respectively), whereas, the most common fungi were Aspergillus spp and septate hyphae fungi (42.0%, 37.5%, 39.5%, and 45.7%; vs 38.6%, 56.2%, 52.1%, and 37.2%, respectively). These data may be valuable to develop interventions to improve the microbial indoor air quality among hospital laboratories and for preventing the laboratory-acquired infections.

  8. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky


    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing about cooperation. However, knowledge about how such institutions should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships that lead to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship between institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expediency of the institutional arrangements. The study shows overall that the countries were relatively successful in improving water quality in the Elbe basin. However, this outcome can only partly be attributed to the ICPE itself. Furthermore, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity: it was relatively significant where the main responsibility for action lay with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model, but was practically non-existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. The commission contributed towards problem solving by serving as a forum for the joint identification of priorities for action from a basin-wide perspective. The resulting international obligations increased the power of national water administrations and their access to funds

  9. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in North Dakota, 1971-2000 (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.


    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, to analyze historical water-quality trends in selected dissolved major ions, nutrients, and dissolved trace metals for 10 streams in southwestern and eastern North Dakota and to develop an efficient sampling design to monitor future water-quality trends. A time-series model for daily streamflow and constituent concentration was used to identify significant concentration trends, separate natural hydroclimatic variability in concentration from variability that could have resulted from anthropogenic causes, and evaluate various sampling designs to monitor future water-quality trends. The interannual variability in concentration as a result of variability in streamflow, referred to as the annual concentration anomaly, generally was high for all constituents and streams used in the trend analysis and was particularly sensitive to the severe drought that occurred in the late 1980's and the very wet period that began in 1993 and has persisted to the present (2002). Although climatic conditions were similar across North Dakota during the trend-analysis period (1971-2000), significant differences occurred in the annual concentration anomalies from constituent to constituent and location to location, especially during the drought and the wet period. Numerous trends were detected in the historical constituent concentrations after the annual concentration anomalies were removed. The trends within each of the constituent groups (major ions, nutrients, and trace metals) showed general agreement among the streams. For most locations, the largest dissolved major-ion concentrations occurred during the late 1970's and concentrations in the mid- to late 1990's were smaller than concentrations during the late 1970's. However, the largest concentrations for three of the Missouri River tributaries and one of the Red River of the North

  10. Development of a premium Quality Plasma derived IVIg (IQYMUNE®) utilizing the principles of Quality by Design - A worked through case study. (United States)

    Paolantonacci, Philippe; Appourchaux, Philippe; Claudel, Béatrice; Ollivier, Monique; Dennett, Richard; Siret, Laurent


    Polyvalent human normal immunoglobulins for intravenous use (IVIG), indicated for rare and often severe diseases, are complex plasma-derived protein preparations. A Quality by Design (QbD) approach has been used to develop the LFB new generation IVIG, targeting a high level of purity to generate an enhanced safety profile while maintaining a high level of efficacy. A modular approach of QbD was implemented consisting of five consecutive steps to cover all the stages from the product design to the final product control strategy. A well-defined target product profile was translated into 27 Product Quality Attributes (PQAs) that formed the basis of the process design. In parallel, a product risk analysis was conducted and identified 19 Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) among PQAs. Process risk analysis was carried out to establish the links between process parameters and CQAs. Twelve critical steps were identified and for each of these steps a risk mitigation plan was established. Among the different process risk mitigation exercises, five process robustness studies were conducted at qualified small scale with a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach. For each process step, critical process parameters (CPPs) were identified and, for each CPP, Proven Acceptable Ranges (PARs) were established. The quality risk management (QRM) and risk mitigation outputs, including verification of PARs, were used to design the process verification exercise at industrial scale. Finally, the Control Strategy was established using a mix, or 'hybrid', of the 'traditional approach', plus elements of the QbD 'enhanced approach' as illustrated, to more robustly assign material and process controls, and in order to securely meet product specifications The advantages of this QbD approach were improved process knowledge for industrial design and process validation and a clear justification of the process and product specifications as a basis for control strategy and future comparability exercises

  11. A Machine Learning Regression scheme to design a FR-Image Quality Assessment Algorithm


    Charrier, Christophe; Lezoray, Olivier; Lebrun, Gilles


    International audience; A crucial step in image compression is the evaluation of its performance, and more precisely available ways to measure the quality of compressed images. In this paper, a machine learning expert, providing a quality score is proposed. This quality measure is based on a learned classification process in order to respect that of human observers. The proposed method namely Machine Learning-based Image Quality Measurment (MLIQM) first classifies the quality using multi Supp...

  12. A Metric Tool for Predicting Source Code Quality from a PDL Design


    Henry, Sallie M.; Selig, Calvin


    The software crisis has increased the demand for automated tools to assist software developers in the production of quality software. Quality metrics have given software developers a tool to measure software quality. These measurements, however, are available only after the software has been produced. Due to high cost, software managers are reluctant, to redesign and reimplement low quality software. Ideally, a life cycle which allows early measurement of software quality is a necessary ingre...

  13. AGARD Manual on Aeroelasticity in Axial-Flow Turbomachines. Volume 1. Unsteady Turbomachinery Aerodynamics (United States)


    medium of Freon- sition, both of which must be performed Argon mixture is presented by Crawley accurately to ensure data quality. These (1980). The...Adenauer Rue d’Evere, 1140 Bruxelles 00144 Roma/EUR LUXEMBOURG CANADASeBegu Defence Scientific Information Services See Belgium Dept of National

  14. Application of a quality by design approach to the cell culture process of monoclonal antibody production, resulting in the establishment of a design space. (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroaki; Watari, Akiko; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takuma, Shinya


    This case study describes the application of Quality by Design elements to the process of culturing Chinese hamster ovary cells in the production of a monoclonal antibody. All steps in the cell culture process and all process parameters in each step were identified by using a cause-and-effect diagram. Prospective risk assessment using failure mode and effects analysis identified the following four potential critical process parameters in the production culture step: initial viable cell density, culture duration, pH, and temperature. These parameters and lot-to-lot variability in raw material were then evaluated by process characterization utilizing a design of experiments approach consisting of a face-centered central composite design integrated with a full factorial design. Process characterization was conducted using a scaled down model that had been qualified by comparison with large-scale production data. Multivariate regression analysis was used to establish statistical prediction models for performance indicators and quality attributes; with these, we constructed contour plots and conducted Monte Carlo simulation to clarify the design space. The statistical analyses, especially for raw materials, identified set point values, which were most robust with respect to the lot-to-lot variability of raw materials while keeping the product quality within the acceptance criteria. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Fallon, Acting Unit Chief, Air Colorado, Montana, North Quality Planning Unit, EPA Region Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and VIII, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO Wyoming. 80202-1129, (303) 312-6281. Doris Lo, Air... measures that reduce SO 2 can generally be expected to reduce people's exposures to all gaseous SO X . This...

  16. Thermodynamic analysis and preliminary design of closed Brayton cycle using nitrogen as working fluid and coupled to small modular Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SM-SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olumayegun, Olumide; Wang, Meihong; Kelsall, Greg


    Highlights: • Nitrogen closed Brayton cycle for small modular sodium-cooled fast reactor studied. • Thermodynamic modelling and analysis of closed Brayton cycle performed. • Two-shaft configuration proposed and performance compared to single shaft. • Preliminary design of heat exchangers and turbomachinery carried out. - Abstract: Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is considered the most promising of the Generation IV reactors for their near-term demonstration of power generation. Small modular SFRs (SM-SFRs) have less investment risk, can be deployed more quickly, are easier to operate and are more flexible in comparison to large nuclear reactor. Currently, SFRs use the proven Rankine steam cycle as the power conversion system. However, a key challenge is to prevent dangerous sodium-water reaction that could happen in SFR coupled to steam cycle. Nitrogen gas is inert and does not react with sodium. Hence, intercooled closed Brayton cycle (CBC) using nitrogen as working fluid and with a single shaft configuration has been one common power conversion system option for possible near-term demonstration of SFR. In this work, a new two shaft nitrogen CBC with parallel turbines was proposed to further simplify the design of the turbomachinery and reduce turbomachinery size without compromising the cycle efficiency. Furthermore, thermodynamic performance analysis and preliminary design of components were carried out in comparison with a reference single shaft nitrogen cycle. Mathematical models in Matlab were developed for steady state thermodynamic analysis of the cycles and for preliminary design of the heat exchangers, turbines and compressors. Studies were performed to investigate the impact of the recuperator minimum terminal temperature difference (TTD) on the overall cycle efficiency and recuperator size. The effect of turbomachinery efficiencies on the overall cycle efficiency was examined. The results showed that the cycle efficiency of the proposed

  17. Implementing a "quality by design" approach to assure the safety and integrity of botanical dietary supplements. (United States)

    Khan, Ikhlas A; Smillie, Troy


    Natural products have provided a basis for health care and medicine to humankind since the beginning of civilization. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 80% of the world population still relies on herbal medicines for health-related benefits. In the United States, over 42% of the population claimed to have used botanical dietary supplements to either augment their current diet or to "treat" or "prevent" a particular health-related issue. This has led to the development of a burgeoning industry in the U.S. ($4.8 billion per year in 2008) to supply dietary supplements to the consumer. However, many commercial botanical products are poorly defined scientifically, and the consumer must take it on faith that the supplement they are ingesting is an accurate representation of what is listed on the label, and that it contains the purportedly "active" constituents they seek. Many dietary supplement manufacturers, academic research groups, and governmental organizations are progressively attempting to construct a better scientific understanding of natural products, herbals, and botanical dietary supplements that have co-evolved with Western-style pharmaceutical medicines. However, a deficiency of knowledge is still evident, and this issue needs to be addressed in order to achieve a significant level of safety, efficacy, and quality for commercial natural products. The authors contend that a "quality by design" approach for botanical dietary supplements should be implemented in order to ensure the safety and integrity of these products. Initiating this approach with the authentication of the starting plant material is an essential first step, and in this review several techniques that can aid in this endeavor are outlined.

  18. Impacts from valley fill design and age on water quality in mountaintop mined watersheds (United States)

    Ross, M. R.; Lindberg, T. T.; Voss, K.; Bernhardt, E. S.


    Mountaintop mining (MTM) for coal is the strongest driver of landscape disturbance throughout central Appalachia. The MTM process removes mountain ridges and deposits the resulting spoil into adjacent valleys. Recent research has shown that streams receiving waters from these valley fills exhibit consistent increases in the concentrations of base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+), metals, and anions (HCO3-SO42-) that correlate strongly with an increase in conductivity. Together, these chemical changes degrade the aquatic ecosystems downstream of valley fills and impair the ecosystem services they provide by extirpating sensitive macro-invertebrate taxa and toxicity to fish. Nearly 50% of the variability in conductivity and individual ion species concentration can be explained simply by the positive correlation between percent of catchment area mined and solute concentration. Yet, there is a wide range of valley fill size (0.25-225 hectares), age (1-40 years old), and design (from completely re-contoured landscapes to untouched, dumped spoil material) which may further explain observed patterns in water quality and biogeochemistry in MTM-impacted streams. For this study we asked the question: Do fill construction techniques and fill age predict patterns of stream water quality as measured by ion and metal concentration? To answer this question, we used a synoptic dataset collected from 30 valley fills in the Hobet mining complex in southern West Virginia and a comprehensive dataset collected by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection. We show that conductivity and ion concentrations are predicted better by valley fill size (p value valley fill age (statistically insignificant). These results suggest that impacts from MTM on aquatic ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide may last over long time scales (>50 years), and that trends of expanding valley fill size over the 2000's may have disproportionately negative impacts on the streams impacted by these

  19. Design, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels for the substitution of fossil feedstock in the cement industry. (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E; Pomberger, R; Rogetzer, M; Sipple, E M


    This paper describes the requirements for the production, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels (SRF) that are increasingly used in the cement industry. Different aspects have to be considered before using SRF as an alternative fuel. Here, a study on the quality of SRF used in the cement industry is presented. This overview is completed by an investigation of type and properties of input materials used at waste splitting and SRF production plants in Austria. As a simplified classification, SRF can be divided into two classes: a fine, high-calorific SRF for the main burner, or coarser SRF material with low calorific value for secondary firing systems, such as precombustion chambers or similar systems. In the present study, SRFs coming from various sources that fall under these two different waste fuel classes are discussed. Both SRFs are actually fired in the grey clinker kiln of the Holcim (Slovensko) plant in Rohožnik (Slovakia). The fine premium-quality material is used in the main burner and the coarse regular-quality material is fed to a FLS Hotdisc combustion device. In general, the alternative fuels are used instead of their substituted fossil fuels. For this, chemical compositions and other properties of SRF were compared to hard coal as one of the most common conventional fuels in Europe. This approach allows to compare the heavy metal input from traditional and alternative fuels and to comment on the legal requirements on SRF that, at the moment, are under development in Europe. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Nicotinamide polymeric nanoemulsified systems: a quality-by-design case study for a sustained antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidan AS


    Full Text Available Ahmed S Zidan,1,2 Osama AA Ahmed,1,3 Bader M Aljaeid1 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt Abstract: Nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3, was demonstrated to combat some of the antibiotic-resistant infections that are increasingly common around the world. The objective of this study was to thoroughly understand the formulation and process variabilities affecting the preparation of nicotinamide-loaded polymeric nano­emulsified particles. The quality target product profile and critical quality attributes of the proposed product were presented. Plackett–Burman screening design was employed to screen eight variables for their influences on the formulation’s critical characteristics. The formulations were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsification followed by solvent replacement. The prepared systems were characterized by entrapment capacity (EC, entrapment efficiency (EE, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, in vitro drug release, and their antibacterial activity against bacterial scrums. EC, EE, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percentage release in 24 hours were found to be in the range of 33.5%–68.8%, 53.1%–67.1%, 43.3–243.3 nm, 0.08–0.28, 9.5–53.3 mV, and 5.8%–22.4%, respectively. One-way analysis of variance and Pareto charts revealed that the experimental loadings of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and Eudragit® S100 were the most significant for their effects on nicotinamide EC and EE. Moreover, the polymeric nanoemulsified particles

