WorldWideScience

Sample records for turbine hybrid dual-fueled

  1. Economic assessment and energy model scenarios of municipal solid waste incineration and gas turbine hybrid dual-fueled cycles in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udomsri, Seksan; Martin, Andrew R.; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2010-01-01

    Finding environmentally benign methods related to sound municipal solid waste (MSW) management is of highest priority in Southeast Asia. It is very important to study new approaches which can reduce waste generation and simultaneously enhance energy recovery. One concrete example of particular significance is the concept of hybrid dual-fuel power plants featuring MSW and another high-quality fuel like natural gas. The hybrid dual-fuel cycles provide significantly higher electrical efficiencies than a composite of separate single-fuel power plant (standalone gas turbine combined cycle and MSW incineration). Although hybrid versions are of great importance for energy conversion from MSW, an economic assessment of these systems must be addressed for a realistic appraisal of these technologies. This paper aims to further examine an economic assessment and energy model analysis of different conversion technologies. Energy models are developed to further refine the expected potential of MSW incineration with regards to energy recovery and environmental issues. Results show that MSW incineration can play role for greenhouse gas reduction, energy recovery and waste management. In Bangkok, the electric power production via conventional incineration and hybrid power plants can cover 2.5% and 8% of total electricity consumption, respectively. The hybrid power plants have a relative short payback period (5 years) and can further reduce the CO 2 levels by 3% in comparison with current thermal power plants.

  2. Effect of Syngas Moisture Content on the Emissions of Micro-Gas Turbine Fueled with Syngas/LPG in Dual Fuel Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadig Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Syngas produced by gasification has a potential to be one of the fueling solutions for gas turbines in the future. In addition to the combustible constituents and inert gases, syngas derived by gasification contains a considerable amount of water vapor which effect on syngas combustion behaviour. In this work, a micro-gas turbine with a thermal capacity of 50 kW was simulated using ASPEN Plus. The micro gas turbine system emissions were characterized using dry syngas fuels with a different composition, syngas 1 (10.53% H2, 24.94% CO, 2.03% CH4, 12.80% CO2, and 49.70% N2 and syngas 2 (21.62% H2, 32.48% CO, 3.72% CH4, 19.69% CO2, and 22.49% N2 mixed with LPG in a dual fueling mode. The effect of syngas moisture content was then studied by testing the system with moist syngas/LPG with a moisture content ranging from 0 to 20% by volume. The study demonstrates that the syngas moisture content has high influence on nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. It’s found that for 5% syngas moisture content, the NOx emission were reduced by 75.5% and 83% for Syngas 1 and Syngas 2 respectively. On carbon monoxide emissions and for same moisture content ratio, the reduction was found to be 43% and 57% for syngas1 and syngas 2 respectively.

  3. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  4. Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

  5. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  6. A wind turbine hybrid simulation framework considering aeroelastic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Su, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    In performing an effective structural analysis for wind turbine, the simulation of turbine aerodynamic loads is of great importance. The interaction between the wake flow and the blades may impact turbine blades loading condition, energy yield and operational behavior. Direct experimental measurement of wind flow field and wind profiles around wind turbines is very helpful to support the wind turbine design. However, with the growth of the size of wind turbines for higher energy output, it is not convenient to obtain all the desired data in wind-tunnel and field tests. In this paper, firstly the modeling of dynamic responses of large-span wind turbine blades will consider nonlinear aeroelastic effects. A strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation will be used for the basic structural dynamic modeling, which will be coupled with unsteady aerodynamic equations and rigid-body rotations of the rotor. Full wind turbines can be modeled by using the multi-connected beams. Then, a hybrid simulation experimental framework is proposed to potentially address this issue. The aerodynamic-dominant components, such as the turbine blades and rotor, are simulated as numerical components using the nonlinear aeroelastic model; while the turbine tower, where the collapse of failure may occur under high level of wind load, is simulated separately as the physical component. With the proposed framework, dynamic behavior of NREL's 5MW wind turbine blades will be studied and correlated with available numerical data. The current work will be the basis of the authors' further studies on flow control and hazard mitigation on wind turbine blades and towers.

  7. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.

  8. Demonstration and evaluation of dual-fuel technology; Demonstration och utvaerdering av dual-fuel-tekniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalhammar, Per; Erlandsson, Lennart; Willner, Kristina (AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (Sweden)); Johannesson, Staffan (Ecoplan AB (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    There is an increased interest for Dual Fuel (methane-Diesel) applications in Sweden since this technology is seen as one of the more interesting options for a fast and cost effective introduction of biomethane as fuel for HD engines. The Dual Fuel technology has been used for many years, mainly for stationary purpose (generators, pumps and ships) while the Spark Ignited (SI) 'Otto' technology has been used for trucks and busses. One obstacle for introducing Dual Fuel technology for busses and trucks is the EU legislation that don't allow for HD on road certification of Dual Fuel applications. Challenges with the Dual Fuel technology is to develop cost effective applications that is capable of reaching low emissions (especially CH{sub 4} and NO{sub x}) in combination with high Diesel replacement in the test cycles used for on road applications. AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (hereinafter called AVL) has on commission by SGC (Swedish Gas technical Centre) carried out this project with the objectives to analyze the Dual Fuel (Diesel-methane) technology with focus on emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges. One important part of this project was to carry out emission tests on selected Dual Fuel applications in Sweden and to compile experiences from existing Dual Fuel technology. This report also summarizes other commonly used technologies for methane engines and compares the Dual Fuel with conventional Diesel and Otto technologies. The major challenges with Dual Fuel applications for on road vehicles will be to develop robust and cost effective solutions that meet the emission legislations (with aged catalysts) and to increase the Diesel replacement to achieve reasonable reduction of green house gases (GHG). This is especially important when biomethane is available as fuel but not Bio-Diesel. It will probably be possible to reach EURO V emission limits with advanced Dual Fuel systems but none of the tested systems reached EURO V emission levels

  9. Hybrid fiber and nanopowder reinforced composites for wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz M. Chikhradze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation into the production of wind turbine blades manufactured using polymer composites reinforced by hybrid (carbon, basalt, glass fibers and strengthened by various nanopowders (oxides, carbides, borides are presented. The hybrid fiber-reinforced composites (HFRC were manufactured with prepreg technology by molding pre-saturated epoxy-strengthened matrix-reinforced fabric. Performance of the manufactured composites was estimated with values of the coefficient of operating condition (COC at a moderate and elevated temperature.

  10. The system design and performance test of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyantoro, Bambang Arip; Suphandani, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a tool that is being developed to generate energy from wind. One cause is still little use of wind energy is the design of wind turbines that are less precise. Therefore in this study will be developed the system design of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine and tested performance with experimental methods. The design of hybrid turbine based on a straight bladed Darrieus turbine along with a double step Savonius turbine. The method used to design wind turbines is by studying literature, analyzing the critical parts of a wind turbine and the structure of the optimal design. Wind turbine prototype of the optimal design characteristic tests in the wind tunnel experimentally by varying the speed of the wind. From the experimental results show that the greater the wind speed, the greater the wind turbine rotation and torque is raised. The hybrid vertical axis wind turbine has much better self-starting and better conversion efficiency.

  11. Hybrid high solar share gas turbine systems with innovative gas turbine cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Puppe, Michael; Giuliano, Stefano; Buck, Reiner; Krüger, Michael; Lammel, Oliver; Boje, Sven; Saidi, Karim; Gampe, Uwe; Felsmann, Christian; Freimark, Manfred; Langnickel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In this paper results from an ongoing research project (HYGATE) are presented, which is performed to reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and to increase the CO2 reduction potential of the solar-hybrid gas turbine plant concept (SHGT). Key improvements are the integration of thermal energy storage and the reduction of the operating temperature of the gas turbine to 950°C. As a result the solar receiver can provide the necessary temperature for solar-only operation of the plant at d...

  12. Advancing the Limits of Dual Fuel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    There is a growing interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest; the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors the Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, engine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the DDF engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste; commonly referred to as biomethane, can provide a reduction in greenhouse gases unmatched by any other fuel. The DDF engine is from a combustion point of view a hybrid between the diesel and the otto engine and it shares characteristics with both. This work identifies the main challenges of DDF operation and suggests methods to overcome them. Injector tip temperature and pre-ignitions have been found to limit performance in addition to the restrictions known from literature such as knock and emissions of NO{sub x} and HC. HC emissions are especially challenging at light load where throttling is required to promote flame propagation. For this reason it is desired to increase the lean limit in the light load range in order to reduce pumping losses and increase efficiency. It is shown that the best results in this area are achieved by using early diesel injection to achieve HCCI/RCCI combustion where combustion phasing is controlled by the ratio between diesel and methane. However, even without committing to HCCI/RCCI combustion and the difficult control issues associated with it, substantial gains are accomplished by splitting the diesel injection into two and allocating most of the diesel fuel to the early injection. HCCI/RCCI and PPCI combustion can be used with great effect to reduce the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons at light load. At high load, the challenges that need to be overcome are mostly related to heat. Injector tip temperatures need to be observed since the cooling effect of

  13. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system. This article, which was originally published online on 14 September 2017, contained an error in the acknowledgment section. The corrected acknowledgment appears in the Corrigendum attached to the pdf.

  14. Research on the aerodynamic characteristics of a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with a drag-type vertical axis wind turbines, one of the greatest advantages for a lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is its higher power coefficient (Cp. However, the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is not a self-starting turbine as its starting torque is very low. In order to combine the advantage of both the drag-type and the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines was designed in this article and its aerodynamics and starting performance was studied in detail with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations. Numerical results indicate that the power coefficient of this lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines declines when the distance between its drag-type blades and the center of rotation of the turbine rotor increases, whereas its starting torque can be significantly improved. Studies also show that unlike the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, this lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines could be able to solve the problem of low start-up torque. However, the installation position of the drag blade is very important. If the drag blade is mounted very close to the spindle, the starting torque of the lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines may not be improved at all. In addition, it has been found that the power coefficient of the studied vertical axis wind turbines is not as good as expected and possible reasons have been provided in this article after the pressure distribution along the surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blades of the hybrid turbine was analyzed.

  15. A study on an electronically controlled liquefied petroleum gas diesel dual-fuel automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhua Zhang; Yaozhang Bian; Lizeng Si; Junzhi Liao; Odbileg, N. [Chang' an Univ., Automobile Faculty, Xi' an (China)

    2005-02-15

    In this paper, the control scheme of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-diesel dual-fuel engine with electronic control is illustrated, the external characteristics and load characteristics of the LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine and the diesel engine are compared and analysed, and the results of automobile road tests are also given. The experimental results show that, compared with diesel, the output performance of dual fuel is not reduced, while smoke emission of dual fuel is significantly reduced, NO{sub x} emission of dual fuel is hardly changed, but HC emission and CO emission of dual fuel are increased and fuel consumption of dual fuel is reduced. (Author)

  16. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  17. Evaluation of the performance of a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshiharu [The Japan Gas Association, Tokyo (Japan). NGV Project Dept.; Daisho, Yasuhiro; Saito, Takeshi [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Dual fuel operation, in which natural gas is mixed with the diesel engine intake air and ignition is by diesel fuel spray, has the advantage that engine conversion is simple. Under high load it has the same high efficiency as a diesel engine and it can be switched to normal diesel operation for long distance running. Also, NO{sub x} and black smoke emissions can also be reduced. However, the disadvantages are to increase HC and CO emissions, to reduce efficiency under low load, and to emit the large amount of NO{sub x} under high load. Waseda University was commissioned by Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. to conduct research program involving experimentation ragarding a dual fuel engine. It was then discovered that the most effective means of solving the problems mentioned above is Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and that the effect can be increased by heating the intake air. An old engine before the current emission standard was converted to dual fuel operation. It was found that these measures enables NO{sub x}, black smoke and CO{sub 2} to be reduced while high thermal efficiency was maintained. They did not reach the point of satisfying latest Japanese emission standard. But it seemed that good results would have been obtained, if a base engine with good emissions had been converted for dual fuel operation. The results of assessing the performance of the dual fuel engine at this time are reported here, centered on the effect of EGR and intake heating. (orig.)

  18. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  19. Analysis of a gas turbine driven hybrid drive system for heavy vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmquist, Anders

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this thesis has been to analyze the performance and behavior of a gas turbine driven hybrid drive train. The thesis covers both computer simulations and experimental tests. In two case studies, a number of measurements have been made on gas turbine driven hybrid vehicles that are developed by Volvo and ABB. In the recent years, much effort is currently put into the design and analysis of hybrid drive trains. Many studies involve computer simulations, but they are often made on a general level. This thesis concentrate on gas turbine driven hybrids for heavy vehicles, a field that has previously not been covered to a large extent in academic studies. A major contribution to the field of hybrid drive train design is the development of detailed simulation models that have a close connection to hybrids that are actually built and tested. The access to detailed gas turbine data has further enhanced the possibility to design a dynamic model of the gas turbine driven and the electric circuits. The combination of simulations and extensive field experience gains new knowledge on the properties of gas turbines in hybrid drive trains. Two simulation models have been developed in Matlab and Simulink. One is a quasi-steady state model that can be used for drive cycle simulations, e.g. a complete bus line. The other is a transient model that combines the thermodynamic properties of the gas turbine, the mechanical properties of the combined turbine-generator shaft, the electric power circuit and the control system. The transient model has been used to simulate the power response during accelerations and retardation. An analysis of the internal energy flows and the system efficiency of a hybrid drive train contributes to the understanding of the properties of series hybrid drive trains. An important part of the topology is that the system is based on a DC/DC-converter that is connected between the battery and the DC-bus. It controls the DC-bus voltage and by this

  20. Impact of the use of a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling system in arid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ansary, Hany A.; Orfi, Jamel A.; Ali, Mohamed E.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cooling the air entering the compressor section of a gas turbine is a proven method of increasing turbine power output, especially during peak summer demand, and it is increasingly being used in powerplants worldwide. Two turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) systems are widely used: evaporative cooling and mechanical chilling. In this work, the prospects of using a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling. Such a system is capable of achieving a significant reduction in inlet air temperature that satisfies desired power output levels, while consuming less power than conventional mechanical chilling and less water than conventional evaporative cooling, thus combining the benefits of both approaches. Two hybrid system configurations are studied. In the first configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers that are coupled with dry coolers such that the condenser cooling water remains in a closed loop. In the second configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers but with conventional cooling towers. An assessment of the performance and economics of those two configurations is made by comparing them to conventional mechanical chilling and using realistic data. It was found that the TIAC systems are capable of boosting the power output of the gas turbine by 10% or more (of the power output of the ISO conditions). The cost operation analysis shows clearly the hybrid TIAC method with wet cooling has the advantage over the other methods and It would be profitable to install it in the new gas turbine power plants. The figure below shows a comparison of the water consumption for the three different cases. - Highlights: • New hybrid system for the turbine inlet air cooling is studied. • Hybrid system of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling is used. • Hybrid turbine inlet air cooling

  1. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  2. Hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support (HVTE-TS) project. 1995--1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a summary of technical work accomplished on the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine--Technology Support (HVTE-TS) Project during calendar years 1995 and 1996. Work was performed under an initial National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract DEN3-336. As of September 1996 the contract administration was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DoE) Chicago Operations Office, and renumbered as DE-AC02-96EE50553. The purpose of the HVTE-TS program is to develop gas turbine engine technology in support of DoE and automotive industry programs exploring the use of gas turbine generator sets in hybrid-electric automotive propulsion systems. The program focus is directed to the development of four key technologies to be applied to advanced turbogenerators for hybrid vehicles: Structural ceramic materials and processes; Low emissions combustion systems; Regenerators and seals systems; and Insulation systems and processes. 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Dual-fuel engine with cylinder pressure based control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritscher, Bert [Caterpillar Motoren GmbH und Co. KG, Kiel (Germany). Large Power Systems Div.

    2013-10-15

    Cylinder pressure sensors were initially used to detect knocking and misfiring on spark ignited gas engines. On its latest MaK brand dual-fuel engine, Caterpillar Motoren is harnessing the deep insights into combustion and engine condition that can be derived direct from the origin of engine power in sophisticated control, monitoring and diagnostic systems. (orig.)

  4. Perancangan Konstruksi Turbin Angin Diatas Hybrid Energi Gelombang Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musfirotul Ula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbin angin adalah kincir angin yang digunakan untuk membangkitkan tenaga listrik. Prinsip dasar kerjanya yaitu mengubah energi mekanis dari angin menjadi energi putar, lalu putaran kincir digunakan untuk memutar generator, yang akhirnya akan menghasilkan listrik. Turbin angin yang dirancang yaitu diatas floating. Maka diperlukan perancangan konstruksi turbin angin dengan dipilih tipe Vertical Axis Wind Turbine dengan blade yang sudah ada di pasaran dengan merk ‘Richuan’. Dengan spesifikasi power 5 KW, dimensi blade (4x0,6 m, jumlah blade 5, tinggi tower 8 m, diameter rotor 2,5 m, kecepatan laju angin 10 m / s, kecepatan angin beroperasi 3-25 m / s, dan 100 rpm. Kemudian konstruksi turbin angin akan digambarkan menggunakan software Solidworks dengan pembuat pemodelan terlebih dahulu. Model yang sudah dibuat kemudian di simulasikan untuk mendapatkan hasil analisa. Beban eksternal untuk di input sebesar 655 N dan 1300 N. Dari hasil simulasi dan analisa turbin angin diperoleh hasil untuk stress von mises sebesar 10,583,224.00 N / m2, displacement sebesar 7.781 mm, strain maksimal yaitu sebesar 3.84126, dan safety factor minimal yaitu sebesar 23.62. Dapat disimpulkan perancangan konstruksi turbin angin ini aman untuk pembebanan yang sudah ditentukan

  5. Modeling and control of a hybrid wind-tidal turbine with hydraulic accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, YaJun; Mu, AnLe; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a hybrid wind-tidal turbine with hydraulic accumulator. The hybrid turbine captures the offshore wind energy and tidal current energy simultaneously and stores the excess energy in hydraulic accumulator prior to electricity generation. Two hydraulic pumps installed respectively in wind and tidal turbine nacelles are used to transform the captured mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. To extract the maximal power from wind and tidal current, standard torque controls are achieved by regulating the displacements of the hydraulic pumps. To meet the output power demand, a Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID) controller is designed to distribute the hydraulic energy between the accumulator and the Pelton turbine. A simulation case study based on combining a 5 MW offshore wind turbine and a 1 MW tidal current turbine is undertaken. Case study demonstrates that the hybrid generation system not only captures all the available wind and tidal energy and also delivers the desired generator power precisely through the accumulator damping out all the power fluctuations from the wind and tidal speed disturbances. Energy and exergy analyses show that the energy efficiency can exceed 100% as the small input speeds are considered, and the exergy efficiency has the consistent change trends with demand power. Further more parametric sensitivity study on hydraulic accumulator shows that there is an inversely proportional relationship between accumulator and hydraulic equipments including the pump and nozzle in terms of dimensions. - Highlights: • A hybrid wind-tidal turbine is presented. • Hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Standard torque controls extract the maximal power from wind and tidal. • Generator outputs meet the electricity demand precisely. • Parametric sensitivity study on accumulator is implemented.

  6. Hybrid damper with stroke amplification for damping of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark L.; Høgsberg, Jan

    2016-01-01

    tower. The proposed hybrid damper consists of a passive viscous dashpot placed in series with a load cell and an active actuator. By integrated force feedback control of the actuator motion, the associated displacement amplitude over the viscous damper can be increased compared with the passive viscous......The magnitude of tower vibrations of offshore wind turbines is a key design driver for the feasibility of the monopilesupport structure. A novel control concept for the damping of these tower vibrations is proposed, where viscous-type hybrid dampers are installed at the bottom of the wind turbine...... case, hereby significantly increasing the feasibility of viscous dampers acting at the bottom of the wind turbine tower. To avoid drift in the actuator displacement, a filtered time integration of the measured force signal is introduced. Numerical examples demonstrate that the filtered time integration...

  7. Accelerated Degradation for Hardware in the Loop Simulation of Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Harun, Nor Farida; Hackett, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Morgantown, WV has developed the hybrid performance (HyPer) project in which a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) one-dimensional (1D), real-time operating model is coupled to a gas turbine hardware system by utilizing...

  8. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Herbert-Acero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel framework for the aerodynamic design and optimization of blades for small horizontal axis wind turbines (WT. The framework is based on a state-of-the-art blade element momentum model, which is complemented with the XFOIL 6.96 software in order to provide an estimate of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of small WT (SWT rotors for a wide range of operational conditions. The design variables are (1 the airfoil shape at the different blade span positions and the radial variation of the geometrical variables of (2 chord length, (3 twist angle, and (4 thickness along the blade span. A wind tunnel validation study of optimized rotors based on the NACA 4-digit airfoil series is presented. Based on the experimental data, improvements in terms of the aerodynamic efficiency, the cut-in wind speed, and the amount of material used during the manufacturing process were achieved. Recommendations for the aerodynamic design of SWT rotors are provided based on field experience.

  9. On Combustion in the CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Königsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a large interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest: the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors, the CNG-diesel dual fuelengine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the dual fuel engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste, co...

  10. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  11. Integration of Xantrex HY-100 Hybrid Inverter with an AC Induction Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Newcomb, C.; Friedly, S.

    2003-05-01

    Several issues must be addressed before solid-state inverters can be used in wind-diesel systems with larger wind turbines. This project addresses those issues by using a commercial hybrid inverter designed for PV-diesel systems and modifying the inverter for use with an AC induction wind turbine. Another approach would have entailed building an inverter specifically for use with an AC induction wind turbine, but that was beyond the scope of this project. The inverter chosen for this project was a Xantrex HY-100, an inverter designed for PV systems. The unit consists of an inverter/rectifier bridge, a generator interface contactor, a battery charge controller, a hybrid controller, and the associated control electronics. Details of the inverter may be found in Appendix A. A twofold approach was taken to integrating the existing inverter for use with an AC induction wind turbine: 1) development of a detailed model to model both steady-state and transient behavior of the system, and 2) modification and testing of the inverter with an induction wind turbine based on the modeling results. This report describes these two tasks.

  12. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  13. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – Integration with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid wind turbine system is proposed and feasibility study if conducted. • A complete mathematical model is developed and implemented in a software environment. • Multi-mode control strategy is investigated to ensure the system work smoothly and efficiently. • A prototype for implementing the proposed mechanism is built and tested as proof of the concept. • The proposed system is proved to be technically feasible with energy efficiency around 50%. - Abstract: Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy storage. A mechanical transmission mechanism is designed and implemented for power integration within the hybrid system. A scroll expander is adopted to serve as an “air-machinery energy converter”, which can transmit additional driving power generalized from the stored compressed air to the turbine shaft for smoothing the wind power fluctuation. A mathematical model for the complete hybrid process is developed and the control strategy is investigated for corresponding cooperative operations. A prototype test rig for implementing the proposed mechanism is built for proof of the concept. From the simulated and experimental studies, the energy conversion efficiency analysis is conducted while the system experiences different operation conditions and modes. It is proved that the proposed hybrid wind turbine system is feasible technically

  14. Active structural control of a floating wind turbine with a stroke-limited hybrid mass damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaqi; He, Erming

    2017-12-01

    Floating wind turbines are subjected to more severe structural loads than fixed-bottom wind turbines due to additional degrees of freedom (DOFs) of their floating foundations. It's a promising way of using active structural control method to improve the structural responses of floating wind turbines. This paper investigates an active vibration control strategy for a barge-type floating wind turbine by setting a stroke-limited hybrid mass damper (HMD) in the turbine's nacelle. Firstly, a contact nonlinear modeling method for the floating wind turbine with clearance between the HMD and the stroke limiters is presented based on Euler-Lagrange's equations and an active control model of the whole system is established. The structural parameters are validated for the active control model and an equivalent load coefficient method is presented for identifying the wind and wave disturbances. Then, a state-feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is designed to reduce vibration and loads of the wind turbine, and two optimization methods are combined to optimize the weighting coefficients when considering the stroke of the HMD and the active control power consumption as constraints. Finally, the designed controllers are implemented in high fidelity simulations under five typical wind and wave conditions. The results show that active HMD control strategy is shown to be achievable and the designed controllers could further reduce more vibration and loads of the wind turbine under the constraints of stroke limitation and power consumption. "V"-shaped distribution of the TMD suppression effect is inconsistent with the Weibull distribution in practical offshore floating wind farms, and the active HMD control could overcome this shortcoming of the passive TMD.

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  16. Econometric comparisons of liquid rocket engines for dual-fuel advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Econometric analyses of advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles indicate that there are economic benefits from development of new vehicles beyond the space shuttle as traffic increases. Vehicle studies indicate the advantage of the dual-fuel propulsion in single-stage vehicles. This paper shows the economic effect of incorporating dual-fuel propulsion in advanced vehicles. Several dual-fuel propulsion systems are compared to a baseline hydrogen and oxygen system.

  17. Design optimisation of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.J.; Siddle, A.; Pointon, K.

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of the combined ALSTOM Power Technology and Advantica Technologies project are reported as: (a) to design a gas turbine (GT) unit compatible with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in a high efficiency power system and aimed at the Distributed Power application range of 1-20MW, and (b) to identify the main features and components of a 'Proof of Concept' hybrid unit of output around 0.1MW, based on existing or near-market technology. The study showed: (i) while the potential for high efficiency SOFC + GT hybrid cycles is clear, little effort has been put into the design of the gas turbine and some other components and (ii) there is room for commercial exploitation in the areas of both component manufacture and system supply.

  18. Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell â Gas Turbine â Steam Turbine Power Plants Ranging from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe

    OpenAIRE

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    2007-01-01

    Detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, geometric, and cost models are developed, implemented, and validated for the synthesis/design and operational analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) â gas turbine (GT) â steam turbine (ST) systems ranging in size from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe. The fuel cell model used in this thesis is based on a tubular Siemens-Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) integrated in turn with a steam turbi...

  19. Hybrid vortex simulations of wind turbines using a three-dimensional viscous-inviscid panel method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos García, Néstor; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    adirect calculation, whereas the contribution from the large downstream wake is calculated using a mesh-based method. Thehybrid method is first validated in detail against the well-known MEXICO experiment, using the direct filament method asa comparison. The second part of the validation includes a study......A hybrid filament-mesh vortex method is proposed and validated to predict the aerodynamic performance of wind turbinerotors and to simulate the resulting wake. Its novelty consists of using a hybrid method to accurately simulate the wakedownstream of the wind turbine while reducing...

  20. An Innovative Solution for Suburban Railroad Transportation: The Gas Turbine-Hybrid Train

    OpenAIRE

    Capata, Roberto; Sciubba, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports the latest results of a study conducted on a hybrid train in which a gas turbine, operating in several alternative control modes (fixed point, on-off or load-following), generates the electrical energy for recharging a battery package and for driving the electric motors of a suburban train. The model, originally developed for automotive applications, has been validated by experimental tests performed on an ELLIOTT TA-45 GT group in the ENEA-Casaccia Research Center....

  1. Numerical Simulation of Methane Slip in Dual Fuel Marine Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jaehyun; Jensen, Michael Vincent; Pang, Kar Mun; Walther, Jens Honore; Schramm, Jesper; Bae, Choongsik

    2017-01-01

    The methane slip is the problematic issue for the engines using natural gas(NG). Because methane is more powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) than CO2, understanding of the methane slip during gas exchange process of the engines is essential. In this study, the influence of the gas pipe geometry and the valve timings on the methane slip was investigated. MAN L28/32DF engine was modeled to simulate the gas exchange process of the four stroke NG-diesel dual fuel engines. The mesh size of the model was...

  2. Prospects of biogas as dual fuel in small diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Irvinder; Mittal, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on diesel engines to find out the effect of induction rate of biogas on engine performance indices. The results of dual fuel engine performance was compared with diesel mode for various levels of biogas induction rate (0.3 to 7.2 l/s) engine load (20% to full load) and injection timing (20.6 to 48 before top dead centre). At full and 80% brake load, the best energy mix between diesel and biogas was 1.5:1 and 4:1 respectively. (author). 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Simulation and Parametric Analysis of a Hybrid SOFC-Gas Turbine Power Generation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.; Fahmy

    2004-01-01

    Combined SOFC-Gas Turbine Power Generation Systems are aimed to increase the power and efficiency obtained from the technology of using high temperature fuel cells by integrating them with gas turbines. Hybrid systems are considered in the last few years as one of the most promising technologies to obtain electric energy from the natural gas at very high efficiency with a serious potential for commercial use. The use of high temperature allows internal reforming for natural gas and thus disparity of fuel composition is allowed. Also air preheating is performed thanks to the high operating cell temperature as a task of energy integration. In this paper a modeling approach is presented for the fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid power generation systems, to obtain the sofc output voltage, power, and the overall hybrid system efficiency. The system has been simulated using HYSYS, the process simulation software to help improving the process understanding and provide a quick system solution. Parametric analysis is also presented in this paper to discuss the effect of some important SOFC operating parameters on the system performance and efficiency

  4. Recuperated atmospheric SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-05-04

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  5. Recuperated atmosphere SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-08-24

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  6. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  7. Exhaust emissions from an indirect injection dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Badr, O.A.; Soliman, H.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-04-01

    Diesel engines operating on gaseous fuels are commonly known as dual-fuel engines. In the present work, a single-cylinder, compression ignition, indirect injection research (Ricardo E6) engine has been installed at United Arab Emirates University for investigation of the exhaust emissions when the engine is operating as a dual-fuel engine. The influence of changes in major operating and design parameters, such as the concentration of gaseous fuel in the cylinder charge, pilot fuel quantity, injection timing and intake temperature, on the production of exhaust emissions was investigated. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel, while methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted in the intake manifold and mixed with the intake air. The experimental investigations showed that the poor emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the concentration of gaseous fuel (total equivalence ratio), employing a large pilot fuel quantity, advancing the injection timing of the pilot fuel and increasing the intake temperature. It is demonstrated that, in general, any measure that tends to increase the size of the combustion regions within the overly lean cylinder charge will reduce markedly the concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  8. Towards model-based control of RCCI-CDF mode-switching in dual fuel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indrajuana, Armando; Bekdemir, C.; Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2018-01-01

    The operation of a dual fuel combustion engine using combustion mode-switching offers the benefit of higher thermal efficiency compared to single-mode operation. For various fuel combinations, the engine research community has shown that running dual fuel engines in Reactivity Controlled Compression

  9. Fuzzy hybrid MCDM approach for selection of wind turbine service technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Kumar Bose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is aimed to present a fuzzy Hybrid Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM methodology for selecting employees. The present study aspires to present the hybrid approach of Fuzzy multiple MCDM techniques with tactical viewpoint to support the recruitment process of wind turbine service technicians. The methodology is based on the application of Fuzzy ARAS (Additive Ratio Assessment and Fuzzy MOORA (Multi-Objective Optimization on basis of Ratio Analysis which are integrated through group decision making (GDM method in the model for selection of wind turbine service technicians’ ranking. Here a group of experts from different fields of expertise are engaged to finalize the decision. Series of tests are conducted regarding physical fitness, technical written test, practical test along with general interview and medical examination to facilitate the final selection using the above techniques. In contrast to single decision making approaches, the proposed group decision making model efficiently supports the wind turbine service technicians ranking process. The effectiveness of the proposed approach manifest from the case study of service technicians required for the maintenance department of wind power plant using Fuzzy ARAS and Fuzzy MOORA. This set of potential technicians is evaluated based on five main criteria.

  10. Near-optimal operation of dual-fuel launch vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardema, M.D.; Chou, H.C.; Bowles, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Current studies of single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles are focused on all-rocket propulsion systems. One option for such vehicles is the use of dual-fuel (liquid hydrocarbon and liquid hydrogen (LH 2 )), for a portion of the mission. As compared with LH 2 , hydrocarbon fuel has higher density and produces higher thrust-to-weight, but has lower specific impulse. The advantages of hydrocarbon fuel are important early in the ascent trajectory, and its use may be expected to lead to reduced vehicle size and weight. Because LH 2 is also needed for cooling purposes, in the early portion of the trajectory both fuels must be burned simultaneously. Later in the ascent, when vehicle weight is lower, specific impulse is the key parameter, indicating single-fuel LH 2 use

  11. Optimal integration strategies for a syngas fuelled SOFC and gas turbine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingru; Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Lanzini, Andrea; Brandon, Nigel; Shah, Nilay

    This article aims to develop a thermodynamic modelling and optimization framework for a thorough understanding of the optimal integration of fuel cell, gas turbine and other components in an ambient pressure SOFC-GT hybrid power plant. This method is based on the coupling of a syngas-fed SOFC model and an associated irreversible GT model, with an optimization algorithm developed using MATLAB to efficiently explore the range of possible operating conditions. Energy and entropy balance analysis has been carried out for the entire system to observe the irreversibility distribution within the plant and the contribution of different components. Based on the methodology developed, a comprehensive parametric analysis has been performed to explore the optimum system behavior, and predict the sensitivity of system performance to the variations in major design and operating parameters. The current density, operating temperature, fuel utilization and temperature gradient of the fuel cell, as well as the isentropic efficiencies and temperature ratio of the gas turbine cycle, together with three parameters related to the heat transfer between subsystems are all set to be controllable variables. Other factors affecting the hybrid efficiency have been further simulated and analysed. The model developed is able to predict the performance characteristics of a wide range of hybrid systems potentially sizing from 2000 to 2500 W m -2 with efficiencies varying between 50% and 60%. The analysis enables us to identify the system design tradeoffs, and therefore to determine better integration strategies for advanced SOFC-GT systems.

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch

  13. Economic evaluation of small wind turbines and hybrid systems for residential use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Mihail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable electricity generating systems are gaining ground in residential sector for the purpose of diminishing the electricity bills or to reaching some degree of energy independence. The decision to invest in small wind turbines or hybrid energy generation technologies should be based on an economic estimation of money invested in such systems. Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE calculation for local technologies of choice for residential energy generation is a very meaningful figure for deciding whether the investment can bring financial satisfaction and for selecting which type of technology is the best suited for a specific location.

  14. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on some combustion characteristics of dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2003-03-01

    Combustion pressure rise rate and thermal efficiency data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on a dual fuel of Diesel and compressed natural gas and utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. The experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion and the thermal efficiency at different EGR ratios. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on a dual fuel of Diesel and compressed natural gas and having an exhaust gas recycling system is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data and crank angle data are stored in a PC for offline analysis. The effects of EGR ratio, engine speeds, loads, temperature of recycled exhaust gases, intake charge pressure and engine compression ratio on combustion noise and thermal efficiency are examined for the dual fuel engine. The combustion noise and thermal efficiency of the dual fuel engine are found to be affected when EGR is used in the dual fuel engine. (Author)

  15. Optimal dual-fuel propulsion for minimum inert weight or minimum fuel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical investigation of single-stage vehicles with multiple propulsion phases has been conducted with the phasing optimized to minimize a general cost function. Some results are presented for linearized sizing relationships which indicate that single-stage-to-orbit, dual-fuel rocket vehicles can have lower inert weight than similar single-fuel rocket vehicles and that the advantage of dual-fuel vehicles can be increased if a dual-fuel engine is developed. The results also indicate that the optimum split can vary considerably with the choice of cost function to be minimized.

  16. Hybrid dry cooling. Enhanced energy efficiency in steam turbines. Hybride Trockenkuehlung. Bessere Energienutzung bei Dampfturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucki, R. (Colenco Power Consulting AG, Baden (Switzerland)); Mueller, W. (Jaeggi AG, Bern (Switzerland)); Haltiner, E.W.

    1992-09-11

    Condensation turbo groups facilitate the utilization of thermal energy from vapor production plants, for example from garbage incineration. Through an optimum design of the cooling system, the profitable electric energy can be increased through the maximum spreading of the condensation temperature and the live steam temperature. The hybrid dry cooling guarantees unsurpassable operating conditions. (orig.).

  17. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Acero, José F.; Martínez-Lauranchet, Jaime; Probst, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize...

  18. Dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engines: Technology, performance, and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S. H.; Weaver, C. S.

    1994-11-01

    An investigation of current dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engine design, performance, and emissions was conducted. The most pressing technological problems associated with dual-fuel engine use were identified along with potential solutions. It was concluded that dual-fuel engines can achieve low NO(sub x) and particulate emissions while retaining fuel-efficiency and BMEP levels comparable to those of diesel engines. The investigation also examined the potential economic impact of dual-fuel engines in diesel-electric locomotives, marine vessels, farm equipment, construction, mining, and industrial equipment, and stand-alone electricity generation systems. Recommendations for further additional funding to support research, development, and demonstration in these applications were then presented.

