WorldWideScience

Sample records for turbine combustion systems

  1. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  2. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  3. Investigation of combustion and thermodynamic performance of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Juan; Weng Yiwu

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this research were to investigate the combustion and thermodynamic performance of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine. The characteristics of lean burn catalytic combustion were investigated by utilising 1D heterogeneous plug flow model which was validated by experiments. The effects of operating parameters on catalytic combustion were numerically analysed. The system models were built in ASPEN Plus and three independent design variables, i.e. compressor pressure ratio (PR), regenerator effectiveness (RE) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) were selected to analyse the thermodynamic performance of the thermal cycle. The main results show that: simulations from 1D heterogeneous plug flow model can capture the trend of catalytic combustion and describe the behavior of the catalytic monolith in detail. Inlet temperature is the most significant parameter that impacts operation of the catalytic combustor. When TIT and RE are constant, the increase of PR results in lowering the inlet temperature of the catalytic combustor, which results in decreasing methane conversion. The peak thermal efficiency and the optimal PR at a constant TIT increase with the increase of TIT; and at the constant PR, the thermal efficiency increases with the increase of TIT. However, with lower TIT conditions, the optimal PR and the peak efficiency at a constant TIT of the LBCCGT cycle are relative low to that of the conventional cycle. When TIT and PR are constant, the decrease of RE may result in lower methane conversion. The influences of RE on the methane conversion and the thermal efficiency are more significant at higher PRs. The higher thermal efficiency for the lower RE is achieved at lower PR.

  4. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  5. Device to lower NOx in a gas turbine engine combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R; Schilp, Reinhard; Wiebe, David J

    2015-02-24

    An emissions control system for a gas turbine engine including a flow-directing structure (24) that delivers combustion gases (22) from a burner (32) to a turbine. The emissions control system includes: a conduit (48) configured to establish fluid communication between compressed air (22) and the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24). The compressed air (22) is disposed at a location upstream of a combustor head-end and exhibits an intermediate static pressure less than a static pressure of the combustion gases within the combustor (14). During operation of the gas turbine engine a pressure difference between the intermediate static pressure and a static pressure of the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24) is effective to generate a fluid flow through the conduit (48).

  6. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  7. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, D.-C.; Chuang, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses of the plant for combustion gas turbine based power generation systems. Exergy analysis is performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. The results show the exergy analyses for a steam cycle system predict the plant efficiency more precisely. The plant efficiency for partial load operation is lower than full load operation. Increasing the pinch points will decrease the combined cycle plant efficiency. The engineering design is based on inlet air-cooling and natural gas preheating for increasing the net power output and efficiency. To evaluate the energy utilization, one combined cycle unit and one cogeneration system, consisting of gas turbine generators, heat recovery steam generators, one steam turbine generator with steam extracted for process have been analyzed. The analytical results are used for engineering design and component selection

  8. Analysis of combustion turbine inlet air cooling systems applied to an operating cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Jimenez-Espadafor, F.; Sanchez, D.; Sanchez, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC) systems are analyzed from an economic outlook, their effects on the global performance parameters and the economic results of the power plant. The study has been carried out on a combined cogeneration system, composed of a General Electric PG 6541 gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator. The work has been divided into three parts. First, a revision of the present CTIAC technologies is shown, their effects on power plant performance and evaluation of the associated investment and maintenance costs. In a second phase of the work, the cogeneration plant was modelled with the objective of evaluating the power increase and the effects on the generated steam and the thermal oil. The cogeneration power plant model was developed, departing from the recorded operational data of the plant in 2005 and the gas turbine model offered by General Electric, to take into consideration that, in 2000, the gas turbine had been remodelled and the original performance curves should be corrected. The final objective of this model was to express the power plant main variables as a function of the gas turbine intake temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Finally, this model was applied to analyze the economic interest of different intake cooling systems, in different operative ranges and with different cooling capacities

  9. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR REGULATED HIGH TEMPERATURE MAIN COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF MANEUVERABLE AIRCRAFT MULTIMODE GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gras’Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes choosing and substantiating the control laws, forming the appearance the automatic control system for regulated high temperature main combustion chamber of maneuverable aircraft multimode gas turbine engine aimed at sustainable and effective functioning of main combustion chamber within a broad operation range.

  10. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  11. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  12. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  13. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  14. Experimental study of a staged combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Warren G.

    Two optically accessible experimental test rigs were designed and constructed to investigate a staged or distributed combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications. The test rigs were fuelled with natural gas and featured two combustion zones: the main combustion zone (MCZ) and the secondary combustion zone (SCZ). The MCZ is a swirl stabilized dump combustor and the SCZ, which is axially downstream from the MCZ, is formed by a transverse jet injecting a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. After installing and commissioning the test rig, an emission survey was conducted to investigate the SCZ conditions, equivalence ratio and momentum ratio, that produce low NOx emissions and give a higher temperature rise before a simulated high pressure turbine than firing only the MCZ. The emission survey found several operating conditions that show the benefit of combustion staging. These beneficial conditions had an SCZ equivalence ratio between 0.41 and 1.12. The data from the emission survey was then used to create an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN used a multi-layer feed-forward network architecture and was trained with experimental data using the backpropagation training algorithm. The ANN was then used to create performance maps and optimum operational regions were sought. Lastly, optical diagnostics were used to obtain information on the nature of the SCZ reactive jet. The diagnostics included high speed CH* chemiluminescence, OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The chemiluminescence and PLIF were used to qualitatively determine the size and shape of the transverse jet reaction zone. Dual-pump CARS was used to quantitatively determine the temperature and H2/N2 concentration ratio profile at the mid-plane of the transverse jet. Dual-pump CARS data was collected for four operating conditions but only one is presented in this dissertation. For the condition presented, the

  15. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Anderson, Brian L [Lodi, CA; O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  16. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  17. Construction of a power plant with prototype DLN combustion turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.L. [CSW Energy, Dallas, TX (United States); Drummond, L.J. [Zurn NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Design and construction of a power plant is always a difficult process and this is especially true when the main keystone, the combustion turbine engine, is being modified by the manufacturer resulting in numerous changes in the design interfaces. The development of the design and construction of the Orange Cogeneration Facility has been in parallel with major modification of the LM6000 to DLE technology (a Dry Low NO{sub x} combustion system). The Dry Low NO{sub x} Combustion System for a combustion turbine offered a means to reduce water usage, lower Zero Liquid Discharge System operating costs and reduce emissions to meet Florida Department of Environmental Protection requirements. This development was successfully accomplished by Owner, EPC contractor and Combustion Turbine Manufacturer by maintaining flexibility in the design and construction while the design interfaces and performance of the combustion turbines were being finalized.

  18. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  19. Thermodynamic performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, A.; Kaushik, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    This communication presents thermodynamic methodology for the performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been defined. The effects of process steam pressure and pinch point temperature used in the design of heat recovery steam generator, and reheat on energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been investigated. From the results obtained in graphs it is observed that the power to heat ratio increases with an increase in pinch point, but the first-law efficiency and second-law efficiency decreases with an increase in pinch point. The power to heat ratio and second-law efficiency increases significantly with increase in process steam pressure, but the first-law efficiency decreases with the same. Results also show that inclusion of reheat, provide significant improvement in electrical power output, process heat production, fuel-utilization (energetic) efficiency and second-law (exergetic) efficiency. This methodology may be quite useful in the selection and comparison of combined energy production systems from thermodynamic performance point of view

  20. Transition duct system with arcuate ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.

    2017-11-07

    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include an arcuate connecting segment (36). An arcuate ceramic liner (60) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the arcuate connecting segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  1. Numerical investigations of cooling holes system role in the protection of the walls of a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Sik Ali, Ahlem; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale D' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Bournot, Philippe [IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Marseille (France)

    2012-05-15

    Numerical simulations in a gas turbine Swirl stabilized combustor were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a cooling system in the protection of combustor walls. The studied combustion chamber has a high degree of geometrical complexity related to the injection system as well as the cooling system based on a big distribution of small holes (about 3,390 holes) bored on the flame tube walls. Two cases were considered respectively the flame tube without and with its cooling system. The calculations were carried out using the industrial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. The various simulations made it possible to highlight the role of cooling holes in the protection of the flame tube walls against the high temperatures of the combustion products. In fact, the comparison between the results of the two studied cases demonstrated that the walls temperature can be reduced by about 800 C by the mean of cooling holes technique. (orig.)

  2. Transition duct system with straight ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.

    2017-05-16

    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include a straight path segment (26) for receiving a gas flow from a respective combustor. A straight ceramic liner (40) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the straight path segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  3. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  4. Modelling the effects of heat loss and fuel/air mixing on turbulent combustion in gas turbine combustion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gövert, S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the development and validation of a simulation framework for the accurate prediction of turbulent reacting flows at reduced computational costs. Therefore, a combustion model based on the tabulation of laminar premixed flamelets is employed. By compilation of

  5. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  6. Pressure Gain Combustion for Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    downstream of a large  diesel  engine, they tested three turbine geometries the best experienced  a drop in efficiency of 10%.   A few people have  looked...Society of Mechanical Engineers Turbo Expo 1995 [3] Heffer, J., 2010, Integration of Pressure Gain Combustion with Gas Turbines, Ph.D. Thesis...investigated  an  axial  turbocharger  designed  for  use  downstream  of  a  large  diesel   engine,  they  tested  three  turbine geometries the best

  7. Staged fuel and air injection in combustion systems of gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Michael John; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2018-04-10

    A gas turbine including a working fluid flowpath extending aftward from a forward injector in a combustor. The combustor may include an inner radial wall, an outer radial wall, and, therebetween, a flow annulus, and a third radial wall formed about the outer radial wall that forms an outer flow annulus. A staged injector may intersect the flow annulus so to attain an injection point within the working fluid flowpath by which aftward and forward annulus sections are defined. Air directing structure may include an aftward intake section corresponding to the aftward annulus section and a forward intake section corresponding to the forward annulus section. The air directing structure may include a switchback coolant flowpath to direct air from the compressor discharge cavity to the staged injector. The switchback coolant flowpath may include an upstream section through the flow annulus, and a downstream section through the outer flow annulus.

  8. Staged fuel and air injection in combustion systems of gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael John; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2018-04-17

    A gas turbine that includes a working fluid flowpath extending aftward from a forward injector in a combustor. The combustor may include an inner radial wall, an outer radial wall, and, therebetween, a flow annulus. A staged injector may intersect the flow annulus so to attain an injection point within the working fluid flowpath by which aftward and forward annulus sections are defined. Air directing structure may include an aftward intake section that corresponds to the aftward annulus section and a forward intake section that corresponds to the forward annulus section. The air directing structure may be configured to: direct air entering through the aftward intake section through the aftward annulus section in a forward direction to the staged injector; and direct air entering through the forward intake section through the forward annulus section in a forward direction to the forward injector.

  9. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (FACT-vol. 23). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; and Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Moussa, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Gas turbine combustion; Advanced energy conversion; Low NOx solutions; Burner developments; Alternative fuels combustion; Advanced energy conversion technologies; Numerical modeling of combustion; Fluidized bed combustion; Coal combustion; Combustion research; Gasification systems; Mercury emissions; Highly preheated air combustion; Selective catalytic reduction; Special topics in combustion research; Gas turbines and advanced energy; and How can the nuclear industry become more efficient? Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  10. Turbulent combustion modeling using Flamelet-Generated Manifolds for Gas Turbine applications in OpenFOAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fancello, A.; Panek, L.; Lammel, O.; Krebs, W.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous interest in reducing pollutions and developing both an efficient and clean combustion system require large attention in the design requirements, especially when related to industrial gas turbine application. Although in recent years the advancements in modelling have increased

  11. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1998. Hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine (development of major components such as turbine blades and rotors); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present research and development is intended to establish the fundamental technologies required to develop a pilot plant, by investigating development of such major component devices as turbine blades and rotors in a hydrogen combustion turbine. In the turbine moving and stator blade cooling technology, it is intended to achieve the power plant efficiency of 60% (based on HHV) as established in the interim evaluation performed in fiscal 1996. Therefore, the necessary element tests, detailed blade design, and partial fabrication were moved forward on the three kinds of the selected blade cooling systems as the cooling systems that can deal with the steam temperature condition as high as 1,700 degrees C. Fiscal 1998 will execute the design and fabrication of test blades and testing devices for blade cooling evaluation tests to be performed at Tashiro Township in Akita Prefecture. At the same time, evaluation and selection will be made on the three kinds of the cooling blades. In the rotor cooling technology, for the purpose of analyzing the rolling-in phenomenon of steam in the main turbine flow, a method will be developed to analyze rotor disk cavity temperatures based on CFD, the basic sealing conditions based thereon will be discussed, and generalization will be made on the rotor cooling technology. (NEDO)

  12. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  13. Utilization and mitigation of VAM/CMM emissions by a catalytic combustion gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Yoshino, Y.; Kashihara, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Kajita, S.

    2013-07-01

    A system configured with a catalytic combustion gas turbine generator unit is introduced. The system has been developed using technologies produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., such as small gas turbines, recuperators and catalytic combustors, and catalytic oxidation units which use exhaust heat from gas turbines. The system combusts (oxidizes) ventilation air methane (less than 1% concentration) and low concentration coal mine methane (30% concentration or less) discharged as waste from coal mines. Thus, it cannot only reduce the consumption of high- quality fuel for power generation, but also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors

    CERN Document Server

    Janicka, Johannes; Schäfer, Michael; Heeger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    With regard to both the environmental sustainability and operating efficiency demands, modern combustion research has to face two main objectives, the optimization of combustion efficiency and the reduction of pollutants. This book reports on the combustion research activities carried out within the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 568 “Flow and Combustion in Future Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). This aimed at designing a completely integrated modeling and numerical simulation of the occurring very complex, coupled and interacting physico-chemical processes, such as turbulent heat and mass transport, single or multi-phase flows phenomena, chemical reactions/combustion and radiation, able to support the development of advanced gas turbine chamber concepts.

  15. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  16. Combustion heating value gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G [CTDD, British Coal Corporation, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Cannon, M [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced coal and/or biomass based power generation systems offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component for many of these advanced power generation cycles is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at turbine inlet temperatures of typically 1 100 - 1 260 deg C and with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key issue. A phased combustor development programme is under-way burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6 - 4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first and second phases of the combustor development programme have been completed. The first phase used a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor based on conventional design principles. Combustor performance for this first prototype combustor was encouraging. The second phase assessed five design variants of the prototype combustor, each variant achieving a progressive improvement in combustor performance. The operating conditions for this assessment were selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine operating as part of an Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The test conditions assessed therefore included the capability to operate the combustor using natural gas as a supplementary fuel, to suit one possible start-up procedure for the cycle. The paper presents a brief overview of the ABGC development initiative and discusses the general requirements for a gas turbine operating within such a cycle. In addition, it presents full combustor performance results for the second phase of turbine combustor development and discusses the rationale for the progressive design modifications made within that programme. The strategy for the further development of the combustor to burn low calorific value fuel gas with very low conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} is presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  17. Combustion heating value gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G. [CTDD, British Coal Corporation, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Cannon, M. [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Advanced coal and/or biomass based power generation systems offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component for many of these advanced power generation cycles is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at turbine inlet temperatures of typically 1 100 - 1 260 deg C and with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key issue. A phased combustor development programme is under-way burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6 - 4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first and second phases of the combustor development programme have been completed. The first phase used a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor based on conventional design principles. Combustor performance for this first prototype combustor was encouraging. The second phase assessed five design variants of the prototype combustor, each variant achieving a progressive improvement in combustor performance. The operating conditions for this assessment were selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine operating as part of an Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The test conditions assessed therefore included the capability to operate the combustor using natural gas as a supplementary fuel, to suit one possible start-up procedure for the cycle. The paper presents a brief overview of the ABGC development initiative and discusses the general requirements for a gas turbine operating within such a cycle. In addition, it presents full combustor performance results for the second phase of turbine combustor development and discusses the rationale for the progressive design modifications made within that programme. The strategy for the further development of the combustor to burn low calorific value fuel gas with very low conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} is presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  18. Thermodynamic characteristics of a low concentration methane catalytic combustion gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Juan; Su, Shi; Yu, Xin Xiang; Weng, Yiwu

    2010-01-01

    Low concentration methane, emitted from coal mines, landfill, animal waste, etc. into the atmosphere, is not only a greenhouse gas, but also a waste energy source if not utilised. Methane is 23 times more potent than CO 2 in terms of trapping heat in the atmosphere over a timeframe of 100 years. This paper studies a novel lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine, which can be powered with about 1% methane (volume) in air. When this technology is successfully developed, it can be used not only to mitigate the methane for greenhouse gas reduction, but also to utilise such methane as a clean energy source. This paper presents our study results on the thermodynamic characteristics of this new lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine system by conducting thermal performance analysis of the turbine cycle. The thermodynamic data including thermal efficiencies and exergy loss of main components of the turbine system are presented under different pressure ratios, turbine inlet temperatures and methane concentrations.

  19. The generation of electricity by gas turbines using the catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, O.P.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    1989-01-01

    Various systems for the generation of electricity by gas turbines using catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases have been investigated. Parametric studies of three configurations that are deemed to be practically feasible have been completed. It is shown that thermodynamic efficiency of these systems...... may be quite high. The system design has been made to comply with generally accepted limitations on the operation of the compressors, turbines and heat exchangers. The heat catalyst has been investigated experimentally in order to establish design information. The system design has been carried out...... on the basis of these experiments and of commonly accepted limits on the operation of the compressors, turbines, and heat exchangers...

  20. Gas turbines with complete continuous combustion of the fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C

    1976-10-21

    The invention concerns a gas turbine plant with complete continuous combustion of the fuel. The fuel is taken to a gas generator in which the preheated fuel is catalytically converted at high temperature in a fuel mixture using an oxygen carrier. Heating of the fuel takes place in a heat exchanger which is situated in the outlet pipe of the turbine. The efficiency is increased and the emission of noxious gas is kept as low as possible using the heat exchanger as a fuel evaporator and by using part of the waste formed in the combustion chamber to carry oxygen to the gas generator via an outlet pipe.

  1. Turbine Burners: Turbulent Combustion of Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sirignano, William A; Liu, Feng; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The proposed theoretical/computational and experimental study addresses the vital two-way coupling between combustion processes and fluid dynamic phenomena associated with schemes for burning liquid...

  2. Flashback mechanisms in lean premixed gas turbine combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Benim, Ali Cemal

    2014-01-01

    Blending fuels with hydrogen offers the potential to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions in gas turbines, but doing so introduces potential new problems such as flashback.  Flashback can lead to thermal overload and destruction of hardware in the turbine engine, with potentially expensive consequences. The little research on flashback that is available is fragmented. Flashback Mechanisms in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustion by Ali Cemal Benim will address not only the overall issue of the flashback phenomenon, but also the issue of fragmented and incomplete research.Presents a coherent review of f

  3. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  4. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of the main component devices such as turbine blades and rotors); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the result of the fiscal 1996 development relating to hydrogen combustion turbines, as one of the hydrogen utilization technologies, which have excellent environmentality and are expected of remarkably high efficiency. In the film cooling system of first-stage moving/stationary blades, the smaller the pitch of film pore is, the higher the mean cooling efficiency becomes, indicating 0.7 at maximum. As compared with the conventional shower head type, the metal temperature can be reduced 30-40degC. In the recovery type inner (convection) cooling system, by reducing the blade number, the consumption amount of coolant can be reduced 6% in stationary blade and 13% in moving blade, as compared with the result of the preceding year. In the element test of the hybrid cooling system, film cooling efficiency was actually measured by the porous module test equipment, and the result well agreed with the calculation result. In the water cooling system, studied were water (stationary blade) and vapor (moving blade) of the closed cooling structure for realization of a cycle efficiency of 60%. In rotor/disk cooling, analyses were made of seal characteristic grasp tests and characteristics of the rotor. The effect of deflection in the mainstream was small. Besides, proper value of the seal overlapping amount could be obtained. 6 refs., 368 figs., 55 tabs.

  5. Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle Reliability, Availability & Maintainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2005-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established Operation and Maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that, in real time, interpret data to assess the 'total health' of combustion turbines. The 'Combustion Turbine Health Management System' (CTHMS) will consist of a series of 'Dynamic Link Library' (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. CTHMS interprets sensor and instrument outputs, correlates them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, the CTHMS enables real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical component remaining useful life and turbine degradation.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  7. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an internal combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  8. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an international combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  9. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of combustion control technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1996 developmental results of hydrogen burning turbine combustion technology in the hydrogen utilization international clean energy system (WE-NET) project. A test was conducted on an annular type combustor where oxygen is mixed with steam (inert gas) at burner and fired with hydrogen. Appropriate flame shape and cooling/dilution vapor distribution were attempted, and various data on combustion were measured for improvement. Mixture and flame holding were improved by developing a can type combustor (1) where oxygen is diluted with steam after firing oxygen and hydrogen around burner and by strengthening circulation in the combustor. Improvement such as appropriate steam distribution, etc. is needed. A can type combustor (2) was tested in which the premixed oxygen and hydrogen is supplied from scoop and fired with hydrogen. By supplying part of oxygen from the primary scoop, the residual hydrogen and oxygen concentration around the stoichiometric ratio can be reduced. Concentration of the residual oxygen can be measured by the absorption light method, but it is difficult to adopt the non-contact measuring method to hydrogen. An outlook for the gas temperature measuring method was obtained. 12 refs., 121 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Experimental study of biogas combustion using a gas turbine configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafay, Y.; Taupin, B.; Martins, G.; Cabot, G.; Renou, B.; Boukhalfa, A. [CNRS UMR 6614, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of the present work is to compare stability combustion domains, flame structures and dynamics between CH{sub 4}/air flames and a biogas/air flames (issued from waste methanisation) in a lean gas turbine premixed combustion conditions. Velocity profiles are obtained by Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements. CH* chemiluminescence measurements and temporal acquisition of chamber pressure are performed in order to describe flame structure and instabilities. Changes in flame structure and dynamics when fuel composition is varying are found to strongly depend on laminar flame speed. No clear correlation between the unstable flame and the reaction zone penetration in the corner recirculation can be found. (orig.)

  11. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO 2 ; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  12. Combustion and Fuels in Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    English and French) AGARD Advisory Report 150. Results of WG 09 (February 1980) Through Flow Calculations in Axial Turbomachines AGARD Advisory Report 175...Averaging Techniques in Non-Uniform Internal Flows AGARD Advisory Report 182 (in English and French). Results of WG 14 (June/August 1983) Producibility...A linear regression was used to develop an expression for the change in combustion efficiency relatice to Aoa. 1 an O4 a 0.t T, 0.0274 aTar f:a

  13. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  14. Gas turbine structural mounting arrangement between combustion gas duct annular chamber and turbine vane carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.; Charron, Richard C.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2016-10-18

    A gas turbine engine ducting arrangement (10), including: an annular chamber (14) configured to receive a plurality of discrete flows of combustion gases originating in respective can combustors and to deliver the discrete flows to a turbine inlet annulus, wherein the annular chamber includes an inner diameter (52) and an outer diameter (60); an outer diameter mounting arrangement (34) configured to permit relative radial movement and to prevent relative axial and circumferential movement between the outer diameter and a turbine vane carrier (20); and an inner diameter mounting arrangement (36) including a bracket (64) secured to the turbine vane carrier, wherein the bracket is configured to permit the inner diameter to move radially with the outer diameter and prevent axial deflection of the inner diameter with respect to the outer diameter.

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Nitrogen Oxide Emission Limits for New Stationary Combustion Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stationary Combustion Turbines 1 Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Pt. 60, Subpt. KKKK, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60—Nitrogen Oxide Emission Limits for New Stationary Combustion Turbines Combustion...

  16. Integrated turbine bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Dickenson, R.J.; Parry, W.T.; Retzlaff, K.M.

    1982-07-01

    Turbine steam-flow bypasses have been used for years in various sizes and applications. Because of differing system requirements, their use has been more predominant in Europe than in the United States. Recently, some utilities and consulting engineers have been re-evaluating their need for various types of bypass operation in fossil-fuelled power plants.

  17. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  18. Review of light water reactor regulatory requirements: Assessment of selected regulatory requirements that may have marginal importance to risk: Postaccident sampling system, Turbine missiles, Combustible gas control, Charcoal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.B.; Jamison, J.D.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Vo, T.V.

    1987-05-01

    In a study commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the costs and benefits of modifying regulatory requirements in the areas of the postaccident sampling system, turbine rotor design reviews and inspections, combustible gas control for inerted Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containments, and impregnated charcoal filters in certain plant ventilation systems. The basic framework for the analyses was that presented in the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines (NUREG/BR-0058) and in the Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment (NUREG/CR-3568). The effects of selected modifications to regulations were evaluated in terms of such factors as public risk and costs to industry and NRC. The results indicate that potential modifications of the regulatory requirements in three of the four areas would have little impact on public risk. In the fourth area, impregnated charcoal filters in building ventilation systems do appear to limit risks to the public and plant staff. Revisions in the severe accident source term assumptions, however, may reduce the theoretical value of charcoal filters. The cost analysis indicated that substantial savings in operating costs may be realized by changing the interval of turbine rotor inspections. Small to moderate operating cost savings may be realized through postulated modifications to the postaccident sampling system requirements and to the requirements for combustible gas control in inerted BWR containments. Finally, the use of impregnated charcoal filters in ventilation systems appears to be the most cost-effective method of reducing radioiodine concentrations

  19. A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of a test combustor suitable for studying combustion oscillations caused by a commercial-scale gas turbine fuel nozzle. Aside from the need to be conducted at elevated pressures and temperatures, it is desirable for the experimental device to be flexible in its geometry so as to provide an acoustic environment representative of the commercial device. The combustor design, capabilities, and relevant instrumentation for such a device are presented, along with initial operating experience and preliminary data that suggests the importance of nozzle reference velocity and air temperature.

  20. Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandsburger, U.; Desu, S.B. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Roe, L.A.

    1995-10-01

    During the second half of fiscal year 1995 progress was made in all three funded subject areas of the project as well as in a new area. Work in the area of mixing and combustion management through flow actuation was transferred into an enclosed facility. Jet mixing in a ducted co-flow was examined. The same jets were also subjected to a strong acoustic field established in the duct. Excitation of the jet with static spatial modes was shown to be effective even in the presence of co-flow and the acoustic field. Only when a wall is placed at the jet exit plane did the acoustic field dominate the jet dispersion (as expected due to reflective boundary conditions and the jet shear layer receptivity). This case is, however, not the most relevant to gas turbine combustors since it precludes co-flow. In the area of combustor testing, the design, fabrication, and assembly of a modular combustor test rig for project has been completed at the University of Arkansas. In the area of high temperature piezoceramic actuator materials development, Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} powders have been synthesized, and bulk samples and thick films sintered. These materials have a curie temperature of about 1400{degrees}C compared with 300{degrees}C for the commercially available PZT. While at room temperature the new materials show a piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) which is a factor of 100 lower than PZT, at high temperatures they can exhibit significant action. A new area of non-linear, neural-net based, controllers for mixing and combustion control has been added during the second contract year. This work is not funded by the contract. Significant progress was made in this area. Neural nets with up to 15 neurons in the hidden layer were trained with experimental data and also with data generated using linear stability theory. System ID was performed successfully. The network was then used to predict the behavior of jets excited at other modes not used for the training.

  1. Apparatus and method for temperature mapping a turbine component in a high temperature combustion environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleine, Erwan; Sheldon, Danny M

    2014-06-10

    Method and system for calibrating a thermal radiance map of a turbine component in a combustion environment. At least one spot (18) of material is disposed on a surface of the component. An infrared (IR) imager (14) is arranged so that the spot is within a field of view of the imager to acquire imaging data of the spot. A processor (30) is configured to process the imaging data to generate a sequence of images as a temperature of the combustion environment is increased. A monitor (42, 44) may be coupled to the processor to monitor the sequence of images of to determine an occurrence of a physical change of the spot as the temperature is increased. A calibration module (46) may be configured to assign a first temperature value to the surface of the turbine component when the occurrence of the physical change of the spot is determined.

  2. Low-Emission combustion of fuel in aeroderivative gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is the first of a planned set of papers devoted to the world experience in development of Low Emission combustors (LEC) for industrial Gas Turbines (GT). The purpose of the article is to summarize and analyze the most successful experience of introducing the principles of low-emission combustion of the so-called "poor" (low fuel concentration in air when the excess air ratio is about 1.9-2.1) well mixed fuelair mixtures in the LEC for GTs and ways to reduce the instability of combustion. The consideration examples are the most successful and widely used aero-derivative GT. The GT development meets problems related to the difference in requirements and operation conditions between the aero, industrial, and power production GT. One of the main problems to be solved is the LEC development to mitigate emissions of the harmful products first of all the Nitrogen oxides NOx. The ways to modify or convert the initial combustors to the LEC are shown. This development may follow location of multiburner mixers within the initial axial envelope dimensions or conversion of circular combustor to the can type one. The most interesting are Natural Gas firing GT without water injection into the operating process or Dry Low emission (DLE) combustors. The current GT efficiency requirement may be satisfied at compressor exit pressure above 3 MPa and Turbine Entry temperature (TET) above 1500°C. The paper describes LEC examples based on the concept of preliminary prepared air-fuel mixtures' combustion. Each combustor employs its own fuel supply control concept based on the fuel flow-power output relation. In the case of multiburner combustors, the burners are started subsequently under a specific scheme. The can type combustors have combustion zones gradually ignited following the GT power change. The combustion noise problem experienced in lean mixtures' combustion is also considered, and the problem solutions are described. The GT test results show wide ranges of stable

  3. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of the...

  4. Influence of moist combustion gas on performance of a sub-critical turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenbin; Su Ming

    2005-01-01

    In the HAT cycle, as the absolute humidity of the moist combustion gas increases, the performance of the turbine will also change. In this paper, one model to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the moist combustion gas is introduced, and another model to calculate the performance of the turbine is formulated based on the equations of one dimensional flow. Using these models with the geometric parameters of the turbine fixed, at the design working condition, the performance of the turbine is calculated and analyzed for different absolute humidities. Finally, some conclusions about the turbine performance are presented

  5. Chemical Kinetics in Support of Syngas Turbine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, Frederick

    2007-07-31

    This document is the final report on an overall program formulated to extend our prior work in developing and validating kinetic models for the CO/hydrogen/oxygen reaction by carefully analyzing the individual and interactive behavior of specific elementary and subsets of elementary reactions at conditions of interest to syngas combustion in gas turbines. A summary of the tasks performed under this work are: 1. Determine experimentally the third body efficiencies in H+O{sub 2}+M = HO{sub 2}+M (R1) for CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. 2. Using published literature data and the results in this program, further develop the present H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent and CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mechanisms for dilution with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} through comparisons with new experimental validation targets for H{sub 2}-CO-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} reaction kinetics in the presence of significant diluent fractions of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}O, at high pressures. (task amplified to especially address ignition delay issues, see below). 3. Analyze and demonstrate issues related to NOx interactions with syngas combustion chemistry (task amplified to include interactions of iron pentacarbonyl with syngas combustion chemistry, see below). 4. Publish results, including updated syngas kinetic model. Results are summarized in this document and its appendices. Three archival papers which contain a majority of the research results have appeared. Those results not published elsewhere are highlighted here, and will appear as part of future publications. Portions of the work appearing in the above publications were also supported in part by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER-13503. As a result of and during the research under the present contract, we became aware of other reported results that revealed substantial differences between experimental characterizations of ignition delays for syngas mixtures and ignition delay predictions based upon homogenous kinetic modeling. We

  6. Impact of CO_2-enriched combustion air on micro-gas turbine performance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, Thom; Finney, Karen N.; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Power generation is one of the largest anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission sources; although it is now reducing in carbon intensity due to switching from coal to gas, this is only part of a bridging solution that will require the utilization of carbon capture technologies. Gas turbines, such as those at the UK Carbon Capture Storage Research Centre's Pilot-scale Advanced CO_2 Capture Technology (UKCCSRC PACT) National Core Facility, have high exhaust gas mass flow rates with relatively low CO_2 concentrations; therefore solvent-based post-combustion capture is energy intensive. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can increase CO_2 levels, reducing the capture energy penalty. The aim of this paper is to simulate EGR through enrichment of the combustion air with CO_2 to assess changes to turbine performance and potential impacts on complete generation and capture systems. The oxidising air was enhanced with CO_2, up to 6.29%vol dry, impacting mechanical performance, reducing both engine speed by over 400 revolutions per minute and compression temperatures. Furthermore, it affected complete combustion, seen in changes to CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. This impacted on turbine efficiency, which increased specific fuel consumption (by 2.9%). CO_2 enhancement could therefore result in significant efficiency gains for the capture plant. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on GT performance. • Combustion air was enhanced with CO_2 to simulate EGR. • EGR impact was ascertained by CO and unburned hydrocarbon changes. • Primary factor influencing performance was found to be oxidiser temperature. • Impact of CO_2 enhancement on post-combustion capture efficiency.

  7. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone's lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector

  8. Fluidised bed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems that facilitates the maintenance of the depth of the bed are described. A discharge pipe projects upwardly into the bed so that bed material can flow into its upper end and escape downwardly. The end of the pipe is surrounded by an enclosure and air is discharged into the enclosure so that material will enter the pipe from within the enclosure and have been cooled in the enclosure by the air discharged into it. The walls of the enclosure may themselves be cooled

  9. Accuracy improvement of the modified EDM model for non-premixed turbulent combustion in gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight bluff body and swirl turbulent diffusion flames resembling the flow field and combustion inside gas turbine combustors are simulated and the simulation results are compared with experimental data. It is revealed that the original modified EDM model could not predict the temperature profile accurately. A more accurate model is developed and validated for gas turbine combustion application. However, this model under predicts the flame temperature for the regular round jet flames indicating that no universal form of the modified EDM model could be achieved for the combustion simulation of both gas furnaces and gas turbines.

  10. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 8 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen combustion turbines/development of combustion control technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET) subtask 8 suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu nensho seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the development of hydrogen combustion turbines, the paper described the fiscal 1997 results. As a hydrogen/oxygen combustor, the annular combustor was studied. Based on the results obtained by the last fiscal year, a combustor for the evaluation test was designed/fabricated. Oxygen is mixed with vapor at the portion of the burner, rotated/jetted (flame held by the circulation flow generated) and made to burn with hydrogen (porous injection). The smooth ignition and equilibrium wall temperature distribution were made possible. Concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were both less than 1%. Further, can type combustor I is a type in which hydrogen and oxygen are burned near the burner and then are diluted by vapor. Improved of the burner structure and diluted vapor hole, it was tested. In can type combustor II, a mixture of oxygen and vapor is supplied and burned with hydrogen. The appropriate supply of oxygen was 20% distribution to the primary scoop and 80% to secondary. In both combustors, smooth ignition was possible, and concentrations of the residual hydrogen/oxygen in the stoichiometric mixture ratio combustion were controlled at minimum (approximately 1%). The evaluation method for the optimum hydrogen/oxygen combustor was studied. 142 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 8. Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbines (evaluation of the optimum system); Suiso riyo kokusai energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu (saiteki system no hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Based on the proposed cycle of each contractor, conceptual design of 500 MW class hydrogen combustion turbine power generation plant has been completed through its economic examination. The optimum system has been evaluated on the basis of the conceptual design. For the conceptual design of power generation plant, the gross power generation efficiencies based on HHV of topping regenerating cycle and new Rankine cycle proved to be 61.8% and 61.7%, respectively, which exceed the target efficiency 60%. Economic consideration proved that the construction cost of each cycle will be as the same as that of the current combined cycle power generation plant. The development problem, development step and development cost have become clear. Examination on the reliability proved that the operation reliability of each cycle will be as the same as that of the current combined cycle power generation plant. Examination on the plant layout proved that the conservation of space for each system will be smaller than that of current combined cycle power generation plant. Environmental examination confirmed that each system is very clean power generation system. For the evaluation proposed by each company, the total points of each system became in the order, topping regeneration cycle, new Rankine cycle, and Rankine cycle with reheat and recuperation. 112 figs., 44 tabs.