  1. Modeling of turbulent flows in cooling channels of turbo-machineries; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents dans des canaux de refroidissement de turbomachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidart, A.; Caltagirone, J.P.; Parneix, S. [Laboratoire MASTER-ENSCPB, 33 - Talence (France)


    The MASTER laboratory has been involved since several years in the creation and utilization of modeling tools for the prediction of 3-D turbulent flows and heat transfers in turbine blades in order to optimize the cooling systems of turbo-machineries. This paper describes one of the test-cases that has been used for the validation of the `Aquilon` calculation code developed in this aim. Then, the modeling performed with the `Fluent` industrial code in order to evaluate the possible improvements of the Aquilon code, is presented. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  2. Improvement of a stability-indicating method by Quality-by-Design versus Quality-by-Testing: a case of a learning process. (United States)

    Hubert, C; Lebrun, P; Houari, S; Ziemons, E; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph


    The understanding of the method is a major concern when developing a stability-indicating method and even more so when dealing with impurity assays from complex matrices. In the presented case study, a Quality-by-Design approach was applied in order to optimize a routinely used method. An analytical issue occurring at the last stage of a long-term stability study involving unexpected impurities perturbing the monitoring of characterized impurities needed to be resolved. A compliant Quality-by-Design (QbD) methodology based on a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was evaluated within the framework of a Liquid Chromatography (LC) method. This approach allows the investigation of Critical Process Parameters (CPPs), which have an impact on Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) and, consequently, on LC selectivity. Using polynomial regression response modeling as well as Monte Carlo simulations for error propagation, Design Space (DS) was computed in order to determine robust working conditions for the developed stability-indicating method. This QbD compliant development was conducted in two phases allowing the use of the Design Space knowledge acquired during the first phase to define the experimental domain of the second phase, which constitutes a learning process. The selected working condition was then fully validated using accuracy profiles based on statistical tolerance intervals in order to evaluate the reliability of the results generated by this LC/ESI-MS stability-indicating method. A comparison was made between the traditional Quality-by-Testing (QbT) approach and the QbD strategy, highlighting the benefit of this QbD strategy in the case of an unexpected impurities issue. On this basis, the advantages of a systematic use of the QbD methodology were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of fractional factorial design to improve hot smoked Nile Perch (Lates niloticus quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokamté, T.A.


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the parameters influencing moisture, salt and total phenol content of hot smoked Nile Perch and to compare the influence of processing conditions on its proximate composition and sensory quality. The effect on moisture, salt and total phenol content was investigated using fractional factorial design with seven factors and two levels: X1 for brine concentration, X2 for brining time, X3 for preliminary smoking-drying time, X4 for smoking time, X5 for hot smoking time, X6 for smoking temperature and X7 for hot smoking temperature. A Multiple Linear Regression Analysis was performed to fit the mathematical model to the collected data and the model tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results of ANOVA indicated the good accuracy and highest significance of the mathematical model. The range of total protein and lipid content was 17.96 to 34.34% and 0.87 to 4.43%, respectively. The range of general acceptability of smoked Nile Perch was 4.6 to 8.2 based on 9-point hedonic scale. Based on the results obtained, including the overall acceptability, proximate composition and smoking criteria of finished product, samples produced with the following conditions: brining at 4% for 270min, drying at 30°C for 30min and the smoked time/temperature cycles following: 30°C/120min; 50°C/240min and 80°C/240min was the best and most accepted. The results derived from this study indicate that the fractional factorial design is a useful screening tool for improving industrial smoking process of Nile Perch.

  4. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin, environmental setting and study design (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Andrews, W.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Fong, A.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.; Kroening, S.E.; Lee, K.E.


    The Upper Mississippi River Basin is diverse in ways that can control the areal distribution and flow of water and the distribution and concentration of constituents that affect water quality. A review of the environmental setting of the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is intended to put water quality in perspective with the geology, soils, climate, hydrology, ecology and historical uses of the land and provides a basis for the sampling design of the study.

  5. [Application of quality by design in granulation process for Ginkgo leaf tablet (Ⅲ): process control strategy based on design space]. (United States)

    Cui, Xiang-Long; Xu, Bing; Sun, Fei; Dai, Sheng-Yun; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang


    In this paper, under the guidance of quality by design (QbD) concept, the control strategy of the high shear wet granulation process of the ginkgo leaf tablet based on the design space was established to improve the process controllability and product quality consistency. The median granule size (D50) and bulk density (Da) of granules were identified as critical quality attributes (CQAs) and potential critical process parameters (pCPPs) were determined by the failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA). The Plackeet-Burmann experimental design was used to screen pCPPs and the results demonstrated that the binder amount, the wet massing time and the wet mixing impeller speed were critical process parameters (CPPs). The design space of the high shear wet granulation process was developed within pCPPs range based on the Box-Behnken design and quadratic polynomial regression models. ANOVA analysis showed that the P-values of model were less than 0.05 and the values of lack of fit test were more than 0.1, indicating that the relationship between CQAs and CPPs could be well described by the mathematical models. D₅₀ could be controlled within 170 to 500 μm, and the bulk density could be controlled within 0.30 to 0.44 g•cm⁻³ by using any CPPs combination within the scope of design space. Besides, granules produced by process parameters within the design space region could also meet the requirement of tensile strength of the ginkgo leaf tablet.. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.


    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  7. Application of the non lineal dynamics to the design of processes in the administration of quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domech More, Jesus


    The present work thinks about the possibility to apply the techniques from the non lineal dynamics to the one design of processes like a complex but realler tool that the statistical techniques. As study object the process of production of lead containers is used (means of shielding) that are used to carry radioisotopos in the system of vat health. It intends a model of non lineal dynamics of the process that allows to evaluate what so predictable it is the chosen system (entrance control to the matter prevails) and which the one will be behavior average of the same one based in the complex interactions that arise in the relationships client-supplier, operative-machine, supplier-supplier, operative-environment and operative-method. Each one of these interactions constitutes a source of uncertainty in the one I process and he/she has a weight on the temporary dynamics of the characteristic of real quality (homogeneity of the blindaje) in the process

  8. Determining the need for improvement of infant incubator design with quality function deployment (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Ginting, R.; Siregar, I.


    A Newborns need particular attention because it takes time to adapt to the outside world. In accordance with the standard post-neonatal procedures, newborns should be incorporated into the incubator within a specified period of time according to the infant’s health level. Infant incubator as a medical device used to care for newborns, often get complaints from doctors and child nurses. The complaint indicates consumer dissatisfaction with incubator products in the hospital. Broadly speaking, objection against infant incubators lie in inappropriate designs. To overcome these complaints the researchers apply the method of Quality Function Deployment to determine the characteristics of priority techniques in accordance with the wishes of consumers with it. The primary focus of QFD is to engage customers in the product development process as early as possible, which their needs and desires serve as the starting point of the QFD process. Therefore, QFD is called the voice of customer. The underlying philosophy is that customers are not always satisfied with a product even though the product has been perfectly produced. The results show that the category used as a priority improvement is the additional function of the oxygen cylinder and the size of the door hole. QFD phase one produces technical characteristics of Ergonomy, Features and Cost as critical part determinants.

  9. Towards quality by design in pharmaceutical manufacturing: modelling and control of air jet mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhonsale Satyajeet


    Full Text Available Milling is an important step in pharmaceutical manufacturing as it not only determines the final formulation of the drug product, but also influences the bioavailability and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. In this respect, the air jet mill (AJM is most commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry as it is a non-contaminating and non-degrading self-classifying process capable of delivering narrow particle size distributions (PSD. Keeping the principles of Quality by Design in mind, the Critical Process Parameters (CPPs of the AJM have been identified to be the pressures at the grinding nozzles, and the feed rate which affect the PSD, surface charge and the morphology of the product (i.e. the Critical Material Attributes (CMAs. For the purpose of this research, the PSD is considered to be the only relevant CMA. A population balance based model is proposed to simulate the dynamics milling operation by utilizing the concept of breakage functions. This model agrees qualitatively with experimental observations of the air jet mill unit present at Janssen Pharmaceutica but further steps for model validation need to be carried out.

  10. Towards quality by design in pharmaceutical manufacturing: modelling and control of air jet mills (United States)

    Bhonsale, Satyajeet; Telen, Dries; Stokbroekx, Bard; Van Impe, Jan


    Milling is an important step in pharmaceutical manufacturing as it not only determines the final formulation of the drug product, but also influences the bioavailability and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). In this respect, the air jet mill (AJM) is most commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry as it is a non-contaminating and non-degrading self-classifying process capable of delivering narrow particle size distributions (PSD). Keeping the principles of Quality by Design in mind, the Critical Process Parameters (CPPs) of the AJM have been identified to be the pressures at the grinding nozzles, and the feed rate which affect the PSD, surface charge and the morphology of the product (i.e. the Critical Material Attributes (CMAs)). For the purpose of this research, the PSD is considered to be the only relevant CMA. A population balance based model is proposed to simulate the dynamics milling operation by utilizing the concept of breakage functions. This model agrees qualitatively with experimental observations of the air jet mill unit present at Janssen Pharmaceutica but further steps for model validation need to be carried out.

  11. Influence of graphic design of the text on reading quality of pupils with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikl Pavel


    Full Text Available The contribution contains research results focused on reading quality of pupils with dyslexia according to the graphic design of the text. Our aim was to prove if commonly recommended graphic text editing has a certain influence on reading speed and occurrence of mistakes of children with dyslexia. The research sample consisted of pupils with dyslexia and a control group then selected in pairs of intact pupils of 4th and 5th class of primary school (in total 150 pupils. For the purpose of data collection there had been a text used in an unfamiliar language (a nonsensical text, which corresponds to the Czech language in its structure; is a part of standardized reading test. There were four text versions prepared for the research which had been modified into frequently recommended modifications for dyslexics (increased font size, a use of bigger gaps between words and also rows, syllables highlight in words and a standard text corresponding to common reading-books. Conclusion depicts a presentation of impacts of individual texts modifications and also subjective opinions of pupils about these texts.

  12. Design, development, and implementation of the Radiological Physics Center's pelvis and thorax anthropomorphic quality assurance phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, David S.; Radford Evans, DeeAnn; Cherry, Christopher; Molineu, Andrea; Fisher, Gary; Hanson, William F.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.


    The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) developed two heterogeneous anthropomorphic quality assurance phantoms for use in verifying the accuracy of radiation delivery: one for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the pelvis and the other for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to the thorax. The purpose of this study was to describe the design and development of these two phantoms and to demonstrate the reproducibility of measurements generated with them. The phantoms were built to simulate actual patient anatomy. They are lightweight and water-fillable, and they contain imageable targets and organs at risk of radiation exposure that are of similar densities to their human counterparts. Dosimetry inserts accommodate radiochromic film for relative dosimetry and thermoluminesent dosimetry capsules for absolute dosimetry. As a part of the commissioning process, each phantom was imaged, treatment plans were developed, and radiation was delivered at least three times. Under these controlled irradiation conditions, the reproducibility of dose delivery to the target TLD in the pelvis and thorax phantoms was 3% and 0.5%, respectively. The reproducibility of radiation-field localization was less than 2.5 mm for both phantoms. Using these anthropomorphic phantoms, pelvic IMRT and thoracic SBRT radiation treatments can be verified with a high level of precision. These phantoms can be used to effectively credential institutions for participation in specific NCI-sponsored clinical trials

  13. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.


    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  14. Defining and improving quality management in Dutch diabetes care groups and outpatient clinics: design of the study (United States)


    Background Worldwide, the organisation of diabetes care is changing. As a result general practices and diabetes teams in hospitals are becoming part of new organisations in which multidisciplinary care programs are implemented. In the Netherlands, 97 diabetes care groups and 104 outpatient clinics are working with a diabetes care program. Both types of organisations aim to improve the quality of diabetes care. Therefore, it is essential to understand the comprehensive elements needed for optimal quality management at organisational level. This study aims to assess the current level of diabetes quality management in both care groups and outpatient clinics and its improvement after providing feedback on their quality management system and tailored support. Methods/design This study is a before-after study with a one-year follow-up comparing the levels of quality management before and after an intervention to improve diabetes quality management. To assess the status of quality management, online questionnaires were developed based on current literature. They consist of six domains: organisation of care, multidisciplinary teamwork, patient centeredness, performance management, quality improvement policy and management strategies. Based on the questionnaires, respondents will receive feedback on their score in a radar diagram and an elucidating table. They will also be granted access to an online toolbox with instruments that proved to be effective in quality of care improvement and with practical examples. If requested, personal support in implementing these tools will be available. After one year quality management will be measured again using the same questionnaire. Discussion This study will reveal a nationwide picture of quality management in diabetes care groups and outpatient clinics in the Netherlands and evaluate the effect of offering tailored support. The operationalisation of quality management on organisational level may be of interest for other countries

  15. The system of quality assurance of EDF for designing and developing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaujour, M.

