WorldWideScience

Sample records for turbine cogeneration system

  1. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  2. Aeroderivative gas turbines for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, M.W.; Thames, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft jet engine derivative gas turbines have gained acceptance for cogeneration applications through impressive advances in technology and especially in maintainability and reliability. The best advantages of heavy industrial turbines and of reliable commercial airline jet engines have been successfully joined to meet the requirements for industrial cogeneration service. The next generation is under development and offers improved thermal efficiencies, alternate fuel capabilities, low environmental emissions, flexibility of operation and improved competitive system economics. This paper summarizes the current aero-derivative engine features and advantages with various systems, and discusses advanced features under consideration at this time

  3. Modeling of a Cogeneration System with a Micro Gas Turbine Operating at Partial Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Dutra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of absorption chillers in micro-cogeneration systems based on micro-gas turbines can be useful as an appropriate strategy to increase the total system energy efficiency. Since it is an area intensive in technology, it is necessary to develop and use models of simulation, which can predict the behavior of the whole system and of each component individually, at different operating conditions. This work is part of a research project in high efficiency cogeneration systems, whose purpose at this stage is to model a micro-cogeneration system, which is composed of a micro gas turbine, Capstone C30, a compact cross flow finned tube heat exchanger and an absorption chiller. The entire model is composed of specifically interconnected models, developed and validated for each component. The simulation of the microturbine used a thermodynamic analytic model, which contains a procedure used to obtain the micro turbine characteristic performance curves, which is closed with the thermodynamic Brayton cycle model. In the cogeneration system discussed in this paper, the compact heat exchanger was used to heat thermal oil, which drives an absorption chiller. It was designed, characterized and installed in a cogeneration system installed at the Centre d'Innovació Tecnològica en Revalorització Energètica i Refrigeració, Universtat Rovira i Virgili. Its design led to the heat exchanger model, which was coupled with the micro turbine model. Presented in this work is a comparison between the data from the model and the experiments, demonstrating good agreement between both results.

  4. Analysis of combustion turbine inlet air cooling systems applied to an operating cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Jimenez-Espadafor, F.; Sanchez, D.; Sanchez, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC) systems are analyzed from an economic outlook, their effects on the global performance parameters and the economic results of the power plant. The study has been carried out on a combined cogeneration system, composed of a General Electric PG 6541 gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator. The work has been divided into three parts. First, a revision of the present CTIAC technologies is shown, their effects on power plant performance and evaluation of the associated investment and maintenance costs. In a second phase of the work, the cogeneration plant was modelled with the objective of evaluating the power increase and the effects on the generated steam and the thermal oil. The cogeneration power plant model was developed, departing from the recorded operational data of the plant in 2005 and the gas turbine model offered by General Electric, to take into consideration that, in 2000, the gas turbine had been remodelled and the original performance curves should be corrected. The final objective of this model was to express the power plant main variables as a function of the gas turbine intake temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Finally, this model was applied to analyze the economic interest of different intake cooling systems, in different operative ranges and with different cooling capacities

  5. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  6. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  7. Preliminary study of nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Hishida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ogawa, Masuro; Ogata, Kann; Yamada, Seiya

    1995-12-01

    The Nuclear power generation plant (NPGP) releases smaller amount of carbon dioxide than the fossil power plant for the generation of the unit electrical power. Thus, the NPGP is expected to contribute resolving the ecological problems. It is important to investigate the nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process from the view point that it is better to produce electricity in high thermal efficiency from the high temperature energy. We carried out, in the current preliminary study, the survey and selection of the candidate cycles, then conducted the evaluation of cycle efficiency, the selection of R and D items to be solved for the decision of the optimum cycle. Following this, we evaluated nuclear heat application for intermediate and low temperature level released from gas turbine process and overall efficiency of cogeneration system. As a result, it was clarified that overall efficiency of the direct regenerative cycle was the highest in low temperature region below 200degC, and that of the direct regenerative inter cooling cycle was the highest in middle and high temperature region. (author).

  8. Preliminary study of nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Hishida, Makoto; Ogawa, Masuro; Ogata, Kann; Yamada, Seiya.

    1995-12-01

    The Nuclear power generation plant (NPGP) releases smaller amount of carbon dioxide than the fossil power plant for the generation of the unit electrical power. Thus, the NPGP is expected to contribute resolving the ecological problems. It is important to investigate the nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process from the view point that it is better to produce electricity in high thermal efficiency from the high temperature energy. We carried out, in the current preliminary study, the survey and selection of the candidate cycles, then conducted the evaluation of cycle efficiency, the selection of R and D items to be solved for the decision of the optimum cycle. Following this, we evaluated nuclear heat application for intermediate and low temperature level released from gas turbine process and overall efficiency of cogeneration system. As a result, it was clarified that overall efficiency of the direct regenerative cycle was the highest in low temperature region below 200degC, and that of the direct regenerative inter cooling cycle was the highest in middle and high temperature region. (author)

  9. The HTScroll project - Innovative cogeneration system with a high-temperature turbine; Projet HTScroll. Nouveau systeme de cogeneration a turbine spirale haute temperature - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, M.; Cretegny, D.; Maquet, J. [ENEFTECH Innovation SA, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Laboratoire d' Energetique Industrielle LENI, EPFL Science Park PSE, Lausanne (Switzerland); Favrat, D. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) proposes an alternative for micro-cogeneration based on a scroll expander to produce electricity from relatively low-temperature heat sources (less than 250 {sup o}C), thus allowing the use of renewable energy resources such as biomass, solar thermal and geothermal energy. The authors note that such a system could produce cost-effective 'green' electricity as well as heat (near 60 {sup o}C) for space heating and domestic hot-water preparation. The design and validation of a new concept for a double-stage scroll expander ('HT-Scroll') operating at high and low pressures and high temperatures is discussed. Design, modelling and construction of a 5 kW unit have been carried out. The organic fluid Rankine Cycle concept is described, the modelling of the turbine, its construction and tests carried out are discussed. Problems encountered and future work are noted.

  10. Co-generation on steam industrial systems with disks turbines; Co-geracao em sistemas industriais de vapor com turbinas de discos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezsovits, Ferenc [Universidad de Tecnologia y Economia de Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-03-15

    The disk turbine, also called Tesla turbine, being of simple construction and low cost, can be used as steam pressure reduction on industrial systems, generating simultaneously electric power, becoming the co-generation even at lower levels. Can be used for various operational parameters and mass flux ratios.This paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the turbines under various operation conditions.

  11. Mini gas turbines. Study related to energy efficient cogeneration applications for new cogeneration markets. Appendix; Mini gasturbiner. Udredning vedr. energieffektive kraftvarmeapplikationer til nye kraftvarmemarkeder. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, J.B.; Weel Hansen, M.; Astrupgaard, N.P.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate, design and increase the energy efficiency in new cogeneration/cooling systems, which are based on new developed mini gas turbines. Hereby cogeneration can primarily based on natural gas and bio-fuels be spread to new market segments. The appendix presents further details related to gas turbine as burner; cogeneration with recuperation gas turbine; gas turbine for cogeneration/absorption refrigerator; the economic and operational basis used in the study. (EHS)

  12. Thermodynamic performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, A.; Kaushik, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    This communication presents thermodynamic methodology for the performance evaluation of combustion gas turbine cogeneration system with reheat. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been defined. The effects of process steam pressure and pinch point temperature used in the design of heat recovery steam generator, and reheat on energetic and exergetic efficiencies have been investigated. From the results obtained in graphs it is observed that the power to heat ratio increases with an increase in pinch point, but the first-law efficiency and second-law efficiency decreases with an increase in pinch point. The power to heat ratio and second-law efficiency increases significantly with increase in process steam pressure, but the first-law efficiency decreases with the same. Results also show that inclusion of reheat, provide significant improvement in electrical power output, process heat production, fuel-utilization (energetic) efficiency and second-law (exergetic) efficiency. This methodology may be quite useful in the selection and comparison of combined energy production systems from thermodynamic performance point of view

  13. Optimal planning of gas turbine cogeneration system based on linear programming. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.-D.; Kwak, H.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    An optimal planning for gas turbine cogeneration system has been studied. The planning problem considered in this study is to determine the optimal configuration of the system equipments and optimal operational policy of the system when the annual energy demands of electric power, heat and cooling are given a priori. The main benefit of the optimal planning is to minimize operational costs and to save energy by efficient energy utilization. A mixed-integer linear programming and the branch and bound algorithm have been adopted to obtain the optimal solution. Both the optimal configuration of the system equipments and the optimal operation policy has been obtained based on annual cost method. The planning method employed here may be applied to the planning problem of the cogeneration plant to any specific building or hotel. (author)

  14. Optimization of a gas turbine cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, J.; Wessman, M.

    1991-11-01

    This work describes an analytical method of optimizing a cogeneration with a gas turbine as prime mover. The method is based on an analytical function. The function describes the total costs of the heat production, described by the heat load duration curve. The total costs consist of the prime costs and fixed costs of the gas turbine and the other heating plants. The parameters of interest at optimization are the heat efficiency produced by the gas turbine and the utilization time of the gas turbine. With todays prices for electricity, fuel and heating as well as maintenance- personnel and investment costs, extremely good conditions are needed to make the gas turbine profitable. Either a raise of the price for the electricity with about 33% is needed or that the ratio of electricity and fuel increases to approx 2.5. High investment subsidies for the gas turbines could make a gas turbine profitable, even with todays electricity- and fuel prices. Besides being a good help when projecting cogeneration plants with a gas turbine as prime mover, the method gives a possibility to optimize the annual operating time for a certain gas turbine when changing the operating conditions. 6 refs

  15. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon de los Santos, G.

    2009-10-01

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  16. Cogeneration system simulation/optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puppa, B.A.; Chandrashekar, M.

    1992-01-01

    Companies are increasingly turning to computer software programs to improve and streamline the analysis o cogeneration systems. This paper introduces a computer program which originated with research at the University of Waterloo. The program can simulate and optimize any type of layout of cogeneration plant. An application of the program to a cogeneration feasibility study for a university campus is described. The Steam and Power Plant Optimization System (SAPPOS) is a PC software package which allows users to model any type of steam/power plant on a component-by-component basis. Individual energy/steam balances can be done quickly to model any scenario. A typical days per month cogeneration simulation can also be carried out to provide a detailed monthly cash flow and energy forecast. This paper reports that SAPPOS can be used for scoping, feasibility, and preliminary design work, along with financial studies, gas contract studies, and optimizing the operation of completed plants. In the feasibility study presented, SAPPOS is used to evaluate both diesel engine and gas turbine combined cycle options

  17. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  18. Gas turbine cogeneration plant for textile dyeing plant in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonetti, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the information (i.e., notes on specific plant component weaknesses and defects, e.g., exchanger tube fouling, improper positioning of temperature probes, incorrect choice of flow valves, etc., and relative remedial actions) gained during a one year cogeneration plant debugging campaign at the Colorama textile dyeing plant in Italy. The cogeneration plant consists of a Solar Saturn MK III gas turbine (1,080 kw at terminals, 500 degrees C exhaust gas temperature); a double (steam and hot water) circuit waste heat boiler contemporaneously producing, with 100 degrees C supply water, 4 tonnes/h steam at 5 bars and 9 cubic meters/h of 20 to 80 degrees C hot water; and a 1,470 kVA generator operating at 3 kV connected by a 3kV/15kV transformer to the national grid. The plant is protected against fire by independent halon fire protection systems, one for the gas turbine plant, the other, for the control room. A modem connects the plant control and monitoring system with the firm which supplied the equipment. The plant operator cites an urgent national requirement for trained cogeneration equipment technical consultants and designers in order to better promote the use of innovative cogeneration technology by Italian industry

  19. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  20. Thermal-economic analysis of cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, A.C.S.; Bajay, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 80 countries produce sugar, and fortuitously alcohol, from sugar cane. In all these countries the cogeneration technology of steam turbines is utilized, although almost always inefficient. The greater potential of cogeneration in Brazil is in sugar and alcohol sector, because of the use of sugar cane bagasse as combustible. This work applies the techniques of simulation and economic analysis to different configuration of plants, to determine power generation and associated costs of each alternative. The application of the same procedure at operating condition of several configurations in transient system permits the determination of production profile of exceeding during one day. (C.M.)

  1. Controlling systems of cogeneration blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriansky, J.; Suriansky, J. Ml.; Puskajler, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article the main parts of cogeneration unit control system are described. Article is aimed on electric power measurement with electricity protection as with temperature system regulation. In conclusion of the article, the control algorithm with perspective of cogeneration solve is indicated. (authors)

  2. Cogeneration steam turbine plant for district heating of Berovo (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin

    2000-01-01

    A plant for combined heat and electric power production, for central heating of the town Berovo (Macedonia) is proposed. The common reason to use a co-generation unit is the energy efficiency and a significant reduction of environmental pollution. A coal dust fraction from B rik' - Berovo coal mine is the main energy resource for cogeneration steam turbine plant. The heat consumption of town Berovo is analyzed and determined. Based on the energy consumption of a whole power plant, e. i. the plant for combined and simultaneous production of power is proposed. All necessary facilities of cogeneration plant is examined and determined. For proposed cogeneration steam turbine power plant for combined heat and electric production it is determined: heat and electric capacity of the plant, annually heat and electrical quantity production and annually coal consumption, the total investment of the plant, the price of both heat and electric energy as well as the pay back period. (Authors)

  3. Cogeneration with gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system: a computer program for exergy economics analysis; Cogeracao com turbina a gas associada ao sistema de refrigeracao por absorcao: um programa computacional para analise exergoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Julio Santana [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Matematica] E-mail: santana@feg.unesp.br; Silveira, Jose Luz; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer program for exergy and economic analysis of cogeneration systems applying gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system. The computer program selects gas turbine systems viewing the operation under thermal parity through a data base composed by gas turbines commercially available in the market, under the ISO (International Standard Organization). The computer program corrects the system performance parameters selected for the installation local conditions. The exergy and economic analysis are made based on the lowest exergy manufacturing cost where the best system is considered. A case study of the computer program application is presented.

  4. Biomass-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine cogeneration for the cane sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Ogden, J.M.; Hylton, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Steam injection for power and efficiency augmentation in aeroderivative gas turbines has been commercially established for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam-injected gas turbines fired with coal and biomass are being developed. A performance and economic assessment of biomass integrated-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine (BIG/STIG) cogeneration systems is carried out here. A detailed economic case study is presented for the second largest sugar factory in Jamaica, with cane residues as the fuel. BIG/STIG cogeneration units would be attractive investments for sugar producers, who could sell large quantities of excess electricity to the utility, or for the utility, as a low-cost generating option. Worldwide, the cane sugar industry could support some 50,000 MW of BIG/STIG electric generation capacity. The relatively modest development effort required to commercialize the BIG/STIG technology is discussed in a companion paper prepared for this conference

  5. Cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbentli, Taner

    2006-01-01

    Cogeneration is the combined production of power and heat. Cogeneration aims to utilize the waste heat of power plants. The waste heat may be utilized for process heating, district heating, drying and cooling. In this way the primary energy is utilized more efficiently. Furthermore due to use of lesser amounts of fuel, emissions and carbon dioxide production is reduced. This is important from the viewpoint of controlling global warming. Cogeneration is used worldwide in industry and in conjunction with district heating.The prime movers used for this purpose are gas turbines, Diesel or natural gas engines and steam power plants. There are several parameters used for characterizing cogeneration. First of all capacity shows the power produced by the cogeneration plant. Most of the cogeneration plants used in industry have capacities between 3 and 20 MW. However there are plants having capacities as large as 200 MW and capacities smaller than 1 MW. The latter are known as micro cogeneration plants. Power to heat ratio is another parameter characterizing cogeneration. It gives the ratio of power produced to heat produced in a cogeneration plant. For gas turbine plants this is around 0.6, for gas engines it is about 1. For steam power plants, power to heat ratio is smaller than 0.4. The total efficiency or fuel utilization efficiency is defined as the total useful output of the plant as power and heat to energy input as fuel. The higher this value, the better is the cogeneration application. In a well designed plant this value may be as high as eighty to ninety percent. Cogeneration started as self power production in Turkey to provide continuous and top quality electric power to industrial plants in the 1990s. Now approximately 20 % of the power production capacity of Turkey is provided by the cogeneration plants. Turkey imports most of its primary energy demand, therefore it is important to increase the use of cogeneration to reduce the demand. There are studies which

  6. Cogeneration Systems; Sistemas de Cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez M, Manuel F; Huante P, Liborio; Romo M, Cesar A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The present article deals on relevant aspects on the subject of cogeneration within the Mexican territorial limits. In the first place it is presented the role of Mexico in terms of its cogeneration potential, the type of service that has obtained from this predominant modality of cogeneration for self-supplying, the most propitious sectors to develop it, its legislations on the matter, the projects made for the implementation of cogeneration plants, as well as the existing cogeneration schemes for its respective optimization proposals. Without leaving out the analysis on the different types of evaluation on the efficiency of cogeneration systems and the aspects to consider for the election of a generation cycle. [Spanish] El presente articulo trata sobre aspectos relevantes en materia de cogeneracion dentro de los limites territoriales de la nacion mexicana. Se muestra en primer lugar el papel de Mexico en terminos de su potencial de cogeneracion, el tipo de servicio que ha obtenido de esta predominantemente (modalidad de cogeneracion para autoabastecimiento), los sectores mas propicios para desarrollarla, sus legislaciones al respecto, los proyectos realizados para la implementacion de plantas de cogeneracion, asi como los esquemas de cogeneracion existentes con sus respectivas propuestas de optimizacion. Sin dejar de lado el analisis sobre los distintos tipos de evaluacion de la eficiencia de sistemas de cogeneracion y los aspectos a considerar para la eleccion de un ciclo de generacion.

  7. Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.; Schieppati, P.

    1992-01-01

    In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy

  8. Combined cogeneration equipment containing gas turbine using low sulphur heavy stock as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Goro; Ishiki, Katsuhiko

    1988-03-10

    This paper describes the combined cogeneration in Chemical and Plastics Co. Madras (India) which uses low sulphur heavy stock (LSHS) as a fuel. By the combined cogeneration of gas turbine and boiler steam turbine power generation, the exhaust from the steam turbine is supplied to the factory as a process steam. This equipment has a capacity of 4835 kW in overall generation power and 23.5 tons/hrs. in steam evaporation. The gas turbine system is equipped with an axial-flow, 11 step compressor, an axial flow, 4 step turbine, and a single-can back flow combustor fixed to the intermediate casing. The temperature of the exhaust from the gas turbine is 542/sup 0/C. Low quality LSHS when burned exerts no influence on the service life of the turbine blades. The boiler is a horizontal bent pipe, forced circulation type, and the steam turbine is a back pressure control type. The fuel is treated with a horizontal, two drum, electrostatic separator to which a demulsifier is supplied, to be separated into oil and water. As to the vanadium salts contained in the fuels, a chemical liquid containing MgO as a major ingredient is added to the fuel prior to the combustion. Thereby, the melting temperature of the vanadium oxide is enhanced, which serves for prevention of the melting and adhesion of the vanadium oxide to the gas turbine. LSHS is a residual oil produced by the ordinary pressure distillation of India-produced crude oil, has a sulphur content of 1.75%, and is solid at room temperature. Attention should be paid to clogging of the pipings. The overall efficiency is 80%. The combined cogeneration can be coordinated with load variations of 10 - 20%. (12 figs, 1 tab)

  9. Optimal integration of linear Fresnel reflector with gas turbine cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabwan, Yousef N.; Mokheimer, Esmail M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A LFR integrated solar gas turbine cogeneration plant (ISGCPP) has been simulated. • The optimally integrated LFR with gas turbine cogeneration plant can achieve an annual solar share of 23%. • Optimal integration of LFR with gas turbine cogeneration system can reduce CO 2 emission by 18%. • Compared to a fully-solar-powered LFR plant, the optimal ISGCPP reduces the LEC by 83%. • ISGCPP reduces the LEC by 50% compared to plants integrated with carbon capture technology. - Abstract: Solar energy is an abundant resource in many countries in the Sunbelt, especially in the middle east, countries, where recent expansion in the utilization of natural gas for electricity generation has created a significant base for introducing integrated solar‐natural gas power plants (ISGPP) as an optimal solution for electricity generation in these countries. ISGPP reduces the need for thermal energy storage in traditional concentrated solar thermal plants and results in dispatchable power on demand at lower cost than stand-alone concentrated thermal power and much cheaper than photovoltaic plants. Moreover, integrating concentrated solar power (CSP) with conventional fossil fuel based thermal power plants is quite suitable for large-scale central electric power generation plants and it can be implemented in the design of new installed plants or during retrofitting of existing plants. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the possible modifications of an existing gas turbine cogeneration plant, which has a gas turbine of 150 MWe electricity generation capacity and produces steam at a rate of 81.4 at 394 °C and 45.88 bars for an industrial process, via integrating it with concentrated solar power system. In this regard, many simulations have been carried out using Thermoflow software to explore the thermo-economic performance of the gas turbine cogeneration plant integrated with LFR concentrated solar power field. Different electricity

  10. Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucia, M.; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E.