  12. Stationary Combustion Turbines: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for stationary combustion turbines by reading the rule history, the rule summary, additional resources, docket folder documents, the economic impact analysis, fact sheet and more

  13. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  14. ADVANCED MONITORING TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION TURBINE/COMBINED CYCLE CT/(CC) RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY (RAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Angello

    2003-09-30

    Power generators are concerned with the maintenance costs associated with the advanced turbines that they are purchasing. Since these machines do not have fully established operation and maintenance (O&M) track records, power generators face financial risk due to uncertain future maintenance costs. This risk is of particular concern, as the electricity industry transitions to a competitive business environment in which unexpected O&M costs cannot be passed through to consumers. These concerns have accelerated the need for intelligent software-based diagnostic systems that can monitor the health of a combustion turbine in real time and provide valuable information on the machine's performance to its owner/operators. Such systems would interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to the machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, forward projections of servicing intervals, estimate remaining component life, and identify faults. EPRI, Impact Technologies, Boyce Engineering, and Progress Energy have teamed to develop a suite of intelligent software tools integrated with a diagnostic monitoring platform that will, in real time, interpret data to assess the ''total health'' of combustion turbines. The Combustion Turbine Health Management System (CTHM) will consist of a series of dynamic link library (DLL) programs residing on a diagnostic monitoring platform that accepts turbine health data from existing monitoring instrumentation. The CTHM system will be a significant improvement over currently available techniques for turbine monitoring and diagnostics. CTHM will interpret sensor and instrument outputs, correlate them to a machine's condition, provide interpretative analyses, project servicing intervals, and estimate remaining component life. In addition, it will enable real-time anomaly detection and diagnostics of performance and mechanical faults, enabling power producers to more accurately predict critical

  15. Robust, Reliable Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustion of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret Stacy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Im, Hong Geum [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The effects of high hydrogen content fuels were studied using experimental, computational and theoretical approaches to understand the effects of mixture and state conditions on the ignition behavior of the fuels. A rapid compression facility (RCF) was used to measure the ignition delay time of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures. The data were combined with results of previous studies to develop ignition regime criteria. Analytical theory and direct numerical simulation were used to validate and interpret the RCF ignition data. Based on the integrated information the ignition regime criteria were extended to non-dimensional metrics which enable application of the results to practical gas turbine combustion systems.

  16. Effect of Simulated High Hydrogen Content Combustion Environments on Abradable Properties of Ceramic Turbine Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Majumder, Madhura

    Air plasma sprayed (APS) abradable coatings are used in the turbine hot section to reduce the stator-rotor gap, minimizing gas leakage. These coatings are designed to exhibit controlled removal of material in thin layers when the turbine blades sweep through the coating, which protects the mechanical integrity of the turbine blade. In an effort to lower CO2 emissions, high H2 content fuel is being explored. This change in chemical composition of the fuel may affect the microstructure, abradability and durability of the coatings at turbine operational temperatures. The presence of high water vapor in the combustion chamber leads to accelerated degradation of the sacrificial coating materials. In this work, zirconia based composite materials with a machinable phase and varied porosity have been used to study microstructural evolution, thermal and chemical stability of the phases and abradable characteristics of baseline coating systems in both humid and dry environments. Investigation of the mechanisms that control the removal of materials and performance of abradable coatings through thermo-mechanical tests will be discussed.

  17. Gas fired advanced turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecren, R. T.; White, D. J.

    The basic concept thus derived from the Ericsson cycle is an intercooled, recuperated, and reheated gas turbine. Theoretical performance analyses, however, showed that reheat at high turbine rotor inlet temperatures (TRIT) did not provide significant efficiency gains and that the 50 percent efficiency goal could be met without reheat. Based upon these findings, the engine concept adopted as a starting point for the gas-fired advanced turbine system is an intercooled, recuperated (ICR) gas turbine. It was found that, at inlet temperatures greater than 2450 F, the thermal efficiency could be maintained above 50%, provided that the turbine cooling flows could be reduced to 7% of the main air flow or lower. This dual and conflicting requirement of increased temperatures and reduced cooling will probably force the abandonment of traditional air cooled turbine parts. Thus, the use of either ceramic materials or non-air cooling fluids has to be considered for the turbine nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades. The use of ceramic components for the proposed engine system is generally preferred because of the potential growth to higher temperatures that is available with such materials.

  18. A test device for premixed gas turbine combustion oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Yip, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report discusses design and operation of a single-nozzle test combustor for studying lean, premixed combustion oscillations from gas turbine fuel nozzles. It was used to study oscillations from a prototype fuel nozzle that produced oscillations during testing in a commercial engine. Similar, but not identical, oscillations were recorded in the test device. Basic requirements of the device design were that the flame geometry be maintained and acoustic losses be minimized; this was achieved by using a Helmholtz resonator as the combustor geometry. Surprisingly, the combustor oscillated strongly at several frequencies, without modification of the resonator. Brief survey of operating conditions suggests that it may be helpful to characterize oscillating behavior in terms of reference velocity and inlet air temperature with the rig backpressure playing a smaller role. The preliminary results do not guarantee that the single-nozzle test device will reproduce arbitrary oscillations that occur on a complete engine test. Nozzle/nozzle interactions may complicate the response, and oscillations controlled by acoustic velocities transverse to the nozzle axis may not be reproduced in a test device that relies on a bulk Helmholtz mode. Nevertheless, some oscillations can be reproduced, and the single-nozzle test device allows both active and passive control strategies to be tested relatively inexpensively.

  19. Lean-rich axial stage combustion in a can-annular gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R.; Szedlacsek, Peter

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus and method for lean/rich combustion in a gas turbine engine (10), which includes a combustor (12), a transition (14) and a combustor extender (16) that is positioned between the combustor (12) and the transition (14) to connect the combustor (12) to the transition (14). Openings (18) are formed along an outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16). The gas turbine (10) also includes a fuel manifold (28) to extend along the outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16), with fuel nozzles (30) to align with the respective openings (18). A method (200) for axial stage combustion in the gas turbine engine (10) is also presented.

  20. Concept for premixed combustion of hydrogen-containing fuels in gas turbines; Konzept zur vorgemischten Verbrennung wasserstoffhaltiger Brennstoffe in Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Christoph

    2012-07-19

    One of the main challenges for future gas turbines and their combustion systems is to provide fuel flexibility. The fuel range is expected to reach from the lowly reactive natural gas to highly reactive hydrogen-containing syngases. The objective of the project in which this work was pursued is to develop such a combustion system. The burner has to ensure premixed operation with an aerodynamically stabilized flame. The focus of this work is on characterizing and optimizing the operational safety of the system, but also on ensuring sufficientmixing and lowemissions. A burner and fuel injection design is achieved that leads not only to emissions far below the permissible values, but also to flashback safety for hydrogen combustion that comes close to the theoretically achievable maximum at atmospheric pressure conditions. In this design flashback due to combustion-induced vortex breakdown and wall boundary layer flashback is avoided. Flashback only takes place when the flow velocity reaches the flame velocity.

  1. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  2. Characterization of Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Designs for Aviation Gas-Turbine Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Injector geometry, physical mixing, chemical processes, and engine cycle conditions together govern performance, operability and emission characteristics of aviation gas-turbine combustion systems. The present investigation explores swirl-venturi lean direct injection combustor fundamentals, characterizing the influence of key geometric injector parameters on reacting flow physics and emission production trends. In this computational study, a design space exploration was performed using a parameterized swirl-venturi lean direct injector model. From the parametric geometry, 20 three-element lean direct injection combustor sectors were produced and simulated using steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes reacting computations. Species concentrations were solved directly using a reduced 18-step reaction mechanism for Jet-A. Turbulence closure was obtained using a nonlinear ?-e model. Results demonstrate sensitivities of the geometric perturbations on axially averaged flow field responses. Output variables include axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, static temperature, fuel patternation and minor species mass fractions. Significant trends have been reduced to surrogate model approximations, intended to guide future injector design trade studies and advance aviation gas-turbine combustion research.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Combustion and Rotor-Stator Interaction in a Turbine Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos D. Isvoranu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of a numerical algorithm for the computation of flow and combustion in a turbine combustor. The flow and combustion are modeled by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the species-conservation equations. The chemistry model used herein is a two-step, global, finite-rate combustion model for methane and combustion gases. The governing equations are written in the strong conservation form and solved using a fully implicit, finite-difference approximation. The gas dynamics and chemistry equations are fully decoupled. A correction technique has been developed to enforce the conservation of mass fractions. The numerical algorithm developed herein has been used to investigate the flow and combustion in a one-stage turbine combustor.

  4. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  5. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  6. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  7. Power turbine ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  8. Improved correlations of hydrogen content versus combustion performance related properties of aviation turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Sharma, R.L.; Sagu, M.L.; Tiwari, G.B. (Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India))

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the hydrogen content of Aviation Fuels has generated considerable interest. Various investigators have suggested correlation of hydrogen content with combustion related properties of aviation turbine fuel (ATF). A suitable threshold value of hydrogen content 13.8 wt% is being considered as a waiver of specifications such as specific energy, aniline gravity product, smoke point, aromatic content, naphthalenes and luminometer number. In the present paper relationship between the hydrogen content and combustion related properties has been examined and improved correlations of hydrogen content with several combustion related properties have been developed by incorporating a characterization factor in the equations. The supporting threshold value of a hydrogen content of 13.8wt% is verified with 25 data points for waiving of combustion properties such as specific energy, aniline gravity product, smoke point and aromatic content from aviation turbine fuel. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Analysis of gas turbine systems for sustainable energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie

    2000-02-01

    Increased energy demands and fear of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases call for development of new efficient power generation systems with low or no carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, two different gas turbine power generation systems, which are designed with these issues in mind, are theoretically investigated and analyzed. In the first gas turbine system, the fuel is combusted using a metal oxide as an oxidant instead of oxygen in the air. This process is known as Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). CLC is claimed to decrease combustion exergy destruction and increase the power generation efficiency. Another advantage is the possibility to separate CO{sub 2} without a costly and energy demanding gas separation process. The system analysis presented includes computer-based simulations of CLC gas turbine systems with different metal oxides as oxygen carriers and different fuels. An exergy analysis comparing the exergy destruction of the gas turbine system with CLC and conventional combustion is also presented. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase the power generation efficiency of a simple gas turbine system by introducing CLC. A combined gas/steam turbine cycle system with CLC is, however, estimated to reach a similar efficiency as the conventional combined cycle system. If the benefit of easy and energy-efficient CO{sub 2} separation is accounted for, a CLC combined cycle system has a potential to be favorable compared to a combined cycle system with CO{sub 2} separation. In the second investigation, a solid, CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass fuel is used in a small-scale externally fired gas turbine system for cogeneration of power and district heating. Both open and closed gas turbines with different working fluids are simulated and analyzed regarding thermodynamic performance, equipment size, and economics. The results show that it is possible to reach high power generation efficiency and total (power

  10. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Harsha, P.T.

    1978-09-11

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resouces. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternate fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are to develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternate fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and to provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. Efforts this past year have been to evaluate experimental procedures for studying alternate fuel combustion effects and to determine current analytical capabilities for prediction of these effects. Jet Stirred Combustor studies during this period have produced new insights into soot formation in strongly backmixed systems and have provided much information for comparison with analytical predictions. The analytical effort included new applications of quasi-global modeling techniques as well as comparison of prediction with the experimental results generated.

  11. Reduced Order Modeling of Combustion Instability in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold-Medabalimi, Nicholas; Huang, Cheng; Duraisamy, Karthik

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel based propulsion systems are expected to remain relevant in aerospace vehicles for the foreseeable future. Design of these devices is complicated by combustion instabilities. The capability to model and predict these effects at reduced computational cost is a requirement for both design and control of these devices. This work focuses on computational studies on a dual swirl model gas turbine combustor in the context of reduced order model development. Full fidelity simulations are performed utilizing URANS and Hybrid RANS-LES with finite rate chemistry. Following this, data decomposition techniques are used to extract a reduced basis representation of the unsteady flow field. These bases are first used to identify sensor locations to guide experimental interrogations and controller feedback. Following this, initial results on developing a control-oriented reduced order model (ROM) will be presented. The capability of the ROM will be further assessed based on different operating conditions and geometric configurations.

  12. Wind turbine with lightning protection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  13. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  14. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  15. The analysis of mechanical integrity in gas turbine engines subjected to combustion instabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altunlu, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Stringent regulations have been introduced towards reducing pollutant emissions and preserving our environment. Lowering NOx emissions is one of the main targets of industrial gas turbine engines for power generation. The combustion zone temperature is one of the critical parameters, which is

  16. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM SUMMARY AND DIRECTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz

    2004-07-01

    The South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), administratively housed at Clemson University, has participated in the advancement of combustion turbine technology for over a decade. The University Turbine Systems Research Program, previously referred to as the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program, has been administered by SCIES for the U.S. DOE during the 1992-2003 timeframe. The structure of the program is based on a concept presented to the DOE by Clemson University. Under the supervision of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UTSR consortium brings together the engineering departments at leading U.S. universities and U.S. combustion turbine developers to provide a solid base of knowledge for the future generations of land-based gas turbines. In the UTSR program, an Industrial Review Board (IRB) (Appendix C) of gas turbine companies and related organizations defines needed gas turbine research. SCIES prepares yearly requests for university proposals to address the research needs identified by the IRB organizations. IRB technical representatives evaluate the university proposals and review progress reports from the awarded university projects. To accelerate technology transfer technical workshops are held to provide opportunities for university, industry and government officials to share comments and improve quality and relevancy of the research. To provide educational growth at the Universities, in addition to sponsored research, the UTSR provides faculty and student fellowships. The basis for all activities--research, technology transfer, and education--is the DOE Turbine Program Plan and identification, through UTSR consortium group processes, technology needed to meet Program Goals that can be appropriately researched at Performing Member Universities.

  17. Conjugated heat transfer and temperature distributions in a gas turbine combustion liner under base-load operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Yun, Nam Geon; Jeon, Yun Heung; Lee, Dong Hyun; Cho, Yung Hee

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of temperature distributions on hot components is important in development of a gas turbine combustion liner. The present study investigated conjugated heat transfer to obtain temperature distributions in a combustion liner with six combustion nozzles. 3D numerical simulations using FVM commercial codes, Fluent and CFX were performed to calculate combustion and heat transfer distributions. The temperature distributions in the combustor liner were calculated by conjugation of conduction and convection (heat transfer coefficients) obtained by combustion and cooling flow analysis. The wall temperature was the highest on the attachment points of the combustion gas from combustion nozzles, but the temperature gradient was high at the after shell section with low wall temperature

  18. Development of Low Price Turbine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, C.K.; Kim, J.A.; Jeong, W.J.; Choi, I.K.; Woo, J.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report is final research results of ''Development of Low Price Turbine Control System''. It describes test such as turbine startup, generator synchronization, rated load operation, simulation after manufacturing turbine control system. (author). 45 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Experimental study of slight temperature rise combustion in trapped vortex combustors for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.C.; Fan, W.J.; Xing, F.; Song, S.W.; Shi, Q.; Tian, G.H.; Tan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Interstage turbine combustion used for improving efficiency of gas turbine was a new type of combustion mode. Operating conditions and technical requirements for this type of combustor were different from those of traditional combustor. It was expected to achieve engineering application in both ground-based and aviation gas turbine in the near future. In this study, a number of modifications in a base design were applied and examined experimentally. The trapped-vortex combustion technology was adopted for flame stability under high velocity conditions, and the preheating-fuel injection technology was used to improve the atomization and evaporation performance of liquid fuel. The experimental results indicated that stable and efficient combustion with slight temperature-rise can be achieved under the high velocity conditions of combustor inlet. Under all experimental conditions, the excess air coefficients of ignition and lean blow-out were larger than 7 and 20, respectively; pollutant emission index of NO x and the maximum wall temperature were below 2.5 g/(kg fuel) and 1050 K, respectively. Moreover, the effects of fuel injection and overall configuration on the combustion characteristics were analyzed in detail. The number increase, area increase and depth increase of fuel injectors had different influences on the stability, combustion characteristic and temperature distribution. - Highlights: • The combustion mode of slight temperature-rise (200 K) was achieved. • Effect of fuel and air injection on stability characteristic was investigated. • Impact of overall configuration on combustion performance was analyzed. • The feasibility of scheme was determined.

  20. Pulse Combustor Driven Pressure Gain Combustion for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel

    2017-02-01

    The gas turbine engine is an essential component of the global energy infrastructure which accounts for a significant portion of the total fossil fuel consumption in transportation and electric power generation sectors. For this reason there is significant interest in further increasing the efficiency and reducing the pollutant emissions of these devices. Conventional approaches to this goal, which include increasing the compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and turbine/compressor efficiency, have brought modern gas turbine engines near the limits of what may be achieved with the conventionally applied Brayton cycle. If a significant future step increase in gas turbine efficiency is to be realized some deviation from this convention is necessary. The pressure gain gas turbine concept is a well established new combustion technology that promises to provide a dramatic increase in gas turbine efficiency by replacing the isobaric heat addition process found in conventional technology with an isochoric process. The thermodynamic benefit of even a small increase in stagnation pressure across a gas turbine combustor translates to a significant increase in cycle efficiency. To date there have been a variety of methods proposed for achieving stagnation pressure gains across a gas turbine combustor and these concepts have seen a broad spectrum of levels of success. The following chapter provides an introduction to one of the proposed pressure gain methods that may be most easily realized in a practical application. This approach, known as pulse combustor driven pressure gain combustion, utilizes an acoustically resonant pulse combustor to approximate isochoric heat release and thus produce a rise in stagnation pressure.

  1. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of an industrial gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Thiago Koichi; Fontes, Carlo Eduardo; Ropelato, Karolline [Engineering Simulation and Scientic Software Ltda. (ESSS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: anzai, carlos.fontes, ropelato@esss.com.br; Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Huapaya, Luis Enrique Alva [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: luisfer.luisalva@esp.puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    The accurate determination of pollutant emission from gas turbine combustors is a crucial problem in situations when such equipment is subject to long periods of operation away from the design point. In such operating conditions, the flow field structure may also drastically differ from the design point one, leading to the presence of undesirable hot spots or combustion instabilities, for instance. A priori experiments on all possible operation conditions is economically unfeasible, therefore, models that allow for the prediction of combustion behavior in the full operation range could be used to instruct power plant operators on the best strategies to be adopted. Since the direct numerical simulation of industrial combustors is beyond reach of the foreseeable computational resources, simplified models should be used for such purpose. This works presents the results of the application to an industrial gas turbine combustion chamber of the CFD technique to the prediction of the reactive flow field. This is the first step on the coupling of reactive CFD results with detailed chemical kinetics modeling using chemical reactor networks, toward the goal of accurately predicting pollutant emissions. The CFD model considers the detailed geometrical information of such a combustion chamber and uses actual operating conditions, calibrated via an overall gas turbine thermodynamical simulation, as boundary conditions. This model retains the basic information on combustion staging, which occurs both in diffusion and lean premixed modes. The turbulence has been modeled using the SST-CC model, which is characterized by a well established regime of accurate predictive capability. Combustion and turbulence interaction is accounted for by using the Zimont et al. model, which makes use of on empirical expression for the turbulent combustion velocity for the closure of the progress variable transport equation. A high resolution scheme is used to solve the advection terms of the

  2. LED-induced fluorescence diagnostics for turbine and combustion engine thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence from phosphor coatings is the basis of an established technique for measuring temperature in a wide variety of turbine and combustion engine applications. Example surfaces include blades, vanes, combustors, intake valves, pistons, and rotors. Many situations that are remote and noncontact require the high intensity of a laser to illuminate the phosphor, especially if the surface is moving. Thermometric resolutions of 0.1 C are obtainable, and some laboratory versions of these systems have been calibrated against NIST standards to even higher precision. To improve the measurement signal-to-noise ratio, synchronous detection timing has been used to repeatedly interrogate the same blade in a high speed rotating turbine. High spatial resolution can be obtained by tightly focusing the interrogation beam in measurements of static surfaces, and by precise differential timing of the laser pulses on rotating surfaces. We report here the use of blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a n illumination source for producing useable fluorescence from phosphors for temperature measurements. An LED can excite most of the same phosphors used to cover the temperature range from 8 to 1400 C. The advantages of using LEDs are obvious in terms of size, power requirements, space requirements and cost. There can also be advantages associated with very long operating lifetimes, wide range of available colors, and their broader emission bandwidths as compared to laser diodes. Temperature may be inferred either from phase or time-decay determinations

  3. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  4. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  5. Status of Westinghouse coal-fueled combustion turbine programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalzo, A.J.; Amos, D.J.; Bannister, R.L.; Garland, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Developing clean, efficient, cost effective coal utilization technologies for future power generation is an essential part of our National Energy Strategy. Westinghouse is actively developing power plants utilizing advanced gasification, atmospheric fluidized beds (AFB), pressurized fluidized beds (PFB), and direct firing technology through programs sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE). The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is sponsoring the Direct Coal-Fired Turbine program. This paper presents the status of current and potential Westinghouse Power Generation Business Unit advanced coal-fueled power generation programs as well as commercial plans

  6. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

    2012-11-13

    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  7. Magnus air turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  8. Stochastic modelling of turbulent combustion for design optimization of gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna Ismail, Mohammed Ali

    The present work covers the development and the implementation of an efficient algorithm for the design optimization of gas turbine combustors. The purpose is to explore the possibilities and indicate constructive suggestions for optimization techniques as alternative methods for designing gas turbine combustors. The algorithm is general to the extent that no constraints are imposed on the combustion phenomena or on the combustor configuration. The optimization problem is broken down into two elementary problems: the first is the optimum search algorithm, and the second is the turbulent combustion model used to determine the combustor performance parameters. These performance parameters constitute the objective and physical constraints in the optimization problem formulation. The examination of both turbulent combustion phenomena and the gas turbine design process suggests that the turbulent combustion model represents a crucial part of the optimization algorithm. The basic requirements needed for a turbulent combustion model to be successfully used in a practical optimization algorithm are discussed. In principle, the combustion model should comply with the conflicting requirements of high fidelity, robustness and computational efficiency. To that end, the problem of turbulent combustion is discussed and the current state of the art of turbulent combustion modelling is reviewed. According to this review, turbulent combustion models based on the composition PDF transport equation are found to be good candidates for application in the present context. However, these models are computationally expensive. To overcome this difficulty, two different models based on the composition PDF transport equation were developed: an improved Lagrangian Monte Carlo composition PDF algorithm and the generalized stochastic reactor model. Improvements in the Lagrangian Monte Carlo composition PDF model performance and its computational efficiency were achieved through the

  9. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to

  10. Water turbine system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  11. A 25 kWe low concentration methane catalytic combustion gas turbine prototype unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shi; Yu, Xinxiang

    2015-01-01

    Low concentration methane, emitted from various industries e.g. coal mines and landfills into atmosphere, is not only an important greenhouse gas, but also a wasted energy resource if not utilized. In the past decade, we have been developing a novel VAMCAT (ventilation air methane catalytic combustion gas turbine) technology. This turbine technology can be used to mitigate methane emissions for greenhouse gas reduction, and also to utilize the low concentration methane as an energy source. This paper presents our latest research results on the development and demonstration of a 25 kWe lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine prototype unit. Recent experimental results show that the unit can be operated with 0.8 vol% of methane in air, producing about 19–21 kWe of electricity output. - Highlights: • A novel low concentration methane catalytic turbine prototype unit was developed. • The 25 kWe unit can be operated with ∼0.8 vol.% CH 4 in air with 19–21 kWe output. • A new start-up method was developed for the prototype unit

  12. Electrohydraulic system to control NPP turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.; Rozhanskij, V.E.; Rokhlenko, V.Yu.; Gapunin, A.Ya.; Zhornitskaya, T.Ya.; Rasskazov, I.Eh.; Butsenko, V.N.; Brajnin, L.S.; Makarenko, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Operation regimes of electrohydraulic regulation system (EHRS) of NPP turbines, designed to control the turbine in start-up and working conditions, have been decribed. In start-up regimes EHRS ensures the testing of control valves of the turbine, the turn of the turbine from zero to the nominal rotation frequency (automatic, semiautomatic and manual regulation), turbine acceleration to test safety automatic systems, gradual change in rotation frequency during generator synchronization with circuit. Under working conditions EHRS ensures the maintenance of frequency, power and vapour pressure before the turbine. A block diagram of EHRS is presented. Sensors and electronic part of EHRS are supplied with triple reservation, which ensures a high relaibility of the system

  13. Turbine and its turbine control system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongwei; Zhu Jinping

    1996-01-01

    The simulation for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit turbine and turbine control system is briefly introduced. The simulation system includes lube oil system, jacking oil pump system, turning gear system, turbine supervisor system and turbine control system. It not only correctly simulates the process of turbine normal start up, operation, and shut down, but also the response of turbine under the malfunction conditions

  14. Combustion of oil shale, fluidized coal and pyrolysis fuel oil in a gas turbine for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosi, A; Basler, B; Pepper, M W

    1984-04-01

    A combustion test programme has been carried out with a Brown, Boveri and Cie. (BBC) type 9, gas turbine, at the BBC works in Muenchenstein, Switzerland, in order to clarify the combustion possibilities of three unconventional fuels. The programme has been organized and financed by BBC, Stone and Webster and Exxon. Approximately 95,000 litres of each fuel at various turbine load conditions have been burned. At certain points water was injected for NOsub(x) reduction. The tests show that the commercially available gas turbine can be used without modification with these tested, unconventional fuels. They also show that direct application of inferior petrochemical materials, which are produced today, is possible.

  15. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  16. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  17. Laser diagnostics of combustion phenomena related to engines/gas turbines. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, Marcus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Combustion

    2000-05-01

    The following project has been a one year project bridging the time between the NUTEK program in 'Motorrelaterad foerbraenning' and the new STEM program in 'Energisystem i vaegfordon. The activities has included three Ph. D students and the project has been directed towards two main areas. The first area is the development and application of a new laser diagnostic technique based on laser-induced fluorescence from atomic species for measurements of two-dimensional temperatures in combustion systems. The technique has shown to have distinct advantages compared to more commonly used laser techniques and it has been applied both in engines (VOLVO PV) as well as in gas turbines (VOLVO Aero Corp.) A major advantage is the potential, recently investigated, to make measurements in sooty environments. The second area is in the area of development and application of a technique for measurements of two-dimensional soot volume fractions and particle sizes. The technique is called Laser-induced Incandescence, LII, and here a laser beam is heating the particle considerably above the flame temperature and by detecting the increased blackbody radiation, the parameters above can be inferred. During the year most work has been to develop the technique, but distinct applications in burners, engines and model fires are planned.

  18. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  19. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  20. Feasibility study of ultra-low NOx Gas turbine combustor using the RML combustion concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, Tien Giap; Hwang, Jeong Jae; Kim, Min Kuk; Ahn, Kook Young

    2016-01-01

    A new combustion concept, the so called RML, was investigated to validate its application as a gas turbine combustor for combustor outlet temperatures over 1973 K. The feasibility study of the RML combustor was conducted with zero dimensional combustion calculations. The emission characteristics of RQL, LEAN, EGR and RML combustors were compared. The calculation results showed that the RQL combustor has lower NOx emissions than the LEAN at high outlet temperature. NOx emissions of the RML combustor at equivalence ratio of the rich chamber of 2.0 can be reduced by 30 % compared with the EGR combustor, and lower than the RQL combustor at a combustor outlet temperature over 1973 K. However, the CO emissions of the RML combustor were higher than those of the LEAN and EGR combustors. Also, the possibility of applying the RML combustor to gas turbines was discussed considering residence time, equivalence ratio of the rich chamber and recirculation rate. Although further research to design and realize the proposed RML combustor is needed, this study verified that the RML concept can be successfully used in a gas turbine combustor

  1. Feasibility study of ultra-low NOx Gas turbine combustor using the RML combustion concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van, Tien Giap; Hwang, Jeong Jae; Kim, Min Kuk; Ahn, Kook Young [Environment and Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A new combustion concept, the so called RML, was investigated to validate its application as a gas turbine combustor for combustor outlet temperatures over 1973 K. The feasibility study of the RML combustor was conducted with zero dimensional combustion calculations. The emission characteristics of RQL, LEAN, EGR and RML combustors were compared. The calculation results showed that the RQL combustor has lower NOx emissions than the LEAN at high outlet temperature. NOx emissions of the RML combustor at equivalence ratio of the rich chamber of 2.0 can be reduced by 30 % compared with the EGR combustor, and lower than the RQL combustor at a combustor outlet temperature over 1973 K. However, the CO emissions of the RML combustor were higher than those of the LEAN and EGR combustors. Also, the possibility of applying the RML combustor to gas turbines was discussed considering residence time, equivalence ratio of the rich chamber and recirculation rate. Although further research to design and realize the proposed RML combustor is needed, this study verified that the RML concept can be successfully used in a gas turbine combustor.

  2. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  3. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knodle, M.S.; Novaresi, M.A. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Titan Gas Turbine Systems Division

    2009-07-01

    Development of the Titan 250 industrial gas turbine system began in 2005 in response to demands from the petroleum industry and electricity producers for higher performance industrial gas turbine products in the 15-30 MW (25,000-45,000 hp) power range. The Titan 250 is Solar Turbine's most powerful package and its evolutionary hybrid-type design approach was based on shared aerodynamic, thermal, mechanical, and combustion technologies borrowed from the Taurus 65TM, Titan 130TM, and Mercury 50TM gas turbine systems. It produces 50 per cent more power than the Titan 130, while providing 40 per cent shaft efficiency with significantly fewer emissions. Thorough combustion system testing, use of proven materials, and hot section cooling provided a solid design basis. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial-flow compressor, a dry low emissions combustor for low NOx and CO output, a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 1204 degrees C, and a three-stage, all-shrouded blade power turbine for maximum efficiency. The design also minimizes maintenance intervals to increase equipment availability. The gas turbine and gas compressor have been tested in component, subsystem, and full-scale development, and will be starting field operation in late 2009 to verify performance and mechanical integrity under all operating conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 26 figs.

  4. Performance of candidate gas turbine abradeable seal materials in high temperature combustion atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, N.J. [Cranfield University, Power Generation Technology Centre, Cranfield, Beds, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Norton, J.F. [Cranfield University, Power Generation Technology Centre, Cranfield, Beds, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Consultant in Corrosion Science and Technology, Hemel Hempstead, Herts HP1 1SR (United Kingdom); McColvin, G. [Siemens Industrial Turbines Ltd., Lincoln, LN5 7FD (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The development of abradeable gas turbine seals for higher temperature duties has been the target of an EU-funded R and D project, ADSEALS, with the aim of moving towards seals that can withstand surface temperatures as high as {proportional_to} 1100 C for periods of at least 24,000 h. The ADSEALS project has investigated the manufacturing and performance of a number of alternative materials for the traditional honeycomb seal design and novel alternative designs. This paper reports results from two series of exposure tests carried out to evaluate the oxidation performance of the seal structures in combustion gases and under thermal cycling conditions. These investigations formed one part of the evaluation of seal materials that has been carried out within the ADSEALS project. The first series of three tests, carried out for screening purposes, exposed candidate abradeable seal materials to a simulated natural gas combustion environment at temperatures within the range 1050-1150 C in controlled atmosphere furnaces for periods of up to {proportional_to} 2,500 h with fifteen thermal cycles. The samples were thermally cycled to room temperature on a weekly basis to enable the progress of the degradation to be monitored by mass change and visual observation, as well as allowing samples to be exchanged at planned intervals. The honeycombs were manufactured from PM2000 and Haynes 214. The backing plates for the seal constructions were manufactured from Haynes 214. Some seals contained fillers or had been surface treated (e.g. aluminised). The second series of three tests were carried out in a natural gas fired ribbon furnace facility that allowed up to sixty samples of candidate seal structures (including honeycombs, hollow sphere structures and porous ceramics manufactured from an extended range of materials including Aluchrom YHf, PM2Hf, Haynes 230, IN738LC and MarM247) to be exposed simultaneously to a stream of hot combustion gas. In this case the samples were cooled

  5. Mobile measurement system for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemoes Moeller, T.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this project `Udviklingsafproevning af smaa moellevinger` has been to develop a mobile measurement system for wind turbines. The following report describes the measurement system. The project has been financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. (au)

  6. Improved PFB operations: 400-hour turbine test results. [coal combustion products and hot corrosion in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    A pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) coal-burning reactor was used to provide hot effluent gases for operation of a small gas turbine. Preliminary tests determined the optimum operating conditions that would result in minimum bed particle carryover in the combustion gases. Solids were removed from the gases before they could be transported into the test turbine by use of a modified two stage cyclone separator. Design changes and refined operation procedures resulted in a significant decrease in particle carryover, from 2800 to 93 ppm (1.5 to 0.05 grains/std cu ft), with minimal drop in gas temperature and pressure. The achievement of stable burn conditions and low solids loadings made possible a 400 hr test of small superalloy rotor, 15 cm (6 in.) in diameter, operating in the effluent. Blades removed and examined metallographically after 200 hr exhibited accelerated oxidation over most of the blade surface, with subsurface alumina penetration to 20 micron m. After 400 hours, average erosion loss was about 25 micron m (1 mil). Sulfide particles, indicating hot corrosion, were present in depletion zones, and their presence corresponded in general to the areas of adherent solids deposit. Sulfidation appears to be a materials problem equal in importance to erosion.

  7. Experience Gained from Construction of Low-Emission Combustion Chambers for On-Land Large-Capacity Gas-Turbine Units: GT24/26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.; Gutnik, M. M.

    2018-06-01

    This article is the third in a planned series of articles devoted to the experience gained around the world in constructing low-emission combustion chambers for on-land large-capacity (above 250 MW) gas-turbine units (GTUs). The aim of this study is to generalize and analyze the ways in which different designers apply the fuel flow and combustion arrangement principles and the fuel feed control methods. The considered here GT24 and GT26 (GT24/26) gas-turbine units generating electric power at the 60 and 50 Hz frequencies, respectively, are fitted with burners of identical designs. Designed by ABB, these GTUs were previously manufactured by Alstom, and now they are produced by Ansaldo Energia. The efficiency of these GTUs reaches 41% at the 354 MW power output during operation in the simple cycle and 60.5% at the 505MW power output during operation in the combined cycle. Both GTUs comply with all requirements for harmful emissions. The compression ratio is equal to 35. In this article, a system is considered for two-stage fuel combustion in two sequentially arranged low-emission combustion chambers, one of which is placed upstream of the high-pressure turbine (CC1) and the other upstream of the low-pressure turbine (CC2). The article places the main focus on the CC2, which operates with a decreased content of oxygen in the oxidizer supplied to the burner inlets. The original designs of vortex generators and nozzles placed in the flow of hot combustion products going out from the high-pressure turbine are described in detail. The article also presents an original CC2 front plate cooling system, due to which a significantly smaller amount of air fed for cooling has been reached. The article also presents the pressure damping devices incorporated in the chamber, the use of which made it possible to obtain a significantly wider range of CC loads at which its low-emission operation is ensured. The fuel feed adjustment principles and the combustion control methods

  8. Cost-effectiveness of combustion turbines: recommendations for reliability, maintainability, supportability and maintenance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuwisse, C.; Despujols, A. [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division, Chatou (France); Givaudan, B. [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division - SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France); Lafage, L. [Electricite de France, Engineering and Construction Division - CNET, Paris (France)

    1998-12-31

    The profitability of combustion turbines intended for export is of extreme importance for Electricite de France. It is principally during the development phase of a project that one can ensure resect of two indissociable factors, essential to the per-kWh production cost: global operating costs and performance in terms of reliability and availability. The approach proposed here advocates the global acquisition of the installation and its logistic support. Generally applicable recommendations are given. They enable integrating in the future plant specifications all requirements relative to plant reliability, availability, maintainability and logistic support. They are structured according to type: expression of needs and management factors. (orig.) 4 refs.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of combustion turbines: recommendations for reliability, maintainability, supportability and maintenance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuwisse, C; Despujols, A [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division, Chatou (France); Givaudan, B [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division - SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France); Lafage, L [Electricite de France, Engineering and Construction Division - CNET, Paris (France)

    1999-12-31

    The profitability of combustion turbines intended for export is of extreme importance for Electricite de France. It is principally during the development phase of a project that one can ensure resect of two indissociable factors, essential to the per-kWh production cost: global operating costs and performance in terms of reliability and availability. The approach proposed here advocates the global acquisition of the installation and its logistic support. Generally applicable recommendations are given. They enable integrating in the future plant specifications all requirements relative to plant reliability, availability, maintainability and logistic support. They are structured according to type: expression of needs and management factors. (orig.) 4 refs.

  10. On System Identification of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, B.J.

    Recently several methods have been proposed for the system identification of wind turbines which can be considered as a linear time-varying system due to the operating conditions. For the identification of linear wind turbine models, either black-box or grey-box identification can be used....... The operational model analysis (OMA) methodology can provide accurate estimates of the natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the systems as long as the measurements have a low noise to signal ratio. However, in order to take information about the wind turbine into account a grey...