  19. Development of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    A natural gas and diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compression ignition (CI) engine is developed to reduce emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG) pressure regulator is specially designed to feed back the boost pressure to simplify the fuel metering system. The natural gas bypass improves the engine response to acceleration. The modes of diesel injection are set according to the engine operating conditions. The application of honeycomb mixers changes the flowrate shape of natural gas and reduces hydrocarbon (HC) emission under low-load and lowspeed conditions. The cylinder pressures of a CI engine fuelled with diesel and dual fuel are analysed. The introduction of natural gas makes the ignition delay change with engine load. Under the same operating conditions, the emissions of smoke and NO{sub x} from the dual-fuel engine are both reduced. The HC and CO emissions for the dual-fuel engine remain within the range of regulation. (Author)

  20. Improvement performance and emissions in a diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas; Tennen gas dual fuel diesel kikan no seino haishutsu gas tokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S; Okamoto, T; Kusaka, J; Daisho, Y; Kihara, R; Saito, T [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper deals with a study on combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas. Dual fueling systems tend to emit high unburned fuel especially at low load, resulting in a decreased thermal efficiency. This is because natural gas-air mixtures are too lean for flame to propagate under low load conditions. Intake charge heating and uncooled EGR are very useful to improve emissions and thermal efficiency at low load. Such favorable effects are supported by NO kinetic simulations. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Studies on biogas-fuelled compression ignition engine under dual fuel mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahla, Sunil Kumar; Singla, Varun; Sandhu, Sarbjot Singh; Dhir, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Experimental investigation has been carried out to utilize biogas as an alternative source of energy in compression ignition (CI) engine under dual fuel operational mode. Biogas was inducted into the inlet manifold at different flow rates along with fresh air through inlet manifold and diesel was injected as a pilot fuel to initiate combustion under dual fuel mode. The engine performance and emission characteristics of dual fuel operational mode were analyzed at different biogas flow rates and compared with baseline conventional diesel fuel. Based upon the improved performance and lower emission characteristics under the dual fuel operation, the optimum flow rate of biogas was observed to be 2.2 kg/h. The lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and higher brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC) were noticed with biogas-diesel fuel under dual fuel mode when compared with neat diesel operation. Test results showed reduced NO x emissions and smoke opacity level in the exhaust tailpipe emissions. However, higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were noticed under dual fuel mode at entire engine loads when compared with baseline fossil petro-diesel. Hence, the use of low-cost gaseous fuel such as biogas would be an economically viable proposition to address the current and future problems of energy scarcity and associated environmental concerns.

  2. Effect of variation in LPG composition on emissions and performance in a dual fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.E. Saleh [Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt). Department of Mechanical Power Engineering

    2008-10-15

    This paper investigates the effect of variation in LPG composition on emissions and performance characteristics in a dual fuel engine run on diesel fuel and five gaseous fuel of LPG with different composition. To quantify the best LPG composition for dual fuel operation especially in order to improve the exhaust emissions quality while maintaining high thermal efficiency comparable to a conventional diesel engine, a two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke, DI diesel engine converted to run as pilot-injected dual fuel engine. The tests and data collection were performed under various conditions of load at constant engine speed. From the results, it is observed that the exhaust emissions and fuel conversion efficiency of the dual fuel engine are found to be affected when different LPG composition is used as higher butane content lead to lower NOx levels while higher propane content reduces CO levels. Fuel No. 3 (70% propane, 30% butane) with mass fraction 40% substitution of the diesel fuel was the best LPG composition in the dual fuel operation except that at part loads. Also, tests were made for fuel No. 3-diesel blend in the dual fuel operation at part loads to improve the engine performances and exhaust emissions by using the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) method. 26 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Dynamic response evaluation of sensorless MPPT method for hybrid PV-DFIG wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method for a hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind system, which consists of Photovoltaic (PV system and Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG Wind Turbine. In the hybrid system, the DC/DC converter output of the PV system is directly connected to the DC-link of DFIG’s back-to-back converter. Therefore, the PV inverter and its associated circuit can be removed in this structure. Typically, the PV power is monitored by using PV current sensor and PV voltage sensor for MPPT. In this paper, the powers of converters on grid side and rotor side of DFIG are used to estimate the PV power without the PV current sensor. That can efficiently reduce the cost of the hybrid system. The detailed analysis of the sensorless MPPT method, which includes derived equations and operation response, is also presented in this paper. In addition, an overview of PV-DFIG research in literature is stated to supply comprehensive knowledge of related research.

  4. Recovery of exhaust waste heat for a hybrid car using steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababatin, Yasser

    A number of car engines operate with an efficiency rate of approximately 22% to 25% [1]. The remainder of the energy these engines generate is wasted through heat escape out of the exhaust pipe. There is now an increasing desire to reuse this heat energy, which would improve the overall efficiency of car engines by reducing their consumption of fuel. Another benefit is that such reuse would minimize harmful greenhouse gases that are emitted into the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to examine how the wasted heat energy can be reused and/or recovered by use of a heat recovery system that would store this energy in a hybrid car battery. Green turbines will be analyzed as a possible solution to recycle the lost energy in a way that will also improve the overall automotive energy efficiency.

  5. Using a Hybrid Cost-FMEA Analysis for Wind Turbine Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacef Tazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA has been proven to be an effective methodology to improve system design reliability. However, the standard approach reveals some weaknesses when applied to wind turbine systems. The conventional criticality assessment method has been criticized as having many limitations such as the weighting of severity and detection factors. In this paper, we aim to overcome these drawbacks and develop a hybrid cost-FMEA by integrating cost factors to assess the criticality, these costs vary from replacement costs to expected failure costs. Then, a quantitative comparative study is carried out to point out average failure rate, main cause of failure, expected failure costs and failure detection techniques. A special reliability analysis of gearbox and rotor-blades are presented.

  6. Fuel composition effect on cathode airflow control in fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nana; Zaccaria, Valentina; Tucker, David

    2018-04-01

    Cathode airflow regulation is considered an effective means for thermal management in solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system. However, performance and controllability are observed to vary significantly with different fuel compositions. Because a complete system characterization with any possible fuel composition is not feasible, the need arises for robust controllers. The sufficiency of robust control is dictated by the effective change of operating state given the new composition used. It is possible that controller response could become unstable without a change in the gains from one state to the other. In this paper, cathode airflow transients are analyzed in a SOFC-GT system using syngas as fuel composition, comparing with previous work which used humidified hydrogen. Transfer functions are developed to map the relationship between the airflow bypass and several key variables. The impact of fuel composition on system control is quantified by evaluating the difference between gains and poles in transfer functions. Significant variations in the gains and the poles, more than 20% in most cases, are found in turbine rotational speed and cathode airflow. The results of this work provide a guideline for the development of future control strategies to face fuel composition changes.

  7. Simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke in a dual fuel DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Debabrata; Murugan, S., E-mail: s.murugan@nitrkl.ac.in

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • A solution to use the de-oiled cakes disposed from oil industries. • Biogas produced from Karanja de-oiled cakes contains about 73% methane. • Simultaneous reduction of NO and smoke is possible with KME–biogas dual fuel operation. • Up to 30% replacement of KME is possible with induction of biogas at 0.9 kg/h. • Improved part load performance and emission with KME–biogas dual fuel. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on a compression ignition (CI) engine, modified to run on dual fuel mode, using biogas as a primary fuel and KME (Karanja methyl ester) as a pilot fuel. The biogas was produced by anaerobic digestion of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) seed cakes. In dual fuel mode, the biogas was inducted at four different flow rates, viz. 0.3 kg/h, 0.6 kg/h, 0.9 kg/h and 1.2 kg/h through the intake manifold of the engine. The biogas flow rate of 0.9 kg/h gave a better performance and lower emissions, than those of the other flow rates. The NO and smoke emissions were found to be lower by about 34% and 14%, than those of KME operation, at full load. The ignition delay was longer by about 1–2 °CA in the dual fuel operation, than that of KME at full load. The part load performance was found to be better in dual fuel operation, with reduced emissions of NO and smoke, in comparison with KME. The ignition delay at part load in dual fuel operation was also lower than that of KME operation.

  8. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke in a dual fuel DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Debabrata; Murugan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A solution to use the de-oiled cakes disposed from oil industries. • Biogas produced from Karanja de-oiled cakes contains about 73% methane. • Simultaneous reduction of NO and smoke is possible with KME–biogas dual fuel operation. • Up to 30% replacement of KME is possible with induction of biogas at 0.9 kg/h. • Improved part load performance and emission with KME–biogas dual fuel. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on a compression ignition (CI) engine, modified to run on dual fuel mode, using biogas as a primary fuel and KME (Karanja methyl ester) as a pilot fuel. The biogas was produced by anaerobic digestion of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) seed cakes. In dual fuel mode, the biogas was inducted at four different flow rates, viz. 0.3 kg/h, 0.6 kg/h, 0.9 kg/h and 1.2 kg/h through the intake manifold of the engine. The biogas flow rate of 0.9 kg/h gave a better performance and lower emissions, than those of the other flow rates. The NO and smoke emissions were found to be lower by about 34% and 14%, than those of KME operation, at full load. The ignition delay was longer by about 1–2 °CA in the dual fuel operation, than that of KME at full load. The part load performance was found to be better in dual fuel operation, with reduced emissions of NO and smoke, in comparison with KME. The ignition delay at part load in dual fuel operation was also lower than that of KME operation

  9. Design, Analysis, Hybrid Testing and Orientation Control of a Floating Platform with Counter-Rotating Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Samuel Adam Chinman

    The design and operation of two counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbines on a floating, semi-submersible platform is studied. The technology, called the Multiple Integrated and Synchronized Turbines (MIST) platform has the potential to reduce the cost of offshore wind energy per unit of installed capacity. Attached to the platform are closely-spaced, counter-rotating turbines, which can achieve a higher power density per planform area because of synergistic interaction effects. The purpose of the research is to control the orientation of the platform and rotational speeds of the turbines by modifying the energy absorbed by each of the generators of the turbines. To analyze the various aspects of the platform and wind turbines, the analysis is drawn from the fields of hydrodynamics, electromagnetics, aerodynamics and control theory. To study the hydrodynamics of the floating platform in incident monochromatic waves, potential theory is utilized, taking into account the slow-drift yaw motion of the platform. Steady, second-order moments that are spatially dependent (i.e., dependent on the platform's yaw orientation relative to the incident waves) are given special attention since there are no natural restoring yaw moment. The aerodynamics of the counter-rotating turbines are studied in collaboration with researchers at the UC Berkeley Mathematics Department using a high-order, implicit, large-eddy simulation. An element flipping technique is utilized to extend the method to a domain with counter-rotating turbines and the effects from the closely-spaced turbines is compared with existing experimental data. Hybrid testing techniques on a model platform are utilized to prove the controllability of the platform in lieu of a wind-wave tank. A 1:82 model-scale floating platform is fabricated and tested at the UC Berkeley Physical-Model Testing Facility. The vertical-axis wind turbines are simulated by spinning, controllable actuators that can be updated in real-time of

  10. KAJIAN TEKNIS DAN EKONOMIS PENGGUNAAN DUAL FUEL SYSTEM (LPG-SOLAR PADA MESIN DIESEL KAPAL NELAYAN TRADISIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan bahan bakar alternatif dalam rangka mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap bahan bakar minyak (BBM, telah menjadi agenda penting  pemerintah. Penggunaan LPG (Liquefied Petrolium Gas pada mesin diesel kapal nelayan tradisional didasarkan pada keberhasilan penggunaan LPG pada kendaraan-kendaraan darat. Penggunaan LPG pada mesin diesel dilakukan secara dual fuel. Penelitian dual fuel system pada mesin diesel kapal nelayan tradisional bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan bahan bakar dual fuel terhadap kinerja mesin dan sistem penggeraknya, meliputi konsumsi bahan bakar, daya, kecepatan kapal, serta efisiensi pada sistem penggerak kapal. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan DongFeng ZS-1100 dengan tiga putaran mesin yang berbeda yaitu 1000rpm, 1250 rpm dan 1500 rpm. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, penggunaan LPG secara dual fuel mampu menggantikan konsumsi solar hingga 71% dari konsumsi solar seluruhnya selama satu jam. Komposisi LPG yang dihasilkan mencapai lebih dari 60%  dari total pemakaian bahan bakar saat dual fuel. Kecepatan dan jarak tempuh saat menggunakan solar seluruhnya mencapai 5% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dual fuel. Daya dan torsi saat menggunakan dual fuel mencapai 9,8 % lebih tinggi dibandingkan solar seluruhnya. Penggunaan dual fuel mampu mengurangi biaya operasional penangkapan ikan hingga 24,6%, namun dengan waktu tempuh 1,3% lebih lama dari solar seluruhnya. Efisiensi propulsi solar seluruhnya 6% lebih besar dibandingkan efisiensi propulsi dual fuel.

  11. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent

    2016-01-04

    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  12. Performance analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine cycle: Application of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihian, Farshid; Fung, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Variation of the stream properties in the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle. • Detailed analysis of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle. • Investigate effects of inlet fuel type and composition on performance of cycle. • Comparison of system operation when operated with and without anode recirculation. - Abstract: In this paper, the hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) model was applied to investigate the effects of the inlet fuel type and composition on the performance of the cycle. This type of analysis is vital for the real world utilization of manufactured fuels in the hybrid SOFC–GT system due to the fact that these fuel compositions depends on the type of material that is processed, the fuel production process, and process control parameters. In the first part of this paper, it is shown that the results of a limited number of studies on the utilization of non-conventional fuels have been published in the open literature. However, further studies are required in this area to investigate all aspects of the issue for different configurations and assumptions. Then, the results of the simulation of the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle are employed to explain the variation of the stream properties throughout the cycle. This analysis can be very helpful in understanding cycle internal working and can provide some interesting insights to the system operation. Then, the detailed information of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle is presented. For both syngas- and methane-fueled cycles, the operating conditions of the equipment are presented and compared. Moreover, the comparison of the characteristics of the system when it is operated with two different schemes to provide the required steam for the cycle, with anode recirculation and with an external source of water, provides some interesting insights to the system operation. For instance, it was shown that although the physical

  13. Operating Point Optimization of a Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Steam Turbine (SOFC-ST Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjo Ugartemendia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hydrogen powered hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-steam turbine (SOFC-ST system and studies its optimal operating conditions. This type of installation can be very appropriate to complement the intermittent generation of renewable energies, such as wind generation. A dynamic model of an alternative hybrid SOFC-ST configuration that is especially suited to work with hydrogen is developed. The proposed system recuperates the waste heat of the high temperature fuel cell, to feed a bottoming cycle (BC based on a steam turbine (ST. In order to optimize the behavior and performance of the system, a two-level control structure is proposed. Two controllers have been implemented for the stack temperature and fuel utilization factor. An upper supervisor generates optimal set-points in order to reach a maximal hydrogen efficiency. The simulation results obtained show that the proposed system allows one to reach high efficiencies at rated power levels.

  14. Combustion characteristics of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Longbao, Z.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The combustion characteristics of a turbocharged natural gas and diesel dual-fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine are investigated. With the measured cylinder pressures of the engine operated on pure diesel and dual fuel, the ignition delay, effects of pilot diesel and engine load on combustion characteristics are analysed. Emissions of HC, CO, NO{sub x} and smoke are measured and studied too. The results show that the quantity of pilot diesel has important effects on the performance and emissions of a dual-fuel engine at low-load operating conditions. Ignition delay varies with the concentration of natural gas. Smoke is much lower for the developed dual-fuel engine under all the operating conditions. (Author)

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of LPG combustion in dual-fuel engines; Modelisation thermodynamique de la combustion du GPL dans les moteurs dual-fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilcan, A.; Le Corre, O.; Tazerout, M. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 (France); Ramesh, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India)

    2002-07-01

    Dual-fuel engines are modified diesel engines burning simultaneously two fuels inside the cylinder: a gaseous one, called the primary fuel and a liquid one, called the pilot fuel. The thermal efficiency of the dual-fuel engine and of the diesel engine are comparable; the level of emissions is lower compared to the diesel one. This article presents a new procedure for the combustion modeling in a LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine. The procedures deals with the ignition delay period and with the rate of heat release inside the cylinder. This procedure is validated using experimental data issued front a collaboration with the Indian Institute of Technology from Madras, India. The used engine is a single-cylinder one, air-cooled. The pilot fuel is direct injected inside the cylinder The engine was run at constant load and with different diesel substitutions, i.e. for different air to fuel ratios of the primary fuel-air mixture. The general error of the procedure is below 10%. (authors)

  16. Basic Characteristics and Design of a Novel Hybrid Magnetic Bearing for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a five-degree-of-freedom (5-DOF hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB for direct-drive wind turbines, which can realize suspension in the 4-DOF radial and 1-DOF axial directions. Only two sets of radial control windings are employed in the proposed HMB because only one set of radial control windings can achieve the 2-DOF suspension in the radial direction. Unlike the traditional active thrust magnetic bearings, this paper uses a cylindrical rotor core without a large thrust disc in the novel HMB. The numbers of the controller, power amplifier and system volume can be reduced in the magnetic suspension system. This paper also presents the structure and basic characteristics of the proposed magnetic bearing. A precision equivalent magnetic circuit analysis of the permanent magnet ring and control magnetic field is conducted in this study, in consideration of the non-uniform distribution of magnetic density. Accordingly, the mathematical models, including the suspension force expression, are derived based on the accurate equivalent magnetic circuit. The basic principle of the structure parameter design is presented, based on the given key parameters. The accuracy of the analytical method is further validated by 3D finite element analysis.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system consisting of wind turbine and advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Ke; Li, Xuemei; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    A simulation model consisting of wind speed, wind turbine and AA-CAES (advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage) system is developed in this paper, and thermodynamic analysis on energy conversion and transfer in hybrid system is carried out. The impacts of stable wind speed and unstable wind speed on the hybrid system are analyzed and compared from the viewpoint of energy conversion and system efficiency. Besides, energy conversion relationship between wind turbine and AA-CAES system is investigated on the basis of process analysis. The results show that there are several different forms of energy in hybrid system, which have distinct conversion relationship. As to wind turbine, power coefficient determines wind energy utilization efficiency, and in AA-CAES system, it is compressor efficiency that mainly affects energy conversion efficiencies of other components. The strength and fluctuation of wind speed have a direct impact on energy conversion efficiencies of components of hybrid system, and within proper wind speed scope, the maximum of system efficiency could be expected. - Highlights: • A hybrid system consisting of wind, wind turbine and AA-CAES system is established. • Energy conversion in hybrid system with stable and unstable wind speed is analyzed. • Maximum efficiency of hybrid system can be reached within proper wind speed scope. • Thermal energy change in hybrid system is more sensitive to wind speed change. • Compressor efficiency can affect other efficiencies in AA-CAES system

  18. Emission and operating performance of a biomethane tractor with dual fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautner, Sebastian; Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    The use of biomethane as fuel for agricultural machinery with dual fuel technology is contributing to climate protection and ensures safe fuel supply. So far, hardly any documented operational experiences are known. The aim of the project, funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology, was to investigate practicability for daily use and the emission behaviour of a Valtra N101 prototype tractor (exhaust stage IIIA). The retrofitted dual-fuel technology of the former conventional diesel tractor simultaneously uses biomethane or natural gas and diesel as ignition fuel. During the field test over 590 working hours, the tractor showed overall high reliability. On average the operating range in dual-fuel mode with one complete filling of the gas tanks was about 11.5 hours. On the tractor test bench a significant improvement of the exhaust emissions could be observed, since the gas ECU had been optimized and changed by the manufacturer. For dual-fuel operation, nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are lower, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter emissions (PM) are higher compared to solely diesel operation. In particular, HC emissions exceed the proposed limiting value, submitted by the European Commission. This is due to incomplete gas combustion and insufficient conversion by the exhaust after-treatment-system (methane slip). A big potential for optimization is expected by adjusting the operating point-specific gasdiesel ratio and improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment system.

  19. Experimental Investigation Of Biogas-Biodiesel Dual Fuel Combustion In A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha D. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt at achieving diesel fuel equivalent performance from diesel engines with maximum substitution of diesel with renewable fuels. In this context the study has been designed to analyze the influence of B20 algae biodiesel as a pilot fuel in a biodiesel biogas dual fuel engine, and results are compared to those of biodiesel and diesel operation at identical engine settings. Experiments were performed at various loads from 0 to 100 % of maximum load at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. In general, B20 algae biodiesel is compatible with diesel in terms of performance and combustion characteristics. Dual fuel mode operation displays lower thermal efficiency and higher fuel consumption than for other fuel modes of the test run across the range of engine loads. Dual fuel mode displayed lower emissions of NOx and Smoke opacity while HC and CO concentrations were considerably higher as compared to other fuels. In dual fuel mode peak pressure and heat release rate were slightly higher compared to diesel and biodiesel mode of operation for all engine loads.

  20. Sensitivity of dual fuel engine combustion and knocking limits to gaseous fuel composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, M.Y.E. [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-02-01

    Combustion noise, knock and ignition limits data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuels of Diesel and three gaseous fuels separately. The gaseous fuels used are liquefied petroleum gas, pure methane and compressed natural gas mixture. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise, and the knocking and ignition limits are presented as torque output at the onset of knocking and ignition failure. Experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion, knocking and ignition limits for all gases at different design and operating conditions. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of Diesel and the tested gaseous fuel and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data and engine operating variables are stored in a PC for off line analysis. The effects of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, pilot fuel quantity and compression ratio on combustion noise, knocking torque, thermal efficiency and maximum pressure are examined for the dual engine running on the three gaseous fuels separately. The combustion noise, knocking and ignition limits are found to relate to the type of gaseous fuels and to the engine design and operating parameters. (author)

  1. Comparison of performance of biodiesels of mahua oil and gingili oil in dual fuel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an experimental work was carried out to compare the performance of biodiesels made from non edible mahua oil and edible gingili oil in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. Biodiesel was prepared by transesterification process and mahua oil methyl ester (MOME and gingili oil methyl ester (GOME were used as pilot fuels. The viscosity of MOME is slightly higher than GOME. The dual fuel engine runs smoothly with MOME and GOME. The test results show that the performance of the MOME is close to GOME, at the pilot fuel quantity of 0.45 kg/h and at the advanced injection timing of 30 deg bTDC. Also it is observed that the smoke, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydro carbon emissions of GOME lower than the MOME. But the GOME results in slightly higher NOx emissions. From the experimental results it is concluded that the biodiesel made from mahua oil can be used as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine.

  2. Compressed Biogas-Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine Optimization Study for Ultralow Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Koten

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out the optimum operating conditions in a diesel engine fueled with compressed biogas (CBG and pilot diesel dual-fuel. One-dimensional (1D and three-dimensional (3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD code and multiobjective optimization code were employed to investigate the influence of CBG-diesel dual-fuel combustion performance and exhaust emissions on a diesel engine. In this paper, 1D engine code and multiobjective optimization code were coupled and evaluated about 15000 cases to define the proper boundary conditions. In addition, selected single diesel fuel (dodecane and dual-fuel (CBG-diesel combustion modes were modeled to compare the engine performances and exhaust emission characteristics by using CFD code under various operating conditions. In optimization study, start of pilot diesel fuel injection, CBG-diesel flow rate, and engine speed were optimized and selected cases were compared using CFD code. CBG and diesel fuels were defined as leading reactants using user defined code. The results showed that significantly lower NOx emissions were emitted under dual-fuel operation for all cases compared to single-fuel mode at all engine load conditions.

  3. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  4. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  5. Sensitivity of dual fuel engine combustion and knocking limits to gaseous fuel composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E.

    2004-01-01

    Combustion noise, knock and ignition limits data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuels of Diesel and three gaseous fuels separately. The gaseous fuels used are liquefied petroleum gas, pure methane and compressed natural gas mixture. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise, and the knocking and ignition limits are presented as torque output at the onset of knocking and ignition failure. Experimental investigation on the dual fuel engine revealed the noise generated from combustion, knocking and ignition limits for all gases at different design and operating conditions. A Ricardo E6 Diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of Diesel and the tested gaseous fuel and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized, and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data and engine operating variables are stored in a PC for off line analysis. The effects of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, pilot fuel quantity and compression ratio on combustion noise, knocking torque, thermal efficiency and maximum pressure are examined for the dual engine running on the three gaseous fuels separately. The combustion noise, knocking and ignition limits are found to relate to the type of gaseous fuels and to the engine design and operating parameters

  6. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine’s thermal efficiency eta_t, volumetric efficiency eta_v and air excess ratio lambda

  7. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  8. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  9. HORIZONTAL AXIS MARINE CURRENT TURBINE DESIGN FOR WIND-ELECTRIC HYBRID SAILING BOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ekinci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of theoretical studies and applications on electric power production from renewable sources such as wind, solar, sea and tidal flows, has been increasing rapidly. Marine Current Turbines (MCTs, among the power turbines, produce power from alternating flows and are a means of power production even at lower flow rates in oceans and seas. In this study, while maintaining functional requirements, an initial and detailed design (mechanic and hydrodynamic, of an MCT fixed on a sailing boat and at sail which extracts power from the flow around the boat, is undertaken. In the design stages, for analysis and optimization of the marine turbine blade design, the Momentum Blade Element Method is utilized. The Horizontal Axis Marine Turbine (HAMT, determined by the initial and mechanical design, is illustrated with its components included. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses, covering turbine pod geometry at required flow rates and turbine speeds are performed. These analyses are performed very close to real conditions, considering sailing with and without the turbine running (on and off states. The alternator is determined from the results, and the final design which meets the design requirements, is obtained. As a result, a user friendly and innovative turbine design for sail boats, offering more power and efficiency, which is longer lasting compared to solar and wind technologies, that also makes use of renewable sources, such as wind and/or solar, and in addition stores and uses accumulated energy when needed, is proposed.

  10. Technical and Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules and a Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbowsk Radosław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of the economic and manufacturing system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, polymer membrane fuel cell and the electrolyzer. The system supplies the customer profile at the assumed wind and solar conditions. Energy analysis was conducted on the basis of the balance equations produced and received electric power. To assess the economic efficiency of investments adopted the following economic indicators: NPV, IRR, MIRR, MNPV, DPP. The authors describe the limits of investment costs intended for the construction, which use hybrid power generation system (HPGS is viable.

  11. A Novel Hybrid Approach for Numerical Modeling of the Nucleating Flow in Laval Nozzle and Transonic Steam Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Yousefi Rad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, considering the importance of desirable steam turbine design, improvement of numerical modeling of steam two-phase flows in convergent and divergent channels and the blades of transonic steam turbines has been targeted. The first novelty of this research is the innovative use of combined Convective Upstream Pressure Splitting (CUSP and scalar methods to update the flow properties at each calculation point. In other words, each property (density, temperature, pressure and velocity at each calculation point can be computed from either the CUSP or scalar method, depending on the least deviation criterion. For this reason this innovative method is named “hybrid method”. The next novelty of this research is the use of an inverse method alongside the proposed hybrid method to find the amount of the important parameter z in the CUSP method, which is herein referred to as “CUSP’s convergence parameter”. Using a relatively simple computational grid, firstly, five cases with similar conditions to those of the main cases under study in this research with available experimental data were used to obtain the value of z by the Levenberg-Marquardt inverse method. With this innovation, first, an optimum value of z = 2.667 was obtained using the inverse method and then directly used for the main cases considered in the research. Given that the aim is to investigate the two-dimensional, steady state, inviscid and adiabatic modeling of steam nucleating flows in three different nozzle and turbine blade geometries, flow simulation was performed using a relatively simple mesh and the innovative proposed hybrid method (scalar + CUSP, with the desired value of z = 2.667 . A comparison between the results of the hybrid modeling of the three main cases with experimental data showed a very good agreement, even within shock zones, including the condensation shock region, revealing the efficiency of this numerical modeling method innovation

  12. An examination of the flame spread limits in a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, O.; Karim, G.A.; Liu, B. [Calgary Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    The performance of a gas-fuelled diesel engine (dual fuel) is examined at light load and an effective threshold limit to the combustion of the gaseous fuel through bulk flame spread is identified. The relationship of such a limit to some of the key operating parameters is then discussed. A comparison between the measured values of the limit with those corresponding to the lower flammability limits of the gaseous fuel when evaluated under the prevailing cylinder conditions during pilot diesel fuel ignition showed similar trends. It is suggested that such a similarity may form a basis for estimating the lean operation limits for duel a fuel combustion in engines. A simple approach for estimating the limiting equivalence ratio for the apparent bulk flame spread limit is described for a methane-fuelled dual fuel engine. (Author)

  13. Transient simulation of a catalytic converter for a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Checkel, D. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Enginering, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Hayes, R. E. [Alberta Univ., Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    A catalytic converter of a ceramic monolith honeycomb substrate, coated with a washcoat of catalyst and attached to a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine was simulated and studied experimentally. The paper describes the application of one-dimensional finite element model for the transient and steady state operation. Laminar flow was approximated using a dispersed plug flow model, and chemical kinetics were simulated using LHHW (Langmuir/ Hinshelwood/ Hougan/ Watson) type expressions. Simulation results were compared with experimental results for heating and cooling cycles which resulted from speed and load changes on the engine. The comparison showed a maximum difference between the two sets of emission levels of about 10 per cent, showing that the one-dimensional model is acceptable model for this dual fuel engine converter combination. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs.

  14. Fracture Failure Analysis of Fuel Pump Transmission Shaft of Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pei-hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available NTS6ZLCz-129 dual-fuel turbocharged and intercooled engine durability test at 1000h, fuel pump shaft fractured. Fracture analysis, chemical analysis, microstructure examination and finite element stress analysis were carried out on the fractured shaft. The analysis result showed that the shaft fracture cause is forging fold. By improving the forging process, the forging fold was solved, and the durability test can be carried out smoothly.

  15. Dual-fuel HCCI operation with DME/LPG/gasoline/hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines include usage of the different type of fuels, ultra low nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions and improved fuel economy. Disadvantages include an excessive combustion rate, engine noise, and hydrocarbon and carbon emissions. An experiment on dual-fuel HCCI operation with dimethyl ether (DME)/liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/gasoline/hydrogen was presented. The advantages and disadvantages were first presented and the dual-fuel HCCI combustion engine was illustrated through an experimental apparatus. The experimental conditions were also presented in terms of engine speed, DME injection quantity, LPC injection quantity, and LPC composition. Experimental results were discussed for output performance and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). It was concluded that the effect of LPG composition in a DME-LPG dual-fueled HCCI engine at various injection quantity and injective timing were observed. Specifically, it was found that propane was a more effective way to increase IMEP in this study, and that in a DME HCCI engine, higher load limit was extended by using LPG as an ignition inhibitor. tabs., figs.

  16. Experimental investigation on dual fuel operation of acetylene in a DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajarajeswari Engineering College, Adayalampattu, Chennai, 600095 (India); Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, 600025 (India)

    2010-05-15

    Depletion of fossils fuels and environmental degradation have prompted researchers throughout the world to search for a suitable alternative fuel for diesel engine. One such step is to utilize renewable fuels in diesel engines by partial or total replacement of diesel in dual fuel mode. In this study, acetylene gas has been considered as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engine, which has excellent combustion properties. Investigation has been carried out on a single cylinder, air cooled, direct injection (DI), compression ignition engine designed to develop the rated power output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm under variable load conditions, run on dual fuel mode with diesel as injected primary fuel and acetylene inducted as secondary gaseous fuel at various flow rates. Acetylene aspiration resulted in lower thermal efficiency. Smoke, HC and CO emissions reduced, when compared with baseline diesel operation. With acetylene induction, due to high combustion rates, NO{sub x} emission significantly increased. Peak pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise also increased in the dual fuel mode of operation due to higher flame speed. It is concluded that induction of acetylene can significantly reduce smoke, CO and HC emissions with a small penalty on efficiency. (author)

  17. Concept for a LNG Gas Handling System for a Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rachow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ships are using LNG as main engine fuel because based on the facts that LNG has no sulphur content, and its combustion process, LNG produces low NOx content compared to heavy fuel oil and marine diesel oil. LNG is not only produces low gas emission, but may have economic advantages. In the engine laboratory of maritime studies department in Warnemunde, Germany, there is a diesel engine type MAN 6L23/30 A, where the mode operation of these engine would be changed to dual fuel engine mode operation. Therefore, in this thesis, the use dual fuel engine will be compared where it will utilize natural gas and marine diesel oil and select the required components for fuel gas supply system. By conducting the process calculation, engine MAN 6L23/30 A requires the capacity natural gas of 12.908  for 5 days at full load. A concept for LNG supply system would be arranged from storage tank until engine manifold. Germanischer Lloyd and Project Guide of dual fuel engine will be used as a guidelines to develop an optimal design and arrangement which comply with the regulation.

  18. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 6500 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine's thermal efficiency {eta}{sub t}, volumetric efficiency {eta}{sub v} and air-excess ratio {lambda} versus output power. An extensive parameter study is done to predict/explain the effect of dual fuel operation on {eta}{sub v} and {lambda}. Dual fuel experiments, adding different qualities (CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratios) of synthetic biogas to the intake air, show that thermal efficiency is hardly affected for higher loads. For lower loads, biogas addition results in a decrease up to 10% in thermal efficiency, independent of biogas quality. Both {eta}{sub v} and {lambda} decrease with addition of biogas, in quantitative agreement with predictions. The engine runs well up to a certain heat release fraction of methane; at higher fractions irregularities are observed, probably attributable to light end-gas knock. (author)

  19. Performance Study of Dual Fuel Engine Using Producer Gas as Secondary Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Shaw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, development of producer gas fuelled 4 stroke diesel engine has been investigated. Producer gas from biomass has been examined and successfully operated with 4 stroke diesel engine. The effects of higher and lower loads were investigated on the dual fuel mode. The experimental investigations revealed that at lower loads dual fuel operation with producer gas shows lower efficiency due to lower combustion rate cause by low calorific value of the producer gas. Beyond 40% load the brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel operation improved due to faster combustion rate of producer gas and higher level of premixing. It can be observed that at lower load and 20% opening of producer gas the gaseous fuel substitution found to be 56% whereas at 100% opening of producer gas it reaches 78% substitution. The CO2 emission increased at high producer gas opening and high load because at 100% producer gas maximum atoms of carbons were there and at high load condition the diesel use increased. At 80% load and producer gas varying from 20% to 100. Power output was almost comparable to diesel power with marginal higher efficiency. Producer gas is one such technology which is environmentally benign and holds large promise for future.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF DUAL FUEL ENGINE OPERATED AT PART LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising petroleum prices, an increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions, global warming and the threat of supply instabilities has led to the choice of inedible Mahua oil (MO as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel oil in India. In the present work, MO was converted into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide. The cost of Mahua oil biodiesel (MOB is higher than diesel. Hence liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, which is one of the cheapest gaseous fuels available in India, was fumigated along with the air to reduce the operating cost and to reduce emissions. The dual fuel engine resulted in lower efficiency and higher emissions at part load. Hence in the present work, the injection time was varied and the performance of the dual fuel engine was studied. From the engine tests, it is observed that an advanced injection time results in higher efficiency and lower emissions. Hence, advancing the injection timing is one of the ways of increasing the efficiency of LPG+MOB dual fuel engine operated at part load.

  1. Spray-Wall Impingement of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Jet using Schlieren Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Mhadi Abaker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is a low cost fuel with high availability in nature. However, it cannot be used by itself in conventional diesel engines due to its low flame speed and high ignition temperature. The addition of a secondary fuel to enhance the mixture formation and combustion process facilitate its wider use as an alternative fuel. An experimental study was performed to investigate the diesel-CNG dual fuel jet-wall impingement. A constant volume optical chamber was designed to facilitate maximum optical access for the study of the jet-wall impingement at different injection pressures, temperatures and injector-wall distances. The bottom plate of the test rig was made of aluminum (piston material and it was heated up to 500 K at ambient pressure. An injector driver was used to control the single-hole nozzle diesel injector combined with a natural gas injector. The injection timing of both injectors was synchronized with a camera trigger. The jet-wall impingement of diesel and diesel-CNG dual fuel jets was recorded with a high speed camera using Schlieren imaging technique and associated image processing software. The measurements of the jet radial penetration were higher in diesel-CNG dual fuel while the jet height travel along were higher in the case of diesel single fuel.

  2. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine's thermal efficiency η t , volumetric efficiency η v and air-excess ratio λ versus output power. An extensive parameter study is done to predict/explain the effect of dual fuel operation on η v and λ. Dual fuel experiments, adding different qualities (CH 4 /CO 2 ratios) of synthetic biogas to the intake air, show that thermal efficiency is hardly affected for higher loads. For lower loads, biogas addition results in a decrease up to 10% in thermal efficiency, independent of biogas quality. Both η v and λ decrease with addition of biogas, in quantitative agreement with predictions. The engine runs well up to a certain heat release fraction of methane; at higher fractions irregularities are observed, probably attributable to light end-gas knock.

  3. Power fluctuations suppression of stand-alone hybrid generation combining solar photovoltaic/wind turbine and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nabil A.; Miyatake, Masafumi; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid energy system combining variable speed wind turbine, solar photovoltaic and fuel cell generation systems is presented to supply continuous power to residential power applications as stand-alone loads. The wind and photovoltaic systems are used as main energy sources while the fuel cell is used as secondary or back-up energy source. Three individual dc-dc boost converters are used to control the power flow to the load. A simple and cost effective control with dc-dc converters is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extracting from the wind turbine and the solar photovoltaic systems. The hybrid system is sized to power a typical 2 kW/150 V dc load as telecommunication power plants or ac residential power applications in isolated islands continuously throughout the year. The results show that even when the sun and wind are not available; the system is reliable and available and it can supply high-quality power to the load. The simulation results which proved the accuracy of the proposed controllers are given to demonstrate the availability of the proposed system in this paper. Also, a complete description of the management and control system is presented

  4. HORIZONTAL AXIS MARINE CURRENT TURBINE DESIGN FOR WIND-ELECTRIC HYBRID SAILING BOAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Serkan; Alvar, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, the number of theoretical studies and applications on electric power production from renewable sources such as wind, solar, sea and tidal flows, has been increasing rapidly. Marine Current Turbines (MCTs), among the power turbines, produce power from alternating flows and are a means of power production even at lower flow rates in oceans and seas. In this study, while maintaining functional requirements, an initial and detailed design (mechanic and hydrodynamic), of an M...