    1994-04-01

    Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for in the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

  11. Residential cogeneration systems: review of the current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onovwiona, H.I.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing potential for the use of micro-cogeneration systems in the residential sector because they have the ability to produce both useful thermal energy and electricity from a single source of fuel such as oil or natural gas. In cogeneration systems, the efficiency of energy conversion increases to over 80% as compared to an average of 30-35% for conventional fossil fuel fired electricity generation systems. This increase in energy efficiency can result in lower costs and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the conventional methods of generating heat and electricity separately. Cogeneration systems and equipment suitable for residential and small-scale commercial applications like hospitals, hotels or institutional buildings are available, and many new systems are under development. These products are used or aimed for meeting the electrical and thermal demands of a building for space and domestic hot water heating, and potentially, absorption cooling. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the various cogeneration technologies suitable for residential applications. The paper considers the various technologies available and under development for residential, i.e. single-family ( e ) and multi-family (10-30kW t ) applications, with focus on single-family applications. Technologies suitable for residential cogeneration systems include reciprocating internal combustion engine, micro-turbine, fuel cell, and reciprocating external combustion Stirling engine based cogeneration systems. The paper discusses the state of development and the performance, environmental benefits, and costs of these technologies. (author)

  12. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  13. Biomass based optimal cogeneration system for paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashok, S.; Jayaraj, S. [National Inst. of Technology, Calicut (India)

    2008-07-01

    A mathematical model of a biomass supported steam turbine cogeneration system was presented. The multi-time interval non-linear model used genetic algorithms to determine optimal operating costs. The cogeneration system consisted of steam boilers; steam headers at different pressure levels; steam turbines operating at different capacities; and other auxiliary devices. System components were modelled separately to determine constraints and costs. Total costs were obtained by summing up costs corresponding to all equipment. Cost functions were fuel cost; grid electricity cost; grid electricity export revenues; start-up costs; and shut-down costs. The non-linear optimization model was formulated by considering equal intervals of 1-hour intervals. A case study of a typical paper industry plant system was considered using coal, black liquor, and groundnut shells. Results of the study showed that the use of groundnut shells as a fuel resulted in a savings of 11.1 per cent of the total monthly operating costs while delivering 48.6 MWh daily to the electricity grid after meeting the plant's total energy requirements. It was concluded that the model can be used to optimize cogeneration systems in paper plants. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermo economic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller. The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  15. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    The description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam is presented. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller.The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  16. Gas cogeneration system in Sapporo Therme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Michihiko

    1988-06-01

    Sapporo Therme is a multi-purpose resort including a hot-water jumbo swimming pool having an area of about 130,000m/sup 2/ and a circumference of 800 m, 13 additional swimming pools with additional sizes, a hot-water slider, 16 types of saunas, an artificial sunbathing system, an athletic system, a restaurant, a cinema, tennis courts, and other outdoor facilities. Sapporo Therme uses a cogeneration system consisting of using LP gas(95% or more propane gas) to drive a 1,200 PS gas engine and supply motive power and lightening. At the same time, the cogeneration system collects gas engine waste heat and combines this heat with that from hot-water and steam boilers to supply hot water to swimming pools, roads, and room heaters. The ratio of waste heat collection rate to power generation efficiency is about 5.0. Sapporo Therme is thus the optimal facilities for cogeneration. (1 figs, 3 photos)

  17. The T-100-12.8 family of cogeneration steam turbines: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    The T-100-12.8 turbine and its versions, a type of cogeneration steam turbines that is among best known, unique, and most widely used ones in Russia and abroad, are considered. A list of turbine design versions and quantities in which they were produced, their technical and economic indicators, design features, schematic solutions used in different design versions, and a list of solutions available in a comprehensive portfolio offered for modernizing type T-100-12.8 turbines are presented. Information about amounts in which turbines of the last version are supplied currently and supposed to be supplied soon is given.

  18. Economic evaluation of externally fired gas turbine cycles for small-scale biomass cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-01-01

    In this conceptual study, externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) cycles in combination with a biomass-fueled, atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace are investigated for small scale heat and power production ({approx} 8 MW fuel input). Three cycle configurations are considered: closed cycle, with nitrogen, helium, and a helium/carbon dioxide mixture as working fluids; open cycle operating in parallel to the CFB system; and open cycle with a series connection to the CFB system. Intercooling, postcooling, and recuperation are employed with the goal of maximizing efficiency. Aside from a thermodynamic performance analysis, the study includes an economic analysis of both the closed and open externally fired gas turbine configurations, and comparisons are made with existing and emerging alternatives for small-scale biomass cogeneration. Simulation results show that thermodynamic performance varies slightly between the different configurations and working fluids, with electrical efficiencies of 31-38% (LHV) and total efficiency of 85-106% (LHV). The economic evaluation shows that the turbomachinery and the CFB furnace dominate the total plant cost, with each contributing about 1/3 of the total installed equipment cost. The specific capital cost for installation in Sweden in 1998 currency is calculated as 26-31 kSEK/kW{sub e} which is equivalent to 3 200-3 900 USD/kW{sub e} or 2 700-3 300 EUR/kW{sub e} .The cost of electricity, COE, is estimated to 590-670 SEK/MWh{sub e} (equivalent to 73-84 USD/MWh{sub e} or 62-71 EUR/MWh{sub e}) for 4 000 full load hours per year in a cogeneration application. Comparing the economic results for the externally fired gas turbine cycles in a slightly larger scale (40-50 MW{sub f}) to the economics of conventional biomass fired steam turbine cycles shows that the cost of electricity for the two plant configurations are roughly the same with a COE of 300-350 SEK/MWh{sub e}. It is believed that the economic performance of the EFGT

  19. Duct burners in heat recovery system for cogeneration and captive power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, J.

    1992-01-01

    Our oil explorations both onshore and offshore have thrown open bright prospects of cogeneration by using natural gas in gas turbine power plants with heat recovery units. Both for co-gen and combined cycle systems, supplementary firing of GT exhaust gas is normally required. Hence, duct burners have significant role for effective contribution towards of efficacy of heat recovery system for gas turbine exhaust gas. This article details on various aspects of duct burners in heat recovery systems. (author)

  20. Cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, R.H.J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Cogeneration has dominated generation capacity expansion in the 1980s in many regions in a way that was never envisaged in the 1970s. The author of this paper suspects it will continue to play a major role in the 1990s in providing new power supply, though perhaps as a smaller part of a larger and more diverse market to meet new capacity needs than we have seen in the 1980s. When Congress enacted Section 210 of PURPA in 1978, its central goal was to create, through a series of regulatory protections primarily designed to neutralize the monopsony power of the purchasing utility, a quasi-market for cogeneration and certain other small power technologies. This would provide a truer test of their value in the power supply mix than had traditional regulation. However, Congress envisaged these sources as only a small, though potentially efficient, adjunct to traditional utility capacity additions

  1. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  2. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the 'Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  3. A wood-waste fuelled indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant for sawmill application. Preliminay engineering and financial evaluation. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a cost-effective wood waste-fired power generation and lumber drying system for Canadian sawmill applications. The system proposed and evaluated in this project is a wood waste-fuelled, indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant. Research, design and development of the system has been planned to take place in a number of phases. The first phase consists of a preliminary engineering design and financial evaluation of the system and is the subject of this report. This analysis focuses on British Columbia since it is the largest potential market for the sawmill cogeneration system. In order to provide design parameters for the cogeneration system, operational characteristics were compiled for a typical sawmill in the interior of British Columbia. A number of alternative design concepts were reviewed before arriving at the indirect-fired turbine concept selected for development in this project. The general concept involves the use of an open Brayton-cycle gas turbine as the prime mover to generate electrical power, while process heat for the dry-kiln is obtained by waste heat recovery from the turbine exhaust gas. The proposed system has many advantages over a conventional steam based cogeneration system and economic analysis indicates that the system generates very attractive financial returns over a variety of conditions. 7 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. An HTR cogeneration system for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkate, B.R.W.; Van Heek, A.I.; Kikstra, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its favourable characteristics of safety and simplicity the high-temperature reactor (HTR) could become a competitive heat source for a cogeneration unit. The Netherlands is a world leading country in the field of cogeneration. As nuclear energy remains an option for the medium and long term in this country, systems for nuclear cogeneration should be explored and developed. Hence, ECN Nuclear Research is developing a conceptual design of an HTR for Combined generation of Heat and Power (CHP) for the industry in and outside the Netherlands. The design of this small CHP-unit for industrial applications is mainly based on a pre-feasibility study in 1996, performed by a joint working group of five Dutch organisations, in which technical feasibility was shown. The concept that was subject of that study, INCOGEN, used a 40 MW thermal pebble bed HTR and produced a maximum amount of electricity plus low temperature heat. The system has been improved to produce industrial quality heat, and has been renamed ACACIA. The output of this installation is 14 MW electricity and 17 tonnes of steam per hour, with a pressure of 10 bar and a temperature of 220C. The economic characteristics of this installation turned out to be much more favourable using modern cost data. 15 refs

  5. DDACE cogeneration systems : 10 case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    DDACE Power Systems are experts in green energy power generation and provide solutions that deal with waste and industrial by-products. The company develops practical energy solutions that address environmental and financial concerns facing both industrial and municipal customers. The following 10 case studies are examples of the installations that DDACE Power Systems have completed in recent years: (1) a combined heat and emergency power installation on the roof of a 19 storey apartment building on Bloor Street in Toronto, Ontario. The cogeneration package provides electricity and heat to the entire building, replacing an old diesel generator, (2) a combined heat and emergency power installation at the Villa Colombo extended care facility in Vaughan, Ontario. The cogeneration system provides heat and power to the building, as well as emergency power, (3) emergency standby power with demand response capabilities at Sobeys Distribution Warehouse in Vaughan, Ontario. The primary purpose of the 2.4 MW low emission, natural gas fuelled emergency standby generator is to provide emergency power to the building in the event of a grid failure, (4) a dual fuel combined heat and power installation at the Queensway Carleton Hospital in Ottawa, Ontario that provides electricity, hot water and steam to all areas of the hospital, (5) a tri-generation installation at the Ontario Police College in Aylmer, Ontario which provides power and heat to the building as well as emergency power in the event of a grid failure. An absorption chiller provides cooling in the summer and an exhaust emission control system reduces NOx emissions, (6) a biomass gasification installation at Nexterra Energy in Kamloops, British Columbia. The 239 kW generator is fueled by synthesis gas, (7) biogas utilization at Fepro Farms in Cobden, Ontario for treatment of the facility's waste products. The biogas plant uses cow manure, as well as fats, oil and grease from restaurants to produce electricity and

  6. Cogeneration from poultry industry wastes: Indirectly fired gas turbine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Elmegaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on biomass characteristics, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular, some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant, which can consist of an indirectly fired gas turbine. Moreover, a steam turbine plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings/production and of return of the investments

  7. An HTR cogeneration system for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkate, B.R.W.; Heek, A.I. van; Kikstra, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Because of its favourable characteristics of safety and simplicity the high-temperature reactor (HTR) could become a competitive heat source for a cogeneration unit. The Netherlands is a world leading country in the field of cogeneration. As nuclear energy remains an option for the medium and long term in this country, systems for nuclear cogeneration should be explored and developed. Hence, ECN Nuclear Research is developing a conceptual design of an HTR for Combined generation of Heat and Power (CHP) for the industry in and outside the Netherlands. The design of this small CHP-unit for industrial applications is mainly based on a pre-feasibility study in 1996, performed by a joint working group of five Dutch organisations, in which technical feasibility was shown. The concept that was subject of this study, INCOGEN, used a 40 MW thermal pebble bed HTR and produced a maximum amount of electricity plus low temperature heat. The system has been improved to produce industrial quality heat, and has been renamed ACACIA. The output of this installation is 14 MW electricity and 17 tonnes of steam per hour, with a pressure of 10 bar and a temperature of 220 deg. C. The economic characteristics of this installation turned out to be much more favourable using modern data. The research work for this installation is embedded in a programme that has links to the major HTR projects in the world. Accordingly ECN participates in several IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Besides this, ECN is involved in the South African PBMR-project. Finally, ECN participates in the European Concerted Action on Innovative HTR. (author)

  8. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration; Turbina de gas reactor modular con helio en cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, G. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: tesgleon@gmail.com

    2009-10-15

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  9. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  10. Development of small ceramic gas turbines for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Details of the project at NEDO to develop 300 kW ceramic gas turbines with a thermal efficiency of ≥42% at a turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of 1,350 o C. The project is part of the 'New Sunshine Projects' promoted by Japan's Agency of Industrial Science and Technology and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. So far, a thermal efficiency of 37% at a TIT of 1,280 o C has been achieved by a basic ceramic gas turbine (CGT). Work to develop pilot CGTs to achieve the final target is being carried out alongside research and development of ceramic parts and improved performance of ceramic components for CGTs. One group of engine and ceramic manufacturers is developing a single shaft regenerative cycle CGT (CGT 301) and a second group a double shaft type (CGT 302). The heat-resistant ceramic parts, nitrogen oxide emissions and performance of these two prototypes are outlined and the properties of the ceramic materials used are indicated. Market estimates and economics are noted

  11. Benefit Analysis of Emergency Standby System Promoted to Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Wen Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benefit analysis of emergency standby system combined with absorption chiller promoted to cogeneration system is introduced. Economic evaluations of such upgraded projects play a major part in the decisions made by investors. Time-of-use rate structure, fuel cost and system constraints are taken into account in the evaluation. Therefore, the problem is formulated as a mixed-integer programming problem. Using two-stage methodology and modified mixed-integer programming technique, a novel algorithm is developed and introduced here to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. The net present value (NPV method is used to evaluate the annual benefits and years of payback for the cogeneration system. The results indicate that upgrading standby generators to cogeneration systems is profitable and should be encouraged, especially for those utilities with insufficient spinning reserves, and moreover, for those having difficulty constructing new power plants.

  12. HTGR-GT closed-cycle gas turbine: a plant concept with inherent cogeneration (power plus heat production) capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1980-04-01

    The high-grade sensible heat rejection characteristic of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-gas turbine (HTGR-GT) plant is ideally suited to cogeneration. Cogeneration in this nuclear closed-cycle plant could include (1) bottoming Rankine cycle, (2) hot water or process steam production, (3) desalination, and (4) urban and industrial district heating. This paper discusses the HTGR-GT plant thermodynamic cycles, design features, and potential applications for the cogeneration operation modes. This paper concludes that the HTGR-GT plant, which can potentially approach a 50% overall efficiency in a combined cycle mode, can significantly aid national energy goals, particularly resource conservation

  13. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  14. Development of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang; Zou, Meng Lin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-05-01

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cogeneration system that provides high-quality electricity and hot water has been developed. A specially designed thermal management system together with a microcontroller embedded with appropriate control algorithm is integrated into a PEM fuel cell system. The thermal management system does not only control the fuel cell operation temperature but also recover the heat dissipated by FC stack. The dynamic behaviors of thermal and electrical characteristics are presented to verify the stability of the fuel cell cogeneration system. In addition, the reliability of the fuel cell cogeneration system is proved by one-day demonstration that deals with the daily power demand in a typical family. Finally, the effects of external loads on the efficiencies of the fuel cell cogeneration system are examined. Results reveal that the maximum system efficiency was as high as 81% when combining heat and power. (author)

  15. Efficient production of electricity and water in cogeneration systems. [Desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadros, S.K.

    1981-11-01

    This paper discusses two topping cycle steam turbine cogeneration systems. The water desalination plant selected is the multistage flash evaporator cycle which uses brine recirculation and high temperature additives for scale protection and 233F maximum brine temperature. The paper mentions briefly the impact of future fuel prices on design and factors which would further improve thermal efficiency. The fuel chargeable to power is determined. 6 refs.

  16. Cogeneration applications of biomass gasifier/gas turbine technologies in the cane sugar and alcohol industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.M.; Williams, R.H.; Fulmer, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) technologies for cogeneration or stand-alone power applications hold forth the promise of being able to produce electricity at lower cost in many instances than most alternatives, including large central-station, coal-fired, steam-electric power plants with fuel gas desulphurization, nuclear power plants, and hydroelectricity power plants. BIG/GT technologies offer environmental benefits as well, including the potential for zero net carbon dioxide emissions, if the biomass feedstock is grown renewably. (author). 77 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  17. The role of cogeneration systems in sustainability of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakir, Uğur; Çomakli, Kemal; Yüksel, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy source on the world is tending to run out day by day while the energy need of humanity is increasing simultaneously. ► There are two ways to overcome this problem; one of them is renewable energy sources like solar or wind energy systems. ► The other way is like cogeneration systems. ► Cogeneration system is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. ► A case study is made for a hospital to present the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Cogeneration system (CHP) is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. When compared to separate fossil-fired generation of heat and electricity, CHP may result in a consistent energy conservation (usually ranging from 10% to 30%) while the avoided CO 2 emissions are, as a first approximation, similar to the amount of energy saving. In terms of sustainability, one of the primary considerations is energy efficiency. Sustainable energy is considered as a kind of energy which is renewable and continuous, meaning that the use of such energy can potentially be kept up well into the future without causing harmful repercussions for future generations. In this study, environmental benefits and sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems and importance of those systems to the use of sustainable energy are underlined. To support this idea, first we have referred some scientific studies previously made on cogeneration systems and then we have used our own case study. The case study made on gas engined cogeneration system was applied for a hospital to show the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems.

  18. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part I: Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peretto, A.; Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on the biomass characteristics, namely water content, density....... Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine....../production and of return of the investments (Part II). Keywords: biomass, cogeneration, Gas Turbine, IFGT...

  19. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  20. A wood-waste fuelled, indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant for sawmill application. Phase 1. Preliminary engineering design and financial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    Most sawmills generate more than enough wood waste to be potentially self-sufficient in both dry-kiln heat and electricity requirements. It is not generally economically viable to use conventional steam/electricty cogeneration systems at the sawmill scale of operation. As a result, Canadian sawmills are still large consumers of purchased fuels and electricity. The overall objective of this project was to develop a cost-effective wood waste-fired power generation and lumber drying system for sawmill applications. The system proposed and evaluated in this project is a wood waste-fuelled, indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant. Research, design, and development of the system has been planned to take place in a number of phases. Phase 1 consists of a preliminary engineering design and financial evaluation of the system, the subjects of this report. The results indicate that the proposed indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration system is both technically and financially feasible under a variety of conditions. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  2. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  3. Improving bioethanol production from sugarcane: evaluation of distillation, thermal integration and cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marina O.S.; Modesto, Marcelo; Ensinas, Adriano V.; Nebra, Silvia A.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Rossell, Carlos E.V.

    2011-01-01

    Demand for bioethanol has grown considerably over the last years. Even though Brazil has been producing ethanol from sugarcane on a large scale for decades, this industry is characterized by low energy efficiency, using a large fraction of the bagasse produced as fuel in the cogeneration system to supply the process energy requirements. The possibility of selling surplus electricity to the grid or using surplus bagasse as raw material of other processes has motivated investments on more efficient cogeneration systems and process thermal integration. In this work simulations of an autonomous distillery were carried out, along with utilities demand optimization using Pinch Analysis concepts. Different cogeneration systems were analyzed: a traditional Rankine Cycle, with steam of high temperature and pressure (80 bar, 510 o C) and back pressure and condensing steam turbines configuration, and a BIGCC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle), comprised by a gas turbine set operating with biomass gas produced in a gasifier that uses sugarcane bagasse as raw material. Thermoeconomic analyses determining exergy-based costs of electricity and ethanol for both cases were carried out. The main objective is to show the impact that these process improvements can produce in industrial systems, compared to the current situation.

  4. Modelling of a chemisorption refrigeration and power cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Huashan; Wang, Yaodong; Roskilly, Anthony Paul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An adsorption cogeneration was proposed and simulated for cooling and electricity. • A dynamic model was built and studied to demonstrate the variability of the system. • A dynamic model included the complex coupling of thermodynamic and chemical kinetic. • Mutual constrains between main components and optimisation methods were discussed. • The highest theoretical COP and exergy efficiency of cogeneration is 0.57 and 0.62. - Abstract: The present work for the first time explores the possibility of a small-scale cogeneration unit by combining solid–gas chemisorption refrigeration cycle and a scroll expander. The innovation in this work is the capability of producing refrigeration and electricity continuously and simultaneously without aggravating the energy scarcity and environmental impact. Individual modelling for each component, which has been validated by experimental data, was firstly investigated in order to identify the proper operation condition for the cogeneration mode achieving 1000 W power output. Subsequently, with the integrated modelling of two components the cogeneration performance was studied to demonstrate the viability of this concept. However, because of the mutual constraint between the chemisorption and the expansion when they link in series, the power output of the cogeneration mode was only around one third of the original expectation under the same condition identified in the individual modelling. Methods of improving the global performance including the selection of reactive mediums were also discussed and would be of referable value for the future practical investigation

  5. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  6. The performance of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system producing steam, cooling and dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses the performance of a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant (TCCP), equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP, also called a cogeneration system, produces four types of useful energy-namely, (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification-by utilizing single fuel source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C-30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste-heat-activated devices, namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The performance analysis was conducted under different operation conditions such as different exhaust gas temperatures. It was observed that energy utilization factor could be as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio was found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  7. Numerical simulation of a cogeneration plant with micro gas turbine using computational tool EES; Simulacao numerica de uma planta de cogeracao com microturbina a gas natural utilizando ferramenta computacional EES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Guilherme L.B. de; Oliveira, Andrezza C.C.T.; Dutra, Jose C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Today, the cogeneration of energy has been widely disseminated and presents itself as a very viable alternative for energy savings, reducing CO2 emissions by conducting reuse energy. This study aims to develop a software for simulation, analysis and optimization of a cogeneration system that uses a natural gas turbine as a primary source. The data contained in the software were similar to existing data in a micro-cogeneration plant installed at UFPE and the results showed up in the standard presented by actual plant. We conclude that the software serves as a tool to pre-analysis of the plant of choice for cogeneration equipment to be installed as: pumps, heat exchangers, chillers, cooling towers. (author)

  8. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young-Deuk; Choon, Ng Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling

  9. The performance of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system producing steam, cooling and dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant (TCCP), equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP, also called a cogeneration system, produces four types of useful energy-namely, (i

  10. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  11. A mathematical model for the dynamic simulation of low size cogeneration gas turbines within smart microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Stefano; Delfino, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Microturbines represent a suitable technology to be adopted in smart microgrids since they are characterized by affordable capital and maintenance costs, high reliability and flexibility, and low environmental impact; moreover, they can be fed by fossil fuels or biofuels. They can operate in cogeneration and trigeneration mode, thus permitting to attain high global efficiency values of the energy conversion system from primary energy to electrical and thermal energy; from the electrical point of view, microturbines can operate connected to the distribution grid but also in islanded mode, thus enabling their use in remote areas without electrification. The paper describes the mathematical model that has been developed to simulate in off-design and transient conditions the operation of a 65 kW_e_l cogeneration microturbine installed within a smart microgrid. The dynamic simulation model is characterized by a flexible architecture that permits to simulate other different size single-shaft microturbines. The paper reports the main equations of the model, focusing on the architecture of the simulator and the microturbine control system; furthermore the most significant results derived from the validation phase are reported too, referring to the microturbine installed in the Smart Polygeneration Microgrid of the Savona Campus at the University of Genoa in Italy. - Highlights: • Dynamic simulation model of a cogeneration microturbine. • Off-design and transient performances of the microturbine. • Simulator validated on the Smart Polygeneration Microgrid at the Savona Campus.