  11. Investigation of Methane Oxy-Fuel Combustion in a Swirl-Stabilised Gas Turbine Model Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 has a strong impact on both operability and emission behaviours in gas turbine combustors. In the present study, an atmospheric, preheated, swirl-stabilised optical gas turbine model combustor rig was employed. The primary objectives were to analyse the influence of CO2 on the fundamental characteristics of combustion, lean blowout (LBO limits, CO emission and flame structures. CO2 dilution effects were examined with three preheating temperatures (396.15, 431.15, and 466.15 K. The fundamental combustion characteristics were studied utilising chemical kinetic simulations. To study the influence of CO2 on the operational range of the combustor, equivalence ratio (Ф was varied from stoichiometric conditions to the LBO limits. CO emissions were measured at the exit of the combustor using a water-cooled probe over the entire operational range. The flame structures and locations were characterised by performing CH chemiluminescence imaging. The inverse Abel transformation was used to analyse the CH distribution on the axisymmetric plane of the combustor. Chemical kinetic modelling indicated that the CO2 resulted in a lower reaction rate compared with the CH4/air flame. Fundamental combustion properties such as laminar flame speed, ignition delay time and blowout residence time were found to be affected by CO2. The experimental results revealed that CO2 dilution resulted in a narrower operational range for the equivalence ratio. It was also found that CO2 had a strong inhibiting effect on CO burnout, which led to a higher concentration of CO in the combustion exhaust. CH chemiluminescence showed that the CO2 dilution did not have a significant impact on the flame structure.

  12. Fuel flexible distributed combustion for efficient and clean gas turbine engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Ahmed E.E.; Gupta, Ashwani K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Examined distributed combustion for gas turbines applications using HiTAC. • Gaseous, liquid, conventional and bio-fuels are examined with ultra-low emissions. • Novel design of fuel flexibility without any atomizer for liquid fuel sprays. • Demonstrated fuel flexibility with emissions x and CO, low noise, enhanced stability, higher efficiency and alleviation of combustion instability. Distributed reaction conditions were achieved using swirl for desirable controlled mixing between the injected air, fuel and hot reactive gases from within the combustor prior to mixture ignition. In this paper, distributed combustion is further investigated using a variety of fuels. Gaseous (methane, diluted methane, hydrogen enriched methane and propane) and liquid fuels, including both traditional (kerosene) and alternate fuels (ethanol) that cover a wide range of calorific values are investigated with emphasis on pollutants emission and combustor performance with each fuel. For liquid fuels, no atomization or spray device was used. Performance evaluation with the different fuels was established to outline the flexibility of the combustor using a wide range of fuels of different composition, phase and calorific value with specific focus on ultra-low pollutants emission. Results obtained on pollutants emission and OH * chemiluminescence for the specific fuels at various equivalence ratios are presented. Near distributed combustion conditions with less than 8 PPM of NO emission were demonstrated under novel premixed conditions for the various fuels tested at heat (energy) release intensity (HRI) of 27 MW/m 3 -atm. and a rather high equivalence ratio of 0.6. Higher equivalence ratios lacked favorable distributed combustion conditions. For the same conditions, CO emission varied for each fuel; less than 10 ppm were demonstrated for methane based fuels, while heavier liquid fuels provided less than 40 ppm CO emissions. Lower emissions of NO ( x can be possible by

  13. Review of modern low emissions combustion technologies for aero gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yize; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Sethi, Vishal; Nalianda, Devaiah; Li, Yi-Guang; Wang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Pollutant emissions from aircraft in the vicinity of airports and at altitude are of great public concern due to their impact on environment and human health. The legislations aimed at limiting aircraft emissions have become more stringent over the past few decades. This has resulted in an urgent need to develop low emissions combustors in order to meet legislative requirements and reduce the impact of civil aviation on the environment. This article provides a comprehensive review of low emissions combustion technologies for modern aero gas turbines. The review considers current high Technologies Readiness Level (TRL) technologies including Rich-Burn Quick-quench Lean-burn (RQL), Double Annular Combustor (DAC), Twin Annular Premixing Swirler combustors (TAPS), Lean Direct Injection (LDI). It further reviews some of the advanced technologies at lower TRL. These include NASA multi-point LDI, Lean Premixed Prevaporised (LPP), Axially Staged Combustors (ASC) and Variable Geometry Combustors (VGC). The focus of the review is placed on working principles, a review of the key technologies (includes the key technology features, methods of realising the technology, associated technology advantages and design challenges, progress in development), technology application and emissions mitigation potential. The article concludes the technology review by providing a technology evaluation matrix based on a number of combustion performance criteria including altitude relight auto-ignition flashback, combustion stability, combustion efficiency, pressure loss, size and weight, liner life and exit temperature distribution.

  14. Experimental Combustion Dynamics Behavior of a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Waldo A.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the combustion dynamic characteristics of a research multi-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor under simulated gas turbine conditions was conducted. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the physical phenomena inside a pressurized flametube combustion chamber under acoustically isolated conditions. A nine-point swirl venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) geometry was evaluated at inlet pressures up to 2,413 kPa and non-vitiated air temperatures up to 867 K. The equivalence ratio was varied to obtain adiabatic flame temperatures between 1388 K and 1905 K. Dynamic pressure measurements were taken upstream of the SV-LDI, in the combustion zone and downstream of the exit nozzle. The measurements showed that combustion dynamics were fairly small when the fuel was distributed uniformly and mostly due to fluid dynamics effects. Dynamic pressure fluctuations larger than 40 kPa at low frequencies were measured at 653 K inlet temperature and 1117 kPa inlet pressure when fuel was shifted and the pilot fuel injector equivalence ratio was increased to 0.72.

  15. Diagnosis of wind turbine rotor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2016-01-01

    is based on available standard sensors on wind turbines. The method can be used both on-line as well as off-line. Faults or changes in the rotor system will result in asymmetries, which can be monitored and diagnosed. This can be done by using the multi-blade coordinate transformation. Changes in the rotor......This paper describes a model free method for monitoring and fault diagnosis of the elements in a rotor system for a wind turbine. The diagnosis as well as the monitoring is done without using any model of the wind turbine and the applied controller or a description of the wind profile. The method...

  16. Optimization of Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systemfor Various Heat Exchanger Configurations Optimisation des systèmes de turbine à combustion en cogénération pour différentes configurations des échangeurs de chaleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates and compares the performance of three configurations of Gas Turbine systems allowing cogeneration of heat and electricity, on the basis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton-Joule cycle. The proposed model is developed for two different cycle constraints, namely, an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, or an imposed maximum cycle temperature. The model also includes the irreversibility due to the friction in the compressor and turbine, and due to the heat losses in the combustion chamber and heat exchangers. Energy efficiency for the system without and with cogeneration, and the exergetic efficiency are used in order to emphasize the cogeneration advantages, but also to help the designer to choose the best configuration of the Gas Turbine system that suits to his needs. Experimental data from a real operating microturbine were used to validate the model. The power output and the energy and exergetic efficiencies are optimized with respect to a set of operating parameters. The optimum values of the Gas Turbine engine parameters corresponding to maximum power output and respectively to maximum thermodynamic efficiency are discussed. The results show same optimal values of the compression ratio corresponding to almost all maximum performances for an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, excepting the maximum exergetic efficiency that requires higher optimal values of the compression ratio than the maximum exergy rate one. A performance comparison of the three configurations is done and future perspectives of the work are proposed. Cet article explore et compare les performances des trois configurations de systèmes de turbine à combustion permettant la production combinée de chaleur et d’électricité, sur la base du cycle irréversible régénératif de Brayton-Joule. Le modèle proposé est développé pour deux contraintes différentes sur le cycle, notamment le

  17. Proceedings: Small Wind Turbine Systems, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Small wind turbine technology is discussed. Systems development, test programs, utility interface issues, safety and reliability programs, applications, and marketing are discussed. For individual titles, see N83-23723 through N83-23741.

  18. Active control of combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, B.T.; Neumeier, Y. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This 3-year research program was initiated in September, 1995, to investigate active control of detrimental combustion instabilities in low NO{sub x} gas turbines (LNGT), which burn natural gas in a lean premixed mode to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. The program will investigate the mechanisms that drive these instabilities. Furthermore, it will study active control systems (ACS) that can effectively prevent the onset of such instabilities and/or reduce their amplitudes to acceptable levels. An understanding of the driving mechanisms will not only guide the development of effective ACS for LNGT but may also lead to combustor design changes (i.e., passive control) that will fully or partially resolve the problem. Initial attempts to stabilize combustors (i.e., chemical rockets) by ACS were reported more than 40 years ago, but were unsuccessful due to lack of adequate sensors, electronics, and actuators for performing the needed control actions. Progress made in recent years in sensor and actuator technology, electronics, and control theory has rekindled interest in developing ACS for unstable combustors. While initial efforts in this area, which focused on active control of instabilities in air breathing combustors, have demonstrated the considerable potential of active control, they have also indicated that more effective observers, controllers, and actuators are needed for practical applications. Considerable progress has been made in the observer and actuator areas by the principal investigators of this program during the past 2 years under an AFOSR program. The developed observer is based upon wavelets theory, and can identify the amplitudes, frequencies, and phases of the five most dominant combustor modes in (virtually) real time. The developed actuator is a fuel injector that uses a novel magneto-strictive material to modulate the fuel flow rate into the combustor.

  19. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the overall program status of the General Electric Advanced Gas Turbine Development program, and reports progress on three main task areas. The program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70-MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology, utilizing a new air cooling methodology; and (2) a 200-MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy-duty machine, utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. The emphasis for the industrial system is placed on cycle design and low emission combustion. For the utility system, the focus is on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling while achieving low emission combustion. The three tasks included in this progress report are on: conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system, integrated program plan, and design and test of critical components. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of ultra-high temperature materials); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the result of the fiscal 1996 development of ultra-high temperature materials for parts of hydrogen combustion turbines, as part of the hydrogen utilization technology, which have excellent environmental protectivity and remarkably high efficiency. By the optimized solution heat treatment of monocrystal alloy developed in the previous fiscal year, obtained was strength property the same as the existing super alloys. As to FRC, pore size and strength property of SiC organic hybrid were made clear. ODS alloy cooling blades and heat insulation coating were studied, and YSZ was found to be most excellent as coating material. Concerning intermetallic compounds, the applicability to ultra-high temperatures up to 1700degC was not obtained. For improvement of heat resistance and environment resistance, adopted were highly compacting SiC matrix and BN coatings. Al2O3 was excellent in long-time stability. In the 1600degC steam corrosion test on multiplex structural materials with Al2O3 as surface material, chemical stability was confirmed. Three-dimensional woven fiber reinforced composite materials of C/C{center_dot}CMC were trially produced by changing the fiber orientation, and improvement in ultra-high temperature thermal shock resistance was confirmed. A study was made of spot observation of the specimen surface by laser microscope, and development was conducted of a temperature measuring method with no influence of radiant heat. 44 refs., 250 figs., 40 tabs.

  1. FY 1998 annual summary report on International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) system technology. Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine and ultrahigh-temperature materials; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 8 (suiro nensho turbine no kaihatsu/chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are the materials designs/production and tests/evaluation results of heat-resistant materials, i.e., alloys, ceramic composites and carbon-based composites, which are expected to be applicable to the hydrogen combustion turbines. These have been studied since 1993, and this paper summarizes the overall evaluation results of the phase I program. The intermetallic compound as one of the candidate materials has a high-temperature strength in a range from 1200 to 1400 degrees C by optimizing elements added. However, no prospect is obtained for heat resistance at 1700 degrees C or more for the material not coated or cooled moderately. Each of the other candidate materials tested shows a bright prospect of applicability at the base material and specimen levels. The single-crystal superalloy for hybrid cooling structures has novelty in that it is free of Cr but incorporated with Si and Hf, showing approximately 10 degrees C higher heat-resistant temperature than CMSX-4. CMC and C/C are inherently excellent heat-resistant materials, and are attractive advanced composites, because they are expected to realize no-cooled blades at 1700 degrees C. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 8 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (R and D of hydrogen combustion turbines/development of ultra-high temperature materials); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 8 suiso nensho turbine kenkyu kaihatsu chokoon zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the application to hydrogen combustion turbines, the R and D were continued of heat resistant alloys, ceramic composite materials, and carbonaceous composite materials. In the development of highly efficient super alloy single crystal materials, as to the single crystal alloy (Ni-5.3Al-0.5Ti-6.0Mo-4.8W-6.0Re) and an alloy made by adding 0.15%Si to the above alloy and an alloy made by adding 2.0%Hf to the above alloy, data on high temperature tensile property and creep rupture property were obtained, and it was confirmed that Hf added alloys were excellent in strength. Relating to the development of fiber reinforced ceramics, materials for trial fabrication were fabricated by the CVI method using SiC fiber, and the evaluation test was conducted to obtain the basic data. Besides, the following were carried out: study of coating for heat resistant alloy cooled blades, development of ceramic composite materials, development of ceramic multi-structure materials and analysis of fracture behaviors under the ultra-high composite environment, development of 3D fiber reinforced composite materials, development of technology to evaluate basic properties of ultra-high temperature materials, etc. 46 refs., 217 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. AGT101 automotive gas turbine system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The AGT101 automotive gas turbine system consisting of a 74.6 kw regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine, is presented. The development and testing of the system is reviewed, and results for aerothermodynamic components indicate that compressor and turbine performance levels are within one percent of projected levels. Ceramic turbine rotor development is encouraging with successful cold spin testing of simulated rotors to speeds over 12,043 rad/sec. Spin test results demonstrate that ceramic materials having the required strength levels can be fabricated by net shape techniques to the thick hub cross section, which verifies the feasibility of the single-stage radial rotor in single-shaft engines.

  4. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  5. The atomization and burning of biofuels in the combustion chambers of gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorova, A. I.; Vasil'ev, A. Yu; Sviridenkov, A. A.; Chelebyan, O. G.

    2017-11-01

    The present work analyzes the effect of physical properties of liquid fuels with high viscosity (including biofuels) on the spray and burning characteristics. The study showed that the spray characteristics behind devices well atomized fuel oil, may significantly deteriorate when using biofuels, until the collapse of the fuel bubble. To avoid this phenomenon it is necessary to carry out the calculation of the fuel film form when designing the nozzles. As a result of this calculation boundary curves in the coordinates of the Reynolds number on fuel - the Laplace number are built, characterizing the transition from sheet breakup to spraying. It is shown that these curves are described by a power function with the same exponent for nozzles of various designs. The swirl of air surrounding the nozzle in the same direction, as the swirl of fuel film, can significantly improve the performance of atomization of highly viscous fuel. Moreover the value of the tangential air velocity has the determining influence on the film shape. For carrying out of hot tests in aviation combustor some embodiments of liquid fuels were proved and the most preferred one was chosen. Fire tests of combustion chamber compartment at conventional fuel has shown comprehensible characteristics, in particular wide side-altars of the stable combustion. The blended biofuel application makes worse combustion stability in comparison with kerosene. A number of measures was recommended to modernize the conventional combustors when using biofuels in gas turbine engines.

  6. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  7. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  8. Control system for NPP powerfull turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, V.D.; Rozhanskij, V.E.; Rokhlenko, V.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for NPP 1000 MW turbines safety is described. The turbine safety system has a hydraulic drive to actuate in case of increasipg of rotational speed of a turbine rotor and an electrohydraulic drce to operate in case of pressure reduction in the lubrication system, axial displacement deviation, etc. The system is highly reliable due to application of a safety system without slide valves and long-term operation of hydraulic controls in guarding conditions; the system epsures multifunctional control with high accuracy and speed due to application of the intricate electronic part, high speed of response with a limited use of high pressure oil due to application of two-pressure pumps, pneumohydraulic accumulators and oil discharge valves. Steady-state serviceability of the system is maintained by devices for valve cooling dawn. A shockless change from electrohydraulic to hydraulic control channels is provided

  9. Overview of Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, H. A.; Bajura, R. A.

    The US Department of Energy initiated a program to develop advanced gas turbine systems to serve both central power and industrial power generation markets. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will lead to commercial offerings by the private sector by 2002. ATS will be developed to fire natural gas but will be adaptable to coal and biomass firing. The systems will be: highly efficient (15 percent improvement over today's best systems); environmentally superior (10 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides over today's best systems); and cost competitive (10 percent reduction in cost of electricity). The ATS Program has five elements. Innovative cycle development will lead to the demonstration of systems with advanced gas turbine cycles using current gas turbine technology. High temperature development will lead to the increased firing temperatures needed to achieve ATS Program efficiency goals. Ceramic component development/demonstration will expand the current DOE/CE program to demonstrate industrial-scale turbines with ceramic components. Technology base will support the overall program by conducting research and development (R&D) on generic technology issues. Coal application studies will adapt technology developed in the ATS program to coal-fired systems being developed in other DOE programs.

  10. Numerical simulations of stationary and transient spray combustion for aircraft gas turbine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fossi, Athanase Alain

    2017-01-01

    Le développement des turbines à gaz d’aviation actuelles et futures est principalement axé sur la sécurité, la performance, la minimisation de la consommation de l’énergie, et de plus en plus sur la réduction des émissions d’espèces polluantes. Ainsi, les phases de design de moteurs sont soumises auxaméliorations continues par des études expérimentales et numériques. La présente thèse se consacre à l’étude numérique des phases transitoires et stationnaires de la combustion au sein d’une turbi...

  11. System and method for engine combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczomak, David P.; Gallon, Robert J.; Solomon, Arun S.

    2018-03-13

    A combustion system for use with one or more cylinder bores of an internal combustion engine includes at least one cylinder head defining first and second intake ports in fluid communication with the one or more cylinder bores. A flap is adjustably connected to the at least one cylinder head. The flap includes a first flap portion cooperating with the first intake port extending from an arm and a second flap portion cooperating with the second intake port extending from the arm and disposed adjacent the first flap portion. A controller in electrical communication with an actuator monitors the condition of the engine and actuates the flap to position the first and second flap portions between first and second positions to create a first combustion condition and a second combustion condition.

  12. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH-HIGH EFFICIENCY ENGINES AND TURBINES (UTSR-HEET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz; William H. Day

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the U S Department of Energy established a cooperative agreement for a program now designated as the University Turbine Systems (UTSR) Program. As stated in the cooperative agreement, the objective of the program is to support and facilitate development of advanced energy systems incorporating turbines through a university research environment. This document is the first annual, technical progress report for the UTSR Program. The Executive Summary describes activities for the year of the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), which administers the UTSR Program. Included are descriptions of: Outline of program administrative activities; Award of the first 10 university research projects resulting from a year 2001 RFP; Year 2002 solicitation and proposal selection for awards in 2003; Three UTSR Workshops in Combustion, Aero/Heat Transfer, and Materials; SCIES participation in workshops and meetings to provide input on technical direction for the DOE HEET Program; Eight Industrial Internships awarded to higher level university students; Increased membership of Performing Member Universities to 105 institutions in 40 states; Summary of outreach activities; and a Summary table describing the ten newly awarded UTSR research projects. Attachment A gives more detail on SCIES activities by providing the monthly exceptions reports sent to the DOE during the year. Attachment B provides additional information on outreach activities for 2002. The remainder of this report describes in detail the technical approach, results, and conclusions to date for the UTSR university projects.

  13. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  14. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  15. Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2009-01-01

    Study for Determining the Testing Condition of Compressor and Turbine System. From the viewpoint of energy system and environment, the concept for nuclear reactors of the generation IV have good potential for electricity and heat generation devices in producing hydrogen. These gas cooled nuclear reactors employ turbine cycle in transferring the heat. To analyses that coolant system, it is proposed a model of compressor and turbine system with power 3 kW. The used working fluid was hydrogen that be burnt with air within combustion chamber, then be expanded through a turbine for getting shaft work that will be used in driving compressor and generator. This study is aimed to determine the optimum testing conditions of gas turbine system. The used method is by applying the balance equations of energy, mass, and momentum. Gas turbine and compressor were placed at the single shaft, in which it was about 55 percent of power output for running the compressor. Under the testing condition for the speed of 20305 rpm, it was obtained thermal efficiency of the turbine cycle approximate 18 % (equal to the Carnot efficiency ratio 65 %), so that it is properly developed for the development of nuclear power installation in supporting the electricity energy demand and it will be very promising for the future facility. (author)

  16. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2003-10-01

    Rolls-Royce Corporation has completed a cooperative agreement under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FC21-96MC33066 in support of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program to stimulate industrial power generation markets. This DOE contract was performed during the period of October 1995 to December 2002. This final technical report, which is a program deliverable, describes all associated results obtained during Phases 3A and 3B of the contract. Rolls-Royce Corporation (formerly Allison Engine Company) initially focused on the design and development of a 10-megawatt (MW) high-efficiency industrial gas turbine engine/package concept (termed the 701-K) to meet the specific goals of the ATS program, which included single digit NOx emissions, increased plant efficiency, fuel flexibility, and reduced cost of power (i.e., $/kW). While a detailed design effort and associated component development were successfully accomplished for the 701-K engine, capable of achieving the stated ATS program goals, in 1999 Rolls-Royce changed its focus to developing advanced component technologies for product insertion that would modernize the current fleet of 501-K and 601-K industrial gas turbines. This effort would also help to establish commercial venues for suppliers and designers and assist in involving future advanced technologies in the field of gas turbine engine development. This strategy change was partly driven by the market requirements that suggested a low demand for a 10-MW aeroderivative industrial gas turbine, a change in corporate strategy for aeroderivative gas turbine engine development initiatives, and a consensus that a better return on investment (ROI) could be achieved under the ATS contract by focusing on product improvements and technology insertion for the existing Rolls-Royce small engine industrial gas turbine fleet.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-05

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  18. Trends in Wind Turbine Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polinder, Henk; Ferreira, Jan Abraham; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the trends in wind turbine generator systems. After discussing some important requirements and basic relations, it describes the currently used systems: the constant speed system with squirrel-cage induction generator, and the three variable speed systems with doubly fed...... induction generator (DFIG), with gearbox and fully rated converter, and direct drive (DD). Then, possible future generator systems are reviewed. Hydraulic transmissions are significantly lighter than gearboxes and enable continuously variable transmission, but their efficiency is lower. A brushless DFIG...

  19. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  20. Chapter 10 - Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  1. Chapter 10: Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  2. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  3. Maintenance and adjustment of control systems of central heating turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyuk, V.A.; Balashov, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of operation and design of systems of automatic control of steam turbines with controlled heating stem extraction are described. Specific features of maintenance and adjustment of the most common domestic turbines are considered. Recommendations on testing state of turbine control systems and improving reliability of their operation are given. 22 refs., 51 refs

  4. Problems of steam turbine diagnostics and the 'Simens' diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserner, V.; Andrea, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostics system, allowing one to detect changes in the state on single turbine elements at an early stage is described. Besides this system allows one to utilize the turbine plant optimally and efficiency from the viewpoint of the equipment durability. Specially oriented monitoring of the turbine plant and equipment element state saves resources necessary to keep up the working order of the equipment

  5. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  6. Experimental study of cyclone combustion of wood powder for gas turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, J; Kallner, P [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the present project is to study to what extent various elements in the ash, in particular Na and K, can be separated in the first stage of a two-stage combustor, with the first stage being a separation cyclone. Mass balances for the elements in the ash are determined from the fuel flow, the char collected from the cyclone bottom and particles in the combustor outlet gas. Experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure for wood powder feeding rates of 5-21 kg/h. The conditions in the cyclone have been kept fuel rich. The gas outlet temperature from this stage has been varied from 750 to 1150 deg C through control of the air/fuel ratio. Second stage combustion is achieved in a separate combustor. The results show that significant separation of Na and K is possible, and that the separation is improved when the cyclone temperature is kept low. At an outlet temperature of around 800 deg C about 60% of the input alkali is found in the char residue. At 1000 deg C, only 30% is separated. Mass balances show that about 80% of the ash elements in the fuel input are identified in char and fly ash. With 60% separation of Na and K the content of these elements in the gas would be less than 7 mg/kg gas for a turbine inlet temperature of 850 deg C. The total dust load would be 30-60 mg/kg gas. Ash sticking temperature tests on bottom char and fly ash show no ash sticking up to 1040 deg C. It is therefore concluded that the ash may pass through the turbine as solid particles and cause minimal deposits or corrosion. 15 refs

  7. Experimental study of cyclone combustion of wood powder for gas turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, J.; Kallner, P. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1993-12-31

    The objective of the present project is to study to what extent various elements in the ash, in particular Na and K, can be separated in the first stage of a two-stage combustor, with the first stage being a separation cyclone. Mass balances for the elements in the ash are determined from the fuel flow, the char collected from the cyclone bottom and particles in the combustor outlet gas. Experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure for wood powder feeding rates of 5-21 kg/h. The conditions in the cyclone have been kept fuel rich. The gas outlet temperature from this stage has been varied from 750 to 1150 deg C through control of the air/fuel ratio. Second stage combustion is achieved in a separate combustor. The results show that significant separation of Na and K is possible, and that the separation is improved when the cyclone temperature is kept low. At an outlet temperature of around 800 deg C about 60% of the input alkali is found in the char residue. At 1000 deg C, only 30% is separated. Mass balances show that about 80% of the ash elements in the fuel input are identified in char and fly ash. With 60% separation of Na and K the content of these elements in the gas would be less than 7 mg/kg gas for a turbine inlet temperature of 850 deg C. The total dust load would be 30-60 mg/kg gas. Ash sticking temperature tests on bottom char and fly ash show no ash sticking up to 1040 deg C. It is therefore concluded that the ash may pass through the turbine as solid particles and cause minimal deposits or corrosion. 15 refs

  8. CFD analysis of combustion of natural gas and syngas from biomass pyrolysis in the combustion chamber of a micro gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Laranci, Paolo; D' Alessandro, Bruno [University of Perugia (DII/UNIPG) (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering], Emails: fanto@unipg.it, paolo.laranci@unipg.it, dalessandro@bio-net.it

    2009-07-01

    Micro gas turbines (MGT) can be profitably used for the production of distributed energy (DE), with the possibility to use gaseous fuels with low BTU derived from biomass or waste through the pyrolysis or gasification processes. These synthesis gases (SG) show significant differences with respect to natural gas (NG), in terms of composition, calorific value, content of hydrogen, tar and particulate matter content; such differences can be turn into problems of ignition, instability burning, difficulties in controlling the emissions and fouling. CFD analysis of the combustion process is an essential tool for identifying the main critical arising in using these gases, in order to modify existing geometries and to develop new generation of combustor for use with low BTU gases. This paper describes the activities of experimental and numerical analysis carried out to study the combustion process occurring inside an existing annular Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) Combustion Chamber (CC) of a 80 kW MGT. In the paper some results of a CFD study of the combustion process performed with an original developed chemical models are reported in terms of temperature and velocity distributions inside the CC and in terms of compositions of turbine inlet gas and of its thermodynamic parameters (mass flow, temperature, pressure). An evaluation of pollutant emissions of CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx and a comparison with the available experimental data relating to the case of combustion of NG is also provided in the paper. Moreover, the carried out investigation concerns the case of operation with a SG fuel derived from biomass in an Integrated Pyrolysis Regenerated Plant (IPRP). (author)

  9. Modeling of wind turbines for power system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petru, T.

    2001-05-01

    When wind turbines are installed into the electric grid, the power quality is affected. Today, strict installation recommendations often prevail due to a lack of knowledge on this subject. Consequently, it is important to predict the impact of wind turbines on the electric grid before the turbines are installed. The thesis describes relevant power quality issues, discusses different configurations of wind turbines with respect to power quality and draw requirements regarding wind turbine modeling. A model of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbine system is introduced and its power quality impact on the electric grid is evaluated. The model is verified with field measurements.

  10. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS(ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2001-06-01

    component is optimized for the highest level of performance. The unique feature of an H-technology combined-cycle system is the integrated heat transfer system, which combines both the steam plant reheat process and gas turbine bucket and nozzle cooling. This feature allows the power generator to operate at a higher firing temperature than current technology units, thereby resulting in dramatic improvements in fuel-efficiency. The end result is the generation of electricity at the lowest, most competitive price possible. Also, despite the higher firing temperature of the H System{trademark}, the combustion temperature is kept at levels that minimize emission production. GE has more than 3.6 million fired hours of experience in operating advanced technology gas turbines, more than three times the fired hours of competitors' units combined. The H System{trademark} design incorporates lessons learned from this experience with knowledge gleaned from operating GE aircraft engines. In addition, the 9H gas turbine is the first ever designed using ''Design for Six Sigma'' methodology, which maximizes reliability and availability throughout the entire design process. Both the 7H and 9H gas turbines will achieve the reliability levels of our F-class technology machines. GE has tested its H System{trademark} gas turbine more thoroughly than any previously introduced into commercial service. The H System{trademark} gas turbine has undergone extensive design validation and component testing. Full-speed, no-load testing of the 9H was achieved in May 1998 and pre-shipment testing was completed in November 1999. The 9H will also undergo approximately a half-year of extensive demonstration and characterization testing at the launch site. Testing of the 7H began in December 1999, and full speed, no-load testing was completed in February 2000. The 7H gas turbine will also be subjected to extensive demonstration and characterization testing at the launch site.

  11. Advanced turbine systems program. Final report, August 3, 1993--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Six tasks were approved under the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) extension program. The six tasks include the following: Task 5.0 -- Market Study. The objective of the market study task is to focus on distributed generation prospects for an industrial ATS, using the Allison ATS family as the primary gas turbine systems. Task 6.0 -- Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System (GFATS) Definition and Analysis. Task 8.01 -- Castcool{reg_sign} Blades Fabrication Process Development. Task 8.04 -- ATS Low Emission Combustion System. Task 8.07 -- Ceramic Vane Design and Evaluation. Task 9.0 -- Program Management. Each of these tasks is described, progress is discussed, and results are given.

  12. Improving the efficiency of gas turbine systems with volumetric solar receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Sánchez-Delgado, Sergio; Marugán-Cruz, Carolina; Santana, Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of small and large-scale solar-combined cycle plants with volumetric receivers. • Increase of inlet temperature of combustion air using solar energy. • The combustion exergy efficiency starts to decrease over a certain temperature. • Indications obtained from the energy and exergy analyses differ. - Abstract: The combustion process of gas turbine systems is typically associated with the highest thermodynamic inefficiencies among the system components. A method to increase the efficiency of a combustor and, consequently that of the gas turbine, is to increase the temperature of the entering combustion air. This measure reduces the consumption of fuel and improves the environmental performance of the turbine. This paper studies the incorporation of a volumetric solar receiver into existing gas turbines in order to increase the temperature of the inlet combustion air to 800 °C and 1000 °C. For the first time, detailed thermodynamic analyses involving both energy and exergy principles of both small-scale and large-scale hybrid (solar-combined cycle) power plants including volumetric receivers are realized. The plants are based on real gas turbine systems, the base operational characteristics of which are derived and reported in detail. It is found that the indications obtained from the energy and exergy analyses differ. The addition of the solar plant achieves an increase in the exergetic efficiency when the conversion of solar radiation into thermal energy (i.e., solar plant efficiency) is not accounted for in the definition of the overall plant efficiency. On the other hand, it is seen that it does not have a significant effect on the energy efficiency. Nevertheless, when the solar efficiency is included in the definition of the overall efficiency of the plants, the addition of the solar receiver always leads to an efficiency reduction. It is found that the exergy efficiency of the combustion chamber depends on the varying air

  13. Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Combustion in a Model Swirl Gas Turbine Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cemal Benim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent reacting flows in a generic swirl gas turbine combustor are investigated numerically. Turbulence is modelled by a URANS formulation in combination with the SST turbulence model, as the basic modelling approach. For comparison, URANS is applied also in combination with the RSM turbulence model to one of the investigated cases. For this case, LES is also used for turbulence modelling. For modelling turbulence-chemistry interaction, a laminar flamelet model is used, which is based on the mixture fraction and the reaction progress variable. This model is implemented in the open source CFD code OpenFOAM, which has been used as the basis for the present investigation. For validation purposes, predictions are compared with the measurements for a natural gas flame with external flue gas recirculation. A good agreement with the experimental data is observed. Subsequently, the numerical study is extended to syngas, for comparing its combustion behavior with that of natural gas. Here, the analysis is carried out for cases without external flue gas recirculation. The computational model is observed to provide a fair prediction of the experimental data and predict the increased flashback propensity of syngas.

  14. Numerical study of influence of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen; Wang, Zhan-xue

    2015-01-01

    The atomization and combustion flowfield of the combustion chamber with swirl-nozzle were simulated using different biofuels; the thermodynamic cycle of the aircraft engine system were also analyzed, influences of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system were explored. Results show that viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting the atomization and combustion characteristics of biofuels, and then dominate the distribution of the temperature and NO concentration. Due to the characteristic of low viscosity and low caloric value for biofuels adopted, the biofuels accumulate near the head of combustion chamber, and the corresponding NO emission is lower than that it has for conventional kerosene. When biofuels with low caloric value are used under the operation condition which is same as the condition for the conventional kerosene, lower turbine inlet temperature, lower thrust and higher specific fuel consumption would be achieved for the aircraft engine. - Highlights: • Influences of biofuels properties on combustion characteristic are explored. • Effects of biofuels on cycle parameters of aircraft engine are discussed. • Viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting combustion of biofuels. • NO emission becomes lower when biofuels with low caloric value is adopted. • The performance of aircraft engine becomes worse for biofuels with low caloric value.

  15. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

  16. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, R.S. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering

    1995-07-01

    The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

  17. Multi-Point Combustion System: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke, Jerry; Pack, Spencer; Zink, Gregory; Ryon, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A low-NOx emission combustor concept has been developed for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) program to meet N+2 emissions goals for a 70,000 lb thrust engine application. These goals include 75 percent reduction of LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards without increasing CO, UHC, or smoke from that of current state of the art. An additional key factor in this work is to improve lean combustion stability over that of previous work performed on similar technology in the early 2000s. The purpose of this paper is to present the final report for the NASA contract. This work included the design, analysis, and test of a multi-point combustion system. All design work was based on the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling with the end results tested on a medium pressure combustion rig at the UC and a medium pressure combustion rig at GRC. The theories behind the designs, results of analysis, and experimental test data will be discussed in this report. The combustion system consists of five radially staged rows of injectors, where ten small scale injectors are used in place of a single traditional nozzle. Major accomplishments of the current work include the design of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injection (MLDI) array and associated air blast and pilot fuel injectors, which is expected to meet or exceed the goal of a 75 percent reduction in LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards. This design incorporates a reduced number of injectors over previous multipoint designs, simplified and lightweight components, and a very compact combustor section. Additional outcomes of the program are validation that the design of these combustion systems can be aided by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict and reduce emissions. Furthermore, the staging of fuel through the individually controlled radially staged injector rows successfully demonstrated improved low power operability as well as improvements in emissions over previous multipoint designs. Additional comparison

  18. Reliability centered maintenance applied to gas turbines, a deeper methodological study; Optimisation de la maintenance par la fiabilite appliquee aux turbines a combustion: approfondissement methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despujols, A; Delbos, J P; Zuliani, G

    1996-12-31

    The 9000E`combustion turbine study is unique in that it applied he RCM procedure to a power station before construction had begun on it. This has resulted in a maintenance programme being determined from the outset, rather than an existing programme being improved. The analysis begins with a search of the functions required by the unit, its operating states and its failure modes, then moves on to look at different systems to establish functional trees followed by failure trees. The lowest leaves on these graphs correspond respectively to functions carried out by important equipment nd their failure modes. Following on from this hierarchical procedure, each of the items of equipment are studies in an analysis of the failures modes, their effects and their criticality. The absence of feedback on this machine, the lack of data on the technology and the small size of the equipment (by comparison with those encountered in a nuclear unit), all contribute to limiting the level of decomposition. Tables are thus obtained which show the failure modes of an item of equipment, their origin, their effects on a system and unit level, the potential damage they cause, their severity, expert estimates of the frequency with they are likely to appear, their criticality and their evidence. The next step is a crucial one since it produces the results expected from the previous stages. It relies on task selection logic which has been honed to better take account of the obvious or hidden character of the failures. Not only must preventive operations to stop critical failure modes from occurring be suggested, but certain operations must be prescribed in order for breakdowns to be revealed. In practice, the state of the redundant or protective equipment has to be known when some of their failure modes remain hidden from the operator. The risk of a double failure with serious consequences becomes a probability when their breakdown state is not detected. (authors) 15 refs.

  19. Reliability centered maintenance applied to gas turbines, a deeper methodological study; Optimisation de la maintenance par la fiabilite appliquee aux turbines a combustion: approfondissement methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despujols, A.; Delbos, J.P.; Zuliani, G.