  5. Stall/surge dynamics of a multi-stage air compressor in response to a load transient of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Ali; Brouwer, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    A better understanding of turbulent unsteady flows in gas turbine systems is necessary to design and control compressors for hybrid fuel cell-gas turbine systems. Compressor stall/surge analysis for a 4 MW hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine system for locomotive applications is performed based upon a 1.7 MW multi-stage air compressor. Control strategies are applied to prevent operation of the hybrid SOFC-GT beyond the stall/surge lines of the compressor. Computational fluid dynamics tools are used to simulate the flow distribution and instabilities near the stall/surge line. The results show that a 1.7 MW system compressor like that of a Kawasaki gas turbine is an appropriate choice among the industrial compressors to be used in a 4 MW locomotive SOFC-GT with topping cycle design. The multi-stage radial design of the compressor enhances the ability of the compressor to maintain air flow rate during transient step-load changes. These transient step-load changes are exhibited in many potential applications for SOFC/GT systems. The compressor provides sustained air flow rate during the mild stall/surge event that occurs due to the transient step-load change that is applied, indicating that this type of compressor is well-suited for this hybrid application.

  6. Full and part load exergetic analysis of a hybrid micro gas turbine fuel cell system based on existing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalis, Diamantis P.; Stamatis, Anastassios G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid SOFC/GT system based on existing components. ► Exergy analysis using AspenPlus™ software. ► Greenhouse gases emission is significantly affected by SOFC stack temperature. ► Comparison with a conventional GT of similar power. ► SOFC/GT is almost twice efficient in terms of second low efficiency and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The paper deals with the examination of a hybrid system consisting of a pre-commercially available high temperature solid oxide fuel cell and an existing recuperated microturbine. The irreversibilities and thermodynamic inefficiencies of the system are evaluated after examining the full and partial load exergetic performance and estimating the amount of exergy destruction and the efficiency of each hybrid system component. At full load operation the system achieves an exergetic efficiency of 59.8%, which increases during the partial load operation, as a variable speed control method is utilized. Furthermore, the effects of the various performance parameters such as fuel cell stack temperature and fuel utilization factor are assessed. The results showed that the components in which chemical reactions occur have the higher exergy destruction rates. The exergetic performance of the system is affected significantly by the stack temperature. Based on the exergetic analysis, suggestions are given for reducing the overall system irreversibility. Finally, the environmental impact of the operation of the hybrid system is evaluated and compared with a similarly rated conventional gas turbine plant. From the comparison it is apparent that the hybrid system obtains nearly double exergetic efficiency and about half the amount of greenhouse gas emissions compared with the conventional plant.

  7. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...

  8. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  9. Application of jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel engine for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, E.

    2008-06-15

    In this thesis, the technical feasibility of using jatropha oil and biogas for dual fuel generators is investigated. This technology could be used for electricity generation in rural areas in developing countries. The use of jatropha oil and biogas is considered a sustainable energy supply, when both fuels are produced locally. The local production of fuel and generation of electricity could result in economic development and poverty reduction. In order to investigate the technical feasibility, a parameter study is performed, an experimental set-up is constructed and experiments are carried out. Three performance parameters are investigated: thermal efficiency, because it is a direct measure for fuel efficiency; volumetric efficiency, because it is a measure for power output; and air-excess ratio, because it influences particulate emissions and HC emissions. The parameter study is conducted, to predict the effect of dual fuel operation, by deriving expressions for the performance parameters. The experiments are carried out to assess the effect of dual fuel operation on performance and to find the operation limits (smoke limit and knock limit). Experiments are carried out on a 12 kW diesel generator set. The jatropha oil that is used is pure oil. Biogas mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. Simulated, bottled, biogas of different quality is used (i.e. CH4/CO2 ratios). Pure methane is also tested as gaseous fuel. Gas is added to the inlet air with a venturi. The design of the venturi limited the gas flow; consequently the maximum heat release fraction of methane was 80% for pure methane and approximately 70% for biogas. Tests were performed at 6, 8 and 10 kW load. The engine showed a thermal efficiency characteristic for pure jatropha oil operation, which is expected for a diesel generator. The characteristic for jatropha oil did not deviate from that of diesel. At full load, thermal efficiency is approximately 32%. Under dual fuel operation, with biogas, at

  10. Optimal Allocation of Power-Electronic Interfaced Wind Turbines Using a Genetic Algorithm - Monte Carlo Hybrid Optimization Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    determined by the wind resource and geographic conditions, the location of wind turbines in a power system network may significantly affect the distribution of power flow, power losses, etc. Furthermore, modern WTs with power-electronic interface have the capability of controlling reactive power output...... limit requirements. The method combines the Genetic Algorithm (GA), gradient-based constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm and sequential Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The GA searches for the optimal locations and capacities of WTs. The gradient-based optimization finds the optimal power factor...... setting of WTs. The sequential MCS takes into account the stochastic behaviour of wind power generation and load. The proposed hybrid optimization method is demonstrated on an 11 kV 69-bus distribution system....

  11. Study on using acetylene in dual fuel mode with exhaust gas recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, T.; Nagarajan, G.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in employing gaseous fuels to internal combustion (IC) engines whether for stationary or mobile automotive applications has gained importance because of the economical, sustainable and environmental technical features associated with their usage. However, the incidence of preignition and knock remains a significant barrier in achieving their optimum performance potential. With the advent of latest technologies, the above barriers are eliminated. One such technique is timed manifold injection (TMI) of the gaseous fuel, which is controlled electronically to precisely monitor the induction of fuel to overcome the preignition problem in the intake. In the present investigation, acetylene was injected in the intake manifold in a single cylinder diesel engine, with a gas flow rate of 240 g/h, start of injection time is 10 o aTDC and 90 o CA (9.9 ms) duration, operated in dual fuel mode. In order to decrease the NOx emissions from acetylene-diesel engine, cooled EGR was employed. The cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency and emissions such as NOx, smoke, CO, HC, CO 2 and exhaust gas temperature were studied. Dual fuel operation with acetylene induction coupled with cooled EGR results in lowered NOx emissions and improved part load performance. -- Highlights: → Acetylene was tried in SI engines, but due to backfire further research was hindered as an alternative fuel. → But it is not tried in CI engine. Timed manifold injection was tried in diesel engine in the present work to combat backfire. → Author was successful in running the diesel engine in dual fuel mode. → 21% maximum diesel replacement was achieved. Author is confident that acetylene will be commercialised as a fuel for diesel engine in future.

  12. Dual fuel operation of used transformer oil with acetylene in a DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Pritinika; Murugan, S.; Nagarajan, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilisation of Used transformer oil (UTO) as a fuel in a diesel engine. • UTO with acetylene in a diesel engine, on a dual fuel mode technique. • Analysis of combustion characteristics of the diesel engine. • Analysis of performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. - Abstract: Used transformer oil (UTO) is a waste oil obtained from power transformers and welding transformers. It possesses considerable heating value and properties similar to diesel fuel. A preliminary investigation on the utilization of the UTO in a single cylinder, four stroke small powered direct injection (DI) diesel engine revealed that at an optimum injection timing of 20°CA the engine exhibited lower nitric oxide (NO) and higher smoke emissions, compared to that of diesel operation. In order to improve the performance and reduce the smoke emission, a dual fuel operation was attempted in the present investigation. Acetylene was inducted as a primary fuel at four different flow rates viz 132 g/h, 198 g/h, 264 g/h and 330 g/h along with the air, to study the combustion, performance and emission behavior of a four-stroke, 4.4 kW diesel engine, while the UTO was injected as pilot fuel with the optimized injection timing. The experimental results were compared with diesel-acetylene dual fuel operation in the same engine. Acetylene aspiration reduced the ignition delay and maximum cylinder pressure by about 3°CA, and 25% respectively at full load in comparison with the sole UTO operation. Higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust gas were also observed at full load. Smoke was reduced by about 13.7%, in comparison with the UTO operation at full load

  13. Optimization experiment of gas oil direct injection valve for CNG dual fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.Y. [Chonnam National University Graduate School, Jeonju (Korea); Park, C. K. [Chonnam National University, Jeonju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this study, we studied for a conversion from diesel engine to natural gas dual fuel engine. For this experimental, we tested about the injection quantity characteristics of pilot valve with the plunger diameter at the retraction volume and investigated to the engine performance and exhaust emissions with the nozzle hole number and injection nozzle diameter. As a result, when the plunger diameter is 7.5 mm at the retraction volume, 25 mm{sup 3}/st, the injection quantity characteristics develop. Also, when a nozzle type is 4*{phi} 0.24, total hydrocarbon(THC) emission reduce at low equivalence ratio. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  15. Investigation on utilization of biogas and Karanja oil biodiesel in dual fuel mode in a single cylinder DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna Pattanaik, Bhabani; Nayak, Chandrakanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement, Madanpur, Bhubaneswar - 752054, Odisha (India); Kumar Nanda, Basanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Maharaja Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, experiments were performed on a single cylinder DI diesel engine by using bio-gas as a primary fuel and Karanja oil biodiesel and diesel oil as secondary fuels in dual fuel operation. The experiments were performed to measure performance parameters i.e. (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature) and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide unburned hydro carbon and smoke etc. at different load conditions. For the dual-fuel system, the intake system of the test engine was modified to convert into biogas and biodiesel of a dual-fueled combustion engine. Biogas was injected during the intake process by gas injectors. The study showed that, the engine performance parameters like BP, BTE and EGT gradually increase with increase in engine load for all test conditions using both pilot fuels diesel and KOBD. However, the BSFC of the engine showed decreasing slope with increase in engine load for all test conditions. Above 40% engine load the BSFC values for all test fuels are very close to each other. The engine emission analysis showed that the CO2, CO and NOx emissions increase with increase in engine load for both single and dual fuel mode operation using both pilot fuels. The NOx concentration of exhaust gases in dual fuel mode is superior than that of single mode.

  16. Comparison Between Conventional Design and Cathode Gas Recirculation Design of a Direct-Syngas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell–Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems Part I: Design Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Azami

    2017-06-01

    Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell, Gas turbine, Cathode gas recirculation, Exergy. Article History: Received Feb 23rd 2017; Received in revised form May 26th 2017; Accepted June 1st 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Azami, V, and Yari, M. (2017 Comparison between conventional design and cathode gas recirculation design of a direct-syngas solid oxide fuel cell–gas turbine hybrid systems part I: Design performance. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(2, 127-136. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.2.127-136

  17. Influence of performance characteristic of a gaseous fuel supply system on hydrocarbon emissions of a dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, J.; Wang, Z.Y.; Zhong, H.; Hao, S.H. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Dept. of Automobile Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2000-11-01

    The performance of the gaseous fuel supply and its influence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of dual-fuel engines have been investigated. A new design of manifold respirators with mixers is also presented in the paper. The design of the gaseous fuel supply system has a great influence on HC emissions in the dual-fuel engine at light load. The problem of scavenging is discussed and solved by using the manifold respirators in the dual-fuel engine. It performs the function of retarding the gaseous fuel entry timing from the moment of intake valve opening, and its delaying effects have been measured and tested. Experimental results show that the manifold respirator gives the best performance in reducing HC emissions compared with a common pipe mixer and a respirator with bo miser. In addition, the mixing effects are sensitive to the mixer configuration. (Author)

  18. Conversion of diesel engines to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S W; DeMaere, D A

    1984-02-01

    A device to convert a diesel engine to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operation was developed and evaluated. Preliminary experimentation has indicated that as much as 30% of the diesel fuel consumed in diesel engines could be displaced with propane, accompanied by an improvement in fuel efficiency, engine maintenance and an overall reduction in emission levels. Dual fuel operations in both transportation and stationary applications would then project a saving of ca 90,000 barrels of diesel fuel per day by the year 1990. A turbo-charged 250 hp diesel engine was directly coupled to a dynamometer under laboratory conditions, and operated at speeds between 500 and 2500 rpm and at various torque levels. At each rpm/torque point the engine first operated on diesel fuel alone, and then increasing quantities of propane were induced into the air intake until detonation occured. Results indicate that the proportion of propane that can be safely induced into a diesel engine varies considerably with rpm and torque so that a sophisticated metering system would be required to maximize diesel oil displacement by propane. Conversion is not cost effective at 1983 price levels.

  19. Recuperative dual fuel bruner with low NO{sub x} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munko, A.; Kleine Jaeger, F.; Koehne, H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Energie- und Stofftransport

    2003-07-01

    In a current research project of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen e.V. (AIF) (a German research association) a new dual fuel burner for radiant tubes is being developed at the Department tof Heat and Mass Transfer (EST, RWTH Aachen University). As combustible gas (natural gas type H / Erdgas H) and fuel oil (Heizoel Extra Leicht) are used. These research activities represent the further development of the radiant tube oil burner that was developed on behalf of the AIF and in cooperation with the Forschungsgemeinschaft Industrieofenbau (FOGI e.V.) (AIF project 12345B). The radiant tube burner was designed for the furnace temperature 1000 C can the firing rate 20 to 40 kW. Due to the vaporization of the fuel oil and the homogeneous fuel mixing with a flue gas flow, at the furnace temperature 1000 C and preheated air temperature 850 C NO{sub x}-emissions below 200 mg/m{sup 3} (5% O{sub 2}, Heizoel Extra Leicht) are reached. Using gas (natural gas type H) the burner tests indicate a high NO{sub x}-reduction potential - in gas operation at a lab furnace (furnace temperature 700 C) NO{sub x}-emissions below 40 mg/m{sup 3} result. The future works within the project are the construction of a dual-fuel mixing-device for the alternative use of liquid and gaseous fuel as well as further burner operation tests at furnace temperature 1000 C. (orig.)

  20. Bioethanol E85 as a fuel for dual fuel diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutak, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An increase in the E85 fraction is changing the nature of the HRR course. • Change of combustion phasing with E85 fraction. • The ignition delay of dual fuel engine decreases with increasing E85 fuel. • Premixed combustion of E85 fuel reduces smoke emissions. - Abstract: This study investigates the potential of E85 fuelling in a diesel engine. Researches were performed using a three-cylinder a direct injection diesel engine. A dual-fuelling technology is implemented such that E85 is introduced into the intake manifold using a port-fuel injector while diesel is injected directly into the cylinder. The primary aim of the study was to determine the operating parameters of the engine powered on E85 bioethanol fuel in dual fuel system. The parameters that were taken into account are: engine efficiency, indicated mean effective pressure, heat release rate, combustion duration and ignition delay, combustion phasing and exhaust toxicity. With E85 fuel participation, NO x and soot emissions were reduced, whereas CO and HC emissions increased considerably. It was found that E85 participation in a combustible mixture reduced the excess air factor for the engine and this led to increased emissions of CO and HC, but decreased emissions of nitrogen oxides and soot

  1. Simulation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-13

    Standard practices of internal combustion (IC) engine experiments are to conduct the measurements of quantities averaged over a large number of cycles. Depending on the operating conditions, the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of quantities, such as the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) are observed at different levels. Accurate prediction of CCV in IC engines is an important but challenging task. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using high performance computing (HPC) can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. In the present study, a dual fuel large engine is considered, with natural gas injected into the manifold accompanied with direct injection of diesel pilot fuel to trigger ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series as in the experiments to investigate the potential of HPC based high fidelity simulations to accurately capture the cycle to cycle variation in dual fuel engines. Open cycle simulations are conducted to predict the combined effect of the stratification of fuel-air mixture, temperature and turbulence on the CCV of pressure. The predicted coefficient of variation (COV) of pressure compared to the results from closed cycle simulations and the experiments.

  2. Dual-Fuel Combustion for Future Clean and Efficient Compression Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Benajes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stringent emissions limits introduced for internal combustion engines impose a major challenge for the research community. The technological solution adopted by the manufactures of diesel engines to meet the NOx and particle matter values imposed in the EURO VI regulation relies on using selective catalytic reduction and particulate filter systems, which increases the complexity and cost of the engine. Alternatively, several new combustion modes aimed at avoiding the formation of these two pollutants by promoting low temperature combustion reactions, are the focus of study nowadays. Among these new concepts, the dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI seems more promising because it allows better control of the combustion process by means of modulating the fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. The present experimental work explores the potential of different strategies for reducing the energy losses with RCCI in a single-cylinder research engine, with the final goal of providing the guidelines to define an efficient dual-fuel combustion system. The results demonstrate that the engine settings combination, piston geometry modification, and fuel properties variation are good methods to increase the RCCI efficiency while maintaining ultra-low NOx and soot emissions for a wide range of operating conditions.

  3. Performance and exhaust emissions in a natural-gas fueled dual-fuel engine; Tennen gas dual fuel kikan no seino oyobi haiki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M.; Ishiyama, T.; Shibata, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Atomic Energy; Ikegami, M. [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-07-25

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, tests were made for some operational parameters and their combination on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the gas oil quantity should be increased and gas oil injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission at middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing should be retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. The unburned hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency are improved at the same load avoiding too lean natural gas premixture by restriction of intake charge air. However the improvement is limited because the ignition and initial combustion of pilot diesel fuel is deteriorated when the cylinder pressure is excessively lowered by throttling. The increase in pilot gas oil amount is effective for low-load operation and the adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation. (author)

  4. The Mechanical Properties of Candidate Superalloys for a Hybrid Turbine Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; MacKay, Rebecca A.; Draper, Susan L.; Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of several cast blade superalloys and one powder metallurgy disk superalloy were assessed for potential use in a dual alloy hybrid disk concept of joined dissimilar bore and web materials. Grain size was varied for each superalloy class. Tensile, creep, fatigue, and notch fatigue tests were performed at 704 to 815 degC. Typical microstructures and failure modes were determined. Preferred materials were then selected for future study as the bore and rim alloys in this hybrid disk concept. Powder metallurgy superalloy LSHR at 15 micron grain size and single crystal superalloy LDS-1101+Hf were selected for further study, and future work is recommended to develop the hybrid disk concept.

  5. Numerical investigation of the impact of gas composition on the combustion process in a dual-fuel compression-ignition engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikulski, M.; Wierzbicki, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the model of operation of a dual-fuel compression-ignition engine, powered by gaseous fuel with an initial dose of diesel fuel as the ignition inhibitor. The study used a zero-dimensional multiphase mathematical model of a dual-fuel engine to simulate the impact of enhancing

  6. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  7. Verification of a novel innovative blade root design for wind turbines using a hybrid numerical method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    captured at the outer part of the blades, where the relative wind speed is high. To assess the impact of this novel design idea, a hybrid numerical technique, based on solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, is utilized to determine the aerodynamic performance. The in-house developed Ellip...

  8. The use of multi criteria analysis to compare the operating scenarios of the hybrid generation system of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules and a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceran, Bartosz

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of the use of multi-criteria analysis to compare hybrid power generation system collaboration scenarios (HSW) consisting of wind turbines, solar panels and energy storage electrolyzer - PEM type fuel cell with electricity system. The following scenarios were examined: the base S-I-hybrid system powers the off-grid mode receiver, S-II, S-III, S-IV scenarios-electricity system covers 25%, 50%, 75% of energy demand by the recipient. The effect of weights of the above-mentioned criteria on the final result of the multi-criteria analysis was examined.

  9. An experimental and numerical investigation of the combustion characteristics of a dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Karim, G.A.; Xiao, F.; Sohrabi, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Dept.

    2007-07-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of the performance of a small bore engine with a swirl chamber when operating as a dual fuel engine with commercial methane as the gaseous fuel were presented in this paper. The experiment involved using a 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to predict the performance of the engine. A detailed chemical kinetics for the gaseous fuel component, consisting primarily of methane and a reduced detailed chemical kinetics for the diesel fuel while considering the turbulent combustion processes an associated performance of a dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber were incorporated in the simulation. The study experimentally and numerically investigated the effects of changes in the quantities of the liquid fuel pilot and gaseous fuels on the combustion processes, engine performance, cyclic variations, and emissions. The paper discussed the experimental approach and results. It also discussed the simulation of the dual fuel engine combustion process. It was concluded that dual fuel combustion was an effective method to burn a gaseous fuel-air mixture with a low energy density. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Understanding the role of low reactivity fuel stratification in a dual fuel RCCI engine – A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikulski, M.; Bekdemir, C.

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas - diesel, Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is currently one of the most promising combustion strategies for the next generation heavy-duty engines. A major issue to be addressed for this dual fuel concept to become practically applicable is its low combustion efficiency

  11. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  12. Reversing flow catalytic converter for a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, E.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hayes, R.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An experimental and modelling study was performed for a reverse flow catalytic converter attached to a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine. The catalytic converter had a segmented ceramic monolith honeycomb substrate and a catalytic washcoat containing a predominantly palladium catalyst. A one-dimensional single channel model was used to simulate the operation of the converter. The kinetics of the CO and methane oxidation followed first-order behaviour. The activation energy for the oxidation of methane showed a change with temperature, dropping from a value of 129 to 35 kJ/mol at a temperature of 874 K. The reverse flow converter was able to achieve high reactor temperature under conditions of low inlet gas temperature, provided that the initial reactor temperature was sufficiently high. (author)

  13. Performance and emission characteristics of a turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [I.C. Engines Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-07-15

    This paper describes an experimental study concerning the feasibility of using bio-oil namely turpentine obtained from the resin of pine tree. The emission and performance characteristics of a D.I. diesel engine were studied through dual fuel (DF) mode. Turpentine was inducted as a primary fuel through induction manifold and diesel was admitted into the engine through conventional fueling device as an igniter. The result showed that except volumetric efficiency, all other performance and emission parameters are better than those of diesel fuel with in 75% load. The toxic gases like CO, UBHC are slightly higher than that of the diesel baseline (DBL). Around 40-45% smoke reduction is obtained with DF mode. The pollutant No{sub x} is found to be equal to that of DBL except at full load. This study has proved that approximately 75% diesel replacement with turpentine is possible by DF mode with little engine modification. (author)

  14. Effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of a dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering

    2000-04-01

    It is well known that the operation of dual fuel engines at lower loads suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher unburned percentages of fuel. To rectify this problem, tests have been conducted on a special single cylinder compression ignition research engine (Ricardo E6) to investigate the effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of an indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with gaseous fuel. Diesel fuel was used as the pilot fuel and methane or propane was used as the main fuel which was inducted into the intake manifold to mix with the intake air. Through experimental investigations, it is shown that, the low efficiency and excess emissions at light loads can be improved significantly by increasing the amount of pilot fuel, while increasing the amount of pilot fuel at high loads led to early knocking. (author)

  15. Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Natural-Gas Fueled Dual-Fuel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioji, Masahiro; Ishiyama, Takuji; Ikegami, Makoto; Mitani, Shinichi; Shibata, Hiroaki

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, experiments were done for some operational parameters on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the pilot fuel quantity should be increased and its injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission in the middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. Unburned hydrocarbon emission and thermal efficiency are improved by avoiding too lean natural gas mixture by restricting intake charge air. However, the improvement is limited because the ignition of pilot fuel deteriorates with excessive throttling. It is concluded that an adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation.

  16. Combustion of simulated biogas in a dual-fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henham, A.; Makkar, M.K. [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Technology related to biogas has been steadily developed over the last 50 years from small individually designed units to larger production plants. The development, however, has largely taken place on the side of biogas production and anaerobic waste treatment. Utilization of the gas produced by these methods has only recently been the subject of more scientific evaluation. The transformation of energy through biogas into the thermodynamically higher valued mechanical energy successfully and economically is now the most important research area in this field. Of the engine work already published, most concerns spark-ignited engines. The authors` research work concerns the use of biogas in dual-fuel diesel engines. It examines engine performance using simulated biogas of varying quality representing the range of methane:carbon dioxide composition which may be encountered in gas from different sources. The total programme includes the effects of biogas quality and of the proportion of energy from pilot fuel injection over a range of speeds and loads, investigations into the performance parameters over a range of compositions of gaseous mixture. A two-cylinder, indirect-injection diesel engine of stationary type is being used as the first experimental test bed in this work and the variation of quality is provided by mixing natural gas and carbon dioxide. A data acquisition system for an in-cylinder pressure and crank angle is being used successfully and some emissions measurements are also available, particularly for CO and O{sub 2}. The nature of combustion process in the dual-fuel engine is examined through pressure-crank angle data and studies of characteristics affecting engine efficiency. (author)

  17. Exergy Analysis of an Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System Fed with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Tzorbatzoglou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an ethanol fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT system has been parametrically analyzed in terms of exergy and compared with a single SOFC system. The solid oxide fuel cell was fed with hydrogen produced from ethanol steam reforming. The hydrogen utilization factor values were kept between 0.7 and 1. The SOFC’s Current-Volt performance was considered in the range of 0.1–3 A/cm2 at 0.9–0.3 V, respectively, and at the intermediate operating temperatures of 550 and 600 °C, respectively. The curves used represent experimental results obtained from the available bibliography. Results indicated that for low current density values the single SOFC system prevails over the SOFC-GT hybrid system in terms of exergy efficiency, while at higher current density values the latter is more efficient. It was found that as the value of the utilization factor increases the SOFC system becomes more efficient than the SOFC-GT system over a wider range of current density values. It was also revealed that at high current density values the increase of SOFC operation temperature leads in both cases to higher system efficiency values.

  18. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the combustion process at low loads of a diesel natural gas dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weifeng; Liu, Zhongchang; Wang, Zhongshu

    2016-01-01

    To construct an effective method to analyze the combustion process of dual fuel engines at low loads, effects of combustion boundaries on the combustion process of an electronically controlled diesel natural gas dual-fuel engine at low loads were investigated. Three typical combustion modes, including h, m and n, appeared under different combustion boundaries. In addition, the time-sequenced characteristic and the heat release rate-imbalanced characteristic were found in the dual fuel engine combustion process. To quantify these characteristics, two quantitative indicators, including the TSC (time-sequenced coefficient) and the HBC (HRR-balanced coefficient) were defined. The results show that increasing TSC and HBC can decrease HC (hydrocarbon) emissions and improve the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) significantly. The engine with the n combustion mode can obtain the highest BTE and the lowest HC emissions, followed by m, and then h. However, the combustion process of the engine will deteriorate sharply if boundary conditions are not strictly controlled in the n combustion mode. Based on the n combustion mode, advancing the start of diesel injection significantly, using large EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate and appropriately intake throttling can effectively reduce HC emissions and improve the BTE of dual fuel engines at low loads with relatively high natural gas PES (percentage energy substitution). - Highlights: • We reported three typical combustion modes of a dual-fuel engine at low loads. • Time-sequenced characteristic was put forward and qualified. • HRR-imbalanced characteristic was put forward and qualified. • Three combustion modes appeared as equivalence ratio/diesel injection timing varied. • The engine performance varied significantly with different combustion mode.

  19. Experimental and modelling study of reverse flow catalytic converters for natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.

    2000-07-01

    There is renewed interest in the development of natural gas vehicles in response to the challenge to reduce urban air pollution and consumption of petroleum. The natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine is one way to apply natural gas to the conventional diesel engine. Dual fuel engines operating on natural gas and diesel emit less nitrogen oxides, and less carbon soot to the air compared to conventional diesel engines. The problem is that at light loads, fuel efficiency is reduced and emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are increased. This thesis focused on control methods for emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the dual fuel engine at light loads. This was done by developing a reverse flow catalytic converter to complement dual fuel engine exhaust characteristics. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of reverse flow catalytic converters were conducted. Reverse flow creates a high reactor temperature even when the engine is run at low exhaust temperature levels at light loads. The increase in reactor temperature from reverse flow could be 2 or 3 times higher than the adiabatic temperature increase, which is based on the reactor inlet temperature and concentration. This temperature makes it possible for greater than 90 per cent of the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide to be converted with a palladium based catalyst. Reverse flow appears to be better than conventional unidirectional flow to deal with natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution at light loads. Reverse flow could also maintain reactor temperature at over 800 K and hydrocarbon conversion at about 80 per cent during testing. The newly presented model simulates reactor performance with reasonable accuracy. Both carbon monoxide and methane oxidation over the palladium catalyst in excess oxygen and water were described using first order kinetics.

  20. A Combined Energy Management Algorithm for Wind Turbine/Battery Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Necmi; Eyimaya, Süleyman Emre

    2018-03-01

    From an energy management standpoint, natural phenomena such as solar irradiation and wind speed are uncontrolled variables, so the correlation between the energy generated by renewable energy sources and energy demand cannot always be predicted. For this reason, energy storage systems are used to provide more efficient renewable energy systems. In these systems, energy management systems are used to control the energy storage system and establish a balance between the generated power and the power demand. In addition, especially in wind turbines, rapidly varying wind speeds cause wind power fluctuations, which threaten the power system stability, especially at high power levels. Energy storage systems are also used to mitigate the power fluctuations and sustain the power system's stability. In these systems, another controller which controls the energy storage system power to mitigate power fluctuations is required. These two controllers are different from each other. In this study, a combined energy management algorithm is proposed which can perform both as an energy control system and a power fluctuation mitigation system. The proposed controller is tested with wind energy conversion system modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the proposed controller acts as an energy management system while, at the same time, mitigating power fluctuations.

  1. Modeling and control of fuel distribution in a dual-fuel internal combustion engine leveraging late intake valve closings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassa, Mateos [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Hall, Carrie [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Ickes, Andrew [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA; Wallner, Thomas [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA

    2016-10-07

    Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process encountered across cylinders and between cycles. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), a variable geometry turbocharger, and a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production and the underlying uneven fuel distribution that causes these variations. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode in which a high reactivity fuel is directly injected into the cylinders and a low reactivity fuel is port injected into the cylinders. Both dual fuel implementation and late intake valve closing (IVC) timings have been shown to improve thermal efficiency. However, experimental data from this study reveal that when late IVC timings are used on a multi-cylinder dual fuel engine a significant variation in IMEP across cylinders results and as such, leads to efficiency losses. The difference in IMEP between the different cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC to 38% at an IVC of 610°ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution. These experimental observations along with engine simulation models developed using GT-Power have been used to better understand the distribution of the port injected fuel across cylinders under various operating conditions on such dual fuel engines. This study revealed that the fuel distribution across cylinders in this dual fuel application is significantly affected by changes in the effective compression ratio as determined by the intake valve close timing as well as the design of the intake system (specifically the length of the intake runners). Late intake valve closures allow a portion of the trapped air

  2. Optimizing the number and locations of turbines in a wind farm addressing energy-noise trade-off: A hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Prateek; Mitra, Kishalay; Kulkarni, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Concurrent resolution of turbine number and locations during micro-siting. • Effect of noise on energy-noise multi-objective optimization is demonstrated. • A hybrid algorithm is proposed utilizing probabilistic and deterministic methods. • ∼24% improved performance is achieved over the benchmark case study. • ∼29% enhanced efficiency over real-binary genetic algorithm alone can be observed. - Abstract: Micro-siting is an optimal way of placing turbines inside a wind farm while considering various design objectives and constraints. Using a well-established Jensen wake model and ISO-9613-2 noise calculation, this study performs a wind farm layout optimization based on a multi-objective trade-off between minimization of the noise propagation and maximization of the energy generation. A novel hybrid methodology is developed which is a combination of probabilistic real-binary coded multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and a newly proposed deterministic gradient based non-dominated normalized normal constraint method. Based on the Inverted Generational Distance metric, the performance of the proposed method is found to be better than the conventional normalized normal constraint method or the concerned evolutionary method alone. Moreover, in contrast to the previous studies, the generated non-dominated front is capable of providing a trade-off between various alternative energy-noise solutions, along with an additional information about the corresponding turbine numbers and their optimal location coordinates. As a result, the decision maker can choose from different competing wind turbine layouts based on existing noise and other standard regulations.

  3. Effect of compression ratio on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine run on raw biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Bhaskor J.; Saha, Ujjwal K.; Chatterjee, Soumya; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Maximum brake thermal efficiency of 20.04% was obtained in dual fuel mode. • Compression ratio of 18 produced the maximum brake thermal efficiency. • Maximum replacement of diesel was found to be 79.46% at a compression ratio of 18. • CO gets reduced by 26.22% with the increase of compression ratio from 16 to18. • HC gets reduced by 41.97% with the increase of compression ratio from 16 to18. - Abstract: The energy consumption of the world is increasing at a staggering rate due to population explosion. The extensive use of energy has led to fossil fuel depletion and the rise in pollution. Renewable energy holds the key solution to these aforementioned problems. Biogas, one such renewable fuel, can be used in a diesel engine under dual fuel mode for the generation of power. This work attempts to unfold the effect of compression ratio on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine run on raw biogas. For this investigation, a 3.5 kW single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled, variable compression ratio diesel engine is converted into a biogas run dual fuel diesel engine by connecting a venturi gas mixer at the inlet manifold. Experiments have been conducted at various compression ratios (18, 17.5, 17 and 16) and under different loading conditions fixing the standard injection timing at 23° before top dead centre. At 100% load, the brake thermal efficiencies of the dual fuel mode are found to be 20.04%, 18.25%, 17.07% and 16.42% at compression ratios of 18, 17.5, 17 and 16, respectively, whereas at the same load, the diesel mode shows an efficiency of 27.76% at a compression ratio of 17.5. The maximum replacement of the precious fossil fuel is found to be 79.46%, 76.1%, 74% and 72% at compression ratios of 18, 17.5, 17 and 16, respectively at 100% load. For the dual fuel mode, on an average, there is a reduction in carbon monoxide as well as hydrocarbon emission by 26.22% and 41.97% when compression

  4. EFFECT OF INJECTOR OPENING PRESSURE ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION OF LPG - METHYL ESTER OF MAHUA OIL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine is injection pressure. Hence in the present work, effect of Injector opening pressure on the performance of the engine was studied.  A four stroke single cylinder engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. Three injector opening pressures (180 bar, 200 bar and 220 bar were considered for the present work. Methyl ester of mahua oil was used as pilot fuel and LPG was used as primary fuel.    From the test results, it was observed that the injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. The higher injector opening pressure results in better atomization and peneatration of methyl ester of mahua oil. The exhaust emissions such as Smoke, unburnt hydro carbon and carbon monoxide of 200 bar is lower than other pressures.

  5. An experimental assessment on the influence of high octane fuels on biofuel based dual fuel engine performance, emission, and combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masimalai Senthilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the effect of different high octane fuels (such as eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol on engine’s performance behaviour of a biofuel based dual fuel engine. A single cylinder Diesel engine was modified and tested under dual fuel mode of operation. Initially the engine was run using neat diesel, neat mahua oil as fuels. In the second phase, the engine was operated in dual fuel mode by using a specially designed variable jet carburettor to supply the high octane fuels. Engine trials were made at 100% and 40% loads (power outputs with varying amounts of high octane fuels up-to the maximum possible limit. The performance and emission characteristics of the engine were obtained and analysed. Results indicated significant improvement in brake thermal efficiency simultaneous reduction in smoke and NO emissions in dual fuel operation with all the inducted fuels. At 100% load the brake thermal efficiency increased from 25.6% to a maximum of 32.3, 30.5, and 28.4%, respectively, with eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol as primary fuels. Smoke was reduced drastically from 78% with neat mahua oil a minimum of 41, 48, and 53%, respectively, with eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol at the maximum efficiency point. The optimal energy share for the best engine behaviour was found to be 44.6, 27.3, and 23.2%, respectively, for eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol at 100% load. Among the primary fuels tested, eucalyptus oil showed the maximum brake thermal efficiency, minimum smoke and NO emissions and maximum energy replacement for the optimal operation of the engine.

  6. Comparison of thermal and radical effects of EGR gases on combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Sohrabi, A.; Niaei, A.

    2007-01-01

    Dual fuel engines at part load inevitably suffer from lower thermal efficiency and higher emission of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. This work is conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of a dual fuel (Diesel-gas) engine at part loads using a single zone combustion model with detailed chemical kinetics for combustion of natural gas fuel. In this home made software, the presence of the pilot fuel is considered as a heat source that is deriving form two superposed Wiebe's combustion functions to account for its contribution to ignition of the gaseous fuel and the rest of the total released energy. The chemical kinetics mechanism consists of 112 reactions with 34 species. This combustion model is able to establish the development of the combustion process with time and the associated important operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, heat release rate (HRR) and species concentration. Therefore, this work is an attempt to investigate the combustion phenomenon at part load and using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve the above mentioned problems. Also, the results of this work show that each of the different cases of EGR (thermal, chemical and radical cases) has an important role on the combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads. It is found that all the different cases of EGR have positive effects on the performance and emission parameters of dual fuel engines at part loads despite the negative effect of some diluent gases in the chemical case, which moderates too much the positive effects of the thermal and radical cases of EGR. Predicted values show good agreement with corresponding experimental values over the whole range of engine operating conditions. Implications will be discussed in detail

  7. Numerical Study of the Performance and Emission of a Diesel-Syngas Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of direct relation graph (DRG and the sensitivity analysis, a reduced mechanism for the diesel-syngas dual fuel was constructed. Three small thresholds were applied in the process of the detailed mechanism simplification by DRG, and a skeletal mechanism with 185 elements and the 832 elementary reactions was obtained. According to the framework of the skeletal mechanism, the time-consuming approach of sensitivity analysis was employed for further simplification, and the skeletal mechanism was further reduced to the size of 158 elements and 705 reactions. The Chemkin software with the detailed mechanism was utilized to calculate the effect of syngas addition on the combustion characteristics of diesel combustion. The findings showed that the addition of syngas could reduce the ignition delay time and increase the laminar flame speed. Based on the reduced mechanism and engine parameters, a 3D model of the engine was constructed with the Forte code. The 3D model was adopted to study the effect of syngas addition on the performance and exhaust emissions of the engine and the relevant data of the experiment was used in the calibration of the 3D model.