  12. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  13. Performance analysis of a stationary fuel cell thermoelectric cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, J.K.; Hwang, J.J.; Lin, C.H. [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, 70005 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The main purpose of our study was to use an experimental method and system dynamic simulation technology to examine a proton exchange membrane fuel cell thermoelectric cogeneration system that provides both high-quality electric power and heated water. In the second part of our study, we experimentally verified the development of key components of the fuel cell and conducted a comprehensive analysis of the subsystems, including the fuel cell module, hydrogen supply subsystem, air supply subsystem, humidifier subsystem, and heat recovery subsystem. Finally, we integrated all of the subsystems into a PEM fuel cell thermoelectric cogeneration system and performed efficiency tests and analysis of power generation, heat recovery, and thermoelectric cogeneration. After comparing this system's efficiency results using simulation and experimentation, we determined that the accuracy of the simulation values when compared to the experimental values was >95%, showing that this system's simulation nearly approached the efficiency of the actual experiment, including more than 53% for power generation efficiency, more than 39% for heat recovery efficiency, and more than 93% for thermoelectric cogeneration combined efficiency. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M; Majid, A

    2013-01-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO 2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO 2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO 2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants

  15. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  16. Long-term optimization of cogeneration systems in a competitive market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, E.; Brand, H.; Weber, C.

    2005-01-01

    A tool for long-term optimization of cogeneration systems is developed that is based on mixed integer linear-programming and Lagrangian relaxation. We use a general approach without heuristics to solve the optimization problem of the unit commitment problem and load dispatch. The possibility to buy and sell electric power at a spot market is considered as well as the possibility to provide secondary reserve. The tool has been tested on a demonstration system based on an existing combined heat-and-power (CHP) system with extraction-condensing steam turbines, gas turbines, and boilers for heat production and district-heating networks. The key feature of the model for obtaining solutions within reasonable times is a suitable division of the whole optimization period into overlapping sub-periods. Using Lagrangian relaxation, the tool can be applied to large CHP systems. For the demonstration model, almost optimal solutions were found. (author)

  17. Stirling based micro co-generation system for single households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Zutt, J.G.M.; Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Beckers, G.J.J. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Baijens, C.A.W.; Luttikholt, J.J.M. [ATAG Verwarming, Lichtenvoorde (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the progress made in the ENATEC development program for a free piston Stirling engine based micro co-generation system that serves the supply of up to 1 kW{sub e} and up to 24 kW heat for domestic heating and/or for hot tap water production for single households at overall system efficiencies of 96%. Experiments show that the free piston Stirling engines from Stirling Technology Company run very reliably and controllably, and that the efficiency targets for the 1 kW{sub e} micro co-generation system are feasible. A ceramic foam burner with good heat transfer characteristics and low NOx emissions was developed. A demonstration micro co-generation unit was built and successfully presented. A 1 kW{sub e} free piston Stirling engine for the European market was developed. High efficiencies at full load and at part load, low emissions, low noise, and minimum maintenance make the Stirling engine based micro co-generation system an attractive candidate for the next generation of domestic boilers in Europe. 5 refs.

  18. Load averaging system for co-generation plant; Jikayo hatsuden setsubi ni okeru fuka heijunka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-30

    MAZDA Motor Corp. planed the construction of a 20.5MW co-generation plant in 1991 for responding to an increase in power demand due to expansion of the Hofu factory. On introduction of this co-generation plant, it was decided that the basic system would adopt the following. (1) A circulating fluidized bed boiler which can be operated by burning multiple kinds of fuels with minimum environmental pollution. (2) A heat accumulation system which can be operated through reception of a constant power from electric power company despite a sudden and wide range change in power demand. (3) A circulating-water exchange heat recovery system which recovers exhaust heat of the turbine plant as the hot water to be utilized for heating and air-conditioning of the factory mainly in winter. Power demand in MAZDA`s Hofu factory changes 15% per minute within a maximum range from 20MW to 8MW. This change is difficult to be followed even by an oil burning boiler excellent in load follow-up. The circulating Fluidized bed boiler employed this time is lower in the follow-up performance than the oil boiler. For the newly schemed plant, however, load averaging system named a heat accumulation system capable of responding fully to the above change has been developed. This co-generation plant satisfied the official inspection before commercial operation according the Ministerial Ordinance in 1993. Since then, with regard to the rapid load following, which was one of the initial targets, operation is now performed steadily. This paper introduces an outline of the system and operation conditions. 10 refs.

  19. Cogeneration, micro turbines and fuel cells: perspectives for distributed generation in Brazil; Cogeracao, microturbinas e celulas a combustivel: perspectivas para geracao distribuida no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marco Antonio Haikal [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Brazil has a large potential to install distributed generation systems, using natural gas or renewable like solar, wind or biomass energy. Regarding urban centers, natural gas fired cogeneration and other distributed energy technologies find economical applications. Cogeneration is defined as the generation of two kinds of useful energy from a single energy source. Usually, electrical energy and thermal energy as steam or hot water are produced. By using the absorption refrigeration cycle, chilled water can also be produced to be used in air conditioned systems, often called tri generation, a good alternative to industries, commercial buildings, shopping centers, hospitals, schools and universities. Micro turbines find utilization whenever natural gas is available, but not electricity, like gas compression installations, unmanned platforms or remote production fields. Fuel cells are used in systems requiring high levels of reliability or wherever the non availability cost is high. This paper describe technical and economical data related to PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES) 3,200 kW electric energy and 1,000 RT chilled water cogeneration system, 200 kW fuel cell and 30 kW and 60 kW microturbines. (author)

  20. District heating/cogeneration application studies for the Minneapolis-St Paul area. Executive summary; overall feasibility and economic viability for a district heating/new cogeneration system in Minneapolis-St. Paul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margen, P.; Larsson, K.; Cronholm, L.A.; Marklund, J.E.

    1979-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of introducing a large-scale, hot-water, district-heating system for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. The analysis was based on modern European hot-water district-heating concepts in which cogeneration power plants supply the base-load thermal energy. Heat would be supplied from converted turbines of existing coal-fired power plants in Minneapolis and St. Paul. Toward the end of the 20-year development period, one or two new cogeneration units would be required. Thus, the district-heating system could use low-grade heat from either coal-fired or nuclear cogeneration power stations to replace the space-heating fuels currently used - natural gas and distillate oil. The following conclusions can be drawn: the concept is technically feasible, it has great value for fuel conservation, and with appropriate financing the system is economically viable.

  1. Introduction to cogeneration; Introducao a cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Martins, Andre Luiz Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a general view of cogeneration. The paper approaches the development of cogeneration, technological aspects, the cogeneration in Brazil, economical aspects, performance of cogeneration systems, viability, costs, cogeneration potentials and technological trends.

  2. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2011-10-03

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification. The proposed plant comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine which generates 24 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heat activated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The numerical analysis for the host of waste heat recovery system and thermally activated devices using FORTRAN power station linked to powerful IMSL library is performed to investigate the performance of the overall system. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor (EUF) could achieve as high as 70% while Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) is found to be 28%.

  3. Techno-Economic Assessment of Redundancy Systems for a Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohd Amin Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of distributed power generation has advantage as well as disadvantage. One of the disadvantages is that the plant requires a dependable redundancy system to provide back up of power during failure of its power generation equipment. This paper presents a study on techno-economic assessment of redundancy systems for a cogeneration plant. Three redundancy systems were investigated; using public utility, generator set and gas turbine as back up during failures. Results from the analysis indicate that using public utility provides technical as well as economic advantages in comparison to using generator set or turbine as back up. However, the economic advantage of the public utility depends on the frequency of failures the plant will experience as well on the maximum demand charge. From the break even analysis of the understudied plant, if the number of failures exceeds 3 failures per year for the case of maximum demand charge of RM56.80, it is more economical to install a generator set as redundancy. The study will be useful for the co-generator operators to evaluate the feasibility of redundancy systems.

  4. Economic study on compressed energy storage cogeneration system in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Youji

    1991-01-01

    Due to the concentration of functions into cities and the spread of room cooling facilities, the energy demand in cities increased rapidly especially in summer season. The improvement of load factor of electric power has become an important subject for electric power companies, and as the technology for positively improving it, there is electric power storage. As for compressed air energy storage (CAES) system, its introduction, has been investigated as the electric power storage technology for the future in electric power business, but since it is also gas turbine technology, it becomes a cogeneration system. If the waste heat of gas turbines and compressors can be utilized effectively, not only the load factor of electric power is improved, but also it contributes to the improvement of overall energy efficiency and the improvement of environmental problems. This research is to study on the feasibility of compressed air energy storage centering around its economical efficiency when it is installed in customer side as the cogeneration system in cities. The features of CAES, the tendency of the development in Japan and foreign countries, the introduction of CAES in new town districts and the economy are described. (K.I.)

  5. AMBIENT CONDITIONS EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE OF GAS TURBINE COGENERATION POWER PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Necmi Ozdemir*

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performances of a simple and an air preheated cogeneration cycles in ambient conditions are compared with each other. A computer program written by the author in FORTRAN codes is used for the calculation of the enthalpy and entropy values of the streams, Exergy analysis is done and compared for the simple and the air preheated cogeneration cycles for different ambient conditions. The two cogeneration cycles are evaluated in terms of heat powers and electric, electrical to h...

  6. Optimum design of cogeneration system for nuclear seawater desalination - 15272

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.H.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2015-01-01

    A nuclear desalination process, which uses the energy released by nuclear fission, has less environmental impact and is generally cost-competitive with a fossil-fuel desalination process. A reference cogeneration system focused on in this study is the APR-1400 coupled with a MED (multi-effect distillation) process using the thermal vapor compression (TVC) technology. The thermal condition of the heat source is the most crucial factor that determines the desalination performance, i.e. energy consumption or freshwater production, of the MED-TVC process. The MED-TVC process operating at a higher motive steam pressure clearly shows a higher desalination performance. However, this increased performance does not necessarily translate to an advantage over processes operated at lower motive steam pressures. For instance, a higher motive steam pressure will increase the heat cost resulting from larger electricity generation loss, and thus may make this process unfavorable from an economic point of view. Therefore, there exists an optimum design point in the coupling configuration that makes the nuclear cogeneration system the most economical. This study is mainly aimed at investigating this optimum coupling design point of the reference nuclear cogeneration system using corresponding analysis tools. The following tools are used: MEE developed by the MEDRC for desalination performance analysis of the MED-TVC process, DE-TOP and DEEP developed by the IAEA for modeling of coupling configuration and economic evaluation of the nuclear cogeneration system, respectively. The results indicate that steam extraction from the MS exhaust and condensate return to HP FWHTR 5 is the most economical coupling design

  7. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  8. The effect of Ontario's transmission system policies on cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1999-01-01

    The impact that the establishment of transmission tariffs would have on the viability of cogeneration projects in Ontario was discussed. The proposal to establish such tariffs on the basis of a 'postage stamp' rate would ensure that all electricity users have access to electricity at the same price. However, this would unfairly penalize short-haul transmission transactions and would possibly result in the inappropriate location of new generation facilities. Electricity users would ultimately be burdened with these inefficiencies. This presentation also discussed another public policy which proposes to determine what parts of the electricity system should have their costs recovered at postage stamp rates. The costs would include not only transmission charges but also distribution and generation costs. The restructuring of Ontario Hydro into the Ontario Power Generation Company (OPGC) and the Ontario Hydro Services Company (OHSC) and its impact on the cogeneration projects was also discussed

  9. The performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system equipped with adsorption desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration plant, shortly in TCCP, equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP or cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling, and (iv) dehumidification and distilled water by utilizing single energy source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heatactivated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption desalination system, and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The analysis is performed under different operation conditions such as heat source temperatures, flow rates of heat transfer fluids and chilled water inlet temperatures. The only single heat source for TCCP is obtained from exhaust gas of micro-turbine and it is channeled to a series of waste heat recovery heat exchangers to steam and hot water at different temperatures. Hot water produced by such a compact heat exchangers is the driving heat source to produce steam of 15 kg/h, cooling of 2 Rton, dehumidification of 2 Rton, and distilled water of 0.7 m3/day. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor could achieve as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio is found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  10. The performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system equipped with adsorption desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration plant, shortly in TCCP, equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP or cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling, and (iv) dehumidification and distilled water by utilizing single energy source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heatactivated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption desalination system, and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The analysis is performed under different operation conditions such as heat source temperatures, flow rates of heat transfer fluids and chilled water inlet temperatures. The only single heat source for TCCP is obtained from exhaust gas of micro-turbine and it is channeled to a series of waste heat recovery heat exchangers to steam and hot water at different temperatures. Hot water produced by such a compact heat exchangers is the driving heat source to produce steam of 15 kg/h, cooling of 2 Rton, dehumidification of 2 Rton, and distilled water of 0.7 m3/day. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor could achieve as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio is found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomass cogeneration: A business assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, J. C.

    1981-11-01

    The biomass cogeneration was reviewed. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  12. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  13. An overview of possible High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors - Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) systems for the production of electricity and heat. Includes a technical assessment of the suitability for a small Dutch cogeneration plant; Een overzicht van mogelijke HTGR-GT systemen voor produktie van elektriciteit en warmte. Met technische beoordeling van geschiktheid voor een kleine Nederlandse W/K centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikstra, J.F

    1997-06-01

    There is a large number of different configurations for the combination of a closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) system and a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Based on the results of a literature survey an overview of such configurations is presented and a comparison is made for their appropriateness for a small cogeneration system (<60 MWt) to be used in the Netherlands. However, most cycles can only be applied for large-scale energy production or supply heat on a too low temperature level. The direct, recuperated cycle is the only suitable cycle, while that cycle is a simple system and shows an acceptable electric and total efficiency. Calculations were carried out for the co-production of hot water (75-125C and 40-70C) and for steam (10 bar, 220C). By means of a static model and an optimizer the feasible efficiencies for different heat demand are determined. The maximum electric efficiency is 42% for the co-production of hot water and 38% for the co-production of steam. 28 refs.

  14. Comments on derivation of an index for evaluating economics of cogeneration systems and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, R [Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1990-04-01

    Industrial cogeneration systems usually must satisfy a power load and heat loads at different temperatures. The limitations of the economic index proposed by Pak and Suzuki for such cogeneration systems is discussed in this paper. The importance of a rational exergetic basis for evaluation of different grades of energy is emphasised. Thermodynamic criteria, e.g. the exergetic efficiency, relative fuel savings and fuel chargeable to power, are shown to provide useful information regarding cogeneration options. Any assessment scheme for cogeneration schemes must incorporate thermodynamic criteria in addition to economic criteria. (author).

  15. Exergeoconomic analysis and optimization of a novel cogeneration system producing power and refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari Kordlar, M.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combined cooling and power cogeneration system is proposed. • Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analyses are performed. • Optimizations are performed considering thermodynamics and economics. • An increase in turbine inlet pressure is in favor of the system performance. • Five parameters influence the total product unit cost. - Abstract: A novel combined cooling and power cogeneration system driven by geothermal hot water is proposed. The system, which is a combination of an organic Rankine cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle, is analyzed and optimized from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and economics. The working fluid in organic Rankine cycle is ammonia and in the refrigeration cycle is an ammonia-water solution. Parametric studies are performed to identify decision parameters prior to optimization. In optimizing the system performance three design cases i.e. designs for maximum first law efficiency (case1), maximum second law efficiency (case2) and minimum total product unit cost (case3) are considered. The results show that the total products unit cost in case3 is around 20.4% and 24.3% lower than the corresponding value in case1 and 2, respectively. The lower product unit cost in case3 is accompanied with an expense of 10.21% and 4.5% reduction in the first and second law efficiencies, compared to case1 and 2, respectively. The results also indicate that concerning the costs associated with capital and exergy destruction costs of components, the priority of components for modifications are the turbine, condenser and absorber. The last component in this order are the two pumps in the system.

  16. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  17. Wood-waste fuelled indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant for sawmill applications. Phase 2. Site-specific preliminary engineering and financial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    The use of conventional steam/electricity cogeneration systems is not generally economical at the sawmill scale of operation. This paper describes an evaluation of a wood-waste fueled and, indirectly, gas fired turbine cogeneration plant aimed at developing a cost-effective wood-waste fired power generation and dry kiln heating system for sawmill applications. A preliminary engineering design and financial analysis of the system was prepared for a demonstration site in British Columbia. A number of alternative system configurations were identified and preliminary engineering designs prepared for each. In the first option , wood wastes combusted in a wet cell hot gas generator powered a 600 kW turbine, and produced 7,000 kW for the drying kilns. The second option provided the same electrical and heat output but used a down-fired suspension burner unit fuelled by clean, dried sawdust, together with an integral air heater heat exchanger. The third option represented a commercial-scale configuration with an electrical output of 1,800 kW, and sufficient heat output for the dry kilns. A financial analyis based on a computerized feasibility model was carried out on the last two options. Low electricity rates in British Columbia combined with the small scale of a demonstration project provide an inadequate rate of return at the site without substantial outside support. At a commercial scale of operation and with the higher electricity prices that exist outside of British Columbia the financial analysis indicates that the incremental investment in the electric generation portion of the system provides very attractive rates of return for the 3 options. 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Cogeneration for small SAGD projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albion, Stuart [AMEC BDR Limited (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    As many SAGD projects are being developed in remote locations, the supply of a steady source of power to them becomes an important question. Connecting these remote facilities to a grid can often be difficult and costly. This presentation, by AMEC BDR Limited, promotes the use of cogeneration in small SAGD projects. Cogeneration is the generation of two forms of energy from one fuel source. In this particular case, the energy forms would be electricity and heat. In many SAGD projects, a gas turbine system is used to generate the electricity, while a heat recovery system is utilized to generate steam. The use of cogeneration systems in SAGD projects, as opposed to using separate heat and electricity systems, has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of energy lost, the amount of emissions and power costs, in addition to ensuring that there is a reliable supply of steam and electricity.

  19. Optimization of Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systemfor Various Heat Exchanger Configurations Optimisation des systèmes de turbine à combustion en cogénération pour différentes configurations des échangeurs de chaleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates and compares the performance of three configurations of Gas Turbine systems allowing cogeneration of heat and electricity, on the basis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton-Joule cycle. The proposed model is developed for two different cycle constraints, namely, an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, or an imposed maximum cycle temperature. The model also includes the irreversibility due to the friction in the compressor and turbine, and due to the heat losses in the combustion chamber and heat exchangers. Energy efficiency for the system without and with cogeneration, and the exergetic efficiency are used in order to emphasize the cogeneration advantages, but also to help the designer to choose the best configuration of the Gas Turbine system that suits to his needs. Experimental data from a real operating microturbine were used to validate the model. The power output and the energy and exergetic efficiencies are optimized with respect to a set of operating parameters. The optimum values of the Gas Turbine engine parameters corresponding to maximum power output and respectively to maximum thermodynamic efficiency are discussed. The results show same optimal values of the compression ratio corresponding to almost all maximum performances for an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, excepting the maximum exergetic efficiency that requires higher optimal values of the compression ratio than the maximum exergy rate one. A performance comparison of the three configurations is done and future perspectives of the work are proposed. Cet article explore et compare les performances des trois configurations de systèmes de turbine à combustion permettant la production combinée de chaleur et d’électricité, sur la base du cycle irréversible régénératif de Brayton-Joule. Le modèle proposé est développé pour deux contraintes différentes sur le cycle, notamment le

  20. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  1. Efficiency analysis of a cogeneration and district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.; Le, Minh N.; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency analysis, accounting for both energy and exergy considerations, of a design for a cogeneration-based district energy system. A case study is considered for the city of Edmonton, Canada, by the utility Edmonton Power. The original concept using central electric chillers, as well as two variations (one considering single-effect and the other double-effect absorption chillers) are examined. The energy- and exergy-based results differ markedly (e.g., overall energy efficiencies are shown to vary for the three configurations considered from 83% to 94%, and exergy efficiencies from 28% to 29%, respectively). For the overall processes, as well as individual subprocesses and selected combinations of subprocesses, the exergy efficiencies are generally found to be more meaningful and indicative of system behaviour than the energy efficiencies

  2. Analysis of gas turbine cogeneration plants in Italy; Indagine sulla funzionalita` degli impianti di cogenerazione conturbina a gas operanti in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, Rino; Vignati, Sigfrido [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve, by random analysis, the current knowledge about functional and running data of gas turbine cogeneration plants in Italy. The analysis consider simple and combined cycle gas turbines plant with electric power less 30.000 k W per unit and involves a sample of 44 units according to a randomized model consisting of 112 gas turbines. The collected data show different plant selection criteria, energy performances, reliability and availability values as well as maintenance costs. These data support some general suggestions and recommendations for a better selection and utilization of these plants.