    1995-12-31

    The 9000E`combustion turbine study is unique in that it applied he RCM procedure to a power station before construction had begun on it. This has resulted in a maintenance programme being determined from the outset, rather than an existing programme being improved. The analysis begins with a search of the functions required by the unit, its operating states and its failure modes, then moves on to look at different systems to establish functional trees followed by failure trees. The lowest leaves on these graphs correspond respectively to functions carried out by important equipment nd their failure modes. Following on from this hierarchical procedure, each of the items of equipment are studies in an analysis of the failures modes, their effects and their criticality. The absence of feedback on this machine, the lack of data on the technology and the small size of the equipment (by comparison with those encountered in a nuclear unit), all contribute to limiting the level of decomposition. Tables are thus obtained which show the failure modes of an item of equipment, their origin, their effects on a system and unit level, the potential damage they cause, their severity, expert estimates of the frequency with they are likely to appear, their criticality and their evidence. The next step is a crucial one since it produces the results expected from the previous stages. It relies on task selection logic which has been honed to better take account of the obvious or hidden character of the failures. Not only must preventive operations to stop critical failure modes from occurring be suggested, but certain operations must be prescribed in order for breakdowns to be revealed. In practice, the state of the redundant or protective equipment has to be known when some of their failure modes remain hidden from the operator. The risk of a double failure with serious consequences becomes a probability when their breakdown state is not detected. (authors) 15 refs.

  20. Exhaust system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-04

    A catalytic converter system for internal combustion engines is described that includes a means to maintain the catalyst temperature within a predetermined range for the efficient reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Upstream of the catalytic converter, the exhaust pipe is encased in a structure such that a space is provided for the flow of a coolant around the exhaust pipe in response to the sensed catalytic temperature. A coolant control valve is actuated in response to the temperature sensor.

  1. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.833 Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. [Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29783, July 20, 1990...

  2. Numerical Investigation of Methane Combustion under Mixed Air-Steam Turbine Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevis, G.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Goussis, D.A.; Mastorakos, E.; Derksen, M.A.F.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Lowering emissions from power generating gas turbines, while retaining efficiency and power output, constitutes a formidable task, both at fundamental and technical levels. Combined gas turbine cycles involving air humidification are particularly attractive, since they provide additional power with

  3. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  4. Development of a NO/x/-free combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakata, M.; Furusawa, T.; Kunii, D.; Imagawa, M.; Nawada, M.

    1980-04-01

    The development of a NO(x)-free combustion-heating system realizing both pollution control and energy savings is described. An experiment was carried out by using a small model plant. The system consists of a combustion furnace and a new-type multifunctional heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is a rotary continuous type designed for soot collection and for catalytic combustion of CO and H2 as well as for preheating combustion air.

  5. Ignition system for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, G

    1977-05-12

    The invention pertains to ignition systems for internal combustion engines; in particular, these are used in the engines of modern small motorcycles, where power is supplied by means of a so-called flywheel magneto, so that there is no need for an additional battery. The invention will prevent back-kicking. This is achieved by the following means: in the right direction of rotation of the internal combustion engine, due to an axial magnetic unsymmetry of the rotor, a voltage component that can switch the electronic switch will occur only in one of the two parts of the control winding at the point of ignition. In the wrong direction of rotation, on the other hand, this voltage component will only occur in the other part of the control winding and will act in direction on a diode connected in parallel to this part of the winding.

  6. Integrated analysis of wind turbines - The impact of power systems on wind turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio

    Megawatt-size wind turbines nowadays operate in very complex environmental conditions, and increasingly demanding power system requirements. Pursuing a cost-effective and reliable wind turbine design is a multidisciplinary task. However nowadays, wind turbine design and research areas...... conditions that stem from disturbances in the power system. An integrated simulation environment, wind turbine models, and power system models are developed in order to take an integral perspective that considers the most important aeroelastic, structural, electrical, and control dynamics. Applications...... of the integrated simulation environment are presented. The analysis of an asynchronous machine, and numerical simulations of a fixedspeed wind turbine in the integrated simulation environment, demonstrate the effects on structural loads of including the generator rotor fluxes dynamics in aeroelastic studies. Power...

  7. Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

    2013-05-14

    The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

  8. Three-step approach for prediction of limit cycle pressure oscillations in combustion chambers of gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurashev, Dmytro; Campa, Giovanni; Anisimov, Vyacheslav V.; Cosatto, Ezio

    2017-11-01

    Currently, gas turbine manufacturers frequently face the problem of strong acoustic combustion driven oscillations inside combustion chambers. These combustion instabilities can cause extensive wear and sometimes even catastrophic damages to combustion hardware. This requires prevention of combustion instabilities, which, in turn, requires reliable and fast predictive tools. This work presents a three-step method to find stability margins within which gas turbines can be operated without going into self-excited pressure oscillations. As a first step, a set of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations with the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model implemented in the OpenFOAM® environment are performed to obtain the flame describing function of the combustor set-up. The standard FSC model is extended in this work to take into account the combined effect of strain and heat losses on the flame. As a second step, a linear three-time-lag-distributed model for a perfectly premixed swirl-stabilized flame is extended to the nonlinear regime. The factors causing changes in the model parameters when applying high-amplitude velocity perturbations are analysed. As a third step, time-domain simulations employing a low-order network model implemented in Simulink® are performed. In this work, the proposed method is applied to a laboratory test rig. The proposed method permits not only the unsteady frequencies of acoustic oscillations to be computed, but the amplitudes of such oscillations as well. Knowing the amplitudes of unstable pressure oscillations, it is possible to determine how these oscillations are harmful to the combustor equipment. The proposed method has a low cost because it does not require any license for computational fluid dynamics software.

  9. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  10. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  11. Size and velocity measurements in combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Y.; Timnat, Y.M.

    1986-01-01

    Two-phase flow measurements for size and velocity determination in combustion systems are discussed: the pedestal technique and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) are described in detail. The experimental apparatus for the pedestal method includes the optical laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) package and the electronic data acquisition system. The latter comprises three channels for recording the Doppler frequency, and the pedestal amplitude as well as the validation pulse. Results of measurements performed in a dump combustor, into which kerosene droplets were injected, are presented. The principle of the PDA technique is explained and validation experiments, using latex particles, are reported. Finally the two methods are compared

  12. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  13. Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

  14. Backup Mechanical Brake System of the Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, E. A.; Solomin, E. V.; Gandzha, S. A.; Kirpichnikova, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    Paper clarifies the necessity of the emergency mechanical brake systems usage for wind turbines. We made a deep analysis of the wind turbine braking methods available on the market, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The electromechanical braking appeared the most technically reasonable and economically attractive. We described the developed combined electromechanical brake system for vertical axis wind turbine driven from electric drive with variable torque enough to brake over the turbine even on the storm wind speed up to 45 m/s. The progress was made due to the development of specific kinematic brake system diagram and intelligent control system managed by special operation algorithm.

  15. System for damping vibrations in a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-11-24

    A system for damping vibrations in a turbine includes a first rotating blade having a first ceramic airfoil, a first ceramic platform connected to the first ceramic airfoil, and a first root connected to the first ceramic platform. A second rotating blade adjacent to the first rotating blade includes a second ceramic airfoil, a second ceramic platform connected to the second ceramic airfoil, and a second root connected to the second ceramic platform. A non-metallic platform damper has a first position in simultaneous contact with the first and second ceramic platforms.

  16. Fretting fatigue cracking of a center guide bolt supporting the combustion chamber in a heavy-duty gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidel, Andreas; Fischer, Boromir; Gaedicke, Tobias [Siemens AG, Energy Sector, Gasturbinenwerk Berlin (Germany). Werkstoffprueflabor

    2018-04-01

    The slotted center guide bolt of the center guide feature of the lower part of the outer shell of an annular combustion chamber was found fractured in a heavy-duty gas turbine engine used for power generation, after approximately 5.500 operating hours. The incident was a one-off event and not a recurring incident. No similar events were reported from the fleet; hence the failure was not considered a field issue. The metallurgical root cause investigation that was ordered to determine the failure mechanism revealed that the incident center guide bolt failed by fretting fatigue cracking, a high cycle fatigue (HCF) phenomenon.

  17. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul

    , connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control......This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built...

  18. A deflection monitoring system for a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...

  19. An investigation of volute cross-sectional shape on turbocharger turbine under pulsating conditions in internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mingyang; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Rajoo, Srithar; Yokoyama, Takao; Ibaraki, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cycle averaged efficiency is higher for the volute A (low aspect ratio). • More distorted flow in volute B is the reason for performance deterioration. • Flow in volute B (high aspect ratio) is more sensitive to pulsating flow. - Abstract: Engine downsizing is a proven method for CO_2 reduction in Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). A turbocharger, which reclaims the energy from the exhaust gas to boost the intake air, can effectively improve the power density of the engine thus is one of the key enablers to achieve the engine downsizing. Acknowledging its importance, many research efforts have gone into improving a turbocharger performance, which includes turbine volute. The cross-section design of a turbine volute in a turbocharger is usually a compromise between the engine level packaging and desired performance. Thus, it is beneficial to evaluate the effects of cross-sectional shape on a turbine performance. This paper presents experimental and computational investigation of the influence of volute cross-sectional shape on the performance of a radial turbocharger turbine under pulsating conditions. The cross-sectional shape of the baseline volute (denoted as Volute B) was optimized (Volute A) while the annulus distribution of area-to-radius ratio (A/R) for the two volute configurations are kept the same. Experimental results show that the turbine with the optimized volute A has better cycle averaged efficiency under pulsating flow conditions, for different loadings and frequencies. The advantage of performance is influenced by the operational conditions. After the experiment, a validated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was employed to investigate the mechanism by which performance differs between the baseline volute and the optimized version. Computational results show a stronger flow distortion in spanwise direction at the rotor inlet with the baseline volute. Furthermore, compared with the optimized volute, the flow

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on World Energy Network (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine (Development of main accessories); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) seika hokokusho. 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (shuyo hokirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report covers the effort to develop hydrogen-fueled turbines under the international clean energy project. In the development of technologies for the use of liquid hydrogen cold heat, studies are conducted about the emergency stop of an air separating device for a 1,000MW power plant and about a backup system, various details and specifications are defined, and a tentative design is prepared for the whole system. Studies are made about economic efficiency, which lands on a oxygen production cost of 10.92 yen/Nm{sup 3}. In the development of high-temperature heat exchangers, the results are evaluated of the competition which has been under way since 1997 between two entrusted corporations over the topping regeneration cycle technology. In this fiscal year, the evaluation is accomplished by the main accessories development subcommittee, and the Toshiba Corporation wins first place, and the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., second place. It is found, however, that the conceptual designs are both feasible from the technological point of view. In addition, tasks to study for the next project are put together. (NEDO)

  1. System Reliability for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    E). In consequence, a rational treatment of uncertainties is done in order to assess the reliability of critical details in OWTs. Limit state equations are formulated for fatigue critical details which are not influenced by wake effects generated in offshore wind farms. Furthermore, typical bi-linear S-N curves...... are considered for reliability verification according to international design standards of OWTs. System effects become important for each substructure with many potential fatigue hot spots. Therefore, in this paper a framework for system effects is presented. This information can be e.g. no detection of cracks...... in inspections or measurements from condition monitoring systems. Finally, an example is established to illustrate the practical application of this framework for jacket type wind turbine substructure considering system effects....

  2. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  3. The Evaluation of Solid Wastes Reduction with Combustion System in the Combustion Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Sukosrono

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of solid wastes reduction with combustion system is used for weight reduction factor. The evaluation was done design system of combustion chamber furnace and the experiment was done by burning a certain weight of paper, cloth, plastic and rubber in the combustion chamber. The evaluation of paper wastes, the ratio of wastes (paper, cloth, plastic and rubber) against the factor of weight reduction (%) were investigated. The condition was dimension of combustion chamber furnace = 0.6 X 0.9 X 1.20 X 1 m with combustion chamber and gas chamber and reached at the wastes = 2.500 gram, oxygen pressure 0.5 Bar, wastes ratio : paper : cloth : plastic : rubber = 55 : 10 : 30 : 5, the reduction factor = 6.36 %. (author)

  4. Enhancement of exergy efficiency in combustion systems using flameless mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy efficiency in flameless combustion mode is 13% more than conventional combustion. • The maximum exergy efficiency in flameless combustion mode is achieved when oxidizer contains 10% oxygen. • Exergy destruction of flameless combustion is maximized when CO 2 is used for dilution of oxidizer. - Abstract: An exergitic-based analysis of methane (CH 4 ) conventional and flameless combustion in a lab-scale furnace is performed to determine the rate of pollutant formation and the effective potential of a given amount of fuel in the various combustion modes. The effects of inlet air temperature on exergy efficiency and pollutant formation of conventional combustion in various equivalence ratios are analyzed. The rate of exergy destruction in different conditions of flameless combustion (various equivalence ratios, oxygen concentration in the oxidizer and the effects of diluent) are computed using three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD). Fuel consumption reduction and exergy efficiency augmentation are the main positive consequences of using preheated air temperature in conventional combustion, however pollutants especially NO x formation increases dramatically. Low and moderate temperature inside the chamber conducts the flameless combustion system to low level pollutant formation. Fuel consumption and exergy destruction reduce drastically in flameless mode in comparison with conventional combustion. Exergy efficiency of conventional and flameless mode is 75% and 88% respectively in stoichiometric combustion. When CO 2 is used for dilution of oxidizer, chemical exergy increases due to high CO 2 concentration in the combustion products and exergy efficiency reduces around 2% compared to dilution with nitrogen (N 2 ). Since the rate of irreversibilities in combustion systems is very high in combined heat and power (CHP) generation and other industries, application of flameless combustion could be effective in terms of pollutant

  5. Combustion pressure-based engine management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.; Hart, M. [DaimlerChrysler, Stuttart (Germany); Truscott, A.; Noble, A. [Ricardo, Shoreham-by-Sea (United Kingdom); Kroetz, G.; Richter, C. [DaimlerChrysler, Munchen (Germany); Cavalloni, C. [Kistler Instruments AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    In order to fulfill future emissions and OBD regulations, whilst meeting increasing demands for driveability and refinement, new technologies for SI engines have to be found in terms of sensors and algorithms for engine control units. One promising way, explored in the AENEAS collaborative project between DaimlerChrysler, Kistler, Ricardo and the European Commission, is to optimize the behavior of the system by using in-cylinder measurements and analysing them with modern control algorithms. In this paper a new engine management system based on combustion pressure sensing is presented. The pressure sensor is designed to give a reliable and accurate signal of the full pressure trace during a working cycle. With the application of new technologies low cost manufacturing appears to be achievable, so that an application in mass production can be considered. Furthermore, model-based algorithms were developed to allow optimal control of the engine based on the in-cylinder measurements. The algorithms incorporate physical principles to improve efficiency, emissions and to reduce the parameterisation effort. In the paper, applications of the combustion pressure signal for air mass estimation, knock detection, ignition control cam phase detection and diagnosis are discussed. (author)

  6. Heat transfer in heterogeneous propellant combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, M.Q.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that heat transfer plays an important role in several critical areas of heterogeneous, solid-propellant combustion systems. These areas include heat feedback to the propellant surface, heat transfer between burning aluminum droplets and their surroundings, heat transfer to internal insulation systems, and heat transfer to aft-end equipment. Gas conduction dominates heat feedback to the propellant surface in conventional ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite propellants, although particle radiative feedback also plays a significant role in combustion of metalized propellants. Particle radiation plays a dominant role in heat transfer to internal insulation, compared with that of convection. However, conduction by impingement of burning aluminum particles, which has not been extensively studied, may also be significant. Radiative heat loss plays an important role in determining the burning rate of molten aluminum particles due to a highly luminous, oxide particle-laden, detached flame envelope. Radiation by aluminum oxide smoke particles also plays a dominant role in heat transfer from the exhaust plume to aft-end equipment. Uncertainties in aluminum oxide particle-size distribution and optical properties still make it difficult to predict radiative plume heat transfer accurately from first principles

  7. System control model of a turbine for a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas O, Y.; Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R.; Delfin L, A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work is presented a design of a control system of a turbine for a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model seeks to implement later on at thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The model is developed for control and protection of turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control could be employed for one or several turbines in series. The quality of present designs of control pattern of turbine it is that it considers the parameters more important in the operation of a turbine besides that is has incorporated at control the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a model more detailed. The development of control model of a turbine will be good in short and medium term to realize analysis about the operation of turbine with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction specific steps of turbine to feed other equipment s, besides analyzing the separate effect and integrated effect. (Author)

  8. Influence of the combustion chamber during the transient performance of gas turbines; Influencias da camara de combustao durante o transitorio de turbinas a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha Alves, M.A. da [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento

    1991-12-31

    It has been realised that heat transfer and others secondary effects have an important influence on the transient performance of a gas turbine, but until very recently, modelling was carried out either assuming adiabatic conditions, or using expedient but unrealistic models to simulate these effects. This work describes the effects of combustion chamber heat storage and of dead time lag of the combustion process, during a gas turbine transient. These effects have been investigated and the analysis has indicated that these effects do not play an important role in the transient performance of the engine analysed, but in certain circumstances they may become important. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Spectral modeling of radiation in combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Gopalendu

    Radiation calculations are important in combustion due to the high temperatures encountered but has not been studied in sufficient detail in the case of turbulent flames. Radiation calculations for such problems require accurate, robust, and computationally efficient models for the solution of radiative transfer equation (RTE), and spectral properties of radiation. One more layer of complexity is added in predicting the overall heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems due to nonlinear interactions between turbulent fluctuations and radiation. The present work is aimed at the development of finite volume-based high-accuracy thermal radiation modeling, including spectral radiation properties in order to accurately capture turbulence-radiation interactions (TRI) and predict heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems correctly and efficiently. The turbulent fluctuations of temperature and chemical species concentrations have strong effects on spectral radiative intensities, and TRI create a closure problem when the governing partial differential equations are averaged. Recently, several approaches have been proposed to take TRI into account. Among these attempts the most promising approaches are the probability density function (PDF) methods, which can treat nonlinear coupling between turbulence and radiative emission exactly, i.e., "emission TRI". The basic idea of the PDF method is to treat physical variables as random variables and to solve the PDF transport equation stochastically. The actual reacting flow field is represented by a large number of discrete stochastic particles each carrying their own random variable values and evolving with time. The mean value of any function of those random variables, such as the chemical source term, can be evaluated exactly by taking the ensemble average of particles. The local emission term belongs to this class and thus, can be evaluated directly and exactly from particle ensembles. However, the local absorption term

  10. Modeling and simulation of combustion dynamics in lean-premixed swirl-stabilized gas-turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying

    This research focuses on the modeling and simulation of combustion dynamics in lean-premixed gas-turbines engines. The primary objectives are: (1) to establish an efficient and accurate numerical framework for the treatment of unsteady flame dynamics; and (2) to investigate the parameters and mechanisms responsible for driving flow oscillations in a lean-premixed gas-turbine combustor. The energy transfer mechanisms among mean flow motions, periodic motions and background turbulent motions in turbulent reacting flow are first explored using a triple decomposition technique. Then a comprehensive numerical study of the combustion dynamics in a lean-premixed swirl-stabilized combustor is performed. The analysis treats the conservation equations in three dimensions and takes into account finite-rate chemical reactions and variable thermophysical properties. Turbulence closure is achieved using a large-eddy-simulation (LES) technique. The compressible-flow version of the Smagorinsky model is employed to describe subgrid-scale turbulent motions and their effect on large-scale structures. A level-set flamelet library approach is used to simulate premixed turbulent combustion. In this approach, the mean flame location is modeled using a level-set G-equation, where G is defined as a distance function. Thermophysical properties are obtained using a presumed probability density function (PDF) along with a laminar flamelet library. The governing equations and the associated boundary conditions are solved by means of a four-step Runge-Kutta scheme along with the implementation of the message passing interface (MPI) parallel computing architecture. The analysis allows for a detailed investigation into the interaction between turbulent flow motions and oscillatory combustion of a swirl-stabilized injector. Results show good agreement with an analytical solution and experimental data in terms of acoustic properties and flame evolution. A study of flame bifurcation from a stable

  11. A system to control low pressure turbine temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An improved system to control low pressure turbine cycle steam and metal temperatures by governing the heat transfer operation in a moisture separator-reheater is described. The use of the present invention in a pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor steam turbine system is demonstrated. (UK)

  12. Modeling JP-8 Fuel Effects on Diesel Combustion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schihl, Peter; Hoogterp, Laura; Pangilinan, Harold; Schwarz, Ernest; Bryzik, Walter

    2006-01-01

    .... Since engine manufacturers rely solely on DF-2 for commercial vehicle applications most domestic industry, university, and national laboratory lead diesel engine combustion system research activities...

  13. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  14. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2011-07-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

  15. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  16. A model of turbocharger radial turbines appropriate to be used in zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamics codes for internal combustion engines modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Cervello, C. [Conselleria de Cultura, Educacion y Deporte, Generalitat Valenciana (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation. (author)

  17. A model of turbocharger radial turbines appropriate to be used in zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamics codes for internal combustion engines modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A.; Cervello, C.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation

  18. Maintenance management of gas turbine power plant systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the abundant availability of gas and the significant installed capacity of the electricity from Gas Turbine Power Systems; effective maintenance of Gas Turbine Power Plants in Nigeria could be the panacea for achieving regular power generation and supply. The study identified environmental impact on the machines, ...

  19. Advanced condition monitoring program for turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    It is important for utilities to achieve a stable operation in nuclear power plants. To achieve it, plant anomalies that affect a stable operation must be found out and eliminated. Therefore, the advanced condition monitoring program was developed. In this program, a sophisticated heat balance model based on the actual plant data is adopted to identify plant anomalies at an incipient stage and the symptoms of plant anomalies are found by heat balance changes from the model calculation. The model calculation results have shown precise prediction for actual plant parameters. Moreover, this program has the diagnostic engine that helps operators derive the cause of plant anomalies. By using this monitoring program, the component reliability in the turbine system can be periodically monitored and assessed, and as a result the stable operation of nuclear power plants can be achieved. (author)

  20. Pulse Combustor Driven Pressure Gain Combustion for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The gas turbine engine is an essential component of the global energy infrastructure which accounts for a significant portion of the total fossil fuel consumption in transportation and electric power generation sectors. For this reason

  1. Dynamic Model of Kaplan Turbine Regulating System Suitable for Power System Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Li; Liu, Dichen; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Tian; Wang, Haoyu

    2015-01-01

    Accurate modeling of Kaplan turbine regulating system is of great significance for grid security and stability analysis. In this paper, Kaplan turbine regulating system model is divided into the governor system model, the blade control system model, and the turbine and water diversion system model. The Kaplan turbine has its particularity, and the on-cam relationship between the wicket gate opening and the runner blade angle under a certain water head on the whole range was obtained by high-o...

  2. Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    United Technologies Research Center, Pratt Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

  3. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  4. Study on mechanism of combustion instability in a dump gas turbine combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Lee, Jong Ho; Jeon, Chong Hwan; Chang, Yonng June

    2002-01-01

    Combustion instabilities are an important concern associated with lean premixed combustion. Laboratory-scale dump combustor was used to understand the underlying mechanisms causing combustion instabilities. Experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure and sound level meter was used to track the pressure fluctuations inside the combustor. Instability maps and phase-resolved OH chemiluminescence images were obtained at several conditions to investigate the mechanism of combustion instability and relations between pressure wave and heat release rate. It showed that combustion instability was susceptible to occur at higher value of equivalence ratio (>0.6) as the mean velocity was decreased. Instabilities exhibited a longitudinal mode with a dominant frequency of ∼341.8 Hz, which corresponded to a quarter wave mode of combustor. Heat release and pressure waves were in-phase when instabilities occurred. Rayleigh index distribution gave a hint about the location where the strong coherence of pressure and heat release existed. These results also give an insight to the control scheme of combustion instabilities. Emission test revealed that NO x emissions were affected by not only equivalence but also combustion instability

  5. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  6. Numerical Analysis of Impulse Turbine for Isolated Pilot OWC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillating water column (OWC is the most widely used wave energy converting technology in the world. The impulse turbine is recently been employed as the radial turbine in OWC facilities to convert bidirectional mechanical air power into electricity power. 3D numerical model for the impulse turbine is established in this paper to investigate its operating performance of the designed impulse turbine for the pilot OWC system which is under the construction on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The proper mesh style, turbulence model, and numerical solutions are employed to study the velocity and air pressure distribution especially around the rotor blade. The operating coefficients obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with corresponding experimental data, which demonstrates that the 3D numerical model proposed here can be applied to the research of impulse turbines for OWC system. Effects of tip clearances on flow field distribution characteristics and operating performances are also studied.

  7. Spatially distributed flame transfer functions for predicting combustion dynamics in lean premixed gas turbine combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A. [Center for Advanced Power Generation, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The present paper describes a methodology to improve the accuracy of prediction of the eigenfrequencies and growth rates of self-induced instabilities and demonstrates its application to a laboratory-scale, swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed, gas turbine combustor. The influence of the spatial heat release distribution is accounted for using local flame transfer function (FTF) measurements. The two-microphone technique and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence intensity measurements are used to determine the input (inlet velocity perturbation) and the output functions (heat release oscillation), respectively, for the local flame transfer functions. The experimentally determined local flame transfer functions are superposed using the flame transfer function superposition principle, and the result is incorporated into an analytic thermoacoustic model, in order to predict the linear stability characteristics of a given system. Results show that when the flame length is not acoustically compact the model prediction calculated using the local flame transfer functions is better than the prediction made using the global flame transfer function. In the case of a flame in the compact flame regime, accurate predictions of eigenfrequencies and growth rates can be obtained using the global flame transfer function. It was also found that the general response characteristics of the local FTF (gain and phase) are qualitatively the same as those of the global FTF. (author)

  8. Internet of Things Based Combustible Ice Safety Monitoring System Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enji

    2017-05-01

    As the development of human society, more energy is requires to meet the need of human daily lives. New energies play a significant role in solving the problems of serious environmental pollution and resources exhaustion in the present world. Combustible ice is essentially frozen natural gas, which can literally be lit on fire bringing a whole new meaning to fire and ice with less pollutant. This paper analysed the advantages and risks on the uses of combustible ice. By compare to other kinds of alternative energies, the advantages of the uses of combustible ice were concluded. The combustible ice basic physical characters and safety risks were analysed. The developments troubles and key utilizations of combustible ice were predicted in the end. A real-time safety monitoring system framework based on the internet of things (IOT) was built to be applied in the future mining, which provide a brand new way to monitoring the combustible ice mining safety.

  9. Instrumentation and control of turbine, generator and associated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogtland, U.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give some information on Instrumentation and Control (I and C) for turbine-generators, in this case for nuclear application. The I and C scope of supply for such a turbine-generator can be divided as follows: - Closed-loop controls - Turbine stress control systems - Supervisory instrumentation - Protection systems - Open-loop controls. The main systems used for nuclear application are presented by means of examples taken from these a.m. categories. (orig./RW)

  10. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  11. Computational Investigation of Combustion Dynamics in a Lean-Direct Injection Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    variable vector which includes turbulence kinetic energy and specific dissipation, k and w; In the viscous flux, D is the molecular diffusion coefficient...for the liquid particle. This equation assumes the uniform temperature inside the liquid particle. The source term consist of the net sensible ...Spray Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission, SAE 980131, 1998 24 Fu, Y., “Aerodynamics and Combustion of Axial Swirlers,” Ph . D. dissertation from the University of Cincinnati, 2008.

  12. Converging flow joint insert system at an intersection between adjacent transitions extending between a combustor and a turbine assembly in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.; Carlson, Andrew; Stoker, Kyle C.

    2017-10-31

    A transition duct system for routing a gas flow in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The transition duct system includes one or more converging flow joint inserts forming a trailing edge at an intersection between adjacent transition ducts. The converging flow joint insert may be contained within a converging flow joint insert receiver and may be disconnected from the transition duct bodies by which the converging flow joint insert is positioned. Being disconnected eliminates stress formation within the converging flow joint insert, thereby enhancing the life of the insert. The converging flow joint insert may be removable such that the insert can be replaced once worn beyond design limits.

  13. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  14. Digital electro-hydraulic control system for nuclear turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yutaka; Tone, Youichi; Ozono, Jiro

    1985-01-01

    The unit capacity of steam turbines for nuclear power generation is very large, accordingly their unexpected stop disturbs power system, and the lowering of their capacity ratio exerts large influence on power generation cost. Therefore, very high reliability is required for turbine EHC controllers which directly control the turbines for nuclear power generation. In order to meet such requirement, Toshiba Corp. has developed high reliability type analog tripled turbine EHC controllers, and delivered them to No. 3 plant in the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station and No. 1 plant in the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. At present, the trial operation is under way. The development of digital EHC controllers was begun in 1976, and through the digital EHC for a test turbine and that for a small turbine, the digital EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation were developed. In this paper, the function, constitution, features and maintenance of the digital tripled EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation, the application of new technology to them, and the confirmation of the control function by simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. The development of control systems for high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, M.

    1983-01-01

    The functional and technological aspects of developments in the field of control systems for steam turbines over the last twenty years are analyzed. These developments have now culminated in very sophisticated systems which closely link electronics to high pressure hydraulic technology. A detailed description of these systeme high-lighting the high technical level of the control methods and the flexibility and reliability in service of turbines controlled in this way is given [fr

  16. New Metamaterials with Combined Subnano - and Mesoscale Topology for High-efficiency Catalytic Combustion Chambers of Innovative Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knysh, Yu A.; Xanthopoulou, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    The object of the study is a catalytic combustion chamber that provides a highly efficient combustion process through the use of effects: heat recovery from combustion, microvortex heat transfer, catalytic reaction and acoustic resonance. High efficiency is provided by a complex of related technologies: technologies for combustion products heat transfer (recuperation) to initial mixture, catalytic processes technology, technology for calculating effective combustion processes based on microvortex matrices, technology for designing metamaterials structures and technology for obtaining the required topology product by laser fusion of metal powder compositions. The mesoscale level structure provides combustion process with the use of a microvortex effect with a high intensity of heat and mass transfer. High surface area (extremely high area-to-volume ratio) created due to nanoscale periodic structure and ensures catalytic reactions efficiency. Produced metamaterial is the first multiscale product of new concept which due to combination of different scale level periodic topologies provides qualitatively new set of product properties. This research is aimed at solving simultaneously two global problems of the present: ensure environmental safety of transport systems and power industry, as well as the economy and rational use of energy resources, providing humanity with energy now and in the foreseeable future.

  17. Rule - based Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xiao-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the trend of increasing installed capacity of wind power, the intelligent fault diagnosis of wind turbine is of great significance to the safe and efficient operation of wind farms. Based on the knowledge of fault diagnosis of wind turbines, this paper builds expert system diagnostic knowledge base by using confidence production rules and expert system self-learning method. In Visual Studio 2013 platform, C # language is selected and ADO.NET technology is used to access the database. Development of Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine. The purpose of this paper is to realize on-line diagnosis of wind turbine fault through human-computer interaction, and to improve the diagnostic capability of the system through the continuous improvement of the knowledge base.

  18. 40 CFR 60.4305 - Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turbine. Any additional heat input to associated heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) or duct burners... subpart are exempt from the requirements of subpart GG of this part. Heat recovery steam generators and duct burners regulated under this subpart are exempted from the requirements of subparts Da, Db, and Dc...

  19. Numerical study of pyrolysis oil combustion in an industrial gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for the use of biofuels for decentralized power generation initiates new research in gas turbine technology. However, development of new combustors for low calorific fuels is costly in terms of time and money. To give momentum to biofuels application for power generation robust

  20. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Srinivasan, Shiva; York, William David

    2016-11-29

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap that extends radially across the combustor and includes an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A combustion chamber is downstream of the end cap, and tubes extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface. Each tube provides fluid communication through the end cap to the combustion chamber. The system further includes means for reducing combustion dynamics in the combustor. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing a working fluid through tubes that extend axially through an end cap that extends radially across the combustor and obstructing at least a portion of the working fluid flowing through a first set of the tubes.

  1. NATO Workshop on Soot in Combustion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Prado, G

    1983-01-01

    Our interest in Mulhouse for carbon black and soot began some 30 years ago when J.B. Donnet developed the concept of surface chemistry of carbon and its involvement in interactions with gas, liquid and solid phases. In the late sixties, we began to study soot formation in pyrolytic systems and later on in flames. The idea of organ1z1ng a meeting on soot formation originated some four or five years ago, through discussions among Professor J.B. Howard, Dr. A. D'Alessio and ourselves. At that time the scientific community was becoming aware of the necessity to strictly control soot formation and emission. Being involved in the study of surface properties of carbon black as well as of formation of soot, we realized that the combustion community was not always fully aware of the progress made by the physical-chemists on carbon black. Reciprocally, the carbon specialists were often ignoring the research carried out on soot in flames. One objective of this workshop was to stimulate discussions between these two scie...

  2. Two-stage combustion for reducing pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R. M.; Lewis, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion and emission results are presented for a premix combustor fueled with admixtures of JP5 with neat H2 and of JP5 with simulated partial-oxidation product gas. The combustor was operated with inlet-air state conditions typical of cruise power for high performance aviation engines. Ultralow NOx, CO and HC emissions and extended lean burning limits were achieved simultaneously. Laboratory scale studies of the non-catalyzed rich-burning characteristics of several paraffin-series hydrocarbon fuels and of JP5 showed sooting limits at equivalence ratios of about 2.0 and that in order to achieve very rich sootless burning it is necessary to premix the reactants thoroughly and to use high levels of air preheat. The application of two-stage combustion for the reduction of fuel NOx was reviewed. An experimental combustor designed and constructed for two-stage combustion experiments is described.

  3. Evaluation of turbine systems for compressed air energy storage plants. Final report for FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsounes, G.T.

    1976-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage plants for electric utility peak-shaving applications comprise four subsystems: a turbine system, compressor system, an underground air storage reservoir, and a motor/generator. Proposed plant designs use turbines that are derived from available gas and steam turbines with proven reliability. The study examines proposed turbine systems and presents an evaluation of possible systems that may reduce capital cost and/or improve performance. Six new turbine systems are identified for further economic evaluation.

  4. 76 FR 16646 - Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc.), Collectible Concepts Group, Inc., Communitronics of... is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Clean Energy Combustion...

  5. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-05

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as

  6. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  7. Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    networks and more and more wind power stations, acting as power plants, are connected directly to the transmission networks. As the grid penetration and power level of the wind turbines increase steadily, the wind power starts to have significant impacts to the power grid system. Therefore, more advanced...... generators, power electronic systems, and control solutions have to be introduced to improve the characteristics of the wind power plant and make it more suitable to be integrated into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are also some emerging technology challenges, which need to be further clarified......Wind power is still the most promising renewable energy in the year of 2013. The wind turbine system (WTS) started with a few tens of kilowatt power in the 1980s. Now, multimegawatt wind turbines are widely installed even up to 6-8 MW. There is a widespread use of wind turbines in the distribution...

  8. Hadron–Quark Combustion as a Nonlinear, Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ouyed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The hadron–quark combustion front is a system that couples various processes, such as chemical reactions, hydrodynamics, diffusion, and neutrino transport. Previous numerical work has shown that this system is very nonlinear, and can be very sensitive to some of these processes. In these proceedings, we contextualize the hadron–quark combustion as a nonlinear system, subject to dramatic feedback triggered by leptonic weak decays and neutrino transport.

  9. Hadron–Quark Combustion as a Nonlinear, Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Amir; Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2018-03-01

    The hadron-quark combustion front is a system that couples various processes, such as chemical reactions, hydrodynamics, diffusion, and neutrino transport. Previous numerical work has shown that this system is very nonlinear, and can be very sensitive to some of these processes. In these proceedings, we contextualize the hadron-quark combustion as a nonlinear system, subject to dramatic feedback triggered by leptonic weak decays and neutrino transport.

  10. Vortex system studies on small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomerie, Bjoern; Dahlberg, Jan-Aake [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Aeronautics, FFA

    2003-10-01

    The wind tunnel experiment reported included a small wind turbine setup and smoke to visualize the trailing tip vortices for different wind turbine configurations. Several combinations of tunnel wind speeds and tip speed ratios generated a database where the end result functions were radius and pitch, of the tip vortex spirals, versus the downstream coordinate. The Reynolds number in the experiment was very low compared to that of full size turbines. The results should therefore be seen as valid only for low Reynolds numbers. The models were 18 and 25 cm diameter turbines. This is thought to be complementary to the information obtained in similar wind tunnel investigations for much larger models. The database is meant to be a fundamental tool for the construction of practical aerodynamic induction methods. Such methods typically employ the Biot-Savart law has been shown to lead to a flow field, which deviates considerably from that of reality. E.g. concentration into tip vortices does not happen when the flow is simulated with Biot-Savart law only. Thus, a combination of the induction method and its modification, based on investigations such as the one reported, is foreseen to replace the widely used Blade Element Momentum method for wind turbine loads and performance prediction.

  11. System Identification of Wind Turbines for Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena

    Structural health monitoring is a multi-disciplinary engineering field that should allow the actual wind turbine maintenance programmes to evolve to the next level, hence increasing safety and reliability and decreasing turbines downtime. The main idea is to have a sensing system on the structure...... cases are considered, two practical problems from the wind industry are studied, i.e. monitoring of the gearbox shaft torque and the tower root bending moments. The second part of the thesis is focused on the influence of friction on the health of the wind turbine and on the nonlinear identification...... that monitors the system responses and notifies the operator when damages or degradations have been detected. However, some of the response signals that contain important information about the health of the wind turbine components cannot be directly measured, or measuring them is highly complex and costly...