  8. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  9. Development of a 1200 KW/CYL low pressure dual fuel engine for LNG carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, G. [S.E.M.T.-Pielstick, Thermodynamical Project Dept. (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the design and feasibility tests of a 570 mm bore 4 stroke low pressure (L.P.) dual fuel engine rated at 20.9 bar BMEP meant for the propulsion of LNG carriers. The basic design features which are to be in accordance with classification societies safety rules are described: individual electro hydraulic valves located in the air manifold ducts, pilot injection, monitoring system etc. The engine capability to burn variable liquid/gas fuel proportions have been investigated with diesel oil and heavy fuel and possible running zones are defined. This ensures the possibility of the engine to cope with the different boil off gas quantity emanating from the ship`s tank during her loaded - and ballast - journeys. With the very lean setting of this engine, no adverse influence of the high ash lube-oil additives were found during the tests. Further tests are necessary to confirm that possible more significant fouling of the combustion chamber is still acceptable. (au)

  10. Investigation on parameters of methanol fuel and its blend on a diesel dual fuel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Prashant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation has been performed on a 4 cylinder (turbocharged and intercooled 62.5 kW gen-set dual fuel diesel engine. Break specific fuel consumption (bsfc, break thermal efficiency (bte along with HC, CO, CO2 and NOx at various mixture ratios of methanol substitutions and loads have been investigated. The minimum and maximum BSFC were found to be 0.18 and 1.01 at 40 and 10% of full engine load and 40 and 60% of methanol substitution compared to pure diesel operation where the minimum and maximum BSFC were found to be 0.26 and 0.434 at 20 and 10% of full load condition. The minimum and maximum BTE were found to be 7.19 and 40.8 at 60 and 40% methanol substitution and at 10 and 40% load conditions whilst for pure diesel operation it was found to be 19.7 and 40.4 at 10 and 40% load conditions respectively. A two factor, three-level full factorial design was employed and the experimental results are in accordance with the results obtained.

  11. Performance and emissions of a heavy-duty diesel/LPG dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaberg, Paul [Sasol Technology, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty truck engine which has been equipped with an aftermarket conversion kit to enable operation as a diesel/LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) dual fuel engine. During operation diesel fuel is displaced by LPG which is vaporised and metered into the inlet manifold by means of solenoid injectors. It was found that, as the LPG fuelling rate is increased, the cylinder pressure rise rates and peak cylinder pressures increase, as do the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. At higher loads it was found that the LPG autoignites independently of the diesel fuel, resulting in very high rates of cylinder pressure rise. Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions remain largely unchanged, and carbon dioxide emissions are reduced due to the lower carbon content of the LPG fuel. Different LPG compositions were also investigated and it was found that the LPG properties that have the most significant effect on combustion and emissions were the autoignition and volatility characteristics. (orig.)

  12. Experimental study on two-stage air supply downdraft gasifier and dual fuel engine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhuchhen, Daya Ram; Salam, P.A. [Asian Institute of Technology, Energy Field of Study, School of Environment Resource and Development, P. O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2012-06-15

    Biomass is a widely used renewable energy resource with net balanced carbon dioxide absorptions and emissions. An inefficient use of solid biomass in combustion process emits more gaseous pollutants, increasing the pollution level. Biomass gasification is one of the techniques to support efficient use of biomass. Multistage gasification is a method of gasification to improve quality of the producer gas in which two separate reactors are designed for separating gasification reactions. This study presents experimental results of gasification using Eucalyptus wood in a single long cylindrical reactor with two air supply ports, i.e., primary and secondary. The effect of different air supply rates on the heating values of the producer gas was studied. Optimum primary and secondary air supply rate of 100 and 80 l/min at equivalence ratio of 0.38 was observed with producer gas lower heating value of 4.72 MJ Nm{sup -3}. The performance of a diesel engine in the dual fuel mode was also evaluated. The overall gasifier engine system efficiency was 13.86 % at an electrical load of 10.54 kW{sub e} with specific energy consumption of 16.22 MJ kWh{sup -1}. The heat recovery system was designed and tested to recover heat from producer gas in the form of hot water. (orig.)

  13. Effect of engine parameters and gaseous fuel type on the cyclic variability of dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Y.E. Selim [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the cycle-to-cycle combustion variation as reflected in the combustion pressure data of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four stroke, Ricardo E6 engine converted to run as dual fuel engine on diesel and gaseous fuel of LPG or methane. A measuring set-up consisting of a piezo-electric pressure transducer with charge amplifier and fast data acquisition card installed on an IBM microcomputer was used to gather the data of up to 1200 consecutive combustion cycles of the cylinder under various combination of engine operating and design parameters. These parameters included type of gaseous fuel, engine load, compression ratio, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass, and engine speed. The data for each operating conditions were analyzed for the maximum pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise representing the combustion noise, and indicated mean effective pressure. The cycle-to-cycle variation is expressed as the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of these three parameters. It was found that the type of gaseous fuel and engine operating and design parameters affected the combustion noise and its cyclic variation and these effects have been presented. 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  15. Combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated with mahua oil and liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the present work, a single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. To study the feasibility of using methyl ester of mahua oil as pilot fuel, it was used as pilot fuel and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. In dual fuel mode, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure are the few variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine. Hence, in the present work, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure were varied. From the test results, it was observed that the pilot fuel quantity of 5 mg per cycle and injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. Also the exhaust emissions such as smoke, unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are lower than other pressures and pilot fuel quantities. The higher injection pressure and proper pilot fuel quantity might have resulted in better atomization, penetration of methyl ester of mahua oil and better combustion of fuel.

  16. Modeling the emissions of a dual fuel engine coupled with a biomass gasifier-supplementing the Wiebe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, Stergios; Caligiuri, Carlo; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris; Renzi, Massimiliano; Baratieri, Marco

    2018-03-12

    There is a growing market demand for small-scale biomass gasifiers that is driven by the economic incentives and the legislative framework. Small-scale gasifiers produce a gaseous fuel, commonly referred to as producer gas, with relatively low heating value. Thus, the most common energy conversion systems that are coupled with small-scale gasifiers are internal combustion engines. In order to increase the electrical efficiency, the operators choose dual fuel engines and mix the producer gas with diesel. The Wiebe function has been a valuable tool for assessing the efficiency of dual fuel internal combustion engines. This study introduces a thermodynamic model that works in parallel with the Wiebe function and calculates the emissions of the engines. This "vis-à-vis" approach takes into consideration the actual conditions inside the cylinders-as they are returned by the Wiebe function-and calculates the final thermodynamic equilibrium of the flue gases mixture. This approach aims to enhance the operation of the dual fuel internal combustion engines by identifying the optimal operating conditions and-at the same time-advance pollution control and minimize the environmental impact.

  17. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Knock in a Dual Fuel Gas/Diesel Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gharehghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional compression ignition engines can easily be converted to a dual fuel mode of operation using natural gas as main fuel and diesel oil injection as pilot to initiate the combustion. At the same time, it is possible to increase the output power by increasing the diesel oil percentage. A detailed performance and combustion characteristic analysis of a heavy duty diesel engine has been studied in dual fuel mode of operation where natural gas is used as the main fuel and diesel oil as pilot. The influence of intake pressure and temperature on knock occurrence and the effects of initial swirl ratio on heat release rate, temperature-pressure and emission levels have been investigated in this study. It is shown that an increase in the initial swirl ratio lengthens the delay period for auto-ignition and extends the combustion period while it reduces NOx. There is an optimum value of the initial swirl ratio for a certain mixture intake temperature and pressure conditions that can achieve high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions while decreases the tendency to knock. Simultaneous increase of intake pressure and initial swirl ratio could be the solution to power loss and knock in dual fuel engine.

  18. Fuzzy-based failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and gas turbine system for marine propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junkeon; Noh, Yeelyong; Park, Sung Ho; Choi, Byung Il; Chang, Daejun

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a fuzzy-based FMEA (failure mode and effect analysis) for a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell and gas turbine system for liquefied hydrogen tankers. An FMEA-based regulatory framework is adopted to analyze the non-conventional propulsion system and to understand the risk picture of the system. Since the participants of the FMEA rely on their subjective and qualitative experiences, the conventional FMEA used for identifying failures that affect system performance inevitably involves inherent uncertainties. A fuzzy-based FMEA is introduced to express such uncertainties appropriately and to provide flexible access to a risk picture for a new system using fuzzy modeling. The hybrid system has 35 components and has 70 potential failure modes, respectively. Significant failure modes occur in the fuel cell stack and rotary machine. The fuzzy risk priority number is used to validate the crisp risk priority number in the FMEA.

  19. Performance and emissions of a dual-fuel pilot diesel ignition engine operating on various premixed fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Amin; Birouk, Madjid; Lawler, Benjamin; Gharehghani, Ayatallah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural gas/diesel, methanol/diesel, and hydrogen/diesel cases were investigated. • For leaner mixtures, the hydrogen/diesel case has the highest IMEP and ITE. • The methanol/diesel case has the maximum IMEP and ITE for richer mixtures. • Hydrogen/diesel case experiences soot and CO free combustion at rich regions. - Abstract: A multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with chemical kinetics mechanisms was applied to investigate the effect of various premixed fuels and equivalence ratios on the combustion, performance, and emissions characteristics of a dual-fuel indirect injection (IDI) pilot diesel ignition engine. The diesel fuel is supplied via indirect injection into the cylinder prior to the end of the compression stroke. Various premixed fuels were inducted into the engine through the intake manifold. The results showed that the dual-fuel case using hydrogen/diesel has a steeper pressure rise rate, higher peak heat release rate (PHRR), more advanced ignition timing, and shorter ignition delay compared to the natural gas/diesel and methanol/diesel dual-fuel cases. For leaner mixtures (Φ_P 0.32). For instance, with an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the ITE is 56.24% and 60.85% for hydrogen/diesel and methanol/diesel dual-fuel cases, respectively. For an equivalence ratio of 0.15, the natural gas/diesel simulation exhibits partial burn combustion and thus results in a negative IMEP. At equivalence ratios of 0.15, 0.2, and 0.25, the methanol/diesel case experiences misfiring phenomenon which consequently deteriorates the engine performance considerably. As for the engine-out emissions, the hydrogen/diesel results display carbon monoxide (CO) free combustion relative to natural gas/diesel and methanol/diesel engines; however, considerable amount of nitrogen oxides (NO_x) emissions are produced at an equivalence ratio of 0.35 which exceeds the Euro 6 NO_x limit. Due to the larger area exposed to high temperature regions

  20. Experimental analysis of ethanol dual-fuel combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine: An optimisation at low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozo, Vinícius B.; May, Ian; Dalla Nora, Macklini; Cairns, Alasdair; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual-fuel combustion offers promising results on a stock heavy-duty diesel engine. • The use of split diesel injections extends the benefits of the dual-fuel mode. • Ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion results in high indicated efficiencies. • NOx and soot emissions are significantly reduced. • Combustion efficiency reaches 98% with an ethanol energy ratio of 53%. - Abstract: Conventional diesel combustion produces harmful exhaust emissions which adversely affect the air quality if not controlled by in-cylinder measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Dual-fuel combustion can potentially reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot which are characteristic of diesel diffusion flame. The in-cylinder blending of different fuels to control the charge reactivity allows for lower local equivalence ratios and temperatures. The use of ethanol, an oxygenated biofuel with high knock resistance and high latent heat of vaporisation, increases the reactivity gradient. In addition, renewable biofuels can provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based fuels as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion suffers from poor engine efficiency at low load due to incomplete combustion. Therefore, experimental studies were carried out at 1200 rpm and 0.615 MPa indicated mean effective pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Fuel delivery was in the form of port fuel injection of ethanol and common rail direct injection of diesel. The objective was to improve combustion efficiency, maximise ethanol substitution, and minimise NOx and soot emissions. Ethanol energy fractions up to 69% were explored in conjunction with the effect of different diesel injection strategies on combustion, emissions, and efficiency. Optimisation tests were performed for the optimum fuelling and diesel injection strategy. The resulting effects of exhaust gas recirculation, intake air pressure, and rail pressure were

  1. Process integration and optimization of a solid oxide fuel cell – Gas turbine hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Gassner, Martin; D’Amelio, Matilde; Marechal, François; Favrat, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Due to its suitability for using wet biomass, hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of otherwise unused waste biomass to synthesis gas and biofuels. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based hybrid cycles are considered as the best candidate for a more efficient and clean conversion of (bio) fuels. A significant potential for the integration of the two technologies is expected since hydrothermal gasification requires heat at 673–773 K, whereas SOFC is characterized by heat excess at high temperature due to the limited electrochemical fuel conversion. This work presents a systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-gas turbine (GT) hybrid cycle fueled with hydrothermally gasified waste biomass. Several design options are systematically developed and compared through a thermodynamic optimization approach based on First Law and exergy analysis. The work demonstrates the considerable potential of the system that allows for converting wet waste biomass into electricity at a First Law efficiency of up to 63%, while simultaneously enabling the separation of biogenic carbon dioxide for further use or sequestration. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal gasification is a promising process for the valorization of waste wet biomass. ► Solid Oxide Fuel Cell – Gas Turbine hybrid cycle emerges as the best candidates for conversion of biofuels. ► A systematic process integration and optimization of a SOFC-GT hybrid cycle fuelled with hydrothermally gasified biomass is presented. ► The system may convert wet waste biomass to electricity at a First Law efficiency of 63% while separating the biogenic carbon dioxide. ► The process integration enables to improve the First Law efficiency of around 4% with respect to a non-integrated system.

  2. Experimental Analysis of a Small Generator set Operating on Dual Fuel Diesel-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Alex Vailatti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the operation of a generator set on single fuel mode with diesel oil, and on dual fuel mode using diesel–ethanol blends. The engine used to realize the experimental analysis was a diesel cycle model, single cylinder, direct injection, air refrigerated and coupled to a three-phase electric generator, whose set capacity was 8.0 kVA. The generated electric energy was dissipated in electrical resistances inside a reservoir with running water. Fuels were blended in different volumetric ratios, using a small portion of vegetable castor oil to promote the homogenization. The percentages of substitutions of diesel oil were by 10% to 50%, increasing by 10% the replacement for each sample. Also, the engine was operated with 100% substitution of diesel oil, i.e., for this condition, the samples were composed of ethanol/castor oil 90/10 (volume/volume, 80/20 and 75/25. The blends of diesel and ethanol did not obtain good performance, mainly in taxes of substitution above 40%, causing combustion failures, operational instability, and increase of fuel consumption, although it has achieved a greatly reduction on opacity percentages. The blends with 100% of substitution of diesel oil obtained good performance except to blend with 90% ethanol, where occurred combustion failures, which caused operational instability. To these conditions, the results achieved are increase of consumption by 17%, decrease of opacity by 79%, decrease of exhaust gas temperature by 3.5% and increase of engine thermal efficiency by 1.3%. At the ethanol – castor oil blends there was a decrease in the percentage of opacity by 96%, decrease of exhaust gas temperature by 17.6%, with a minimum of operational irregularities, although fuel consumption has increased by 52.4% and the engine thermal efficiency has decreased almost 1.7%.

  3. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  4. Cycle to Cycle Variation Study in a Dual Fuel Operated Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Pasunurthi, Shyamsundar

    2017-03-28

    The standard capability of engine experimental studies is that ensemble averaged quantities like in-cylinder pressure from multiple cycles and emissions are reported and the cycle to cycle variation (CCV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is captured from many consecutive combustion cycles for each test condition. However, obtaining 3D spatial distribution of all the relevant quantities such as fuel-air mixing, temperature, turbulence levels and emissions from such experiments is a challenging task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of engine flow and combustion can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. A dual fuel engine is considered in the current study, with manifold injected natural gas (NG) and direct injected diesel pilot for ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series like in the experiments to investigate the potential of high fidelity RANS simulations coupled with detailed chemistry, to accurately predict the CCV. Cycle to cycle variation (CCV) is expected to be due to variabilities in operating and boundary conditions, in-cylinder stratification of diesel and natural gas fuels, variation in in-cylinder turbulence levels and velocity flow-fields. In a previous publication by the authors [1], variabilities in operating and boundary conditions are incorporated into several closed cycle simulations performed in parallel. Stochastic variations/stratifications of fuel-air mixture, turbulence levels, temperature and internal combustion residuals cannot be considered in such closed cycle simulations. In this study, open cycle simulations with port injection of natural gas predicted the combined effect of the stratifications on the CCV of in-cylinder pressure. The predicted Coefficient of Variation (COV) of cylinder pressure is improved compared to the one captured by closed cycle simulations in parallel.

  5. Design and Performance of LPG Fuel Mixer for Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrial; Saputro, W.; Garcia, P. P.

    2018-05-01

    Small horizontal diesel engines are commonly used for agricultural machinery, however, availability of diesel fuel become one of big problems especially in remote area. Conversely, in line with government policy for conversion of kerosene into LPG for cooking, then LPG become more popular and available even in remote area. Therefore, LPG is potential fuel to replace the shortage of diesel fuel for operating diesel engine in remote area. The purpose of this study was to design mixing device for using dual fuel i.e. LPG and diesel fuel and evaluate its performance accordingly. Simulation by using CFD was done in order to analyze mixture characteristics of LPG in air intake manifold. The performance test was done by varying the amount of LPG injected in intake air at 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, until 40%, respectively. Result of CFD contour simulation showed the best combination when mixing 30% LPG into the intake air. Performance test of this research revealed that mixing LPG in air intake can reduce the diesel fuel consumption about 0.7 l/hour (without load) and 1.14 l/hour (with load). Diesel engine revolution increases almost 300 rpm faster than when using diesel fuel only. Based on economic analysis, using the fuel combination (diesel fuel – LPG) is not recommended in the area near SPBU where the price of diesel fuel is standard. However, using the fuel combination LPG-diesel fuel is highly recommended in the remote areas in Indonesia where price of diesel fuel is comparatively expensive which will provide cheaper total fuel cost for diesel engine operation.

  6. Effect of biodiesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emission for diesel dual fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Shihnan, A.H.; Nasri, N.S.; Sharer, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine and emission characteristics of biodiesel DDF engine system were measured. • Biodiesel DDF fuelled system produced high engine performance. • Lower hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide was emitted by biodiesel DDF system. • Biodiesel DDF produced slightly higher carbon monoxide and nitric oxides emission. - Abstract: Biodiesel derived from biomass is a renewable source of fuel. It is renovated to be the possible fuel to replace fossil derived diesel due to its properties and combustion characteristics. The integration of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engine known as diesel dual fuel (DDF) system offered better exhaust emission thus become an attractive option for reducing the pollutants emitted from transportation fleets. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emission of HINO H07C DDF engine; fuelled by diesel, biodiesel, diesel–CNG, and biodiesel–CNG, were experimentally studied. Biodiesel and diesel fuelled engine system respectively generated 455 N m and 287 N m of torque. The horse power of biodiesel was found to be 10–20% higher compared to diesel. Biodiesel–CNG at 20% (B20-DDF) produced the highest engine torque compared to other fuel blends Biodiesel significantly increase the carbon monoxide (15–32%) and nitric oxides (6.67–7.03%) but in contrast reduce the unburned hydrocarbons (5.76–6.25%) and carbon dioxide (0.47–0.58%) emissions level. These results indicated that biodiesel could be used without any engine modifications as an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel especially the heavy transportation fleets

  7. Studies on dual fuel operation of rubber seed oil and its bio-diesel with hydrogen as the inducted fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin Geo, V.; Nagalingam, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KCG College of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600097 (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IC Engineering Division, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600025 (India)

    2008-11-15

    The main problems with the use of neat vegetable oils in diesel engines are higher smoke levels and lower thermal efficiency as compared to diesel. The problem can be tackled by inducting a gaseous fuel in the intake manifold along with air. In this investigation, hydrogen is used as the inducted fuel and rubber seed oil (RSO), rubber seed oil methyl ester (RSOME) and diesel are used as main fuels in a dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine with rated output of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm was converted to operate in the dual fuel mode. Dual fuel operation of varying hydrogen quantity with RSO and RSOME results in higher brake thermal efficiency and significant reduction in smoke levels at high outputs. The maximum brake thermal efficiency is 28.12%, 29.26% and 31.62% with RSO, RSOME and diesel at hydrogen energy share of 8.39%, 8.73% and 10.1%, respectively. Smoke is reduced from 5.5 to 3.5 BSU with RSOME and for RSO it is from 6.1 to 3.8 BSU at the maximum efficiency point. The peak pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise increase with hydrogen induction. Heat release rate indicates an increase in the combustion rate with hydrogen induction. On the whole it is concluded that hydrogen can be inducted along with air in order to reduce smoke levels and improve thermal efficiency of RSO and its bio-diesel fuelled diesel engines. (author)

  8. Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed method is presented on the thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel internal combustion engine. An 18 cylinder four stroke turbocharged engine is considered to operate at a maximum speed of 500 rpm for marine and power plant applications. Thermodynamic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are mathematically analyzed to provide a real cycle analysis together with a complete set of calculated operation conditions, power characteristics and engine efficiencies. The method is found to provide results in close agreement to published data for the actual performance of similar engines such as V18 MAN 51/60DF.

  9. ISO New England Dual Fuel Capabilities to Limit Natural Gas and Electricity Interdependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adder, Justin M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Since 2000, natural gas has seen tremendous growth as a fuel source for electricity generation in the United States (U.S.) with annual installations exceeding 20 GW in all but four years. It also accounts for an increasingly significant share of the nation’s electricity generation, growing from around 15 percent in the early part of the 2000s to between 26 and 29 percent in the last three years. (1) Increasing reliance on natural gas has led to concerns that an extreme weather event – which may cause curtailments in gas delivery – or a natural gas infrastructure failure could lead to local or regional electric reliability issues. (2) These concerns stem from differences in delivery methods of natural gas to electric generating units (EGUs) contrasted with the fuel delivery and storage methods for traditional baseload power systems (i.e. coal and nuclear units).1 (3) Although it seems that there is an abundance of natural gas in a post-shale gas world, infrastructure limitations and differences in electric and natural gas markets persist that differentiate natural gas-fired generators from traditional baseload power generators. Such concerns can be partially mitigated by modifying natural gas EGUs for operation on secondary fuels and installing on-site fuel storage for the secondary fuel, thus ensuring continuity of operation in the case of a gas delivery problem.2 This report examines technical, regulatory, and market issues associated with operating power plants primarily fueled with natural gas, on a secondary fuel, such as fuel oil or liquefied natural gas (LNG). In addition, a regional case study was completed to identify the current and near-term potential for dual fuel operation in New England, along with a market impact analysis of potential cost savings during an extreme weather event. The New England Independent System Operator (ISO-NE) was selected as the study area based on a preponderance of natural gas-fired generators contributing to the

  10. Investigation of heat transfer and flow using ribs within gas turbine blade cooling passage: Experimental and hybrid LES/RANS modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sourabh

    temperature prediction which can be applied routinely in the design stage of turbine cooled vanes and blades. This study presents an attempt to collect information about Nusselt number inside the ribbed duct and a series of measurement is performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient method. A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is carried out on the best V and Broken V rib arrangements to analyze the flow pattern inside the channel. A novel method is devised to analyze the results obtained from CFD simulation. Hybrid LES/Reynolds Averaged Navier Strokes (RANS) modeling is used to modify Reynolds stresses using Algebraic Stress Model (ASM).

  11. 4E analysis and multi objective optimization of a micro gas turbine and solid oxide fuel cell hybrid combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Katebi, Arash

    2014-02-01

    Energy, exergy, economic and environmental (4E) analysis and optimization of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine (SOFC-MGT) system for use as combined generation of heat and power (CHP) is investigated in this paper. The hybrid system is modeled and performance related results are validated using available data in literature. Then a multi-objective optimization approach based on genetic algorithm is incorporated. Eight system design parameters are selected for the optimization procedure. System exergy efficiency and total cost rate (including capital or investment cost, operational cost and penalty cost of environmental emissions) are the two objectives. The effects of fuel unit cost, capital investment and system power output on optimum design parameters are also investigated. It is observed that the most sensitive and important design parameter in the hybrid system is fuel cell current density which has a significant effect on the balance between system cost and efficiency. The selected design point from the Pareto distribution of optimization results indicates a total system exergy efficiency of 60.7%, with estimated electrical energy cost 0.057 kW-1 h-1, and payback period of about 6.3 years for the investment.

  12. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  13. The DOE Next-Generation Drivetrain for Wind Turbine Applications: Gearbox, Generator, and Advanced Si/SiC Hybrid Inverter System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, William; Keller, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the design and testing results from the U.S. Department of Energy Next-Generation Wind Turbine Drivetrain Project. The drivetrain design reduces the cost of energy by increasing energy capture through drivetrain efficiency improvements; by reducing operation and maintenance costs through reducing gearbox failures; and by lowering capital costs through weight reduction and a series of mechanical and electronic innovations. The paper provides an overview of the drivetrain gearbox and generator and provides a deeper look into the power converter system. The power converter has a number of innovations including the use of hybrid silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) isolated baseplate switching modules. Switching energies are compared between SiC and Si PIN diodes. The efficiency improvement by use of the SiC diode in a three-level converter is also described. Finally, a brief discussion covering utility interconnect requirements for turbines is provided with a particular focus on utility events that lead to high transient torque loads on drivetrain mechanical elements.

  14. Experimental investigation and combustion analysis of a direct injection dual-fuel diesel-natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlucci, A.P.; De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D.; Naccarato, F. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, CREA, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    A single-cylinder diesel engine has been converted into a dual-fuel engine to operate with natural gas together with a pilot injection of diesel fuel used to ignite the CNG-air charge. The CNG was injected into the intake manifold via a gas injector on purpose designed for this application. The main performance of the gas injector, such as flow coefficient, instantaneous mass flow rate, delay time between electrical signal and opening of the injector, have been characterized by testing the injector in a constant-volume optical vessel. The CNG jet structure has also been characterized by means of shadowgraphy technique. The engine, operating in dual-fuel mode, has been tested on a wide range of operating conditions spanning different values of engine load and speed. For all the tested operating conditions, the effect of CNG and diesel fuel injection pressure, together with the amount of fuel injected during the pilot injection, were analyzed on the combustion development and, as a consequence, on the engine performance, in terms of specific emission levels and fuel consumption. (author)

  15. Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the performance of dual-fuel gas diesel engines. A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, B.B. [Centre for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Sahoo, N.; Saha, U.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2009-08-15

    Petroleum resources are finite and, therefore, search for their alternative non-petroleum fuels for internal combustion engines is continuing all over the world. Moreover gases emitted by petroleum fuel driven vehicles have an adverse effect on the environment and human health. There is universal acceptance of the need to reduce such emissions. Towards this, scientists have proposed various solutions for diesel engines, one of which is the use of gaseous fuels as a supplement for liquid diesel fuel. These engines, which use conventional diesel fuel and gaseous fuel, are referred to as 'dual-fuel engines'. Natural gas and bio-derived gas appear more attractive alternative fuels for dual-fuel engines in view of their friendly environmental nature. In the gas-fumigated dual-fuel engine, the primary fuel is mixed outside the cylinder before it is inducted into the cylinder. A pilot quantity of liquid fuel is injected towards the end of the compression stroke to initiate combustion. When considering a gaseous fuel for use in existing diesel engines, a number of issues which include, the effects of engine operating and design parameters, and type of gaseous fuel, on the performance of the dual-fuel engines, are important. This paper reviews the research on above issues carried out by various scientists in different diesel engines. This paper touches upon performance, combustion and emission characteristics of dual-fuel engines which use natural gas, biogas, producer gas, methane, liquefied petroleum gas, propane, etc. as gaseous fuel. It reveals that 'dual-fuel concept' is a promising technique for controlling both NO{sub x} and soot emissions even on existing diesel engine. But, HC, CO emissions and 'bsfc' are higher for part load gas diesel engine operations. Thermal efficiency of dual-fuel engines improve either with increased engine speed, or with advanced injection timings, or with increased amount of pilot fuel. The ignition

  16. An effort to enhance hydrogen energy share in a compression ignition engine under dual-fuel mode using low temperature combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintala, V.; Subramanian, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 energy share increased from 18% with DDM to 36% with WDM (water injection). • H 2 energy share improved marginally with retarded injection timing mode (RDM). • Energy efficiency increased with increasing amount of H 2 in dual-fuel engine. • NO x emission decreased with water injection and retarded pilot fuel injection. • HC, CO and smoke emissions increased slightly with low temperature combustion. - Abstract: A limited hydrogen (H 2 ) energy share due to knocking is the major hurdle for effective utilization of H 2 in compression ignition (CI) engines under dual-fuel operation. The present study aims at improvement of H 2 energy share in a 7.4 kW direct injection CI engine under dual-fuel mode with two low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies; (i) retarded pilot fuel injection timing and (ii) water injection. Experiments were carried out under conventional strategies of diesel dual-fuel mode (DDM) and B20 dual-fuel mode (BDM); and LTC strategies of retarded injection timing dual-fuel mode (RDM) and water injected dual-fuel mode (WDM). The results explored that the H 2 energy share increased significantly from 18% with conventional DDM to 24, and 36% with RDM, and WDM respectively. The energy efficiency increased with increasing H 2 energy share under dual-fuel operation; however, for a particular energy share of 18% H 2 , it decreased from 34.8% with DDM to 33.7% with BDM, 32.7% with WDM and 29.9% with RDM. At 18% H 2 energy share, oxides of nitrogen emission decreased by 37% with RDM and 32% with WDM as compared to conventional DDM due to reduction of in-cylinder temperature, while it increased slightly about 5% with BDM. It is emerged from the study that water injection technique is the viable option among all other strategies to enhance the H 2 energy share in the engine with a slight penalty of increase in smoke, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions

  17. Technical and Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Generation System of Wind Turbines, Photovoltaic Modules and a Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Szczerbowsk Radosław; Ceran Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of the economic and manufacturing system consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, polymer membrane fuel cell and the electrolyzer. The system supplies the customer profile at the assumed wind and solar conditions. Energy analysis was conducted on the basis of the balance equations produced and received electric power. To assess the economic efficiency of investments adopted the following economic indicators: NPV, IRR, MIRR, MNPV, DPP. T...

  18. Transformation of a car diesel engine with direct injection and common rail into a dual fuel engine; Trasformazione di un motore automobilistico diesel ad iniezione diretta dotato di common rail in un motore dual fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D. [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali

    1999-08-01

    The reduced polluting emissions make natural gas a quite interesting alternative fuel for automotive applications. Therefore a car diesel engine has been transformed into a dual fuel engine with pilot injection via the common rail injection system used to ignite the methane-air charge. Standard injection pumps show a certain instability at low flow rates and high engine speed. On the opposite the new common rail system allows to ignite the fuel in all conditions with an amount of gas oil less than 8% of the entire energy required by the engine was enough to ignite the fuel. Furthermore, a power increase has been obtained, with an overall efficiency equal to or even higher than a conventional engine. The article deals with a series of test carried out on 1929 cm{sup 3} direct injection turbo-charged engine and presents the preliminary results. [Italian] La riduzione delle emissioni inquinanti rende il metano un combustibile alternativo piuttosto interessante per applicazioni automobilistiche. Per quasta ragione e' stata realizzata la trasformazione di un motore automobilitico diesel ad iniezione diretta in un motore dual fuel con iniezione pilota prodotta da un sistema common rail. L'adozione del sistema common rail consente l'accensione in ogni condizione con una quantita' di combustibile inferiore all'8% dell'intera energia richiesta alla potenza nominale del motore risolvendo i problemi di instabilita' che una pompa normale presenta a basse portate e ad alta velocita'. In alcuni casi e' stato sufficiente il 3% dell'energia totale richiesta dal motore per accendere la carica. Inoltre si e' ottenuto un aumento della potenza con un'efficienza globale analoga a qualla del motore tradizionale o addirittura migliore. Si riportano i risultati di una campagna di prove condotta su un motore sovralimentato ad iniezione diretta (1929 cm{sup 3}).

  19. Hybrid Combined Cycles with Biomass and Waste Fired Bottoming Cycle - a Literature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Miroslav P.

    2002-02-01

    Biomass is one of the main natural resources in Sweden. The present low-CO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the Swedish electricity production system (hydro and nuclear) can be retained only by expansion of biofuel applications for energy purposes. Domestic Swedish biomass resources are vast and renewable, but not infinite. They must be utilized as efficiently as possible, in order to make sure that they meet the conditions for sustainability in the future. Application of efficient power generation cycles at low costs is essential for meeting this challenge. This applies also to municipal solid waste incineration with energy extraction, which should be preferred to its dumping in landfills. Hybrid dual-fuel combined cycle units are a simple and affordable way to increase the electric efficiency of biofuel energy utilization, without big investments, uncertainties or loss of reliability arising from complicated technologies. Configurations of such power cycles are very flexible and reliable. Their potential for high electric efficiency in condensing mode, high total efficiency in combined heat and power mode and unrivalled load flexibility is explored in this project. The present report is a literature study that concentrates on certain biomass utilization technologies, in particular the design and performance of hybrid combined cycle power units of various configurations, with gas turbines and internal combustion engines as topping cycles. An overview of published literature and general development trends on the relevant topic is presented. The study is extended to encompass a short overview of biomass utilization as an energy source (focusing on Sweden), history of combined cycles development with reference especially to combined cycles with supplementary firing and coal-fired hybrid combined cycles, repowering of old steam units into hybrid ones and combined cycles for internal combustion engines. The hybrid combined cycle concept for municipal solid waste

  20. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Simio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved.

  1. Emission and operating performance of a biomethane tractor with dual fuel engine; Emissions- und Betriebsverhalten eines Biomethan-Traktors mit Zuendstrahlmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mautner, Sebastian [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    The use of biomethane as fuel for agricultural machinery with dual fuel technology is contributing to climate protection and ensures safe fuel supply. So far, hardly any documented operational experiences are known. The aim of the project, funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology, was to investigate practicability for daily use and the emission behaviour of a Valtra N101 prototype tractor (exhaust stage IIIA). The retrofitted dual-fuel technology of the former conventional diesel tractor simultaneously uses biomethane or natural gas and diesel as ignition fuel. During the field test over 590 working hours, the tractor showed overall high reliability. On average the operating range in dual-fuel mode with one complete filling of the gas tanks was about 11.5 hours. On the tractor test bench a significant improvement of the exhaust emissions could be observed, since the gas ECU had been optimized and changed by the manufacturer. For dual-fuel operation, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) are lower, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter emissions (PM) are higher compared to solely diesel operation. In particular, HC emissions exceed the proposed limiting value, submitted by the European Commission. This is due to incomplete gas combustion and insufficient conversion by the exhaust after-treatment-system (methane slip). A big potential for optimization is expected by adjusting the operating point-specific gasdiesel ratio and improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment system.

  2. Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAE University, Jimmi, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 17555, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radwan, M.S.; Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion. (author)

  3. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538. 536.10 Section 536.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle fuel... economy in a particular compliance category by more than the limits set forth in 49 U.S.C. 32906(a), the...

  4. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the performance of dual fuel diesel engine with hydrogen and LPG as secondary fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata, D.B.; Misra, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835215 (India)

    2010-11-15

    The mathematical models to predict pressure, net heat release rate, mean gas temperature, and brake thermal efficiency for dual fuel diesel engine operated on hydrogen, LPG and mixture of LPG and hydrogen as secondary fuels are developed. In these models emphasis have been given on spray mixing characteristics, flame propagation, equilibrium combustion products and in-cylinder processes, which were computed using empirical equations and compared with experimental results. This combustion model predicts results which are in close agreement with the results of experiments conducted on a multi cylinder turbocharged, intercooled gen-set diesel engine. The predictions are also in close agreement with the results on single cylinder diesel engine obtained by other researchers. A reasonable agreement between the predicted and experimental results reveals that the presented model gives quantitatively and qualitatively realistic prediction of in-cylinder processes and engine performances during combustion. (author)

  6. Field Tests on Hydrodynamic and Hybrid Operation of a Bidirectional Thrust Bearing of a Pump-Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wasilczuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In vertical shaft pump turbines operating in pumped storage power plants an important role is played by a thrust bearing. Due to the bidirectional character of operation, thrust bearing tilting pads have to be supported symmetrically, which is known to be unfavourable from the point of view of their performance. Large thrust bearings have to be carefully designed so as to minimise excessive thermo-elastic pad deformations. The research into fluid film thrust bearings has been quite extensive over the years, comprising theoretical studies of bearing properties with the use of more and more sophisticated calculation codes. On the other hand, the availability of experimental field data on bearing operation is limited, for obvious reasons. In this paper the authors present part of the results of extensive field tests of a large bearing of a pump-turbine they have conducted in a pumped storage power plant. Hopefully this data will be of interest to other researchers to compare theoretical predictions to measurement data.

  7. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  8. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    and exergy analyses were applied. Focus in this optimization study was heat management, and the optimization efforts resulted in a substantial gain of approximately 6% in the electrical efficiency of the plant. The optimized hybrid plant produced approximately 290 kWe at an electrical efficiency of 58...