    As the quality required for a power plant must fulfill at one and the same time, performance, safety and reliability criteria, the quality obtainment needs the establishment of a system of quality assurance: an internal system of arrangement of the organizations involved, measures creating the relations between said organizations, mechanisms of control of the quality organizing, and some statements. The respective roles of EDF and the constructors are defined together with the contractual obligations of the constructors [fr

  16. Indoor air quality in 24 California residences designed as high-performance homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mullen, Nasim [Gap, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California. Although the mechanically vented homes were six times as airtight as non-mechanically ventilated homes (medians of 1.1 and 6.1 ACH50, n=11 and n=8, respectively), their use of mechanical ventilation systems and possibly window operation meant their median air exchange rates were almost the same (0.30 versus 0.32 hr-1, n=8 and n=8, respectively). Pollutant levels were also similar in vented and unvented homes. In addition, these similarities were achieved despite numerous observed faults in complex mechanical ventilation systems. More rigorous commissioning is still recommended. Cooking exhaust systems were used inconsistently and several suffered from design flaws. Failure to follow best practices led to IAQ problems in some cases. Ambient nitrogen dioxide standards were exceeded or nearly so in four homes that either used gas ranges with standing pilots, or in Passive House-style homes that used gas cooking burners without venting range hoods. Homes without active particle filtration had particle count concentrations approximately double those in homes with enhanced filtration. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials; consistent with this, formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional, new CA homes built before 2008. Emissions of ultrafine particles (with diameters <100 nm) were dramatically lower on induction electric cooktops, compared with either gas or resistance electric models. These results indicate that high performance homes can achieve

  17. Analysis of Handling Qualities Design Criteria for Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos A.; Lusardi, Jeff A.


    ratio. While these two studies produced boundaries for acceptable/unacceptable stick dynamics for rotorcraft, they were not able to provide guidance on how variations of the stick dynamics in the acceptable region impact handling qualities. More recently, a ground based simulation study [5] suggested little benefit was to be obtained from variations of the damping ratio for a side-stick controller exhibiting high natural frequencies (greater than 17 rad/s) and damping ratios (greater than 2.0). A flight test campaign was conducted concurrently on the RASCAL JUH-60A in-flight simulator and the ACT/FHS EC-135 in flight simulator [6]. Upon detailed analysis of the pilot evaluations the study identified a clear preference for a high damping ratio and natural frequency of the center stick inceptors. Side stick controllers were found to be less sensitive to the damping. While these studies have compiled a substantial amount of data, in the form of qualitative and quantitative pilot opinion, a fundamental analysis of the effect of the inceptor force-feel system on flight control is found to be lacking. The study of Ref. [6] specifically concluded that a systematic analysis was necessary, since discrepancies with the assigned handling qualities showed that proposed analytical design metrics, or criteria, were not suitable. The overall goal of the present study is to develop a clearer fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms associated with the inceptor dynamics that govern the handling qualities using a manageable analytical methodology.

  18. Testing of Selective Laser Melting Turbomachinery Applicable to Exploration Upper Stage (United States)

    Calvert, Marty; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy


    This task is to design, fabricate, and spin test to failure a Ti6-4 hydrogen turbopump impeller that was built using the selective laser melting (SLM) fabrication process (fig. 1). The impeller is sized around upper stage engine requirements. In addition to the spin burst test, material testing will be performed on coupons that are built with the impeller.

  19. Design of sampling locations for river water quality monitoring considering seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loads. (United States)

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar; Ghosh, N C


    The design of a water quality monitoring network (WQMN) is a complicated decision-making process because each sampling involves high installation, operational, and maintenance costs. Therefore, data with the highest information content should be collected. The effect of seasonal variation in point and diffuse pollution loadings on river water quality may have a significant impact on the optimal selection of sampling locations, but this possible effect has never been addressed in the evaluation and design of monitoring networks. The present study proposes a systematic approach for siting an optimal number and location of river water quality sampling stations based on seasonal or monsoonal variations in both point and diffuse pollution loadings. The proposed approach conceptualizes water quality monitoring as a two-stage process; the first stage of which is to consider all potential water quality sampling sites, selected based on the existing guidelines or frameworks, and the locations of both point and diffuse pollution sources. The monitoring at all sampling sites thus identified should be continued for an adequate period of time to account for the effect of the monsoon season. In the second stage, the monitoring network is then designed separately for monsoon and non-monsoon periods by optimizing the number and locations of sampling sites, using a modified Sanders approach. The impacts of human interventions on the design of the sampling net are quantified geospatially by estimating diffuse pollution loads and verified with land use map. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the Kali River basin in the western Uttar Pradesh state of India was selected as a study area. The final design suggests consequential pre- and post-monsoonal changes in the location and priority of water quality monitoring stations based on the seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loadings.

  20. Design, Integration, and Quality. Teacher Education from the perspective of ProTed, a Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Magne Vestøl


    Full Text Available Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i utviklingsarbeid i ProTed, Senter for fremragende lærer­utdanning, og bidrar til å belyse tre begreper av sentral betydning for utforming, utvikling og evaluering av lærerutdanning. Basert på teoriseminarer, strukturerte rapporter og annet empirisk materiale fra ProTeds utviklings­prosjekter presenterer artikkelen tre hovedbegrep: design, integrasjon og kvalitet. Design presenteres som en virksomhet, en dynamisk kompe­tanse­utvikling hvor undervisning transformeres til læring. Kunnskapsintegrasjon forstås som et kjerne-element i et slikt design, og artikkelen utforsker ulike former for integrasjon. Artikkelen presenterer også et perspektiv på kvalitetsvurdering som legger vekt på performa­tive og transformative aspekt ved den kompetanse­utviklingen som genereres gjennom design-virksomheten.Nøkkelord: lærerutdanning, design, integrasjon, kvalitet, ProTedAbstractDrawing on the developmental work of ProTed, a Norwegian Centre of Excellence in Edu­cation, this article contributes to the understanding of three concepts of central importance for the construction, development and evaluation of teacher education. Based on material from theory seminars, structured reports and other data from ProTed’s development projects, the article presents an understanding of the concepts design, integration and quality. Design is presented as an activity, a dynamic competence development where teaching is transformed into learning. Knowledge integration is understood as a core element of this design, and different forms and aspects of integration are explored. An understanding of quality evalu­ation is presented that emphasises performative and transformative aspects of the competence development that is generated through the design activity.Keywords: teacher education, design, integration, quality, ProTed

  1. Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Improving Quality of Design in Femoral Component of Knee Prostheses: Influence of Interface Geometry and Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jahan


    Full Text Available Knee prostheses as medical products require careful application of quality and design tool to ensure the best performance. Therefore, quality function deployment (QFD was proposed as a quality tool to systematically integrate consumer’s expectation to perceived needs by medical and design team and to explicitly address the translation of customer needs into engineering characteristics. In this study, full factorial design of experiment (DOE method was accompanied by finite element analysis (FEA to evaluate the effect of inner contours of femoral component on mechanical stability of the implant and biomechanical stresses within the implant components and adjacent bone areas with preservation of the outer contours for standard Co-Cr alloy and a promising functionally graded material (FGM. The ANOVA revealed that the inner shape of femoral component influenced the performance measures in which the angle between the distal and anterior cuts and the angle between the distal and posterior cuts were greatly influential. In the final ranking of alternatives, using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, the designs with FGM was ranked first over the Co-Cr femoral component, but the original design with Co-Cr material was not the best choice femoral component, among the top ranked design with the same material.

  2. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.


    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  3. The quality assurance function with respect to the design and construction of steel structures for pre-stressed nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrard, R.S.; Salmons, B.H.


    The paper deals with experience gained at Hartlepool and Heysham. These Power Station Projects have now passed through the 'enquiry', 'tender' and 'placing-of-order' stages, and are deeply involved at present in the detailed 'design', 'construction' and 'setting-to-work' phases. Quality Assurance in the widest concept has been active throughout, but experience has shown that Quality Assurance Programmes should have played a more positive role, particularly in the early stages. Difficulties have arisen because the prototype nature of the plant was not fully appreciated at the time of Enquiry and Tender. On occasion, manufacture has had to proceed, before detailed design proving was achieved, in order to maintain the Construction Programme. However, in one or two instances, this approach was shown to be false economy as more time was used in rework after all the technical parameters had been established. It is now recognised that a fully integrated Quality Assurance function is one of the essential tools for establishing a viable Programme for the Project, and maintaining Product Quality consistent with Plant Reliability. A description is given in this Paper of the methods which have been developed for the approval of Designs and Manufacturing Procedures, together with Techniques in use to ensure that Quality Requirements are known, understood and implemented. (author)

  4. Quality-by-Design approach to monitor the operation of a batch bioreactor in an industrial avian vaccine manufacturing process. (United States)

    Largoni, Martina; Facco, Pierantonio; Bernini, Donatella; Bezzo, Fabrizio; Barolo, Massimiliano


    Monitoring batch bioreactors is a complex task, due to the fact that several sources of variability can affect a running batch and impact on the final product quality. Additionally, the product quality itself may not be measurable on line, but requires sampling and lab analysis taking several days to be completed. In this study we show that, by using appropriate process analytical technology tools, the operation of an industrial batch bioreactor used in avian vaccine manufacturing can be effectively monitored as the batch progresses. Multivariate statistical models are built from historical databases of batches already completed, and they are used to enable the real time identification of the variability sources, to reliably predict the final product quality, and to improve process understanding, paving the way to a reduction of final product rejections, as well as to a reduction of the product cycle time. It is also shown that the product quality "builds up" mainly during the first half of a batch, suggesting on the one side that reducing the variability during this period is crucial, and on the other side that the batch length can possibly be shortened. Overall, the study demonstrates that, by using a Quality-by-Design approach centered on the appropriate use of mathematical modeling, quality can indeed be built "by design" into the final product, whereas the role of end-point product testing can progressively reduce its importance in product manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of Quality by Design to the characterization of the cell culture process of an Fc-Fusion protein. (United States)

    Rouiller, Yolande; Solacroup, Thomas; Deparis, Véronique; Barbafieri, Marco; Gleixner, Ralf; Broly, Hervé; Eon-Duval, Alex


    The production bioreactor step of an Fc-Fusion protein manufacturing cell culture process was characterized following Quality by Design principles. Using scientific knowledge derived from the literature and process knowledge gathered during development studies and manufacturing to support clinical trials, potential critical and key process parameters with a possible impact on product quality and process performance, respectively, were determined during a risk assessment exercise. The identified process parameters were evaluated using a design of experiment approach. The regression models generated from the data allowed characterizing the impact of the identified process parameters on quality attributes. The main parameters having an impact on product titer were pH and dissolved oxygen, while those having the highest impact on process- and product-related impurities and variants were pH and culture duration. The models derived from characterization studies were used to define the cell culture process design space. The design space limits were set in such a way as to ensure that the drug substance material would consistently have the desired quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARAOANU Cristina Elena


    Full Text Available The analysis and synthesis of this instruments of quality which serve the best of market requirements and therefore to clients. The introduction of the Concurrent Engineering methods and concepts as a integrated part in the design process for the type of fabrication agile and flexible.

  7. Quality loss in packed rose flowers due to Botrytis cinerea infection as related to temperature regimes and packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Evelo, R.G.; Wilkinson, E.C.; Doorn, van W.G.


    The effects of package design and temperature treatment (cooling and rewarming) on the quality of rose flowers (cv. Sweet Promise) packed in five types of boxes were investigated, with special regard to fungus (Botrytis cinerea) infection. A significant increase of B. cinerea spotting was observed

  8. Riparian buffer design guidelines for water quality and wildlife habitat functions on agricultural landscapes in the Intermountain West (United States)

    Craig W. Johnson; Susan Buffler


    Intermountain West planners, designers, and resource managers are looking for science-based procedures for determining buffer widths and management techniques that will optimize the benefits riparian ecosystems provide. This study reviewed the riparian buffer literature, including protocols used to determine optimum buffer widths for water quality and wildlife habitat...

  9. Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Chouika, N; Clement, S; Datskov, V; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R; Lambert, L; Lopes, M; Perez, J; DeRijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; Ten Kate, H; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Lorin, C; Haro, E; Stenvall, A; Caspi, S; Marchevsky, M; Goldacker, W; Kario, A


    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protection system will have to be developed to operate with the HTS superconducting materials. This paper presents a ReBCO magnet design using multi strand Roebel cable that develops a stand-alone field of 5 T in a 40 mm clear aperture and discusses the challenges associated with good field quality using this type of material. A selection of magnet designs is presented as result of a first phase of development.

  10. Accelerator Quality HTS Dipole Magnet Demonstrator Designs for the EuCARD-2, 5 Tesla 40 mm Clear Aperture Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Chouika, N; Clement, S; Datskov, V; Fajardo, L; Fleiter, J; Gauthier, R; Gentini, L; Lambert, L; Lopes, M; Perez, J C; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; ten Kate, H; Durante, M; Fazilleau, P; Lorin, C; Härö, E; Stenvall, A; Caspi, S; Marchevsky, M; Goldacker, W; Kario, A


    Future high-energy accelerators will need very high magnetic fields in the range of 20 T. The EuCARD-2 work-package-10 is a collaborative push to take HTS materials into an accelerator quality demonstrator magnet. The demonstrator will produce 5 T standalone and between 17 T and 20 T, when inserted into the 100 mm aperture of Fresca-2 high field out-sert magnet. The HTS magnet will demonstrate the field strength and field quality that can be achieved. An effective quench detection and protection system will have to be developed to operate with the HTS superconducting materials. This paper presents a ReBCO magnet design using multi strand Roebel cable that develops a stand-alone field of 5 T in a 40 mm clear aperture and discusses the challenges associated with good field quality using this type of material. A selection of magnet designs is presented as result of a first phase of development.