  12. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a combined heat and power (CHP) demonstration project that reduces the energy costs and environmental impact of a plant while easing congestion on the constrained Northeast power grid.

  13. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  14. Integration Research on Gas Turbine and Tunnel Kiln Combined System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hefei; Ma, Liangdong; Liu, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    Through the integrated modeling of gas turbine and tunnel kiln combined system, a thermodynamic calculation method of combined system is put forward, and the combined system operation parameters are obtained. By this method, the optimization of the combined system is analyzed and the optimal configuration of the gas turbine is calculated. At the same time, the thermal efficiency of the combined system is analyzed, and the heat distribution and thermal efficiency of the system before and after the improvement are explained. Taking the 1500 kg/h ceramic production as an example, pointed out that if the tunnel kiln has a gas turbine with a power of 342 kw. The amount of electricity of the combined system that produced per unit volume of the fuel which consumes more than it used to will be 7.19 kwh, the system thermal efficiency will reach 57.49%, which higher than the individual gas turbine’s cycle thermal efficiency 20% at least.

  15. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-03-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore

  16. Development and Experimental Validation of Large Eddy Simulation Techniques for the Prediction of Combustion-Dynamic Process in Syngas Combustion: Characterization of Autoignition, Flashback, and Flame-Liftoff at Gas-Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihme, Matthias [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Driscoll, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The objective of this closely coordinated experimental and computational research effort is the development of simulation techniques for the prediction of combustion processes, relevant to the oxidation of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels at gas-turbine relevant operating conditions. Specifically, the research goals are (i) the characterization of the sensitivity of syngas ignition processes to hydrodynamic processes and perturbations in temperature and mixture composition in rapid compression machines and ow-reactors and (ii) to conduct comprehensive experimental investigations in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine (GT) combustor under realistic high-pressure operating conditions in order (iii) to obtain fundamental understanding about mechanisms controlling unstable flame regimes in HHC-combustion.

  17. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  18. Method and system to facilitate sealing in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Victor John; Foster, Gregory Thomas; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar

    2017-09-12

    A method and system for sealing between components within a gas turbine is provided. A first recess defined in a first component receives a seal member. A second recess defined in a second component adjacent the first component also receives the seal member. The first and second recesses are located proximate a hot gas path defined through the gas turbine, and define circumferential paths about the turbine axis. The seal member includes a sealing face that extends in a direction substantially parallel to the turbine axis. The seal member also includes a plurality of seal layers, wherein at least one of the seal layers includes at least one stress relief region for facilitating flexing of the first seal member.

  19. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  20. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. ...

  1. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren

    energy and an increase in the loading of the wind turbine structure and components. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that there are advantages of basing a yaw system on hydraulic components instead of normal electrical components. This is done through a state of the art analysis followed...... in the wind turbine yaw system along with minor reductions in the blades and main shaft. Optimization of the damping and stiffness of the hydraulic soft yaw system have been conducted and an optimum found for load reduction. Linear control algorithms for control of damping pressure peaks have been developed...... the full turbine code in FAST, and the mathematical model of the hydraulic yaw system in Matlab/Simulink and Amesim is developed in order to analyze a full scale model of the hydraulic yaw system in combination with the implemented friction model for the yaw system. These results are also promising...

  2. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of

  3. The system design and performance test of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyantoro, Bambang Arip; Suphandani, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a tool that is being developed to generate energy from wind. One cause is still little use of wind energy is the design of wind turbines that are less precise. Therefore in this study will be developed the system design of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine and tested performance with experimental methods. The design of hybrid turbine based on a straight bladed Darrieus turbine along with a double step Savonius turbine. The method used to design wind turbines is by studying literature, analyzing the critical parts of a wind turbine and the structure of the optimal design. Wind turbine prototype of the optimal design characteristic tests in the wind tunnel experimentally by varying the speed of the wind. From the experimental results show that the greater the wind speed, the greater the wind turbine rotation and torque is raised. The hybrid vertical axis wind turbine has much better self-starting and better conversion efficiency.

  4. Modeling of Supersonic Combustion Systems for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Neill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through Computational Fluid Dynamics and validation, an optimal scramjet combustor has been designed based on twin-strut Hydrogen injection to sustain flight at a desired speed of Mach 8. An investigation undertaken into the efficacy of supersonic combustion through various means of injection saw promising results for Hydrogen-based systems, whereby strut-style injectors were selected over transverse injectors based on their pressure recovery performance and combustive efficiency. The final configuration of twin-strut injectors provided robust combustion and a stable region of net thrust (1873 kN in the nozzle. Using fixed combustor inlet parameters and injection equivalence ratio, the finalized injection method advanced to the early stages of two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D scramjet engine integration. The overall investigation provided a feasible supersonic combustion system, such that Mach 8 sustained cruise could be achieved by the aircraft concept in a computational design domain.

  5. Fault Detection and Isolation for Wind Turbine Electric Pitch System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and isolation scheme applied on electric pitch system of wind turbines. Pitch system is one of the most critical components due to its effect on the operational safety and the dynamics of wind turbines. Faults in this system should be precisely...... detected to prevent failures and decrease downtime. To detect faults of electric pitch actuators and sensors, an extended kalman filter (EKF) based multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) designed to estimate the states of the system. The proposed method is demonstrated in case studies. The simulation...

  6. Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Soumitr

    2011-12-01

    The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account

  7. Thermally accurate LES of the stability-emission performance of staged gas-turbine combustion; Simulation aux grandes echelles de la combustion etagee dans les turbines a gaz et son interaction stabilite-polluants-thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, P.

    2005-06-15

    Modern gas turbines use turbulent lean partially premixed combustion in order to minimise nitrous oxide (NO{sub X}) emissions while ensuring flashback safety. The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of such a device is the goal of this work. Focus is laid on correctly predicting the NO{sub X} emissions, which are influenced by four factors: heat transfer, mixing quality, combustion modelling and thermo-acoustic stability. As NO{sub X} reaction rates are strongly influenced by temperature, heat transfer by radiation and convection is included. Radiation is predicted by a model, which assumes that the gases are optically thin. Convective heat transfer is included via a newly developed and validated wall-function approach based on the logarithmic law of the wall for temperature. An optimised 2-step reduced chemical reaction scheme for lean methane combustion is presented. This scheme is used for the LES in conjunction with an additional third reaction, fitted to produce the same NO{sub X} reaction rates as in the complete reaction mechanism. Turbulence is accounted for with the thickened flame model in a form, which is optimised for changing equivalence ratios and mesh-resolutions. Mixing is essential not only for predicting flame stabilisation, but also for pollutant emissions as NO{sub X} reaction rates depend exponentially on equivalence ratio. Therefore the full burner geometry, including 16 fuel injections is resolved in LES. Additionally, effusion cooling and film cooling is accounted for in a simplified manner. The non-reacting flow is extensively validated with experimental results. As mixture-fraction fluctuations do not only arise from turbulence, but also from thermo-acoustic instabilities, care was taken to provide acoustic boundary conditions that come close to reality. The resulting LES shows a strong thermo-acoustic instability, comparing well with experimental observations. By making the boundaries completely anechoic it is shown that when the instability

  8. Advanced Integrated Fuel/Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    ineffective in the T63, even at concentrations up to 40 times the recommended value. Additive companies were informed about the performance of their...M. (1996): NASA RP- 1385. • Toepke, S. (1999): Boeing Company , Personal Correspondence. • Ulrich, G.D. (1971): Comb. Sci. Tech., Vol. 4, pp. 47-58...temperature (K) THC = total hydrocarbons UNICORN = UNsteady Ignition and COmbustion with ReactioNs V = reactor volume (mL) WSR = well-stirred reactor

  9. Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-09-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.

  10. An alternative approach to continuous compliance monitoring and turbine plant optimization using a PEMS (predictive emission monitoring system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, B.G.; Lawrence, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviewed the use of a predictive emissions monitoring system (PEMS) at 3 different gas turbine facilities in the United States and highlighted the costs and benefits of using a PEMS for documenting emissions of priority pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). The PEMS interfaces directly to the turbine control system and represents a lower cost alternative to the traditional continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS). The PEMS can track combustion efficiency through modeling of the turbine's operation and emissions. Excess emissions can be tracked and the causes of pollution can be determined and mitigated. The PEMS installed at the 3 turbine plants must meet rigorous performance specification criteria and the sites perform ongoing quality assurance tasks such as periodic audits with portable analyzers. The PEMS is much less expensive to install, operate, and maintain compared to the standard CEMS gas analyzer. Empirical PEMS achieves very high accuracy levels and has demonstrated superior reliability over CEMS for various types of continuous process applications under existing air compliance regulations in the United States. Annual accuracy testing at the gas turbine sites have shown that the PEMS predictions are usually within 5 per cent of the reference method. PEMS can be certified as an alternative to gas analyzer based CEMS for nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide compliance and for GHG trading purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Selection of an industrial natural-gas-fired advanced turbine system - Task 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, G.M.

    1997-05-01

    TASK OBJECTIVES: Identify a gas-fueled turbine and steam system which will meet the program goals for efficiency - and emissions. TECHNICAL GOALS AND REQUIREMENTS: Goals for the Advanced Turbine System Program (ATS) where outlined in the statement of work for five basic categories: Cycle Efficiency - System heat rate to have a 15% improvement over 1991 vintage systems being offered to the market. Environmental No post-combustion devices while meeting the following parameter targets: (1) Nitrous Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions to equal 8 parts per million dry (ppmd) with 15% oxygen. (2) Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions to equal 20 parts per million(ppmd) each. Cost of electricity to be 10 percent less when compared to similar 1991 systems. Fuel Flexibility Have to ability to burn coal or coal derived fuels without extensive redesign. Reliability, Availability, Maintainability Reliability, availability and maintainability must be comparable to modern advanced power generation systems. For all cycle and system studies, analyses were done for the following engine system ambient conditions: Temperature - 59F; Altitude - Sea Level; Humidity - 60%. For the 1991 reference system, GE Aircraft Engines used its LM6OOO engine product offering for comparison of the Industrial System parameters developed under this program.

  12. Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal...... fatigue design of OWTs is discussed and results for reliability assessment of typical fatigue critical design of offshore steel support structures are presented....

  13. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Southwest Windpower H40 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Link, H.; Meadors, M.; Bianchi, J.

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this test was to evaluate the safety and function characteristics of the Whisper H40 wind turbine. The general requirements of wind turbine safety and function tests are defined in the IEC standard WT01. The testing was conducted in accordance with the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) Quality Assurance System, including the NWTC Certification Team Certification Quality Manual and the NWTC Certification Team General Quality Manual for the Testing of Wind Turbines, as well as subordinate documents. This safety and function test was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Field Verification Program for small wind turbines.

  14. Thermal performance of a micro-combustor for micro-gas turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, H.L.; Xu, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Premixed combustion of hydrogen gas and air was performed in a stainless steel based micro-annular combustor for a micro-gas turbine system. Micro-scale combustion has proved to be stable in the micro-combustor with a gap of 2 mm. The operating range of the micro-combustor was measured, and the maximum excess air ratio is up to 4.5. The distribution of the outer wall temperature and the temperature of exhaust gas of the micro-combustor with excess air ratio were obtained, and the wall temperature of the micro-combustor reaches its maximum value at the excess air ratio of 0.9 instead of 1 (stoichiometric ratio). The heat loss of the micro-combustor to the environment was calculated and even exceeds 70% of the total thermal power computed from the consumed hydrogen mass flow rate. Moreover, radiant heat transfer covers a large fraction of the total heat loss. Measures used to reduce the heat loss were proposed to improve the thermal performance of the micro-combustor. The optimal operating status of the micro-combustor and micro-gas turbine is analyzed and proposed by analyzing the relationship of the temperature of the exhaust gas of the micro-combustor with thermal power and excess air ratio. The investigation of the thermal performance of the micro-combustor is helpful to design an improved micro-combustor

  15. Stability improvement of induction generator-based wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hu, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The stability improvement of induction-generator-based wind turbine systems under power system fault conditions has been studied. Two types of generators are considered, namely rotor short-circuited induction generators and dynamic slip-controlled wound rotor induction generators. The factors...... affecting the stability are analysed. The characteristics of the induction-generator-based wind turbines are described, and possible methods of improving stability of the wind generators are discussed. The system modelling is presented, and then the discussed methods of improving stability are investigated...

  16. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2013-08-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend through the end cap. A diluent supply in fluid communication with the end cap provides diluent flow to the end cap. Diluent distributors circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle extend downstream from the downstream surface and provide fluid communication for the diluent flow through the end cap. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing fuel through tube bundles that extend axially through an end cap, flowing a diluent through diluent distributors into a combustion chamber, wherein the diluent distributors are circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle and each diluent distributor extends downstream from the end cap, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between at least one pair of adjacent tube bundles.

  17. Dynamic Model of Kaplan Turbine Regulating System Suitable for Power System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of Kaplan turbine regulating system is of great significance for grid security and stability analysis. In this paper, Kaplan turbine regulating system model is divided into the governor system model, the blade control system model, and the turbine and water diversion system model. The Kaplan turbine has its particularity, and the on-cam relationship between the wicket gate opening and the runner blade angle under a certain water head on the whole range was obtained by high-order curve fitting method. Progressively the linearized Kaplan turbine model, improved ideal Kaplan turbine model, and nonlinear Kaplan turbine model were developed. The nonlinear Kaplan turbine model considered the correction function of the blade angle on the turbine power, thereby improving the model simulation accuracy. The model parameters were calculated or obtained by the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. For the blade control system model, the default blade servomotor time constant given by value of one simplified the modeling and experimental work. Further studies combined with measured test data verified the established model accuracy and laid a foundation for further research into the influence of Kaplan turbine connecting to the grid.

  18. Fixed-Time Stability of the Hydraulic Turbine Governing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoyuan Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of fixed-time stability of hydraulic turbine governing system with the elastic water hammer nonlinear model. To control and improve the quality of hydraulic turbine governing system, a new fixed-time control strategy is proposed, which can stabilize the water turbine governing system within a fixed time. Compared with the finite-time control strategy where the convergence rate depends on the initial state, the settling time of the fixed-time control scheme can be adjusted to the required value regardless of the initial conditions. Finally, we numerically show that the fixed-time control is more effective than and superior to the finite-time control.

  19. Effects of Fuel and Nozzle Characteristics on Micro Gas Turbine System: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasha Hashim, Muhammad; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    For many decades, gas turbines have been used widely in the internal combustion engine industry. Due to the deficiency of fossil fuel and the concern of global warming, the used of bio-gas have been recognized as one of most clean fuels in the application of engine to improve performance of lean combustion and minimize the production of NOX and PM. This review paper is to understand the combustion performance using dual-fuel nozzle for a micro gas turbine that was basically designed as a natural gas fuelled engine, the nozzle characteristics of the micro gas turbine has been modelled and the effect of multi-fuel used were investigated. The used of biogas (hydrogen) as substitute for liquid fuel (methane) at constant fuel injection velocity, the flame temperature is increased, but the fuel low rate reduced. Applying the blended fuel at constant fuel rate will increased the flame temperature as the hydrogen percentages increased. Micro gas turbines which shows the uniformity of the flow distribution that can be improved without the increase of the pressure drop by applying the variable nozzle diameters into the fuel supply nozzle design. It also identifies the combustion efficiency, better fuel mixing in combustion chamber using duel fuel nozzle with the largest potential for the future. This paper can also be used as a reference source that summarizes the research and development activities on micro gas turbines.

  20. A review of active control approaches in stabilizing combustion systems in aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Lu, Zhengli; Zhao, He; Li, X. Y.; Wang, Bing; Liu, Peijin

    2018-02-01

    Self-sustained combustion instabilities are one of the most plaguing challenges and problems in lean-conditioned propulsion and land-based engine systems, such as rocket motors, gas turbines, industrial furnace and boilers, and turbo-jet thrust augmenters. Either passive or active control in open- or closed-loop configurations can be implemented to mitigate such instabilities. One of the classical disadvantages of passive control is that it is only implementable to a designed combustor over a limited frequency range and can not respond to the changes in operating conditions. Compared with passive control approaches, active control, especially in closed-loop configuration is more adaptive and has inherent capacity to be implemented in practice. The key components in closed-loop active control are 1) sensor, 2) controller (optimization algorithm) and 3) dynamic actuator. The present work is to outline the current status, technical challenges and development progress of the active control approaches (in open- or closed-loop configurations). A brief description of feedback control, adaptive control, model-based control and sliding mode control are provided first by introducing a simplified Rijke-type combustion system. The modelled combustion system provides an invaluable platform to evaluate the performance of these feedback controllers and a transient growth controller. The performance of these controllers are compared and discussed. An outline of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations are then provided to overview the research and development progress made during the last 4 decades. Finally, potential, challenges and issues involved with the design, application and implementation of active combustion control strategies on a practical engine system are highlighted.

  1. Limerick BWR turbine control and protection system upgrade success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.K.; Pietryka, T.S.; Federico, P.A.; Williams, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Westinghouse and Exelon have successfully implemented a digital electro-hydraulic control (DEHC) at Limerick BWR Unit 1 Station to perform the turbine control, protection and reactor pressure functions. The DEHC replaces analog controls and addressed system performance, obsolescence and reliability. This was a first-of-a-kind application for control and protection of the main turbine and BWR pressure control for the distributed control system utilized. The demolition of analog equipment, main control room and front standard modifications, and acceptance testing were completed on schedule during the normal 2014 outage. Key aspects of the project that facilitated this success will be discussed and presented. (author)

  2. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  3. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  4. Limerick BWR turbine control and protection system upgrade success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, C.K.; Pietryka, T.S.; Federico, P.A., E-mail: tangck@westinghouse.com, E-mail: pietryt@westinghouse, E-mail: federipa@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Williams, J.C., E-mail: Jonathan.Williams@exeloncorp.com [Exelon Nuclear, Warrenville, IL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Westinghouse and Exelon have successfully implemented a digital electro-hydraulic control (DEHC) at Limerick BWR Unit 1 Station to perform the turbine control, protection and reactor pressure functions. The DEHC replaces analog controls and addressed system performance, obsolescence and reliability. This was a first-of-a-kind application for control and protection of the main turbine and BWR pressure control for the distributed control system utilized. The demolition of analog equipment, main control room and front standard modifications, and acceptance testing were completed on schedule during the normal 2014 outage. Key aspects of the project that facilitated this success will be discussed and presented. (author)

  5. A Semi-active Control System for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, N.; Georgakis, Christos T.; Trinchillo, F.

    2014-01-01

    A semi-active (SA) control system based on the use of smart magnetorheological (MR) dampers to control the structural response of a wind turbine is proposed herein. The innovative approach is based on the implementation and use of a variable-properties base restraint. This is able to modify in real......, and a control algorithm that instantaneously commands the latter during the motion, making them to modulate the reactive force as needed to achieve the performance goals. The design and operation of such a system are shown with reference to a case study consisting of an almost 100 m tall wind turbine, realized...

  6. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  7. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-01-01

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions

  8. Adaptive Controller for Drive System PMSG in Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanambal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG wind turbine and direct power control for grid side inverter for transformer less integration of wind energy. PMSG wind turbine with two back to back voltage source converters are considered more efficient, used to make real and reactive power control. The optimal control strategy has introduced for integrated control of PMSG Maximum Power Extraction, DC link voltage control and grid voltage support controls. Simulation model using MATLAB Simulink has developed to investigate the performance of proposed control techniques for PMSG wind turbine steady and variable wind conditions. This paper shows that the direct driven grid connected PMSG system has excellent performances and confirms the feasibility of the proposed techniques. While the wind turbine market continues to be dominated by conventional gear-driven wind turbine systems, the direct drive is attracting attention. PM machines are more attractive and superior with higher efficiency and energy yield, higher reliability, and power-to-weight ratio compared with electricity-excited machines.

  9. Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in Turbines with High-Hydrogen Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieuwen, Tim [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santavicca, Dom [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yang, Vigor [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    During the duration of this sponsorship, we broadened our understanding of combustion instabilities through both analytical and experimental work. Predictive models were developed for flame response to transverse acoustic instabilities and for quantifying how a turbulent flame responds to velocity and fuel/air ratio forcing. Analysis was performed on the key instability mechanisms controlling heat release response for flames over a wide range of instability frequencies. Importantly, work was done closely with industrial partners to transition existing models into internal instability prediction codes. Experimentally, the forced response of hydrogen-enriched natural gas/air premixed and partially premixed flames were measured. The response of a lean premixed flame was investigated, subjected to velocity, equivalence ratio, and both forcing mechanisms simultaneously. In addition, important physical mechanisms controlling the response of partially premixed flames to inlet velocity and equivalence ratio oscillations were analyzed. This final technical report summarizes our findings and major publications stemming from this program.

  10. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find defects in the wind turbine blade and reduce the cost of inspection. A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating an Sb–Be source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. The simulated system has a wide range of radiography parameters.

  11. N2O formation in combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The objective of this project is to characterize N 2 O emissions from combustion sources emphasizing N 2 O emissions from post-combustion selective gas phase NO x reduction processes and reburning. The processes to be evaluated include ammonia, urea and cyanuric acid injection and reburning. The project includes pilot-scale testing at two facilities supported by chemical kinetic modeling. Testing will be performed on both a gas-fired plug flow combustor and a pulverized-coal fired combustor. Work performed to date has included the performance of the initial detailed chemical kinetics calculations. These calculations showed that both urea and cyanuric acid produce significant quantities of N 2 O, while NH 3 injection produced negligible amounts. These kinetics data support limited test results reported for cyanuric acid and ammonia injection. Laboratory work to evaluate the selective gas phase NO x reduction processes listed above will begin in the gas-fired facility early in CY 1990. Testing to evaluate reburning at the coal-fired facility is currently planned to be performed in parallel with the testing at the gas-fired facility. Following completion of that work, additional kinetics calculations will be performed

  12. Fiscal 1993 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology (Subtask 8 - Research and development of hydrogen combustion turbine - Development of ultrahigh-temperature materials); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). (Subtask 8. Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - Cho koon zairyo no kaihatsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Current technologies are surveyed and tasks to discharge are extracted relating to heat resistant alloys, intermetallic compounds, ceramic based composite materials, and carbon based composite materials, which are expected to be used for hydrogen combustion turbines. Concerning oxide dispersion strengthened alloys for cooled vanes, tasks to discharge are extracted, which relate to the designing, development, and selection of vane materials, bonding layer materials, and coating materials, and to thermal barrier coating techniques and machining techniques. Concerning porous fiber reinforced ceramic materials for ceramic shells, tasks involve the elucidation of corrosion behavior and manufacturing techniques. MoSi{sub 2}, which is a promising high-melting intermetallic compound, also presents some tasks to discharge for an increase in its high strength and high ductility in an ultrahigh-temperature steam/reducing atmosphere, and for improvement in manufacturing techniques. For the carbon/carbon composite material which is the sole material usable in the ultrahigh-temperature domain of 2,000 degrees C, an analysis and evaluation method taking its anisotropy into consideration needs to be developed, and an oxidation resistant coating has to be also developed. In addition to the designing and development of these materials, development is necessary of materials testing and evaluating techniques. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1993 achievement report. International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET) technology (Subtask 8 - Development of hydrogen combustion turbine - Development of main accessories); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) (Subtask 8. Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - Shuyo hokirui no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    In the first fiscal year 1993 of the project, surveys were conducted about current technologies relative to cold energy-utilizing oxygen production equipment and high-temperature heat exchangers for the development of main accessories for a hydrogen combustion turbine plant. Kobe Steel, Ltd., conducted surveys about very low temperature heat exchangers and cold energy utilization technology used in facilities for gasifying liquid hydrogen or liquefied gas. Daido Hoxan, Inc., in its research on the possibility of air separator performance enhancement through liquid hydrogen cold energy application, studied reduction in power unit requirement, stable power supply responding to changes in load, safety measures, and so forth. Toshiba Corporation conducted surveys and studies about heat conduction improvement techniques and about the type, structure, and materials for heat exchangers for the embodiment of a high-temperature heat exchanger excellent in performance and high in structural soundness. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., aiming to establish basic technologies for heat exchangers, studied efficiency enhancement with low pressure loss, improved hygroscopic moisture removing function, and new materials utilization for achieving high-temperature capability. (NEDO)

  14. Rated power factor and excitation system of large turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Takashi; Banjou, Minoru.

    1979-01-01

    As for the rated power factor of turbine generators for thermal power stations, 90% has been adopted since around 1960. On the other hand, power transmission system has entered 500 kV age, and 1,000 kV transmission is expected in the near future. As for the supply of reactive power from thermal and nuclear turbine generators, the necessity of supplying leading reactive power has rather increased. Now, the operating power factor of thermal and nuclear generators becomes 96 to 100% actually. As for the excess stability of turbine generators owing to the strengthening of transmission system and the adoption of super-high voltage, the demand of strict conditions can be dealt with by the adoption of super-fast response excitation system of thyristor shunt winding self exciting type. The adoption of the turbine generators with 90 to 95% power factor and the adoption of the thyristor shunt winding self exciting system were examined and evaluated. The rated power factor of generators, excitation system and economy of adopting these systems are explained. When the power factor of generators is increased from 0.9 to 0.95, about 6% of saving can be obtained in the installation cost. When the thyristor shunt winding self excitation is adopted, it is about 10% more economical than AC excitation. (Kako, I.)

  15. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford E. Smith; Steven M. Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; David L. Black; Karl V. Meredith

    2005-01-01

    In this project, an advanced computational software tool was developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. Vision 21 combustion systems, such as combustors for gas turbines, combustors for indirect fired cycles, furnaces and sequestrian-ready combustion systems, will require innovative low emission designs and low development costs if Vision 21 goals are to be realized. The simulation tool will greatly reduce the number of experimental tests; this is especially desirable for gas turbine combustor design since the cost of the high pressure testing is extremely costly. In addition, the software will stimulate new ideas, will provide the capability of assessing and adapting low-emission combustors to alternate fuels, and will greatly reduce the development time cycle of combustion systems. The revolutionary combustion simulation software is able to accurately simulate the highly transient nature of gaseous-fueled (e.g. natural gas, low BTU syngas, hydrogen, biogas etc.) turbulent combustion and assess innovative concepts needed for Vision 21 plants. In addition, the software is capable of analyzing liquid-fueled combustion systems since that capability was developed under a concurrent Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The complex physics of the reacting flow field are captured using 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods, in which large scale transient motion is resolved by time-accurate numerics, while the small scale motion is modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. In this way, LES combustion simulations can model many physical aspects that, until now, were impossible to predict with 3D steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis, i.e. very low NOx emissions, combustion instability (coupling of unsteady heat and acoustics), lean blowout, flashback, autoignition, etc. LES methods are becoming more and more practical by linking together tens

  16. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Combined Valve Hydrodynamic Characteristics for Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, P. K.; Shamim, J. A.; Gairola, A.; Arif, M.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Flow characteristic curves are plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate. The flow characteristic curves are utilized to accurately test the performance of the control valve of turbine system to ensure the highest controllability and reliability of the power conversion system of large and small power plants. Turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in power conversion system. The electrical energy output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate (steam or gas) to the turbine through valves and nozzles. The turbine comprises fast acting governing control valves and stop valves acting against the seat in the flow passage in the closed position. The turbine control valve regulates the mass flow rate entering the first nozzle of a turbine. The main function of stop valve is to close the fluid inlet rapidly in response to a fast close signal to swiftly cut off the flow through the valve inlet. Both these valves contribute attractively to improvement of the power system transient stability as well. To improve the efficiency of power conversion system many investigation have been done by researcher by focusing on the cycle layout or working fluid or by improving the flow path of the working fluid. The main focus is to find out the best option for combined cycle power plant by analyzing four different cycle configuration. Next research phase focused on different way to enhance the cycle efficiency. As the electrical power output from the generator is proportional to the mass flow rate to the turbine through the valve, it should preferably operate linearly. In reality, however, the valve has the various flow characteristics pursuant to the stem lift. Thus, the flow characteristic and control performance are needed to be designed

  18. Numerical Analysis of Combined Valve Hydrodynamic Characteristics for Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, P. K.; Shamim, J. A.; Gairola, A.; Arif, M.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2014-01-01

    Flow characteristic curves are plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate. The flow characteristic curves are utilized to accurately test the performance of the control valve of turbine system to ensure the highest controllability and reliability of the power conversion system of large and small power plants. Turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in power conversion system. The electrical energy output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate (steam or gas) to the turbine through valves and nozzles. The turbine comprises fast acting governing control valves and stop valves acting against the seat in the flow passage in the closed position. The turbine control valve regulates the mass flow rate entering the first nozzle of a turbine. The main function of stop valve is to close the fluid inlet rapidly in response to a fast close signal to swiftly cut off the flow through the valve inlet. Both these valves contribute attractively to improvement of the power system transient stability as well. To improve the efficiency of power conversion system many investigation have been done by researcher by focusing on the cycle layout or working fluid or by improving the flow path of the working fluid. The main focus is to find out the best option for combined cycle power plant by analyzing four different cycle configuration. Next research phase focused on different way to enhance the cycle efficiency. As the electrical power output from the generator is proportional to the mass flow rate to the turbine through the valve, it should preferably operate linearly. In reality, however, the valve has the various flow characteristics pursuant to the stem lift. Thus, the flow characteristic and control performance are needed to be designed

  19. Annual Report: DOE Advanced Combustion Systems & Fuels R&D; Light-Duty Diesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Despite compliance issues in previous years, automakers have demonstrated that the newest generation of diesel power trains are capable of meeting all federal and state regulations (EPA, 2016). Diesels continue to be a cost-effective, efficient, powerful propulsion source for many light- and medium-duty vehicle applications (Martec, 2016). Even modest reductions in the fuel consumption of light- and medium duty diesel vehicles in the U.S. will eliminate millions of tons of CO2 emissions per year. Continued improvement of diesel combustion systems will play an important role in reducing fleet fuel consumption, but these improvements will require an unprecedented scientific understanding of how changes in engine design and calibration affect the mixture preparation, combustion, and pollutant formation processes that take place inside the cylinder. The focus of this year’s research is to provide insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for improved thermal efficiency observed with a stepped-lip piston. Understanding how piston design can influence efficiency will help engineers develop and optimize new diesel combustion systems.

  20. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.; Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, P.

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. The report...

  1. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. Some criteria and tools for evaluating and improving the critical performances of the wind power converters have been proposed and established. The book addresses some emerging problems...

  2. A-10/TF34 Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The hardware and software development of the A-10/TF34 turbine engine monitoring system (TEMS) is described. The operation and interfaces of the A-10/TF34 TEMS hardware are discussed with particular emphasis on function, capabilities, and limitations. The TEMS data types are defined and the various data acquisition modes are explained. Potential data products are also discussed.

  3. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING PHASE 3 RESTRUCTURED (3R); TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    In the early 90's GE recognized the need to introduce new technology to follow on to the ''F'' technology the Company introduced in 1988. By working with industry and DOE, GE helped shape the ATS program goal of demonstrating a gas turbine, combined-cycle system using natural gas as the primary fuel that achieves the following targets: system efficiency exceeding 60% lower heating value basis; environmental superiority under full-load operating conditions without the use of post-combustion emissions controls, environmental superiority includes limiting NO(sub 2) to less than 10 parts per mission by volume (dry basis) at 15% oxygen; busbar energy costs that are 10% less than current state-of-the-art turbine systems meeting the same environmental requirements; fuel-flexible designs operating on natural gas but also capable of being adapted to operate on coal-based, distillate, or biomass fuels; reliability-availability-maintainability (RAM) that is equivalent to modern advanced power generation systems; and commercial systems that could enter the market in the year 2000

  4. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  5. Development turbine blade for ultramicro hydro power generation by 3D printer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, T.; Itoh, H.; Sugiura, K.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed micro generation system for effective use of unutilized energy and the spread of a self-controlled dispersion energy supply system. The turbine blade was designed for achieving high performance by special shape. The turbine type was called quasi-Peace turbine type. Turbine with a diameter of 30cm is made of metal, it was created by the 5-axis milling machine. The experimental apparatus was fabricated by the 3D printer. An experiment was carried out in the scale down model. The specific speed of this turbine was much lower than that of existing turbines.

  6. Combustion phenomenon, performance and emissions of a diesel engine with aviation turbine JP-8 fuel and rapeseed biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The 5 vol% RME added to JP-8 fuel improved lubricity 1.7 times according corrected wear scar diameter, μm. • The reverse trends revealed in the autoignition delay when operating with identical fuel blends J10 and B10. • The brake thermal efficiency increased by 1.0–3.6% when running on bio-fuels J5–J30 at speed of 2200 rpm. • The NO_x emissions increased by 5.2% when operating on bio-jet fuel J30 at full load and speed of 2200 rpm. • CO, HC emissions and smoke decreased with biofuel J20 and higher blends at both speeds of 1400 and 2200 rpm. - Abstract: The article presents the test results of an engine operating with diesel fuel (B5), turbine type JP-8 fuel and its 5 vol%, 10 vol%, 20 vol%, and 30 vol% blends with rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME). Additional fuel blend B10 was prepared by pouring 10 vol% of RME to diesel fuel to extend interpretation of the test results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using jet-biodiesel fuel blends J5, J10, J20, J30, and B10 on the start of injection, ignition delay, combustion history, heat release, engine performance, and exhaust emissions. The engine performance parameters were examined at light 15% (1400 rpm) and 10% (2200 rpm), medium 50%, and high 100% loads and the two speeds: 1400 rpm at which maximum torque occurs and a rated speed of 2200 rpm. The autoignition delay and maximum heat release rate decreased, maximum cylinder pressure, and pressure gradients increased, whereas brake specific fuel consumption changed little and brake thermal efficiency was 1.0–3.6% higher when running with fuel blends J5 to J30 at rated speed compared with the data measured with neat jet fuel. The NO_x emissions increased slightly, but the CO, THC emissions, and smoke opacity boosted up significantly when using jet fuel blend J10 with a smooth reduction of unburned hydrocarbons for jet-biodiesel fuel blends with higher CN ratings. Operation at a full (100%) load with fuel blend J10

  7. Demonstration of IGCC features - plant integration and syngas combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, F.; Huth, M.; Karg, J.; Schiffers, U. [Siemens AG Power Generation (KWU), Erlanger/Muelheim (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Siemens is involved in three IGCC plants in Europe that are currently in operation. Against the background of the Puertollano and Buggenum plants, some of the specific new features of fully integrated IGCC power plants are discussed, including: requirements and design features of the gas turbine syngas supply system; gas turbine operating experience with air extraction for the air separation unit from the gas turbine air compressor; and design requirements and operational features of the combustion system. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  8. An experimental and theoretical investigation of a fuel system tuner for the suppression of combustion driven oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, David E.