  9. An investigation on the particulate number and size distributions over the whole engine map from an optimized combustion strategy combining RCCI and dual-fuel diesel-gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Boronat, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized dual-mode dual-fuel strategy to cover the whole engine map. • High coherence between smoke and total particles number for diffusive dual-fuel mode. • Fully premixed RCCI regime dominated by small particles of 30 nm diameter peak. • Highly premixed RCCI mode has a transitional behavior with two particle diameter peaks. - Abstract: Literature demonstrates that, for premixed low temperature combustion concepts, particulate matter cannot be directly extrapolated from soot emissions measurements, as typically done for conventional diesel combustion. This is because the particulate matter from low temperature combustion has low fraction of carbonaceous compounds and great amount of soluble organic fraction, which is not captured by the smoke measurement techniques such as the optical reflectometry. By this reason, the study of the particulate matter characteristics from this combustion techniques requires using specific equipment. The aim of the current work is to gain understanding on the particulate matter characteristics from the dual-mode dual-fuel combustion, which is an optimized combustion strategy that combines fully and highly premixed RCCI regimes at low and medium loads, and switches to dual-fuel diffusion combustion at full load. The study was performed over the whole engine map, using a 15.3:1 compression ratio medium-duty EURO VI diesel engine. In particular, the particulate number and size distributions were sampled using a scanning mobility particle sizer and a condensation particle counter, which allow measuring the size distribution and total number of particles from 5 to 250 nm. Results demonstrate that the fully premixed RCCI combustion is dominated by small particles (less than 30 nm in mobility diameter), the dual-fuel diffusion mode is dominated by larger particles (around 100 nm in mobility diameter) showing more diesel-like particle size distributions, and the highly premixed reactivity controlled compression

  10. Effect of engine load and biogas flow rate to the performance of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel (dieselbiogas) mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has released a target on reduction Green Houses Gases emissions (GHG) by 26% from level business-as-usual by 2020, and the target can be up to 41% by international supports. In the energy sector, this target can be reached effectively by promoting fossil fuel replacement or blending with biofuel. One of the potential solutions is operating compression ignition (CI) engine in dual-fuel (diesel-biogas) mode. In this study effects of engine load and biogas flow rate on the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel mode are investigated. In the present study, the used biogas is refined with methane content 70% of volume. The objectives are to explore the optimum operating condition of the CI engine run in dual-fuel mode. The experiments are performed on a four-strokes CI engine with rated output power of 4.41 kW. The engine is tested at constant speed 1500 rpm. The engine load varied from 600W to 1500W and biogas flow rate varied from 0 L/min to 6 L/min. The results show brake thermal efficiency of the engine run in dual-fuel mode is better than pure diesel mode if the biogas flow rates are 2 L/min and 4 L/min. It is recommended to operate the present engine in a dual-fuel mode with biogas flow rate of 4 L/min. The consumption of diesel fuel can be replaced up to 50%.

  11. Simulation and thermoeconomic analysis of different configurations of gas turbine (GT)-based dual-purpose power and desalination plants (DPPDP) and hybrid plants (HP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensonnet, Thibaut; Uche, Javier; Serra, Luis

    2007-01-01

    This paper contains a simulation and a thermoeconomic analysis of several configurations of gas turbine (GT)-based dual-purpose power and desalination plants (DPPDP): Gas turbine with reverse osmosis (GT+RO), combined cycle with reverse osmosis (CC+RO), combined cycle with multi-effect distillation (CC+MED) and two different hybrid plant (HP) arrangements combining CC, MED and RO (CC+MED+RO, CC+MED+RO bis ). The last two configurations only differ from the feed solution to the MED units (raw seawater or brine coming from the RO discharge). A complete thermodynamic simulation at both design and at part load conditions has been made, as well as an exergy and an exergo-economic (thermoeconomic) analysis of each configuration, in order to compare the evolution of the water and electricity cost for different arrangements. The results show that even for a significantly reduced fuel cost (1.42 $/GJ), the CC is much more profitable than a GT operating in open cycle, with electricity cost values of 1.647 and 2.166 c$/kWh, respectively. As was expected, RO is more efficient and profitable than MED desalination processes, the difference in the obtained desalted water cost being significant. In the hybrid configuration with MED fed by the RO brine discharge, a decrease in the equivalent electrical consumption of nearly 2 kWh/m 3 was achieved, but even in this case RO was more efficient (14.15 vs. 4.048 kWh/m 3 ). The evolution of electricity cost in each configuration is more similar at part load operation than at full load, but in the case of water cost, RO is once again more profitable and less sensitive to load variations. Costs given in this paper correspond to investment and fuel costs. Further, profitability and operation strategies of HP, i.e., DPPDP combining distillation and membrane processes, are also analyzed. It is shown that HP can be more profitable than RO plants in the case of increasing the water production capacity of existing DPPDP, because the profit

  12. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural...... composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed....

  13. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Beauson, Justine; McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F

    2017-11-09

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed.

  14. A hybrid solar photovoltaic-wind turbine-Rankine cycle for electricity generation in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy demand model by designing a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power generation system of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a promising substitute for the expensive battery banks. The study models the future energy demand of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus based on the IPCC emissions scenario A1B and A2 by designing a new hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system that satisfies the current and future requirements of firm capacity during peak periods. The study suggests an improvement in a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system performance by predicting reliable outputs that can integrate renewable energy technologies to conventional power generation. The energy consumption prediction model emphasizes the energy requirement that has a growing demand from 300 to 400 GWh in scenario A1B and 150–450 GWh in scenario A2 from 2010 to 2050. The proposed design can meet 400 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A1B and 450 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A2. The percentage contribution of solar, wind and thermal energy for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 are presented along with CO2 emissions and water consumption for each of the years.

  15. Multi-objective optimization of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell – gas turbine hybrid system integrated with seawater reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloy, Valerie; Rodgers, Peter; Al Alili, Ali

    2017-01-01

    To improve the capacity and efficiency of distributed power and fresh water generation in coastal industrial facilities affected by regional water scarcity, a natural gas-fueled, pressurized solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid is integrated with a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant. This power and water co-generation system is optimized in terms of two objectives, maximum exergy efficiency and minimum cost rate, using a genetic algorithm. The exergetic and economic performance of three solutions representing maximum exergy efficiency, minimum cost rate, and a compromise between efficiency and cost rate, are compared. When imposing a water production requirement (reference case), the selected compromise multi-objective optimization solution delivers a net power output of 2.4 MWe and 636 m"3/day of permeate, at a co-generation exergy efficiency and cost rate of 71.3% and 0.0256 USD/s, respectively. The system payback time is estimated to be less than six years for typical economic parameters, but would become unprofitable in the most unfavorable economic scenario considered. Overall, the results indicate the thermodynamic and economic benefits of reverse osmosis over thermal desalination processes for integration with high-efficiency power generation systems in coastal regions impacted by domestic gas shortages and water scarcity. - Highlights: • Integration of a pressurized SOFC-GT hybrid system with a reverse osmosis unit. • Multi-objective, exergetic and economic optimization using a genetic algorithm. • Optimum solution delivers 2.4 MWe and 636 m"3/day of desalinated water. • Overall exergy efficiency and cost rate of 71.3% and 0.0256 USD/s, respectively. • System payback time estimated at less than six years for typical economic conditions.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system analysis for high-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, P.; Brandon, N.P. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Brett, D.J.L. [The Centre for CO{sub 2} Technology, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    High-altitude long-endurance (HALE) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are ideally suited to provide surveillance, remote sensing and communication relay capabilities for both military and civilian applications. HALE UAVs typically cruise at an altitude between 15 km and 20 km, travelling at low speed and circling specific areas of interest. The work reported aims to investigate alternative power system architectures that enable an efficiency increase and consequent fuel consumption reduction to realise a one-week endurance target. Specifically, the application of a solid oxide fuel cell combined with a gas turbine is considered; with different system configurations modelled with a view to maximising overall efficiency. It is found that modularising the fuel cell capacity into a number of discrete stacks such that the fuel is distributed in parallel and air is fed in series results in an increased system efficiency compared with a single-stack design. An overall system efficiency of 66.3% (LHV) when operating on hydrogen is predicted for a three-stack system. (author)

  17. A dynamic model of a 100 kW micro gas turbine fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends and its application in a hybrid energy grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gaeta, Alessandro; Reale, Fabrizio; Chiariello, Fabio; Massoli, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of a dynamic model of a commercial 100 kW Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) fuelled with mixtures of standard (i.e. natural gas or methane) and alternative fuels (i.e. hydrogen). The model consists of a first-order differential equation (ODE) describing the dominant dynamics of the MGT imposed by its own control system during production electrical power. The differential equation is coupled to a set of nonlinear maps derived numerically from a detailed 0D thermodynamic matching model of the MGT evaluated over a wide range of operating conditions (i.e. mechanical power, fraction of hydrogen and ambient temperature). The efficiency of the electrical machine with power inverter and power absorbed by auxiliary devices is also taken into account. The resulting model is experimentally validated for a sequence of power step responses of the MGT at different ambient conditions and with different fuel mixtures. The model is suited for simulation and control of hybrid energy grids (HEGs) which rely on advanced use of MGT and hydrogen as energy carrier. In this regard, the MGT model is used in the simulation of an HEG based on an appropriate mix of renewable (non-programmable) and non-renewable (programmable) energy sources with hydrogen storage and its reuse in the MGT. Here, the MGT is used as a programmable energy vector for compensating the deficits of renewable energies (such as solar and wind) with respect to user demand, while excess renewable energy is used to produce hydrogen via electrolysis of water. The simulated HEG comprises a solar PhotoVoltaic (PV) plant (300 kW), an MGT (100 kW) fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends, a water electrolyzer (WE) system (8 bar, 56 Nm 3 /h), a hydrogen tank (54 m 3 ), and an Energy Management Control System (EMCS). - Highlights: • A dynamic model of a commercial 100 kW MGT fuelled with natural gas and hydrogen blends is developed. • The model reproduces the electrical power generated by

  18. Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi Dual Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI compression ignition (CI engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.

  19. Characterization of performance-emission indices of a diesel engine using ANFIS operating in dual-fuel mode with LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amitav; Roy, Sumit; Banerjee, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    This experimental work highlights the inherent capability of an adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based model to act as a robust system identification tool (SIT) in prognosticating the performance and emission parameters of an existing diesel engine running of diesel-LPG dual fuel mode. The developed model proved its adeptness by successfully harnessing the effects of the input parameters of load, injection duration and LPG energy share on output parameters of BSFCEQ, BTE, NOX, SOOT, CO and HC. Successive evaluation of the ANFIS model, revealed high levels of resemblance with the already forecasted ANN results for the same input parameters and it was evident that similar to ANN, ANFIS also has the innate ability to act as a robust SIT. The ANFIS predicted data harmonized the experimental data with high overall accuracy. The correlation coefficient (R) values are stretched in between 0.99207 to 0.999988. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) tallies were recorded in the range of 0.02-0.173% with the root mean square errors (RMSE) in acceptable margins. Hence the developed model is capable of emulating the actual engine parameters with commendable ranges of accuracy, which in turn would act as a robust prediction platform in the future domains of optimization.

  20. Validation of a zero-dimensional and 2-phase combustion model for dual-fuel compression ignition engine simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demands for the reduction of exhaust emissions and the pursuit to re-duce the use of fossil fuels require the search for new fuelling technologies in combustion engines. One of the most promising technologies is the multi-fuel compression ignition engine concept, in which a small dose of liquid fuel injected directly into the cylinder acts as the ignition inhibitor of the gaseous fuel. Achieving the optimum combustion process in such an engine requires the application of advanced control algorithms which require mathematical modelling support. In response to the growing demand for new simulation tools, a 0-D model of a dual-fuel engine was proposed and validated. The validation was performed in a broad range of engine operating points, including various speeds and load condition, as well as different natural gas/diesel blend ratios. It was demonstrated that the average model calculation error within the entire cycle did not exceed 6.2%, and was comparable to the measurement results cycle to cycle variations. The maximum model calculation error in a single point of a cycle was 15% for one of the complex (multipoint injection cases. In other cases, it did not exceed 11%.

  1. Performance and emission comparison of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by producer gases with varying hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohon Roy, Murari [Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (JSPS Research Fellow, Okayama University), Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Tomita, Eiji; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Harada, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakane, Atsushi (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., 6-4 Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo)

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated the effect of hydrogen content in producer gas on the performance and exhaust emissions of a supercharged producer gas-diesel dual-fuel engine. Two types of producer gases were used in this study, one with low hydrogen content (H{sub 2} = 13.7%) and the other with high hydrogen content (H{sub 2} = 20%). The engine was tested for use as a co-generation engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant injection pressure and injection quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings. The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. Two-stage combustion was obtained; this is an indicator of maximum power output conditions and a precursor of knocking combustion. Better combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emissions (except NO{sub x}) were obtained with the high H{sub 2}-content producer gas than with the low H{sub 2}-content producer gas, especially under leaner conditions. Moreover, a broader window of fuel-air equivalence ratio was found with highest thermal efficiencies for the high H{sub 2}-content producer gas. (author)

  2. Performance and emissions of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by hydrogen-rich coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, M.M.; Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N.; Harada, Y.; Sakane, A. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-12-15

    This study investigated the engine performance and emissions of a supercharged dual-fuel engine fueled by hydrogen-rich coke oven gas and ignited by a pilot amount of diesel fuel. The engine was tested for use as a cogeneration engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant pilot injection pressure and pilot quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings without and with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. The engine was tested first without EGR condition up to the maximum possible fuel-air equivalence ratio of 0.65. A maximum indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 1425 kPa and a thermal efficiency of 39% were obtained. However, the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were high. A simulated EGR up to 50% was then performed to obtain lower NOx emissions. The maximum reduction of NOx was 60% or more maintaining the similar levels of IMEP and thermal efficiency. Two-stage combustion was obtained; this is an indicator of maximum power output conditions and a precursor of knocking combustion.

  3. An experimental investigation on engine performance and emissions of a supercharged H{sub 2}-diesel dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Murari Mohon [Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (JSPS Research Fellow, Okayama University), Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Tomita, Eiji; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Harada, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University, Tsushima-Naka 3, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakane, Atsushi [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., 6-4 Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated the engine performance and emissions of a supercharged engine fueled by hydrogen and ignited by a pilot amount of diesel fuel in dual-fuel mode. The engine was tested for use as a cogeneration engine, so power output while maintaining a reasonable thermal efficiency was important. Experiments were carried out at a constant pilot injection pressure and pilot quantity for different fuel-air equivalence ratios and at various injection timings without and with charge dilution. The experimental strategy was to optimize the injection timing to maximize engine power at different fuel-air equivalence ratios without knocking and within the limit of the maximum cylinder pressure. The engine was tested first with hydrogen-operation condition up to the maximum possible fuel-air equivalence ratio of 0.3. A maximum IMEP of 908 kPa and a thermal efficiency of about 42% were obtained. Equivalence ratio could not be further increased due to knocking of the engine. The emission of CO was only about 5 ppm, and that of HC was about 15 ppm. However, the NOx emissions were high, 100-200 ppm or more. The charge dilution by N{sub 2} was then performed to obtain lower NOx emissions. The 100% reduction of NOx was achieved. Due to the dilution by N{sub 2} gas, higher amount of energy could be supplied from hydrogen without knocking, and about 13% higher IMEP was produced than without charge dilution. (author)

  4. Main conditions and effectiveness of gas fuel use for powering of dual fuel IC self-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are fuelled mostly with liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel. Nowadays the gaseous fuels are applied as driving fuel of combustion engines. In case of spark ignition engines the liquid fuel (petrol can be totally replaced by the gas fuels. This possibility in case of compression engines is essentially restricted through the higher self-ignition temperatures of the combustible gases in comparison to classical diesel oil. Solution if this problem can be achieved by using of the dual fuel system, where for ignition of the prepared fuel gas - air mixture a specified amount of the liquid fuel (diesel oil should be additionally injected into the combustion chamber. For assurance that the combustion process proceeds without mistakes and completely, some basic conditions should be satisfied. In the frame of this work, three main aspects of this problem are taken into account: a. filling efficiency of the engine, b. stoichiometry of the combustion, c. performance of mechanical parameters (torque, power. A complex analysis of these conditions has been done and some achieved important results are presented in the paper.

  5. Effect of Biodiesel Fuel Injection Timing and Venture for Gaseous Fuel Induction on the Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Bhovi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Advancing or retarding pilot fuel injection timing in a diesel engine provided with either conventional mechanical fuel injection (CMFIS or high pressure injection as in common rail fuel injection (CRDI systems can significantly affect its performance and tail pipe emissions. Performance of diesel engine when fueled with various biofuels as well as gaseous fuels tends to vary with subsequent changes in pilot fuel injection timings. Biodiesel derived from rubber seed oil called Rubber Seed Oil Methyl Ester (RuOME and hydrogen (H2 and hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas called (HCNG both being renewable fuels when used in diesel engines modified to operate in dual fuel mode can provide complete replacement for fossil diesel. In the present study, effect of injection timings and venture design for gas mixing on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of dual fuel engine fitted with both CMFIS and CRDI injection systems and operated on RuOME and HCNG/hydrogen has been investigated. Results showed that high pressure CRDI assisted injection of RuOME with optimized mixing chamber (carburetor for hydrogen induction in dual fuel engine performed improved compared to that with CMFIS. In addition, for the same fuel combinations, CRDI resulted in lower biodiesel consumption, lower carbon monoxide (BSCO and hydrocarbon (BSHC emissions and increased NOx emissions than CMFIS operation.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Injection Timing Influence on Fuel Slip and Influence of Compression Ratio on Knock Occurrence in Conventional Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sremec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressed natural gas can be used in diesel engine with great benefits, but because of its low reactivity it is usually used in a so called dual fuel combustion process. Optimal parameters for dual fuel engines are not yet investigated thoroughly which is the motivation for this work. In this work, a numerical study performed in a cycle simulation tool (AVL Boost v2013 on the influence of different injection timings on fuel slip into exhaust and influence of compression ratio on knock phenomena in port injected dual fuel engine was conducted. The introduction of natural gas into the intake port of a diesel engine usually results in some fuel slipping into the exhaust port due to valve overlap. By analysing the simulation results, the injection strategy that significantly decreases the natural gas slip is defined. The knock occurrence study showed that the highest allowed compression ratio that will result in knock free operation of the presented engine is 18 for ambient intake condition, while for charged intake conditions the compression ratio should be lowered to 16.

  7. Investigation on the performance and emission parameters of dual fuel diesel engine with mixture combination of hydrogen and producer gas as secondary fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dhole

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental investigation in to the effects of using mixture of producer gas and hydrogen in five different proportions as a secondary fuel with diesel as pilot fuel at wide range of load conditions in dual fuel operation of a 4 cylinder turbocharged and intercooled 62.5 kW gen-set diesel engine at constant speed of 1500 RPM. Secondary fuel Substitution is in different percentage of diesel at each load. To generate producer gas, the rice husk was used as source in the downdraft gasifier. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. It was found that of all the combinations tested, mixture combination of PG:H2=(60:40% is the most suited one at which the brake thermal efficiency is in good comparison to that of diesel operation. Decreased NOx emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to diesel fuel operation.

  8. Notion Of Artificial Labs Slow Global Warming And Advancing Engine Studies Perspectives On A Computational Experiment On Dual-Fuel Compression-Ignition Engine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonye K. Jack

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate clean energy applications of the dual-fuel internal combustion engine D-FICE with pilot Diesel fuel to aid public policy formulation in terms of present and future benefits to the modern transportation stationary power and promotion of oil and gas green- drilling the brief to an engine research team was to investigate the feasible advantages of dual-fuel compression-ignition engines guided by the following concerns i Sustainable fuel and engine power delivery ii The requirements for fuel flexibility iii Low exhausts emissions and environmental pollution iv Achieving low specific fuel consumption and economy for maximum power v The comparative advantages over the conventional Diesel engines vi Thermo-economic modeling and analysis for the optimal blend as basis for a benefitcost evaluation Planned in two stages for reduced cost and fast turnaround of results - initial preliminary stage with basic simple models and advanced stage with more detailed complex modeling. The paper describes a simplified MATLAB based computational experiment predictive model for the thermodynamic combustion and engine performance analysis of dual-fuel compression-ignition engine studies operating on the theoretical limited-pressure cycle with several alternative fuel-blends. Environmental implications for extreme temperature moderation are considered by finite-time thermodynamic modeling for maximum power with predictions for pollutants formation and control by reaction rates kinetics analysis of systematic reduced plausible coupled chemistry models through the NCN reaction pathway for the gas-phase reactions classes of interest. Controllable variables for engine-out pollutants emissions reduction and in particular NOx elimination are identified. Verifications and Validations VampV through Performance Comparisons were made using a clinical approach in selection of StrokeBore ratios greater-than and equal-to one amp88051 low-to-high engine speeds and medium

  9. Achieving clean and efficient engine operation up to full load by combining optimized RCCI and dual-fuel diesel-gasoline combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Boronat, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized dual-fuel strategy to cover the whole engine load-speed map. • EURO VI NOx levels up to 14 bar IMEP with fully and highly premixed RCCI strategies. • Dual-fuel provides up to 7% higher efficiency than CDC if urea consumption is considered. - Abstract: This experimental work investigates the capabilities of the reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion concept to be operated in the whole engine map and discusses its benefits when compared to conventional diesel combustion. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder medium-duty diesel engine fueled with regular gasoline and diesel fuels. The main modification on the stock engine architecture was the addition of a port fuel injector in the intake manifold. In addition, with the aim of extending the reactivity controlled compression ignition operating range towards higher loads, the piston bowl volume was increased to reduce the compression ratio of the engine from 17.5:1 (stock) down to 15.3:1. To allow the dual-fuel operation over the whole engine map without exceeding the mechanical limitations of the engine, an optimized dual-fuel combustion strategy is proposed in this research. The combustion strategy changes as the engine load increases, starting from a fully premixed reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion up to around 8 bar IMEP, then switching to a highly premixed reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion up to 15 bar IMEP, and finally moving to a mainly diffusive dual-fuel combustion to reach the full load operation. The engine mapping results obtained using this combustion strategy show that reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion allows fulfilling the EURO VI NOx limit up to 14 bar IMEP. Ultra-low soot emissions are also achieved when the fully premixed combustion is promoted, however, the soot levels rise notably as the combustion strategy moves to a less premixed pattern. Finally, the direct comparison of

  10. Studi Eksperimen Unjuk Kerja Mesin Diesel Menggunakan Sistem Dual Fuel Solar Gas CNG Dengan Variasi Tekanan Injeksi Gas Dan Derajat Waktu Injeksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Yoko Exoryanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar gas ini jika ditinjau dari ekonomis tergolong sangat murah dan ramah lingkungan. Namun, pengaplikasian bahan bakar gas CNG pada generator diesel dengan sistem dual fuel berdampak pada penurunan performansinya. Hal ini terjadi karena rasio campuran udara dan bahan bakar pada sistem dual fuel belum sesuai, sehingga perlunya penelitian lebih lanjut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan performa pada mesin diesel dengan memodifikasi saluran masuk udara dengan memasang injector gas CNG untuk memasukkan bahan bakar tersebut kedalam ruang bakar sehingga mesin diesel berubah menjadi sitem dual fuel. Tidak hanya saluran masuk udara saja yang di modifikasi tetapi, variasi start of injection dan tekanan gas yang masuk juga di variasikan. Penelitian ini di lakukan secara eksperimental dengan menginjeksikan gas CNG ke dalam ruang bakar melalui saluran hisap yang sudah terpasang injector. Proses pengaturan injeksi gas CNG diatur oleh ECU programamble melalui software VEMSTUNE. Sistem pengaturan yang dilakukan adalah mengatur derajat waktu injection (SOI dengan nilai 5o, 30o, 55o, dan 80o CA BTDC dan variasi tekanan masuk gas CNG dengan nilai 1, 1,5, 2, dan 2,5 N/m2. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan putaran mesin konstan sebesar 2000 rpm dengan beban 0 sampai 100 %. Hasil yang didapatkan dari eksperimen yang dilakukan kali ini, antara lain : performa dual fuel lebih optimal dibandingkan saat pengoperasian single fuel. Pengaturan paling optimal terjadi pada start of injection 80° CA BTDC dengan tekanan 1,5 gas CNG. Gas CNG dapat menggantikan porsi bahan bakar minyak solar sebesar 45,30 %. Nilai subtitusi minyak solar yang optimal sebesar 61,39 % dan SFC minyak solar rata-rata mengalami penurunan sebesar 47,10 %, tetapi SFC dual fuel rata-rata meningkat sebesar 47,67 % dibandingkan SFC single fuel. Nilai rata-rata efisiensi thermal turun sebesar 40,89 %, nilai AFR rata-rata turun dari 25,60 menjadi 12,90 dan Temperatur gas buang meningkat dari

  11. An experimental investigation of performance-emission trade off characteristics of a CI engine using hydrogen as dual fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Madhujit; Paul, Abhishek; Debroy, Durbadal; Sastry, G.R.K.; Panua, Raj Sekhar; Bose, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation carried out in this research work concerns the effect of the addition of H 2 on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, 4-stroke diesel engine. The tests were performed using diesel as a pilot fuel, with hydrogen addition at varying load condition using a Timed Manifold Injection (TMI) system has been developed using ECU (electronic control unit) with varying injection strategy to deliver hydrogen on to the intake manifold. The results showed a significant increase in BTE with appreciable decrease in BSEC of the engine when compared to conventional diesel-fueled operation. The emission of CO 2 and NOx was found to increase with enhancement of H 2 addition. The emission of UHC was found to be very high at low load conditions, but it enhanced as the load increased for all hydrogen injection while Soot emissions decreased. Thus, this paper provided a potential to investigate the effect of the addition of H 2 on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine and how to get a best ratio of H 2 addition. The tradeoff study also consolidated the verity that Diesel–H 2 dual fuel operation was instrumental in resolving the high performance – low emission paradox. - Highlights: • Pure diesel and diesel–H 2 blends are tested. • Diesel–H 2 blends produced higher brake thermal efficiency than pure diesel in all part loads. • Diesel–H 2 blends reduced the energy consumption of the engine. • Diesel–H 2 blends simultaneously reduced Soot to some extent but increases N Ox and hydrocarbon emissions. • The performance-emission trade-off paradox has been studied using pure diesel and diesel–H 2 blends

  12. Performance and emission characteristics of turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine and knock suppression using water diluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [College of Engineering Guindy, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In the present work, a normal diesel engine was modified to work in a dual fuel (DF) mode with turpentine and diesel as primary and pilot fuels, respectively. The resulting homogeneous mixture was compressed to a temperature below the self-ignition point. The pilot fuel was injected through the standard injection system and initiated the combustion in the primary-fuel air mixture. The primary fuel (turpentine) has supplied most of the heat energy. Usually, in all DF engines, low-cetane fuels are preferred as a primary fuel. Therefore, at higher loads these fuels start knocking and deteriorating in performances. Usually, DF operators suppress the knock by adding more pilot-fuel quantity. But in the present work, a minimum pilot-fuel quantity was maintained constant throughout the test and a required quantity of diluent (water) was added into the combustion at the time of knocking. The advantages of this method of knock suppression are restoration of performance at full load, maintenance of the same pilot quantity through the load range and reduction in the fuel consumption at full load. From the results, it was found that all performance and emission parameters of turpentine, except volumetric efficiency, are better than those of diesel fuel. The emissions like CO, UBHC are higher than those of the diesel baseline (DBL) and around 40-45% reduction of smoke was observed at 100% of full load. The major pollutant of diesel engine, NO{sub x}, was found to be equal to that of DBL. From the above experiment, it was proved that approximately 80% replacement of diesel with turpentine is quite possible. (author)

  13. Optimal design of marine steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengyang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The marine steam turbine is one of the key equipment in marine power plant, and it tends to using high power steam turbine, which makes the steam turbine to be heavier and larger, it causes difficulties to the design and arrangement of the steam turbine, and the marine maneuverability is seriously influenced. Therefore, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques to the design of the steam turbine in order to achieve the minimum weight or volume by means of finding the optimum combination of design parameters. The math model of the marine steam turbine design calculation was established. The sensitivities of condenser pressure, power ratio of HP turbine with LP turbine, and the ratio of diameter with height at the end stage of LP turbine, which influence the weight of the marine steam turbine, were analyzed. The optimal design of the marine steam turbine, aiming at the weight minimization while satisfying the structure and performance constraints, was carried out with the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that, steam turbine weight is reduced by 3.13% with the optimization scheme. Finally, the optimization results were analyzed, and the steam turbine optimization design direction was indicated. (authors)

  14. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  15. Study of a hybrid system using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gas turbine; Estudo de um sistema hibrido empregando celula de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC) e turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Carlos Caetano de; Gallo, Giulliano Batelochi; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: caetano@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system, applying a combined cycle using gas turbine for rational decentralized energy production is analyzed. The relative concepts about the fuel cell are presented, followed by some chemical and technical information such as the change of Gibbs free energy in isothermal fuel oxidation directly into electricity. This represents a very high fraction of the lower heating value (LHV) of a hydrocarbon fuel. In the next step a methodology for the study of SOFC and gas turbine system is developed, considering the electricity and steam production for a hospital. This methodology is applied to energetic analysis. Natural gas is considered as a fuel. A Sankey Diagram shows that the hybrid SOFC system is a good opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in Brazil. It is necessary to consider that the cogeneration in this version also is a good technical alternative, demanding special methods of design, equipment selection and contractual deals associated to electricity and fuel supply. (author)

  16. Effects of diluent admissions and intake air temperature in exhaust gas recirculation on the emissions of an indirect injection dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd-Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering

    2001-05-01

    The operation of Diesel engines on gaseous fuels, commonly known as dual fuel engines, uses Diesel fuel as the pilot fuel and gaseous fuel (methane and sometimes propane in the present work) as the main fuel. The gaseous fuel was inducted in the intake manifold to mix with the intake air. The investigation was conducted on a high speed indirect injection (Ricardo-E6) dual fuel engine and was concerned with the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the dual fuel engine combustion and emissions, in particular, the effects of intake air temperature and diluent admissions (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) on combustion and emissions. The use of diluents to displace oxygen (O{sub 2}) in the intake air resulted in a reduction in the O{sub 2} supplied to the engine, increased the inlet charge thermal capacity (thermal effect) and, potentially, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} participated in the combustion process (chemical effect). In a separate series of tests, the temperature of the engine inlet charge was raised gradually in order to simulate the effect of mixing hot EGR with the engine inlet gaseous fuel air mixture. It was found that the admission of diluents resulted in reductions in the exhaust oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). Higher inlet charge temperature increases the exhaust NO{sub x} but reduces the unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Finally, when carbon dioxide was added to the inlet gaseous fuel air charge, large reductions in NO{sub x} were observed. (author)

  17. 功率分流在混合传动型风力发电机上的应用及仿真分析%APPLICATION AND SIMULATION OF POWER SPLIT IN HYBRID TRANSMISSION WIND TURBINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂乐; 李伟; 林勇刚; 刘宏伟; 孙尽举

    2017-01-01

    In conventional wind turbines,the mechanical transmission parts are vulnerable and the cost of maintenance is high.On account of these problems,the power flow of planetary gear set was calculated,a novel hydraulic-mechanical transmission wind turbine based on a representative 1.5 MW wind turbine was proposed and the power flow of it was analyzed.The velocity profile method was validated through calculation,proving that wind turbine power split is guaranteed only in a certain structure and velocity range.This paper further modelled and simulated the power split wind turbine and closed power flow wind turbine using co-simulation.The simulation indicated that the closed power flow structure would increase the mechanical wear and lower the system efficiency,which is of certain reference significance to the design of hybrid transmission structure.%针对传统风力发电机机械传动部件易损坏、维修成本高等问题,首先对行星齿轮机构功率流进行分析与计算,然后以某典型1.5 MW传统风力发电机为基础,提出一种基于机械液压混合传动的新型风力发电机结构并对其进行功率流计算及分析,验证了行星齿轮速度分布图法的正确性,说明只有在一定结构以及一定速度范围内才能保证风力发电机实现功率分流.进一步通过联合仿真对功率分流风力发电机与封闭功率流风力发电机进行建模及仿真分析,证明封闭功率流结构会使得机械部分损耗增加,系统效率降低,对混合传动系统的结构设计具有一定的参考意义.

  18. Experimental study on the natural gas dual fuel engine test and the higher the mixture ratio of hydrogen to natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.S.; Lee, Y.S.; Park, C.K. [Cheonnam University, Kwangju (Korea); Masahiro, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-05-28

    One of the unsolved problems of the natural gas dual fuel engine is that there is too much exhaust of Total Hydrogen Carbon(THC) at a low equivalent mixture ratio. To fix it, a natural gas mixed with hydrogen was applied to engine test. The results showed that the higher the mixture ratio of hydrogen to natural gas, the higher the combustion efficiency. And when the amount of the intake air is reached to 90% of WOT, the combustion efficiency was promoted. But, like a case making the injection timing earlier, the equivalent mixture ratio for the nocking limit decreases and the produce of NOx increases. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Mechanical Properties of UHPFRC Joint for FORIDA Wind Turbine Tower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    FORIDA Development, Vestas and Aalborg University are currently undertaking the project “FORIDA Hybrid Towers – The towers for next generation of wind turbines”, aiming to develop a new wind turbine tower structure (The FORIDA Tower) for very tall turbines. The tower is going to be a hybrid of ma...

  20. The Bacterial Flagellar Type III Export Gate Complex Is a Dual Fuel Engine That Can Use Both H+ and Na+ for Flagellar Protein Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Minamino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF to transport flagellar proteins to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure for self-assembly. The transmembrane export gate complex is a H+-protein antiporter, of which activity is greatly augmented by an associated cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Here, we report that the export gate complex can use sodium motive force (SMF in addition to PMF across the cytoplasmic membrane to drive protein export. Protein export was considerably reduced in the absence of the ATPase complex and a pH gradient across the membrane, but Na+ increased it dramatically. Phenamil, a blocker of Na+ translocation, inhibited protein export. Overexpression of FlhA increased the intracellular Na+ concentration in the presence of 100 mM NaCl but not in its absence, suggesting that FlhA acts as a Na+ channel. In wild-type cells, however, neither Na+ nor phenamil affected protein export, indicating that the Na+ channel activity of FlhA is suppressed by the ATPase complex. We propose that the export gate by itself is a dual fuel engine that uses both PMF and SMF for protein export and that the ATPase complex switches this dual fuel engine into a PMF-driven export machinery to become much more robust against environmental changes in external pH and Na+ concentration.

  1. Experimental evaluation of a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine operated on micro-trigeneration system for power, drying and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacua, Karen; Olmos-Villalba, Luis; Herrera, Bernardo; Gallego, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A micro-trigeneration system based in a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was obtained. • Heat from engine exhaust gases was used for drying and refrigeration applications. • Energy efficiency of the microtrigeneration system in dual mode was 40%. • Peppermint was dried in the microtrigeneration system. - Abstract: A micro-trigeneration system based on a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was evaluated experimentally. In this system, waste heat from the engine exhaust was used for heating air using a heat pipe exchanger and for driving an absorption unit freezer. The air heated was used in a convective trays dryer designed to dry peppermint. The global energy efficiency of this system at the engine full load was 40% and 31% in diesel and dual mode, respectively, while the same efficiencies of the engine at the original single generation were 23% and 18%, respectively. On the other hand, a maximum diesel substitution level of 50% was achieved in dual mode.

  2. The Bacterial Flagellar Type III Export Gate Complex Is a Dual Fuel Engine That Can Use Both H+ and Na+ for Flagellar Protein Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru; Morimoto, Yusuke V; Hara, Noritaka; Aldridge, Phillip D; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-03-01

    The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF) to transport flagellar proteins to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure for self-assembly. The transmembrane export gate complex is a H+-protein antiporter, of which activity is greatly augmented by an associated cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Here, we report that the export gate complex can use sodium motive force (SMF) in addition to PMF across the cytoplasmic membrane to drive protein export. Protein export was considerably reduced in the absence of the ATPase complex and a pH gradient across the membrane, but Na+ increased it dramatically. Phenamil, a blocker of Na+ translocation, inhibited protein export. Overexpression of FlhA increased the intracellular Na+ concentration in the presence of 100 mM NaCl but not in its absence, suggesting that FlhA acts as a Na+ channel. In wild-type cells, however, neither Na+ nor phenamil affected protein export, indicating that the Na+ channel activity of FlhA is suppressed by the ATPase complex. We propose that the export gate by itself is a dual fuel engine that uses both PMF and SMF for protein export and that the ATPase complex switches this dual fuel engine into a PMF-driven export machinery to become much more robust against environmental changes in external pH and Na+ concentration.