  11. Term Analysis – Improving the Quality of Learning and Application Documents in Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Weiss


    Full Text Available Conceptual homogeneity is one determinant of the quality of text documents. A concept remains the same if the words used (termini change [1, 2]. In other words, termini can vary while the concept retains the same meaning. Human beings are able to handle concepts and termini because of their semantic network, which is able to connect termini to the actual context and thus identify the adequate meaning of the termini. Problems could arise when humans have to learn new content and correspondingly new concepts. Since the content is basically imparted by text via particular termini, it is a challenge to establish the right concept from the text with the termini. A term might be known, but have a different meaning [3, 4]. Therefore, it is very important to build up the correct understanding of concepts within a text. This is only possible when concepts are explained by the right termini, within an adequate context, and above all, homogeneously. So, when setting up or using text documents for teaching or application, it is essential to provide concept homogeneity.Understandably, the quality of documents is, ceteris paribus, reciprocally proportional to variations of termini. Therefore, an analysis of variations of termini could form a basis for specific improvement of conceptual homogeneity.Consequently, an exposition of variations of termini as control and improvement parameters is carried out in this investigation. This paper describes the functionality and the profit of a tool called TermAnalysis.It also outlines the margins, typeface and other vital specifications necessary for authors preparing camera-ready papers for submission to the 5th International Conference on Advanced Engineering Design. The aim of this paper is to ensure that all readers are clear as to the uniformity required by the organizing committee and to ensure that readers’ papers will be accepted as camera-ready for the conference.TermAnalysis is a software tool developed

  12. Should pay-for-performance schemes be locally designed? Evidence from the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) Framework. (United States)

    Kristensen, Søren Rud; McDonald, Ruth; Sutton, Matt


    It is increasingly recognized that the design characteristics of pay-for-performance schemes are important in determining their impact. One important but under-studied design aspect is the extent to which pay-for-performance schemes reflect local priorities. The English Department of Health White Paper High Quality Care for All introduced a Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) Framework from April 2009, under which local commissioners and providers were required to negotiate and implement an annual pay-for-performance scheme. In 2010/2011, these schemes covered 1.5% (£ 1.0 bn) of NHS expenditure. Local design was intended to offer flexibility to local priorities and generate local enthusiasm, while retaining good design properties of focusing on outcomes and processes with a clear link to quality, using established indicators where possible, and covering three key domains of quality (safety; effectiveness; patient experience) and innovation. We assess the extent to which local design achieved these objectives. Quantitative analysis of 337 locally negotiated CQUIN schemes in 2010/2011, along with qualitative analysis of 373 meetings (comprising 800 hours of observation) and 230 formal interviews (audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim) with NHS staff in 12 case study sites. The local development process was successful in identifying variation in local needs and priorities for quality improvement but the involvement of frontline clinical staff was insufficient to generate local enthusiasm around the schemes. The schemes did not in general live up to the requirements set by the Department of Health to ensure that local schemes addressed the original objectives for the CQUIN framework. While there is clearly an important case for local strategic and clinical input into the design of pay-for-performance schemes, this should be kept separate from the technical design process, which involves defining indicators, agreeing thresholds, and setting prices. These

  13. Summary report on technical experiences from high-temperature helium turbomachinery testing in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, I.A.


    In Germany a comprehensive research and development program was initiated in 1968 for a Brayton (closed) cycle power conversion system. The program was for ultimate use with a high temperature, helium cooled nuclear reactor heat source (the HHT project) for electricity generation using helium as the working fluid. The program continued until 1982 in international cooperation with the United States and Switzerland. This document describes the designs and reports the results of testing activities that addressed the development of turbines, compressors, hot gas ducts, materials, heat exchangers and other equipment items for use with a helium working fluid at high temperatures. 67 refs, 34 figs, tabs

  14. Stabilization of aerodynamically excited turbomachinery with hydrodynamic journal bearings and supports (United States)

    Barrett, L. E.; Gunter, E. J.


    A method of analyzing the first mode stability and unbalance response of multimass flexible rotors is presented whereby the multimass system is modeled as an equivalent single mass modal model including the effects of rotor flexibility, general linearized hydrodynamic journal bearings, squeeze film bearing supports and rotor aerodynamic cross coupling. Expressions for optimum bearing and support damping are presented for both stability and unbalance response. The method is intended to be used as a preliminary design tool to quickly ascertain the effects of bearing and support changes on rotor-bearing system performance.

  15. Cavitation instabilities and rotordynamic effects in turbopumps and hydroturbines turbopump and inducer cavitation, experiments and design

    CERN Document Server

    Salvetti, Maria


    The book provides a detailed approach to the physics, fluid dynamics, modeling, experimentation and numerical simulation of cavitation phenomena, with special emphasis on cavitation-induced instabilities and their implications on the design and operation of high performance turbopumps and hydraulic turbines. The first part covers the fundamentals (nucleation, dynamics, thermodynamic effects, erosion) and forms of cavitation (attached cavitation, cloud cavitation, supercavitation, vortex cavitation) relevant to hydraulic turbomachinery, illustrates modern experimental techniques for the characterization, visualization and analysis of cavitating flows, and introduces the main aspects of the hydrodynamic design and performance of axial inducers, centrifugal turbopumps and hydo-turbines. The second part focuses on the theoretical modeling, experimental analysis, and practical control of cavitation-induced fluid-dynamic and rotordynamic instabilities of hydraulic turbomachinery, with special emphasis on cavitating...

  16. Determination of the base quality criteria for the playgrounds in the context of planning and design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Seda Arslan Muhacir


    Full Text Available Correct design and planning of the playgrounds which have important roles for child development is one of the supporting element for this process positively. In this study the importance level of 11 planning and 5 design criteria from literature determined with using AHP method. Also sub-criteria which is related with each planning and design criteria is evaluated by expert group. Results showed that while security (KP7 was the most important planning criteria, playground equipment materials (KT4 was found the most important design criteria. While the playgrounds position in the park and access for disability was the most important planning sub criteria, equipment used in playgrounds which have functional, aesthetic as well as ecological features as design sub criteria. Consequently, some suggestions were given current and future improve for the playground quality.

  17. Impact Evaluation of Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Methodology and Causal Designs (United States)

    Leiber, Theodor; Stensaker, Bjørn; Harvey, Lee


    In this paper, the theoretical perspectives and general methodological elements of impact evaluation of quality assurance in higher education institutions are discussed, which should be a cornerstone of quality development in higher education and contribute to improving the knowledge about the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of quality…

  18. The Fuzzy Front End of Experience Design – Considering Ambiguous and Prescribed Qualities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha


    . Focusing on the phenomenological world of 21 participants, we analyse triangulated data by distinguishing between a range of more ‘ambiguous’ and ‘prescribed’ qualities of experiences. This case study contributes an example of how considering ambiguous and prescribed qualities of experience materials can...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos St. Kousouris


    Full Text Available Project Management methodology is based on three major constraints related with the project deliverable. These constraints are the time, the budget and the resources needed for accomplishing a project. While projects becoming more complex a new constraint occurred and is related with quality issues and how projects are satisfying the customer's (internal or external needs. Quality management is one of the knowledge areas of Project Management and targets to meet customers' expectations by providing high quality results.SixSigma is a quality methodology initiated in projects both in industry and service sector. The integration of Quality and Project Management comes in the form of Project Quality M anagement. The aim of this paper is to examine how a Six Sigma tool can be used in Project Quality Management system while a project is undertaken. Purpose: Presentation of SIPOC diagram in the Project Management methodology. Methodology/Approach: Research Findings: How S.I.P.O.C diagram can be applied in the Project Management methodology. Originality/Value: Contribution to Total Quality Management and Project Management literature.

  20. A Capabilities Perspective on Education Quality: Implications for Foundation Phase Teacher Education Programme Design (United States)

    Baxen, Jean; Nsubuga, Yvonne; Botha, Liz Johanson


    While governments and communities across the globe are faced with the challenge of providing their citizens with good-quality education, there is lack of consensus on how education quality should be defined. Whereas a great deal has been written about the human capital and human rights approaches, which currently dominate the debate, the potential…

  1. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale. (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon


    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  2. Fluid machinery application, selection, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Terry


    Published nearly a decade ago, Fluid Machinery: Performance, Analysis, and Design quickly became popular with students, professors, and professionals because of its comprehensive and comprehensible introduction to the fluid mechanics of turbomachinery. Renamed to reflect its wider scope and reorganized content, this second edition provides a more logical flow of information that will enhance understanding. In particular, it presents a consistent notation within and across chapters, updating material when appropriate. Although the authors do account for the astounding growth in the field of com

  3. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-23: Part 2: Science plan for improved water-quality information and management (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Demas, Charlie R.; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lee, Casey J.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.


    This report presents a science strategy for the third decade of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, which since 1991, has been responsible for providing nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater; how water quality is changing over time; and the major natural and human factors that affect current water quality conditions and trends. The strategy is based on an extensive evaluation of the accomplishments of NAWQA over its first two decades, the current status of water-quality monitoring activities by USGS and its partners, and an updated analysis of stakeholder priorities. The plan is designed to address priority issues and national needs identified by NAWQA stakeholders and the National Research Council (2012) irrespective of budget constraints. This plan describes four major goals for the third decade (Cycle 3), the approaches for monitoring, modeling, and scientific studies, key partnerships required to achieve these goals, and products and outcomes that will result from planned assessment activities. The science plan for 2013–2023 is a comprehensive approach to meet stakeholder priorities for: (1) rebuilding NAWQA monitoring networks for streams, rivers, and groundwater, and (2) upgrading models used to extrapolate and forecast changes in water-quality and stream ecosystem condition in response to changing climate and land use. The Cycle 3 plan continues approaches that have been central to the Program’s long-term success, but adjusts monitoring intensities and study designs to address critical information needs and identified data gaps. Restoration of diminished monitoring networks and new directions in modeling and interpretative studies address growing and evolving public and stakeholder needs for water-quality information and improved management, particularly in the face of increasing challenges related to population growth, increasing demands for water, and changing land use and climate

  4. On the construction of experimental designs for a given task by jointly optimizing several quality criteria: Pareto-optimal experimental designs. (United States)

    Sánchez, M S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C


    Experimental designs for a given task should be selected on the base of the problem being solved and of some criteria that measure their quality. There are several such criteria because there are several aspects to be taken into account when making a choice. The most used criteria are probably the so-called alphabetical optimality criteria (for example, the A-, E-, and D-criteria related to the joint estimation of the coefficients, or the I- and G-criteria related to the prediction variance). Selecting a proper design to solve a problem implies finding a balance among these several criteria that measure the performance of the design in different aspects. Technically this is a problem of multi-criteria optimization, which can be tackled from different views. The approach presented here addresses the problem in its real vector nature, so that ad hoc experimental designs are generated with an algorithm based on evolutionary algorithms to find the Pareto-optimal front. There is not theoretical limit to the number of criteria that can be studied and, contrary to other approaches, no just one experimental design is computed but a set of experimental designs all of them with the property of being Pareto-optimal in the criteria needed by the user. Besides, the use of an evolutionary algorithm makes it possible to search in both continuous and discrete domains and avoid the need of having a set of candidate points, usual in exchange algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A hybrid floating brush seal (HFBS) for improved sealing and wear performance in turbomachinery applications (United States)

    Lattime, Scott Byran

    A conceptually new type of seal has been developed for gas turbine applications which dramatically reduces wear and leakage associated with current labyrinth and brush seal technologies. The Hybrid Floating Brush Seal (HFBS) combines brush seal and film riding face seal technologies to create a hybrid seal that allows both axial and radial excursions of the sealed shaft, while simultaneously eliminating interface surface speeds (friction and heat) between the rotor and the brush material that characterize standard brush seal technology. A simple test rig was designed to evaluate feasibility of the HFBS under relatively low pressures and rotational speeds (50psig, 5krpm). A second test stand was created to study the effects of centrifugal force on bristle deflection. A third test facility was constructed for prototype development and extensive room temperature testing at moderate pressures and fairly high rotational speeds (100psig, 40krpm). This test rig also allowed the evaluation of the HFBS during axial movement of a rotating shaft. An analytical model to predict the effects of centrifugal force on the bristles of a rotating brush seal was developed. Room temperature analysis of the HFBS proved successful for relatively high operating rotational velocities at moderate pressures with very acceptable leakage rates for gas turbine engines. Brush seals were able to track rotor speeds up to 24krpm while maintaining sealing integrity. The HFBS's ability to function under axial shaft displacement and synchronous dynamic radial loading was also proven successful. Hydrodynamic performance of the face seal was proven to provide adequate stiffness and load carrying capacity to keep the brush seal from contacting the face seal at pressure drops across the brush of up to 100psi. Leakage performance over standard brush seal and labyrinth technology was quite dramatic. The HFBS showed its sealing advantage using much higher radial interference between the rotor and the bristle

  6. Flying Qualities Metrics and Design Guidelines for Modern Transport Aircraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and planned transport aircraft designs are making more use of fly-by-wire technology, allowing an unprecedented design space for control laws, including...

  7. A Comprehensive Design Approach of Power Electronic-Based Distributed Generation Units Focused on Power-Quality Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza, Miguel; Segundo, Juan; Nunez, Ciro


    The undesirable harmonic distortion produced by distributed generation units (DGUs) based on power-electronic inverters presents operating and power-quality challenges in electric systems. The level of distortion depends on the internal elements of the DGUs as well as on the characteristics...... of the grid, loads, and controls, among others. This paper presents a comprehensive method, focused on power-quality indexes and efficiency for the design of microgrids with multiple DGUs interconnected to the ac grid through three-phase multi-Megawatt medium-voltage pulsewidth...

  8. Numerical investigations on axial and radial blade rubs in turbo-machinery (United States)

    Abdelrhman, Ahmed M.; Tang, Eric Sang Sung; Salman Leong, M.; Al-Qrimli, Haidar F.; Rajamohan, G.