  3. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  4. Potential of the HTGR hydrogen cogeneration system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Mouri, Tomoaki; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2007-01-01

    A high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is one of the next generation nuclear systems. The HTGR hydrogen cogeneration system can produce not only electricity but also hydrogen. Then it has a potential to supply massive low-cost hydrogen without greenhouse gas emission for the future hydrogen society. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been carried out the design study of the HTGR hydrogen cogeneration system (GTHTR300C). The thermal power of the reactor is 600 MW. The hydrogen production plant utilizes 370 MW and can supply 52,000 m 3 /h (0.4 Bm 3 /y) of hydrogen. Present industrial hydrogen production capacity in Japan is about 18 Bm 3 /y and it will decrease by 15 Bm 3 /y in 2030 due to the aging facilities. On the other hand, the hydrogen demand for fuel cell vehicle (FCV) in 2030 is estimated at 15 Bm 3 /y at a maximum. Since the hydrogen supply may be short after 2030, the additional hydrogen should be produced by clean hydrogen process to reduce greenhouse gas emission. This hydrogen shortage is a potential market for the GTHTR300C. The hydrogen production cost of GTHTR300C is estimated at 20.5 JPY/Nm 3 which has an economic competitiveness against other industrial hydrogen production processes. 38 units of the GTHTR300C can supply a half of this shortage which accounts for the 33% of hydrogen demand for FCV in 2100. According to the increase of hydrogen demand, the GTHTR300C should be constructed after 2030. (author)

  5. Analysis of an electricity–cooling cogeneration system based on RC–ARS combined cycle aboard ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Youcai; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Liang, Xingyu; Wei, Haiqiao; Liu, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel electricity–cooling cogeneration system was used to recover waste heat aboard ships. • Performance of such RC–ARS system was investigated theoretically. • Optimal exergy output can be obtained when the vaporization pressure of RC is 300 kPa. • The exergy efficiency of cogeneration system is 5–12% higher than that of basic Rankine cycle only. - Abstract: In this paper, an electricity–cooling cogeneration system based on Rankine–absorption refrigeration combined cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat of the engine coolant and exhaust gas to generate electricity and cooling onboard ships. Water is selected as the working fluid of the Rankine cycle (RC), and a binary solution of ammonia–water is used as the working fluid of the absorption refrigeration cycle. The working fluid of RC is preheated by the engine coolant and then evaporated and superheated by the exhaust gas. The absorption cycle is powered by the heat of steam at the turbine outlet. Electricity output, cooling capacity, total exergy output, primary energy ratio (PER) and exergy efficiency are chosen as the objective functions. Results show that the amount of additional cooling output is up to 18 MW. Exergy output reaches the maximum 4.65 MW at the vaporization pressure of 300 kPa. The study reveals that the electricity–cooling cogeneration system has improved the exergy efficiency significantly: 5–12% increase compared with the basic Rankine cycle only. Primary energy ratio (PER) decreases as the vaporization pressure increases, varying from 0.47 to 0.40

  6. Integrated turbine bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Dickenson, R.J.; Parry, W.T.; Retzlaff, K.M.

    1982-07-01

    Turbine steam-flow bypasses have been used for years in various sizes and applications. Because of differing system requirements, their use has been more predominant in Europe than in the United States. Recently, some utilities and consulting engineers have been re-evaluating their need for various types of bypass operation in fossil-fuelled power plants.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1989. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Regenerative single-shaft axial-flow turbine for cogeneration); 1989 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Cogeneration yo saisei ichijikushiki jikuryu turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    With an objective to research and develop a 300-kW class regenerative single-shaft axial-flow turbine having inlet temperature of 1,350 degrees C and thermal efficiency of 42% or higher, activities were performed in the following three fields: 1) heat resistant ceramic members, 2) elementary technologies, and 3) studies on design, prototype fabrication, and operation. In Item 1, a mass production technology was discussed on stator blades and heat transfer pipes for a heat exchanger as the component manufacturing technology, and injection molding conditions were studied and mechanical strength measurement was performed on rotor blades of a separate type axial-flow turbine. In addition, a molding condition producing no cracks was discovered in an integrated type axial-flow turbine whose embedded section has a tapered shape, and the mass production technology was discussed. With regard to the bonding technology, preliminary discussions were given on bonding agents under a prerequisite that a bonding agent shall be used. In Item 2, detailed discussions were launched on the turbine, combustor, heat exchanger, and compressor, including shape decision on the turbine, for example, by using aerodynamic analysis, In Item 3, the basic design was performed following the conceptual design, and a metallic turbine was designed. (NEDO)

  8. Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...

  9. Integration between electric vehicle charging and micro-cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Canelli, Michele; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction between an MCHP system and EV charging is investigated. • A parametric analysis with respect to daily driving distance of the EV is performed. • Dynamic simulations are carried out considering two different climates. • Two EV charging strategies are analyzed to maximize the self-consumed electricity. • The impact of EVs on electric grid and economic feasibility of MCHP can be improved. - Abstract: In the near future the diffusion of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) could play an important role in the reduction of emissions and oil dependency associated with the transport sector. However this technology could have a big impact on the electric network because EVs require a considerable amount of electricity. In order to meet the growing load due to the diffusion of EVs, the construction of new infrastructures will be required. The introduction of micro-cogeneration systems could represent a key factor in the reduction of the negative effects on the electric network related to EVs charging. The EVs are often driven during the day and recharged during the night; so the overnight charge of the EVs allows to reduce the amount of electricity exported to the grid. In this way the economic benefits associated with the introduction of micro-cogenerator system (Micro Combined Heat and Power, MCHP), that depend on the economic value of the “produced” electricity, can be improved. At the same time the impact of EVs charge on the electric network can be reduced when electricity is provided by MCHP. In this paper the interaction between an MCHP system, the EV charging and a typical semidetached house is investigated by means of dynamic simulations. The analysis is carried out in two different locations (Torino and Napoli) in order to evaluate the effects of climatic conditions on the system performance. A parametric analysis with respect to the daily driving distance of the EV is carried out in order to highlight the effect of this

  10. First and second law analysis of diesel engine powered cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusoglu, Aysegul; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the thermodynamic analysis of the existing diesel engine cogeneration system is performed. All necessary data are obtained from the actual diesel engine cogeneration plant located at Gaziantep, Turkey. The exergy analysis is aimed to evaluate the exergy destruction in each component as well as the exergetic efficiencies. The thermodynamic performance of a 25.32 MW electricity and 8.1 tons/h steam capacity diesel engine cogeneration system at full load conditions is analyzed. The thermal efficiency of the overall plant is found to be 44.2% and the exergetic efficiency is 40.7%. The exergy balance equations developed in this paper may also be utilized in the exergoeconomic analysis to estimate the production costs depending on various input costs in a diesel cogeneration system

  11. Technical overview of cogeneration: the hardware, the industries, the potential development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Because the by-product heat from a power-conversion process is captured for productive use in a cogeneration system, instead of exhausted to the environment as it is in a conventional power plant, cogeneration represents an important energy-conservation technique. By cogenerating, an industrial plant can save the fuel that would have been needed to produce the amount of heat captured. Recognizing the significant energy-savings potential offered by cogeneration, DOE has undertaken a major R, D, and D program to investigate and promote cogeneration in industry. Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA), has been working to accomplish four of the program's objectives: (1) survey current, near state-of-the-art, and future cogeneration equipment, and identify any gaps or deficiencies; (2) characterize the energy requirements of the manufacturing sectors of five of the country's most energy-intensive industries - chemical, petroleum refining, paper and pulp, textiles, and food; (3) identify principal targets for, and barriers to, the increased market development of cogeneration systems; and (4) estimate the potential maximum and the probable energy savings that could be achieved in the five selected industries through cogeneration. In investigating cogeneration hardware, three specific technologies - steam turbines, gas turbines, and diesel engines - were emphasized. It is estimated that the widespread application of cogeneration technology in the five industries studied could result in a maximum potential savings of 2.4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (or a maximum incremental capacity of 140,000 MWe) by 1985.

  12. Gaz de France and cogeneration: a story which goes on; Gaz de France et la cogeneration: une histoire qui se poursuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    This document presents the principle of natural gas cogeneration (gas turbine and gas engine) and gives a general overview of the cogeneration market in France since 1991 and up to 2001 (development factors, results). The perspectives and opportunities of cogeneration are analyzed with respect to the development of new technologies like fuel cells (principle, advantages and future) and to the future energy markets. Follows a compilation and an analysis of French regulation texts about cogeneration systems, their connection to the power grid, and the tariffs of electricity re-purchase by Electricite de France (EdF). (J.S.)

  13. A comparative thermodynamic analysis of ORC and Kalina cycles for waste heat recovery: A case study for CGAM cogeneration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Nemati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic modeling and optimization is carried out to compare the advantages and disadvantages of organic Rankine cycle (ORC and Kalina cycle (KC as a bottoming cycle for waste heat recovery from CGAM cogeneration system. Thermodynamic models for combined CGAM/ORC and CGAM/KC systems are performed and the effects of some decision variables on the energy and exergy efficiency and turbine size parameter of the combined systems are investigated. Solving simulation equations and optimization process have been done using direct search method by EES software. It is observed that at the optimum pressure ratio of air compressor, produced power of bottoming cycles has minimum values. Also, evaporator pressure optimizes the performance of cycle, but this optimum pressure level in ORC (11 bar is much lower than that of Kalina (46 bar. In addition, ORC's simpler configuration, higher net produced power and superheated turbine outlet flow, which leads to a reliable performance for turbine, are other advantages of ORC. Kalina turbine size parameter is lower than that of the ORC which is a positive aspect of Kalina cycle. However, by a comprehensive comparison between Kalina and ORC, it is concluded that the ORC has significant privileges for waste heat recovery in this case.

  14. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Regenerative single-shaft ceramic gas turbine for cogeneration); 1998 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Cogeneration yo saiseishiki ichijiku ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Efforts are exerted to develop a 300kW-class ceramic gas turbine with a turbine inlet temperature of 1350 degrees C and thermal efficiency of 42% or higher. The soundness in strength of the ceramic rotor blades and their fastening structure is confirmed. Rotor blade cushion thickness is found to decrease in start-and-stop repetitions in the initial period, but not thereafter. The exhaust diffuser and exhaust path shape are studied and improved for an increase in output, which improves turbine efficiency by 1.7%. Under the operating conditions of 1350 degrees C and full load, NOx emissions and combustion efficiency prove to be 5.6ppm and 99.9%. Even in the case using a large-diameter liner with its combustion efficiency under light load improved, the ultimate target value is achieved. Studies are further conducted on centrifugal stage loss reduction towards the ultimate goal set for the compressor. The diffuser shape is improved and the shroud clearance is reduced, and insulation efficiency of 81.1% is attained at the designing stage. In a test run of a pilot ceramic gas turbine in which temperature finally arrives at 1350 degrees C, engine thermal efficiency of 35% and shaft output of 282kW are achieved. (NEDO)

  16. Extra cogeneration step seen boosting output 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P.

    1984-10-08

    Cogenerators can now buy a prototype 6.5 MW, pre-packaged cogeneration system that incorporates an added step to its cycle to reduce fuel use by 21%. Larger, custom-designed systems will be on the market in 1985. Fayette Manufacturing Co. will offer the Kalina Cycle system at a discount price of $8.2 million (1200/kW) until the systems are competitive with conventional units. The system varies from conventional cogeneration systems by adding a distillation step, which permits the use of two fluids for the turbine steam and operates at a higher thermodynamic efficiency, with boiling occuring at high temperature and low pressure. Although theoretically correct, DOE will withhold judgment on the system's efficiency until the first installation is operating.

  17. Microturbogas cogeneration systems for distributed generation: Effects of ambient temperature on global performance and components’ behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.; Comodi, G.; Renzi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrical power reduces with temperature, heat recovery remains almost constant. • Thermal-to-electrical power ratio increases with ambient temperature. • Not only the density of sucked air decreases but also its volumetric flow. • Putting a limit to shaft speed causes TIT to decrease with ambient temperature. • Power reduction with ambient temperature more than doubles that of great GTs. - Abstract: Microturbines (MGTs) are a relatively new technology that is currently attracting a lot of interest in the distributed generation market. Particularly interesting is their use as backup source for integrating photovoltaic panels or/and wind turbines in hybrid systems. In this case the sensitivity to ambient conditions of the MGT adds to that of the renewables and the knowledge of the effects of ambient conditions on its performance becomes a key subject both for the sizing of the energy system and for its optimal dynamic control. Although the dependence of medium/large gas turbines performance on atmospheric conditions is well known and documented in literature, there are very limited reports available on MGTs and they regard only global parameters. The paper aims at filling this lack of information by analyzing the ambient temperature effect on the global performance of an MGT in cogeneration arrangement and by entering in detail into its machines’ behavior. A simulation code, tuned on experimental data, is used for this purpose. Starting from the nominal ISO conditions, electrical power output is shown to decrease with ambient temperature at a rate of about 1.22%/°C, due to a reduction of both air density and volumetric flow. Meanwhile, thermal to electrical power ratio increases at a rate of about 1.30%/°C. As temperature increases compressor delivers less air at a lower pressure, and the turbine expansion ratio and mass flow reduce accordingly. With the in-use control system the turbine inlet temperature reduces at a rate of 0.07%/

  18. Evaluating Interventions in the U.S. Electricity System: Assessments of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Small-Scale Cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle

    to evaluate the effects of an additional wind turbine or solar panel in the U.S. electricity system. I find that the most attractive sites for renewables depend strongly on one's objective. A solar panel in Iowa displaces 20% more CO2 emissions than a panel in Arizona, though energy production from the Iowa panel is 25% less. Similarly, despite a modest wind resource, a wind turbine in West Virginia is expected to displace 7 times more health and environmental damages than a wind turbine in Oklahoma. Finally, I shift focus and explore the economics of small-scale cogeneration, which has long been recognized as a more efficient alternative to central-station power. Although the benefits of distributed cogeneration are widely cited, adoption has been slow in the U.S. Adoption could be encouraged by making cogeneration more economically attractive, either by increasing the expected returns or decreasing the risks of such investments. I present a case study of a 300-kilowatt cogeneration unit and evaluate the expected returns from: demand response, capacity markets, regulation markets, accelerated depreciation, a price on CO2 emissions, and net metering. In addition, I explore the effectiveness of feed-in tariffs at mitigating the energy-price risks to cogeneration projects.

  19. Cogeneration plant environmental impacts, Menaggio, Italy. February 21-22, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piancastelli, E.

    1991-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 28 papers given at the FIRE (Italian Federation for the Rational use of Energy), February, 1991, convention on cogeneration plant environmental impacts. The topics included: Italian and international normatives giving guidelines on methods to evaluate dual-purpose power plant environmental impacts; gas turbine CO, NOx and suspended particulates emission limits; noise pollution limits and abatement measures; ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure for auto-producing industries ceding power to the national grid; international research programs on cogeneration; the use of renewable energy sources for cogeneration systems; the function and role of energy managers; and commercialization of compact cogeneration plants for industry

  20. Selection of working fluids for a novel low-temperature geothermally-powered ORC based cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, T.; Wang, H.X.; Zhang, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Performances of a novel cogeneration system using low-temperature geothermal sources under disturbance conditions were investigated. → It aimed at identifying appropriate fluids yielding high PPR and QQR values. → Fluids group presenting higher normal boiling point values showed averagely 7.7% higher PPR with a larger variation than QQR values under disturbance conditions. → Smaller T P value, higher η t value, higher geothermal source parameters and lower heating supply parameters led to higher PPR values but lower QQR values. -- Abstract: A novel cogeneration system driven by low-temperature geothermal sources was investigated in this study. This system consists of a low-temperature geothermally-powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC) subsystem, an intermediate heat exchanger and a commercial R134a-based heat pump subsystem. The main purpose is to identify appropriate fluids which may yield high PPR (the ratio of power produced by the power generation subsystem to power consumed by the heat pump subsystem) value and QQR (the ratio of heat supplied to the user to heat produced by the geothermal source) value. Performances of the novel cogeneration system under disturbance conditions have also been studied. Results indicate that fluids group presenting higher normal boiling point values shows averagely 7.7% higher PPR values and R236ea and R245ca outstand among the group. ΔT P (pinch temperature difference in heat exchangers) and η t (turbine efficiency) values play more important roles on the variation of PPR values. QQR values change slightly with various ΔT P , η t and η rp (refrigerant pump efficiency) values while the variation range is larger under various geothermal source and heating supply parameters. Smaller ΔT P value, higher η t value, higher geothermal source parameters and lower heating supply parameters lead to higher PPR values but lower QQR values.

  1. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Thermal design and technical economical and environmental analyses of a hydrogen fired multi-objective cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmaz, A; Yilmazoglu, M. Z.; Pasoglu, A.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 85% of rapidly increasing world energy demand is supplied by fossil fuels. Extreme usage of fossil fuels causes serious global warming and environmental problems in form of air, soil and water pollutions. The period, in which fossil fuel reserves are decreasing, energy costs are increasing rapidly and new energy sources and technologies do not exist on the horizon, can be called as the expensive and critical energy period. Hydrogen becomes a matter of primary importance as a candidate energy source and carrier in the critical energy period and beyond to solve the energy and environmental problems radically. In this respect, the main obstacle for the use of hydrogen is the high cost of hydrogen production, which is expected to be decreased in the feature. The aim of this study is to examine how hydrogen energy will be able to be integrated with the existing energy substructure with technical and economical dimensions. In this sense, a multi objective hydrogen fired gas turbine cogeneration system is designed and optimized. Technical and economical analyses depending on the load conditions and different hydrogen production cost are carried out. It is possible that the co-generated heat is to be marketed for residence and industrial plants in the surrounding at or under market prices. The produced electricity however can only be sold to the public grid at a high unit support price which is only obtainable in case of the development of new energy technologies. This price should however be kept within the nowadays supportable energy price range. The main mechanism to be used during the design stage of the system to achieve this goal is to decrease the amortization and operational costs which lead to decrease investment and fuel costs and to increase the system load factor and co-generated heat revenues

  3. Genetic optimization of steam multi-turbines system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Optimization analysis of partially loaded cogeneration, multiple-stages steam turbines system was numerically investigated by using own-developed code (C++). The system can be controlled by following variables: fresh steam temperature, pressure, and flow rates through all stages in steam turbines. Five various strategies, four thermodynamics and one economical, which quantify system operation, were defined and discussed as an optimization functions. Mathematical model of steam turbines calculates steam properties according to the formulation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Genetic algorithm GENOCOP was implemented as a solving engine for non–linear problem with handling constrains. Using formulated methodology, example solution for partially loaded system, composed of five steam turbines (30 input variables) with different characteristics, was obtained for five strategies. The genetic algorithm found multiple solutions (various input parameters sets) giving similar overall results. In real application it allows for appropriate scheduling of machine operation that would affect equable time load of every system compounds. Also based on these results three strategies where chosen as the most complex: the first thermodynamic law energy and exergy efficiency maximization and total equivalent energy minimization. These strategies can be successfully used in optimization of real cogeneration applications. - Highlights: • Genetic optimization model for a set of five various steam turbines was presented. • Four various thermodynamic optimization strategies were proposed and discussed. • Operational parameters (steam pressure, temperature, flow) influence was examined. • Genetic algorithm generated optimal solutions giving the best estimators values. • It has been found that similar energy effect can be obtained for various inputs

  4. Optimisation of environmental gas cleaning routes for solid wastes cogeneration systems. Part II - Analysis of waste incineration combined gas/steam cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, Marcelo R.; Perrella Balestieri, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    In the first paper of this paper (Part I), conditions were presented for the gas cleaning technological route for environomic optimisation of a cogeneration system based in a thermal cycle with municipal solid waste incineration. In this second part, an environomic analysis is presented of a cogeneration system comprising a combined cycle composed of a gas cycle burning natural gas with a heat recovery steam generator with no supplementary burning and a steam cycle burning municipal solid wastes (MSW) to which will be added a pure back pressure steam turbine (another one) of pure condensation. This analysis aims to select, concerning some scenarios, the best atmospheric pollutant emission control routes (rc) according to the investment cost minimisation, operation and social damage criteria. In this study, a comparison is also performed with the results obtained in the Case Study presented in Part I

  5. Towards an intermittency-friendly energy system: Comparing electric boilers and heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blarke, Morten B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an “intermittency-friendly” energy system design. ► We compare intermittency-friendly concepts in distributed cogeneration. ► We investigate a new concept involving a heat pump and intermediate cold storage. ► We find significant improvements in operational intermittency-friendliness. ► Well-designed heat pump concepts are more cost-effective than electric boilers. -- Abstract: Distributed cogeneration has played a key role in the implementation of sustainable energy policies for three decades. However, increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables is challenging that position. The paradigmatic case of West Denmark indicates that distributed operators are capitulating as wind power penetration levels are moving above 25%; some operators are retiring cogeneration units entirely, while other operators are making way for heat-only boilers. This development is jeopardizing the system-wide energy, economic, and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration still has to offer. The solution is for distributed operators to adapt their technology and operational strategies to achieve a better co-existence between cogeneration and wind power. Four options for doing so are analysed including a new concept that integrates a high pressure compression heat pump using low-temperature heat recovered from flue gasses in combination with an intermediate cold storage, which enables the independent operation of heat pump and cogenerator. It is found that an electric boiler provides consistent improvements in the intermittency-friendliness of distributed cogeneration. However, well-designed heat pump concepts are more cost-effective than electric boilers, and in future markets where the gas/electricity price ratio is likely to increase, compression heat pumps in combination with intermediate thermal storages represent a superior potential for combining an intermittency-friendly pattern of operation with the efficient use of

  6. Analysis of gas turbine systems for sustainable energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie

    2000-02-01

    Increased energy demands and fear of global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases call for development of new efficient power generation systems with low or no carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, two different gas turbine power generation systems, which are designed with these issues in mind, are theoretically investigated and analyzed. In the first gas turbine system, the fuel is combusted using a metal oxide as an oxidant instead of oxygen in the air. This process is known as Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). CLC is claimed to decrease combustion exergy destruction and increase the power generation efficiency. Another advantage is the possibility to separate CO{sub 2} without a costly and energy demanding gas separation process. The system analysis presented includes computer-based simulations of CLC gas turbine systems with different metal oxides as oxygen carriers and different fuels. An exergy analysis comparing the exergy destruction of the gas turbine system with CLC and conventional combustion is also presented. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase the power generation efficiency of a simple gas turbine system by introducing CLC. A combined gas/steam turbine cycle system with CLC is, however, estimated to reach a similar efficiency as the conventional combined cycle system. If the benefit of easy and energy-efficient CO{sub 2} separation is accounted for, a CLC combined cycle system has a potential to be favorable compared to a combined cycle system with CO{sub 2} separation. In the second investigation, a solid, CO{sub 2}-neutral biomass fuel is used in a small-scale externally fired gas turbine system for cogeneration of power and district heating. Both open and closed gas turbines with different working fluids are simulated and analyzed regarding thermodynamic performance, equipment size, and economics. The results show that it is possible to reach high power generation efficiency and total (power