  3. Theoretical study of the effects of pilot fuel quantity and its injection timing on the performance and emissions of a dual fuel diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.; Rakopoulos, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Various solutions have been proposed for improving the combustion process of conventional diesel engines and reducing the exhaust emissions without making serious modifications on the engine, one of which is the use of natural gas as a supplement for the conventional diesel fuel, the so called dual fuel natural gas diesel engines. The most common type of these is referred to as the pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine (PINGDE). Here, the primary fuel is natural gas that controls the engine power output, while the pilot diesel fuel injected near the end of the compression stroke auto-ignites and creates ignition sources for the surrounding gaseous fuel mixture to be burned. Previous research studies have shown that the main disadvantage of this dual fuel combustion is its negative impact on engine efficiency compared to the normal diesel operation, while carbon monoxide emissions are also increased. The pilot diesel fuel quantity and injection advance influence significantly the combustion mechanism. Then, in order to examine the effect of these two parameters on the performance and emissions, a comprehensive two-zone phenomenological model is employed and applied on a high-speed, pilot ignited, natural gas diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. According to the results, the simultaneously increase of the pilot fuel quantity accompanied with an increase of its injection timing results to an improvement of the engine efficiency (increase) and of the emitted CO emissions (decrease) while it has a negative effect (increase) of NO emissions

  4. Combustion and emissions control in diesel-methane dual fuel engines: The effects of methane supply method combined with variable in-cylinder charge bulk motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Antonio P.; Laforgia, Domenico; Saracino, Roberto; Toto, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We studied dual fuel combustion in diesel engines. → Bulk flow structure of in-cylinder charge and methane supply method were investigated. → Swirl charge motion is capable to enhance air-methane mixture oxidation at low loads. → Methane port injection is capable to reduce unburned hydrocarbons and nitric oxides. - Abstract: In this paper, the results of an extensive experimental campaign about dual fuel combustion development and the related pollutant emissions are reported, paying particular attention to the effect of both the in-cylinder charge bulk motion and methane supply method. A diesel common rail research engine was converted to operate in dual fuel mode and, by activating/deactivating the two different inlet valves of the engine (i.e. swirl and tumble), three different bulk flow structures of the charge were induced inside the cylinder. A methane port injection method was proposed, in which the gaseous fuel was injected into the inlet duct very close to the intake valves, in order to obtain a stratified-like air-fuel mixture up to the end of the compression stroke. For comparison purposes, a homogeneous-like air-fuel mixture was obtained injecting methane more upstream the intake line. Combining the different positions of the methane injector and the three possible bulk flow structures, seven different engine inlet setup were tested. In this way, it was possible to evaluate the effects on dual fuel combustion due to the interaction between methane injector position and charge bulk motion. In addition, methane injection pressure and diesel pilot injection parameters were varied setting the engine at two operating conditions. For some interesting low load tests, the combustion development was studied more in detail by means of direct observation of the process, using an in-cylinder endoscope and a digital CCD camera. Each combustion image was post-processed by a dedicated software, in order to extract only those portions with flame

  5. Performance evaluation of full-scale tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) for vibration control of large wind turbines using real-time hybrid testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Performance evaluation of full-scale tuned liquid dampers carried out for wind turbines. •Coupled blade-tower model considered in the numerical sub-structure. •Stochastic turbulence due to rotationally sampled spectra considered. •Effect of damping screens experimentally investigated...

  6. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  7. Experimental study of the effects of natural gas injection timing on the combustion performance and emissions of a turbocharged common rail dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bo; Wei, Xing; Xi, Chengxun; Liu, Yifu; Zeng, Ke; Lai, Ming-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural gas injection timing has obvious effects on combustion of dual-fuel engine. • Combustion performance is improved with optimized natural gas injection timing. • BSHC and BSCO decreased with retarded natural gas injection timing at low load. • BSNO x increased at part load while reduced at high load with delay N.G. injection. • PM is very low and insensitive to the variation of natural gas injection timing. - Abstract: Natural gas combustion with pilot ignition has been considered to be one of the most promising ways to utilize natural gas in existing diesel engine without serious engine modification and it has been widely researched all over the world. In this study, three experiments of different loads (BMEP 0.240 MPa, 0.480 MPa and 0.767 MPa) were performed on a 2.8 L four-cylinder, natural gas manifold injection dual-fuel engine to investigate the effects of natural gas injection timing on engine combustion performance and emissions. The pilot injection parameters (pilot injection timing and pressure) and natural gas injection pressure remain constant at a speed of 1600 rpm in the experiment. The cylinder pressure, HRR, CoV imep , flame development duration, CA50 and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The results indicated that under low and part engine loads, the flame development duration and CA50 can be reduced by properly retarding natural gas injection timing, while the CoV imep increased with retarded natural gas injection timing. As a result, the brake thermal efficiency is increased and the combustion stability slightly deteriorates. Meanwhile, under low and part engine loads, PM emissions in the dual-fuel engine is much lower than that in conventional diesel engines, furthermore, at high load, the PM emissions are near zero. CO and HC emissions are reduced with retarded natural gas injection timing under low and part loads, however, NO x emissions are slightly increased. Under high load, the flame development duration

  8. Comparison of thermal, radical and chemical effects of EGR gases using availability analysis in dual-fuel engines at part loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinzadeh, A.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Seyed Mahmoudi, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Dual-fuel engines at part load inevitably suffer from lower thermal efficiency and higher emission of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. A quasi-two-zone combustion model has been developed for studying the second-law analysis of a dual-fuel (diesel-gas) engine operating under part-load conditions. The model is composed of two divisions: a single-zone combustion model with chemical kinetics for combustion of natural gas fuel and a subsidiary zone for combustion of pilot fuel. In the latter zone, the pilot fuel is considered as a heat source derived from two superposed Wiebe's combustion functions to account for contribution of pilot fuel in ignition of gaseous fuel and the rest of the total released energy. This quasi-two-zone combustion model is able to establish the development of combustion process with time and associated important operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, heat release rate (HRR) and species concentration. The present work is an attempt to investigate the combustion phenomenon from second-law point of view at part load and using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve the aforementioned problems. Therefore, the availability analysis is applied to the engine from inlet valve closing (IVC) until exhaust valve opening (EVO). Various availability components are identified and calculated separately with crank position. In this paper, the various availability components are identified and calculated separately with crank position. Then the different cases of EGR (chemical, radical and thermal cases) are applied to the availability analysis in dual-fuel engines at part loads. It is found that the chemical case of EGR has negative effect and in this case the unburned chemical availability is increased and the work availability decreases in comparison with baseline engine (without EGR). While the thermal and radical cases have positive effects on the availability terms especially on the unburned chemical availability and work availability

  9. Pelton turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengji

    2016-01-01

    This book concerns the theoretical foundations of hydromechanics of Pelton turbines from the engineering viewpoint. For reference purposes, all relevant flow processes and hydraulic aspects in a Pelton turbine have been analyzed completely and systematically. The analyses especially include the quantification of all possible losses existing in the Pelton turbine and the indication of most available potential for further enhancing the system efficiency. As a guideline the book therefore supports further developments of Pelton turbines with regard to their hydraulic designs and optimizations. It is thus suitable for the development and design engineers as well as those working in the field of turbo machinery. Many laws described in the book can also be directly used to simplify aspects of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or to develop new computational methods. The well-executed examples help better understand the related flow mechanics.

  10. Analysis of a combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a CNG-B20 fuelled diesel engine under dual fuel mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj S. Shelke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Carbon dioxide (CO2 is one of the primary greenhouse gases emitted by various human activities. CO2 is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of carbon cycle. Human activities are altering the carbon cycle by adding or removing CO2 to the atmosphere. The main human activity that emits the CO2 is combustion of fossil fuels for energy and transportation. Compression ignition (CI engines emit high amount of CO2 emission as it is the end product of complete combustion of hydro carbon fuels. Moreover, they emit higher NOx (nitrogen oxides and PM (particulate matter emissions and have higher fuel consumption. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on a CI engine under dual fuel mode with biodiesel as a pilot fuel and compressed natural gas (CNG as a main fuel. The effects of 10 % and 20 % CNG energy shares on performance and emission characteristics of the engine at rated (100% loads were studied. Experimental results indicate the beneficial of CNG addition on improvement in the engine efficiency, and reduction in NOx and CO2 emissions. The NOx and CO2 emissions decreased by 14.24 % and 30 % respectively at the rated load with biodiesel + CNG (20 % energy share as compared to base diesel. No knocking combustion was observed during the tests which confirm the smooth operation. The dual fuel operation with combination of CNG-biodiesel is an effective method to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions with an additional benefit of lower specific energy consumption.

  11. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  12. Effects of Fuel and Nozzle Characteristics on Micro Gas Turbine System: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasha Hashim, Muhammad; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    For many decades, gas turbines have been used widely in the internal combustion engine industry. Due to the deficiency of fossil fuel and the concern of global warming, the used of bio-gas have been recognized as one of most clean fuels in the application of engine to improve performance of lean combustion and minimize the production of NOX and PM. This review paper is to understand the combustion performance using dual-fuel nozzle for a micro gas turbine that was basically designed as a natural gas fuelled engine, the nozzle characteristics of the micro gas turbine has been modelled and the effect of multi-fuel used were investigated. The used of biogas (hydrogen) as substitute for liquid fuel (methane) at constant fuel injection velocity, the flame temperature is increased, but the fuel low rate reduced. Applying the blended fuel at constant fuel rate will increased the flame temperature as the hydrogen percentages increased. Micro gas turbines which shows the uniformity of the flow distribution that can be improved without the increase of the pressure drop by applying the variable nozzle diameters into the fuel supply nozzle design. It also identifies the combustion efficiency, better fuel mixing in combustion chamber using duel fuel nozzle with the largest potential for the future. This paper can also be used as a reference source that summarizes the research and development activities on micro gas turbines.

  13. High temperature turbine engine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, W.D.; Boyd, G.L.

    1993-07-20

    A hybrid ceramic/metallic gas turbine is described comprising; a housing defining an inlet, an outlet, and a flow path communicating the inlet with the outlet for conveying a flow of fluid through the housing, a rotor member journaled by the housing in the flow path, the rotor member including a compressor rotor portion rotatively inducting ambient air via the inlet and delivering this air pressurized to the flow path downstream of the compressor rotor, a combustor disposed in the flow path downstream of the compressor receiving the pressurized air along with a supply of fuel to maintain combustion providing a flow of high temperature pressurized combustion products in the flow path downstream thereof, the rotor member including a turbine rotor portion disposed in the flow path downstream of the combustor and rotatively expanding the combustion products toward ambient for flow from the turbine engine via the outlet, the turbine rotor portion providing shaft power driving the compressor rotor portion and an output shaft portion of the rotor member, a disk-like metallic housing portion journaling the rotor member to define a rotational axis therefore, and a disk-like annular ceramic turbine shroud member bounding the flow path downstream of the combustor and circumscribing the turbine rotor portion to define a running clearance therewith, the disk-like ceramic turbine shroud member having a reference axis coaxial with the rotational axis and being spaced axially from the metallic housing portion in mutually parallel concentric relation therewith and a plurality of spacers disposed between ceramic disk-like shroud member and the metallic disk-like housing portion and circumferentially spaced apart, each of the spacers having a first and second end portion having an end surface adjacent the shroud member and the housing portion respectively, the end surfaces having a cylindrical curvature extending transversely relative to the shroud member and the housing portion.

  14. Hydrogen energy share improvement along with NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emission reduction in a hydrogen dual-fuel compression ignition engine using water injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintala, V.; Subramanian, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 energy share increased from 20% without water to 39% with SWC 270 g/kWh. • Specific water consumption (SWC) 200 g/kWh was selected as the optimum quantity. • NO x decreased about 24% with the optimum water quantity at 20% H 2 energy share. • At 20% H 2 share, energy efficiency decreased about 5.5% with the optimum water. • HC, CO and smoke emissions increased 38%, 100% and 69% with optimum water at 20% H 2 share. - Abstract: The study aims at enhancement of Hydrogen (H 2 ) energy share and reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ) emission in a 7.4 kW-CI engine at 1500 rpm using water injection. The test engine was modified to run under dual-fuel operation with diesel–biodiesel blend (B20) and H 2 fuels for different Specific Water Consumption (SWC) of 130, 200, and 270 g/kWh. Under conventional H 2 dual-fuel mode, energy efficiency and NO x emission increased significantly while Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and smoke emissions decreased. The maximum H 2 energy share increased from 20% without water to 32%, 36%, and 39% with SWC of 130, 200, and 270 g/kWh respectively. However, SWC of 200 g/kWh was selected as an optimum water quantity for knock free operation, better performance and lower emissions. At the optimum SWC with 20% H 2 energy share, the NO x emission and energy efficiency decreased about 24% and 5.7%, while HC and smoke emissions increased about 38% and 69%. At 20% H 2 energy share, the CO emission increased from 0.0 g/kWh without water to 1.2 g/kWh with the optimum SWC. However, reduction of these HC and CO emissions using oxidation catalysts needs to be studied further. A new methodology for determining heat release rate with consideration of crevice gas was proposed in the study

  15. Effects of pilot injection pressure on the combustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine using biodiesel–CNG dual fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Injection pressure of pilot fuel in dual fuel combustion (DFC) affects the engine power and exhaust emissions. • In the biodiesel–CNG DFC mode, the combustion begins and ends earlier as the pilot-fuel injection pressure increases. • The ignition delay in the DFC mode is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer than that in the diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode. • The smoke and NOx emissions are significantly reduced in the DFC mode. - Abstract: Biodiesel–compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel combustion (DFC) system is studied for the simultaneous reduction of particulate matters (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel is used as a pilot injection fuel to ignite the main fuel, CNG of DFC system. In particular, the pilot injection pressure is controlled to investigate the characteristics of engine performance and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is lower than that of diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode at higher injection pressure. However, the combustion stability of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is increased with the increase of pilot injection pressure. At the same injection pressure, the start of combustion of biodiesel–CNG DFC is delayed compared to diesel SFC due to the increase of ignition delay of pilot fuel. On the contrary, it is observed that as the pilot injection pressure increase, the combustion process begins and ends a little earlier for biodiesel–CNG DFC. The ignition delay in the DFC is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer compared to diesel SFC, but decreases with increases of pilot injection pressure. Smoke and NOx emissions are decreased and increased, respectively, as the pilot injection pressure increases in the biodiesel–CNG DFC. In comparison to diesel SFC, smoke emissions are significantly reduced over all the operating conditions and NOx emissions also exhibited similar

  16. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  17. An insight on hydrogen fuel injection techniques with SCR system for NO{sub X} reduction in a hydrogen-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Hall 11A, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune 411019, Maharashtra (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ICE Division, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University-Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Internal combustion engines continue to dominate in many fields like transportation, agriculture and power generation. Among the various alternative fuels, hydrogen is a long-term renewable and less polluting fuel (Produced from renewable energy sources). In the present experimental investigation, the performance and emission characteristics were studied on a direct injection diesel engine in dual fuel mode with hydrogen inducted along with air adopting carburetion, timed port and manifold injection techniques. Results showed that in timed port injection, the specific energy consumption reduces by 15% and smoke level by 18%. The brake thermal efficiency and NO{sub X} increases by 17% and 34% respectively compared to baseline diesel. The variation in performance between port and manifold injection is not significant. The unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions are lesser in port injection. The oxides of nitrogen are higher in hydrogen operation (both port and manifold injection) compared to diesel engine. In order to reduce the NO{sub X} emissions, a selective catalytic converter was used in hydrogen port fuel injection. The NO{sub X} emission reduced upto a maximum of 74% for ANR (ratio of flow rate of ammonia to the flow rate of NO) of 1.1 with a marginal reduction in efficiency. Selective catalytic reduction technique has been found to be effective in reducing the NO{sub X} emission from hydrogen fueled diesel engines. (author)

  18. Numerical Studies on Controlling Gaseous Fuel Combustion by Managing the Combustion Process of Diesel Pilot Dose in a Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.

  19. Vortical structures and pressure pulsations in draft tube of a Francis-99 turbine at part load: RANS and hybrid RANS/LES analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, A.A.; Sentyabov, A.V.; Dekterev, A.A.; Hanjalić, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulations showed the formation of spiralling coherent vortices in the draft tube. • Both hybrid RANS-LES and Re-stress models reproduced well the measured fluctuations. • Re-stress model resolved the precessing vortex core and coherent spiralling vortices. - Abstract: Recognizing the limitations of the conventional linear-eddy-viscosity (LEVM) Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models to reproduce complex three-dimensional unsteady flows in hydraulic machinery, we performed a comparative assessment of a second-moment (Re-stress model, RSM) RANS closure and a hybrid RANS/LES method in capturing the flow and vortical structures in the draft tube of a Francis hydroturbine at off-design conditions. Considered is a case of part load (PL) at a flow rate of only 35% of the best efficiency point (BEP) characterised by multiple unsteady vortex systems. Despite some remaining uncertainties in generating the inflow conditions, both approaches reproduced reasonably well the measured mean velocity and the rms of its fluctuations, as well as the pressure spectrum with peaks detecting the precessing vortex core. In contrast to the common LEVMs, the Re-stress closure showed sufficient receptivity to intrinsic unsteadiness and reproduced well the overall flow and vortical patterns as well as the associated pressure pulsations in accord with the experiments. The hybrid RANS/LES method gave similar predictions as the RSM, but resolving a wider range of scales, which however, showed no significant effect on the dynamics of the dominant processing vortex core and the pressure pulsations.

  20. LWST Phase I Project Conceptual Design Study: Evaluation of Design and Construction Approaches for Economical Hybrid Steel/Concrete Wind Turbine Towers; June 28, 2002 -- July 31, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaNier, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Research Program has begun a new effort to partner with U.S. industry to develop wind technology that will allow wind systems to compete in regions of low wind speed. The Class 4 and 5 sites targeted by this effort have annual average wind speeds of 5.8 m/s (13 mph), measured at 10 m (33 ft) height. Such sites are abundant in the United States and would increase the land area available for wind energy production twenty-fold. The new program is targeting a levelized cost of energy of 3 cents/kWh at these sites by 2010. A three-element approach has been initiated. These efforts are concept design, component development, and system development. This work builds on previous activities under the WindPACT program and the Next Generation Turbine program. If successful, DOE estimates that his new technology could result in 35 to 45 gigawatts of additional wind capacity being installed by 2020.

  1. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  2. Using a New Modification on Wind Turbine Ventilator for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louay Abdul salam Rasheed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a newly modified wind turbine ventilator that can achieve highly efficient ventilation. The new modification on the conventional wind turbine ventilator system may be achieved by adding a Savonius wind turbine above the conventional turbine to make it work more efficiently and help spinning faster. Three models of the Savonius wind turbine with 2, 3, and 4 blades' semicircular arcs are proposed to be placed above the conventional turbine of wind ventilator to build a hybrid ventilation turbine. A prototype of room model has been constructed and the hybrid turbine is placed on the head of the room roof. Performance's tests for the hybrid turbine with a different number of blades and different values of wind speeds have been conducted. The experimental test results show that the performance of the improved ventilation turbine with three blades is the best. It is found that the maximum rotation speed of the improved turbine is 107rpm, while the air flow rate is 0.0103m3/s and the air change rate per hour is 32.67hr-1, at a wind speed of 3m/s. The proposed design has been achieved an increase in the turbine rotational speed, increase of the extraction rate of the indoor air and the air-changes per hour, provided the requisite ventilation and improved the quality of the indoor air.

  3. Proposed applications with implementation techniques of the upcoming renewable energy resource, The Tesla Turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M Usman Saeed; Maqsood, M Irfan; Ali, Ehsan; Jamal, Shah; Javed, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that tesla turbine can be one of the future efficient sources of renewable energy. Modern techniques used for designing of tesla turbine have given optimum results regarding efficiency and applications. In this paper we have suggested fully coordinated applications of tesla turbine in different fields particularly in power generation at both low level and high level generation. In Energy deficient countries the tesla turbine has wide range of applications and it can play an important role in energy management system. Our proposed applications includes, - the use of tesla turbine as renewable energy resource; - using tesla turbine in distributed generation system; - use of tesla turbine at home for power generation; - use of tesla turbine in irrigation channels; - using tesla turbine in hybrid electric vehicles; All applications are explained with the help of flow charts and block diagrams and their implementation techniques are also explained in details. The results of physical experiments and simulations are also included for some applications.

  4. Karakterisasi Unjuk Kerja Diesel Engine Generator Set Sistem Dual Fuel Solar-Syngas Hasil Gasifikasi Briket Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Secara Langsung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Rizkal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan semakin banyaknya kebutuhan energi untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar maka perlu adanya pengembangan gas biomassa sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pada motor pembakaran dalam maka akan dilakukan penelitian mengenai aplikasi sistem dual fuel gas hasil gasifikasi biomassa municipal solid waste (msw pada sistem downdraft dengan minyak solar pada motor diesel stasioner. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar solar yang tersibtitusi dengan adanya penambahan syngas yang disalurkan secara langsung. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental dengan proses pemasukan aliran syngas yang dihasilkan downdraft municipal solid waste (MSW kedalam saluran udara mesin diesel generator set secara langsung menggunakan sistem mixer. Pengujian dilakukan dengan putaran konstan 2000 rpm dengan pembebanan bervariasi dari 200 watt sampai dengan 2000 watt dengan interval 200 watt. Bahwa produksi syngas dari reaktor gasifikasi ditambahkan sistem bypass untuk mengetahui kesesuaian antara reaktor gasifikasi dan mesin generatorset data ṁ syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel, ṁ syngas yang di bypass untuk mendapatkan kesesuaian antara produksi syngas dan yang di bypass.  Data-data yang diukur dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa besar nilai mass flowrate gas syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel pada AFR reaktor gasifier 1,39 sebesar 0,0003748 kg/s. Mass flowrate gas syngas yang di bypass menunjukkan nilai 0 pada saat sistem dijalankan karena seluruh gas syngas masuk kedalam ruang bakar. AFR rata-rata sebesar 14,54 ,Nilai Spesifik fuel consumption (sfc mengalami peningkatan 68% dari kondisi standar single fuel , Nilai efesiensi thermal mengalami kenaikan sebesar 7% dari kondisi single fuel, Nilai daya rata-rata sebesar 2,28kW, Nilai torsi rata-rata sebesar 10,94 N.m. Solar yang tersibtitusi sebesar 48%. Nilai temperatur (coolant, mesin, oil, dan gas buang pada setiap pembebanan mengalami kenaikan.

  5. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  6. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  7. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  8. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  9. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  10. Matching of wind turbine type and system scale to wind conditions; Chiten no fukyo ni taisuru furyoku turbine no keitai to sytem taikaku no seigosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Hashizume, T.

    2000-09-25

    The matching of the wind turbine type and system scale of the stand-alone wind turbine generator system to wind conditions is investigated using our dynamic simulation model. This paper examines three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine, the Darrieus turbine proper and the up-wind Propeller turbine. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient. As a computed result of the net extracting energy under fluctuations of wind speed and direction, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for other wind turbines, large-scale systems do not always have advantages over small-scale systems as the effect of the dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine under wind direction fluctuations is much reduced when compared with that of the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, it is concluded that the appropriate wind turbine type and system scale exist for each wind condition. (author)

  11. Diseño y optimización del sistema de renovación de la carga de un motor dual fuel para transporte pesado mediante sobrealimentación en doble etapa

    OpenAIRE

    SIRVENT SANJOSÉ, ROBERTO ANDRÉS

    2016-01-01

    El trabajo consiste en el diseño del sistema de admisión y escape de un motor dual-fuel para transporte pesado. Se deberá seleccionar la arquitectura adecuada para poder conseguir las condiciones de deseadas en el interior del cilindro (sistema de sobrealimentación, producción de EGR). Se deberá también seleccionar la estrategia adecuada para el control de cada uno de los elementos utilizados. Sirvent Sanjosé, RA. (2016). Diseño y optimización del sistema de renovación de la carga de un mo...

  12. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  13. The swirl turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Rudolf, P.

    2012-11-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHηh = -u2vu2. From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  14. Chemical interaction of dual-fuel mixtures in low-temperature oxidation, comparing n -pentane/dimethyl ether and n -pentane/ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Hanfeng

    2018-03-22

    With the aim to study potential cooperative effects in the low-temperature oxidation of dual-fuel combinations, we have investigated prototypical hydrocarbon (CH) / oxygenated (CHO) fuel mixtures by doping n-pentane with either dimethyl ether (DME) or ethanol (EtOH). Species measurements were performed in a flow reactor at an equivalence ratio of ϕ = 0.7, at a pressure of p = 970 mbar, and in the temperature range of 450–930 K using electron ionization molecular-beam mass spectrometry (EI-MBMS). Series of different blending ratios were studied including the three pure fuels and mixtures of n-pentane containing 25% and 50% of CHO. Mole fractions and signals of a significant number of species with elemental composition CHO (n = 1–5, x = 0–(n + 2), y = 0–3) were analyzed to characterize the behavior of the mixtures in comparison to that of the individual components. Not unexpectedly, the overall reactivity of n-pentane is decreased when doping with ethanol, while it is promoted by the addition of DME. Interestingly, the present experiments reveal synergistic interactions between n-pentane and DME, showing a stronger effect on the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) for the mixture than for each of the individual components. Reasons for this behavior were investigated and show several oxygenated intermediates to be involved in enhanced OH radical production. Conversely, ethanol is activated by the addition of n-pentane, again involving key OH radical reactions. Although the main focus here is on the experimental results, we have attempted, in a first approximation, to complement the experimental observations by simulations with recent kinetic models. Interesting differences were observed in this comparison for both, fuel consumption and intermediate species production. The inhibition effect of ethanol is not predicted fully, and the synergistic effect of DME is not captured satisfactorily. The exploratory analysis of the experimental results with current

  15. Numerical investigation to the dual-fuel spray combustion process in an ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI + GPI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuhan; Hong, Guang; Huang, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 5D PDF table was used to model the dual-fuel turbulence–chemistry interactions. • The cooling effect of ethanol direct injection (EDI) was examined. • The higher flame speed of ethanol in EDI + GPI increased the thermal efficiency. • The partially premixed combustion in EDI + GPI reduced the combustion temperature. • Ethanol’s low evaporation rate in low temperature led to incomplete combustion. - Abstract: Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI + GPI) is a new technology to make the use of ethanol fuel more effective and efficient in spark ignition engines. Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modelling was conducted on an EDI + GPI engine in both single and dual fuelled conditions. The in-cylinder flow field was solved in the realizable k−ε turbulence model with detailed engine geometry. The temporal and spatial distributions of the liquid and vapour fuels were simulated with the spray breakup and evaporation models. The combustion process was modelled with the partially premixed combustion concept in which both mixture fraction and progress variable were solved. The three-dimensional and five-dimensional presumed Probability Density Function (PDF) look-up tables were used to model the single-fraction-mixture and two-fraction-mixture turbulence–chemistry interactions respectively. The model was verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results of spray pattern and cylinder pressure. The simulation results showed that the combustion process of EDI + GPI dual-fuelled condition was partially premixed combustion because of the low evaporation rate of ethanol spray in low temperature environment before combustion. Compared with GPI only, the higher flame speed of ethanol fuel contributed to the greater pressure rise rate and maximum cylinder pressure in EDI + GPI condition, which consequently resulted in higher power output and thermal efficiency. The lower adiabatic flame temperature of

  16. Multiobjective Optimization of a Counterrotating Type Pump-Turbine Unit Operated at Turbine Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A multiobjective optimization for improving the turbine output and efficiency of a counterrotating type pump-turbine unit operated at turbine mode was carried out in this work. The blade geometry of both the runners was optimized using a hybrid multiobjective evolutionary algorithm coupled with a surrogate model. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport turbulence model were discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids to analyze the flow in the pump-turbine unit. As major hydrodynamic performance parameters, the turbine output and efficiency were selected as objective functions with two design variables related to the hub profiles of both the runner blades. These objectives were numerically assessed at twelve design points selected by Latin hypercube sampling in the design space. Response surface approximation models for the objectives were constructed based on the objective function values at the design points. A fast nondominated sorting genetic algorithm for the local search coupled with the response surface approximation models was applied to determine the global Pareto-optimal solutions. The trade-off between the two objectives was determined and described with respect to the Pareto-optimal solutions. The results of this work showed that the turbine outputs and efficiencies of optimized pump-turbine units were simultaneously improved in comparison to the reference unit.

  17. Development of Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, N. [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen powered ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles can play an important role as an automotive power source in the future, because of its higher reliability and cost performance than those of fuel cell vehicles. Combined with hydrogen, Mazda's unique rotary engine (RE) has merits such as a prevention of hydrogen pre-ignition. Mazda has been developing hydrogen vehicles with the hydrogen RE from the early 1990s. Premacy (Mazda5) Hydrogen RE Hybrid was developed and launched in 2009, following RX-8 Hydrogen RE delivered in 2006. A series hybrid system was adopted in Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid. A traction motor switches its windings while the vehicle is moving. This switching technology allows the motor to be small and high-efficient. The lithium-ion high voltage battery, which has excellent input-output characteristics, was installed. These features extend the hydrogen fuel driving range to 200 km and obtain excellent acceleration performance. The hydrogen RE can be also operated by gasoline (Dual Fuel System). The additional gasoline operation makes hydrogen vehicles possible to drive in non-hydrogen station area. With approval from the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport, Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid was delivered successfully to the Japanese market in the form of leasing. (orig.)

  18. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  19. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  20. TurbinAID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation

  1. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  2. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  3. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic for wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Maizi [Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables (cder). Alger (Algeria); Rabah, Dizene [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Haouari Boumdienne (USTHB). Alger (Algeria)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes a hybrid approach forpredicting noise radiated from the rotating Wind Turbine (HAWT) blades, where the sources are extracted from an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stocks (URANS) simulation, ANSYS CFX 11.0, was used to calculate The near-field flow parameters around the blade surface that are necessary for FW-H codes. Comparisons with NREL Phase II experimental results are presented with respect to the pressure distributions for validating a capacity of the solver to calculate the near-field flow on and around the wind turbine blades, The results show that numerical data have a good agreement with experimental. The acoustic pressure, presented as a sum of thickness and loading noise components, is analyzed by means of a discrete fast Fourier transformation for the presentation of the time acoustic time histories in the frequency domain. The results convincingly show that dipole source noise is the dominant noise source for this wind turbine.

  4. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  5. The modernization potential of gas turbines in the coal-fired power industry thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of repowering the existing condensing power stations by means of  gas turbogenerators offers an important opportunity to considerably improvement of their energy efficiency. The Modernization Potential of Gas turbines in the Coal-Fired Power Industry presents the methodology, calculation procedures and tools used to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to dual-fuel gas-steam combined-cycle technologies. Both the conceptual and practical aspects of the conversion of existing coal-fired power plants is covered. Discussions of the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and possible methods are supported by chapters presenting equations of energy efficiency for the conditions of repowering a power unit by installing a gas turbogenerator in a parallel system and the results of technical calculations involving the selection heating structures of heat recovery steam generators. A methodology for analyzing thermodynamic and economic effectiveness for the selection of a structure...

  6. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  7. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  8. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions

  9. Micro-turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a principle of micro-turbines operation, type of micro-turbines and their characteristics is presented. It is shown their usage in cogeneration and three generation application with the characteristics, the influence of more factors on micro-turbines operation as well as the possibility for application in Macedonia. The paper is result of the author's participation in the training program 'Micro-turbine technology' in Florida, USA. The characteristics of different types micro-turbines by several world producers are shown, with accent on US micro-turbines producers (Capstone, Elliott). By using the gathered Author's knowledge, contacts and the previous knowledge, conclusions and recommendations for implementation of micro-turbines in Macedonia are given. (Author)

  10. Hybrid cycles for micro generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features of two emerging technologies in the field of small-scale power generation, micro turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, discussing the extremely high potential of their combination into hybrid cycles and their possible role for distributed cogeneration [it

  11. Wind turbine operated sailboat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.

    1990-07-31

    A wind powered boat is disclosed which incorporates a vertical axis rotary turbine. A shaft portion extends downwardly from the turbine to a water pump, with the boat being provided with a forwardly opening inlet and a rearwardly opening outlet from the water pump. When rotating, the turbine operates the pump by the shaft to draw in water through the inlet, thereby creating a low pressure area in front of the boat, and to force the water out through the outlet for propelling the boat. In a preferred embodiment, the boat has a catamaran construction or is a large ocean going vessel with enough width to provide a buffer to either side of the turbine, and the turbine is the Darrieus rotor type. The pump is a standard centrifugal type of pump. A self adjusting braking device for the turbine is also disclosed, which prevents over-rotation and is also capable of storing heat energy generated during braking. 4 figs.

  12. The swirl turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, M; Pochylý, F; Rudolf, P

    2012-01-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHη h = −u 2 v u2 . From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  13. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  14. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  15. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

  16. Flow in Pelton turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Kjartan

    2013-01-01

    The flow in Pelton turbines is subsonic, turbulent, multiphase (water, air, and water vapor from cavitation), has high speeds, sharp gradients, free surface and dynamic boundary conditions. A static grid is unsuitable for modeling this mainly due to the turbine wheel and the liquid having a non-stationary relative motion.In recent times, significant progress in CFD simulation has been made, which also is relevant for Pelton turbines.Nevertheless, it is still common to perform costly model tes...

  17. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  18. Integrating a SOFC Plant with a Steam Turbine Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is integrated with a Steam Turbine (ST) cycle. Different hybrid configurations are studied. The fuel for the plants is assumed to be natural gas (NG). Since the NG cannot be sent to the anode side of the SOFC directly, a desulfurization reactor is used to remove...

  19. Guide to hydro turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This listing is a guide to turbines for hydroelectric projects of independent energy projects. The listing is in directory format and includes the supplier's name, the name of the supplier's contact, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company and the types of turbines, services and expertise available for energy projects. The listing is international in scope

  20. Improvement of turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobeit, W.; Pfeifer, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Materials for turbine blades and rotors are discussed with a view to the following subjects: Long period creep behaviour, gas/metal reactions, fatigue behaviour in long-term and creep strength testing, fracture mechanics testing, creep/fatigue interactions, development of a turbine blade of TZM, jointing of TZM, decontamination. (orig./IHOE) [de

  1. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  2. Graphene in turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  3. The effects of solarization on the performance of a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Christiaan; van der Spuy, Johan; von Backström, Theodor

    2016-05-01

    Various hybrid solar gas turbine configurations exist. The Stellenbosch University Solar Power Thermodynamic (SUNSPOT) cycle consists of a heliostat field, solar receiver, primary Brayton gas turbine cycle, thermal storage and secondary Rankine steam cycle. This study investigates the effect of the solarization of a gas turbine on its performance and details the integration of a gas turbine into a solar power plant. A Rover 1S60 gas turbine was modelled in Flownex, a thermal-fluid system simulation and design code, and validated against a one-dimensional thermodynamic model at design input conditions. The performance map of a newly designed centrifugal compressor was created and implemented in Flownex. The effect of the improved compressor on the performance of the gas turbine was evident. The gas turbine cycle was expanded to incorporate different components of a CSP plant, such as a solar receiver and heliostat field. The solarized gas turbine model simulates the gas turbine performance when subjected to a typical variation in solar resource. Site conditions at the Helio100 solar field were investigated and the possibility of integrating a gas turbine within this system evaluated. Heat addition due to solar irradiation resulted in a decreased fuel consumption rate. The influence of the additional pressure drop over the solar receiver was evident as it leads to decreased net power output. The new compressor increased the overall performance of the gas turbine and compensated for pressure losses incurred by the addition of solar components. The simulated integration of the solarized gas turbine at Helio100 showed potential, although the solar irradiation is too little to run the gas turbine on solar heat alone. The simulation evaluates the feasibility of solarizing a gas turbine and predicts plant performance for such a turbine cycle.

  4. Development and validation of a full-range performance analysis model for a three-spool gas turbine with turbine cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yin; Gu, Chun-wei; Ji, Xing-xing

    2015-01-01

    The performance analysis of a gas turbine is important for both its design and its operation. For modern gas turbines, the cooling flow introduces a noteworthy thermodynamic loss; thus, the determination of the cooling flow rate will clearly influence the accuracy of performance calculations. In this paper, a full-range performance analysis model is established for a three-spool gas turbine with an open-circuit convective blade cooling system. A hybrid turbine cooling model is embedded in the analysis to predict the amount of cooling air accurately and thus to remove the errors induced by the relatively arbitrary value of cooling air requirements in the previous research. The model is subsequently used to calculate the gas turbine performance; the calculation results are validated with detailed test data. Furthermore, multistage conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed for the turbine section. The results indicate that with the same coolant condition and flow rate as those in the performance analysis, the blade metal has been effectively cooled; in addition, the maximum temperature predicted by conjugate heat transfer analysis is close to the corresponding value in the cooling model. Hence, the present model provides an effective tool for analyzing the performance of a gas turbine with cooling. - Highlights: • We established a performance model for a gas turbine with convective cooling. • A hybrid turbine cooling model is embedded in the performance analysis. • The accuracy of the model is validated with detailed test data of the gas turbine. • Conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed for the turbine for verification

  5. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  6. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  7. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  8. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  9. Turbine disintegration debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holecek, M.; Martinec, P.; Malotin, V.; Peleska, P.; Voldrich, J.

    1997-01-01

    The determination, evaluation and analysis of possible unacceptable consequences of the disintegration turbine (turbo-set) missiles is a part of the wide conceived project put by the company Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce (NPPM), the Slovak Republic. The aim of the project is to take measures reducing the probability of striking a target of safety importance in NPPM by a turbine (turbo-set) missile below the prescribed limit of 10 -6 per turbine year. Following the IAEA Safety Guides, all potential events leading to the generation of a missile are to be analysed. It is necessary to evaluate the probability of unacceptable consequences of such missiles and analyse each event whose probability is not acceptable low. This complex problem thus carries especially: complex analysis of fragment generation; evaluation of the probability of unacceptable events; location of strike zones of possible turbine missiles; assessment the possibility of the turbo-set casing penetration; and projection of additional design requirements if necessary

  10. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  11. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  12. European wind turbine catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  13. Wind turbines and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C.

    2010-01-01

    This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Wind turbines and infrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Design of a wind turbine-generator system considering the conformability to wind velocity fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Hashizume, Takumi; Outa, Eisuke

    1999-07-01

    The conformability of the rated power output of the wind turbine-generator system and of the wind turbine type to wind velocity fluctuations are investigated with a simulation model. The authors examine three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid, the Darrieus proper and the Propeller. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient points. As a computed result of the net extracting power, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind velocity fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for the other turbines, large-scale systems do not always have an advantage over small-scale systems as the effect of its dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine, under wind direction fluctuation, is much reduced when compared with the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, the authors conclude that the appropriate rated power output of the system exists with relation to the wind turbine type for each wind condition.