    In the recent years, the clearance between the rotor blades and stator/casing had been getting smaller and smaller prior improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the turbomachines as demand in the engineering field. Due to the clearance reduction between the blade tip and the rotor casing and between rotor blades and stator blades, axial and radial blade rubbing could be occurred, especially at high speed resulting into complex nonlinear vibrations. The primary aim of this study is to address the blade axial rubbing phenomenon using numerical analysis of rotor system. A comparison between rubbing caused impacts of axial and radial blade rubbing and rubbing forces are also aims of this study. Tow rotor models (rotor-stator and rotor casing models) has been designed and sketched using SOILDSWORKS software. ANSYS software has been used for the simulation and the numerical analysis. The rubbing conditions were simulated at speed range of 1000rpm, 1500rpm and 2000rpm. Analysis results for axial blade rubbing showed the appearance of blade passing frequency and its multiple frequencies (lx, 2x 3x etc.) and these frequencies will more excited with increasing the rotational speed. Also, it has been observed that when the rotating speed increased, the rubbing force and the harmonics frequencies in x, y and z-direction become higher and severe. The comparison study showed that axial blade rub is more dangerous and would generate a higher vibration impacts and higher blade rubbing force than radial blade rub.

  9. Implementation of a quality assurance system for the design and manufacturing of fuel assembly MTR-plate type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.


    Since more than 30 years ago, fuel assemblies (FA) of the MTR-Plate type, for research reactors, have been developed and produced using well known technologies, with different methods for the design, manufacturing, quality control and subsequent verification of FA behaviour, as well as of the design data. The FA and its reliability has been improved through the recycling of the obtained information. No nuclear accidents or major incidents have taken place that can be blamed to FA due to design, manufacturing or its use. Since the 70's, the use of Quality Assurance methodology has been increased, especially for Nuclear Power Plants, in order to ensure safety for these reactors. The use of QA for reactors for research, testing or other uses, has also been steadily increased, not only due to safety reasons, but also because of its convenience for a good operation, being presently a common requirement of the operator of the installation. Herewith is described the way the QA system that has been developed for the design, manufacturing, quality control and supply of MTR-plate type FA, at the Development Section of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). (Author)

  10. Quality assurance of analytical, scientific, and design computer programs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Standard applies to the design and development, modification, documentation, execution, and configuration management of computer programs used to perform analytical, scientific, and design computations during the design and analysis of safety-related nuclear power plant equipment, systems, structures, and components as identified by the owner. 2 figs

  11. Integrate System Modeling for Design and Production Planning of High Quality Products Considering Failure Data (United States)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro; Koga, Tsuyoshi


    Since the product recall problem is recently observed, realizing design and production activities that can prevent occurrences of a product failure has been becoming a serious issue. This paper proposes "the Synthetic design approach of a product and a production process which enables to reduce occurrences of a product failure from the initial stage of a product development." In order to realize this proposed concept as a specific system, the integrated model of the failure information in the design and production is introduced. This paper shows some examples of design and production for a circuit breaker and an automobile with considering a design error and a production failure using developed prototype system.

  12. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools (United States)

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  13. Design methods, selection, and cost-effectiveness of stormwater quality structures (United States)


    Implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Texas Pollutant : Discharge Elimination System (TPDES) requires that the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) : adopt a variety of stormwater quality measures to ...

  14. Design and Application of Quality Traceability System Based on RFID Technology for Red Jujubes


    Huang, Fenghua; Zhang, Shujuan; Zhao, Huaming


    Part 1: Decision Support Systems, Intelligent Systems and Artificial Intelligence Applications; International audience; The traceability system is regarded as an effective method to ensure safety quality for farm products by many countries all over the world. Although this system is common for a range of farm products, few reports for red jujube are available nowadays. Our study focuses on constructing a traceability system in terms of information technology in order to implement quality trac...

  15. Environmental radiation control and quality management system in design and operation of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.


    New environmental regulations and radiation safety standards are being implemented almost daily to ensure radiation safety, in particular for practices causing exposures to undue radiation doses. A particular emphasis of real challenge for organizations and users of radiation sources has to be for proper radiological safety assessment and is becoming cost effectively to be prepared for auditing. Special concern for the environment is of global . nature, and hence environmental auditing has been and will continue to be an essential practice for improving the environment and for meeting the relevant regulations and standards. In general, most facilities that deal with radioactive sources undertake strict safety measures in terms of personnel radiation protection, handling procedures and security. Hence, those measures should comply with the requirements of the environmental protection standards. Accordingly, a successful quality management system must balance realities of organization and personnel in achieving quality objectives. Organizational principles are found in the technical aspects of' quality management, such as, charting, requirements, measurements, procedures, ... , etc. Human principles are found in the communication side of quality management (e.g. meetings, ,decision making, ,teams, ... , etc). The quality management must understand and balance skills needed to blend them together. Large gamma irradiators present a high potential radiation hazard to the surrounding environment, since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of (P Bq) and a very high dose rates are produced during irradiation. Application of environmental radiation control deemed by regulatory authority and a proper quality management system by the utility would serve public health and safety

  16. Trends in the design, construction and operation of green roofs to improve the rainwater quality. State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Andrés Morales Mojica


    Full Text Available The green roofs appear as technology for the improvement water quality. This article identifies trends in the conditions of design, construction and operation of green roofs, which aim is to improve the quality of rainwater. A literature review was carried out in order to collect 45 original research papers from databases as Scopus, Science Direct, and Redalyc. From the information collected trends in increments and reductions in the concentrations of the main water quality parameters, seasons of the year with the best results, types of green roofs , types of substrate and most common components, construction trends (dimensions, inclination, Materials and layers and vegetation used in these systems have been determined. The results show that green roofs have the ability to neutralize acid rain. Extensive type roofs are the ones most commonly used, due to its characteristics of construction, functionality and low maintenance requirements.

  17. Ranking factors involved in product design using a hybrid model of Quality Function Deployment, Data Envelopment Analysis and TOPSIS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Feiz


    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is one such extremely important quality management tool, which is useful in product design and development. Traditionally, QFD rates the design requirements (DRs with respect to customer requirements, and aggregates the rating to get relative importance score of DRs. An increasing number of studies emphasize on the need to incorporate additional factors, such as cost and environmental impact, while calculating the relative importance of DRs. However, there are different methodologies for driving the relative importance of DRs, when several additional factors are considered. TOPSIS (technique for order preferences by similarity to ideal solution is suggested for the purpose of the research. This research proposes new approach of TOPSIS for considering the rating of DRs with respect to CRs, and several additional factors, simultaneously. Proposed method is illustrated using by step-by-step procedure. The proposed methodology was applied for the Sanam Electronic Company in Iran.

  18. Designing and implementing a Quality Broker: the GeoViQua experience (United States)

    Papeschi, Fabrizio; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Masò, Joan; Nativi, Stefano


    GeoViQua (QUAlity aware VIsualisation for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems) is an FP7 project aiming at complementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) with rigorous data quality specifications and quality-aware capabilities, in order to improve reliability in scientific studies and policy decision-making. GeoViQua main scientific and technical objective is to enhance the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) providing the user community with innovative quality-aware search and visualization tools, which will be integrated in the GEOPortal, as well as made available to other end-user interfaces. To this end, GeoViQua will promote the extension of the current standard metadata for geographic information with accurate and expressive quality indicators. Employing and extending several ISO standards such as 19115, 19157 and 19139, a common set of data quality indicators has been selected to be used within the project. The resulting work, in the form of a data model, is expressed in XML Schema Language and encoded in XML. Quality information can be stated both by data producers and by data users, actually resulting in two conceptually distinct data models, the Producer Quality model and the User Quality model (or User Feedback model). GeoViQua architecture is built on the brokering approach successfully experimented within the EuroGEOSS project and realized by the GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) which is part of the GCI. The GEO DAB allows for harmonization and distribution in a transparent way for both users and data providers. This way, GeoViQua can effectively complement and extend the GEO DAB obtaining a Quality augmentation Broker (DAB-Q) which plays a central role in ensuring the consistency of the Producer and User quality models. The GeoViQua architecture also includes a Feedback Catalog, a particular service brokered by the DAB-Q which is dedicated to the storage and discovery of user feedbacks. A very important issue

  19. Engineering of budesonide-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using a quality-by-design approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leng, Donglei; Thanki, Kaushik; Fattal, Elias


    with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for COPD management. Lipid-modified PLGA nanoparticles (LPNs) based on biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and the cationic lipid dioleyltrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) were prepared using a double emulsion solvent evaporation method. A quality...... efficiency. A response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for the experimental design to evaluate the influence of the CFPs on the CQAs, and to identify the optimal operation space (OOS). All nanoparticle dispersions displayed monodisperse size distributions (PDI

  20. Development of a microparticle-based dry powder inhalation formulation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride applying the quality by design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi K


    Full Text Available Keyhaneh Karimi, Edina Pallagi, Piroska Szabó-Révész, Ildikó Csóka, Rita Ambrus Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Regulatory Affairs, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Pulmonary drug delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride offers effective local antibacterial activity and convenience of easy application. Spray drying is a trustworthy technique for the production of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride microparticles. Quality by design (QbD, an up-to-date regulatory-based quality management method, was used to predict the final quality of the product. According to the QbD-based theoretical preliminary parameter ranking and priority classification, dry powder inhalation formulation tests were successfully performed in practice. When focusing on the critical parameters, the practical development was more effective and was in correlation with our previous findings. Spray drying produced spherical microparticles. The dry powder formulations prepared were examined by particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro drug release and aerodynamic particle size analyses were also performed. These formulations showed an appropriate particle size ranging between 2 and 4 µm and displayed an enhanced aerosol performance with fine particle fraction up to 80%. Keywords: antibiotic, carrier-free formulation, quality by design, aerodynamic evaluation, dry powder for inhalation

  1. Optimal Design of TCR/FC in Electric Arc Furnaces for Power Quality Improvement in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Electric Arc Furnaces (EAFs are unbalanced, nonlinear and time varying loads, which can cause many problems in the power system quality. As the use of arc furnace loads increases in industry, the importance of the power quality problems also increase. So in order to optimize the usages of electric power in EAFs, it is necessary to minimize the effects of arc furnace loads on power quality in power systems as much as possible. Therefore, in this paper, design and simulation of an electric plant supplying an arc furnace is considered. For this purpose, a three phase arc furnace model, which can simulate all the mentioned power quality indices, is developed based on Hyperbolic -Exponential model (V-I model. Then by considering the high changes of reactive power and voltage flicker of nonlinear furnace load, a thyristor controlled reactor compensation with fixed capacitor (TCR/FC are designed and simulated. In this procedure, the reactive power is measured so that maximum speed and accuracy are achieved. Finally, simulation results verify the accuracy of the load modelling and show the effectiveness of the proposed TCR/FC model for reactive compensating of the EAF.

  2. Improving Quality for Child Care Centers in Greater Philadelphia: An Evaluation of Success by 6®. Program Design Appendix. Publication #2016-07C (United States)

    Warner-Richter, Mallory; Lowe, Claire; Tout, Kathryn; Epstein, Dale; Li, Weilin


    The Success By 6® (SB6) initiative is designed to support early care and education centers in improving and sustaining quality in Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS). The SB6 evaluation report examines implementation and outcomes. The findings have implications for SB6 continous quality improvement process…

  3. The quality of the evidence base for clinical pathway effectiveness: Room for improvement in the design of evaluation trials (United States)


    Background The purpose of this article is to report on the quality of the existing evidence base regarding the effectiveness of clinical pathway (CPW) research in the hospital setting. The analysis is based on a recently published Cochrane review of the effectiveness of CPWs. Methods An integral component of the review process was a rigorous appraisal of the methodological quality of published CPW evaluations. This allowed the identification of strengths and limitations of the evidence base for CPW effectiveness. We followed the validated Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) criteria for randomized and non-randomized clinical pathway evaluations. In addition, we tested the hypotheses that simple pre-post studies tend to overestimate CPW effects reported. Results Out of the 260 primary studies meeting CPW content criteria, only 27 studies met the EPOC study design criteria, with the majority of CPW studies (more than 70 %) excluded from the review on the basis that they were simple pre-post evaluations, mostly comparing two or more annual patient cohorts. Methodologically poor study designs are often used to evaluate CPWs and this compromises the quality of the existing evidence base. Conclusions Cochrane EPOC methodological criteria, including the selection of rigorous study designs along with detailed descriptions of CPW development and implementation processes, are recommended for quantitative evaluations to improve the evidence base for the use of CPWs in hospitals. PMID:22709274

  4. Conceptual framework for potential implementations of multicriteria decision making (MCDM) methods for design quality assesment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartpulugil, T.; Prins, M.; Gultekin, A.T.; Topcu, Y.L.


    Architectural design can be considered as a process influenced by many stakeholders, each of which has different decision power. Each stakeholder might have his/her own criteria and weightings depending on his/her own perspective and role. Hence design can be seen as a multi-criteria decision making

  5. A User-Centered Educational Modeling Language Improving the Controllability of Learning Design Quality (United States)

    Zendi, Asma; Bouhadada, Tahar; Bousbia, Nabila


    Semiformal EMLs are developed to facilitate the adoption of educational modeling languages (EMLs) and to address practitioners' learning design concerns, such as reusability and readability. In this article, SDLD (Structure Dialogue Learning Design) is presented, which is a semiformal EML that aims to improve controllability of learning design…

  6. The Customer Flow Toolkit: A Framework for Designing High Quality Customer Services. (United States)

    New York Association of Training and Employment Professionals, Albany.

    This document presents a toolkit to assist staff involved in the design and development of New York's one-stop system. Section 1 describes the preplanning issues to be addressed and the intended outcomes that serve as the framework for creation of the customer flow toolkit. Section 2 outlines the following strategies to assist in designing local…

  7. Conceptual framework for potential implementations of multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods for design quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harputlugil, T.; Prins, M.; Tanju Gültekin, A.; Ilker Topçu, Y.