  7. Micro cogeneration in residential scale; Bancada de sistema de cogeracao de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Primo, Ana Rosa Mendes; Magnani, Fabio Santana; Henriquez, Jorge R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Moura, Newton Reis de; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmerle, Sergio Ricardo T.S. [Companhia Pernambucana de Gas (COPERGAS), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Cogeneration is very important to spread the use of natural gas in Brazil. Most of the existing cogeneration plants are of considerable size, as used in industries or commercial centers. Places with low demand on electrical or thermal energy (e.g. small industries, blocs of houses, etc.) could also benefit of cogeneration, but there is no available data about micro-cogeneration in Brazil. In order to verify the technical and economical viability of small size systems of cogeneration, FINEP/PETROBRAS/COPERGAS financed a project of micro-cogeneration at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), involving experiments on a micro turbine and a generator group, both with 30 kW power. The laboratory is also composed by two heat exchangers to regenerate the heat from the micro-turbine and generator group, a single effect absorption chiller, with 10 TR capacity, two thermal storage tanks (for hot and cold water) and a compression split of 5 TR. Data to build performance curves of the equipment will be stored and analyzed, in order to build their performance curves, allowing the overall cogeneration efficiency to be found. Most probable situations of thermal and electric power demands will be simulated. The aim of the simulations is to achieve the optimal situation for micro-cogeneration, which will offer the best efficiency, the lowest cost for buying the equipment and the lowest operational cost. A software was also developed, which optimizes micro-cogeneration systems. (author)

  8. Implementation of gas district cooling and cogeneration systems in Malaysia; Mise en oeuvre de systemes de gas district cooling et de cogeneration en Malaisie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haron, S. [Gas District Cooling, M, Sdn Bhd (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    With its energy demand in the early 1990's growing at a high rate due to the country's strong economic growth, Malaysia studied various options to improve the efficiency of its energy use. Since its natural gas reserves are almost four times that of its crude oil reserves, efforts were therefore centered on seeking ways to boost the use of natural gas to mitigate the growing domestic energy need. PETRONAS, the national oil company, subsequently studied and chose the District Cooling System using natural gas as the primary source of fuel. The Kuala Lumpur City Center development, which houses the PETRONAS Twin Towers, was subsequently chosen as the first project to use the Gas District Cooling (GDC) System. To acquire the technology and implement this project, PETRONAS created a new subsidiary, Gas District Cooling (Malaysia) Sendirian Berhad (GDC(M)). In the process of improving the plant's efficiency, GDC(M) discovered that the GDC system's efficiency and project economics would be significantly enhanced if its is coupled to a Cogeneration system. Having proven the success of the GDC/Cogeneration system, GDC(M) embarked on a campaign to aggressively promote and seek new opportunities to implement the system, both in Malaysia-and abroad. Apart from enhancing efficiency of energy use, and providing better project economics, the GDC/Cogeneration system also is environment friendly. Today, the GDC/Cogeneration systems is the system of choice for several important developments in Malaysia, which also includes the country's prestigious projects such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and the New Federal Government Administrative Center in Putrajaya. (author)

  9. Performance assessment of a micro-cogeneration system under realistic operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances of a micro-cogeneration system have been experimentally evaluated. • Cogenerator performances have been compared with those of a traditional system. • Measured data have been analyzed from both energy and exergy points of view. - Abstract: The European Parliament stated that high-efficiency cogeneration is a Community priority given the potential benefits of cogeneration with regard to saving primary energy and reducing emissions. According to this position, the performance of many micro-cogeneration systems have been assessed from an energy and environmental point of view. However, in the most part of cases, the assessments have been performed by using technical data from manufacturers and/or experimental results measured during steady-state operation, without considering the inefficiencies related to the transient periods; in addition, few works have been devoted to analyze the system operation from an exergy-based point of view. In this paper the electric load-following operation of an internal combustion engine based micro-cogeneration unit with 6.0 kW as nominal electric output has been experimentally investigated in electric load-following operation during a 24 h dynamic test with the application of a realistic daily load profile representing the Italian domestic non-HVAC electric demand for a multi-family house of five dwellings. The measured data have been compared with those that would be associated with servicing the building with electricity from the central electric grid and heat from a natural gas fired boiler from an energy, exergy and environmental points of view

  10. SOLHYCO Project: cogeneration system with concentrated solar energy and biofuels; Projeto SOLHYCO: sistema de cogeracao de energia solar concentrada e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de; Rabi, Jose Antonio; Carrer, Celso da Costa; Cavinatto, Betina; Tomasella, Peterson Ricardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA-USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2008-07-01

    Dispatchable renewable power generation is usually associated with expensive storages or additional back-up systems. Solar-hybrid systems can combine solar energy with an additional fuel and thus reliably provide electric power. If renewable fuels (e.g., biofuels) are employed, power generation becomes 100% sustainable at zero net emissions. Systems based on gas turbines are suited for cogeneration or combined cycles, making them very efficient and cost effective. These cycles require high temperatures and pressures, thus the solar energy has to be concentrated by a heliostat field onto the top of a tower and transferred by a solar receiver into the gas turbine cycle. At smaller power levels, cogeneration of heat and power is an attractive option by making use of the high exhaust temperature of the gas turbine, thus getting an additional benefit. The aim of this proposal is an significant extension of the objectives of the recently started SOLHYCO project by means A profound knowledge for market introduction will be gained by the assessment of the Brazilian market concerning solar resources, biofuels, electricity markets, heat markets and social needs. A detailed design study for a first demonstration unit will deliver all necessary economical, social and environmental data and accordingly 3 case studies have been defined. (author)

  11. Cogeneration and local authorities; Cogeneration et collectivites territoriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This conference is composed of 15 communications concerning cogeneration systems and applications in local communities. The main themes are: the regulation context and administrative procedures for cogeneration projects in France; legal aspects, risk covering, financing and sellback conditions for cogeneration systems; examples of cogeneration and tri-generation (with refrigeration energy) in different cities, airport, hospitals, campus, combined with the upgrading of district heating systems or municipal waste incineration plants. Impacts on energy savings and air pollution are also discussed

  12. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems annual program review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Goals of the 8-year program are to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. During this Nov. 9-11, 1994, meeting, presentations on energy policy issues were delivered by representatives of regulatory, industry, and research institutions; program overviews and technical reviews were given by contractors; and ongoing and proposed future projects sponsored by university and industry were presented and displayed at the poster session. Panel discussions on distributed power and Advanced Gas Systems Research education provided a forum for interactive dialog and exchange of ideas. Exhibitors included US DOE, Solar Turbines, Westinghouse, Allison Engine Co., and GE.

  13. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  14. Gas fired advanced turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecren, R. T.; White, D. J.

    The basic concept thus derived from the Ericsson cycle is an intercooled, recuperated, and reheated gas turbine. Theoretical performance analyses, however, showed that reheat at high turbine rotor inlet temperatures (TRIT) did not provide significant efficiency gains and that the 50 percent efficiency goal could be met without reheat. Based upon these findings, the engine concept adopted as a starting point for the gas-fired advanced turbine system is an intercooled, recuperated (ICR) gas turbine. It was found that, at inlet temperatures greater than 2450 F, the thermal efficiency could be maintained above 50%, provided that the turbine cooling flows could be reduced to 7% of the main air flow or lower. This dual and conflicting requirement of increased temperatures and reduced cooling will probably force the abandonment of traditional air cooled turbine parts. Thus, the use of either ceramic materials or non-air cooling fluids has to be considered for the turbine nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades. The use of ceramic components for the proposed engine system is generally preferred because of the potential growth to higher temperatures that is available with such materials.

  15. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-09-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  16. A novel cogeneration system: A proton exchange membrane fuel cell coupled to a heat transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huicochea, A.; Romero, R.J.; Rivera, W.; Gutierrez-Urueta, G.; Siqueiros, J.; Pilatowsky, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the potential of a novel cogeneration system which consists of a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and an absorption heat transformer (AHT). The dissipation heat resulting from the operation of the PEMFC would be used to feed the absorption heat transformer, which is integrated to a water purification system. Therefore, the products of the proposed cogeneration system are heat, electricity and distilled water. The study includes a simulation for the PEMFC as well as experimental results obtained with an experimental AHT facility. Based on the simulation results, experimental tests were performed in order to estimate the performance parameters of the overall system. This is possible due to the matching in power and temperatures between the outlet conditions of the simulated fuel cell and the inlet requirements of the AHT. Experimental coefficients of performance are reported for the AHT as well as the overall cogeneration efficiency for the integrated system. The results show that experimental values of coefficient of performance of the AHT and the overall cogeneration efficiency, can reach up to 0.256 and 0.571, respectively. This represents an increment in 12.4% of efficiency, compared to the fuel cell efficiency working individually. This study shows that the combined use of AHT systems with a PEMFC is possible and it is a very feasible project to be developed in the Centro de Investigación en Energía (Centre of Energy Research), México.

  17. Application of information theory for the analysis of cogeneration-system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Ishizaka, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    Successful cogeneration system performance depends critically upon the correct estimation of load variation and the accuracy of demand prediction. We need not only aggregated annual heat and electricity demands, but also hourly and monthly patterns in order to evaluate a cogeneration system's performance by computer simulation. These data are usually obtained from the actual measurements of energy demand in existing buildings. However, it is extremely expensive to collect actual energy demand data and store it over a long period for many buildings. However we face the question of whether it is really necessary to survey hourly demands. This paper provides a sensitivity analysis of the influence of demand-prediction error upon the efficiency of cogeneration system, so as to evaluate the relative importance of various demand components. These components are annual energy demand, annual heat-to-electricity ratio, daily load factor and so forth. Our approach employs the concept of information theory to construct a mathematical model. This analysis provides an indication of the relative importances of demand indices, and identifies what may become a good measure of assessing the efficiency of the cogeneration system for planning purposes. (Author)

  18. Stirling engine based micro co-generation system for single households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribberink, H.; Zutt, S.; Rabou, L.; Beckers, G. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Baijens, K.; Luttikholt, J. [Atag Verwarming BV (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the progress made in the ENATEC development program for a free piston Stirling engine based micro co-generation system that serves the supply of up to 1 kW{sub e} and up to 24 kW heat for domestic heating and/or for hot tap water production for single households at overall system efficiencies of 96%: Experiments show that the free piston Stirling engines from Stirling Technology Company run very reliably and controllably, and that the efficiency targets for the 1 kW{sub e} micro co-generation system are feasible. A ceramic foam burner with good heat transfer characteristics and low NOx emissions was developed. A demonstration micro co-generation unit was built and successfully presented. A 1 kW{sub e} free piston Stirling engine for the European market was developed. High efficiencies at full load and at part load, low emissions, low noise, and minimum maintenance make the Stirling engine based micro co-generation system an attractive candidate for the next generation of domestic boilers in Europe. (orig.)

  19. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai [Dept. of Energy Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 EUR kW h{sup -1}. As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate. (author)

  20. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of Stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai; Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 Euro kW h -1 . As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate.

  1. Global and local emission impact assessment of distributed cogeneration systems with partial-load models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancarella, Pierluigi; Chicco, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale distributed cogeneration technologies represent a key resource to increase generation efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions with respect to conventional separate production means. However, the diffusion of distributed cogeneration within urban areas, where air quality standards are quite stringent, brings about environmental concerns on a local level. In addition, partial-load emission worsening is often overlooked, which could lead to biased evaluations of the energy system environmental performance. In this paper, a comprehensive emission assessment framework suitable for addressing distributed cogeneration systems is formulated. Local and global emission impact models are presented to identify upper and lower boundary values of the environmental pressure from pollutants that would be emitted from reference technologies, to be compared to the actual emissions from distributed cogeneration. This provides synthetic information on the relative environmental impact from small-scale CHP sources, useful for general indicative and non-site-specific studies. The emission models are formulated according to an electrical output-based emission factor approach, through which off-design operation and relevant performance are easily accounted for. In particular, in order to address the issues that could arise under off-design operation, an equivalent load model is incorporated within the proposed framework, by exploiting the duration curve of the cogenerator loading and the emissions associated to each loading level. In this way, it is possible to quantify the contribution to the emissions from cogeneration systems that might operate at partial loads for a significant portion of their operation time, as for instance in load-tracking applications. Suitability of the proposed methodology is discussed with respect to hazardous air pollutants such as NO x and CO, as well as to greenhouse gases such as CO 2 . Two case study applications based on the emission

  2. Project considerations and design of systems for wheeling cogenerated power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Boyle, J.R.; Fish, J.H. III; Martin, W.A.

    1994-08-01

    Wheeling electric power, the transmission of electricity not owned by an electric utility over its transmission lines, is a term not generally recognized outside the electric utility industry. Investigation of the term`s origin is intriguing. For centuries, wheel has been used to describe an entire machine, not just individual wheels within a machine. Thus we have waterwheel, spinning wheel, potter`s wheel and, for an automobile, wheels. Wheel as a verb connotes transmission or modification of forces and motion in machinery. With the advent of an understanding of electricity, use of the word wheel was extended to be transmission of electric power as well as mechanical power. Today, use of the term wheeling electric power is restricted to utility transmission of power that it doesn`t own. Cogeneration refers to simultaneous production of electric and thermal power from an energy source. This is more efficient than separate production of electricity and thermal power and, in many instances, less expensive.

  3. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems Annual Program Review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Goal of the 8-year program are to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. The conference is held annually for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties in industry, academia, and Government. This volume contains 28 poster presentations and appendices; the poster papers are processed separately for the data base.

  4. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  5. An investigation of the techno-economic impact of internal combustion engine based cogeneration systems on the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions of the Canadian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaee, S. Rasoul; Ugursal, V. Ismet; Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a techno-economic evaluation of retrofitting internal combustion engine (ICE) based cogeneration systems in the Canadian housing stock (CHS). The study was conducted using the Canadian Hybrid Residential End-Use Energy and GHG Emissions Model (CHREM). CHREM includes close to 17,000 unique house files that are statistically representative of the Canadian housing stock. The cogeneration system performance was evaluated using a high resolution integrated building performance simulation software. It is assumed that the ICE cogeneration system is retrofitted into all houses that currently use a central space heating system and have a suitable basement or crawl space. The GHG emission intensity factor associated with marginal electricity generation in each province is used to estimate the annual GHG emissions reduction due to the cogeneration system retrofit. The results show that cogeneration retrofit yields 13% energy savings in the CHS. While the annual GHG emissions would increase in some provinces due to cogeneration retrofits, the total GHG emissions of the CHS would be reduced by 35%. The economic analysis indicates that ICE cogeneration system retrofits may provide an economically feasible opportunity to approach net/nearly zero energy status for existing Canadian houses. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation ICE cogeneration systems for Canadian housing is reported. • ICE cogeneration retrofit could yield 13% annual energy savings in Canadian housing. • Annual GHG emissions of Canadian housing could decrease by 35% with ICE cogeneration. • But, in some provinces, GHG emissions would increase as a result of ICE cogeneration

  6. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems Annual Program Review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Goal of the 8-year program is to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. The conference is held annually for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties industry, academia, and Government. Advanced turbine systems topics discussed during five technical sessions included policy and strategic issues, program element overviews and technical reviews, related activities, university/industry consortium interactions, and supportive projects. Twenty-one papers presented during the technical sessions are contained in this volume; they are processed separately for the data base.

  7. Experimental study on a resorption system for power and refrigeration cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.; Wang, L.W.; Liu, C.Z.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Energy conversion technologies, especially for power generation and refrigeration technologies driven by the low temperature heat, are gathering the momentum recently. This paper presents a novel resorption system for electricity and refrigeration cogeneraion. Compared with adsorption refrigeration system, resorption refrigeration is characterized as safety and simple structure since there is no ammonia liquid in the system. The cogeneration system is mainly composed of three HTS (high temperature salt) unit beds; three LTS (low temperature salts) unit beds, one expander, three ammonia valves, two oil valves, four water valves and connection pipes. Chemical working pair of MnCl 2 –CaCl 2 –NH 3 is selected. Since scroll expander is suitable for small type power generation system, it is chosen for expansion process. 4.8 kg MnCl 2 and 3.9 kg CaCl 2 impregnated in expanded natural graphite treated with sulfuric acid (ENG-TSA) are filled in the cogeneration system. Experimental results show that maximum cooling power 2.98 kW is able to be obtained while maximum shaft power is about 253 W with 82.3 W average value. The cogeneration system can be utilized for the heat source temperature lower than 170 °C. Total energy efficiency increases from 0.293 to 0.417 then decreases to 0.407 while exergy efficiency increases from 0.12 to 0.16. - Highlights: • A resorption system for power and refrigeration cogeneration is established and investigated. • ENG-TSA as the additive improves the heat and mass performance of composite adsorbent. • The highest shaft power and refrigeration power are 253 W and 2.98 kW, respectively. • Total energy efficiency of the system increases from 0.293 to 0.417 then decreases to 0.407.

  8. Fitting in of cogeneration into central heating systems; Inpassing warmte/kracht in cv-systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rulkens, L.J.W. [FD-Bouwzaken, Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Visserij LNV, Wageningen (Netherlands); Tijs, J.C. [Tijs Energy Systems, Wijk bij Duurstede (Netherlands); Wammes, J.A. [Emicon, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    1997-02-01

    The choice for the size of a combined heat and power generating unit as well as the hydraulic and control engineering fitting in into existing central heating systems bears some pitfalls in practice. Those problems are inventorized and compiled for the manual `Design rules for the fitting in of cogeneration into central heating systems`. A brief overview is given of the contents of the manual. 3 figs., 3 ills., 1 tab.

  9. Devising an energy saving technology for a biogas plant as a part of the cogeneration system

    OpenAIRE

    Чайковська, Євгенія Євстафіївна

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests an operation technology for a biogas plant that allows setting a heating medium temperature at the inlet to the heat exchanger built in a digester and measuring the heating medium temperature at the outlet. An integrated system for assessing the varied temperature of digestion (that is based on mathematical and logical modeling within the cogeneration system) secures a continuous gas outlet, a timely unloading of fermented mash and loading of a fresh matter. For this purpos...

  10. Power turbine ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  11. A new dynamism for the cogeneration of 2000 - from the medium to the mini-cogeneration; Une nouvelle dynamique pour la cogeneration en l'an 2000 - de la moyenne vers le mini-cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of the Eco-Industries 2000 meeting, the ATEE organized a colloquium on the medium and mini-cogeneration market. This book presents the fourteen papers proposed at this colloquium bringing information on the cogeneration technology for the medium and mini-systems. The state of the art concerning the turbines and examples of dual systems (heating and warm water) are provided. Some economical aspects are also presented with the international and national market, the contracts management with EDF and the investments. (A.L.B.)

  12. Study of technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration system in the tertiary sector; Estudo de viabilidade tecnica-economica de um sistema de cogeracao no setor terciario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rodolffo Aquino de; Rocha, Carlos Roberto; Bortoni, Edson da Costa [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2008-07-01

    This study aims to examine the technical feasibility and financial cost for a cogeneration system in a company in the tertiary sector. For this, was studied the electromechanical and thermal characteristics of a shopping center, as well as the technologies associated with the proposed cogeneration system. From the modeling of electric and thermal loads it was determined the system of operation for the system and the possible surplus energy generated. For the analysis of economic viability compare operating costs without cogeneration and with the alternative of cogeneration chosen. Among the calculations are the costs of investment and operation of the system. Was encountered the attractiveness of a cogeneration system, which uses natural gas as fuel for alternative engines and, in turn, reject heat to the absorption chillers. The idealized cogeneration system was also evaluated positively with a view to qualification required for participation in policies to encourage the rational use of energy resources. (author)

  13. First Study of Helium Gas Purification System as Primary Coolant of Co-Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piping Supriatna

    2009-01-01

    The technological progress of NPP Generation-I on 1950’s, Generation-II, Generation-III recently on going, and Generation-IV which will be implemented on next year 2025, concept of nuclear power technology implementation not only for generate electrical energy, but also for other application which called cogeneration reactor. Commonly the type of this reactor is High Temperature Reactor (HTR), which have other capabilities like Hydrogen production, desalination, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), etc. The cogeneration reactor (HTR) produce thermal output higher than commonly Nuclear Power Plant, and need special Heat Exchanger with helium gas as coolant. In order to preserve heat transfer with high efficiency, constant purity of the gas must be maintained as well as possible, especially contamination from its impurities. In this report has been done study for design concept of HTR primary coolant gas purification system, including methodology by sampling He gas from Primary Coolant and purification by using Physical Helium Splitting Membrane. The examination has been designed in physical simulator by using heater as reactor core. The result of study show that the of Primary Coolant Gas Purification System is enable to be implemented on cogeneration reactor. (author)

  14. Wind turbine with lightning protection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  15. Thermoeconomic and exegetic analysis of a cogeneration proposal by using natural gas in breweries; Analise termoeconomica e exergetica de uma proposta de cogeracao usando gas natural em cervejarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Martins, Gilberto [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara do Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica e de Producao]. E-mail: agallego@unimep.br; gmartins@unimep.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this work the thermo economic method is used for analysis of the cost distribution in a cogeneration power plant proposed for a brewery in the Campinas - state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The thermal process energy demands were considered for beer production in 1997. The proposed cogeneration system consists of two gas turbines with recovering boiler and ammonium compression cooling system. The present power generation configuration and the cogeneration proposed performance were simulated in a monthly basis, considering the month steam and refrigeration requests. The gas turbines were simulated considering the nominal load and the energy surplus sold to the concessionaire.