  16. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  17. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We...... investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number...... of wind turbines

  18. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  19. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  20. A study on the amount of pilot injection and its effects on rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture for a CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiqiang Lin; Wanhua Su [Tianjin University (China). State Key Laboratory of Engines

    2003-07-01

    A sequential port injection, lean-burn, fully electronically-controlled compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual-fuel engine has been developed based on a turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. During the optimisation of engine overall performance, the effects of pilot diesel and premixed CNG/air mixture equivalence ratio on emissions (CO, HC, NO{sub x}, soot), knocking, misfire and fuel economy are studied. The rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture versus engine load are also provided, considering the acceptable values of NO{sub x} and THC emissions, respectively. It is interesting to find that there is a critical amount of pilot diesel for each load and speed point, which proved to be the optimum amount of pilot fuel. Any decrease in the amount of pilot diesel from this optimum amount results in an increase of NO{sub x} emissions, because the premixed CNG/air mixture must be made richer, otherwise THC emissions would increase. However, the soot emissions remain almost unchanged at a very low level. (author)

  1. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  2. Gas turbine engine turbine blade damaging estimate in maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ель-Хожайрі Хусейн

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The factors determining character and intensity of corrosive damages of gas turbine blades are analyzed in the article. The classification of detrimental impurities polluting gas turbine airflow duct and injuring blade erosion damages are given. Common features of the method of turbine blade corrosive damage estimation are shown in the article.

  3. Perspective for Fibre-Hybrid Composites in Wind Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of wind turbines will be vital for the wind energy sector to continue growing. The drive for increased efficiency is pushing turbine manufacturers to shift from glass fibre composite blades towards carbon/glass fibre-hybrid composite blades. This shift brings significant challenges in terms of optimising the design and understanding the failure of these new blade materials. This review therefore surveys the literature on fibre-hybrid composites, with an emphasis on aspects that are relevant for turbine blade materials. The literature on tensile, flexural, compressive, and fatigue performance is critically assessed and areas for future research are identified. Numerical simulations of fibre-hybrid composites have reached a reasonable maturity for tensile failure, but significant progress is required for flexural, compressive, and fatigue failure. Fatigue failure of fibre-hybrid composites in particular, requires more careful attention from both a modelling and experimental point of view. PMID:29117126

  4. Perspective for Fibre-Hybrid Composites in Wind Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yentl Swolfs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the efficiency of wind turbines will be vital for the wind energy sector to continue growing. The drive for increased efficiency is pushing turbine manufacturers to shift from glass fibre composite blades towards carbon/glass fibre-hybrid composite blades. This shift brings significant challenges in terms of optimising the design and understanding the failure of these new blade materials. This review therefore surveys the literature on fibre-hybrid composites, with an emphasis on aspects that are relevant for turbine blade materials. The literature on tensile, flexural, compressive, and fatigue performance is critically assessed and areas for future research are identified. Numerical simulations of fibre-hybrid composites have reached a reasonable maturity for tensile failure, but significant progress is required for flexural, compressive, and fatigue failure. Fatigue failure of fibre-hybrid composites in particular, requires more careful attention from both a modelling and experimental point of view.

  5. Perspective for Fibre-Hybrid Composites in Wind Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swolfs, Yentl

    2017-11-08

    Increasing the efficiency of wind turbines will be vital for the wind energy sector to continue growing. The drive for increased efficiency is pushing turbine manufacturers to shift from glass fibre composite blades towards carbon/glass fibre-hybrid composite blades. This shift brings significant challenges in terms of optimising the design and understanding the failure of these new blade materials. This review therefore surveys the literature on fibre-hybrid composites, with an emphasis on aspects that are relevant for turbine blade materials. The literature on tensile, flexural, compressive, and fatigue performance is critically assessed and areas for future research are identified. Numerical simulations of fibre-hybrid composites have reached a reasonable maturity for tensile failure, but significant progress is required for flexural, compressive, and fatigue failure. Fatigue failure of fibre-hybrid composites in particular, requires more careful attention from both a modelling and experimental point of view.

  6. A multi-level simulation platform of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid generation system - Part II. Balancing units model library and system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Cai, Ningsheng; Croiset, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Following our integrated hierarchical modeling framework of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (IRSOFC), this paper firstly introduces the model libraries of main balancing units, including some state-of-the-art achievements and our specific work. Based on gPROMS programming code, flexible configuration and modular design are fully realized by specifying graphically all unit models in each level. Via comparison with the steady-state experimental data of Siemens-Westinghouse demonstration system, the in-house multi-level SOFC-gas turbine (GT) simulation platform is validated to be more accurate than the advanced power system analysis tool (APSAT). Moreover, some units of the demonstration system are designed reversely for analysis of a typically part-load transient process. The framework of distributed and dynamic modeling in most of units is significant for the development of control strategies in the future.

  7. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richarz, W.; Richarz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Deflector plants turbine aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Sheppard, A.R.; Widener, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Water quality requirements have become a focal point in recent re-licensing of hydroelectric projects. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has significantly increased the relevance of license conditions to insure that turbine discharges meet state or other specific criteria for dissolved oxygen (D.O.). Due to naturally occurring depletion of D.O. at increased depths in large reservoirs, water withdrawn from this strata may result in unacceptably low levels of D.O. Different researchers have evaluated various methods of improving D.O. content in hydro turbine discharges, including; diffusers, weirs, oxygen injection, and variations of turbine venting. The authors describe an approach called deflector plate turbine aeration. This computer based, engineered approach allows systems to be evaluated, designed, and installed with predictable performance and costs. Many experts in this field now agree that, to the extent practical, turbine venting offers the most dependable, maintenance free, and cost effective solution to the low D.O. problem. The approach presented in this paper has resulted in proven results

  9. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  10. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Reports technical effort by AlliedSignal Engines in sixth year of DOE/NASA funded project. Topics include: gas turbine engine design modifications of production APU to incorporate ceramic components; fabrication and processing of silicon nitride blades and nozzles; component and engine testing; and refinement and development of critical ceramics technologies, including: hot corrosion testing and environmental life predictive model; advanced NDE methods for internal flaws in ceramic components; and improved carbon pulverization modeling during impact. ATTAP project is oriented toward developing high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication to carry forward to commercial production by 'bridging the gap' between structural ceramics in the laboratory and near-term commercial heat engine application. Current ATTAP project goal is to support accelerated commercialization of advanced, high-temperature engines for hybrid vehicles and other applications. Project objectives are to provide essential and substantial early field experience demonstrating ceramic component reliability and durability in modified, available, gas turbine engine applications; and to scale-up and improve manufacturing processes of ceramic turbine engine components and demonstrate application of these processes in the production environment.

  11. Genetic Algorithms in Wind Turbine Airfoil Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Bizzarrini, N.; Coiro, D.P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    One key element in the aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and thereby to reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of a wind turbine airfoil by using numerical optimization. Firstly, the optimization approach is presented; a genetic algorithm is used, coupled with RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints; in order to formalize in the most complete and effective way the design requirements, the effects of activating specific constraints are discussed. A numerical example regarding the design of a high efficiency airfoil for the outer part of a blade by using genetic algorithms is illustrated and the results are compared with existing wind turbine airfoils. Finally a new hybrid design strategy is illustrated and discussed, in which the genetic algorithms are used at the beginning of the design process to explore a wide domain. Then, the gradient based algorithms are used in order to improve the first stage optimum.

  12. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  13. Wind Turbine With Concentric Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Wind Turbine device is relatively compact and efficient. Converging inner and outer ducts increase pressure difference across blades of wind turbine. Turbine shaft drives alternator housed inside exit cone. Suitable for installation on such existing structures as water towers, barns, houses, and commercial buildings.

  14. Wind turbine spoiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  15. Steam turbine installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the arrangement described is to enable raising steam for driving steam turbines in a way suited to operating with liquid metals, such as Na, as heat transfer medium. A preheated water feed, in heat transfer relationship with the liquid metals, is passed through evaporator and superheater stages, and the superheated steam is supplied to the highest pressure stage of the steam turbine arrangement. Steam extracted intermediate the evaporator and superheater stages is employed to provide reheat for the lower pressure stage of the steam turbine. Only a major portion of the preheated water feed may be evaporated and this portion separated and supplied to the superheater stage. The feature of 'steam to steam' reheat avoids a second liquid metal heat transfer and hence represents a simplification. It also reduces the hazard associated with possible steam-liquid metal contact. (U.K.)

  16. Hydro turbines: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The various types of hydraulic turbines currently used in hydroelectric power plants are described. The descriptions are intended for use by non-engineers who are concerned with fish passage and fish mortality at a hydro power facility. Terminology used in the hydro industry is explained. Since the extent of cavitation is one of the factors affecting mortality rates of fish passing through hydraulic turbines, an equation is introduced which measures the extent of cavitation likely to be experienced in a turbine. An example of how the cavitation index can be calculated is provided for two typical power plants. The relation between certain parameters of power plant operation and the extent of cavitation, and therefore of fish mortality, is illustrated. 2 refs., 14 figs

  17. Variable stator radial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  18. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  19. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand......, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model...

  20. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  1. Micro turbines on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Microturbines are small gas turbine engines that drive a generator with sizes ranging from 30-350 kW. Although similar in function to bigger gas turbines, their simple radial flow turbine and high-speed generator offer better performance, greater reliability, longer service intervals, reduced maintenance lower emission and lower noise. Microturbines can generate power continuously and very economically to reduce electricity costs or they can be operated selectively for peak shaving. These benefits are further enhanced by the economics of using the microturbine's waste heat for hot water needs or other heating applications. That is why on-site microturbine power is widely used for independent production of electricity and heat in industrial and commercial facilities, hotels, hospitals, office buildings, residential buildings etc. (Original)

  2. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)

  3. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of a gas turbine cycle equipped with a non-ideal adiabatic model for a double acting Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korlu, Mahmood; Pirkandi, Jamasb; Maroufi, Arman

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A gas turbine cycle equipped with a double acting Stirling engine is proposed. • The hybrid cycle effects, efficiency and power outputs are investigated. • The energy dissipation, the net enthalpy loss and wall heat leakage are considered. • The hybrid cycle improves the efficiency from 23.6 to 38.8%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the thermodynamic performance of a gas turbine cycle equipped with a double acting Stirling engine. A portion of gas turbine exhaust gases are allocated to providing the heat required for the Stirling engine. Employing this hybrid cycle improves gas turbine performance and power generation. The double acting Stirling engine is used in this study and the non-ideal adiabatic model is used to numerical solution. The regenerator’s net enthalpy loss, the regenerator’s wall heat leakage, the energy dissipation caused by pressure drops in heat exchangers and regenerator are the losses that were taken into account for the Stirling engine. The hybrid cycle, gas turbine governing equations and Stirling engine analyses are carried out using the Matlab software. The pressure ratio of the compressor, the inlet temperature of turbine, the porosity, length and diameter of the regenerator were chosen as essential parameters in this article. Also the hybrid cycle effects, efficiency and power outputs are investigated. The results show that the hybrid gas turbine and Stirling engine improves the efficiency from 23.6 to 38.8%.

  5. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  6. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  7. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  8. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  9. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Keith D; Wilson, Jr., Jack W.

    2010-11-02

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

  10. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  11. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  12. Tribology of a Combined Yaw Bearing and Brake for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos

    disc brake is typically included as an independent system. However, the increasing size of wind turbines makes roller element bearings an economically costly option. Moreover, the additional brake system increases complexity and consequently adds further production and maintenance costs. One...... of the innovations aiming at reducing complexity in the yaw system consists in combining a segmented sliding bearing and a brake into a single system. This thesis studies the tribological implications of such a hybrid sliding bearing and brake for the yaw system of wind turbines. Based to a large extent...... that are affected by the tendency for building larger units, is the yaw system of horizontal axis wind turbines. State of the art wind turbine yaw systems consist of either a large roller element bearing or a corresponding segmented sliding bearing that connects the wind turbine nacelle and tower. An additional...

  13. Optimization Study of Shaft Tubular Turbine in a Bidirectional Tidal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shaft tubular turbine is a form of tidal power station which can provide bidirectional power. Efficiency is an important turbine performance indicator. To study the influence of runner design parameters on efficiency, a complete 3D flow-channel model of a shaft tubular turbine was developed, which contains the turbine runner, guide vanes, and flow passage and was integrated with hybrid grids calculated by steady-state calculation methods. Three aspects of the core component (turbine runner were optimized by numerical simulation. All the results were then verified by experiments. It was shown that curved-edge blades are much better than straight-edge blades; the optimal blade twist angle is 7°, and the optimal distance between the runner and the blades is 0.75–1.25 times the diameter of the runner. Moreover, the numerical simulation results matched the experimental data very well, which also verified the correctness of the optimal results.

  14. Aero-acoustics noise assessment for Wind-Lens turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, I.; Mohamed, M.H.; Hafiz, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an aero-acoustic computational study that investigates the noise caused by one of the most promising wind energy conversion concepts, namely the 'Wind-Lens' technology. The hybrid method - where the flow field and acoustic field are solved separately, was deemed to be an appropriate tool to compute this study. The need to investigate this phenomenon increased gradually, since the feasibility of utilizing Wind-Lens turbine within densely populated cities and urban areas depends largely on their noise generation. Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation and its integral solution are used to predict the noise radiating to the farfield. CFD Simulations of transient three-dimensional flow field using (URANS) unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are computed to acquire the acoustic sources location and sound intensity. Then, the noise propagates from the before-mentioned sources to pre-defined virtual microphones positioned in different locations. ANSYS-FLUENT is used to calculate the flow field on and around such turbines which is required for the FW-H code. Some effective parameters are investigated such as Wind-Lens shape, brim height and tip speed ratio. Comparison of the noise emitted from the bare wind turbine and different types of Wind-Lens turbine reveals that, the Wind-Lens generates higher noise intensity. - Highlights: • Aero-acoustic noise generated by wind turbines are one of the major challenges. • Noise from wind turbine equipped with a brimmed diffuser is investigated. • A computational aero-acoustic study using the hybrid method is introduced. • Effective parameters are studied such Wind-Lens shape, brim height and speed ratio. • The optimal shape has a moderate power coefficient and the less noise generation.

  15. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  16. Integration of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell into A 10 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver F. Cheddie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using gas turbine power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies. In this work, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency. The SOFC system utilizes four heat exchangers for heat recovery from both the turbine outlet and the fuel cell outlet to ensure a sufficiently high SOFC temperature. The power output of the hybrid plant is 37 MW at 66.2% efficiency. A thermo-economic model predicts a payback period of less than four years, based on future projected SOFC cost estimates.

  17. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  18. Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...

  19. Alcoa wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  20. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  1. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  2. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  3. Gas turbine electric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masaaki; Yuhara, Tetsuo.

    1993-01-01

    When troubles are caused to a boundary of a gas turbine electric generator, there is a danger that water as an operation medium for secondary circuits leaks to primary circuits, to stop a plant and the plant itself can not resume. Then in the present invention, helium gases are used as the operation medium not only for the primary circuits but also for the secondary circuits, to provide so-called a direct cycle gas turbine system. Further, the operation media of the primary and secondary circuits are recycled by a compressor driven by a primary circuit gas turbine, and the turbine/compressor is supported by helium gas bearings. Then, problems of leakage of oil and water from the bearings or the secondary circuits can be solved, further, the cooling device in the secondary circuit is constituted as a triple-walled tube structure by way of helium gas, to prevent direct leakage of coolants into the reactor core even if cracks are formed to pipes. (N.H.)

  4. Integrated turbine bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Dickenson, R.J.; Parry, W.T.; Retzlaff, K.M.

    1982-07-01

    Turbine steam-flow bypasses have been used for years in various sizes and applications. Because of differing system requirements, their use has been more predominant in Europe than in the United States. Recently, some utilities and consulting engineers have been re-evaluating their need for various types of bypass operation in fossil-fuelled power plants.

  5. Floating offshore turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    metric of energy production per unit steel mass. Floating offshore wind turbines represent a promising technology. The successful operation of HyWind and WindFloat in full scale demonstrates a well advanced technology readiness level, where further development will go into refining the concepts, cost...

  6. Radial gas turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausche, S.; Ohlsson, Johan

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a program dealing with design point calculations of radial turbine machinery, including both compressor and turbine, with as few input data as possible. Some simple stress calculations and turbine metal blade temperatures were also included. This program was then implanted in a German thermodynamics program, Gasturb, a program calculating design and off-design performance of gas turbines. The calculations proceed with a lot of assumptions, necessary to finish the task, concerning pressure losses, velocity distribution, blockage, etc., and have been correlated with empirical data from VAT. Most of these values could have been input data, but to prevent the user of the program from drowning in input values, they are set as default values in the program code. The output data consist of geometry, Mach numbers, predicted component efficiency etc., and a number of graphical plots of geometry and velocity triangles. For the cases examined, the error in predicted efficiency level was within {+-} 1-2% points, and quite satisfactory errors in geometrical and thermodynamic conditions were obtained Examination paper. 18 refs, 36 figs

  7. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the res...

  8. A turn for the better? Innovative concepts for wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, Eize

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on successful innovation in wind technology and describes the approach of Danish developers using a rigid, non-integrated, gear-driven transmission layout with 3 blades which is often viewed as the basis of the modern wind industry. Recent developments reviewed cover multi-rotor designs, hybrid designs, direct drive technology, variable speed operation, modular systems, high voltage systems, discoidal technology, and the diffuser augmented turbine

  9. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  10. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  11. SMART POWER TURBINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirm V. Nirmalan

    2003-11-01

    Gas turbines are the choice technology for high-performance power generation and are employed in both simple and combined cycle configurations around the world. The Smart Power Turbine (SPT) program has developed new technologies that are needed to further extend the performance and economic attractiveness of gas turbines for power generation. Today's power generation gas turbines control firing temperatures indirectly, by measuring the exhaust gas temperature and then mathematically calculating the peak combustor temperatures. But temperatures in the turbine hot gas path vary a great deal, making it difficult to control firing temperatures precisely enough to achieve optimal performance. Similarly, there is no current way to assess deterioration of turbine hot-gas-path components without shutting down the turbine. Consequently, maintenance and component replacements are often scheduled according to conservative design practices based on historical fleet-averaged data. Since fuel heating values vary with the prevalent natural gas fuel, the inability to measure heating value directly, with sufficient accuracy and timeliness, can lead to maintenance and operational decisions that are less than optimal. GE Global Research Center, under this Smart Power Turbine program, has developed a suite of novel sensors that would measure combustor flame temperature, online fuel lower heating value (LHV), and hot-gas-path component life directly. The feasibility of using the ratio of the integrated intensities of portions of the OH emission band to determine the specific average temperature of a premixed methane or natural-gas-fueled combustion flame was demonstrated. The temperature determined is the temperature of the plasma included in the field of view of the sensor. Two sensor types were investigated: the first used a low-resolution fiber optic spectrometer; the second was a SiC dual photodiode chip. Both methods worked. Sensitivity to flame temperature changes was

  12. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  13. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  14. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knodle, M.S.; Novaresi, M.A. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Titan Gas Turbine Systems Division

    2009-07-01

    Development of the Titan 250 industrial gas turbine system began in 2005 in response to demands from the petroleum industry and electricity producers for higher performance industrial gas turbine products in the 15-30 MW (25,000-45,000 hp) power range. The Titan 250 is Solar Turbine's most powerful package and its evolutionary hybrid-type design approach was based on shared aerodynamic, thermal, mechanical, and combustion technologies borrowed from the Taurus 65TM, Titan 130TM, and Mercury 50TM gas turbine systems. It produces 50 per cent more power than the Titan 130, while providing 40 per cent shaft efficiency with significantly fewer emissions. Thorough combustion system testing, use of proven materials, and hot section cooling provided a solid design basis. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial-flow compressor, a dry low emissions combustor for low NOx and CO output, a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 1204 degrees C, and a three-stage, all-shrouded blade power turbine for maximum efficiency. The design also minimizes maintenance intervals to increase equipment availability. The gas turbine and gas compressor have been tested in component, subsystem, and full-scale development, and will be starting field operation in late 2009 to verify performance and mechanical integrity under all operating conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 26 figs.

  15. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; F. Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  16. Optimal Day-Ahead Scheduling of a Hybrid Electric Grid Using Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    with 214 turbines [22]. In July 2011, the DoD declared that a complete study of 217 wind farm projects proposed in 35 states and Puerto Rico found...14. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid electric grid , Microgrid , Hybrid renewable energy system , energy management center, optimization, Day...electric grid. In the case of a hybrid electric grid (HEG), or hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) where the microgrid can be connected to the commercial

  17. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  18. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard

    During the last decades, wind turbines have been continuously developed with the aim of maximizing the life cycle benefits (production of electricity) minus the costs of planning, materials, installation, operation & maintenance as well as possible failure. In order to continue this development...... turbines and the central topics considered are statistical load extrapolation of extreme loads during operation and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades. Wind turbines differ from most civil engineering structures by having a control system which highly influences the loading. In the literature......, methods for estimating the extreme load-effects on a wind turbine during operation, where the control system is active, have been proposed. But these methods and thereby the estimated loads are often subjected to a significant uncertainty which influences the reliability of the wind turbine...

  19. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  20. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  1. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical......A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...

  2. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  3. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  4. Airfoils for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  5. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  6. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  7. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  8. Power turbine ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  9. Composite wind turbine towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed experiments conducted to optimized the advanced composite materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) used to fabricate wind turbine towers. FRP materials are used in tubular steel, lattice, guyed, and reinforced concrete towers. The towers and turbine blades are transported in segments and assembled on-site, sometimes in offshore or remote locations.The FRP composites are used to build towers with a high strength-to-weight ratio as well as to provide resistance to chemical attacks and corrosion. Use of the materials has resulted in towers that do not require heavy installation equipment. Experimental programs were conducted to verify the structural behaviour of the tower structure's individual-scaled cells as well as to evaluate the performance of multi-cell assemblies. Joint assembly designs were optimized, and a filament winding machine was used to conduct the experimental study and to test individual cells. Failure mode analyses were conducted to determine local buckling and shear rupture. Tension, compression, and shear properties of the FRP materials were tested experimentally, and data from the test were then used to develop finite element models of the composite towers as well as to obtain load deflection curves and tip oscillation data. A case study of a 750 kW wind turbine in Churchill, Manitoba was used to test the design. tabs., figs.

  10. Design and performance analysis of gas and liquid radial turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xu

    In the first part of the research, pumps running in reverse as turbines are studied. This work uses experimental data of wide range of pumps representing the centrifugal pumps' configurations in terms of specific speed. Based on specific speed and specific diameter an accurate correlation is developed to predict the performances at best efficiency point of the centrifugal pump in its turbine mode operation. The proposed prediction method yields very good results to date compared to previous such attempts. The present method is compared to nine previous methods found in the literature. The comparison results show that the method proposed in this paper is the most accurate. The proposed method can be further complemented and supplemented by more future tests to increase its accuracy. The proposed method is meaningful because it is based both specific speed and specific diameter. The second part of the research is focused on the design and analysis of the radial gas turbine. The specification of the turbine is obtained from the solar biogas hybrid system. The system is theoretically analyzed and constructed based on the purchased compressor. Theoretical analysis results in a specification of 100lb/min, 900ºC inlet total temperature and 1.575atm inlet total pressure. 1-D and 3-D geometry of the rotor is generated based on Aungier's method. 1-D loss model analysis and 3-D CFD simulations are performed to examine the performances of the rotor. The total-to-total efficiency of the rotor is more than 90%. With the help of CFD analysis, modifications on the preliminary design obtained optimized aerodynamic performances. At last, the theoretical performance analysis on the hybrid system is performed with the designed turbine.

  11. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  12. Ceramics for Turbine Engine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    permet de travailler en compression. 2 - LES TURBINES CONTRAROTATIVES Connues depuis plus de 50 ans dsns lea turbines A vapeur (A grilles radiales) lea...AD-AO87 594 ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT--ETC F/6 11/2 CERAMICS FOR TURBINE ENGINE APPICATIONS.(U) MAR 8G H M GURTE, J...for Turbine Engine Applications ( X.,, ~LAJ DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY Ths ai’-t~ ~ru O ACK COVER forp"~ ~So’ 8 6 0 40 NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY

  13. Advanced LP turbine blade design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.; Pfeiffer, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1990-01-01

    In the 1960's and early 1970's, the development of steam turbines for the utility industry was mainly influenced by the demand for increasing unit sizes. Nuclear plants in particular, required the design of LP turbines with large annulus areas for substantial mass and volumetric steam flows. Since then the development of more efficient LP turbines became an ongoing challenge. Extensive R and D work was performed in order to build efficient and reliable LP turbines often exposed to severe corrosion, erosion and dynamic excitation conditions. This task led to the introduction of an advanced disk-type rotor design for 1800 rpm LP turbines and the application of a more efficient, reaction-type blading for all steam turbine sections including the first stages of LP turbines. The most recent developments have resulted in an advanced design of large LP turbine blading, typically used in the last three stages of each LP turbine flow section. Development of such blading required detailed knowledge of the three dimensional, largely transonic, flow conditions of saturated steam. Also the precise assessment of blade stressing from dynamic conditions, such as speed and torsional resonance, as well as stochastic and aerodynamic excitation is of extreme importance

  14. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  15. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  16. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  17. Small Wind Turbine Installation Compatibility Demonstration Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    wind turbine (HAWT) and one 2.9-kW vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), we planned to measure radar, acoustic and seismic, turbulence, bird and...non-issue for small turbines . The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind turbines are for large turbines (BPA 2002; Whittam...et al. 2010). The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind energy facil- ities are for utility-scale turbines (> 1 MW) with

  18. Evaluación energética de un sistema de generación de 400 kWe en modo diesel‐gas licuado de petróleo//Energy analysis of a 400 kWe power system operated on dual fuel mode with diesel‐liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos‐A. Forero-Núñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El constante aumento en los precios de los combustibles impulsó el desarrollo de sistemas energéticos cada vez más eficientes y flexibles, los cuales permitan el uso de distintos tipos de combustibles, tales como el gas licuado de petróleo (GLP. El presente trabajo buscó analizar el comportamiento energético y ambiental que tiene una planta de generación de 400 kWe operada en modo diesel y dual diesel-GLP de pozo. La eficiencia energética total del sistema en el punto de máxima carga fue igual a 39,9 % en modo diesel y 35,1 % con una relación de sustitución del 28,5 % en modo dual. La adición de GLP resultó en una disminución del índice de emisiones de CO2 de 0,76 a 0,71 kgkWh-1. El adecuado comportamiento del sistema genera interesantes oportunidades para la disminución del impacto ambiental causado por los sistemas diesel, la diversificación de la canasta energética y la reducción de costos de generación eléctrica en pozos petroleros.Palabras claves: eficiencia energética, diesel, GLP, modo dual.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe continuous increase of the fuel costs promoted the development of more efficient and flexible power systems, which could use alternative fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. This work aimed to analyze the performance and environmental effect of a 400kWe power system fed with diesel and diesel-LGP on a dual fuel mode. The total electric efficiency of this system at his maximum load was 39,9 % with diesel and 35,1 % at a 28,5 % substitution level on a dual fuel mode. The addition of LPG decreased the CO2 emission index from 0,76 to 0,71 kgkWh-1. The proper behavior of this system on a dual fuel mode mitigated the environmental impact of diesel internal combustion engines, diversified the energy market, and reduced the power generation costs onto petroleum extraction wells.Key words: energy efficiency, diesel, LPG, dual fuel mode.

  19. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  20. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  1. CNG INJECTOR RESEARCH FOR DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the tests results of the prototype design of hydraulically assisted injector, that is designed for gas supply into diesel engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose a injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

  2. Turbine and Structural Seals Team Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Seals Team Facilities conceive, develop, and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. Current projects include...

  3. Study on the application of energy storage system in offshore wind turbine with hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yajun; Mu, Anle; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydraulic offshore wind turbine is capable of outputting near constant power. • Open loop hydraulic transmission uses seawater as the working fluid. • Linear control strategy distributes total flow according to demand and supply. • Constant pressure hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Simulations show the dynamic performance of the hybrid system. - Abstract: A novel offshore wind turbine comprising fluid power transmission and energy storage system is proposed. In this wind turbine, the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced by an open-loop hydraulic system, in which seawater is sucked through a variable displacement pump in nacelle connected directly with the rotor and utilized to drive a Pelton turbine installed on the floating platform. Aiming to smooth and stabilize the output power, an energy storage system with the capability of flexible charging and discharging is applied. The related mathematical model is developed, which contains some sub-models that are categorized as the wind turbine rotor, hydraulic pump, transmission pipeline, proportional valve, accumulator and hydraulic turbine. A linear control strategy is adopted to distribute the flow out of the proportional valve through comparing the demand power with captured wind energy by hydraulic pump. Ultimately, two time domain simulations demonstrate the operation of the hybrid system when the hydraulic accumulator is utilized and show how this system can be used for load leveling and stabilizing the output power.

  4. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  5. Desain Kontrol Multi – Input DC–DC Converter Sistem Hibrid Turbin Angin dan Sel Surya Menggunakan Kontrol Fuzzy Logic untuk Tegangan Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feby Agung Pamuji

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available this paper describes a hybrid system that consist of Wind Turbines and Photovoltaic to supply electricity continuously for load. Output of Wind Turbines and Photovoltaic is controlled in order to generate maximum power. Multiple-input dc-dc converters is used to control power flow in order to have MPP (Maximum Power Point. Converter control using Fuzzy logic controller to control the output in order to be obtained MPP (Maximum Power Point from Wind Turbines and Photovoltaic, so the efficiency of wind turbines and photovoltaic can be improved.

  6. Model-based fault detection for generator cooling system in wind turbines using SCADA data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Anders Bech; Kinnaert, Michel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an early fault detection system for the generator cooling of wind turbines is presented and tested. It relies on a hybrid model of the cooling system. The parameters of the generator model are estimated by an extended Kalman filter. The estimated parameters are then processed by an ...

  7. Wind Turbine Acoustic Day 2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Søndergaard, Bo; Hünerbein, Sabine Von

    The bi-annual event entitled Wind Turbine Acoustic Day dealing with wind turbine noise issues organized by DTU Wind Energy took place on May, 17th 2018 as its third edition. The abstracts and slides for the presentations are reported....

  8. Gas fired advanced turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecren, R. T.; White, D. J.

    The basic concept thus derived from the Ericsson cycle is an intercooled, recuperated, and reheated gas turbine. Theoretical performance analyses, however, showed that reheat at high turbine rotor inlet temperatures (TRIT) did not provide significant efficiency gains and that the 50 percent efficiency goal could be met without reheat. Based upon these findings, the engine concept adopted as a starting point for the gas-fired advanced turbine system is an intercooled, recuperated (ICR) gas turbine. It was found that, at inlet temperatures greater than 2450 F, the thermal efficiency could be maintained above 50%, provided that the turbine cooling flows could be reduced to 7% of the main air flow or lower. This dual and conflicting requirement of increased temperatures and reduced cooling will probably force the abandonment of traditional air cooled turbine parts. Thus, the use of either ceramic materials or non-air cooling fluids has to be considered for the turbine nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades. The use of ceramic components for the proposed engine system is generally preferred because of the potential growth to higher temperatures that is available with such materials.

  9. Technical diagnostics of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, B.; Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with practical experience in application of technical diagnostics methods to steam turbines, in particular using pedestal and shaft vibration measurements as well as estimation of bearing metal temperature and ultrasound emission signals. An estimation of effectiveness of the diagnostics methods used is given on the basis of experimental investigations made on a 30-MW turbine. (author)

  10. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  11. Wind turbine supply in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodin, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reported on wind turbine supplies to the Canadian market. The report was written to address concerns for Canada's supply outlook in the near future due to the booming wind energy market. Turbine shortages have arisen as a result of continued growth in both European and North American markets. Long lead-times on turbine orders are now increasing the pressure to lock in turbine supply during the initial phases of the development process. Future growth of the wind energy industry will be impacted if turbine supply difficulties continue to contribute to uncertainties in the development process. The report provided an overview of the North American and global wind energy markets, as well as a summary of telephone interviews conducted with turbine suppliers. The implications for the future of turbine supply to the Canadian market were also analyzed. It was concluded that policy-makers should focus on supporting the expansion of manufacturing facilities for small wind turbines and control infrastructure in Canada 7 refs., 3 figs

  12. Review: TASHI'S TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R O'Neill

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Amitabh Raj Joshi (director, producer. 2015. Tashi's Turbine. New York City, NY: Vacant Light LLC. 56 mins. http://bit.ly/2tg9fTx, Nepali and Lowa, English subtitles. Color. (Institutional use 320USD; (personal use 34.95USD. In the windswept valleys of Upper Mustang, Nepal, renewable energy is transforming lives. Micro-turbine projects have connected off-grid communities with basic electricity, providing hope for sustainable growth on the Roof of the World. The documentary Tashi's Turbine follows two friends as they experiment with these technologies in Nyamdok Village, along the Sino-Nepali border. Recognizing that high-mountain valleys, including Mustang, Palpa, and Khumbu, are rich in wind resources, Tashi and his friend, Jeevan Kumar Oli, attempt to mitigate poverty using grassroots energy. Tashi Bista was inspired in his youth by tales of "wind machines" at Kagbeni Village in Upper Mustang. In 1987, the Danish Government had funded a twenty-kilowatt turbine in the area; but, it was rapidly decommissioned due to maintenance complications. In 1996, the Government of Nepal established the Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC to revive this and other wind programs and address related challenges. Nevertheless, AEPC's latest Wind Energy Resource Assessment revealed two decades of inaction. Wind programs in other parts of the country remain nascent; much of Central and Western Nepal have yet to be connected to the national grid. Director and cinematographer Amitabh Raj Joshi cultivates a nuanced vision of these developments by juxtaposing majestic landscapes against simple homes and everyday struggles for existence. The film opens with panoramas of the sapphire skies and canvas valleys of Mustang. Minutes later, kerosene fixtures illuminate paltry yields from subsistence harvests; children attempt to study under candlelight, often to no avail. Voicing the narratives of villagers like Chhimi Lhamo, Karma Lutok, and Pemba Tashi, Joshi captures

  13. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which

  14. Underwater energy harvesting from a turbine hosting ionic polymer metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellini, Filippo; Pounds, Jason; Porfiri, Maurizio; Peterson, Sean D

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explore the possibility of energy harvesting from fluid flow through a turbine hosting ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs). Specifically, IPMC harvesters are embedded in the blades of a small-scale vertical axis water turbine to convert flow kinetics into electrical power via low-frequency flow-induced IPMC deformations. An in-house fabricated Savonius–Darrieus hybrid active turbine with three IPMCs is tested in a laboratory water tunnel to estimate the energy harvesting capabilities of the device as a function of the shunting electrical load. The turbine is shown to harvest a few nanowatt from a mean flow of 0.43 m s −1 for shunting resistances in the range 100–1000 Ω. To establish a first understanding of the energy harvesting device, we propose a quasi-static hydroelastic model for the bending of the IPMCs and we utilize a black-box model to study their electromechanical response. (paper)

  15. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the

  16. Aeroservoelasticity of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovmose Kallesoee, B.

    2007-12-14

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand and address. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of an aeroelastic blade model which on the one hand includes the important effects of steady state blade deformation, gravity and pitch action, and on the other it is transparent, suitable for analytical analysis and parameter studies, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual terms in these equations are discussed and given physical interpretations; 2) Steady state blade deformation and induced velocities are computed by combining the PDEs with a steady state aerodynamic model; 3) Aeroelastic modes of motion are computed by combining the linearized PDEs with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model; this model is used to analyze how blade deformation effects the modes of motion; and 4) the linear aeroelastic blade model is derived by a modal expansion of the linearized PDEs combined with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model. The aeroelastic blade model has many similarities to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model is used to develop a state estimator for estimating the wind speed and wind shear, and to suggest a load reducing controller. The state estimator estimates the wind shear very

  17. Ceramic Parts for Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. D.; Carpenter, Harry W.; Tellier, Jim; Rollins, Clark; Stormo, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Abilities of ceramics to serve as turbine blades, stator vanes, and other elements in hot-gas flow of rocket engines discussed in report. Ceramics prime candidates, because of resistance to heat, low density, and tolerance of hostile environments. Ceramics considered in report are silicon nitride, silicon carbide, and new generation of such ceramic composites as transformation-toughened zirconia and alumina and particulate- or whisker-reinforced matrices. Report predicts properly designed ceramic components viable in advanced high-temperature rocket engines and recommends future work.

  18. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so...

  19. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  20. Megawatt wind turbines gaining momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, K.; Madsen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    Through the short history of the modern wind turbine, electric utilities have made it amply clear that they have held a preference for large scale wind turbines over smaller ones, which is why wind turbine builders through the years have made numerous attempts develop such machines - machines that would meet the technical, aesthetic and economic demands that a customer would require. Considerable effort was put into developing such wind turbines in the early 1980s. There was the U.S. Department of Energy's MOD 1-5 program, which ranged up to 3.2 MW, Denmark's Nibe A and B, 630 kW turbine and the 2 MW Tjaereborg machine, Sweden's Naesudden, 3 MW, and Germany's Growian, 3 MW. Most of these were dismal failures, though some did show the potential of MW technology. (au)

  1. Annular array technology for nondestructive turbine inspection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light, G.M.