    Manufacturers of commercial, power-generating, gas turbine engines continue to develop combustors that produce lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x) in order to meet the environmental standards of governments around the world. Lean, premixed combustion technology is one technique used to reduce NOx emissions in many current power and energy generating systems. However, lean, premixed combustors are susceptible to thermo-acoustic oscillations, which are pressure and heat-release fluctuations that occur because of a coupling between the combustion process and the natural acoustic modes of the system. These pressure oscillations lead to premature failure of system components, resulting in very costly maintenance and downtime. Therefore, a great deal of work has gone into developing methods to prevent or eliminate these combustion instabilities. This dissertation presents the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel Fuel System Tuner (FST) used to damp detrimental combustion oscillations in a gas turbine combustor by changing the fuel supply system impedance, which controls the amplitude and phase of the fuel flowrate. When the FST is properly tuned, the heat release oscillations resulting from the fuel-air ratio oscillations damp, rather than drive, the combustor acoustic pressure oscillations. A feasibility study was conducted to prove the validity of the basic idea and to develop some basic guidelines for designing the FST. Acoustic models for the subcomponents of the FST were developed, and these models were experimentally verified using a two-microphone impedance tube. Models useful for designing, analyzing, and predicting the performance of the FST were developed and used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the FST. Experimental tests showed that the FST reduced the acoustic pressure amplitude of an unstable, model, gas-turbine combustor over a wide range of operating conditions and combustor configurations. Finally, combustor

  9. Genetic optimization of steam multi-turbines system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Optimization analysis of partially loaded cogeneration, multiple-stages steam turbines system was numerically investigated by using own-developed code (C++). The system can be controlled by following variables: fresh steam temperature, pressure, and flow rates through all stages in steam turbines. Five various strategies, four thermodynamics and one economical, which quantify system operation, were defined and discussed as an optimization functions. Mathematical model of steam turbines calculates steam properties according to the formulation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Genetic algorithm GENOCOP was implemented as a solving engine for non–linear problem with handling constrains. Using formulated methodology, example solution for partially loaded system, composed of five steam turbines (30 input variables) with different characteristics, was obtained for five strategies. The genetic algorithm found multiple solutions (various input parameters sets) giving similar overall results. In real application it allows for appropriate scheduling of machine operation that would affect equable time load of every system compounds. Also based on these results three strategies where chosen as the most complex: the first thermodynamic law energy and exergy efficiency maximization and total equivalent energy minimization. These strategies can be successfully used in optimization of real cogeneration applications. - Highlights: • Genetic optimization model for a set of five various steam turbines was presented. • Four various thermodynamic optimization strategies were proposed and discussed. • Operational parameters (steam pressure, temperature, flow) influence was examined. • Genetic algorithm generated optimal solutions giving the best estimators values. • It has been found that similar energy effect can be obtained for various inputs

  10. Proposed Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity Studies Using Helicopter Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladkany, Samaan G.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced systems for the analysis of rotary wing aeroelastic structures (helicopters) are being developed at NASA Ames by the Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch, ARA. The research has recently been extended to the study of wind turbines, used for electric power generation Wind turbines play an important role in Europe, Japan & many other countries because they are non polluting & use a renewable source of energy. European countries such as Holland, Norway & France have been the world leaders in the design & manufacture of wind turbines due to their historical experience of several centuries, in building complex wind mill structures, which were used in water pumping, grain grinding & for lumbering. Fossil fuel cost in Japan & in Europe is two to three times higher than in the USA due to very high import taxes. High fuel cost combined with substantial governmental subsidies, allow wind generated power to be competitive with the more traditional sources of power generation. In the USA, the use of wind energy has been limited mainly because power production from wind is twice as expensive as from other traditional sources. Studies conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) indicate that the main cost in the production of wind turbines is due to the materials & the labor intensive processes used in the construction of turbine structures. Thus, for the US to assume world leadership in wind power generation, new lightweight & consequently very flexible wind turbines, that could be economically mass produced, would have to be developed [4,5]. This effort, if successful, would result in great benefit to the US & the developing nations that suffer from overpopulation & a very high cost of energy.

  11. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  12. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  13. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  14. Dynamic Systems Analysis for Turbine Based Aero Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The aircraft engine design process seeks to optimize the overall system-level performance, weight, and cost for a given concept. Steady-state simulations and data are used to identify trade-offs that should be balanced to optimize the system in a process known as systems analysis. These systems analysis simulations and data may not adequately capture the true performance trade-offs that exist during transient operation. Dynamic systems analysis provides the capability for assessing the dynamic tradeoffs at an earlier stage of the engine design process. The dynamic systems analysis concept, developed tools, and potential benefit are presented in this paper. To provide this capability, the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) was developed to provide the user with an estimate of the closed-loop performance (response time) and operability (high pressure compressor surge margin) for a given engine design and set of control design requirements. TTECTrA along with engine deterioration information, can be used to develop a more generic relationship between performance and operability that can impact the engine design constraints and potentially lead to a more efficient engine.

  15. Radiative heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This introduction reviews why combustion and radiation are important, as well as the technical challenges posed by radiation. Emphasis is on interactions among turbulence, chemistry and radiation (turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions – TCRI) in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations. Subsequent chapters cover: chemically reacting turbulent flows; radiation properties, Reynolds transport equation (RTE) solution methods, and TCRI; radiation effects in laminar flames; TCRI in turbulent flames; and high-pressure combustion systems. This Brief presents integrated approach that includes radiation at the outset, rather than as an afterthought. It stands as the most recent developments in physical modeling, numerical algorithms, and applications collected in one monograph.

  16. Survey on the feasibility of high-efficiency gas turbine power generation system; Kokoritsu gas turbine hatsuden system ni kansuru jitsuyo kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For higher-efficiency power generation cycle plants with less restrained conditions for a location, the conceptual design of an inter-cooled regenerative two-fluid cycle plant (ISTIG) was attempted using a modified aircraft gas turbine. A high-performance turbo fan engine is used for middle-class power generation. The first stage combustion gas drives the first stage turbine, and its exhaust gas is used for the second stage combustion. Because of two-axial type of high and low pressure, improvement of thermal efficiency is expected by easy-to-install inter-cooler. ISTIG superior in operability is suitable for medium load or distributed power generation facilities, and aims at higher efficiency of a 60% level. ISTIG includes a large amount of water vapor in combustion air by adopting a diffusion type combustor eliminating back fire, and can reduce exergy loss by preheating fuel gas. Since load of the high-pressure turbine shifts toward low-pressure one by the inter-cooler, some considerations are necessary for low-pressure side cooling together with reheating cycle. Because of unnecessary steam turbine, the construction cost per kW can be reduced by 20%. 41 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Advanced tools for modeling, design and optimization of wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.

    2005-01-01

    As wind turbine technology and control has advanced over the last decade, this has led to a high penetration of wind turbines into the power system. Whether it be for a large wind turbine or an offshore wind farm with hundreds of MW power capacity, the electrical system has become more and more i...

  18. 77 FR 32497 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Generating Sets) Fort Smith... special-purpose subzone at the wind turbine nacelle and generating set manufacturing facility of... related to the manufacturing of wind turbine nacelles and generating sets at the Mitsubishi Power Systems...

  19. Supersonic Combustion of Hydrogen Jets System in Hypersonic Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapbasbaev, U.K.; Makashev, E.P.

    2003-01-01

    The data of calculated theoretical investigations of diffusive combustion of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic stream received with Navier-Stokes parabola equations closed by one-para metrical (k-l) model of turbulence and multiply staged mechanism of hydrogen oxidation are given. Combustion mechanisms depending on the operating parameters are discussing. The influences of air stream composition and ways off fuel feed to the length of ignition delay and level quantity of hydrogen bum-out have been defined. The calculated theoretical results of investigations permit to make the next conclusions: 1. The diffusive combustion of the system of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic flow happens in the cellular structures with alternation zones of intensive running of chemical reactions with their inhibition zones. 2. Gas dynamic and heat Mach waves cause a large - scale viscous formation intensifying mixing of fuel with oxidizer. 3. The system ignition of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic airy co-flow happens with the formation of normal flame front of hydrogen airy mixture with transition to the diffusive combustion. 4. The presence of active particles in the flow composition initiates the ignition of hydrogen - airy mixture, provides the intensive running of chemical reactions and shortens the length of ignition delay. 5. The supersonic combustion of hydrogel-airy mixture is characterized by two zones: the intensive chemical reactions with an active energy heat release is occurring in the first zone and in the second - a slow hydrogen combustion limited by the mixing of fuel with oxidizer. (author)

  20. High Gravity (g) Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    UNICORN (Unsteady Ignition and Combustion with Reactions) code10. Flame propagation in a tube that is 50-mm wide and 1000-mm long (similar to that...turbine engine manufacturers, estimating the primary zone space heating rate. Both combustion systems, from Company A and Company B, required a much...MBTU/atm-hr-ft3) Te m pe ra tu re R is e (K ) dP/P = 2% dP/P = 2.5% dP/P = 3% dP/P = 3.5% dP/P = 4% Company A Company B Figure 13: Heat Release Rate

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Sipeng; Deng, Kangyao; Qu, Shuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an in-cylinder waste heat recovery system especially for turbocharged engines is proposed to improve the thermal efficiencies of internal combustion engines. Simplified recovery processes can be described as follows: superheated steam generated by engine waste heat is injected into the pipe before the turbine to increase the boost pressure of the fresh air; intake valve close timing is adjusted to control the amount of fresh air as the original level, and thus the higher pressure charged air expands in the intake stroke and transfers the pressure energy directly to the crankshaft. In this way, the increased turbine output by the pre-turbine steam injection is finally recovered in the cylinder, which is different from the traditional Rankine cycle. The whole energy transfer processes are studied with thermodynamic analyses and numerical simulations. The results show that the mass flow rate of the injected steam has the biggest influence on the energy transfer processes followed by the temperature of the injected steam. With this in-cylinder waste heat recovery system, the fuel economy of a selected turbocharged diesel engine can be improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point when the injected mass flow ratio is set to be 0.1. - Highlights: • An in-cylinder waste heat recovery system is proposed. • Effects of injected parameters are studied with energy and exergy balance theories. • Variations of operating points on the compressor map are studied in detail. • The fuel economy is improved by 3.2% at the rated operating point

  2. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did

  3. Wind or water turbine power augmentation using the system of guiding surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashurin, V P; Ktitorov, L V; Lazareva, A S; Pletenev, F A; Budnikov, I N; Hatunkin, V Yu; Klevtsov, V A; Meshkov, E E; Novikova, I A; Yanbaev, G M

    2016-01-01

    As fluid flows through a conventional wind or hydro turbine, it slows from losing energy to extraction from a turbine and spreads out to a wider area. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power more effectively, it was suggested to place the turbine inside a system of specially designed airfoils (‘a flow booster’). One part of the booster (‘a nozzle’) improves the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades. The other part of the accelerating system (‘a diffuser’) creates a field of low pressure behind the turbine which helps to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration. The flow booster accumulates the kinetic energy of the flow (e.g. river flow or wind) in a small volume where the smaller turbine can be installed. Another possible application of the booster could be the improvement of wind turbine efficiency during low wind period. The present paper also discusses the possibility of kinetic energy accumulation by the use of several accelerating systems of different sizes—the smaller one can be installed inside the bigger one. It helps to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine blades. We call this method the kinetic energy cumulation. Lab and field experiments and CFD simulations of shrouded turbine demonstrate significant increase in velocity in comparison of those for conventional (bare) turbines. (paper)

  4. Calculation of gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and in the air-gas channel of a gas-turbine unit by data of acceptance tests in accordance with ISO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Karpunin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high accuracy method enabling performance of the calculation of real values of the initial temperature of a gas turbine unit (GTU), i.e., the gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber, in a situation where manufacturers do not disclose this information. The features of the definition of the initial temperature of the GTU according to ISO standards were analyzed. It is noted that the true temperatures for high-temperature GTUs is significantly higher than values determined according to ISO standards. A computational procedure for the determination of gas temperatures in the air-gas channel of the gas turbine and cooling air consumptions over blade rims is proposed. As starting equations, the heat balance equation and the flow mixing equation for the combustion chamber are assumed. Results of acceptance GTU tests according to ISO standards and statistical dependencies of required cooling air consumptions on the gas temperature and the blade metal are also used for calculations. An example of the calculation is given for one of the units. Using a developed computer program, the temperatures in the air-gas channel of certain GTUs are calculated, taking into account their design features. These calculations are performed on the previously published procedure for the detailed calculation of the cooled gas turbine subject to additional losses arising because of the presence of the cooling system. The accuracy of calculations by the computer program is confirmed by conducting verification calculations for the GTU of the Mitsubishi Comp. and comparing results with published data of the company. Calculation data for temperatures were compared with the experimental data and the characteristics of the GTU, and the error of the proposed method is estimated.

  5. The condition monitoring system of turbine system components for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigetoshi

    2013-01-01

    The thermal and nuclear power plants have been imposed a stable supply of electricity. To certainly achieve this, we built the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. If there are some performance changes on the turbine system components of their power plants, the heat and mass balance of the turbine system will change. This system has ability to detect the abnormal signs of their components by finding the changes of the heat and mass balance. Moreover we note that this system is built for steam turbine cycle operating with saturated steam conditions. (author)

  6. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  7. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  8. Design of a wind turbine pitch angle controller for power system stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens; Islam, S.M.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    The design of a PID pitch angle controller for a fixed speed active-stall wind turbine, using the root locus method is described in this paper. The purpose of this controller is to enable an active-stall wind turbine to perform power system stabilisation. For the purpose of controller design......, the transfer function of the wind turbine is derived from the wind turbine's step response. The performance of this controller is tested by simulation, where the wind turbine model with its pitch angle controller is connected to a power system model. The power system model employed here is a realistic model...... of the North European power system. A short circuit fault on a busbar close to the wind turbine generator is simulated, and the dynamic responses of the system with and without the power system stabilisation of the wind turbines are presented. Simulations show that in most operating points the pitch controller...

  9. Simulation of low temperature combustion mechanism of different combustion-supporting agents in close-coupled DOC and DPF system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Penghao; Li, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wen; He, Li; Wu, Yue

    2018-07-01

    In the coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particular Filter (DPF) system, soot cannot be completely removed by only using the passive regeneration. And DPF active regeneration is necessary. The research method in this paper is to spray different kinds of combustion-supporting agents to the DOC in the front of the DPF. Therefore, the low temperature combustion mechanism of different kinds of combustion-supporting agents in DOC was studied, in order to grasp the law of combustion in DOC, and the influence of follow-up emission on DPF removal of soot. During the study, CH 4 H 2 mixture and diesel (n-heptane + toluene) were used as combustion-supporting agents respectively. The simplified mechanisms of two kinds of gas mixtures used as the combustion-supporting agents in DPF have been constructed and testified in the paper. In this paper, the combustion and emission conditions of the two combustion-supporting agents were analyzed so as to meet the practical requirements of different working conditions. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. State of the art-hydraulic yaw systems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the yawing systems of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT’s). HAWT’s represents close to all of the commercial large wind turbines sold today and must be considered state-of-the art within wind turbine technology. Two choices exists when considering components for the active ...

  11. Reactor trip on turbine trip inhibit control system for nuclear power generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.M.; Musick, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    A reactor trip on turbine trip inhibit control system for a nuclear power generating system which utilizes steam bypass valves is described. The control system inhibits a normally automatic reactor trip on turbine trip when the bypass valves have the capability of bypassing enough steam to prevent reactor trip limits from being reached and/or to prevent opening of the secondary safety pressure valves. The control system generates a bypass valve capability signal which is continuously compared with the reactor power. If the capability is greater than the reactor power, then an inhibit signal is generated which prevents a turbine trip signal from tripping the nuclear reactor. 10 claims, 4 figures

  12. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems annual program review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Goals of the 8-year program are to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. During this Nov. 9-11, 1994, meeting, presentations on energy policy issues were delivered by representatives of regulatory, industry, and research institutions; program overviews and technical reviews were given by contractors; and ongoing and proposed future projects sponsored by university and industry were presented and displayed at the poster session. Panel discussions on distributed power and Advanced Gas Systems Research education provided a forum for interactive dialog and exchange of ideas. Exhibitors included US DOE, Solar Turbines, Westinghouse, Allison Engine Co., and GE.

  13. Improved PFB operations - 400-hour turbine test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-04-01

    The paper deals with a 400-hr small turbine test in the effluent of a pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) at an average temperature of 770 C, an average relative gas velocity of 300 m/sec, and average solid loadings of 200 ppm. Consideration is given to combustion parameters and operating procedure as well as to the turbine system and turbine test operating procedures. Emphasis is placed on erosion/corrosion results.

  14. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....

  15. Electronic ignition system for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, L W

    1980-11-20

    Mechanical ignition adjustment devices are sensitive to many effects, for example breakage, faults due to manufacturing tolerances, play in the linkage and the effect of a dirty or corrosive environment. It is therefore the purpose of the invention to provide an electronic ignition system which avoids the disadvantages of a mechanical system. The invention provides adjustment of the ignition point, which gives advance of the ignition timing with increasing speed. An output signal is formed, which supersedes the signal supplied by the electronic control system, so that the ignition is advanced. This also occurs with a larger crankshaft angle before top dead centre of the engine. The electronic control system combines with a source of AC time signals which has a generator as electrical transmitter and a DC battery and ignition coil. The rotor of the electrical generator is driven synchronised with the engine. Structural and functional details of the transistor control circuits are given in 5 patent claims.

  16. Risk-based and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, K.; Nagai, S.; Akikuni, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Furuya, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takagi, K.; Kawabata, T.

    2003-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants. (orig.)

  17. Risk-based inspection and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, Kazunari; Nagai, Satoshi; Akikuni, Yasunari; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Furuya, Kenichiro; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Takagi, Kentaro; Kawabata, Taro

    2004-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants

  18. Advance monitoring of turbine generators and auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemers, D.

    2005-01-01

    The STUDIS turbine generator diagnosing system has been designed for diagnosing and early fault detection as a prerequisite for status-dependent preventive maintenance. Based on the data collected in the monitoring part, which are gathered continously, checked extensively and compressed any deviations from normal behavior as well as potential defects are detected and reported in an expert system. In addition, STUDIS can also be used as a mobile system for problem analysis. STUDIS is not meant to replace experts, but is able to relieve them of routine evaluations of defects whose causes and effects as well as symptoms are known, and to make their work more effective. The advanced operating architecture allows unkilled users to detect familiar faults and defects quickly and respond promptly. Experts will find an extensive toolbox above all for complex analyses of malfunctions. The point of departure for operating staff and experts alike is the so-called ''magic eye'', a highly condensed survey of relevant measurement and assessment parameters of the entire turbine generator relative to tolerance bands determined as a function of the operating point. The power of Studies in elucidating faults and defects is explained by a practical case of a blade defect in a gas turbine. (orig.)

  19. The Energy Conversion Analysis of HTR Gas Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utaja

    2000-01-01

    The energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by hand calculation is tedious work and need much time. This difficulty comes from the repeated thermodynamic process calculation, both on compression or expansion of the cycle. To make the analysis faster and wider variable analyzed, HTR-1 programme is used. In this paper, the energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 will be described. The result is displayed as efficiency curve and block diagram with the input and output temperature of the component. This HTR-1 programme is developed by Basic language programming and be compiled by Visual Basic 5.0 . By this HTR-1 programme, the efficiency, specific power and effective compression of the amount of gas can be recognized fast. For example, for CO 2 gas between 40 o C and 700 o C, the compression on maximum efficiency is 4.6 and the energy specific is 18.9 kcal/kg, while the temperature changing on input and output of the component can be traced on monitor. This process take less than one second, while the manual calculation take more than one hour. It can be concluded, that the energy conversion analysis of the HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 can be done faster and more variable analyzed. (author)

  20. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another

  1. IMIS: Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The report describes a feasibility study on the Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore wind turbines. The aspects covered are (1) Background and why the study is required; (2) Aims and objectives of the project; (3) Summary of methods adopted; (4) Design criteria according to the area for deployment; (5) Conclusions and recommendations. The ultimate goal will be to install and secure the wind turbine in position using an integrated approach to avoid using lifting vessels. To date, an initial feasibility study has been carried out where four different concepts were considered. The next phase of the project will be to address a number of possible risks and constraints before the chosen concept can be demonstrated to be viable. The work is being carried out by Setech Ltd, Armstrong Technology Associates Ltd and Smith Rea Energy Ltd for the DTI.

  2. Performance estimation of Tesla turbine applied in small scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei; Li, Xue-song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional model of the Tesla turbine is improved and applied in ORC system. • Working fluid properties and system operating conditions impact efficiency. • The influence of turbine efficiency on ORC system performance is evaluated. • Potential of using Tesla turbine in ORC systems is estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system has been proven to be an effective method for the low grade energy utilization. In small scale applications, the Tesla turbine offers an attractive option for the organic expander if an efficient design can be achieved. The Tesla turbine is simple in structure and is easy to be manufactured. This paper improves the one-dimensional model for the Tesla turbine, which adopts a non-dimensional formulation that identifies the dimensionless parameters that dictates the performance features of the turbine. The model is used to predict the efficiency of a Tesla turbine that is applied in a small scale ORC system. The influence of the working fluid properties and the operating conditions on the turbine performance is evaluated. Thermodynamic analysis of the ORC system with different organic working fluids and under various operating conditions is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the ORC system can generate a considerable net power output. Therefore, the Tesla turbine can be regarded as a potential choice to be applied in small scale ORC systems.

  3. Modelling and control of variable speed wind turbines for power system studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2010-01-01

    and implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Important issues like the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of these wind turbine concepts are addressed. The paper reveals that advanced control of variable speed wind turbines can improve power system stability. Finally......, it will be shown in the paper that wind parks consisting of variable speed wind turbines can help nearby connected fixed speed wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......Modern wind turbines are predominantly variable speed wind turbines with power electronic interface. Emphasis in this paper is therefore on the modelling and control issues of these wind turbine concepts and especially on their impact on the power system. The models and control are developed...

  4. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  5. System reliability effects in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    from reliability point of view. The present paper discusses the specifics of system reliability behavior of laminated composite sandwich panels, and solves an example system reliability problem for a glass fiber-reinforced composite sandwich structure subjected to in-plane compression.......Laminated composite sandwich panels have a layered structure, where individual layers have randomly varying stiffness and strength properties. The presence of multiple failure modes and load redistribution following partial failures are the reason for laminated composites to exhibit system behavior...

  6. Matching of wind turbine type and system scale to wind conditions; Chiten no fukyo ni taisuru furyoku turbine no keitai to sytem taikaku no seigosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Hashizume, T.

    2000-09-25

    The matching of the wind turbine type and system scale of the stand-alone wind turbine generator system to wind conditions is investigated using our dynamic simulation model. This paper examines three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine, the Darrieus turbine proper and the up-wind Propeller turbine. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient. As a computed result of the net extracting energy under fluctuations of wind speed and direction, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for other wind turbines, large-scale systems do not always have advantages over small-scale systems as the effect of the dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine under wind direction fluctuations is much reduced when compared with that of the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, it is concluded that the appropriate wind turbine type and system scale exist for each wind condition. (author)

  7. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  8. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  9. Study on the combustion characteristics of a premixed combustion system with exhaust gas recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Byeonghun; Kum, Sung-Min; Lee, Chang-Eon; Lee, Seungro

    2013-01-01

    The boiler of a premixed combustion system with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) is investigated to explore the potential for increasing thermal efficiency and lowering pollutant emissions. To achieve this purpose, a thermodynamic analysis is performed to predict the effect of EGR on the thermodynamic efficiency for various equivalence ratios. Experiments of a preheated air condensing boiler with EGR were conducted to measure the changes in the thermal efficiency and the characteristics of the pollutant emission. Finally, a 1-D premixed code was calculated to understand the effect of the EGR method on the NO reduction mechanism. The results of the thermodynamic analysis show that the thermodynamic efficiency is not changed because the temperature and the amount of the exhaust gas are unchanged, even though the EGR method is implemented in the system. However, when the EGR method is used with an equivalence ratio near 1.00, it is experimentally verified that the thermal efficiency increases and the NO x concentration decreases. Based on the results from numerical calculations, it is shown that the NO production rates of N + O 2 ↔ NO + O and N + OH ↔ NO + H are remarkably changed due to the decrease in the flame temperature and the NO mole fraction is decreased. - Highlights: • Premixed combustion system with EGR is studied for a high efficiency and low NO x . • All research is performed with various EGR and equivalence ratios. • It verified that efficiency increases and the NO x emission decreases with EGR method. • NO production rates are remarkably changed by N + O 2 ↔ NO + O and N + OH ↔ NO + H with EGR

  10. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Second-Generation System Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson; D. Horazak; R. Newby; H. Goldstein

    2002-11-01

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called a Second-Generation or Advanced Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (APCFB) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45% (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. The APCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design was previously prepared for this new type of plant and an economic analysis presented, all based on the use of a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine with projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data. Having tested these components at the pilot plant stage, the referenced conceptual design is being updated to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine and a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. steam turbine. This report describes the updated plant which is projected to have an HHV efficiency of 48% and identifies work completed for the October 2001 through September 2002 time period.

  11. Numerical analysis on the combustion and emission characteristics of forced swirl combustion system for DI diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, LiWang; Li, XiangRong; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, FuShui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new combustion system named FSCS for DI diesel engines was proposed. • Fuel/air mixture formation was improved for the application of FSCS. • The FSCS showed a good performance on emission characteristics. - Abstract: To optimize the fuel/air mixture formation and improve the environmental effect of direct injection (DI) diesel engines, a new forced swirl combustion system (FSCS) was proposed concerned on unique design of the geometric shape of the combustion chamber. Numerical simulation was conducted to verify the combustion and emission characteristics of the engines with FSCS. The fuel/air diffusion, in-cylinder velocity distribution, turbulent kinetic energy and in-cylinder temperature distribution were analyzed and the results shown that the FSCS can increase the area of fuel/air diffusion and improve the combustion. The diesel engine with FSCS also shown excellent performance on emission. At full load condition, the soot emission was significantly reduced for the improved fuel/air mixture formation. There are slightly difference for the soot and NO emission between the FSCS and the traditional omega combustion system at lower load for the short penetration of the fuel spray

  12. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  13. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  14. Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

  15. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abdullatif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  16. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Abdullatif; Alaktiwi, Abdulsalam; Talbi, Mosbah

    2017-11-01

    High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR) fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR) cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  17. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines. Kraftstoffeinspritzsystem fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, U.

    1990-09-13

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine is provided with a fuel supply line (13) and at least one electromagnetically actuated fuel injection valve (14) for apportioning a quantity of fuel for injection. A connection muzzle (24) coming from the valve body (23) juts into an opening (22) in the suction pipe (21) of the internal combustion engine. The end of the injection valve opposite the connecting muzzle (24) is connected with the fuel supply line via a fuel entry. The valve body (23) is enclosed by a casing (25) in order to provide the conditions required for a warm start. An annulus (31) extending over a large part of the axial length of the valve remains between the casing and the valve body (23). The annulus (31) communicates with the fuel flow through the fuel supply line (13) via an afflux and an efflux opening (32, 33) (Fig. 1).

  18. Methods and systems to thermally protect fuel nozzles in combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, David Andrew; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-17

    A method of assembling a gas turbine engine is provided. The method includes coupling a combustor in flow communication with a compressor such that the combustor receives at least some of the air discharged by the compressor. A fuel nozzle assembly is coupled to the combustor and includes at least one fuel nozzle that includes a plurality of interior surfaces, wherein a thermal barrier coating is applied across at least one of the plurality of interior surfaces to facilitate shielding the interior surfaces from combustion gases.

  19. Design and Experimental Validation of Hydraulic Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    market. A hydraulic yaw system is such a new technology, and so a mathematical model of the full scale system and test rig system is derived and compared to measurements from the system. This is done in order to have a validated model, which wind turbine manufacturers may use for test in their simulation......To comply with the increasing demands for life time and reliability of wind turbines as these grow in size, new measures needs to be taken in the design of wind turbines and components hereof. One critical point is the initial testing of the components and systems before they are implemented...... in an actual turbine. Full scale hardware testing is both extremely expensive and time consuming, and so the wind turbine industry moves more towards simulations when testing. In order to meet these demands it is necessary with valid models of systems in order to introduce new technologies to the wind turbine...

  20. Research on simulation of supercritical steam turbine system in large thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the stability and safety of supercritical steam turbine system operation in large thermal power station, the body of the steam turbine is modeled in this paper. And in accordance with the hierarchical modeling idea, the steam turbine body model, condensing system model, deaeration system model and regenerative system model are combined to build a simulation model of steam turbine system according to the connection relationship of each subsystem of steam turbine. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by design and operation data of the 600MW supercritical unit. The results show that the maximum simulation error of the model is 2.15%, which meets the requirements of the engineering. This research provides a platform for the research on the variable operating conditions of the turbine system, and lays a foundation for the construction of the whole plant model of the thermal power plant.

  1. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eek, Jarle

    2009-12-15

    A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

  2. DIAGNOSIS OF FAILURE OF COMBUSTION IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER WITH A THERMOVISION EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vorobiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermovision technology to diagnose failure of the combustion flame test tube of the main combustion chamber gas turbine engine is deal with in the article. Join the thermal radiation of the jet of combustion products and the internal elements was carried out using short-wave thermovision system AGA-782 with spectral spectral filters in several ranges from 3.2 to 5.6 microns. Thermovision is mounted on the axis of the flame tube. The output signal was recorded and processed on a computer in real time, allowing monitor the combustion process and the thermal state of the object during the experiment.

  3. Kongiganak Wind Turbine Replacement and System Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonstra, Patrick [Intelligent Energy Systems, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Native Village of Kongiganak, Alaska was awarded a grant to upgrade the braking systems on five wind turbines and upgrade the monitoring and data collection unit to insure that enough energy is available to power the utility. The project manager for this award is Intelligent Energy Systems, LLC located in Anchorage, Alaska. In addition to accomplishing these upgrades, it was the intent for a local wind tech crew to be trained in Kongiganak so that routine maintenance and future repairs will be made by local workers.

  4. System Reduction in Nonlinear Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Rubak, Rune

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the system reduction in nonlinear multibody dynamics of wind turbines is investigated for various updating schemes of the moving frame of reference. In one case, the moving frame of reference is updated to a stiff body, relative to which the elastic deformations are fixed at one end....... In the other case, the stiff body motion is defined as the chord line connecting the end points of the beam, and the elastic deformations are simply supported at the end points. The system reduction is performed by discretizing the spatial motion into a set of rigid body modes and linear elastic eigenmodes...

  5. Degradation of TBC Systems in Environments Relevant to Advanced Gas Turbines for IGCC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohna, Nathaniel Allan

    Plasma sprayed (PS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to provide thermal insulation for the hottest components in gas turbines. Zirconia stabilized with 7wt% yttria (7YSZ) is the most common ceramic top coat used for turbine blades. The 7YSZ coating can be degraded by the buildup of fly-ash deposits which can arise from the fuel source (coal/biomass) used in the combustion process in gas turbines. Fly-ash from the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process can result from coal-based syngas and also from ambient air which passes through the system. TBCs are also exposed to harsh gas environments containing CO2, SO2, and steam. As presented in this thesis, degradation from the combined effects of fly-ash and harsh gas atmosphere can severely limit TBC lifetimes. It is well established that degradation at very high temperatures (≥1250°C) from deposits consisting of the oxides CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO 2 results from extensive liquid silicate infiltration into the porous top coat of the YSZ. This infiltration causes early failure resulting from chemical and/or mechanical damage to the ceramic layer. Damage resulting from liquid infiltration, however, is not typically considered at relatively lower temperatures around 1100°C because liquid silicates would not be expected to form from the oxides in the deposit. A key focus of this study is to assess the mode and extent of TBC degradation at 1100°C in cases when some amount of liquid forms owing to the presence of K2SO4 as a minor ash constituent. Two types of liquid infiltrations are observed depending on the principal oxide (i.e., CaO or SiO2) in the deposit. The degradation is primarily the result of mechanical damage, which results from infiltration caused by the interaction of liquid K2SO4 with either the CaO or SiO2. The TBCs used in this work are representative of commonly used coatings used in the hottest sections of land-based gas turbines. The specimens consist of 7YSZ top coats deposited on

  6. In situ high-temperature gas sensors: continuous monitoring of the combustion quality of different wood combustion systems and optimization of combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kohler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensing characteristics and long-term stability of different kinds of CO ∕ HC gas sensors (non-Nernstian mixed potential type during in situ operation in flue gas from different types of low-power combustion systems (wood-log- and wood-chip-fuelled were investigated. The sensors showed representative but individual sensing behaviour with respect to characteristically varying flue gas composition over the combustion process. The long-term sensor signal stability evaluated by repeated exposure to CO ∕ H2 ∕ N2 ∕ synthetic air mixtures showed no sensitivity loss after operation in the flue gas. Particularly for one of the sensors (Heraeus GmbH, this high signal stability was observed in a field test experiment even during continuous operation in the flue gas of the wood-chip firing system over 4 months. Furthermore, it was experimentally shown that the signals of these CO ∕ HC sensing elements yield important additional information about the wood combustion process. This was demonstrated by the adaptation of an advanced combustion airstream control algorithm on a wood-log-fed fireplace and by the development of a combustion quality monitoring system for wood-chip-fed central heaters.

  7. Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system for the olive oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, D.; Jurado, F.; Mena, B. de; Schories, G.

    2011-01-01

    The olive oil industry generates during the extraction process several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings, exhausted pomace and olive pits. These renewable wastes could be used for power and heat applications. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of two small-scale CHP systems: a gasification- gas turbine system and an EFGT (externally fired gas turbine system). For this reason, several parameters have been calculated: generated heat and power, electric and overall efficiencies, biomass consumption, exergy efficiency, optimum pressure ratio, etc. These systems provide 30 kW e and about 60kW th . Simulation results show that the electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in EFGT system (19.1% and 59.3%, respectively) are significantly higher than those obtained in the gasification plant (12.3% and 45.4%). The proposed CHP systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. -- Highlights: ► Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system. ► Olive oil industry generates several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings. ► Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. ► Systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. ► Simulation results show electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in the systems.

  8. Semi-Immersive Virtual Turbine Engine Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Mustufa H.; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman M.; Ahmad, Ali; Darmoul, Saber; Ameen, Wadea

    2018-05-01

    The design and verification of assembly operations is essential for planning product production operations. Recently, virtual prototyping has witnessed tremendous progress, and has reached a stage where current environments enable rich and multi-modal interaction between designers and models through stereoscopic visuals, surround sound, and haptic feedback. The benefits of building and using Virtual Reality (VR) models in assembly process verification are discussed in this paper. In this paper, we present the virtual assembly (VA) of an aircraft turbine engine. The assembly parts and sequences are explained using a virtual reality design system. The system enables stereoscopic visuals, surround sounds, and ample and intuitive interaction with developed models. A special software architecture is suggested to describe the assembly parts and assembly sequence in VR. A collision detection mechanism is employed that provides visual feedback to check the interference between components. The system is tested for virtual prototype and assembly sequencing of a turbine engine. We show that the developed system is comprehensive in terms of VR feedback mechanisms, which include visual, auditory, tactile, as well as force feedback. The system is shown to be effective and efficient for validating the design of assembly, part design, and operations planning.

  9. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  10. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2004-01-01

    . This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The reportprovides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level......-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). Theinitialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1...... of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations....

  11. Combustion and regulations. Impacts of new regulations on medium-power thermal equipment (boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces); Combustion et reglementation. Incidences des nouvelles reglementations sur les equipements thermiques de moyenne puissance (chaudieres, moteurs, turbines, secheurs et fours)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference is composed of 20 papers on the influence of French and European new pollution regulations on medium size thermal equipment such as boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces. It is discussed what is going to change with new regulations, how they will apply to existing plants, what will be the impact on future equipment costs. The evolution of energy suppliers and equipment manufacturers facing these new regulations is also examined: fuel substitution, improvements in turbines and engines with water injection and special chambers, diesel engine control, lean mixtures and electronic control for gas engines... Means for reducing SOx, NOx and ash emission levels in boilers are also examined

  12. Low Leakage Turbine Shaft Seals for Advanced Combined Cycle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Study of Shaft Face Seal With Self-Acting Lift Augmentation", N71- 11579, Nov. 1970 29p. Povinelli , V.P. and McKibbin, A. H., "Development of...34, N73-24086, May 1973, 28p. Povinelli , V. P. and McKibbin, A. H., "Development of Mainshaft Seals for Advanced Air Breathing Propulsion Systems... Povinelli , V. P., "Current Seal Designs and Future Requirements for Turbine Engine Seals and Bearings", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 12, No. 4, April 1975

  13. Basic Principles for Elaboration of Technical Requirements to Control and Protective TRB Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Panteley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and provides methodology for calculation of maximum over speeding value of a turbine rotor in the case when we face the failure of all its protective systems. It is presented a derivation of main equations required for making the calculation and the paper also cites results of their practical application at an industrial TRB (Turbine of the Republic of Belarus turbine while constructing its protective control systems.

  14. Stability improvement of wind turbine penetrated using power system stabilizer (PSS) on South Sulawesi transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Agus; Gunadin, Indar Chaerah; Said, Sri Mawar; Suyuti, Ansar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the stability of interconnection of South Sulawesi system caused by penetration new wind turbine in Sidrap area on bus 2 and in Jeniponto area on bus 34. The method used in this research was via software Power System analysis Toolbox (PSAT) under MATLAB. In this research, there are two problems that are evaluated, the stability of the system before and after penetration wind turbine into the system South Sulawesi system. From the simulation result shows that penetration of wind turbine on bus 2 Sidrap, bus 37 Jeniponto give effect oscillation on the system. The oscillation was damped by installation of Power System Stabilizer (PSS) on bus 29 area Sungguminasa, that South Sulawesi system stable according to normal condition.

  15. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

    2010-11-01

    This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

  16. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    , connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control......This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built...

  17. A Novel Degradation Identification Method for Wind Turbine Pitch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Dong

    2018-04-01

    It’s difficult for traditional threshold value method to identify degradation of operating equipment accurately. An novel degradation evaluation method suitable for wind turbine condition maintenance strategy implementation was proposed in this paper. Based on the analysis of typical variable-speed pitch-to-feather control principle and monitoring parameters for pitch system, a multi input multi output (MIMO) regression model was applied to pitch system, where wind speed, power generation regarding as input parameters, wheel rotation speed, pitch angle and motor driving currency for three blades as output parameters. Then, the difference between the on-line measurement and the calculated value from the MIMO regression model applying least square support vector machines (LSSVM) method was defined as the Observed Vector of the system. The Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was applied to fitting the distribution of the multi dimension Observed Vectors. Applying the model established, the Degradation Index was calculated using the SCADA data of a wind turbine damaged its pitch bearing retainer and rolling body, which illustrated the feasibility of the provided method.