  16. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  17. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  18. Exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of a model cogeneration system; Analise exergoeconomica e otimizacao de um modelo de sistema de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Leonardo S.R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Conhecimento de Materiais e Mecanica]. E-mail: lsrv@cepel.br; Donatelli, Joao L.M. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: donatelli@lttc.com.ufrj.br; Cruz, Manuel E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: manuel@serv.com.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we perform exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses, a mathematical optimization and an exergoeconomic optimization of a gas turbine-heat recovery boiler cogeneration system with fixed electricity and steam production rates. The exergy balance is calculated with the IPSE pro thermal system simulation program. In the exergetic analysis, exergy destruction rates, exergetic efficiencies and structural bond coefficients for each component are evaluated as functions of the decision variables of the optimization problem. In the exergoeconomic analysis the cost for each exergetic flow is determined through cost balance equations and additional auxiliary equations from cost partition criteria. Mathematical optimization is performed by the metric variable method (software EES - Engineering Equation Solver) and by the successive quadratic programming (IMSL library - Fortran Power Station). The exergoeconomic optimization is performed on the basis of the exergoeconomic variables. System optimization is also performed by evaluating the derivative of the objective function through finite differences. This paper concludes with a comparison between the four optimization techniques employed. (author)

  19. Development of Low Price Turbine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, C.K.; Kim, J.A.; Jeong, W.J.; Choi, I.K.; Woo, J.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report is final research results of ''Development of Low Price Turbine Control System''. It describes test such as turbine startup, generator synchronization, rated load operation, simulation after manufacturing turbine control system. (author). 45 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. System of lower cogeneration in the cement industry; Sistema de cogeneracion inferior en la industria del cemento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, H.; Vazquez, A; Ambriz, J. J.; Fosado, A.; Cedillo, D.; Sanchez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper present work, the design of a cogeneration system was made, taking advantage of the waste thermal flows in a cement manufacturing industry. The costs by concept of energy sources in the cement industry represent between 30 and 60% of the production costs, reason why any diminution in its consumption, will be reflected considerably in the productivity of the company. In order to determine the available capacity of waste energy and to establish the dimension of the cogeneration system it was decided to initially conduct balances of matter and energy of a cement production train. For the evaluation and numerical simulation a case study of a national plant was taken. The analysis takes only into account the rotary kiln, the pre roaster, the gas cooler or conditioner, the cooler of clinker and the separators or dust recuperators. In this study the electrical mills nor the systems that operate all over the plant have been taken in consideration. The results show that in general a high potential of co-generation exists since in some cases the heat losses can reach up to a 50% of the calorific energy input. The capacity of electrical generation by means of a steam turbine when taking advantage of a fraction (in the order of 60%) the residual heat, can be between 200 and 300 watts per kilogram of clinker produced. In conclusion, when recovering by means of appropriate heat exchangers for each one of the mentioned equipment the wasted energy and a network of heat interchange optimized by means of modern technologies an important part of the electrical energy that a cement mill uses can be generated. The method used has been very attractive and with the possibility of applying it to any cement mill and thus evaluate the potentials of energy co-generation. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo, se realizo el diseno de un sistema de cogeneracion aprovechando las corrientes termicas de desecho en una industria de fabricacion de cemento. Los costos por concepto de

  1. Performance assessment of cogeneration and trigeneration systems for small scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Akisawa, Atsushi; Marrasso, Elisa; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indices and methods to assess the performance of polygeneration systems. • Index to evaluate the economic feasibility of trigeneration system is introduced. • Thermo-economic analysis is performed considering three commercial cogenerators. • Sensitivity analysis varying reference electric efficiency for European Countries. • Sensitivity analysis varying environmental and economic parameters. - Abstract: Cogeneration and trigeneration systems can contribute to the reduction of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in residential and tertiary sectors, by reducing fossil fuels demand and grid losses with respect to conventional systems. To evaluate the performance of these systems, several indices and assessment methodologies can be used, due to the high complexity of such systems, which can consist of several energy conversion devices and can perform bidirectional interactions with external electric and thermal grids. In this paper, a review of the available indices and methodologies to assess the performances of polygeneration systems is provided. An index (TSS_t_r_i) aimed to assess the economic feasibility of a trigeneration system is also introduced and discussed. This activity started in the framework of the International Energy Agency Annex 54 project (“Integration of Micro-Generation and Related Energy Technologies in Buildings”), where research groups shared their expertise about methods applied in each Country to evaluate the performance of polygeneration systems. It was concluded that a thermo-economic analysis comparing the performance of a polygeneration system with those of a reference benchmark scenario, is a very suitable assessment method. Some of the reviewed methodologies are then applied to small scale commercial cogenerators. The sensitivity analysis is performed considering different reference average values of electric efficiency, unitary natural gas and electricity prices, and emission factors for

  2. Engineering design and exergy analyses for combustion gas turbine based power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue, D.-C.; Chuang, C.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses of the plant for combustion gas turbine based power generation systems. Exergy analysis is performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. The results show the exergy analyses for a steam cycle system predict the plant efficiency more precisely. The plant efficiency for partial load operation is lower than full load operation. Increasing the pinch points will decrease the combined cycle plant efficiency. The engineering design is based on inlet air-cooling and natural gas preheating for increasing the net power output and efficiency. To evaluate the energy utilization, one combined cycle unit and one cogeneration system, consisting of gas turbine generators, heat recovery steam generators, one steam turbine generator with steam extracted for process have been analyzed. The analytical results are used for engineering design and component selection

  3. Cogeneration and beyond: The need and opportunity for high efficiency, renewable community energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1992-06-01

    The justification, strategies, and technology options for implementing advanced district heating and cooling systems in the United States are presented. The need for such systems is discussed in terms of global warming, ozone depletion, and the need for a sustainable energy policy. Strategies for implementation are presented in the context of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act and proposed new institutional arrangements. Technology opportunities are highlighted in the areas of advanced block-scale cogeneration, CFC-free chiller technologies, and renewable sources of heating and cooling that are particularly applicable to district systems

  4. Experimental investigation and exergy analysis on thermal storage integrated micro-cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johar, Dheeraj Kishor; Sharma, Dilip; Soni, Shyam Lal; Gupta, Pradeep K.; Goyal, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy Storage System is integrated with Micro cogeneration system. • Erythritol is used as Phase Change Material. • Maximum energy saved is 15.2%. • Maximum exergy saved is 4.22%. • Combined systems are feasible to increase energy and exergy efficiency. - Abstract: This paper describes the performance of thermal storage integrated micro-cogeneration system based on single cylinder diesel engine. In addition to electricity generated from genset, waste heat from hot exhaust of diesel engine was used to heat water in a double pipe heat exchanger of 67.70 cm length with inside tube diameter of 3.81 cm and outside tube diameter of 5.08 cm. Additionally, a latent heat thermal energy storage system was also integrated with this cogeneration system. A shell and tube type heat exchanger of 346 mm diameter and 420 mm height with 45 tubes of 18 mm diameter each was designed and fabricated, to store thermal energy, in which Erythritol (C_4H_1_0O_4) was used as phase changing material. The test results show that micro capacity (4.4 kW), stationary, single cylinder, diesel engine can be successfully utilized to simultaneously produce power as well as heating, and to also store thermal energy. Slight decrease in engine performance was observed when double pipe heat exchanger and latent heat thermal energy storage system was integrated with engine but the amount of energy which could be recovered was significant. Maximum percentage of energy saved was obtained at a load of 3.6 kW and was 15.2%.

  5. Thermodynamic investigation of a shared cogeneration system with electrical cars for northern Europe climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Noro, Marco; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    cells, heat pump and Stirling engine are utilised as a system to achieve high energy conversion efficiency. A transition from traditional petrol cars to electric mobility is also considered and simulated here. Different types of fuel are considered to demonstrate the high versatility of the simulated....... These goals can be achieved increasing renewable energy sources and/or efficiency on energy production processes. In this paper an innovative micro-cogeneration system for household application is presented: it covers heating, domestic hot water and electricity demands for a residential user. Solid oxide fuel...

  6. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  7. Fuel cell-based cogeneration system covering data centers’ energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizzi, Giuseppe Leo; Manno, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The Information and Communication Technology industry has gone in the recent years through a dramatic expansion, driven by many new online (local and remote) applications and services. Such growth has obviously triggered an equally remarkable growth in energy consumption by data centers, which require huge amounts of power not only for IT devices, but also for power distribution units and for air-conditioning systems needed to cool the IT equipment. This paper is dedicated to the economic and energy performance assessment of a cogeneration system based on a natural gas membrane steam reformer producing a pure hydrogen flow for electric power generation in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Heat is recovered from both the reforming unit and the fuel cell in order to supply the needs of an office building located near the data center. In this case, the cooling energy needs of the data center are covered by means of a vapor-compression chiller equipped with a free-cooling unit. Since the fuel cell’s output is direct current rather than alternate current, the possibility of further improving data centers’ energy efficiency adopting DC-powered data center equipment is also discussed. -- Highlights: ► Data centers' energy needs are discussed and possible savings from advanced energy management techniques are estimated. ► The thermal energy requirements of an office building close to the data center are added to the energy scenario. ► Significant energy and cost savings can be obtained by means of free-cooling, high-voltage direct current, and a cogeneration facility. ► The cogeneration system is based on a natural gas membrane reformer and a PEM fuel cell. ► Energy flows in the membrane reformer are analyzed and an optimal value of steam-to-carbon ratio is found in order to minimize the required membrane area.

  8. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  9. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  10. Low power cogeneration prototype system; Prototipo de sistema de co-geracao de pequena potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sara M.; Martins, Jose A.S.; Camara, Paulo R.; Cortes, Breno P.; Neves, Elierton E. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil); F. Filho, Roberto; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The fuels from oil and natural gas play an important role, not only in the sector of primary energy, but also in almost all the other sectors of the economy, due to its imbrication as insum of these. The use of the natural gas will have great expansion in Brazil, motivated for the Government decision to increase the participation of this fuel in the Brazilian energy matrix from 4% to 12% up to 2010. Then, it's so important the investment in new technologies and also the improvement. In order to reach the objective related to increase the consumption of natural gas in the energy matrix, and to propose solutions to attend the electric requirements, of heat and refrigeration, using natural gas as primary power plant, the Center of Gas Technologies; CTGAS, in partnership with PETROBRAS and the Fockink Group, has developed the first modular system of generation and co-generation of energy by natural gas of low power, of easy installation and shipment with the characteristics techniques to take care of to companies or industrial sectors that consummate this band of power. The equipment generates 35 kW/55 kVA of electric energy, 7TR (Ton of Refrigeration) of energy for refrigeration and posses the ability to heat 2200 l/h of water in the temperature of 85 deg C. The equipment will be able to produce electric and thermal energy simultaneously, from an only fuel, the natural gas. The main objective of this work is to present the main phases of development of the archetype, functions techniques of the co-generator and its field of performance in the market of systems for generation and co-generation of energy by natural gas of low power. (author)

  11. A potential candidate for the sustainable and reliable domestic energy generation–Thermoelectric cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.F.; Yan, Y.Y.; Simpson, K.

    2013-01-01

    Due to being solid-state, noiseless and maintenance free, thermoelectric devices have found wide applications in different areas since they were discovered over 180 years ago. The applications are concerned with environment-friendly refrigeration and power generation in transportation tools, industrial utilities, military devices, medical services and space applications. It is utilisation of waste heat in varying applications that make the modules particularly attractive. Nevertheless, despite a few academic papers, there has not been extensive use in the domestic sector. A concept of thermoelectric cogeneration system (‘TCS’) is proposed to highlight the direction for enhancing the sustainability by improving the energy efficiency in domestic sector. Compared to the thermoelectric systems used in other areas which only uses the part of converted energy but wastes the unconverted part by dissipating it into the environment, the system presented here maximally recover the available heat by generating electrical power and producing hot water simultaneously. The viability of this system concept is evaluated on a bench-scale experimental prototype. The outputs of electrical power and hot water have been investigated at different temperature difference. The cost saving potential and cost recovery period have been estimated using the available heat sources in domestic sector. The results intend to provide reference for developing the real-scale domestic thermoelectric cogeneration system and show the potential benefits

  12. Optimization of operation of energy supply systems with co-generation and absorption refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Mirko M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-generation systems, together with absorption refrigeration and thermal storage, can result in substantial benefits from the economic, energy and environmental point of view. Optimization of operation of such systems is important as a component of the entire optimization process in pre-construction phases, but also for short-term energy production planning and system control. This paper proposes an approach for operational optimization of energy supply systems with small or medium scale co-generation, additional boilers and heat pumps, absorption and compression refrigeration, thermal energy storage and interconnection to the electric utility grid. In this case, the objective is to minimize annual costs related to the plant operation. The optimization problem is defined as mixed integer nonlinear and solved combining modern stochastic techniques: genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with linear programming using the object oriented “ESO-MS” software solution for simulation and optimization of energy supply systems, developed as a part of this research. This approach is applied to optimize a hypothetical plant that might be used to supply a real residential settlement in Niš, Serbia. Results are compared to the ones obtained after transforming the problem to mixed 0-1 linear and applying the branch and bound method.

  13. Model predictive control of fuel cell micro cogeneration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Ilic, M.D.; De Schutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing application of distributed energy resources and information technologies in the electricity infrastructure, innovative possibilities for incorporating the demand side more actively in power system operation are enabled. At the residential level energy costs could be reduced with

  14. Demystifying the use of cogeneration in mine cooling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Castillo, D.O. [Hatch, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted in 2009 to determine the feasibility of having cogeneration in South African mines using diesel generators for large cooling installations. The study included a cost comparison between a conventional mechanical vapour-compression system and the proposed cogeneration system under different fuel prices and electric power cost scenarios. Both capital and operating costs were considered and the use of gas turbines was also examined. The cogeneration system consisted of four 3.75 MW diesel generators. The exhaust gases and the water from the jacket-coolers were used to drive 4 single-effect LiBr-water absorption refrigeration machines having a cooling capacity of 3.75 MW(R). The study showed that in most cases, cogeneration would not be economically feasible if specifically installed to produce cooling. Cogeneration would only be economically viable if both the power costs were to increase significantly and fuel prices were to drop considerably. The environmental issues associated with the exhaust gases were not addressed in this study. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Thermodynamic Investigation of a Shared Cogeneration System with Electrical Cars for Northern Europe Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Vialetto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition to alternative energy systems is indicated by EU Commission as a suitable path to energy efficiency and energy saving in the next years. The aims are to decrease greenhouses gases emissions, relevance of fossil fuels in energy production and energy dependence on extra-EU countries. These goals can be achieved increasing renewable energy sources and/or efficiency on energy production processes. In this paper an innovative micro-cogeneration system for household application is presented: it covers heating, domestic hot water and electricity demands for a residential user. Solid oxide fuel cells, heat pump and Stirling engine are utilised as a system to achieve high energy conversion efficiency. A transition from traditional petrol cars to electric mobility is also considered and simulated here. Different types of fuel are considered to demonstrate the high versatility of the simulated cogeneration system by changing the pre-reformer of the fuel cell. Thermodynamic analysis is performed to prove high efficiency with the different fuels.

  16. Exergoeconomic improvement of a complex cogeneration system integrated with a professional process simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Leonardo S.; Donatelli, Joao L.; Cruz, Manuel E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the application of an iterative exergoeconomic methodology for improvement of thermal systems to a complex combined-cycle cogeneration plant is presented. The methodology integrates exergoeconomics with a professional process simulator, and represents an alternative to conventional mathematical optimization techniques, because it reduces substantially the number of variables to be considered in the improvement process. By exploiting the computational power of a simulator, the integrated approach permits the optimization routine to ignore the variables associated with the thermodynamic equations, and thus to deal only with the economic equations and objective function. In addition, the methodology combines recent available exergoeconomic techniques with qualitative and quantitative criteria to identify only those decision variables, which matter for the improvement of the system. To demonstrate the strengths of the methodology, it is here applied to a 24-component cogeneration plant, which requires O(10 3 ) variables for its simulation. The results which are obtained, are compared to those reached using a conventional mathematical optimization procedure, also coupled to the process simulator. It is shown that, for engineering purposes, improvement of the system is often more cost effective and less time consuming than optimization of the system.

  17. Assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions from cogeneration and trigeneration systems. Part I: Models and indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion of cogeneration and trigeneration plants as local generation sources could bring significant energy saving and emission reduction of various types of pollutants with respect to the separate production of electricity, heat and cooling power. The advantages in terms of primary energy saving are well established. However, the potential of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling heat and power (CCHP) systems for reducing the emission of hazardous greenhouse gases (GHG) needs to be further investigated. This paper presents and discusses a novel approach, based upon an original indicator called trigeneration CO 2 emission reduction (TCO 2 ER), to assess the emission reduction of CO 2 and other GHGs from CHP and CCHP systems with respect to the separate production. The indicator is defined in function of the performance characteristics of the CHP and CCHP systems, represented with black-box models, and of the GHG emission characteristics from conventional sources. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown in the companion paper (Part II: Analysis techniques and application cases) with application to various cogeneration and trigeneration solutions

  18. Estonian energy system: Proposals for the implementation of a cogeneration strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.; Ingermann, K.; Kask, U.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Soviet era Estonia inherited oil-shale-based electricity plants, with a capacity of 3000 MW. Oil shale now provides Estonia with very low electricity prices. However, most of the stations are very old. Half of them were built before 1965, and sooner or later the old oil shale production units will have to be replaced. Estonia will then have to face serious increases in electricity production prices. At the same time Estonia has problems in restoring its district heating systems. The prices are rising and may consumers have converted to other heating sources such as electric heating. The major long-term strategic policy choices to make in Estonia are to decide (1) whether the oil shale power stations should be replaced by new centralized production units such as new oil shale stations or nuclear power, or (2) whether the electricity production should be decentralized. In the centralized solution (oil shale or nuclear power), the domestic heating will be left to boilers or electric heating leading to a very high primary energy supply. In the decentralized solution, Estonia could benefit from the advantage of cogeneration leading to very low fuel consumption. But this latter strategy depends on the restoration of the district heating systems. This article seeks to form a strategy to improve the efficiency of the Estonian energy system by increasing the use of cogeneration. (author)

  19. Multi-objective approach in thermoenvironomic optimization of a benchmark cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn

    2009-01-01

    Multi-objective optimization for designing of a benchmark cogeneration system known as CGAM cogeneration system has been performed. In optimization approach, the exergetic, economic and environmental aspects have been considered, simultaneously. The thermodynamic modeling has been implemented comprehensively while economic analysis conducted in accordance with the total revenue requirement (TRR) method. The results for the single objective thermoeconomic optimization have been compared with the previous studies in optimization of CGAM problem. In multi-objective optimization of the CGAM problem, the three objective functions including the exergetic efficiency, total levelized cost rate of the system product and the cost rate of environmental impact have been considered. The environmental impact objective function has been defined and expressed in cost terms. This objective has been integrated with the thermoeconomic objective to form a new unique objective function known as a thermoenvironomic objective function. The thermoenvironomic objective has been minimized while the exergetic objective has been maximized. One of the most suitable optimization techniques developed using a particular class of search algorithms known as multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) has been considered here. This approach which is developed based on the genetic algorithm has been applied to find the set of Pareto optimal solutions with respect to the aforementioned objective functions. An example of decision-making has been presented and a final optimal solution has been introduced. The sensitivity of the solutions to the interest rate and the fuel cost has been studied

  20. Magnus air turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  1. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  2. Water turbine system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  3. Hydrogen Storage using Metal Hydrides in a Stationary Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, Maxime; Chaudourne, Serge; Perret, Christian; Latroche, Michel; Percheron-Guegan, Annick; Marty Philippe

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the development of a hydrogen production and storage unit to supply a 40 kW stationary fuel cell, a metal hydride storage tank was chosen according to its reliability and high energetic efficiency. The study of AB5 compounds led to the development of a composition adapted to the project needs. The absorption/desorption pressures of the hydride at 75 C (2 / 1.85 bar) are the most adapted to the specifications. The reversible storage capacity (0.95 %wt) has been optimized to our work conditions and chemical kinetics is fast. The design of the Combined Heat and Power CHP system requires 5 kg hydrogen storage but in a first phase, only a 0.1 kg prototype has been realised and tested. Rectangular design has been chosen to obtain good compactness with an integrated plate fin type heat exchanger designed to reach high absorption/desorption rates. In this paper, heat and mass transfer characteristics of the Metal Hydride tank (MH tank) during absorption/desorption cycles are given. (authors)

  4. Operating experiences on the co-generation system (CGS) as an uninterruptible power source (UPS) for the super-sized accelerator facility, RIBF of RIKEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinawa, Tadashi; Yano, Yasushige

    2011-01-01

    The RI Beam Factory (RIBF) of RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, which succeeded in extracting first beam on December 28th 2006 as scheduled, is currently conducting nuclear physics experiments. The RIBF has six accelerators, one of which is the world's biggest and most powerful superconducting ring cyclotron (SRC). The accelerators require not only a huge amount of electricity but also a reliable power supply for the He-cryogenic system, vacuum system and superconducting magnet systems. For this purpose, the co-generation system (CGS) was introduced. A gas turbine generates 6.5 MW of power from liquid natural gas (LNG) and supplies it to the systems mentioned above as an uninterruptible power source (UPS). By utilizing gas heat exhaust from the gas turbine, the CGS will also supply cooled water to the cooling system of the RIBF accelerators as well as to the air-conditioning system for the bending. The CGS plant was completed on the 1st floor of the RIBF accelerator building and it began operating in April 2003. This paper covers the merits and demerits. (author)

  5. Exergy assessment and optimization of a cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell integrated with a Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinpour, Javad; Sadeghi, Mohsen; Chitsaz, Ata; Ranjbar, Faramarz; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel cogeneration system driven by a SOFC and Stirling engine is proposed. • Energy and exergy assessments are reported of a novel cogeneration system. • The energy efficiency of the combined system can be achieved 75.88%. • The highest exergy destruction occurs in the air heat exchanger. - Abstract: A cogeneration system based on a methane-fed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) integrated with a Stirling engine is analyzed from the viewpoints of energy and exergy. The effects on the system performance are investigated of varying four key system parameters: current density, SOFC inlet temperature, compression ratio and regenerator effectiveness. The energy efficiency of the combined system is found to be 76.32% which is about 24.61% more than that of a stand-alone SOFC plant under the same conditions. Considering exergy efficiency as the only objective function, it is found that, as the SOFC inlet temperature increases, the exergy efficiency of the cogeneration system rises to an optimal value of 56.44% and then decreases. The second law analysis also shows that the air heat exchanger has the greatest exergy destruction rate of all system components. The cooling water of the engine also can supply the heating needs for a small home.