    1986-05-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funded Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to fabricate and functionally test phased array transducers and an electronic control system with the intent of evaluating the phased array technology for use in the inspection of turbine disks. During this program a 13-element annular array and associated phased array electronics were fabricated and tested and the results of the tests compared to those predicted by theory. The prototype system performed well within the expected limits, and EPRI funded further work to fabricate and test a production unit. The production system consisted of a 25-element annular array and a 25-channel electronics system that had both pulser and receiver delay circuitry. In addition, during the program it was determined that miniaturized hybrid pulser/preamps would be needed to allow the phased array to work over distances exceeding 9.1 meters (30 feet) from the electronics. A circuit developed by SwRI was utilized and found to produce good pulsing capability that did not suffer from impedance mismatch. EPRI also funded (under a separate contract) the fabrication of a small scale static turbine test bed and a full scale dynamic test bed that contained full scale turbine geometries. These test beds were fabricated to enable the production phased array system to be evaluated on turbine disk surfaces. 26 figs

  2. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  3. An Experimental Study on the Darrieus-Savonius Turbine for the Tidal Current Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyozuka, Yusaku

    The Darrieus turbine is popular for tidal current power generation in Japan. It is simple in structure with straight wings rotating around a vertical axis, so that it has no directionality against the motion of tidal flow which changes its direction twice a day. However, there is one defect in the Darrieus turbine; its small starting torque. Once it stops, a Darrieus turbine is hard to re-start until a fairly fast current is exerted on it. To improve the starting torque of the Darrieus turbine used for tidal power generation, a hybrid turbine, composed of a Darrieus turbine and a Savonius rotor is proposed. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a semi-circular section used for the Savonius bucket were measured in a wind tunnel. The torque of a two bucket Savonius rotor was measured in a circulating water channel, where four different configurations of the bucket were compared. A combined Darrieus and Savonius turbine was tested in the circulating water channel, where the effect of the attaching angle between Darrieus wing and Savonius rotor was studied. Finally, power generation experiments using a 48 pole electric generator were conducted in a towing tank and the power coefficients were compared with the results of experiments obtained in the circulating water channel.

  4. Study of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for Energy Harvester in A Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E. M.; Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.

    2017-07-01

    The wind speed in the southern beach of West Java Indonesia is quite promising for wind energy harvesting. A field survey reported that the wind speed reached 10 m/s, while the average recorded in a year is about 4.7 m/s. In this study, two vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) were compared to be used in that area through calculation as well as experiments. The experiments measured that the turbines can produce about 7.82W and 2.33W of electricity respectively. These experiments are compared with theoretical calculation to obtain the performance of both turbines used. The coefficient of performance (cp) experimentally is 0.09 for Turbine 1 (hybrid Savonius-Darrieus rotor) and 0.14 for Turbine 2 (Savonius rotor). While, rotor’s mechanical performance Cpr, obtained theoritically through calculation, is 0.36 for Turbine 1 and 0.12 for Turbine 2. These results are analysed from mechanical and electrical view.

  5. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  6. Wind turbine aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

  7. Wind turbine power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-11-01

    The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW's) policy on wind turbine power stations needs to be read in the context of CCW's document Energy:Policy and perspectives for the Welsh countryside. This identifies four levels of action aimed at reducing emission of gases which contribute towards the risk of global warming and gases which cause acid deposition. These are: the need for investment in energy efficiency; the need for investment in conventional power generation in order to meet the highest environmental standards; the need for investment in renewable energy; and the need to use land use transportation policies and decisions to ensure energy efficiency and energy conservation. CCW views wind turbine power stations, along with other renewable energy systems, within this framework. CCW's policy is to welcome the exploitation of renewable energy sources as an element in a complete and environmentally sensitive energy policy, subject to the Environmental Assessment of individual schemes and monitoring of the long-term impact of the various technologies involved. (Author)

  8. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  9. Aircraft propulsion and gas turbine engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii xxxi xxxiii xxxv Part I Aero Engines and Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C...

  10. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  11. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  12. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  13. Wind Turbines on CO2 Neutral Luminaries in Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Bak, Christian; Beller, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, an overview of three different wind turbines used in hybrid luminaries is presented. The turbines are: vertical-axis twisted Savonius, three-blade horizontal-axis, and vertical-axis three-blade helical H-rotor. The considered luminaries are also equipped with photovoltaic...... panels and batteries, detailed investigation of which is outside the scope of the present manuscript. Analysis of the turbines’ performance based on producer-supplied power curves is presented together with an estimation of the wind climate in Copenhagen district comprising 1-2 story single family...... buildings. A new vertical-axis twisted Savonius rotor is proposed for a luminary being designed for such a district within the “Development of CO2 neutral urban luminary” project....

  14. Wind Turbines on CO2 Neutral Luminaries in Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the present work, an overview of three different wind turbines used in hybrid luminaries is presented. The turbines are: vertical-axis twisted Savonius, three-blade horizontal-axis, and vertical-axis three-blade helical H-rotor. The considered luminaries are also equipped with photovoltaic...... panels and batteries, detailed investigation of which is outside the scope of the present manuscript. Analysis of the turbines’ performance based on producer-supplied power curves is presented together with an estimation of the wind climate in Copenhagen district comprising 1-2 story single family...... buildings. A new vertical-axis twisted Savonius rotor is proposed for a luminary being designed for such a district within the “Development of CO2 neutral urban luminary” project....

  15. Thermo-economic assessment of externally fired micro-gas turbine fired by natural gas and biomass: Applications in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, A.M.; Camporeale, S.M.; Shah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic analysis of natural gas/biomass fired microturbine is proposed. • Energy efficiency, capex, opex and electricity revenues trade-offs are assessed. • The optimal biomass energy input is 70% of total CHP consumption. • Industrial/tertiary heat demand and baseload/heat driven operation is assessed. • The main barriers of small scale CHP systems in Italy are overviewed. - Abstract: This paper proposes a thermo-economic assessment of small scale (100 kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) plants fired by natural gas and solid biomass. The focus is on dual fuel gas turbine cycle, where compressed air is heated in a high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) using the hot gases produced in a biomass furnace, before entering the gas combustion chamber. The hot air expands in the turbine and then feeds the internal pre-heater recuperator, Various biomass/natural gas energy input ratios are modeled, ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% biomass. The research assesses the trade-offs between: (i) lower energy conversion efficiency and higher investment cost of high biomass input rate and (ii) higher primary energy savings and revenues from bio-electricity feed-in tariff in case of high biomass input rate. The influence of fuel mix and biomass furnace temperature on energy conversion efficiencies, primary energy savings and profitability of investments is assessed. The scenarios of industrial vs. tertiary heat demand and baseload vs. heat driven plant operation are also compared. On the basis of the incentives available in Italy for biomass electricity and for high efficiency cogeneration (HEC), the maximum investment profitability is achieved for 70% input biomass percentage. The main barriers of these embedded cogeneration systems in Italy are also discussed

  16. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  17. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  18. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravec Prokop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  19. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending,a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models...

  20. Steam turbines for PWR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscroft, J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements and mechanical design features applying to modern GEC 3000 rev/min steam turbines for pressurised water reactor power stations are reviewed. The most recent developments include machines of 630 MW and 985 MW output which are currently under construction. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines associated with a variety of types of water cooled reactor and its relevance to the design of modern 3000 rev/min turbines for pressurised water reactor applications is emphasised. (author)

  1. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely in the future. The work presented...... in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have design and constructed a HTS machine experimental...... setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises from...

  2. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  3. Multiple Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Mann, Jakob

    and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison of selected datasets from the campaign showed good far wake agreements of mean wake expansion with Actuator Line CFD computations and simpler engineering models. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction...... for modeling the resulting double wake deficit is only relevant at high turbine thrust coefficients. For high wind speed and low thrust coefficient, linear summation should be primarily used. The first iteration of a new engineering model capable of modeling the overlapped wake deficit is formulated and its...... measurement and simulation is seen in both the fixed and the meandering frame of reference. A benchmark of several wake accumulation models is performed as a basis for the subsequent development of an engineering model for wake interaction.Finally, the validated numerical CFD model is used as part...

  4. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.

  5. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel...... method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. Theairfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental...... data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible forthe poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads...

  6. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  7. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  8. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Toft, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic design of wind turbines requires definition of the structural elements to be included in the probabilistic basis: e.g., blades, tower, foundation; identification of important failure modes; careful stochastic modeling of the uncertain parameters; recommendations for target reliability....... It is described how uncertainties in wind turbine design related to computational models, statistical data from test specimens, results from a few full-scale tests and from prototype wind turbines can be accounted for using the Maximum Likelihood Method and a Bayesian approach. Assessment of the optimal...... reliability level by cost-benefit optimization is illustrated by an offshore wind turbine example. Uncertainty modeling is illustrated by an example where physical, statistical and model uncertainties are estimated....

  9. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  10. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  11. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined gas turbine, ORC cycle and absorption refrigeration for a CCHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Amin; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid CCHP system. • Sensitivity analysis is performed on the most important parameters of the system. • Pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature are the most effective parameters. - Abstract: Hybrid power systems are gained more attention due to their better performance and higher efficiency. Widespread use of these systems improves environmental situation as they reduce the amount of fossil fuel consumption. In this paper a hybrid system composed of a gas turbine, an ORC cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed as a combined cooling, heating and power system for residential usage. Thermodynamic analysis is applied on the system. Also a parametric analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of different parameters on the system performance and output cooling, heating and power. The results show that under design conditions, the proposed plant can produce 30 kW power, 8 kW cooling and almost 7.2 ton hot water with an efficiency of 67.6%. Moreover, parametric analysis shows that pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature are the most important and influential parameters. After these two, ORC turbine inlet temperature is the most effective parameter as it can change both net output power and energy efficiency of the system.

  13. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  14. CFD analysis of a Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Pricop, M. V.; Pepelea, D.; Dumitrache, A.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    The Darrieus wind turbine has some advantages over the horizontal-axis wind turbine. Firstly, its tip speed ratio is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine and, therefore, its noise is smaller, privileging their placement near populated areas. Secondly, the Darrieus wind turbine does needs no orientation mechanism with respect to wind direction in contrast to the horizontal-axis wind turbine. However, the efficiency of the Darrieus wind turbine is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine since its aerodynamics is much more complex. With the advances in computational fluids and computers, it is possible to simulate the Darrieus wind turbine more accurately to understand better its aerodynamics. For these reasons, the present papers deals with the computational aerodynamics of a Darrieus wind turbine applying the state of the art of CFD methods (anisotropic turbulence models, transition from laminar to turbulent, scale adaptive simulation) to better understand its unsteady behavior.

  15. Variable Pitch Darrieus Water Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirke, Brian; Lazauskas, Leo

    In recent years the Darrieus wind turbine concept has been adapted for use in water, either as a hydrokinetic turbine converting the kinetic energy of a moving fluid in open flow like an underwater wind turbine, or in a low head or ducted arrangement where flow is confined, streamtube expansion is controlled and efficiency is not subject to the Betz limit. Conventional fixed pitch Darrieus turbines suffer from two drawbacks, (i) low starting torque and (ii) shaking due to cyclical variations in blade angle of attack. Ventilation and cavitation can also cause problems in water turbines when blade velocities are high. Shaking can be largely overcome by the use of helical blades, but these do not produce large starting torque. Variable pitch can produce high starting torque and high efficiency, and by suitable choice of pitch regime, shaking can be minimized but not entirely eliminated. Ventilation can be prevented by avoiding operation close to a free surface, and cavitation can be prevented by limiting blade velocities. This paper summarizes recent developments in Darrieus water turbines, some problems and some possible solutions.

  16. Noise immission from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The project has dealt with practical ways to reduce the influence of background noise caused by wind acting on the measuring microphones. The uncertainty of measured noise emission (source strength) has been investigated. The main activity was a Round Robin Test involving measurements by five laboratories at the same wind turbine. Each laboratory brought its own instrumentation and performed the measurements and analyses according to their interpretation. The tonality of wind turbine noise is an essential component of the noise impact on the environment. In the present project the uncertainty in the newest existing methods for assessing tonality was investigated. The project included noise propagation measurements in different weather conditions around wind turbines situated in different types of terrain. The results were used to validate a noise propagation model developed in the project. Finally, the project also included a study with listeners evaluating recordings of wind turbine noise. The results are intended as guidance for wind turbine manufacturers in identifying the aspects of wind turbine noise most important to annoyance. (author)

  17. Active control: Wind turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, Henrik

    1999-07-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project `Active Control of Wind Turbines`. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to design controllers. This report describes the model developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This has been done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending, a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models. The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated through comparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind turbine. The model and the measurements corresponds well in the relevant frequency range. The developed model is therefore applicable for controller design. (au) EFP-91. 18 ills., 22 refs.

  18. Improving fish survival through turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs

  19. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, T; Brask, M H [DEFU (Denmark); Jensen, F V; Raben, N [SEAS (Denmark); Saxov, J [Nordjyllandsvaerket (Denmark); Nielsen, L [Vestkraft (Denmark); Soerensen, P E [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Lightning damage to wind turbines is a serious problem for Danish power companies, who have experienced some cases with very costly lightning damage and a large number of cases with minor damage. The most costly cases include one catastrophic damage to an entire wind turbine, and several cases of destruction of blades, main bearings, generators and control systems. Over the years there have been several hundreds of cases with minor damage - typically damage and interruptions of the control and communication systems, or the power systems. The Danish power companies anticipate that the lightning threat will be even bigger for the large off-shore wind turbine installations that are currently being planned in Denmark. Furthermore, it is known from the off-shore wind turbines at Vindeby in Denmark that the costs of inspection and particularly repair work must be expected to be much higher off-shore as compared to wind turbines on land. These considerations was the background for a two year project concerned with investigation of lighting damages and with the formulation of a DEFU Recommendation for lightning protection of wind turbines, which was published in January 1999. The project was funded by the Danish power companies Elsam, Eltra, Elkraft and by DEFU. (au)

  20. Collecting Currents with Water Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Allen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Our science poster is inspired by Florida Atlantic University's recent program to develop three types of renewable energy. They are using water turbines and the Gulf Stream Current to produce a renewable energy source. Wave, tidal and current driven energy. Our poster is called "Collecting Currents with Water Turbines". In our science poster, the purpose was to see which turbine design could produce the most power. We tested three different variables, the number of blades (four, six, and eight), the material of the blades and the shape of the blades. To test which number of blades produced the most power we cut slits into a cork. We used plastic from a soda bottle to make the blades and then we put the blades in the cork to make the turbines. We observed each blade and how much time it took for the water turbines to pull up 5 pennies. Currently water turbines are used in dams to make hydroelectric energy. But with FAU we could understand how to harness the Gulf Stream current off Florida's coast we could soon have new forms of renewable energy.

  1. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  2. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  3. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    Wind turbines play a major role in the transformation from a fossil fuel based energy production to a more sustainable production of energy. Total-cost-of-ownership is an important parameter when investors decide in which energy technology they should place their capital. Modern wind turbines...... the need for maintenance of the wind turbine. Either way, better total-cost-of-ownership for wind turbine operators can be achieved by improved control of the wind turbines. Wind turbine control can be improved in two ways, by improving the model on which the controller bases its design or by improving...

  4. Wind turbine extraction from high spatial resolution remote sensing images based on saliency detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingbo; Yue, Anzhi; Wang, Chengyi; Huang, Qingqing; Chen, Jiansheng; Meng, Yu; He, Dongxu

    2018-01-01

    The wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical power. Accurate and automatic extraction of wind turbine is instructive for government departments to plan wind power plant projects. A hybrid and practical framework based on saliency detection for wind turbine extraction, using Google Earth image at spatial resolution of 1 m, is proposed. It can be viewed as a two-phase procedure: coarsely detection and fine extraction. In the first stage, we introduced a frequency-tuned saliency detection approach for initially detecting the area of interest of the wind turbines. This method exploited features of color and luminance, was simple to implement, and was computationally efficient. Taking into account the complexity of remote sensing images, in the second stage, we proposed a fast method for fine-tuning results in frequency domain and then extracted wind turbines from these salient objects by removing the irrelevant salient areas according to the special properties of the wind turbines. Experiments demonstrated that our approach consistently obtains higher precision and better recall rates. Our method was also compared with other techniques from the literature and proves that it is more applicable and robust.

  5. Large-eddy simulation of wind turbine wake interactions on locally refined Cartesian grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    Performing high-fidelity numerical simulations of turbulent flow in wind farms remains a challenging issue mainly because of the large computational resources required to accurately simulate the turbine wakes and turbine/turbine interactions. The discretization of the governing equations on structured grids for mesoscale calculations may not be the most efficient approach for resolving the large disparity of spatial scales. A 3D Cartesian grid refinement method enabling the efficient coupling of the Actuator Line Model (ALM) with locally refined unstructured Cartesian grids adapted to accurately resolve tip vortices and multi-turbine interactions, is presented. Second order schemes are employed for the discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a hybrid staggered/non-staggered formulation coupled with a fractional step method that ensures the satisfaction of local mass conservation to machine zero. The current approach enables multi-resolution LES of turbulent flow in multi-turbine wind farms. The numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental measurements and are able to resolve the rich dynamics of turbine wakes on grids containing only a small fraction of the grid nodes that would be required in simulations without local mesh refinement. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0005482 and the National Science Foundation under Award number NSF PFI:BIC 1318201.

  6. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  7. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  8. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  9. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  10. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.

  11. Turbines in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-10-01

    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  12. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, N.; Johansen, J.; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which air-foils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. The airfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible for the poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads to these discrepancies is identified. Some advices are given for elaborating future airfoil design processes that would involve the numerical code EllipSys2D in particular, and transition modelling in general. (au)

  13. LES investigation of infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    The layouts of turbines affect the turbine wake interactions and thus the wind farm performance. The wake interactions in infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays are investigated and compared with infinite aligned turbine arrays in this paper. From the numerical results we identify three types of wake behaviours, which are significantly different from wakes in aligned wind-turbine arrays. For the first type, each turbine wake interferes with the pair of staggered downstream turbine wakes and the aligned downstream turbine. For the second type, each turbine wake interacts with the first two downstream turbine wakes but does not show significant interference with the second aligned downstream turbine. For the third type, each turbine wake recovers immediately after passing through the gap of the first two downstream turbines and has little interaction with the second downstream turbine wakes The extracted power density and power efficiency are also studied and compared with aligned wind-turbine arrays

  14. Turbine and its turbine control system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongwei; Zhu Jinping

    1996-01-01

    The simulation for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit turbine and turbine control system is briefly introduced. The simulation system includes lube oil system, jacking oil pump system, turning gear system, turbine supervisor system and turbine control system. It not only correctly simulates the process of turbine normal start up, operation, and shut down, but also the response of turbine under the malfunction conditions

  15. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.

  16. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface...

  17. Advanced Turbine Blade Cooling Techniques, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can...

  18. Simulating Collisions for Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Rakowski, Cynthia L.

    2013-10-01

    Evaluations of blade-strike on an axial-flow Marine Hydrokinetic turbine were conducted using a conventional methodology as well as an alternative modeling approach proposed in the present document. The proposed methodology integrates the following components into a Computa- tional Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulations, (ii) ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The sensitivity of blade-strike prob- ability to the following conditions was also evaluated: (i) to the turbulent environment, (ii) to fish size and (iii) to mean stream flow velocity. The proposed methodology provided fraction of collisions and offered the capability of analyzing the causal relationships between the flow envi- ronment and resulting strikes on rotating blades. Overall, the conventional methodology largely overestimates the probability of strike, and lacks the ability to produce potential fish and aquatic biota trajectories as they interact with the rotating turbine. By using a set of experimental corre- lations of exposure-response of living fish colliding on moving blades, the occurrence, frequency and intensity of the particle collisions was next used to calculate the survival rate of fish crossing the MHK turbine. This step indicated survival rates always greater than 98%. Although the proposed CFD framework is computationally more expensive, it provides the advantage of evaluating multiple mechanisms of stress and injury of hydrokinetic turbine devices on fish.

  19. A reference Pelton turbine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solemslie, B W; Dahlhaug, O G

    2012-01-01

    The designs of hydraulic turbines are usually close kept corporation secrets. Therefore, the possibility of innovation and co-operation between different academic institutions regarding a specific turbine geometry is difficult. A Ph.D.-project at the Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, aim to design several model Pelton turbines where all measurements, simulations, the design strategy, design software in addition to the physical model will be available to the public. In the following paper a short description of the methods and the test rig that are to be utilized in the project are described. The design will be based on empirical data and NURBS will be used as the descriptive method for the turbine geometry. In addition CFX and SPH simulations will be included in the design process. Each turbine designed and produced in connection to this project will be based on the experience and knowledge gained from the previous designs. The first design will be based on the philosophy to keep a near constant relative velocity through the bucket.

  20. A reference Pelton turbine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solemslie, B. W.; Dahlhaug, O. G.

    2012-09-01

    The designs of hydraulic turbines are usually close kept corporation secrets. Therefore, the possibility of innovation and co-operation between different academic institutions regarding a specific turbine geometry is difficult. A Ph.D.-project at the Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, aim to design several model Pelton turbines where all measurements, simulations, the design strategy, design software in addition to the physical model will be available to the public. In the following paper a short description of the methods and the test rig that are to be utilized in the project are described. The design will be based on empirical data and NURBS will be used as the descriptive method for the turbine geometry. In addition CFX and SPH simulations will be included in the design process. Each turbine designed and produced in connection to this project will be based on the experience and knowledge gained from the previous designs. The first design will be based on the philosophy to keep a near constant relative velocity through the bucket.

  1. Simulation model of nuclear power plant turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-04-01

    A computer code TURDYN has been developed for prediction of HP and LP turbine torque under thermodynamic transient conditions. The model is based on the conservation laws of mass and energy. All the important components of turbine systems e.g. high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, feed heaters, reheater, moisture separator have been considered. The details of the mathematical formulation of the model and open loop responses for specific disturbances are presented. (author)

  2. Repair of steam turbines by welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnstedt, H.J.; Loebert, P.

    1987-01-01

    In some cases, turbine parts can be repaired by welding, even rotating parts such as the shaft or the blades. Practical examples of successful repair work are explained, as for instance: welding of the last web of the turbine wheel of two MD-rotors, repair of erosion damage on turbine blades, of solid-matter erosion on a medium-pressure blading, or welding repair of a high-pressure turbine casing. (DG) [de

  3. Smart Wind Turbine: Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure, thereby driving the loads and the design of turbines in general and blades in particular. In response to this, several control mechanisms have been applied to wind turbines since the generation of s...

  4. Numerical Evaluation ofThe Performance ofA Compression Ignition Cng Engine For Heavy DutyTrucksWithAn Optimum Speed PowerTurbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient engine now in production for transport applications. CNG is an alternative fuel with a better carbon to hydrogen ratio therefore permitting reduced carbon dioxide emissions. It is injected in gaseous form for a much cleaner combustion almost cancelling some of the emissions of the Diesel and it permits a much better energy security within Australia. The paper discusses the best options currently available to convert Diesel engine platforms to CNG, with particular emphasis to the use of these CNG engines within Australia where the refuelling network is scarce. This option is determined in the dual fuel operation with a double injector design that couples a second CNG injector to the Diesel injector. This configuration permits the operation Diesel only or Diesel pilot and CNG main depending on the availability of refuelling stations where the vehicle operates. Results of engine performance simulations are performed for a straight six cylinder 13 litres truck engine with a novel power turbine connected to the crankshaft through a constant variable transmission that may be by-passed when non helpful to increase the fuel economy of the vehicle or when damaging the performances of the after treatment system.

  5. Pump Application as Hydraulic Turbine – Pump as Turbine (PaT)

    OpenAIRE

    Rusovs, D

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers pump operation as hydraulic turbine with purpose to produce mechanical power from liquid flow. The Francis hydraulic turbine was selected for comparison with centrifugal pump in reverse operation. Turbine and centrifugal pump velocity triangles were considered with purpose to evaluate PaT efficiency. Shape of impeller blades for turbine and pumps was analysed. Specific speed calculation is carried out with purpose to obtain similarity in pump and turbine description. For ...

  6. Design, Operation and Control Modelling of SOFC/GT Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on modelling-based design, operation and control of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) hybrid systems. Fuel cells are a promising approach to high-efficiency power generation, as they directly convert chemical energy to electric work. High-temperature fuel cells such as the SOFC can be integrated in gas turbine processes, which further increases the electrical efficiency to values up to 70%. However, there are a number of obstacles for safe operation of such...

  7. A Two-Bladed Concept Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong

    2012-01-01

    This article shows the potential for reducing extreme loads with an innovative design of wind turbine, a partial pitch two-bladed concept turbine. The most extreme conditions to test a turbine are considered to be stand-still combined with a grid failure in which the wind comes from all directions...

  8. A novel floating offshore wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present a novel concept of a floating offshore wind turbine. The new concept is intended for vertical-axis wind turbine technology. The main purpose is to increase simplicity and to reduce total costs of an installed offshore wind farm. The concept is intended for deep water...... and large size turbines....

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther

    , large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind turbine wings under large changes in flow field due to elastic deformations and changing wind conditions....

  10. Ducted wind turbine optimization : A numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dighe, V.V.; De Oliveira Andrade, G.L.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The practice of ducting wind turbines has shown a beneficial effect on the overall performance, when compared to an open turbine of the same rotor diameter1. However, an optimization study specifically for ducted wind turbines (DWT’s) is missing or incomplete. This work focuses on a numerical

  11. Wind turbine with lightning protection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  12. Performance and safety of hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, H

    2010-01-01

    The first part of the paper contains the choice of small turbines for run of the river power plants. Then a discussion is given on the optimization of the performance of different types of large turbines. Finally a discussion on the safety and necessary maintenance of turbines is given with special attention to bolt connections.

  13. Development of Low Price Turbine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, C.K.; Kim, J.A.; Jeong, W.J.; Choi, I.K.; Woo, J.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report is final research results of ''Development of Low Price Turbine Control System''. It describes test such as turbine startup, generator synchronization, rated load operation, simulation after manufacturing turbine control system. (author). 45 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a microprocessor based system used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

  15. Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2001-01-01

    The turbine gas path is a very complex flow field. This is due to a variety of flow and heat transfer phenomena encountered in turbine passages. This manuscript provides an overview of the current work in this field at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Also, based on the author's preference, more emphasis is on the computational work. There is much more experimental work in progress at GRC than that reported here. While much has been achieved, more needs to be done in terms of validating the predictions against experimental data. More experimental data, especially on film cooled and rough turbine blades, are required for code validation. Also, the combined film cooling and internal cooling flow computation for a real blade is yet to be performed. While most computational work to date has assumed steady state conditions, the flow is clearly unsteady due to the presence of wakes. All this points to a long road ahead. However, we are well on course.

  16. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  17. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...... to one third of the total cost of energy. Reduction of Operation & Maintenance costs will result in significant cost savings and result in cheaper electricity production. Operation & Maintenance processes mainly involve actions related to replacements or repair. Identifying the right times when...

  18. Endoscopic inspection of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliniemi, H.; Muukka, E.

    1990-01-01

    For over ten years, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed, complementary inspection methods for steam turbine condition monitoring, which can be applied both during operation and shutdown. One important method used periodically during outages is endoscopic inspection. The inspection is based on the method where the internal parts of the turbine is inspected through access borings with endoscope and where the magnified figures of the internal parts is seen on video screen. To improve inspection assurance, an image-processing based pattern recognition method for cracks has been developed for the endoscopic inspection of turbine blades. It is based on the deduction conditions derived from the crack shape. The computer gives an alarm of a crack detection and prints a simulated image of the crack, which is then checked manually

  19. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  20. Lewis Research Center studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A NASA-Lewis program to study the anticipated performance of a wind turbine generator farm on an electric utility network is surveyed. The paper describes the approach of the Lewis Wind Energy Project Office to developing analysis capabilities in the area of wind turbine generator-utility network computer simulations. Attention is given to areas such as, the Lewis Purdue hybrid simulation, an independent stability study, DOE multiunit plant study, and the WEST simulator. Also covered are the Lewis mod-2 simulation including analog simulation of a two wind turbine system and comparison with Boeing simulation results, and gust response of a two machine model. Finally future work to be done is noted and it is concluded that the study shows little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus.

  1. The conference hybrid control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.; Caucik, J.; Macko, J.

    2008-01-01

    An original concept of a hybrid control room was developed for the Mochovce-3 and Mochovce-4 reactor units which are under construction. The basic idea underlying the concept is that the control room should be a main working place for the operators (reactor operator and turbine operator) and for the shift supervisor, designed as a comprehensive unit desk shaped so that all members of the control room crew are in a face-to-face contact constantly. The main desk consists of three clearly identified areas serving the operators and the unit supervisor as their main working places. A soft control system is installed at the main working places. A separate safety-related working place, designed as a panel with classical instrumentations at the conference hybrid control room, is provided in case of abnormal conditions or emergency situation. Principles of ergonomics and cognitive engineering were taken into account when designing the new conference hybrid control room for the Mochovce-3 and -4 reactor units. The sizes, propositions, shapes and disposition of the equipment at the control room have been created and verified by using virtual reality tools. (orig.)

  2. Rotary turbine for reduced flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G.; Scornaienchi, N.M. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    1988-06-01

    The principal characteristics of the steam turbine are its simple design (and therefore low fabrication cost) and capability of handling very small rates in the order grams/s. Another important characteristic is that the deflector channel receives fluid without incidence for any value of relative velocity. This allows for a wider field of application as compared with bladed turbines. Taking into account losses due to the fact that the fluid works at relatively high velocities for long sections and to fluid leakage, efficiencies have been estimated at about 40%.

  3. Noise from offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, B.; Plovsing, B.

    2005-07-01

    Noise assessment of wind turbines through calculations is based on sound power levels measured according to e.g. IEC 61400-11. With larger wind turbines and distances some of the calculation models give erroneous results. Noise propagation over water is different from propagation over land. For that reason it is important be able to make valid noise assessments for offshore wind farms. A suggestion for an offshore measurement method is described and a survey of models for noise propagation offshore has been made. (au)

  4. The aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical...... Engineering at DTU. In particular, we show some new results on the classical problem of the ideal rotor and present a series of new results from an on-going research project dealing with the modelling and simulation of turbulent flow structures in the wake behind wind turbines....

  5. Extreme Response for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number...... of simulated 10min time series of the response according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. However, this method assumes that the individual 10min time series and the extracted peaks from the time series are independent. In the present paper is this assumption investigated based on field measurements...

  6. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  7. Failure analysis of turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, A.F.; Crespi, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two 20 MW gas turbines suffered damage in blades belonging to the 2nd. stage of the turbine after 24,000 hours of duty. From research it arises that the fuel used is not quite adequate to guarantee the blade's operating life due to the excess of SO 3 , C and Na existing in combustion gases which cause pitting to the former. Later, the corrosion phenomenon is presented under tension produced by working stress enhanced by pitting where Pb is its main agent. A change of fuel is recommended thus considering the blades will reach the operational life they were designed for. (Author) [es

  8. Aeroderivative gas turbines for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, M.W.; Thames, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft jet engine derivative gas turbines have gained acceptance for cogeneration applications through impressive advances in technology and especially in maintainability and reliability. The best advantages of heavy industrial turbines and of reliable commercial airline jet engines have been successfully joined to meet the requirements for industrial cogeneration service. The next generation is under development and offers improved thermal efficiencies, alternate fuel capabilities, low environmental emissions, flexibility of operation and improved competitive system economics. This paper summarizes the current aero-derivative engine features and advantages with various systems, and discusses advanced features under consideration at this time

  9. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... and uncertainties are quantified. Further, estimation of annual failure probability for structural components taking into account possible faults in electrical or mechanical systems is considered. For a representative structural failure mode, a probabilistic model is developed that incorporates grid loss failures...

  10. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 trademark gas turbine system; Anwendung bewaehrter Technologien bei der Entwicklung des Titan 250 trademark Gasturbinensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stang, Ulrich; Knodle, Mark; Novaresi, Mark [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ottoboni, Luigi [Turbomach SA, Riazzino (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The Titan 250 gas turbine and C85 centrifugal gas compressor are the latest additions to the Solar Turbines product family. These new products leverage core technologies that have been developed and proven in several other well-established products. The Titan 250 gas turbine is a conservative hybrid design grounded in advanced aerodynamic, thermal and mechanical design tools and methodologies. It is ISO rated at 22.4 MW (30,000 HP), with a best-in-class shaft efficiency of 40% reducing fuel costs and emissions. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial flow compressor (PR 24:1), a dry low emissions combustor (<15 ppmv NOx), a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a firing temperature of 1200 C (2200 F), and a three-stage, maximum efficiency, fully shrouded power turbine. (orig.)

  11. Across the dam for turbines; Over dammen etter turbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Marte

    2010-07-01

    Raanaasfoss is one step closer to upgrading. Model testing in the U.S. have now shown that the upgrade can provide approximately 20 G Wh higher production per year. The power plant is 90 years old and is to be upgraded by six new turbines and generators. Buildings and dams are to remain. (AG)

  12. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  13. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  14. Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the aeroelostic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modem commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical...... stiffness and chordwise position of the center of gravity along the blades are the main parameters for flutter. These instability characteristics are exemplified by aeroelastic stability analyses of different wind turbines. The review of each aeroelastic instability ends with a list of current research...... issues that represent unsolved aeroelostic instability problems for wind turbines. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Spar Cap Fiber Angle of Bending-Torsion Coupled Blades on the Aero-Structural Performance of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sener, Ozgun; Farsadi, Touraj; Gozc, M. Ozan

    2018-01-01

    with the fatigue load mitigation in the whole wind turbine system, tower clearances, peak stresses in the blades, and power generation of wind turbines. For this purpose, a full E-glass/epoxy reference blade has been designed, following the inverse design methodology for a 5-MW wind turbine. An E-glass/epoxy blade...... with IBTC, and besides the fiber orientation angle, sectional properties of hybrid blades must be adjusted accordingly using proper number of carbon/epoxy layers in the sections of the blade with IBTC, in order to simultaneously reduce generator power losses and the FEL....

  16. A Hybrid Wind-Farm Parametrization for Mesoscale and Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Archer, Cristina L.

    2018-04-01

    To better understand the potential impact of wind farms on weather and climate at the regional to global scales, a new hybrid wind-farm parametrization is proposed for mesoscale and climate models. The proposed parametrization is a hybrid model because it is not based on physical processes or conservation laws, but on the multiple linear regression of the results of large-eddy simulations (LES) with the geometric properties of the wind-farm layout (e.g., the blockage ratio and blockage distance). The innovative aspect is that each wind turbine is treated individually based on its position in the farm and on the wind direction by predicting the velocity upstream of each turbine. The turbine-induced forces and added turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) are first derived analytically and then implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Idealized simulations of the offshore Lillgrund wind farm are conducted. The wind-speed deficit and TKE predicted with the hybrid model are in excellent agreement with those from the LES results, while the wind-power production estimated with the hybrid model is within 10% of that observed. Three additional wind farms with larger inter-turbine spacing than at Lillgrund are also considered, and a similar agreement with LES results is found, proving that the hybrid parametrization works well with any wind farm regardless of the spacing between turbines. These results indicate the wind-turbine position, wind direction, and added TKE are essential in accounting for the wind-farm effects on the surroundings, for which the hybrid wind-farm parametrization is a promising tool.

  17. Coordinated Control of Cross-Flow Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Cross-flow turbines, also known as vertical-axis turbines, have several advantages over axial-flow turbines for a number of applications including urban wind power, high-density arrays, and marine or fluvial currents. By controlling the angular velocity applied to the turbine as a function of angular blade position, we have demonstrated a 79 percent increase in cross-flow turbine efficiency over constant-velocity control. This strategy uses the downhill simplex method to optimize control parameter profiles during operation of a model turbine in a recirculating water flume. This optimization method is extended to a set of two turbines, where the blade motions and position of the downstream turbine are optimized to beneficially interact with the coherent structures in the wake of the upstream turbine. This control scheme has the potential to enable high-density arrays of cross-flow turbines to operate at cost-effective efficiency. Turbine wake and force measurements are analyzed for insight into the effect of a coordinated control strategy.

  18. Turbines for nuclear power plants. 2.ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the second edition of the book considered are practically all the main problems of calculation and operation of turbines and turbine installations of nuclear power plants. As compared to the first edition, essentially addes is the reproduction of the problem on combined generation of heat and electric energy. Also represented is detailed material on methods of preliminary evaluation of turbine effectiveness. Considered are peculiarities of turbine operation on wet steam and the basis of their thermal calculation. Much attention is payed to the problem of wet stream current in the turbine elements and wetness effect on their characteristics. Problems of wetness separation and moving blade erosion as well as other turbine elements are extracted in a special section. Given are structural schemes of different methods of innerchannel and periphery wet removal as well as experimental materials on their effectiveness. Given are descriptions and critical analysis of a great number of typical constructions of nuclear power plant steam turbines, produced by native plants as well as by the main foreign firms. Considered also are constructions of outside separators and steam superheaters. Separately given is the problem of rotation frequency choise of nuclear power plant wet steam turbines. Represented are materials on turbine installation tests, considered are the problems of turbine starting and manoeuvrability, analyzed are their typical jailures and damages. One of the sections of the book is devoted to gas turbine installations of nuclear power plants. Different material on this theme scattered before in various sources is summarized in the book

  19. New guidelines for wind turbine gearboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States); Errichello, R. [GEARTECH, Townsend, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The American Gear Manufacturers Association in cooperation with the American Wind Energy Association will soon be publishing AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 {open_quotes}Recommended Practices for Design and Specification of Gearboxes for Wind Turbine Generator Systems.{close_quotes} Much has been learned about the unique operation and loading of gearboxes in wind turbine applications since the burgeoning of the modern wind turbine industry in the early 1980`s. AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 documents this experience in a manner that provides valuable information to assist gear manufacturers and wind turbine designers, operators, and manufacturers in developing reliable wind turbine gearboxes. The document provides information on procurement specification development, wind turbine architecture, environmental considerations, and gearbox load determination, as well as the design, manufacturing, quality assurance, lubrication, operation and maintenance of wind turbine gearboxes. This paper presents the salient parts of the practices recommended in AGMA/AWEA 921-A97.

  20. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France