  18. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted horn DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include fill speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  19. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-15

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  20. Development and industrial tests of the first LNG hydraulic turbine system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic hydraulic turbine can be used to replace the conventional J–T valve for LNG or mixed refrigerant throttling and depressurization in a natural gas liquefaction plant. This advanced technology is not only to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction plant, but to usher a new trend in the development of global liquefaction technologies. China has over 136 liquefaction plants, but the cryogenic hydraulic turbines have not been deployed in industrial utilization. In addition, these turbines cannot be manufactured domestically. In this circumstance, through working on the key technologies for LNG hydraulic turbine process & control system development, hydraulic model optimization design, structure design and manufacturing, the first domestic cryogenic hydraulic turbine with a flow rate of 40 m3/h was developed to recover the pressure energy from the LNG of cold box. The turbine was installed in the CNOOC Zhuhai Natural Gas Liquefaction Plant for industrial tests under multiple working conditions, including start-stop, variable flow rates and variable rotation speeds. Test results show that the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine has satisfactory mechanical and operational performances at low temperatures as specified in design. In addition, the process & control system and frequency-conversion power-generation system of the turbine system are designed properly to automatically and smoothly replace the existing LNG J–T valve. As a result, the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine system can improve LNG production by an average of 2% and generate power of 8.3 kW.

  1. The marriage of gas turbines and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine? Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost

  2. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, J.S.; Halow, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system are described for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. 10 figures

  3. Modernization of turbine control system and reactor control system in Almaraz 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, C.; Diez, J.; Carrasco, J. A.; Lopez, L.

    2005-01-01

    The replacement of the Turbine Control System and Reactor Control System are part of the Almaraz modernization program for the Instrumentation and Control. For these upgrades Almaraz has selected the Ovation Platform that provides open architecture and easy expansion to other systems, these platforms is highly used in many nuclear and thermal plants around the world. One of the main objective for this project were to minimize the impact on the installation and operation of the plant, for that reason the project is implemented in two phases, Turbine Control upgrade and Reactor Control upgrade. Another important objective was to increase the reliability of the control system making them fully fault tolerant to single failures. The turbine Control System has been installed in Units 1 and 2 while the Reactor Control System will be installed in 2006 and 2007 outages. (Author)

  4. Cooling system with compressor bleed and ambient air for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Marra, John J.

    2017-11-21

    A cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine blade cooling fluid supply and from an ambient air source to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The cooling system may include a compressor bleed conduit extending from a compressor to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply that provides cooling fluid to at least one turbine blade. The compressor bleed conduit may include an upstream section and a downstream section whereby the upstream section exhausts compressed bleed air through an outlet into the downstream section through which ambient air passes. The outlet of the upstream section may be generally aligned with a flow of ambient air flowing in the downstream section. As such, the compressed air increases the flow of ambient air to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply.

  5. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  6. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  7. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  8. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  9. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  10. Internship on wind turbine control (basics) at industrial systems and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, van M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Where to begin when designing a wind turbine system? This question is answered in this report this report contains a brief description of how to model a wind turbine control system from the start. The model described here is based on a non-linear model from a paper. This report starts with some

  11. Preliminary conceptual design of the secondary sodium circuit-eliminated JSFR (Japan Sodium Fast Reactor) adopting a supercritical CO2 turbine system (2). Turbine system and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kotake, Shoji

    2014-09-01

    Research and development of the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) cycle turbine system is underway in various countries for further improvement of the safety and economy of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The Component Design and Balance-Of-Plant (CD and BOP) of the Generation IV International Nuclear Forum (Gen-IV) has addressed this study, and their analytical and experimental results have been discussed between the relevant countries. JAEA, who is a member of the CD and BOP, has performed a design study of an S-CO 2 gas turbine system applied to the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR). In this study, the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system was directly connected to the primary sodium system of the JSFR to eliminate the secondary sodium circuit, aiming for further economical improvement. This is because there is no risk of sodium-water reaction in the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system of SFRs. This report describes the system configuration, heat/mass balance, and main components of the S-CO 2 turbine system, based on the JSFR specifications. The layout of components and piping in the reactor and turbine buildings were examined and the dimensions of the buildings were estimated. The study has revealed that the reactor and turbine buildings could be reduced by 7% and 40%, respectively, in comparison with those in the existing JSFR design with the secondary sodium circuit employing the steam turbine. The cycle thermal was also calculated as 41.9-42.3%, which is nearly the same as that of the JSFR with the water/steam system. (author)

  12. Advanced fuels for gas turbines: Fuel system corrosion, hot path deposit formation and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, Tine; Širok, Brane; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical feasibility analysis of alternative fuels requires a holistic approach. • Fuel, combustion, corrosion and component functionality are strongly related. • Used approach defines design constraints for microturbines using alternative fuels. - Abstract: To further expand the knowledge base on the use of innovative fuels in the micro gas turbines, this paper provides insight into interrelation between specific fuel properties and their impact on combustion and emission formation phenomena in micro gas turbines for stationary power generation as well as their impact on material corrosion and deposit formation. The objective of this study is to identify potential issues that can be related to specific fuel properties and to propose counter measures for achieving stable, durable, efficient and low emission operation of the micro gas turbine while utilizing advanced/innovative fuels. This is done by coupling combustion and emission formation analyses to analyses of material degradation and degradation of component functionality while interpreting them through fuel-specific properties. To ensure sufficiently broad range of fuel properties to demonstrate the applicability of the method, two different fuels with significantly different properties are analysed, i.e. tire pyrolysis oil and liquefied wood. It is shown that extent of required micro gas turbine adaptations strongly correlates with deviations of the fuel properties from those of the baseline fuel. Through the study, these adaptations are supported by in-depth analyses of impacts of fuel properties on different components, parameters and subsystems and their quantification. This holistic approach is further used to propose methodologies and innovative approaches for constraining a design space of micro gas turbine to successfully utilize wide spectra of alternative/innovative fuels.

  13. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  14. Design and construction of a simple blade pitch measurement system for small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whale, Jonathan [Research Institute of Sustainable Energy, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    For small wind turbines to be reliable they must have in place good mechanisms to protect themselves against very high winds or sudden removal of load. One common protection method in small wind turbines is that of blade feathering. It is important that the blade feathering mechanism of a small wind turbine is tested before the turbine is installed in the field. This paper presents a simple system for monitoring the blade feathering of a turbine with an overall component cost that small wind turbine manufacturers can afford. The Blade Pitch Measurement System (BPMS) has been designed and constructed by the Research Institute of Sustainable Energy (RISE) and aids small wind turbine manufacturers in testing and optimising the settings of the blade feathering mechanisms on their machines. The results show that the BPMS was successful in recording the behaviour of the blade feathering mechanism in field trials with a 20 kW and a 30 kW wind turbine. The BPMS displays significant potential as an effective, inexpensive system for small wind turbine manufacturers to ensure the reliability of their pitch regulating over-speed protection mechanisms. (author)

  15. Ignition system for an internal combustion engine with rotary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, P A

    1977-05-18

    In the Wankel engine, the sparking plugs spark three times per rotation of the rotor and are never cooled by the incoming mixture. This constant high temperature environment necessitates the use of special sparking plugs. The covered top of the sparking plug is particularly liable to carbon deposits. This invention makes it possible to use sparking plugs on the rotor, without the disadvantages due to the use of high voltage. Further, the use of distributors or mechanical devices determining the ignition timing is no longer necessary. The fuel/air mixture is ignited in a combustion chamber, which is limited by first and second components moving relative to one another in repeated cycles. A generator device is fitted to the first components and an ignition device to the second components. The magnetic flux linking takes place in a predetermined area of the relative movement between the first and second components in a repeated cycle. An ignition signal is produced in the combustion chamber by the magnetic flux linking.

  16. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D on the advanced carbon dioxide recovery system of closed cycle gas turbine aiming at 2000 K (ACRO-GT2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the aim of reducing the carbon dioxide emitted from thermal power plants and commercializing ultra-high temperature/high efficiency gas turbines, R and D were conducted, and the FY results were outlined. In the study of system design, conceptual design was made of a 500MW commercial plant that can easily recover carbon oxide by pure oxygen combustion of the fuel. In the development of the combustion control technology, study of methane-oxygen burner was made with the aim of expanding the ignition limit and flame stability region. In the development of the turbine blade cooling technology, conducted were the conceptual design of 1st stage nozzle and turbine blade, study of heat transfer characteristics on the outside surface of turbine blade and heat transfer characteristics on the inside surface of turbine blade, conceptual design of 2nd stage nozzle and turbine blade, study of sealing technology, etc. In the development of auxiliary equipment, developmental study was conducted of high pressure ratio compressor, condenser, high temperature heat exchanger, etc. In the developmental study of ultra-high temperature materials, study was made of thermal-shielded coating, ceramic matrix composite materials, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  19. System Reduction in Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A system reduction scheme is devised related to a multibody formulation from which the dynamic response of a wind turbine is determined. In this formulation each substructure is described in its own frame of reference, which is moving freely in the vicinity of the moving substructure....... The Ritz bases spanning the reduced system comprises of rigid body modes and some dynamic low-frequency elastic eigenmodes compatible to the kinematic constraints of the related substructure. The high-frequency elastic modes are presumed to cause merely quasi-static displacements, and thus are included...... in the expansion via a quasi-static correction. The results show that by using the derived reduction scheme it is only necessary with 2 dynamical modes for the blade substructure when the remaining modes are treated as quasi-static. Moreover, it is shown that it has little to none effect if the gyroscopic...

  20. Advanced Control of Photovoltaic and Wind Turbines Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Much more efforts have been made on the integration of renewable energies into the grid in order to meet the imperative demand of a clean and reliable electricity generation. In this case, the grid stability and robustness may be violated due to the intermittency and interaction of the solar...... and wind renewables. Thus, in this chapter, advanced control strategies, which can enable the power conversion efficiently and reliably, for both photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines power systems are addressed in order to enhance the integration of those technologies. Related grid demands have been...... presented firstly, where much more attention has been paid on specific requirements, like Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) and reactive power injection capability. To perform the functions of those systems, advanced control strategies are presented with much more emphasis on the LVRT operation with reactive...

  1. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation on the thermal efficiency and combustion characteristics for premixed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Byeonghun; Kum, Sung-Min; Lee, Chang-Eon; Lee, Seungro

    2013-01-01

    In this research, a boiler in a premixed combustion system used to achieve exhaust gas recirculation was investigated as a way to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. The effects of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities on thermal efficiency, NO x and CO emissions and the flame behavior on the burner surface were examined both experimentally and numerically. The results of the experiments showed that when EGR was used, the NO x and CO concentrations decreased and the thermal efficiency increased. In the case of a 15% EGR ratio at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, NO x concentrations were found to be smaller than for the current operating condition of the boiler, and the thermal efficiency was approximately 4.7% higher. However, unlike NO x concentrations, although the EGR ratio was increased to 20% at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, the CO concentration was higher than in the current operating condition of the boiler. From the viewpoint of burner safety, the red glow on the burner surface was noticeably reduced when EGR was used. These results confirmed that the EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety. -- Highlights: ► The premixed boiler system applied EGR was investigated to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. ► Thermal efficiency and emission characteristics were examined with EGR ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities. ► EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety.

  2. Study on Unified Chaotic System-Based Wind Turbine Blade Fault Diagnostic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ying-Che; Hsieh, Chin-Tsung; Yau, Her-Terng; Li, Yu-Chung

    At present, vibration signals are processed and analyzed mostly in the frequency domain. The spectrum clearly shows the signal structure and the specific characteristic frequency band is analyzed, but the number of calculations required is huge, resulting in delays. Therefore, this study uses the characteristics of a nonlinear system to load the complete vibration signal to the unified chaotic system, applying the dynamic error to analyze the wind turbine vibration signal, and adopting extenics theory for artificial intelligent fault diagnosis of the analysis signal. Hence, a fault diagnostor has been developed for wind turbine rotating blades. This study simulates three wind turbine blade states, namely stress rupture, screw loosening and blade loss, and validates the methods. The experimental results prove that the unified chaotic system used in this paper has a significant effect on vibration signal analysis. Thus, the operating conditions of wind turbines can be quickly known from this fault diagnostic system, and the maintenance schedule can be arranged before the faults worsen, making the management and implementation of wind turbines smoother, so as to reduce many unnecessary costs.

  3. Exergy and Environmental Impact Assessment between Solar Powered Gas Turbine and Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaei, Ali; Barzegar Avval, Hasan; Eslami, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Recuperator is a heat exchanger that is used in gas turbine power plants to recover energy from outlet hot gases to heat up the air entering the combustion chamber. Similarly, the combustion chamber inlet air can be heated up to temperatures up to 1000 (°C) by solar power tower (SPT) as a renewable and environmentally benign energy source. In this study, comprehensive comparison between these two systems in terms of energy, exergy, and environmental impacts is carried out. Thermodynamic simul...

  4. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer conflation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. The objective of this task is to design 7H and 9H compressor rotor and stator structures with the goal of achieving high efficiency at lower cost and greater durability by applying proven GE Power Systems (GEPS) heavy-duty use design practices. The designs will be based on the GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) CF6-80C2 compressor. Transient and steady-state thermo-mechanical stress analyses will be run to ensure compliance with GEPS life standards. Drawings will be prepared for forgings, castings, machining, and instrumentation for full speed, no load (FSNL) tests of the first unit on both 9H and 7H applications.

  5. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C.; Jauch, C.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2003-12-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1. Active stall wind turbine with induction generator 2. Variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations. (au)

  6. Amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture in air-blown IGCC systems with cold and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, A.; Bonalumi, D.; Lozza, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot fuel gas clean-up is a very favorable technology for IGCC concepts. • IGCC net efficiency reduces to 41.5% when realizing post-combustion CO 2 capture. • Complex IGCC layouts are necessary if exhaust gas recirculation is realized. • IGCC performance does not significantly vary with exhaust gas recirculation. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the thermodynamic performance of air-blown IGCC systems with post-combustion CO 2 capture by chemical absorption. Two IGCC technologies are investigated in order to evaluate two different strategies of coal-derived gas clean-up. After outlining the layouts of two power plants, the first with conventional cold gas clean-up and the second with hot gas clean-up, attention is paid to the CO 2 capture station and to issues related to exhaust gas recirculation in combined cycles. The results highlight that significant improvements in IGCC performance are possible if hot coal-derived gas clean-up is realized before the syngas fuels the combustion turbine, so the energy cost of CO 2 removal in an amine-based post-combustion mode is less strong. In particular, IGCC net efficiency as high as 41.5% is calculated, showing an interesting potential if compared to the one of IGCC systems with pre-combustion CO 2 capture. Thermodynamic effects of exhaust gas recirculation are investigated as well, even though IGCC performance does not significantly vary against a more complicated plant layout

  7. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35-35 Section 62.35-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations of the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion chamber of an industrial gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haj Ayed

    2015-09-01

    The study reveals great potential for the successful application of numerical flow simulation to predict flame structure and NOx emission level of micromix hydrogen combustion, help understanding the flow phenomena related with the micromixing, reaction zone and NOx formation and support further optimization of the burner performance.

  9. Design of a wind turbine-generator system considering the conformability to wind velocity fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Hashizume, Takumi; Outa, Eisuke

    1999-07-01

    The conformability of the rated power output of the wind turbine-generator system and of the wind turbine type to wind velocity fluctuations are investigated with a simulation model. The authors examine three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid, the Darrieus proper and the Propeller. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient points. As a computed result of the net extracting power, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind velocity fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for the other turbines, large-scale systems do not always have an advantage over small-scale systems as the effect of its dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine, under wind direction fluctuation, is much reduced when compared with the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, the authors conclude that the appropriate rated power output of the system exists with relation to the wind turbine type for each wind condition.

  10. Hybrid high solar share gas turbine systems with innovative gas turbine cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Puppe, Michael; Giuliano, Stefano; Buck, Reiner; Krüger, Michael; Lammel, Oliver; Boje, Sven; Saidi, Karim; Gampe, Uwe; Felsmann, Christian; Freimark, Manfred; Langnickel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In this paper results from an ongoing research project (HYGATE) are presented, which is performed to reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and to increase the CO2 reduction potential of the solar-hybrid gas turbine plant concept (SHGT). Key improvements are the integration of thermal energy storage and the reduction of the operating temperature of the gas turbine to 950°C. As a result the solar receiver can provide the necessary temperature for solar-only operation of the plant at d...

  11. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown in Figure 1-1. Information specifically related to 9H production is presented for continuity in H program reporting, but lies outside the ATS program. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q98 through 3Q99. The most significant accomplishments are listed.

  12. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Iov, F.; Soerensen, Poul.; Cutululis, N.; Jauch, C.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2007-08-15

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risoe-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database built-op and developed during several national research projects, carried out at Risoe DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy and Aalborg University, in the period 2001-2007. The overall objective of these projects was to create a wind turbine model database able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. The main attention in the report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of the following wind turbine concepts: (1) Fixed speed active stall wind turbine concept (2) Variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine concept (3) Variable speed multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine concept These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine

  13. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  14. Acceptance test guideline for steam turbine control systems. Anahmerichtlinie fuer Regel- und Steuereinrichtungen von Dampfturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The acceptances to be obtained during the first operational run, refer to measures proving the functional integrity of the turbine control system and assuring the compliance with the maximum allowable overspeed in case of lead changes or perturbations. The Guideline concerns essentially speed, power, and pressure controllers coupled to generators. It may be appropriately extended to steam turbines serving other purposes.

  15. Understanding IEC standard wind turbine models using SimPowerSystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and exemplifies the IEC 61400-27 generic wind turbine models through an interactive multimedia learning environment - Matlab SimPowerSystems. The article aims help engineers with different backgrounds to get a better understanding of wind turbine dynamics and control...

  16. Analytical modeling of wet compression of gas turbine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Ko, Hyung-Jong; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative gas turbine cycles (EvGT) are of importance to the power generation industry because of the potential of enhanced cycle efficiencies with moderate incremental cost. Humidification of the working fluid to result in evaporative cooling during compression is a key operation in these cycles. Previous simulations of this operation were carried out via numerical integration. The present work is aimed at modeling the wet-compression process with approximate analytical solutions instead. A thermodynamic analysis of the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes that occur during evaporation is presented. The transient behavior of important variables in wet compression such as droplet diameter, droplet mass, gas and droplet temperature, and evaporation rate is investigated. The effects of system parameters on variables such as droplet evaporation time, compressor outlet temperature and input work are also considered. Results from this work exhibit good agreement with those of previous numerical work.

  17. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  18. Energetic study of combustion instabilities and genetic optimisation of chemical kinetics; Etude energetique des instabilites thermo-acoustiques et optimisation genetique des cinetiques reduites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ch.E.

    2005-12-15

    Gas turbine burners are now widely operated in lean premixed combustion mode. This technology has been introduced in order to limit pollutants emissions (especially the NO{sub x}), and thus comply with environment norms. Nevertheless, the use of lean premixed combustion decreases the stability margin of the flames. The flames are then more prone to be disturbed by flow disturbances. Combustion instabilities are then a major problem of concern for modern gas turbine conception. Some active control systems have been used to ensure stability of gas turbines retro-fitted to lean premixed combustion. The current generation of gas turbines aims to get rid of these control devices getting stability by a proper design. To do so, precise and adapted numerical tools are needed even it is impossible at the moment to guarantee the absolute stability of a combustion chamber at the design stage. Simulation tools for unsteady combustion are now able to compute the whole combustion chamber. Its intrinsic precision, allows the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to take into account numerous phenomena involved in combustion instabilities. Chemical modelling is an important element for the precision of reactive LES. This study includes the description of an optimisation tools for the reduced chemical kinetics. The capacity of the LES to capture combustion instabilities in gas turbine chamber is also demonstrated. The acoustic energy analysis points out that the boundary impedances of the combustion systems are of prime importance for their stability. (author)

  19. Improved PFB operations - 400-hour turbine test results. [Pressurized Fluidized Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with a 400-hr small turbine test in the effluent of a pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) at an average temperature of 770 C, an average relative gas velocity of 300 m/sec, and average solid loadings of 200 ppm. Consideration is given to combustion parameters and operating procedure as well as to the turbine system and turbine test operating procedures. Emphasis is placed on erosion/corrosion results.

  20. Design, analysis and control of hydraulic soft yaw system for 5MW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    by active control of a hydraulic yaw system. The control is based on a non-linear and linear model derived based on a concept yaw system for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The control strategies show a reduction in pressure pulsations under load and it is concluded that the strategie including high......As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and wereby dampen the loads to the system. This paper presents work done on dampening of these loads...

  1. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  2. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  3. An Experimental and Modeling Study of NOx-CO Formation in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) Fuels Combustion in Gas Turbine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farouk, Tanvir [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Padak, Bihter [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Dryer, Frederick [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Species concentration measurements specifically those associated with NOx can act as important validation targets for developing kinetic models to predict NOx emissions under syngas as well as natural gas combustion accurately. In this collaborative research effort that included both experimental measurements, model development and simulations a comprehensive kinetic model and a multiphysics computational fluid dynamics platform has been developed and validated against the experimental data available in the literature as well as those acquired under this project. The experimental data provide the necessary NOx and speciation data for conditions relevant to gas turbine operations but are not readily available in the literature. The comprehensive chemical kinetic model consists of CO/H2/NOx oxidation with the full implementation of NOx evolution pathways, including thermal, prompt, N2O and NNH paths. The experiments conducted included NOx perturbed oxidation of natural gas at elevated pressure in laminar flow reactor and syngas/air combustion in a McKenna Burner – Flow Tube setup. A wide range of equivalence ratio, operating pressure as well as H2/CO ratio (for syngas only) was investigated. Temperature and NOx concentrations were measured in the flame and post-combustion zone. Experiments were also conducted for seeded syngas where trace hydrocarbon was introduced. The proposed model has been extensively tested. Predictions from the model are compared against multiple experimental datasets over a wide range of venues and operating conditions. The experimental venues include shock tube, plug flow reactor, and stirred reactor experiments that cover pressures from 1 to 100 bar and equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 1.5. In general, the overall model predictions are in good agreement with global combustion targets, such as ignition delay time, as well as with more

  4. Design of a wind turbine pitch angle controller for power system stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Islam, Syed M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Bak Jensen, Birgitte [Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 101, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    The design of a PID pitch angle controller for a fixed speed active-stall wind turbine, using the root locus method is described in this paper. The purpose of this controller is to enable an active-stall wind turbine to perform power system stabilisation. For the purpose of controller design, the transfer function of the wind turbine is derived from the wind turbine's step response. The performance of this controller is tested by simulation, where the wind turbine model with its pitch angle controller is connected to a power system model. The power system model employed here is a realistic model of the North European power system. A short circuit fault on a busbar close to the wind turbine generator is simulated, and the dynamic responses of the system with and without the power system stabilisation of the wind turbines are presented. Simulations show that in most operating points the pitch controller can effectively contribute to power system stabilisation. (author)

  5. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  6. Ash quality and environmental quality assurance system in co-combustion - Co-combustion of forest industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine-Ylijoki, J.; Wahlstroem, M.

    2000-01-01

    The environmental acceptability and possible utilization of co-combustion ashes will have a significant influence on the wider use of co-combustion in the future. At present the correlation between currently used fuels, their mixture ratios, and quality variations in ashes are not known, which complicates the assessment of possible utilization and environmental acceptability of co-combustion ashes. The composition of ashes has also been found to vary significantly. Effective utilization requires that process variations to alter ash composition and quality variations are known in advance. The aim of the research was to characterize the fly ash from co- combustion of peat, wood and biological paper mill sludge produced under different fuel loadings, especially with and without sludge addition, ant to identify critical parameters influencing on the ash composition. The variations in the leaching properties of ashes collected daily were followed up. The environmental acceptability of the ashes produced under different fuel loadings, especially their suitability for use in road constructions, were evaluated. The project included also the preparation of laboratory reference material from ash material. Guidelines were developed for sampling, sample preparation and analysis, and leaching tests. Furthermore, a quality control system, including sampling strategies, sample analysis and leaching testing, was established

  7. Fault Diagnosis System of Wind Turbine Generator Based on Petri Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han

    Petri net is an important tool for discrete event dynamic systems modeling and analysis. And it has great ability to handle concurrent phenomena and non-deterministic phenomena. Currently Petri nets used in wind turbine fault diagnosis have not participated in the actual system. This article will combine the existing fuzzy Petri net algorithms; build wind turbine control system simulation based on Siemens S7-1200 PLC, while making matlab gui interface for migration of the system to different platforms.

  8. Fibradapt trademark: Adaptive Wind Turbine Control System; Fibradapt trademark: Adaptive Wind Turbine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, J.-Th. [Wind Force Engineering and Consulting GmbH, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The technology of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is compared with conventional strain gauge technologies in practical operation in a wind power system. Load cycles in the rotor blade were measured during plant life, and the data were used in plant control. The system is a tool in technical project management and financial management of a wind park. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system and the radial-inflow turbine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Ren, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermodynamic analysis of an ORC system is introduced. • A radial turbine design method has been proposed based on the real gas model. • A radial turbine with R123 is designed and numerically analyzed. - Abstract: Energy and environment issue set utilizing low-grade heat noticed. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. As a critical component of ORC system, the turbine selection has an enormous influence on the system performance. This paper carries out a study on the thermodynamic analysis of ORC system and the aerodynamic design of an organic radial turbine. The system performance is evaluated with various working fluids. The aerodynamic design of the organic radial-inflow turbine is focused due to the high molecule weight and the low sound speed of the organic working fluid. An aerodynamic and profile design system is developed. A radial-inflow turbine with R123 as the working fluid is designed and the numerical analysis is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the shock wave caused by the high expansion ratio in the nozzle is well controlled. Compared with the one-dimensional design results, the performance of the radial-inflow turbine in this paper reaches the design requirements.

  10. New Compressor Added to Glenn's 450- psig Combustion Air System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    In September 1999, the Central Process Systems Engineering Branch and the Maintenance and the Central Process Systems Operations Branch, released for service a new high pressure compressor to supplement the 450-psig Combustion Air System at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new compressor, designated C-18, is located in Glenn s Central Air Equipment Building and is remotely operated from the Central Control Building. C-18 can provide 40 pounds per second (pps) of airflow at pressure to our research customers. This capability augments our existing system capacity (compressors C 4 at 38 pps and C-5 at 32 pps), which is generated from Glenn's Engine Research Building. The C-18 compressor was originally part of Glenn's 21-Inch Hypersonic Tunnel, which was transferred from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Glenn in the mid-1980's. With the investment of construction of facilities funding, the compressor was modified, new mechanical and electrical support equipment were purchased, and the unit was installed in the basement of the Central Air Equipment Building. After several weeks of checkout and troubleshooting, the new compressor was ready for long-term, reliable operations. With a total of 110 pps in airflow now available, Glenn is well positioned to support the high-pressure air test requirements of our research customers.

  11. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  12. A progress report on DOE's advanced hydropower turbine systems program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, M.J.; Cada, G.F.; Rinehart, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Recent hydropower research within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has focused on the development of new turbine designs that can produce hydroelectricity without such adverse environmental affects as fish entrainment/impingement or degradation of water quality. In partnership with the hydropower industry, DOE's advanced turbine program issued a Request for Proposals for conceptual designs in October 1994. Two contracts were awarded for this initial program phase, work on which will be complete this year. A technical advisory committee with representatives from industry, regulatory agencies, and natural resource agencies was also formed to guide the DOE turbine research. The lack of quantitative biological performance criteria was identified by the committee as a critical knowledge gap. To fill this need, a new literature review was completed on the mechanisms of fish mortality during turbine passage (e.g., scrape/strike, shear, press change, etc.), ways that fish behavior affects their location and orientation in turbines, and how these turbine passage stresses can be measured. Thus year, new Laboratory tests will be conducted on fish response to shear, the least-well understood mechanism of stress. Additional testing of conceptual turbine designs depends on the level of federal funding for this program

  13. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 3, Appendix B: NO{sub x} and alkali vapor control strategies: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  14. LQR Feedback Control Development for Wind Turbines Featuring a Digital Fluid Power Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    with a DFP motor, which has been combined with the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine model. A classical variable speed control strategy for wind speeds below rated is proposed for the turbine, where the pump displacement is fixed and the digital motor displacement is varied for pressure control. The digital...... for such digital systems are complicated by its non-smooth behavior. In this paper a control design approach for a digital displacement machine® is proposed and a performance analysis of a wind turbine using a DFP transmission is presented. The performance evaluation is based on a dynamic model of the transmission...... invariant model. Using full-field flow wind profiles as input, the design approach and control performance is verified by simulation in the dynamic model of the wind turbine featuring the DFP transmission. Additionally, the performance is compared to that of the conventional NREL reference turbine...

  15. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  16. Turbines, generators and associated plant incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Littler, DJ

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of new 500 MW and 660 MW turbine generator plant in nuclear, coal- and oil-fired power stations has been partly responsible for the increase in generating capacity of the CEGB over the last 30 years. This volume provides a detailed account of experience gained in the development, design, manufacture, operation and testing of large turbine-generators in the last 20 years. With the advance in analytical and computational techniques, the application of this experience to future design and operation of large turbine-generator plant will be of great value to engineers in the indust

  17. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  18. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  19. 18th national meeting for energy saving promotion (prize winning case awarded by Ministry of International Trade and Industry). ; Development of air cooling equipment for gas turbine combustion. Dai 18 kai sho energy suishin zenkoku taikai (tsusho sangyo daijinsho jusho jirei). ; Gas turbine nenshoyo kuki reikyaku sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-30

    This paper describes a development of air cooling equipment for gas turbine combustion in a 1090-MW combined plant and a discussion on its cooling effect. An open-type gas turbine reduces its output when suction temperature rises. This is a characteristic for a combined plant with high heat efficiency not capable of exhibiting its ability in summer. As a result of testing cooling methods, water spraying nozzles utilizing latent evaporation heat of water were installed at a gas turbine suction opening. Effects of cooling the gas turbine combustion air resulted in reducing the gas turbine suction temperature by 1.8[degree]C as a result of water spray at an ambient temperature of 30[degree]C and a relative humidity of 60%, increasing the plant output by 12 MW as a result of cooling the suction air, and improving the heat efficiency by about 0.035%. The amount of ammonia used for reducing nitrogen oxide generation was reduced by 10.8 kg/hr. Under an assumption of experimenting the water spray in summer on a 15-hour per day basis for 50 days, a calculation indicates an annual economic effect of about 13.5 million yen. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    United Technologies Research Center, Pratt & Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt & Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R&D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

  1. An expert system for diagnostics and estimation of steam turbine components condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes an expert system of probability type for diagnostics and state estimation of steam turbine technological subsystems components. The expert system is based on Bayes’ theorem and permits to troubleshoot the equipment components, using expert experience, when there is a lack of baseline information on the indicators of turbine operation. Within a unified approach the expert system solves the problems of diagnosing the flow steam path of the turbine, bearings, thermal expansion system, regulatory system, condensing unit, the systems of regenerative feed-water and hot water heating. The knowledge base of the expert system for turbine unit rotors and bearings contains a description of 34 defects and of 104 related diagnostic features that cause a change in its vibration state. The knowledge base for the condensing unit contains 12 hypotheses and 15 evidence (indications); the procedures are also designated for 20 state parameters estimation. Similar knowledge base containing the diagnostic features and faults hypotheses are formulated for other technological subsystems of turbine unit. With the necessary initial information available a number of problems can be solved within the expert system for various technological subsystems of steam turbine unit: for steam flow path it is the correlation and regression analysis of multifactor relationship between the vibration parameters variations and the regime parameters; for system of thermal expansions it is the evaluation of force acting on the longitudinal keys depending on the temperature state of the turbine cylinder; for condensing unit it is the evaluation of separate effect of the heat exchange surface contamination and of the presence of air in condenser steam space on condenser thermal efficiency performance, as well as the evaluation of term for condenser cleaning and for tube system replacement and so forth. With a lack of initial information the expert system enables to formulate a diagnosis

  2. Predictive control of a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous generator in a wind turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messadi, Manal; Mellit, Adel; Kemih, Karim; Ghanes, Malek

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how to address the chaos problem in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in a wind turbine system. Predictive control approach is proposed to suppress chaotic behavior and make operating stable; the advantage of this method is that it can only be applied to one state of the wind turbine system. The use of the genetic algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values of the wind turbine leads to maximization of the power generation. Moreover, some simulation results are included to visualize the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. (paper)

  3. Predictive control of a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous generator in a wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manal, Messadi; Adel, Mellit; Karim, Kemih; Malek, Ghanes

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how to address the chaos problem in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in a wind turbine system. Predictive control approach is proposed to suppress chaotic behavior and make operating stable; the advantage of this method is that it can only be applied to one state of the wind turbine system. The use of the genetic algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values of the wind turbine leads to maximization of the power generation. Moreover, some simulation results are included to visualize the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Project supported by the CMEP-TASSILI Project (Grant No. 14MDU920).

  4. A Survey of Control Issues in PMSG-Based Small Wind-Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Natalia Angela; Liserre, Marco; Mastromauro, Rosa Anna

    2013-01-01

    /position estimation, pitch control, braking chopper control, dc/dc converter control, and grid converter control. Specific issues for small wind-turbines arise in the wind energy extraction optimization and limitation and in the innovative concept of “universal” wind-turbine operation, that leads these system...... generators directly connected to the grid, while recently permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) with power converter, either partially or fully controlled, became popular. This paper reviews the control issues related to these small wind-turbine systems: generator torque control, speed...

  5. Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

  6. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  7. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  8. Introduction to modeling and control of internal combustion engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, Lino; Onder, Christopher H. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICE) still have potential for substantial improvements, particularly with regard to fuel efficiency and environmental compatibility. In order to fully exploit the remaining margins, increasingly sophisticated control systems have to be applied. This book offers an introduction to cost-effective model-based control-system design for ICE. The primary emphasis is put on the ICE and its auxiliary devices. Mathematical models for these processes are developed and solutions for selected feedforward and feedback control-problems are presented. The discussions concerning pollutant emissions and fuel economy of ICE in automotive applications constantly intensified since the first edition of this book was published. Concerns about the air quality, the limited resources of fossil fuels and the detrimental effects of greenhouse gases exceedingly spurred the interest of both the industry and academia in further improvements. The most important changes and additions included in this second edition are: - restructured and slightly extended section on superchargers; - short subsection on rotational oscillations and their treatment on engine test-benches; - complete section on modeling, detection, and control of engine knock; - improved physical and chemical model for the three-way catalytic converter; - new methodology for the design of an air-to-fuel ratio controller; - short introduction to thermodynamic engine-cycle calculation and corresponding control-oriented aspects. (orig.)

  9. Gaussian process regression based optimal design of combustion systems using flame images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Junghui; Chan, Lester Lik Teck; Cheng, Yi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The digital color images of flames are applied to combustion design. • The combustion with modeling stochastic nature is developed using GP. • GP based uncertainty design is made and evaluated through a real combustion system. - Abstract: With the advanced methods of digital image processing and optical sensing, it is possible to have continuous imaging carried out on-line in combustion processes. In this paper, a method that extracts characteristics from the flame images is presented to immediately predict the outlet content of the flue gas. First, from the large number of flame image data, principal component analysis is used to discover the principal components or combinational variables, which describe the important trends and variations in the operation data. Then stochastic modeling of the combustion process is done by a Gaussian process with the aim to capture the stochastic nature of the flame associated with the oxygen content. The designed oxygen combustion content considers the uncertainty presented in the combustion. A reference image can be designed for the actual combustion process to provide an easy and straightforward maintenance of the combustion process

  10. Self Adaptive Air Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion Using Shutter Valve and OWC Heoght Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bella, Francis A

    2014-09-29

    An oscillating water column (OWC) is one of the most technically viable options for converting wave energy into useful electric power. The OWC system uses the wave energy to “push or pull” air through a high-speed turbine, as illustrated in Figure 1. The turbine is typically a bi-directional turbine, such as a Wells turbine or an advanced Dennis-Auld turbine, as developed by Oceanlinx Ltd. (Oceanlinx), a major developer of OWC systems and a major collaborator with Concepts NREC (CN) in Phase II of this STTR effort. Prior to awarding the STTR to CN, work was underway by CN and Oceanlinx to produce a mechanical linkage mechanism that can be cost-effectively manufactured, and can articulate turbine blades to improve wave energy capture. The articulation is controlled by monitoring the chamber pressure. Funding has been made available from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to CN (DOE DE-FG-08GO18171) to co-share the development of a blade articulation mechanism for the purpose of increasing energy recovery. However, articulating the blades is only one of the many effective design improvements that can be made to the composite subsystems that constitute the turbine generator system.