  6. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  7. Electrohydraulic system to control NPP turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.; Rozhanskij, V.E.; Rokhlenko, V.Yu.; Gapunin, A.Ya.; Zhornitskaya, T.Ya.; Rasskazov, I.Eh.; Butsenko, V.N.; Brajnin, L.S.; Makarenko, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Operation regimes of electrohydraulic regulation system (EHRS) of NPP turbines, designed to control the turbine in start-up and working conditions, have been decribed. In start-up regimes EHRS ensures the testing of control valves of the turbine, the turn of the turbine from zero to the nominal rotation frequency (automatic, semiautomatic and manual regulation), turbine acceleration to test safety automatic systems, gradual change in rotation frequency during generator synchronization with circuit. Under working conditions EHRS ensures the maintenance of frequency, power and vapour pressure before the turbine. A block diagram of EHRS is presented. Sensors and electronic part of EHRS are supplied with triple reservation, which ensures a high relaibility of the system

  8. Turbine and its turbine control system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongwei; Zhu Jinping

    1996-01-01

    The simulation for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit turbine and turbine control system is briefly introduced. The simulation system includes lube oil system, jacking oil pump system, turning gear system, turbine supervisor system and turbine control system. It not only correctly simulates the process of turbine normal start up, operation, and shut down, but also the response of turbine under the malfunction conditions

  9. Performance and life time test on a 5 kW SOFC system for distributed cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Rosa; De Biase, Sabrina; Ginocchio, Stefano [Edison S.p.A, Via Giorgio La Pira, 2, 10028 Trofarello (Italy); Bedogni, Stefano; Montelatici, Lorenzo [Edison S.p.A, Foro Bonaparte 31, 20121 Milano (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Edison R and D Centre is committed to test a wide range of commercial and prototypal fuel cell systems. The activities aim to evaluate the available state of the art of these technologies and their maturity for the relevant market. The laboratory is equipped with ad hoc test benches designed to study single cells, stacks and systems. The characterization of commercial and new generation PEMFC, also for high temperatures (160 C), together with the analysis of the behaviour of SOFC represent the core activities of the laboratory. On January 2007 a new 5 kW SOFC system supplied by Acumentrics was installed. The claimed electrical power output is 5 kW and thermal power is 3 kW. The aim of the test is the achievement of technical and economical assessment for future applications of small SOFC plants for distributed cogeneration. Performance and life time test of the system are shown. (author)

  10. A New Cogeneration Residential System Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system and heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... which is a function of the electricity and heat demand of the user, and allows different operation strategies to be considered. The proposal is to maximize the efficiency of the system and to make it profitable, even though technologies with a high purchase cost are considered. Simulations of the system...... are performed under different strategies at a resort located in a northern European climate (Denmark) to cover electricity, space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands. The results of these simulations are analyzed with thermodynamic and techno-economic benchmarks, considering different economic...

  11. Operational analysis of a small-capacity cogeneration system with a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kikuchi, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Kyosuke; Kawai, Masahito; Kashiwaya, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    In a cold region during winter, energy demand for residential heating is high and energy saving, the discharge of greenhouse gases, and air pollution are all of significant concern. We investigated the fundamental characteristics of an energy storage system with a GHB (gas hydrate battery) in which heat cycle by a unique change in state of gas hydrate operates using the low-temperature ambient air of a cold region. The proposed system with the GHB can respond to a high heat to power ratio caused by a small-scale CGS (cogeneration system) that is powered by a gas engine, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, or a solid oxide fuel cell. In this paper, we explain how the relation between fossil fuel consumption and heat to power ratio of the different types of systems differ. We investigated the proposed system by laboratory experiments and analysis of the characteristics of power load and heat load of such a system in operation in Kitami, a cold district in Japan. If a hydrate formation space of 2 m 3 is introduced into the proposed system, 48%–52% (namely, power rate by green energy) of total electric power consumption is supplied by the GHB. - Highlights: • Heat cycle by unique change in state of gas hydrate was developed. • Characteristics of energy storage equipment using CO 2 hydrate were investigated. • Hybrid system of small-scale cogeneration and gas hydrate heat cycle was examined. • Proposed system can reduce fuel consumption during winter in a cold region

  12. Cogeneration technologies, optimisation and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Frangopoulos, Christos A

    2017-01-01

    Cogeneration refers to the use of a power station to deliver two or more useful forms of energy, for example, to generate electricity and heat at the same time. This book provides an integrated treatment of cogeneration, including a tour of the available technologies and their features, and how these systems can be analysed and optimised.

  13. Stepping on the gas for district heating in Germany. Gas and steam turbines for cogeneration; Gas geben fuer Fernwaerme in Deutschland. Gas- und Dampfturbinen fuer die KWK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohtz, Christian [Alstom Power, Baden (Switzerland). Marketing and Product Management Gas Business

    2011-07-15

    Measured by its intensive efforts to lower CO{sub 2} emissions Germany is one of the leading countries in the EU. One contribution to this end is to be had from cogeneration. As a provider of cogeneration plants Alstom is working to improve the fuel efficiency as well as the overall efficiency and flexibility of its products. The author explains the technology of gas-fired cogeneration plants and gives three examples of their use.

  14. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  15. Energetic analysis of a novel vehicle power and cooling/heating cogeneration energy system using cascade cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Chen; Han, Dong; Pu, Wenhao; He, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes and investigates a novel VCES (Vehicle power and cooling/heating Cogeneration Energy System), including a topping vehicle engine subsystem, and a bottoming waste-heat recovery subsystem which uses the zeotropic working fluid. The various grade exhaust and coolant waste-heat of the topping subsystem are cascade recovered by the bottoming subsystem, and slide-temperature thermal match in waste heat recovery heat exchangers and the condenser is considered also, obtaining power output and cooling/heating capacity. Based on the experimental data from an actual vehicle's energy demands and its waste-heat characteristics, the proposed VCES (vehicle cogeneration energy system) model is built and verified. Using ammonia-water as working fluid of the bottoming subsystem, integrated thermodynamic performances of the VCES are discussed through introducing three variables: an ambient temperature, the vehicle's velocity and the number of seated occupants. The influence of above three variables on the proposed VCES′ overall thermodynamic performance is analyzed by comparing it to a conventional VCES, and suitable operation conditions are recommended under cooling and heating conditions. - Highlights: • A novel vehicle cogeneration energy system is proposed. • Slide-temperature thermal match at two levels are considered. • Integration of the topping vehicle engine and bottoming waste heat recovery cycle is designed. • The cogeneration system model is built and verified based on experimental data. • Energy-saving potential of the proposed system is investigated

  16. Decision making based on data analysis and optimization algorithm applied for cogeneration systems integration into a grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Joseph Al; Lahoud, Chawki; Brouche, Marwan

    2018-05-01

    Cogeneration and trigeneration systems can contribute to the reduction of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in residential and tertiary sectors, by reducing fossil fuels demand and grid losses with respect to conventional systems. The cogeneration systems are characterized by a very high energy efficiency (80 to 90%) as well as a less polluting aspect compared to the conventional energy production. The integration of these systems into the energy network must simultaneously take into account their economic and environmental challenges. In this paper, a decision-making strategy will be introduced and is divided into two parts. The first one is a strategy based on a multi-objective optimization tool with data analysis and the second part is based on an optimization algorithm. The power dispatching of the Lebanese electricity grid is then simulated and considered as a case study in order to prove the compatibility of the cogeneration power calculated by our decision-making technique. In addition, the thermal energy produced by the cogeneration systems which capacity is selected by our technique shows compatibility with the thermal demand for district heating.

  17. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  18. Performance analysis of a co-generation system using solar energy and SOFC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akikur, R.K.; Saidur, R.; Ping, H.W.; Ullah, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept of a cogeneration system is proposed and investigated. • The system comprises solar collector, PV, SOFC and heat exchanger. • 83.6% Power and heat generation efficiency has been found at fuel cell mode. • 85.1% Efficiency of SOSE has been found at H2 production mode. • The heat to power ratio of SOFC mode has been found about 0.917. - Abstract: Due to the increasing future energy demands and global warming, the renewable alternative energy sources and the efficient power systems have been getting importance over the last few decades. Among the renewable energy technologies, the solar energy coupling with fuel cell technology will be the promising possibilities for the future green energy solutions. Fuel cell cogeneration is an auspicious technology that can potentially reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact associated with serving building electrical and thermal demands. In this study, performance assessment of a co-generation system is presented to deliver electrical and thermal energy using the solar energy and the reversible solid oxide fuel cell. A mathematical model of the co-generation system is developed. To illustrate the performance, the system is considered in three operation modes: a solar-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) mode, which is low solar radiation time when the solar photovoltaic (PV) and SOFC are used for electric and heat load supply; a solar-solid oxide steam electrolyzer (SOSE) mode, which is high solar radiation time when PV is used for power supply to the electrical load and to the steam electrolyzer to generate hydrogen (H 2 ); and a SOFC mode, which is the power and heat generation mode of reversible SOFC using the storage H 2 at night time. Also the effects of solar radiation on the system performances and the effects of temperature on RSOFC are analyzed. In this study, 100 kW electric loads are considered and analyzed for the power and heat generation in those three modes to evaluate

  19. EFFECTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF CO-GENERATION IN THE DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM OF THE FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN NIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen M Stojiljković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of co-generation of thermal and electrical energy in district heating systems often results with higher overall energy efficiency of the systems, primary energy savings and environmental benefits. Financial results depend on number of parameters, some of which are very difficult to predict. After introduction of feed-in tariffs for generation of electrical energy in Serbia, better conditions for implementation of co-generation are created, although in district heating systems barriers are still present. In this paper, possibilities and effects of implementation of natural gas fired co-generation engines are examined and presented for the boiler house that is a part of the district heating system owned and operated by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Niš. At the moment, in this boiler house only thermal energy is produced. The boilers are natural gas fired and often operate in low part load regimes. The plant is working only during the heating season. For estimation of effects of implementation of co-generation, referent values are taken from literature or are based on the results of measurements performed on site. Results are presented in the form of primary energy savings and greenhouse gasses emission reduction potentials. Financial aspects are also considered and triangle of costs is shown.

  20. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  1. Cogeneration at FIAT AVIO (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantoni, A.

    1991-01-01

    Brief notes are provided on the FIAT (Italy) - Foster Wheeler joint venture to equip about 20 FIAT manufacturing plants with 50 MW(e) combined cycle cogeneration plants which will make use of a gas turbine whose design is based on that of the successful General Electric aeronautic LM 6000 engine. The paper also discusses solutions, e.g., wet and dry methods, being considered for nitrogen ox des control, and cites the need in Italy for the optimization of Government licensing procedures for small and medium sized manufacturing firms opting for on-site power generation through cogeneration plants

  2. Analysis and assessment of a new organic Rankine based heat engine system with/without cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogerwaard, Janette; Dincer, Ibrahim; Zamfirescu, Calin

    2013-01-01

    A low-temperature heat driven heat engine is proposed as a cost-effective system for power and heat production for small scale applications. The external heat source allows flexibility in the design; the system may be coupled with various available renewable sources including biomass/biofuel/biogas combustion, geothermal heat, concentrated solar radiation, and industrial waste heat, by selecting appropriate off-the-shelf components from the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), refrigeration, and automotive industries for use in an ORC (organic Rankine cycle). A theoretical analysis and an experimental study are carried out for an ORC with R134a as the working fluid, utilizing a low-temperature heat source (T source < 150 °C), with focus on the expansion and boiling processes. The complete ORC model is comprised of models for the expander, working fluid pump, boiler, and condenser. Thermodynamic and heat transfer models are developed to calculate the local and averaged heat transfer coefficient of the working fluid throughout the boiling process, based on the geometry of the selected heat exchanger. Data collected for the experimental ORC test bench are used to validate the expander and boiler models. A case study is performed for the proposed ORC, for cogeneration of power and heat in a residential application. The results of the case study analysis for the proposed ORC system indicate a cycle efficiency of 0.05, exergy efficiency of 0.17, and energy and exergy cogeneration efficiency of 0.87, and 0.35, respectively. - Highlights: • Development and investigation of a scroll based Rankine heat engine operating with R134a. • Thermodynamic analyses of the system and its components. • Heat transfer analyses of boiler and condenser. • Dynamic analysis of expander. • Model validation through performed experiments on an ORC test bench

  3. The cogeneration and small power production manual. 3rd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This book is divided into six sections covering regulations, environmental issues, engineering, contract, financing, and taxes. The edition adds a comprehensive 80-page chapter outlining how to prepare for electric power shortages, including details on rate structure, tariff negotiation, contract-based rates, partial requirement service, supplementary, backup, and interruptible rates, and retail sale of electric power. The engineering section covers optimum cogeneration system design, operational considerations, and energy efficiency. Combustion turbines, diesel engines, gas engines, rotary engines, steam turbines, and electric generators are covered in detail

  4. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  5. EXERGETIC ANALYSIS OF A COGENERATION POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Manuel Nuñez Bosch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration power plants connected to industrial processes have a direct impact on the overall efficiency of the plant and therefore on the economic results. Any modification to the thermal outline of these plants must first include an exergetic analysis to compare the benefits it can bring the new proposal. This research is performed to a cogeneration plant in operation with an installed electrical capacity of 24 MW and process heat demand of 190 MW, it shows a study made from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Exergetic evaluation of each component of the plant was applied and similarly modified cogeneration scheme was evaluated. The results illustrate that the exergy losses and irreversibilities are completely different from one subsystem to another. In general, the total exergy destruction represented 70,7% from the primary fuel exergy. Steam generator was the subsystem with the highest irreversibility of the plant with 54%. It was demonstrated that the increase of the steam parameters lead to reduce exergy destruction and exergy efficiency elevation. The suppression of the reduction system and the adding of an extraction-condensing steam turbine produce the same effect and contribute to drop off the electrical consumption from the grid.

  6. Increased system benefit from cogeneration due to cooperation between district heating utility and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danestig, M.; Henning, D. [Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoping Institute of Technology, Linkoping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    District heating and steam supply in the town Oernskoeldsvik in northern Sweden is in focus for this study. Low temperature waste heat from pulp manufacturing in the Donisjoe mill is now utilised for district heating production in heat pumps, which dominate district heating supply. Based on this traditional cooperation between the local district heating utility and the pulp industry, the parties discuss a partial outsourcing of the industrial steam supply to the utility, which may enable beneficial system solutions for both actors. The local utility must find a new location for a heating plant because a railway line is being built at the heat pump site. Planning for a new combined heat and power production (CHP) plant has started but its location is uncertain. If the plant can be situated close to the mill it can, besides district heating, produce steam, which can be supplied to adjacent industries. The municipality and its local utility are also considering investing in a waste incineration plant. But is waste incineration suitable for Ornskoeldsvik and how would it interact with cogeneration. Alternative cases have been evaluated with the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which minimises the cost for satisfying district heating and steam demand. The most profitable solution is to invest in a CHP plant and a waste incineration plant. Considering carbon dioxide emissions, the results from applying a local or a global perspective are remarkably different. In the latter case, generated electricity is assumed to replace power from coal condensing plants elsewhere in the North-European power grid. Therefore, minimum global CO{sub 2} emissions are achieved through maximal electricity production in a CHP plant. From this viewpoint, waste incineration should not be introduced because it would obstruct cogeneration. The study is carried out within the program Sustainable municipality run by the Swedish Energy Agency. (orig.)

  7. Mobile measurement system for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemoes Moeller, T.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this project `Udviklingsafproevning af smaa moellevinger` has been to develop a mobile measurement system for wind turbines. The following report describes the measurement system. The project has been financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. (au)

  8. Thermodynamic effects when utilizing waste heat from condensation in cases of a reduced vacuum in steam turbine plants of thermal power stations, to provide heat at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljevic, N.; Savic, B.; Stojakovic, M.

    1986-01-01

    There is an interesting variant of cogeneration in the steam turbine system of a thermal power plant, i.e. the utilisation of the waste heat of condensation with a reduced vacuum without reconstruction of the thermal power plant. The thermodynamic effect in cogeneration was calculated in consideration of the dynamics of heat consumption. This cogeneration process has the advantage of saving primary energy without reconstruction of the thermal power plant.

  9. On System Identification of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, B.J.

    Recently several methods have been proposed for the system identification of wind turbines which can be considered as a linear time-varying system due to the operating conditions. For the identification of linear wind turbine models, either black-box or grey-box identification can be used....... The operational model analysis (OMA) methodology can provide accurate estimates of the natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the systems as long as the measurements have a low noise to signal ratio. However, in order to take information about the wind turbine into account a grey...

  10. Micro gas turbines: An advanced technology for cogeneration in small- and medium-sized companies; Mikro-Gasturbinen: Eine neue Technologie zur Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvy, C.; Kuperjans, I. [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Micro gas turbines are a new technology for cogeneration with capacities of less than 300 kW{sub el}. Owing to the high heat level of up to 650 degrees centigrade, this is a promising technology for small and medium-sized industrial organisations who need process heat and have a low electric base load power consumption. A potential is viewed especially in process steam production and in direct drying. However, as the economic efficiency depends on the process boundary conditions, the project comprised the development of calculation tables to support the decision finding process. (orig.)

  11. Modeling and optimization of a utility system containing multiple extractions steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping

    2011-01-01

    Complex turbines with multiple controlled and/or uncontrolled extractions are popularly used in the processing industry and cogeneration plants to provide steam of different levels, electric power, and driving power. To characterize thermodynamic behavior under varying conditions, nonlinear mathematical models are developed based on energy balance, thermodynamic principles, and semi-empirical equations. First, the complex turbine is decomposed into several simple turbines from the controlled extraction stages and modeled in series. THM (The turbine hardware model) developing concept is applied to predict the isentropic efficiency of the decomposed simple turbines. Stodola's formulation is also used to simulate the uncontrolled extraction steam parameters. The thermodynamic properties of steam and water are regressed through linearization or piece-wise linearization. Second, comparison between the simulated results using the proposed model and the data in the working condition diagram provided by the manufacturer is conducted over a wide range of operations. The simulation results yield small deviation from the data in the working condition diagram where the maximum modeling error is 0.87% among the compared seven operation conditions. Last, the optimization model of a utility system containing multiple extraction turbines is established and a detailed case is analyzed. Compared with the conventional operation strategy, a maximum of 5.47% of the total operation cost is saved using the proposed optimization model. -- Highlights: → We develop a complete simulation model for steam turbine with multiple extractions. → We test the simulation model using the performance data of commercial turbines. → The simulation error of electric power generation is no more than 0.87%. → We establish a utility system operational optimization model. → The optimal industrial operation scheme featured with 5.47% of cost saving.

  12. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  13. Diagnosis of wind turbine rotor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2016-01-01

    is based on available standard sensors on wind turbines. The method can be used both on-line as well as off-line. Faults or changes in the rotor system will result in asymmetries, which can be monitored and diagnosed. This can be done by using the multi-blade coordinate transformation. Changes in the rotor......This paper describes a model free method for monitoring and fault diagnosis of the elements in a rotor system for a wind turbine. The diagnosis as well as the monitoring is done without using any model of the wind turbine and the applied controller or a description of the wind profile. The method...

  14. HTTR demonstration program for nuclear cogeneration of hydrogen and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Junya; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, Xing L.; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency initiated a High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) demonstration program in accordance with recommendations of a task force established by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology according to the Strategic Energy Plan as of April 2014. The demonstration program is designed to complete helium gas turbine and hydrogen production system technologies aiming at commercial plant deployment in 2030s. The program begins with coupling a helium gas turbine in the secondary loop of the HTTR and expands by adding the H 2 plant to a tertiary loop to enable hydrogen cogeneration. Safety standards for coupling the helium gas turbine and H 2 plant to the nuclear reactor will be established through safety review in licensing. A system design and its control method are planned to be validated with a series of test operations using the HTTR-GT/H 2 plant. This paper explains the outline of HTTR demonstration program with a plant concept of the heat application system directed at establishing an HTGR cogeneration system with 950°C reactor outlet temperature for production of power and hydrogen as recommended by the task force. Commercial deployment strategy including a development plan for the helium gas turbine is also presented. (author)

  15. Proceedings: Small Wind Turbine Systems, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Small wind turbine technology is discussed. Systems development, test programs, utility interface issues, safety and reliability programs, applications, and marketing are discussed. For individual titles, see N83-23723 through N83-23741.

  16. Efficient, Low Cost Dish Concentrator for a CPV Based Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayet, Haim; Kost, Ori; Moran, Rani; Lozovsky, Ilan

    2011-12-01

    Zenith Solar Ltd has developed efficient electricity and heat co-generation system based on segmented-parabolic dish of total aperture area of 11 m2 and water cooled dense array module combined of triple junction cells. Conventional parabolic dishes are inherently inefficient in the sense that the radiant flux distribution is non uniform causing inefficient generation by the PV array. Secondary optics improves uniformity but introduces additional complexity and losses to the system. Zenith's dish is assembled of 1200 flat mirrors of approximately 100 cm2 each. Every mirror facet has a unique shape such that the geometrical projection from each mirror on the focal plane is essentially the same. When perfectly aligned, the projected radiation from all mirrors overlaps uniformly on the PV surface. The low cost construction of the dish utilizes plastic mount supported by a precise metal frame. The precision of the metal frame affects the overall optical efficiency of the mirror and hence the efficiency of the system. State of the art dish of 11 m2 active aperture results in output of 2.25 kWp (900 W/m2) electrical and 5 kWp thermal power from one dish system representing 21% electrical and 50% thermal conversion efficiency adding to 71% overall system efficiency.