    Architectural design can be considered as a process influenced by many stakeholders, each of which has different decision power. Each stakeholder might have his/her own criteria and weightings depending on his/her own perspective and role. Hence design can be seen as a multi-criteria decision making

  8. Utilizing integrated facility design to improve the quality of a pediatric ambulatory surgery center. (United States)

    Pelly, Nicole; Zeallear, Brian; Reed, Mark; Martin, Lynn


    The aim was to use Integrated Facility Design (IFD) to design a surgery center that enhances the delivery of health care by developing processes that provide highly efficient patient, family, and provider flows while adding value and utilizing costly resources effectively. Integrated Facility Design is an adaptation of the Toyota 3P (Production, Preparation, Process) Program. The goal of IFD is to accelerate development time and lower start-up costs. The use of IFD produced a savings of $30 million in project costs and enabled a completion date 3.5 months ahead of schedule. The designed patient flow processes resulted in dramatic improvements in patient, family, and provider throughput. The use of IFD in the design of a pediatric ambulatory clinic and surgery resulted in significant cost savings and improved clinical efficiency. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Research in Geant4 electromagnetic physics design, and its effects on computational performance and quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Augelli, M; Hauf, S; Kim, C H; Kuster, M; Pia, M G; Filho, P Queiroz; Quintieri, L; Saracco, P; Santos, D Souza; Weidenspointner, G; Zoglauer, A


    The Geant4 toolkit offers a rich variety of electromagnetic physics models; so far the evaluation of this Geant4 domain has been mostly focused on its physics functionality, while the features of its design and their impact on simulation accuracy, computational performance and facilities for verification and validation have not been the object of comparable attention yet, despite the critical role they play in many experimental applications. A new project is in progress to study the application of new design concepts and software techniques in Geant4 electromagnetic physics, and to evaluate how they can improve on the current simulation capabilities. The application of a policy-based class design is investigated as a means to achieve the objective of granular decomposition of processes; this design technique offers various advantages in terms of flexibility of configuration and computational performance. The current Geant4 physics models have been re-implemented according to the new design as a pilot project....

  10. The Design and Implementation of Halal Beef Wholly Quality Traceability System


    Yang, Yongsheng; Bao, Wenxing


    International audience; In recent years, there are many food quality problems have happened. And they have had a serious effect on people’s physical and mental health. The quality tracing of livestock products have arrested the intensively attention of the society of different parts. In NingXia, which is as the main living place of Hui National people, the industry of Halal beef and mutton is one of the leading industries for the development of local agriculture. Based on the requirement of a...

  11. Design and methods of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA), 2015 (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Journey, Celeste A.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Qi, Sharon L.


    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project conducted the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (PNSQA) to investigate stream quality across the western part of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the PNSQA was to assess the health of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to in-stream aquatic life and by evaluating the relation between these stressors and the condition of biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowland and Willamette Valley Level III Ecoregions were the focus of this regional study. Findings will help inform the public and policymakers about human and environmental factors that are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights into possible strategies to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.Land-use data were used in the study to identify and select sites within the region that ranged in levels of urban and agricultural development. A total of 88 sites were selected across the region—69 were on streams that explicitly spanned a range of urban land use in their watersheds, 8 were on streams in agricultural watersheds, and 11 were reference sites with little or no development in their watersheds. Depending on the type of land use, sites were sampled for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment for either a 4- or 10-week period during April, May, and June 2015. This water-quality “index period” was immediately followed with an ecological survey of all sites that included stream habitat, benthic algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Additionally, streambed sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing.This report provides a detailed description of the specific study components and methods of the PNSQA, including (1) surveys of stream habitat and aquatic biota, (2) discrete

  12. Differential quality and technical/managerial advice relationships in Andalusian (Spain olive oil protected designations of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Cendón


    Full Text Available A relevant topic investigated in ‘Local Agro-Food Systems’ studies (LAFS is the key role of collective action in the dissemination of innovations and knowledge aimed at the organization of quality on a local scale. The scope of this article deals with the methodological tools for typifying the relationships made, in LAFS hosting a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, between the relational social capital and the differential quality of firms. The objective of this work is to categorize the agro-industrial firms into hierarchies for implementing rural development policies, with respect to their technical and managerial advice relationships and their score achieved in terms of product and process quality. The study takes into account the LAFS of “Estepa” and “Sierra de Segura”, Andalusia (S Spain, corresponding to two important olive oil PDOs. The methodological approach comprises, firstly, the elaboration of a quality synthetic indicator on processes and products of the mills. Secondly, social network analysis is applied to the technical/managerial advice networks of the mills. Thirdly, a mill typology was established by means of factor analysis which employs quality and relational indicators. It is proved that the Regulatory Boards, as well as the second-step cooperatives, can assume a role of integrating poles with respect to the collective action developed in the LAFS, particularly in terms of dissemination of knowledge and innovations, which enhances the process and product quality of local firms. The existence of networks is a necessary condition to improve and homogenize the quality in a diffuse local agro-food structure.

  13. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  14. A quality by design (QbD case study on enteric-coated pellets: Screening of critical variables and establishment of design space at laboratory scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuling Kan


    Full Text Available The study aims to prepare naproxen enteric-coated pellets (NAP-ECPs by fluid-bed coating using QbD principle. Risk assessment was firstly performed by using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA methodology. A Plackett–Burman design was then used for assessment of the most important variables affecting enteric-coated pellets characteristics. A Box–Behnken design was subsequently used for investigating the main, interactive, and quadratic effects of these variables on the response. By FMEA we discovered that eight factors should be considered to be high/important risk variables as compared with others. The responses of acid resistance and cumulative drug release were taken as critical quality attributes (CQAs. Pareto ranking analyses indicated that the coating weight gain (X7, triethyl citrate percentage (X1 and glycerol monostearate percentage (X2 were the most significant factors affecting the selected responses out of the eight high-risk variables. Optimization with response surface method (RSM further fully clarified the relationship between X7, X1, X2 and CQAs, and design space was established based on the constraints set on the responses. Due to the extreme coincidence of the predicted value generated by model with the observed value, the accuracy and robustness of the model were confirmed. It could be concluded that a promising NAP-ECPs was successfully designed using QbD approach in a laboratory scale.

  15. A Two-Stage Taguchi Design ExampleImage Quality Promotion in Miniature Camera/Cell-Phone Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke K. Wang


    Full Text Available A simple, practical manufacturing process, integrating manufacturing capability-oriented design (MCOD philosophy and Taguchi’s method, is presented to tackle the high resolution miniature camera/cell phone lens issues at the manufacturing phase. Meanwhile, we also use optical software to create an analytical simulation model to investigate the quality characteristics due to lens’ thickness, eccentricity, surface profile, and air lens’ gap; a single quality characteristics expressed in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF is defined. Optimal combination of process parameters in experimental scenario using Taguchi’s method is performed, and the results are judged and analyzed by the indices of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N and the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The key idea of the two-stage design is to utilize optical software to conduct the sensitivity analysis of MTF first; an analytical model, dependent on actual process parameters at manufacturing stage, is constructed next; and finally by substituting these outputs from the analytical model back to the optical software to verify the design criterion and do the modifications. By minimizing both the theoretical errors at design stage and the complexity in the manufacturing process, we are able to seeking for the most economical solution, simultaneously attain the optimal/suboptimal combination of process parameters or control factors in lens manufacturing issue.

  16. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town. (United States)

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O


    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control.

  17. Implementation of quality by design approach in manufacturing process optimization of dry granulated, immediate release, coated tablets - a case study. (United States)

    Teżyk, Michał; Jakubowska, Emilia; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina


    The aim of this study was to optimize the process of tablets compression and identification of film-coating critical process parameters (CPPs) affecting critical quality attributes (CQAs) using quality by design (QbD) approach. Design of experiment (DOE) and regression methods were employed to investigate hardness, disintegration time, and thickness of uncoated tablets depending on slugging and tableting compression force (CPPs). Plackett-Burman experimental design was applied to identify critical coating process parameters among selected ones that is: drying and preheating time, atomization air pressure, spray rate, air volume, inlet air temperature, and drum pressure that may influence the hardness and disintegration time of coated tablets. As a result of the research, design space was established to facilitate an in-depth understanding of existing relationship between CPPs and CQAs of intermediate product (uncoated tablets). Screening revealed that spray rate and inlet air temperature are two most important factors that affect the hardness of coated tablets. Simultaneously, none of the tested coating factors have influence on disintegration time. The observation was confirmed by conducting film coating of pilot size batches.

  18. Evaluation of water-quality characteristics and sampling design for streams in North Dakota, 1970–2008 (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Vining, Kevin C.; Densmore, Brenda K.; Lundgren, Robert F.


    In response to the need to examine the large amount of historic water-quality data comprehensively across North Dakota and evaluate the efficiency of the State-wide sampling programs, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Dakota State Water Commission and the North Dakota Department of Health to describe the water-quality data collected for the various programs and determine an efficient State-wide sampling design for monitoring future water-quality conditions. Although data collected for the North Dakota State Water Commission High-Low Sampling Program, the North Dakota Department of Health Ambient Water-Quality Network, and other projects and programs provide valuable information on the quality of water in streams in North Dakota, the objectives vary among the programs, some of the programs overlap spatially and temporally, and the various sampling designs may not be the most efficient or relevant to the objectives of the individual programs as they have changed through time. One objective of a State-wide sampling program was to evaluate ways to describe the spatial variability of water-quality conditions across the State in the most efficient manner. Weighted least-squares regression analysis was used to relate the average absolute difference between paired downstream and upstream concentrations, expressed as a percent of the average downstream concentration, to the average absolute difference in daily flow between the downstream and upstream pairs, expressed as a percent of the average downstream flow. The analysis showed that a reasonable spatial network would consist of including the most downstream sites in large basins first, followed by the next upstream site(s) that roughly bisect the downstream flows at the first sites, followed by the next upstream site(s) that roughly bisect flows for the second sites. Sampling sites to be included in a potential State-wide network were prioritized into 3 design levels: level 1

  19. Demystifying Data: Designing and Implementing Data-Driven Systems and Practices for Continuous Quality Improvement (United States)

    Krugly, Andrew; Stein, Amanda; Centeno, Maribel G.


    Data-based decision making should be the driving force in any early care and education setting. Data usage compels early childhood practitioners and leaders to make decisions on the basis of more than just professional instinct. This article explores why early childhood schools should be using data for continuous quality improvement at various…

  20. Roadside vegetation design characteristics that can improve local, near-road air quality (United States)

    Roadside vegetation has been shown to impact downwind, near-road air quality, leading to both reductions and increases in pollutant concentrations which has led to confusion regarding the capability of vegetative barriers to mitigate near-road air pollution. These roadside veget...

  1. Designing High Quality Evaluation Systems for High School Teachers: Challenges and Potential Solutions (United States)

    Tyler, John H.


    A central part of education reform today is the wide-ranging and unprecedented effort to either revamp existing teacher evaluation systems or develop and implement entirely new systems. High-quality teacher evaluation systems are seen as one lever for improving the teacher workforce and hence the outcomes of students, including high school…

  2. Design for Limit Variability in Quality of Industrial Products: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area under the normal curve of the distribution was evaluated as 0.94 falling within acceptable limit for processes in control. ... 0.76 while the probability of any sample observation being within the control limit is 0.94, showing that the process in control. Keywords: limit variability, quality of products, control limits, process

  3. 75 FR 26113 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Purposes; Indiana; Redesignation of Lake and Porter Counties to Attainment for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental... and Porter Counties and the State of Indiana for the 1997 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air Quality... Porter Counties, the Indiana portion of the Chicago-Gary-Lake County, Illinois-Indiana (IL-IN) 8-hour...

  4. 77 FR 65151 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Ecosystem Protection, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA New England Regional Office, 5 Post Office... or in hard copy at Air Quality Planning Unit, Office of Ecosystem Protection, U.S... the implementation of part C, Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and part D, NSR permit...

  5. Image quality and doses on selected studies of conventional radiology in designed hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina; Machado Tejeda, Adalberto; Mora Machado, Roxana de la; Pedroso, Luis; Martinez Acosta, Ubaldo; Fiqueroa Garcia, Luisa M.


    The medical exposures have a significant contribution to the doses received by the population, although it has been given minor attention than to other exposure forms, despite of existing potentialities of reducing doses to the patients as consequence of these applications. In the last years the scientific community and international organizations have defined requirements to contribute to that the doses to the patients are the minimum ones necessary to achieve their diagnostic objective. The present work gives the results obtained in the evaluation of the image quality and doses for exams of thorax PA, lumbar spine AP and lumbar spine lateral, carried out in 2 university hospitals of Havana, as well as the contribution on this investigation to the establishment of the guidance levels in the country. During the investigation it took as reference for the reference for the evaluation of the image quality of the radiological studies the emitted criteria by European Union. The behavior of these approaches for the case of the thorax studies presented its biggest difficulties with the achievement of the approaches related with the visualization of breathing structures, being the execution percentages lower than the remaining countries of the region. In general the behaviour of the approaches of quality image in the ARCAL project. The behaviour of the image quality approaches are associated to different technical factors. The obtained results of doses for thorax PA are bigger than the recommended International Standards Basics in both hospitals. (author)

  6. Applying Knowledge-Based Methods to Design and Implement an Air Quality Workshop (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson


    In response to protection needs in class I wilderness areas, forest land managers of the USDA Forest Service must provide input to regulatory agencies regarding air pollutant impacts on air quality-related values. Regional workshops have been convened for land managers and scientists to discuss the aspects and extent of wilderness protection needs. Previous experience...

  7. Criteria for designing an MRI quality assurance program. A multicenter trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascaro, L.; Baldassarri, A.M.


    The authors report the preliminary results of a multicenter trial aimed at defining methods, reference values and frequency of measurements for a magnetic resonance quality assurance program. In particular, they stress the definition of two attention levels (investigation and intervention) for image uniformity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by means short-and long-term measurements [it

  8. Toward Quality Research in Counseling Psychology: Curricular Recommendations for Design and Analysis. (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E.