  11. Operating experience feedback report -- turbine-generator overspeed protection systems: Commercial power reactors. Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornstein, H.L.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) review of operating experience of main turbine-generator overspeed and overspeed protection systems. It includes an indepth examination of the turbine overspeed event which occurred on November 9, 1991, at the Salem Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. It also provides information concerning actions taken by other utilities and the turbine manufacturers as a result of the Salem overspeed event. AEOD's study reviewed operating procedures and plant practices. It noted differences between turbine manufacturer designs and recommendations for operations, maintenance, and testing, and also identified significant variations in the manner that individual plants maintain and test their turbine overspeed protection systems. AEOD's study provides insight into the shortcomings in the design, operation, maintenance, testing, and human factors associated with turbine overspeed protection systems. Operating experience indicates that the frequency of turbine overspeed events is higher than previously thought and that the bases for demonstrating compliance with NRC's General Design Criterion (GDC) 4, Environmental and dynamic effects design bases, may be nonconservative with respect to the assumed frequency

  12. Performance of a 3 kW wind turbine generator with variable pitch control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Baku M.; Ameku, Kazumasa; Roy, Jitendro Nath

    2009-01-01

    A prototype 3 kW horizontal upwind type wind turbine generator of 4 m in diameter has been designed and examined under real wind conditions. The machine was designed based on the concept that even small wind turbines should have a variable pitch control system just as large wind turbines, especially in Japan where typhoons occur at least once a year. A characteristic of the machine is the use of a worm and gear system with a stepping motor installed in the center of the hub, and the rotational main shaft. The machine is constructed with no mechanical breaking system so as to avoid damage from strong winds. In a storm, the wind turbine is slowed down by adjusting the pitch angle and the maximum electrical load. Usually the machine is controlled at several stages depending on the rotational speed of the blades. Two control methods have been applied: the variable pitch angle, and regulation of the generator field current. The characteristics of the generator under each rotational speed and field current are first investigated in the laboratory. This paper describes the performances of the wind turbine in terms of the functions of wind turbine rotational speed, generated outputs, and its stability for wind speed changes. The expected performances of the machine have been confirmed under real wind conditions and compared with numerical simulation results. The wind turbine showed a power coefficient of 0.257 under the average wind speed of 7.3 m/s.

  13. Adaptive Controller for Drive System PMSG in Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanambal; G.Balaji; M.Abinaya

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) wind turbine and direct power control for grid side inverter for transformer less integration of wind energy. PMSG wind turbine with two back to back voltage source converters are considered more efficient, used to make real and reactive power control. The optimal control strategy has introduced for integrated control of PMSG Maximum Power Extraction, DC li...

  14. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower''s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable

  15. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  16. A Closed-Form Technique for the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Wind Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dueñas-Osorio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a closed-form method to evaluate wind turbine system reliability and associated failure consequences. Monte Carlo simulation, a widely used approach for system reliability assessment, usually requires large numbers of computational experiments, while existing analytical methods are limited to simple system event configurations with a focus on average values of reliability metrics. By analyzing a wind turbine system and its components in a combinatorial yet computationally efficient form, the proposed approach provides an entire probability distribution of system failure that contains all possible configurations of component failure and survival events. The approach is also capable of handling unique component attributes such as downtime and repair cost needed for risk estimations, and enables sensitivity analysis for quantifying the criticality of individual components to wind turbine system reliability. Applications of the technique are illustrated by assessing the reliability of a 12-subassembly turbine system. In addition, component downtimes and repair costs of components are embedded in the formulation to compute expected annual wind turbine unavailability and repair cost probabilities, and component importance metrics useful for maintenance planning and research prioritization. Furthermore, this paper introduces a recursive solution to closed-form method and applies this to a 45-component turbine system. The proposed approach proves to be computationally efficient and yields vital reliability information that could be readily used by wind farm stakeholders for decision making and risk management.

  17. Effects of turbine's selection on hydraulic transients in the long pressurized water conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J X; Hu, M; Cai, F L; Huang, X T

    2014-01-01

    For a hydropower station with longer water conveyance system, an optimum turbine's selection will be beneficial to its reliable and stable operation. Different optional turbines will result in possible differences of the hydraulic characteristics in the hydromechanical system, and have different effects on the hydraulic transients' analysis and control. Therefore, the premise for turbine's selection is to fully understand the properties of the optional turbines and their effects on the hydraulic transients. After a brief introduction of the simulation models for hydraulic transients' computation and stability analysis, the effects of hydraulic turbine's characteristics at different operating points on the hydro-mechanical system's free vibration analysis were theoretically investigated with the hydraulic impedance analysis of the hydraulic turbine. For a hydropower station with long water conveyance system, based on the detailed hydraulic transients' computation respectively for two different optional turbines, the effects of the turbine's selection on hydraulic transients were analyzed. Furthermore, considering different operating conditions for each turbine and the similar operating conditions for these two turbines, free vibration analysis was comprehensively carried out to reveal the effects of turbine's impedance on system's vibration characteristics. The results indicate that, respectively with two different turbines, most of the controlling parameters under the worst cases have marginal difference, and few shows obvious differences; the turbine's impedances under different operating conditions have less effect on the natural angular frequencies; different turbine's characteristics and different operating points have obvious effects on system's vibration stability; for the similar operating conditions of these two turbines, system's vibration characteristics are basically consistent with

  18. Active vibration-based SHM system: demonstration on an operating Vestas V27 wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    2016-01-01

    with the system and a 3.5 month monitoring campaign was conducted while the turbine was operating normally. During the campaign, a defect – a trailing edge opening – was artificially introduced into the blade and its size was gradually increased from the original 15 cm to 45 cm. Using an unsupervised learning......This study presents a system that is able to detect defects like cracks, leading/trailing edge opening or delamination of at least 15 cm size, remotely, without stopping the wind turbine. The system is vibration-based: mechanical energy is artificially introduced by means of an electromechanical......-to-noise ratio. At the same time, the corresponding wavelength is short enough to deliver required damage detection resolution and long enough to be able to propagate the entire blade length. The paper demonstrates the system on a 225 kW Vesta s V27 wind turbine. One blade of the wind turbine was equipped...

  19. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  20. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  1. Novel Modified Elman Neural Network Control for PMSG System Based on Wind Turbine Emulator

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chih-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The novel modified Elman neural network (NN) controlled permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) system, which is directly driven by a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) based on wind turbine emulator, is proposed to control output of rectifier (AC/DC power converter) and inverter (DC/AC power converter) in this study. First, a closed loop PMSM drive control based on wind turbine emulator is designed to generate power for the PMSG system according to different wind speeds. Then, t...

  2. Simulation of Small Wind Turbine Generation System Using Ring Winding Slotless PMSG by FEM

    OpenAIRE

    徳永, 翔平; 袈裟丸, 勝己; Tokunaga, Shohei; Kesamaru, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel small wind turbine generation system with ring winding slotless PMSG. To reduce cogging torque, ring winding PM generator is used for a wind turbine generator. Using finite element analysis, the characteristics of slotless PMSGs are elucidated and the dynamic performance of the proposed system with MPPT control is represented. In this paper, the constant wind test and the quasi-natural wind test are conducted. The results of these tests indicate the proposed syste...

  3. Application of a power recovery system to gas turbine exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudat, N.P.; James, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a power recovery system to recover waste heat from the exhaust gases of gas turbines and convert this energy into shaft horsepower. Also discussed are power cycles, selection of power fluid, equipment selection, and application of the power recovery system to various gas turbines. Several charts and tables are included: process flow diagram, cycle efficiencies, curve for estimating recoverable horsepower

  4. Real-time monitoring, prognosis, and resilient control for wind turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiwei; Sheng, Shuangwen

    2018-02-01

    This special issue aims to provide a platform for academic and industrial communities to report recent results and emerging research in real-time monitoring, fault diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control and design of wind turbine systems. After a strict peer-review process, 20 papers were selected, which represent the most recent progress of the real-time monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control methods/techniques in wind turbine systems.

  5. Knowledge-based system for detailed blade design of turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sanjay; Lamson, Scott

    1994-03-01

    A design optimization methodology that couples optimization techniques to CFD analysis for design of airfoils is presented. This technique optimizes 2D airfoil sections of a blade by minimizing the deviation of the actual Mach number distribution on the blade surface from a smooth fit of the distribution. The airfoil is not reverse engineered by specification of a precise distribution of the desired Mach number plot, only general desired characteristics of the distribution are specified for the design. Since the Mach number distribution is very complex, and cannot be conveniently represented by a single polynomial, it is partitioned into segments, each of which is characterized by a different order polynomial. The sum of the deviation of all the segments is minimized during optimization. To make intelligent changes to the airfoil geometry, it needs to be associated with features observed in the Mach number distribution. Associating the geometry parameters with independent features of the distribution is a fairly complex task. Also, for different optimization techniques to work efficiently the airfoil geometry needs to be parameterized into independent parameters, with enough degrees of freedom for adequate geometry manipulation. A high-pressure, low reaction steam turbine blade section was optimized using this methodology. The Mach number distribution was partitioned into pressure and suction surfaces and the suction surface distribution was further subdivided into leading edge, mid section and trailing edge sections. Two different airfoil representation schemes were used for defining the design variables of the optimization problem. The optimization was performed by using a combination of heuristic search and numerical optimization. The optimization results for the two schemes are discussed in the paper. The results are also compared to a manual design improvement study conducted independently by an experienced airfoil designer. The turbine blade optimization

  6. Electromagnetic Calculation of Combined Earthing System with Ring Earth Electrode and Vertical Rods for Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiaki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ueda, Toshiaki

    With the worldwide spread of wind turbine installations, various problems such as landscape issues, bird strikes and grid connections have arisen. Protection of wind turbines from lightning is cited as one of the main problems. Wind turbines are often struck by lightning because of their open-air locations, such as in mountainous areas, and their special configuration and very-high construction. Especially, low-voltage and control circuits can fail or suffer burnout while blades can incur serious damage if struck by lightning. Wind turbine failures caused by lightning strikes account for approximately 25% of all failures. The problem is regarded as a global one that needs immediate resolution. It is important to understand the impedance characteristics of wind turbine earthing systems from the viewpoint of lightning protection. A report from IEC TR61400-24 recommends a “ring earth electrode”. This was originally defined in IEC 61024 (currently revised and re-numbered as IEC 62305), where such an electrode is recommended to reduce touch and step voltages in households and buildings. IEC TR61400-24 also recommended additional electrodes of vertical or horizontal rods. However, these concepts have not been fully discussed from the viewpoint of its application to wind turbines. To confirm the effect of a combination of a ring earth electrode and additional vertical rods for protection of a wind turbine, this report uses the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to present an electromagnetic transient analysis on such a wind turbine earthing system. The results show that an optimal combination can be arranged from viewpoints of lightning protection and construction cost. Thus, this report discusses how to establish a quantitative design methodology of the wind turbine earthing system to provide effective lightning protection.

  7. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications

  8. Flow visualization system for wind turbines without blades applied to micro reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.S.B.; Guimarães, L.N.F.; Placco, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Flow visualization systems is a tool used in science and industry for characterization of projects that operate with drainage. This work presents the design and construction of a flow visualization system for passive turbines used in advanced fast micro reactors. In the system were generated images where it is possible to see the supersonic and transonic flow through the turbine disks. A test bench was assembled to generate images of the interior of the turbine where the flow is supersonic, allowing the study of the behavior of the boundary layer between disks. It is necessary to characterize the boundary layer of this type of turbine because its operation occurs in the transfer of kinetic energy between the fluid and the disks. The images generated, as well as their analyzes are presented as a result of this work

  9. Experimental investigation of aerodynamics, combustion, and emissions characteristics within the primary zone of a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ahmed M.

    2006-04-01

    The present work investigates pollutant emissions production, mainly nitric oxides and carbon monoxide, within the primary zone of a highly swirling combustion and methods with which to reduce their formation. A baseline study was executed at different equivalence ratios and different inlet air temperatures. The study was then extended to investigate the effects of utilizing transverse air jets on pollutant emission characteristics at different jet locations, jet mass ratio, and overall equivalence ratio as well as to investigate the jets' overall interactions with the recirculation zone. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was employed to measure emissions concentrations generated during combustion of Jet-A fuel in a swirl-cup assembly. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was employed to investigate the mean flow aerodynamics within the combustor. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was utilized to capture the instantaneous aerodynamic behavior of the non-reacting primary zone. Results illustrate that NOx production is a function of both the recirculation zone and the flame length. At low overall equivalence ratios, the recirculation zone is found to be the main producer of NOx. At near stoichiometric conditions, the post recirculation zone appears to be responsible for the majority of NOx produced. Results reveal the possibility of injecting air into the recirculation zone without altering flame stability to improve emission characteristics. Depending on the jet location and strength, nitric oxides as well as carbon monoxide can be reduced simultaneously. Placing the primary air jet just downstream of the fuel rich recirculation zone can lead to a significant reduction in both nitric oxides and carbon monoxide. In the case of fuel lean recirculation zone, reduction of nitric oxides can occur by placing the jets below the location of maximum radius of the recirculation zone.

  10. Study on the application of energy storage system in offshore wind turbine with hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yajun; Mu, Anle; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydraulic offshore wind turbine is capable of outputting near constant power. • Open loop hydraulic transmission uses seawater as the working fluid. • Linear control strategy distributes total flow according to demand and supply. • Constant pressure hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Simulations show the dynamic performance of the hybrid system. - Abstract: A novel offshore wind turbine comprising fluid power transmission and energy storage system is proposed. In this wind turbine, the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced by an open-loop hydraulic system, in which seawater is sucked through a variable displacement pump in nacelle connected directly with the rotor and utilized to drive a Pelton turbine installed on the floating platform. Aiming to smooth and stabilize the output power, an energy storage system with the capability of flexible charging and discharging is applied. The related mathematical model is developed, which contains some sub-models that are categorized as the wind turbine rotor, hydraulic pump, transmission pipeline, proportional valve, accumulator and hydraulic turbine. A linear control strategy is adopted to distribute the flow out of the proportional valve through comparing the demand power with captured wind energy by hydraulic pump. Ultimately, two time domain simulations demonstrate the operation of the hybrid system when the hydraulic accumulator is utilized and show how this system can be used for load leveling and stabilizing the output power.

  11. Optimised and balanced structural and system reliability of offshore wind turbines. An account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarp-Johansen, N.J.; Kozine, I. (Risoe National Lab., DTU, Roskilde, (DK)); Rademarkers, L. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (NL)); Dalsgaard Soerensen, J. (Aalborg Univ. (DK)) Ronold, K. (Det Norske Veritas (DK))

    2005-04-15

    This report gives the results of the research project 'Optimised and Uniform Safety and Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbines (an account)'. The main subject of the project has been the account of the state-of-the art of knowledge about, and/or attempts to, harmonisation of the structural reliability of wind turbines, on the one hand, and the reliability of the wind turbine's control/safety system, on the other hand. Within the project some research pointing ahead has also been conducted. (au)

  12. Reliability Based Design of Fluid Power Pitch Systems for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2017-01-01

    Priority Number. The Failure Mode and Effect Criticality Analysis is based on past research concerning failure analysis of wind turbine drive trains. Guidelines are given to select the severity, occurrence and detection score that make up the risk priority number. The usability of the method is shown...... in a case study of a fluid power pitch system applied to wind turbines. The results show a good agreement to recent field failure data for offshore turbines where the dominating failure modes are related to valves, accumulators and leakage. The results are further used for making design improvements...

  13. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  14. MHD/gas turbine systems designed for low cooling water requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annen, K.D.; Eustis, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consist of a coal-fired MHD plant with an air turbine bottoming plant and require no cooling water. In addition to the base case systems, systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems require a small amount of cooling water. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine systems have very good thermal and economic performances. The base case I MHD/gas turbine system (782 MW /SUB e/ ) requires no cooling water, has a heat rate which is 13% higher, and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher than a comparable MHD/steam system (878 MW /SUB e/ ) having a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW. The case I vapor cycle bottomed systems have thermal and economic performances which approach and even exceed those of the MHD/steam system, while having substantially lower cooling water requirements. Performances of a second-generation MHD/gas turbine system and an oxygen-enriched, early commercial system are also evaluated. An analysis of nitric oxide emissions shows compliance with emission standards

  15. Modelling of EAF off-gas post combustion in dedusting systems using CFD methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X.; Kirschen, M.; Pfeifer, H. [Inst. for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering in Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Abel, M. [VAI-Fuchs GmbH, Willstaett (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    To comply with the increasingly strict environmental regulations, the poisonous off-gas species, e.g. carbon monoxide (CO), produced in the electric arc furnace (EAF) must be treated in the dedusting system. In this work, gas flow patterns of the off-gas post combustion in three different dedusting system units were simulated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code: (1) post combustion in a horizontal off-gas duct, (2) post combustion in a water cooled post combustion chamber without additional energy supply (no gas or air/oxygen injectors) and (3) post combustion in a post combustion chamber with additional energy input (gas, air injectors and ignition burner, case study of VAI-Fuchs GmbH). All computational results are illustrated with gas velocity, temperature distribution and chemical species concentration fields for the above three cases. In case 1, the effect of different false air volume flow rates at the gap between EAF elbow and exhaust gas duct on the external post combustion of the off-gas was investigated. For case 2, the computed temperature and chemical composition (CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) of the off-gas at the post chamber exit are in good agreement with additional measurements. Various operating conditions for case 3 have been studied, including different EAF off-gas temperatures and compositions, i. e. CO content, in order to optimize oxygen and burner gas flow rates. Residence time distributions in the external post combustion chambers have been calculated for cases 2 and 3. Derived temperature fields of the water cooled walls yield valuable information on thermally stressed parts of post combustion units. The results obtained in this work may also gain insight to future investigation of combustion of volatile organic components (VOC) or formation of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and permit the optimization of the operation and design of the off-gas dedusting system units. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of Standard Wind Turbine Models with Vendor Models for Power System Stability Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honrubia-Escribano, A.; Gomez Lazaro, E.; Jimenez-Buendia, F.; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission Standard 61400-27-1 was published in February 2015. This standard deals with the development of generic terms and parameters to specify the electrical characteristics of wind turbines. Generic models of very complex technological systems, such as wind turbines, are thus defined based on the four common configurations available in the market. Due to its recent publication, the comparison of the response of generic models with specific vendor models plays a key role in ensuring the widespread use of this standard. This paper compares the response of a specific Gamesa dynamic wind turbine model to the corresponding generic IEC Type III wind turbine model response when the wind turbine is subjected to a three-phase voltage dip. This Type III model represents the doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine, which is not only one of the most commonly sold and installed technologies in the current market but also a complex variable-speed operation implementation. In fact, active and reactive power transients are observed due to the voltage reduction. Special attention is given to the reactive power injection provided by the wind turbine models because it is a requirement of current grid codes. Further, the boundaries of the generic models associated with transient events that cannot be represented exactly are included in the paper.

  17. Performance and Feasibility Analysis of a Wind Turbine Power System for Use on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Matthew D.; Viterna, Larry

    1999-01-01

    A wind turbine power system for future missions to the Martian surface was studied for performance and feasibility. A C++ program was developed from existing FORTRAN code to analyze the power capabilities of wind turbines under different environments and design philosophies. Power output, efficiency, torque, thrust, and other performance criteria could be computed given design geometries, atmospheric conditions, and airfoil behavior. After reviewing performance of such a wind turbine, a conceptual system design was modeled to evaluate feasibility. More analysis code was developed to study and optimize the overall structural design. Findings of this preliminary study show that turbine power output on Mars could be as high as several hundred kilowatts. The optimized conceptual design examined here would have a power output of 104 kW, total mass of 1910 kg, and specific power of 54.6 W/kg.

  18. Performance estimates for the Space Station power system Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The methods which have been used by the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine performance for different gases and flow rates are described. These methods were developed by NASA Lewis during the early days of Brayton cycle component development and they can now be applied to the task of predicting the performance of the Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) Space Station Freedom power system. Computer programs are given for performing these calculations and data from previous NASA Lewis Brayton Compressor and Turbine tests is used to make accurate estimates of the compressor and turbine performance for the CBC power system. Results of these calculations are also given. In general, calculations confirm that the CBC Brayton Cycle contractor has made realistic compressor and turbine performance estimates.

  19. Implementation of a Wind Farm Turbine Control System with Short-Term Grid Faults Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    restrictions for the wind turbines behavior especially under grid faults. Wind turbines are requested to stay connected even during faults. These new requirements are challenging the control of the wind turbines and new control strategies are required to meet the target. This paper dealt...... with the implementation of a control strategy in order to stay connected under grid faults. The method aimed to ensure that a wind farm turbine remains connected and no electric power is delivered to the grid during the fault period. The overall system was modelled and simulated by using the software Matlab/Simulink.......The increased penetration of wind power in the grid has led to important technical barriers that limit the development, where the stability of the system plays a key issue. Grid operators in different countries are issuing new grid requirements, the so-called grid codes that impose more...

  20. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeck, Alexander R [Orlando, FL

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  1. Experimental study of air delivery into water-conveyance system of the radial-axial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Alexandra; Platonov, Dmitry; Minakov, Andrey; Dekterev, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of oscillatory response in the Francis turbine of hydraulic unit. The experiment was performed on large-scale hydrodynamic test-bench with impeller diameter of 0.3 m. The effect of air injection on the intensity of pressure pulsations was studied at the maximum pressure pulsations in the hydraulic unit. It was revealed that air delivery into the water-conveyance system of the turbine results in almost two-fold reduction of pressure pulsations.

  2. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-01-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create amodel database in different simulation tools. This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The repo...

  3. Control System on a Wind Turbine: Evaluation of Control Strategies for a Wind Turbine with Hydraulic Drive Train by Means of Aeroelastic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frøyd, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of wind turbines are going towards floating offshore structures. To improve the stability of these turbines, the weight of the nacelle should be as low as possible. The company ChapDrive has developed a hydraulic drive train that gives the ability to move the generator to the base of the tower and to replace the traditional gearbox. To test the system, ChapDrive has constructed a prototype turbine which is located at Valsneset.This thesis describes the combined aero-elastic and...

  4. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenburn, Michael

    1990-01-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  5. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  6. Advanced control of direct-driven PMSG generator in wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the advanced control system of the wind energy conversion with a variable speed wind turbine. The considered system consists of a wind turbine with the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG, machine side converter (MSC, grid side converter (GSC and control circuits. The mathematical models of a wind turbine system, the PMSG generator and converters have been described. The control algorithms of the converter systems based on the methods of vector control have been applied. In the advanced control system of the machine side converter the optimal MPPT control method has been used. Additionally the pitch control scheme is included in order to achieve the limitation of maximum power and to prevent mechanical damage of the wind turbine. In the control system of the grid side converter the control of active and reactive power has been applied with the application of Voltage Oriented Control (VOC. The performance of the considered wind energy system has been studied by digital simulation. The results of simulation studies confirmed the good effectiveness of the considered wind turbine system and very good performance of the proposed methods of vector control and control systems.

  7. Design, Optimization and Analysis of Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for 5 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hence dampen the loads to the system, which is the focus of the current paper. The paper first p...... on the extrapolated loads, show that it is possible to construct a hydraulic soft yaw system, which is able to reduce the loads on the wind turbine significantly....... presents work previous done on this subject with focus on hydraulic yaw systems. By utilizing the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized. Results show that a significant...... reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw system and rotor shaft are possible, when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. The duty cycles, based...

  8. Impact of the use of a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling system in arid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ansary, Hany A.; Orfi, Jamel A.; Ali, Mohamed E.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cooling the air entering the compressor section of a gas turbine is a proven method of increasing turbine power output, especially during peak summer demand, and it is increasingly being used in powerplants worldwide. Two turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) systems are widely used: evaporative cooling and mechanical chilling. In this work, the prospects of using a hybrid turbine inlet air cooling (TIAC) system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling. Such a system is capable of achieving a significant reduction in inlet air temperature that satisfies desired power output levels, while consuming less power than conventional mechanical chilling and less water than conventional evaporative cooling, thus combining the benefits of both approaches. Two hybrid system configurations are studied. In the first configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers that are coupled with dry coolers such that the condenser cooling water remains in a closed loop. In the second configuration, the first stage of the system uses water-cooled chillers but with conventional cooling towers. An assessment of the performance and economics of those two configurations is made by comparing them to conventional mechanical chilling and using realistic data. It was found that the TIAC systems are capable of boosting the power output of the gas turbine by 10% or more (of the power output of the ISO conditions). The cost operation analysis shows clearly the hybrid TIAC method with wet cooling has the advantage over the other methods and It would be profitable to install it in the new gas turbine power plants. The figure below shows a comparison of the water consumption for the three different cases. - Highlights: • New hybrid system for the turbine inlet air cooling is studied. • Hybrid system of mechanical chilling followed by evaporative cooling is used. • Hybrid turbine inlet air cooling

  9. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  10. Análise termodinâmica de um ciclo de potência com célula a combustível sofc e turbina a vapor = Thermodynamic analysis of a power cycle such as SOFC fuel cell and steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sordi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi realizar a análise termodinâmica de um sistema híbrido, SOFC / ST (célula a combustível tipo SOFC e turbina a vapor ST. O combustível considerado para a análise foi o gás metano (biogás produzido por meio da digestão anaeróbica de resíduos orgânicos. A metodologia utilizada foi o balanço de energia dosistema SOFC / ST, considerando a reforma interna do metano na célula a combustível, de forma a obter a sua eficiência elétrica. O resultado foi comparado a um ciclo combinado convencional de turbina a gás e turbina a vapor (GT / ST para potências entre 10 MW e 30MW. A eficiência do sistema híbrido SOFC / ST variou de 61% a 66% em relação ao poder calorífico do metano; e a eficiência do ciclo combinado GT / ST variou de 41% a 55% para o mesmo intervalo de potência. Para geração distribuída a célula a combustível SOFC é atecnologia mais eficiente.The objective of this article was to analyze the thermodynamic of ahybrid system, SOFC / ST (SOFC fuel cell and ST steam turbine. The fuel for the analysis was the gas methane (biogas produced through the anaerobic digestion of the organic residues. The utilized methodology was the energy balance of the system SOFC / ST,considering the internal reforming of methane in the fuel cell, in a way to obtain its electric effectiveness. The result was compared to a conventional combined cycle of gas turbine and steam turbine (GT / ST for powers between 10 MW and 30 MW. The efficiency of the hybrid system SOFC / ST varied from 61 to 66% in relation to the lower heating value of methane; and the efficiency of the combined cycle GT / ST varied from 41 to 55% within the same power interval. For distributed generation, the SOFC fuel cell is the most efficienttechnology.

  11. Estimating Health Condition of the Wind Turbine Drivetrain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition Monitoring (CM has been considered as an effective method to enhance the reliability of wind turbines and implement cost-effective maintenance. Thus, adopting an efficient approach for condition monitoring of wind turbines is desirable. This paper presents a data-driven model-based CM approach for wind turbines based on the online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM algorithm. A physical kinetic energy correction model is employed to normalize the temperature change to the value at the rated power output to eliminate the effect of variable speed operation of the turbines. The residual signal, obtained by comparing the predicted values and practical measurements, is processed by the physical correction model and then assessed with a Bonferroni interval method for fault diagnosis. Models have been validated using supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA data acquired from an operational wind farm, which contains various types of temperature data of the gearbox. The results show that the proposed method can detect more efficiently both the long-term aging characteristics and the short-term faults of the gearbox.

  12. Analyzing a low NO[sub x] concentric combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Eremeev, A.V.

    1992-05-01

    Discusses concentric combustion technology developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA) to reduce NO[sub x] emissions from pulverized coal-fired boilers. The major innovation consists in arranging existing independent secondary air burners into three pairs of concentric combustion burners. Using high-deflection angle concentric combustion burners, higher oxygen concentration near the boiler walls, reduced erosion and lower probability of slag deposition on the heat shield are achieved. The technology was tested at the 165 MW Valmont power plant and 350 MW Cherokee power plant. Reduction of 55.7% (to 0.294 kg/GJ) in NO[sub x] emissions with a boiler efficiency of 86.35% was achieved. Highest NO[sub x] reduction efficiency was observed at full load (highest tertiary air supply). Burner design, performance, relations of NO[sub x] emissions and tertiary air blast as well as fuel entrainment prior to and after upgrading are given. Methods of reducing slag deposition in boilers are considered. 2 refs.

  13. Setting up experimental incineration system for low-level radioactive samples and combustion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Okada, Shigeru

    1997-01-01

    An incineration system was constructed which were composed of a combustion furnace (AP-150R), a cyclone dust collector, radioisotope trapping and measurement apparatus and a radioisotope storage room built in the first basement of the Radioisotope Center. Low level radioactive samples (LLRS) used for the combustion experiment were composed of combustible material or semi-combustible material containing 500 kBq of 99m TcO 4 or 23.25 kBq of 131 INa. The distribution of radioisotopes both in the inside and outside of combustion furnace were estimated. We measured radioactivity of a smoke duct gas in terminal exit of the exhaust port. In case of combustion of LLRS containing 99m TcO 4 or 131 INa, concentration of radioisotopes at the exhaust port showed less than legal concentration limit of these radioisotopes. In cases of combustion of LLRS containing 99m TcO 4 or 131 INa, decontamination factors of the incineration system were 120 and 1.1, respectively. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A system level modelling study of three combined heat and power systems based on biomass gasification is presented. Product gas is converted in a micro gas turbine (MGT) in the first system, in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in the second system and in a combined SOFC–MGT arrangement in the third...

  15. Modeling and optimization of a utility system containing multiple extractions steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping

    2011-01-01

    Complex turbines with multiple controlled and/or uncontrolled extractions are popularly used in the processing industry and cogeneration plants to provide steam of different levels, electric power, and driving power. To characterize thermodynamic behavior under varying conditions, nonlinear mathematical models are developed based on energy balance, thermodynamic principles, and semi-empirical equations. First, the complex turbine is decomposed into several simple turbines from the controlled extraction stages and modeled in series. THM (The turbine hardware model) developing concept is applied to predict the isentropic efficiency of the decomposed simple turbines. Stodola's formulation is also used to simulate the uncontrolled extraction steam parameters. The thermodynamic properties of steam and water are regressed through linearization or piece-wise linearization. Second, comparison between the simulated results using the proposed model and the data in the working condition diagram provided by the manufacturer is conducted over a wide range of operations. The simulation results yield small deviation from the data in the working condition diagram where the maximum modeling error is 0.87% among the compared seven operation conditions. Last, the optimization model of a utility system containing multiple extraction turbines is established and a detailed case is analyzed. Compared with the conventional operation strategy, a maximum of 5.47% of the total operation cost is saved using the proposed optimization model. -- Highlights: → We develop a complete simulation model for steam turbine with multiple extractions. → We test the simulation model using the performance data of commercial turbines. → The simulation error of electric power generation is no more than 0.87%. → We establish a utility system operational optimization model. → The optimal industrial operation scheme featured with 5.47% of cost saving.

  16. Focusing millimeter wave radar for radial gap measurements in power plant combustion turbines; Fokussierendes Radarverfahren im Millimeterwellenbereich zur Radialspaltmessung in Kraftwerksturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicht, Andreas

    2011-07-11

    In this work a method for spatially resolved radial gap measurements in power plant combustion turbines by means of an autofocusing imaging radar technique in the millimeter wave range was developed and verified experimentally. The radial gap measurement has been subject of engineering studies for many years, as a reliable, simple solution does not seem to be possible due to the given boundary conditions. These include on the one hand the adverse measurement conditions such as high temperature and pressure, corrosive atmosphere and high speed of motion. On the other hand, the geometrical structure of the rotor blades at their tips turns out to be a key problem for the distance measurement. In particular, the blade tip is composed of small extended portions forming thin ribs of only a few millimeters width. Many established distance sensors like e. g. capacitive sensors cannot detect the correct tip clearance of the blade edge independently from other structures on the blade end only due to their large surface area and thus their lack of spatial resolution. The problem of small structure sizes is overcome by choosing a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in the millimeter wave range capable of resolving the edges of a typical blade tip. The clearance is determined by measuring the reflection at the blade tip while passing by the antenna, subsequently focusing the data by means of a matched filter operation and interpreting the phase of the blade edge reflection according to the CW radar principle. For this, an autofocus approach was developed, which provides an estimate of the clearance as a first result, which is utilized to overcome the phase ambiguity and thus to increase the measurement range. The autofocus algorithm applies a weighted phase gradient of the point-like blade edge reflection as cost function and sensitive indicator for the focal quality.

  17. Thermal performance of gas turbine power plant based on exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Thamir K.; Basrawi, Firdaus; Awad, Omar I.; Abdullah, Ahmed N.; Najafi, G.; Mamat, Rizlman; Hagos, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling theoretical framework for the energy and exergy analysis of the Gas turbine. • Investigated the effects of ambient temperature on the energy and exergy performance. • The maximum exergy loss occurs in the gas turbine components. - Abstract: This study is about energy and exergy analysis of gas turbine power plant. Energy analysis is more quantitatively while exergy analysis is about the same but with the addition of qualitatively. The lack quality of the thermodynamic process in the system leads to waste of potential energy, also known as exergy destruction which affects the efficiency of the power plant. By using the first and second law of thermodynamics, the model for the gas turbine power plant is built. Each component in the thermal system which is an air compressor, combustion chamber and gas turbine play roles in affecting the efficiency of the gas turbine power plant. The exergy flow rate for the compressor (AC), the combustion chamber (CC) and the gas turbine (GT) inlet and outlet are calculated based on the physical exergy and chemical exergy. The exergy destruction calculation based on the difference between the exergy flow in and exergy flow out of the component. The combustion chamber has the highest exergy destruction. The air compressor has 94.9% and 92% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. The combustion chamber has 67.5% and 61.8% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively while gas turbine has 92% and 82% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. For the overall efficiency, the plant has 32.4% and 34.3% exergy and energy efficiency respectively. To enhance the efficiency, the intake air temperature should be reduced, modify the combustion chamber to have the better air-fuel ratio and increase the capability of the gas turbine to receive high inlet temperature.

  18. Flow Simulation of Modified Duct System Wind Turbines Installed on Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosly, N.; Mohd, S.; Zulkafli, M. F.; Ghafir, M. F. Abdul; Shamsudin, S. S.; Muhammad, W. N. A. Wan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of airflow with a flow guide installed and output power generated by wind turbine system being installed on a pickup truck. The wind turbine models were modelled by using SolidWorks 2015 software. In order to investigate the characteristic of air flow inside the wind turbine system, a computer simulation (by using ANSYS Fluent software) is used. There were few models being designed and simulated, one without the rotor installed and another two with rotor installed in the wind turbine system. Three velocities being used for the simulation which are 16.7 m/s (60 km/h), 25 m/s (90 km/h) and 33.33 m/s (120 km/h). The study proved that the flow guide did give an impact to the output power produced by the wind turbine system. The predicted result from this study is the velocity of the air inside the ducting system of the present model is better that reference model. Besides, the flow guide implemented in the ducting system gives a big impact on the characteristics of the air flow.

  19. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1993--July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This Yearly Technical Progress Report covers the period August 3, 1993 through July 31, 1994 for Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program by Solar Turbines Incorporated under DOE Contract No. DE-AC421-93MC30246. As allowed by the Contract (Part 3, Section J, Attachment B) this report is also intended to fulfill the requirements for a fourth quarterly report. The objective of Phase 2 of the ATS Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized in the year 2000. During the period covered by this report, Solar has completed three of eight program tasks and has submitted topical reports. These three tasks included a Project Plan submission of information required by NEPA, and the selection of a Gas-Fueled Advanced Turbine System (GFATS). In the latest of the three tasks, Solar`s Engineering team identified an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine as the eventual outcome of DOE`s ATS program coupled with Solar`s internal New Product Introduction (NPI) program. This machine, designated ``ATS50`` will operate at a thermal efficiency (turbine shaft power/fuel LHV) of 50 percent, will emit less than 10 parts per million of NOx and will reduce the cost of electricity by 10 percent. It will also demonstrate levels of reliability, availability, maintainability, and durability (RAMD) equal to or better than those of today`s gas turbine systems. Current activity is concentrated in three of the remaining five tasks a Market Study, GFATS System Definition and Analysis, and the Design and Test of Critical Components.

  20. Applying Systems Engineering to Improve the Main Gas Turbine Exhaust System Maintenance Strategy for the CG-47 Ticonderoga Class Cruiser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    national security and prosperity (U.S. Navy 2014). In perspective, oceans are the lifeblood of the planet and its entire population . The National...maintenance strategy, reliability-centered maintenance, cost, schedule, performance, growth -work, new-work, optimal fleet response plan, time-directed...76 5. Main Gas Turbine Exhaust System Growth -Work ..................77 E. RECOMMENDATIONS TO IMPROVE THE MAIN GAS TURBINE EXHAUST SYSTEM