    Survey results indicated many students are not well trained in procedures that are commonly used in counseling psychology research and that the present level of training attenuates the quality of research in counseling psychology. Research competencies and curricular modifications that will aid the acquisition of those competencies are proposed.…

  9. 77 FR 67600 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality... (United States)

    2012-11-13 , some information may be publicly available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material, large maps), and some may not be publicly available in either location (e.g., CBI). To inspect..., quality-assured data gathered at established State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) in the...

  10. 75 FR 27944 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning... (United States)


    ... available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available in either location (e.g., Confidential Business Information). To inspect the hard copy materials..., quality-assured and certified data gathered at established state and local air monitoring stations (SLAMS...

  11. 78 FR 17902 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality... (United States)


    ... publicly available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material, large maps), and some may not be publicly available in either location (e.g., CBI). To inspect the hard copy materials, please... Stations (SLAMS) in the nonattainment area and entered into the EPA Air Quality System (AQS) database. Data...

  12. 78 FR 20868 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning... (United States)


    ... only at the hard copy location (e.g., voluminous records, copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available in either location (e.g., CBI). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an... local air monitoring stations (SLAMS) in the nonattainment area, and entered into the EPA Air Quality...

  13. The design of the MBT-G adherence and quality scale. (United States)

    Folmo, Espen J; Karterud, Sigmund W; Bremer, Kjetil; Walther, Kristoffer L; Kvarstein, Elfrida H; Pedersen, Geir A F


    Few group psychotherapy studies focus on therapists' interventions, and instruments that can measure group psychotherapy treatment fidelity are scarce. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of the Mentalization-based Group Therapy Adherence and Quality Scale (MBT-G-AQS), which is a 19-item scale developed to measure adherence and quality in mentalization-based group therapy (MBT-G). Eight MBT groups and eight psychodynamic groups (a total of 16 videotaped therapy sessions) were rated independently by five raters. All groups were long-term, outpatient psychotherapy groups with 1.5 hours weekly sessions. Data were analysed by a Generalizability Study (G-study and D-study). The generalizability models included analyses of reliability for different numbers of raters. The global (overall) ratings for adherence and quality showed high to excellent reliability for all numbers of raters (the reliability by use of five raters was 0.97 for adherence and 0.96 for quality). The mean reliability for all 19 items for a single rater was 0.57 (item range 0.26-0.86) for adherence, and 0.62 (item range 0.26-0.83) for quality. The reliability for two raters obtained mean absolute G-coefficients on 0.71 (item range 0.41-0.92 for the different items) for adherence and 0.76 (item range 0.42-0.91) for quality. With all five raters the mean absolute G-coefficient for adherence was 0.86 (item range 0.63-0.97) and 0.88 for quality (item range 0.64-0.96). The study demonstrates high reliability of ratings of MBT-G-AQS. In models differentiating between different numbers of raters, reliability was particularly high when including several raters, but was also acceptable for two raters. For practical purposes, the MBT-G-AQS can be used for training, supervision and psychotherapy research. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Design and implementation of a quality assurance program for gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya M, A.; Rodriguez L, A.; Trujillo Z, F. E.


    In nuclear medicine more than 90% of the carried out procedures are diagnostic. To assure an appropriate diagnostic quality of the images and the doses optimization received by the patients originated in the radioactive material, it is indispensable the periodic surveillance of the operation and performance of the equipment s by means of quality assurance tests. This work presents a proposal of a quality assurance program for gamma cameras based on recommendations of the IAEA, the American Association of Medical Physics and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Some tests of the program were applied to an gamma camera (Siemens) of the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer. The intrinsic and extrinsic uniformity, the intrinsic spatial resolution and the extrinsic sensibility were verified. For intrinsic uniformity the average daily values of the integral uniformity and differential uniformity in the useful vision field were 2.61% and 1.58% respectively, the average monthly values of intrinsic uniformity for the integral and differential uniformity in the useful vision field were 4.10% and 1.66% respectively. The used acceptance criterions were respectively of 3.74% and 2.74%. The average values of extrinsic uniformity for the useful vision field were of 7.65% (intrinsic uniformity) and 2.69% (extrinsic uniformity), in this case the acceptance criterion is a value of 6.00%. The average value of intrinsic spatial resolution went 4.67 mm superior to 4.4. mm that is the acceptance limit. Finally, maximum variations of 1.8% were observed (minors than 2% that is the acceptance criterion) for the extrinsic sensibility measured in different regions of the detector. Significant variations of extrinsic sensibility were not observed among the monthly lectures. Of the realized measurements was concluded that the system requires of a maintenance service by part of the manufacturer, which one carries out later on to this work. The

  15. Quality by design (QbD), Process Analytical Technology (PAT), and design of experiment applied to the development of multifunctional sunscreens. (United States)

    Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Ariede, Maira Bueno; Candido, Thalita Marcilio; de Almeida, Tania Santos; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; Consiglieri, Vladi Olga; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Baby, André Rolim


    Multifunctional formulations are of great importance to ensure better skin protection from harm caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV). Despite the advantages of Quality by Design and Process Analytical Technology approaches to the development and optimization of new products, we found in the literature only a few studies concerning their applications in cosmetic product industry. Thus, in this research work, we applied the QbD and PAT approaches to the development of multifunctional sunscreens containing bemotrizinol, ethylhexyl triazone, and ferulic acid. In addition, UV transmittance method was applied to assess qualitative and quantitative critical quality attributes of sunscreens using chemometrics analyses. Linear discriminant analysis allowed classifying unknown formulations, which is useful for investigation of counterfeit and adulteration. Simultaneous quantification of ethylhexyl triazone, bemotrizinol, and ferulic acid presented at the formulations was performed using PLS regression. This design allowed us to verify the compounds in isolation and in combination and to prove that the antioxidant action of ferulic acid as well as the sunscreen actions, since the presence of this component increased 90% of antioxidant activity in vitro.

  16. Designing image segmentation studies: Statistical power, sample size and reference standard quality. (United States)

    Gibson, Eli; Hu, Yipeng; Huisman, Henkjan J; Barratt, Dean C


    Segmentation algorithms are typically evaluated by comparison to an accepted reference standard. The cost of generating accurate reference standards for medical image segmentation can be substantial. Since the study cost and the likelihood of detecting a clinically meaningful difference in accuracy both depend on the size and on the quality of the study reference standard, balancing these trade-offs supports the efficient use of research resources. In this work, we derive a statistical power calculation that enables researchers to estimate the appropriate sample size to detect clinically meaningful differences in segmentation accuracy (i.e. the proportion of voxels matching the reference standard) between two algorithms. Furthermore, we derive a formula to relate reference standard errors to their effect on the sample sizes of studies using lower-quality (but potentially more affordable and practically available) reference standards. The accuracy of the derived sample size formula was estimated through Monte Carlo simulation, demonstrating, with 95% confidence, a predicted statistical power within 4% of simulated values across a range of model parameters. This corresponds to sample size errors of less than 4 subjects and errors in the detectable accuracy difference less than 0.6%. The applicability of the formula to real-world data was assessed using bootstrap resampling simulations for pairs of algorithms from the PROMISE12 prostate MR segmentation challenge data set. The model predicted the simulated power for the majority of algorithm pairs within 4% for simulated experiments using a high-quality reference standard and within 6% for simulated experiments using a low-quality reference standard. A case study, also based on the PROMISE12 data, illustrates using the formulae to evaluate whether to use a lower-quality reference standard in a prostate segmentation study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conversational interfaces for task-oriented spoken dialogues: design aspects influencing interaction quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niculescu, A.I.


    This dissertation focuses on the design and evaluation of speech-based conversational interfaces for task-oriented dialogues. Conversational interfaces are software programs enabling interaction with computer devices through natural language dialogue. Even though processing conversational speech is

  18. Designing and Assessing the Validity and Reliability of the Hospital Readiness Assessment Tools to Conducting Quality Improvement Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Gholipoor


    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Identifying the readiness of hospital and its strengths and weaknesses can be useful in developing appropriate planning and situation analyses and management to getting effective in clinical audit programs. The aim of this study was to design and assess the validity of the Hospital Readiness Assessment Tools to conduct quality improvement and clinical audit programs. Material and Methods: In this study, based on the results of a systematic review of literature, an initial questionnaire with 77 items was designed. Questionnaire content validity was reviewed by experts in the field of hospital management and quality improvement in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. For this purpose, 20 questionnaires were sent to experts. Finally, 15 participants returned completed questionnaire. Questionnaire validity was reviewed and confirmed based on Content Validity Index and Content Validity Ratio. Questionnaire reliability was confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha index (α = 0.96 in a pilot study by participation of 30 hospital managers. Results: The results showed that the final questionnaire contains 54 questions as nine category as: data and information (9 items, teamwork (12 questions, resources (5 questions, patient and education (5, intervention design and implementation (5 questions, clinical audit management (4 questions, human resources (6 questions, evidence and standard (4 items and evaluation and feedback (4 items. The final questionnaire content validity index was 0.91 and final questionnaire Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.96. Conclusion: Considering the relative good validity and reliability of the designed tool in this study, it appears that the questionnaire can be used to identify and assess the readiness of hospitals for quality improvement and clinical audit program implementation

  19. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)


    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  20. Design of a quality and performance improvement project for small primary care practices: reflections on the Center for Practice Innovation. (United States)

    Marsteller, Jill A; Woodward, Paula; Underwood, William S; Hsiao, Chun-Ju; Barr, Michael S


    Small practices often lack the human, financial and technical resources to make necessary practice improvements and infrastructure investments in order to achieve sustainable change that promotes quality and efficiency. To report on an effort to assist small primary care practices in improving quality of care and efficiency of practice management to meet the needs of patients, improve physician satisfaction and enhance the ability of these small practices to survive. We report on an intervention design and the reflections of the implementers on what they learned and what went well or poorly during implementation. Results of the intervention are reported separately (in Quality in Primary Care). Thirty practices underwent the entire intervention. The practices were selected on the basis of practice size, diversity in patient factors, apparent dedication to making practice improvements and geographic location. The main components of the intervention were two site visits to the participating practices by Center for Practice Innovation (CPI); now known as the Centre for Practice Improvement and Innovation, team members. The CPI team provided ongoing advice and support in focus areas selected by practices after initial site visit and assessment. A customised session focusing on the practice report and on helping practices to think about which areas they wished to improve was more effective in engaging practices than didactic presentation. Quality and practice management improvements were observed in information posting, patient education, staff communication and patient safety practices. Having a strong physician champion and a strong office manager determined to make quality improvement changes were important elements for successful change. In addition, practices with greater stability of staff and strong finances were more likely to meet project goals. Small practices today are facing a range of important challenges. The CPI sought to provide successful guidance to

  1. Reducing DNACPR complaints to zero: designing and implementing a treatment escalation plan using quality improvement methodology. (United States)

    Shermon, Elizabeth; Munglani, Laura; Oram, Sarah; William, Linda; Abel, Julian


    Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)decisions have traditionally formed the basis of ceiling of care discussions. However, poor quality discussions can lead to high patient and relative dissatisfaction, generating hospital complaints. Treatment escalation plans (TEPs) aim to highlight the wider remit of treatment options with a focus on effective communication. We aimed to improve TEP discussions and documentation at Weston General Hospital by introducing a standardised form. We aimed to develop a TEP document to reduce resuscitation-related complaints by improving communication and documentation. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected over 2 years and used to develop plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles using quality improvement methodology. Main barriers to improvement included time constraints and clinician's resistance. Analysis of patient liaison services data showed a progressive reduction in complaints regarding resuscitation, with no complaints having been received for the final six months of the project. Through use of a standardised form including treatment prompts, the quality of discussions and plans improved. Qualitative feedback demonstrated increased patient and relative satisfaction. In addition, junior doctors report the plans are helpful when making out-of-hours decisions. Development of a user-friendly form to document patient-guided TEPs helped junior doctors to lead advanced care planning discussions. The use of PDSA cycles demonstrated improvement in the quality of forms, which in turn improved communication, documentation and satisfaction. Future developments could include involvement of specialist teams to ensure TEP forms remain relevant to all clinical areas. In addition, with widespread use of the TEP forms, the traditional tick-box DNAR could be replaced to focus on patient-led care planning.

  2. Soil Quality Assessment Is a Necessary First Step for Designing Urban Green Infrastructure. (United States)

    Montgomery, James A; Klimas, Christie A; Arcus, Joseph; DeKnock, Christian; Rico, Kathryn; Rodriguez, Yarency; Vollrath, Katherine; Webb, Ellen; Williams, Allison


    This paper describes the results of a preliminary project conducted by a team of DePaul University undergraduate students and staff from the Gary Comer Youth Center located on Chicago's South Side. The team assessed soil quality on 116 samples collected among four abandoned residential lots adjacent to the Comer Center. Soil quality data will be used in a follow-up study to determine the suitability of each lot for green infrastructure implementation. Green infrastructure may be a useful approach for providing ecosystem services and mitigating food deserts in inner-city communities. Soil quality on all lots was poor. All soils had pH >8.0, low biological activity, and low N mineralization potential. The soils were rich in available P and had mean total Pb concentrations above the USEPA threshold (400 mg kg) for children's playlots. Mean bioavailable Pb on the largest of the four lots was 12% of total Pb, indicating that most of the total Pb is not bioavailable. This result is encouraging because high bioavailable Pb concentrations are linked with negative health effects, particularly in children. All lots had NO-N concentrations below those considered to be appropriate for plant growth. On the other hand, no significant differences in mean concentrations of the other analytes were found. The poor soil quality in the four lots presents an opportunity to use green infrastructure to enhance ecosystem services, improve community and environmental health, and provide more equitable access to green space. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Longitudinal Pediatric Palliative Care: Quality of Life & Spiritual Struggle (FACE): design and methods. (United States)

    Dallas, Ronald H; Wilkins, Megan L; Wang, Jichuan; Garcia, Ana; Lyon, Maureen E


    As life expectancy increases for adolescents ever diagnosed with AIDS due to treatment advances, the optimum timing of advance care planning is unclear. Left unprepared for end-of-life (EOL) decisions, families may encounter miscommunication and disagreements, resulting in families being charged with neglect, court battles and even legislative intervention. Advanced care planning (ACP) is a valuable tool rarely used with adolescents. The Longitudinal Pediatric Palliative Care: Quality of Life & Spiritual Struggle study is a two-arm, randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a disease specific FAmily CEntered (FACE) advanced care planning intervention model among adolescents diagnosed with AIDS, aimed at relieving psychological, spiritual, and physical suffering, while maximizing quality of life through facilitated conversations about ACP. Participants will include 130 eligible dyads (adolescent and family decision-maker) from four urban cities in the United States, randomized to either the FACE intervention or a Healthy Living Control. Three 60-minute sessions will be conducted at weekly intervals. The dyads will be assessed at baseline as well as 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-month post-intervention. The primary outcome measures will be in congruence with EOL treatment preferences, decisional conflict, and quality of communication. The mediating and moderating effects of threat appraisal, HAART adherence, and spiritual struggle on the relationships among FACE and quality of life and hospitalization/dialysis use will also be assessed. This study will be the first longitudinal study of an AIDS-specific model of ACP with adolescents. If successful, this intervention could quickly translate into clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of a dynamic model for nuclear energy management based on European Foundation for Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fam, I. M.; Shekari, A.


    The Business excellence model has been developed to improve and promote business levels. In business excellence model such as European Foundation for Quality Management model, the important role of resource management is emphasizes. In this paper, we have tried with consideration to tendency progressive concepts of nuclear energy management; a dynamic model has been presented for energy management within the scope of European Foundation for Quality Management model. Population growth could cause increasing of the level of energy demands. No doubt, the confidence of this developed phenomenon with the limits of environment will create greater challenges for the world and its inhabitants. Considering the shortage of energy supply all over the world, nuclear energy management has been studied with a view to fourth and fifth criterions included in European Foundation for Quality Management model (Partnership and resource and Process criteria's). In addition to it, a dynamic model has been presented for nuclear energy management within the scope of European Foundation for Quality Management model. In this dynamic model, with differential equation definition for each of the presented communications of defined causal model, input variable impacts on output ones have been determined and considered. They can be reviewed, based on six scenario plans, the importance of nuclear energy management of a business has been properly shown, and similarly the rate of investment on systems as a factor affecting the level of attention paid to the future of business enterprises, has been specified. This paper conceives nuclear energy management as an instrument to contribute to the growth and fall of a business. It is therefore, imperative to attach more importance at nuclear energy demand management in the business and an attempt should be made to keep it under our control

  5. The effect of brand, design, and price on intention to purchase mediated by quality perception at sport shoes X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Ruswanti


    Full Text Available Product cues have been identified as a major factor and are used by customers when they evaluate a product before deciding to buy. Customers evaluate products based on the product manual cues; generally, they use the brand, design and price, and produce quality perception and ceases on purchase intentions. This process also occurs in the prospective buyer's sport shoes X that have the largest sales in Indonesia. Therefore, the researchers are interested to test whether there is a relationship between the product cues on the quality perception and purchase intention for sports footwear products. This research was done by using a survey for the data collection, by distributing the questionnaires to 161 respondents. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling with Lisrel analysis tool. The result showed that the product cues have an influence mediated by the quality perception on purchase intentions. This study suggests that the perception of quality is as a full mediating variable between products cues and purchase intention.

  6. Thermal pasteurization of ready-to-eat foods and vegetables: Critical factors for process design and effects on quality. (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Tang, Juming; Barrett, Diane M; Sablani, Shyam S; Anderson, Nathan; Powers, Joseph R


    Increasing consumer desire for high quality ready-to-eat foods makes thermal pasteurization important to both food producers and researchers. To be in compliance with the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), food companies seek regulatory and scientific guidelines to ensure that their products are safe. Clearly understanding the regulations for chilled or frozen foods is of fundamental importance to the design of thermal pasteurization processes for vegetables that meet food safety requirements. This article provides an overview of the current regulations and guidelines for pasteurization in the U.S. and in Europe for control of bacterial pathogens. Poorly understood viral pathogens, in terms of their survival in thermal treatments, are an increasing concern for both food safety regulators and scientists. New data on heat resistance of viruses in different foods are summarized. Food quality attributes are sensitive to thermal degradation. A review of thermal kinetics of inactivation of quality-related enzymes in vegetables and the effects of thermal pasteurization on vegetable quality is presented. The review also discusses shelf-life of thermally pasteurized vegetables.

  7. Guidelines for the design of the working rules of the guarantee and quality control in radiotherapy commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, J.; Galmes, M.A.; Font, J.; Caro, J.; Serra, J.; Mata, F.; Bertan, S.; Biete, A.; Carceller, J.A.; Esco, R.; Palacios, A.; Veiras, C.; Vazquez, M.G.


    The 1566/1988 Royal Decree stated on July 17 th , focused on Quality Criteria in Radiation Therapy, was published in the Official Spanish Gazette on August 28 th . Its publication began a self-analysis process in all the Spanish Radiation Oncology Departments due to the fact that it implies the guidelines elaboration of each step of the radiation therapy process, including the patient post-treatment follow up and the equipment quality control. The Royal Decree orders the managers of the hospitals and facilities that have a radiation oncology department to create the Guarantee and Quality Control in Radiotherapy Commission. According to the Spanish law regulations, every single commission must have its own working rules based on the Chapter II, focused in 'Organos Colegiados', of the 30/1992 Law stated on November 27 th about Public Administration Legal Rules. The Guidelines for the design of the Guarantee and Quality Control in Radiotherapy Commission Working Rules here presented, have been done by consensus in Son Dureta University Hospital and afterwards sent to all Radiation Oncology Departments by the Spanish Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology. (author)

  8. Construction of quality-assured infant feeding process of care data repositories: definition and design (Part 1). (United States)

    Garcí A-de-León-Chocano, Ricardo; Sáez, Carlos; Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Garcí A-de-León-González, Ricardo; García-Gómez, Juan M


    This is the first paper of a series of two regarding the construction of data quality (DQ) assured repositories for the reuse of information on infant feeding from birth until two years old. This first paper justifies the need for such repositories and describes the design of a process to construct them from Electronic Health Records (EHR). As a result, Part 1 proposes a computational process to obtain quality-assured datasets represented by a canonical structure extracted from raw data from multiple EHR. For this, 13 steps were defined to ensure the harmonization, standardization, completion, de-duplication, and consistency of the dataset content. Moreover, the quality of the input and output data for each of these steps is controlled according to eight DQ dimensions: predictive value, correctness, duplication, consistency, completeness, contextualization, temporal-stability and spatial-stability. The second paper of the series will describe the application of this computational process to construct the first quality-assured repository for the reuse of information on infant feeding in the perinatal period aimed at the monitoring of clinical activities and research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualization of regulations to support design and quality control--a long-term study. (United States)

    Blomé, Mikael


    The aim of the study was to visualize design regulations of furniture by means of interactive technology based on earlier studies and practical examples. The usage of the visualized regulations was evaluated on two occasions: at the start when the first set of regulations was presented, and after six years of usage of all regulations. The visualized regulations were the result of a design process involving experts and potential users in collaboration with IKEA of Sweden AB. The evaluations by the different users showed a very positive response to using visualized regulations. The participative approach, combining expertise in specific regulations with visualization of guidelines, resulted in clear presentations of important regulations, and great attitudes among the users. These kinds of visualizations have proved to be applicable in a variety of product areas at IKEA, with a potential for further dissemination. It is likely that the approaches to design and visualized regulations in this case study could function in other branches.

  10. The Relationship Between Urban Design and Urban Quality of Life: “A Case Study of Kastamonu City- Turkey”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Öztürk


    Full Text Available The physical, social, and economic components of urban areas determine the characteristics and eligibility of urban life. Urban areas are negatively affected by rapid population growth, unplanned city development, insufficient physical environments, and social, economic and cultural problems. Nowadays, urban planning and design studies are being implemented to find solutions for the cities that lost their identities, became similar to each other, and externalized. These studies organize the physical components of the urban areas and aim to create livable and functional cities. In this study, the relationship between urban design and urban quality of life objectives is investigated in the city of Kastamonu. In this context, a poll was conducted among Kastamonu University students. As a result, it was found that there is a positively high degree (R: 0,776 linear correlation between urban design and quality of life. Moreover, it was observed that different age and gender groups have a different view of the city according to their spatial experiences.

  11. Functionality of disintegrants and their mixtures in enabling fast disintegration of tablets by a quality by design approach. (United States)

    Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Er, Patrick Xuan Hua; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia


    Investigation of the effect of disintegrants on the disintegration time and hardness of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) was carried out using a quality by design (QbD) paradigm. Ascorbic acid, aspirin, and ibuprofen, which have different water solubilities, were chosen as the drug models. Disintegration time and hardness of RDTs were determined and modeled by executing combined optimal design. The generated models were validated and used for further analysis. Sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone were found to lengthen disintegration time when utilized at high concentrations. Sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone worked synergistically in aspirin RDTs to decrease disintegration time. Sodium starch glycolate-crospovidone mixtures, as well as croscarmellose sodium-crospovidone mixtures, also decreased disintegration time in ibuprofen RDTs at high compression pressures as compared to the disintegrants used alone. The use of sodium starch glycolate in RDTs with highly water soluble active ingredients like ascorbic acid slowed disintegration, while microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone drew water into the tablet rapidly and quickened disintegration. Graphical optimization analysis demonstrated that the RDTs with desired disintegration times and hardness can be formulated with a larger area of design space by combining disintegrants at difference compression pressures. QbD was an efficient and effective paradigm in understanding formulation and process parameters and building quality in to RDT formulated systems.

  12. Quality criteria and access characteristics of Web sites: proposal for the design of a health Internet directory. (United States)

    Joubert, M; Aymard, S; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M


    The increasing volume of information available on the Internet today is a problem for health care professionals who want to access rapidly data of high quality. Usual search engines and directories are not sufficient to satisfy their needs. Moreover, the information published by Web sites is not always guaranteed. Some institutions around the word deal with the definition of a set of criteria for the evaluation of medical Web sites. We base our current work on the technologies we developed previously in order to integrate sources of information of various kinds using the "Unified Medical Language System" knowledge bases. This paper focuses on quality criteria and access characteristics Web sites should satisfy to be registered in a "Health Internet Directory". The design of such a system is proposed and discussed.

  13. Quality staff selection begins with designing a quality ad...making sure you are sending the marketplace the message you intended. (United States)

    de St Georges, Jennifer


    Check out the local newspapers for well and poorly written ads and any wages being listed. Analyze past applicants' resumes you have on file to see if you already have a qualified person on tap. Look within your current staff to see if there is a possibility of promoting from within. Design a plan for how you will inform/involve your staff. Does your staff know of any potential applicants. Set up the best method by which applicants will respond to the ad. Decide who will do initial culling of resumes and then make the first contact. Select the quality time within which to schedule the initial and follow-up interviews. Ensure all interview forms and techniques and legal considerations are current. Make a commitment not to compromise your standards or rush or sabotage the hiring process.

  14. 77 FR 5210 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Arnold & Tenbrook monitor. The siting of the replacement monitor at the Arnold West site was approved in the 2008 annual network plan as a more optimal location with respect to meeting the siting criteria in... replacement monitor be combined. Table 3--Design Values for Incomplete Data Monitors Compared to Highest...

  15. 76 FR 71452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality... (United States)


    ... arithmetic mean PM 2.5 concentrations for 2006-2009 and the 3-year averages of these values (i.e., design... requirements of Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272...

  16. 77 FR 16447 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning... (United States)


    ..., Cuyapaipe Area, Manzanita Area, and Campo Areas 1 and 2. See 69 FR at 23887. We intended to designate the...\\ Cuyapaipe Area,\\b\\ Manzanita Area,\\b\\ and Campo Areas 1 and 2.\\b\\ San Diego County (part) La Posta Areas 1...\\ Unclassifiable/Attainment Campo Areas 1 and 2 \\b\\ Unclassifiable/Attainment * * * * * * * \\a\\ Includes Indian...

  17. Improving the quality of numerical software through user-centered design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancake, C. M., Oregon State University


    The software interface - whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls - shapes the user`s perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typically are based on the designer`s understanding of how the software should be used. That is a poor foundation for usability, since the features that are ``instinctively right`` from the developer`s perspective are often the very ones that technical programmers find most objectionable or most difficult to learn. This paper discusses how numerical software interfaces can be improved by involving users more actively in design, a process known as user-centered design (UCD). While UCD requires extra organization and effort, it results in much higher levels of usability and can actually reduce software costs. This is true not just for graphical user interfaces, but for all software interfaces. Examples show how UCD improved the usability of a subroutine library, a command language, and an invocation interface.

  18. Quality of Slab Track Construction – Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šestáková Janka


    Full Text Available The slab track superstructure design (without ballast is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  19. Quality of Slab Track Construction – Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry


    Šestáková Janka


    The slab track superstructure design (without ballast) is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  20. 77 FR 48062 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas for Air Quality... (United States)


    ... 2009-2011), with general downward trends in ozone design values at most monitoring sites in the area (see Table 1 in the proposed rule for this rulemaking action, 77 FR 6747). Given the downward trend in... decreased electricity demand, decreased automobile, truck, and shipping traffic, and decreased factory...