  17. HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN COGENERATION UNITS: STUDY OF PRELIMINARY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Caprara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in the mechanization of farm activities, the rise in fuel prices and the environmental aspects concerning gas emissions are the main driving forces behind efforts toward more effective use of renewable energy sources and cogeneration systems even in agricultural and cattle farms. Nevertheless these systems are still not very suitable for this purpose because of their little flexibility in following the changing energy demand as opposed to the extremely various farm load curves, both in daytime and during the year. In heat recovery systems, the available thermal energy supply is always linked to power production, thus it does not usually coincide in time with the heat demand. Hence some form of thermal energy storage (TES is necessary in order to reach the most effective utilization of the energy source. This study deals with the modelling of a packed bed latent heat TES unit, integrating a cogeneration system made up of a reciprocating engine. The TES unit contains phase change materials (PCMs filled in spherical capsules, which are packed in an insulated cylindrical storage tank. Water is used as heat transfer fluid (HTF to transfer heat from the tank to the final uses, and exhausts from the engine are used as thermal source. PCMs are considered especially for their large heat storage capacity and their isothermal behaviour during the phase change processes. Despite their high energy storage density, most of them have an unacceptably low thermal conductivity, hence PCMs encapsulation technique is adopted in order to improve heat transfer. The special modular configuration of heat exchange tubes and the possibility of changing water flow through them allow to obtain the right amount of thermal energy from the tank, according to the hourly demand of the day. The model permits to choose the electrical load of the engine, the dimensions of the tank and the spheres, thickness and diameter of heat exchanger and the nature of

  18. Assessing and optimizing the economic and environmental impacts of cogeneration/district energy systems using an energy equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.J.; Rosen, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Energy equilibrium models can be valuable aids in energy planning and decision-making. In such models, supply is represented by a cost-minimizing linear submodel and demand by a smooth vector-valued function of prices. In this paper, we use the energy equilibrium model to study conventional systems and cogeneration-based district energy (DE) systems for providing heating, cooling and electrical services, not only to assess the potential economic and environmental benefits of cogeneration-based DE systems, but also to develop optimal configurations while accounting for such factors as economics and environmental impact. The energy equilibrium model is formulated and solved with software called WATEMS, which uses sequential non-linear programming to calculate the intertemporal equilibrium of energy supplies and demands. The methods of analysis and evaluation for the economic and environmental impacts are carefully explored. An illustrative energy equilibrium model of conventional and cogeneration-based DE systems is developed within WATEMS to compare quantitatively the economic and environmental impacts of those systems for various scenarios. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Comparative Study of Electric Energy Storages and Thermal Energy Auxiliaries for Improving Wind Power Integration in the Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In regards to the cogeneration system in Northern China, mainly supported by combined heat and power (CHP plants, it usually offers limited operation flexibility due to the joint production of electric and thermal power. For that large-scale wind farms included in the cogeneration system, a large amount of wind energy may have to be wasted. To solve this issue, the utilization of the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries are recommended, including pumped hydro storage (PHS, compressed air energy storage (CAES, hydrogen-based energy storage (HES, heat storage (HS, electric boilers (EB, and heat pumps (HP. This paper proposes a general evaluation method to compare the performance of these six different approaches for promoting wind power integration. In consideration of saving coal consumption, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing investment cost, the comprehensive benefit is defined as the evaluation index. Specifically, a wind-thermal conflicting expression (WTCE is put forward to simplify the formulation of the comprehensive benefit. Further, according to the cogeneration system of the West Inner Mongolia (WIM power grid, a test system is modelled to perform the comparison of the six different approaches. The results show that introducing the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries can both contribute to facilitating wind power integration, and the HP can provide the best comprehensive benefit.

  20. AGT101 automotive gas turbine system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The AGT101 automotive gas turbine system consisting of a 74.6 kw regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine, is presented. The development and testing of the system is reviewed, and results for aerothermodynamic components indicate that compressor and turbine performance levels are within one percent of projected levels. Ceramic turbine rotor development is encouraging with successful cold spin testing of simulated rotors to speeds over 12,043 rad/sec. Spin test results demonstrate that ceramic materials having the required strength levels can be fabricated by net shape techniques to the thick hub cross section, which verifies the feasibility of the single-stage radial rotor in single-shaft engines.

  1. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  2. Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrascu, Roxana; Athanasovici, Victor; Raducanu, Cristian; Minciuc, Eduard; Bitir-Istrate, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental

  3. Control system for NPP powerfull turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, V.D.; Rozhanskij, V.E.; Rokhlenko, V.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for NPP 1000 MW turbines safety is described. The turbine safety system has a hydraulic drive to actuate in case of increasipg of rotational speed of a turbine rotor and an electrohydraulic drce to operate in case of pressure reduction in the lubrication system, axial displacement deviation, etc. The system is highly reliable due to application of a safety system without slide valves and long-term operation of hydraulic controls in guarding conditions; the system epsures multifunctional control with high accuracy and speed due to application of the intricate electronic part, high speed of response with a limited use of high pressure oil due to application of two-pressure pumps, pneumohydraulic accumulators and oil discharge valves. Steady-state serviceability of the system is maintained by devices for valve cooling dawn. A shockless change from electrohydraulic to hydraulic control channels is provided

  4. ASPEN simulation of cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligang Zheng [CANMET Energy Technology Center, Natural Resources Canada, Nepean, ONT (Canada); Furimsky, E. [IMAG Group, Ottawa, ONT (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A detailed flow sheet of the combined cycle cogeneration plant fuelled by natural gas was prepared. The model for simulation of this plant was developed using the ASPEN PLUS software. The results generated using this model were compared with the operating data of the commercial plant generating about 43.6 MW of electricity by gas turbine and 28.6 MW of electricity by steam turbine. The electricity is supplied to the grid, whereas the low pressure steam is utilised locally for heating purposes. The key data generated using the ASPEN model are in good agreement with the operating data. (author)

  5. ASPEN simulation of cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ligang E-mail: lzheng@nrcan.gc.ca; Furimsky, Edward

    2003-07-01

    A detailed flow sheet of the combined cycle cogeneration plant fuelled by natural gas was prepared. The model for simulation of this plant was developed using the ASPEN PLUS software. The results generated using this model were compared with the operating data of the commercial plant generating about 43.6 MW of electricity by gas turbine and 28.6 MW of electricity by steam turbine. The electricity is supplied to the grid, whereas the low pressure steam is utilised locally for heating purposes. The key data generated using the ASPEN model are in good agreement with the operating data.

  6. ASPEN simulation of cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ligang; Furimsky, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A detailed flow sheet of the combined cycle cogeneration plant fuelled by natural gas was prepared. The model for simulation of this plant was developed using the ASPEN PLUS software. The results generated using this model were compared with the operating data of the commercial plant generating about 43.6 MW of electricity by gas turbine and 28.6 MW of electricity by steam turbine. The electricity is supplied to the grid, whereas the low pressure steam is utilised locally for heating purposes. The key data generated using the ASPEN model are in good agreement with the operating data

  7. Overview of Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, H. A.; Bajura, R. A.

    The US Department of Energy initiated a program to develop advanced gas turbine systems to serve both central power and industrial power generation markets. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will lead to commercial offerings by the private sector by 2002. ATS will be developed to fire natural gas but will be adaptable to coal and biomass firing. The systems will be: highly efficient (15 percent improvement over today's best systems); environmentally superior (10 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides over today's best systems); and cost competitive (10 percent reduction in cost of electricity). The ATS Program has five elements. Innovative cycle development will lead to the demonstration of systems with advanced gas turbine cycles using current gas turbine technology. High temperature development will lead to the increased firing temperatures needed to achieve ATS Program efficiency goals. Ceramic component development/demonstration will expand the current DOE/CE program to demonstrate industrial-scale turbines with ceramic components. Technology base will support the overall program by conducting research and development (R&D) on generic technology issues. Coal application studies will adapt technology developed in the ATS program to coal-fired systems being developed in other DOE programs.

  8. Report on survey for environment harmonizing type energy community project for Chubu International Airport. District heat supply facilities using large-scale cogeneration systems; Chubu kokusai kuko kankyo chowagata energy community jigyo chosa hokokusho. Daikibo cogeneration chiiki netsu kyokyu shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The Chubu International Airport is positioned as a hub airport scheduled to start its use in the early part of the 21st century, to which introduction of large-scale cogeneration systems was discussed. Structuring an energy supply system conscious of the 21st century is intended, that is friendly to the environment, is attached with importance on the economy, and has high reliability and safety. The systems have cogeneration capacity from 4,500 to 6,000 kW, and utilize high-pressure waste heat from the cogeneration system as the heat source. The system uses the high pressure waste heat, stored heat, and gas at the same time to achieve high economic performance brought about by heat storage and the best energy source mix, while attempting cascade utilization of the heat. Considerations were given to suppress the environmental and energy load on the district as low as possible for the coexistence with the district, and to build framework and coordination to return the merits to the district. Subsidy introduction also has a great effect to assure the economic performance. The optimal specific construction of the system was found in combining the utilization of energy generated from temperature difference in sea water as a heat source system, the topping system utilizing the high pressure waste heat available in the system, high-efficiency heat pumps, and the heat storing system utilizing electric power available at late night. (NEDO)

  9. A decision support assessment of cogeneration plant for a community energy system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Mo; Park, Chuhwan; Lee, Sukgyu; Park, Hwa-Choon; Im, Yong-Hoon; Chang, Youngho

    2012-01-01

    We have undertaken a case study of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant applied to a mixture of buildings comprising residential premises, offices, hospitals, stores, and schools in Korea. We proposed five Plans for grouping buildings in the complex and estimated the annual 8760-hourly demands for electricity, cooling, heating, and hot water. For each Plan, we built about ten Scenarios for system construction. Then, we simulated the operation of the system to find the fuel consumption, electricity purchase, and heat recovery. Applying the local rates to the amounts of fuel and electricity, we estimated the operating costs. Combining the operating cost with the initial cost associated with the purchase and construction of the system, we calculated the payback periods for the scenarios. We found that the payback period can be as short as two years for smartly grouped buildings with a generator capacity of around 50% of the peak electricity demand. A progressive electricity rate that applies only to residential premises currently plays a key role in the economic merits. We recommend extending a sound progressive system to other types of building in Korea to promote distributed power production and enhance energy saving practices in general. - Highlights: ►We case-studied cogeneration plants for a residential complex in Korea. ►We estimated the annual 8760-hourly demands for electricity, heating, and cooling. ► We simulated the operation of CHP and estimated the fuel and electricity costs. ► We found payback periods that were shorter than two years for well-planned systems. ► A progressive electricity tariff plays a key role in the economic merits.

  10. Improving the Efficiency of a Nucler Power Plant Using a Thermoelectric Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Terzi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiencies of nuclear power plants are rather poor having the ratio %30 by using the conventional energy/exergy tools. According to that information, large amount of energy is wasted during condensation and thrown out to the environment. Thermoelectric generator (TEG system has a potential to be used as a heat exchanging technology to produce power with a relatively low efficiency (about 5% and it can transform the temperature difference into electricity and generate clean electrical energy. In the present study, we offer a novel system to recover the waste heat from a VVER-1000 nuclear power plant. The heat transfer of the TEG is analyzed numerically with respect to the various temperature ranges and constant mass flow rate of the exhaust steam entering the system. In the analyses, different hot temperature ranges (35ºC, 45ºC and 55ºC and a constant cold temperature (i.e. 18ºC are used for a HZ-20 thermoelectric module and it has been proven that the designed TEG can produce the maximum output power of 76,956 MW for a temperature difference ∆T=37 and the conversion efficiency of 3,854% sits. The TEG is designed for the condenser of a 1000 MW nuclear power plant. It's shown that about 2,0% increasing in the power plant efficiency is expected by using the selected thermoelectric generator in the condensation cycle. Article History: Received: July 15th 2017; Received:  October 17th 2017; Accepted: February 13rd 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Terzi, R. and Kurt, E. (2018, Improving the efficiency of a nuclear power plant using a thermoelectric cogeneration system, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 77-84. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.77-84

  11. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  12. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial congeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period was studied. Six current and thirty-one advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance-of-plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on-site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Overall, fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal-derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on-site gasification systems.

  13. Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uday Kumar, N.T.; Mohan, Gowtham; Martin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar driven cogeneration system integrating membrane distillation technology is developed. • System utilizes solar thermal energy for the operations without auxiliary heaters. • Three different system integrations are experimentally investigated in UAE. • Economical benefits of solar cogeneration system is also reported. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal cogeneration system featuring the provision of potable water with membrane distillation in combination with domestic hot water supply has been developed and experimentally analyzed. The system integrates evacuated tube collectors, thermal storage, membrane distillation unit, and heat exchangers with the overall goals of maximizing the two outputs while minimizing costs for the given design conditions. Experiments were conducted during one month’s operation at AURAK’s facility in UAE, with average peak global irradiation levels of 650 W/m"2. System performance was determined for three integration strategies, all utilizing brackish water (typical conductivity of 20,000 μs/cm) as a feedstock: Thermal store integration (TSI), which resembles a conventional indirect solar domestic hot water system; Direct solar integration (DSI) connecting collectors directly to the membrane distillation unit without thermal storage; and Direct solar with thermal store integration (DSTSI), a combination of these two approaches. The DSTSI strategy offered the best performance given its operational flexibility. Here the maximum distillate productivity was 43 L/day for a total gross solar collector area of 96 m"2. In terms of simultaneous hot water production, 277 kWh/day was achieved with this configuration. An economic analysis shows that the DSTSI strategy has a payback period of 3.9 years with net cumulative savings of $325,000 during the 20 year system lifetime.

  14. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and

  15. Integrated and visual performance evaluation model for thermal systems and its application to an HTGR cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhang; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ishii, Hirotake; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    An integrated and visual model EXCEM-MFM (EXergy, Cost, Energy and Mass - Multilevel Flow Model) has been proposed in this study to comprehensively analyze and evaluate the performances of thermal systems by coupling two models: EXCEM model and MFM. In the EXCEM-MFM model, MFM is used to provide analysis frameworks for exergy, cost, energy and mass four parameters, and EXCEM is used to calculate the flow values of these four parameters for MFM based on the provided framework. In this study, we used the tools and technologies of computer science and software engineering to materialize the model. Moreover, the feasibility and application potential of this proposed EXCEM-MFM model has been demonstrated by the example application of a comprehensive performance study of a typical High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) cogeneration system by taking into account the thermodynamic and economic perspectives. (author)

  16. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  17. Thermo-economic analysis of a micro-cogeneration system based on a rotary steam engine (RSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanne, Kari; Saari, Kari; Kuosa, Maunu; Jokisalo, Juha; Martin, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    A rotary steam engine (RSE) is a simple, small, quiet and lubricant-free option for micro-cogeneration. It is capable of exploiting versatile thermal sources and steam temperatures of 150–180 °C, which allow operational pressures less than 10 bar for electrical power ranges of 1–20 kW e . An RSE can be easily integrated in commercially available biomass-fired household boilers. In this paper, we characterize the boiler-integrated RSE micro-cogeneration system and specify a two-control-volume thermodynamic model to conduct performance analyses in residential applications. Our computational analysis suggests that an RSE integrated with a 17 kW th pellet-fueled boiler can obtain an electrical output of 1.925 kW e, in the design temperature of 150 °C, the electrical efficiency being 9% (based on the lower heating value of the fuel, LHV) and the thermal efficiency 77% (LHV). In a single-family house in Finland, the above system would operate up to 1274 h/y, meeting 31% of the house's electrical demand. The amount of electricity delivered into the grid is 989 kW h/y. An economic analysis suggests that incremental costs not exceeding € 1500 are justifiable at payback periods less than five years, when compared to standard boilers. - Highlights: ► We characterize and model a micro-cogeneration system based on a rotary steam engine. ► We assess the performance of the above system in a residential building in Finland. ► The above system is capable of meeting 31% of the building's annual electrical demand. ► The above system may cost at most € 1500 more than a standard boiler system.

  18. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2003-10-01

    Rolls-Royce Corporation has completed a cooperative agreement under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FC21-96MC33066 in support of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program to stimulate industrial power generation markets. This DOE contract was performed during the period of October 1995 to December 2002. This final technical report, which is a program deliverable, describes all associated results obtained during Phases 3A and 3B of the contract. Rolls-Royce Corporation (formerly Allison Engine Company) initially focused on the design and development of a 10-megawatt (MW) high-efficiency industrial gas turbine engine/package concept (termed the 701-K) to meet the specific goals of the ATS program, which included single digit NOx emissions, increased plant efficiency, fuel flexibility, and reduced cost of power (i.e., $/kW). While a detailed design effort and associated component development were successfully accomplished for the 701-K engine, capable of achieving the stated ATS program goals, in 1999 Rolls-Royce changed its focus to developing advanced component technologies for product insertion that would modernize the current fleet of 501-K and 601-K industrial gas turbines. This effort would also help to establish commercial venues for suppliers and designers and assist in involving future advanced technologies in the field of gas turbine engine development. This strategy change was partly driven by the market requirements that suggested a low demand for a 10-MW aeroderivative industrial gas turbine, a change in corporate strategy for aeroderivative gas turbine engine development initiatives, and a consensus that a better return on investment (ROI) could be achieved under the ATS contract by focusing on product improvements and technology insertion for the existing Rolls-Royce small engine industrial gas turbine fleet.

  19. Cogeneration based on gasified biomass - a comparison of concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Fredrik

    1999-01-01

    In this report, integration of drying and gasification of biomass into cogeneration power plants, comprising gas turbines, is investigated. The thermodynamic cycles considered are the combined cycle and the humid air turbine cycle. These are combined with either pressurised or near atmospheric gasification, and steam or exhaust gas dryer, in a number of combinations. An effort is made to facilitate a comparison of the different concepts by using, and presenting, similar assumptions and input data for all studied systems. The resulting systems are modelled using the software package ASPEN PLUS{sup TM}, and for each system both the electrical efficiency and the fuel utilisation are calculated. The investigation of integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC), reveals that systems with pressurised gasification have a potential for electrical efficiencies approaching 45% (LHV). That is 4 - 5 percentage points higher than the corresponding systems with near atmospheric gasification. The type of dryer in the system mainly influences the fuel utilisation, with an advantage of approximately 8 percentage points (LHV) for the steam dryer. The resulting values of fuel utilisation for the IGCC systems are in the range of 78 - 94% (LHV). The results for the integrated gasification humid air turbine systems (IGHAT) indicate that electrical efficiencies close to the IGCC are achievable, provided combustion of the fuel gas in highly humidified air is feasible. Reaching a high fuel utilisation is more difficult for this concept, unless the temperature levels in the district heating network are low. For comparison a conventional cogeneration plant, based on a CFB boiler and a steam turbine (Rankine cycle), is also modelled in ASPEN PLUS{sup TM}. The IGCC and IGHAT show electrical efficiencies in the range of 37 - 45% (LHV), compared with a calculated value of 31% (LHV) for the Rankine cycle cogeneration plant. Apart from the electrical efficiency, also a high value of fuel

  20. Trends in Wind Turbine Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polinder, Henk; Ferreira, Jan Abraham; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the trends in wind turbine generator systems. After discussing some important requirements and basic relations, it describes the currently used systems: the constant speed system with squirrel-cage induction generator, and the three variable speed systems with doubly fed...... induction generator (DFIG), with gearbox and fully rated converter, and direct drive (DD). Then, possible future generator systems are reviewed. Hydraulic transmissions are significantly lighter than gearboxes and enable continuously variable transmission, but their efficiency is lower. A brushless DFIG...

  1. Thermoeconomic analysis of a power/water cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Osman A.; Al-Washmi, Hamed A.; Al-Otaibi, Holayil A.

    2006-01-01

    Cogeneration plants for simultaneous production of water and electricity are widely used in the Arabian Gulf region. They have proven to be more thermodynamically efficient and economically feasible than single purpose power generation and water production plants. Yet, there is no standard or universally applied methodology for determining unit cost of electric power generation and desalinated water production by dual purpose plants. A comprehensive literature survey to critically assess and evaluate different methods for cost application in power/water cogeneration plants is reported in this paper. Based on this analysis, an in-depth thermoeconomic study is carried out on a selected power/water cogeneration plant that employs a regenerative Rankine cycle. The system incorporates a boiler, back pressure turbine (supplying steam to two MSF distillers), a deaerator and two feed water heaters. The turbine generation is rated at 118 MW, while MSF distiller is rated at 7.7 MIGD at a top brine temperature of 105 deg. C. An appropriate costing procedure based on the available energy accounting method which divides benefits of the cogeneration configuration equitably between electricity generation and water production is used to determine the unit costs of electricity and water. Capital charges of common equipment such as the boiler, deaerator and feed water heaters as well as boiler fuel costs are distributed between power generated and desalinated water according to available energy consumption of the major subsystems. A detailed sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the impact of the variation of fuel cost, load and availability factors in addition to capital recovery factor on electricity and water production costs

  2. INCOGEN pre-feasibility study. Nuclear cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Heek, A.I.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Hogenbirk, A.; Klippel, H.T.; Kuijper, J.C.; Schram, R. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Valko, J. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute IRI, Delft (Netherlands); Kanij, J.B.W.; Eendebak, B.T.; De Groot, P.C.; De Kler, R.C.F.; Stempniewicz, M.M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Van Dijk, A.B.; Bredman, B.; Van Essen, D.; Holtz, E.; Op `t Veld, R.; Tjemmes, J.G. [Stork Nucon, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Crommelin, G.A.K.; Crommelin-de Jonge, M.T. [eds.] [ROMAWA, Voorschoten (Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    The Netherlands Programme to Intensify Nuclear Competence (PINK, abbreviated in Dutch) supported the technical and economical evaluation of a direct cycle High Temperature Reactor (HTR) installation for combined heat and power generation. This helium cooled, graphite moderated HTR based on the German HTR-M, is named INCOGEN (Inherently safe Nuclear COGENeration). The INCOGEN reference is a 40 MW HTR design by the US company Longmark Power International (LPI). The energy conversion system comprises a single-shaft helium turbine-compressor (2.3-1.0 MPa) directly coupled with a 16.5 MW generator, a recuperator and low-temperature (150C to 40C) heat exchangers (23 MW). Spherical fuel elements (60 mm diameter) will be added little by little, which keeps the core only marginally critical. Void core volume can accommodate added fuel for several years until defuelling. Analyses of failure scenarios (loss of coolant accident or LOCA, loss of flow accident or LOFA, anticipated transient without scram or ATWS) show no excess of maximum acceptable fuel temperature of 1600C. Scoping analyses indicate no severe graphite fires. Transient analyses of the turbine-compressor system indicate adequate control flexibility. Optimization and endurance testing of the helium turbine-compressor is recommended.

  3. Cogen-absorption plants for refrigeration purposes and turbine air inlet cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langreck, Juergen [Colibri bv (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    Most cogeneration systems produce power and heat but with absorption refrigeration plants (ARP) the products are power and 'cold'. An ARP driven by heat from a turbine exhaust can provide the cooling for the inlet air with very low consumption of electricity, consequently there is a significant increase in power output from the cogeneration unit. Two different ARP systems are currently available but the author describes only the ammonia-water system, which can achieve temperatures down to -60 degrees C. The article discusses the principle behind ARP, the capital cost and returns on investment, how the cogeneration plant is linked to the ARP, ARP for turbine inlet air cooling, and the potential applications of cogeneration-ARP.

  4. Cogeneration for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Almost all the electric power in Brazil comes from large-scale hydroelectric plants: only about 3% comes from cogeneration. But, now that the barriers which discouraged cogeneration are being removed, there will be more and more investment in cogeneration and distributed generation. The circumstances which have brought about these changes are described. It is expected that cogeneration will be responsible for producing 10-15% of Brazil's electricity by 2010 and the demand for cogeneration will reach 11-17 GW. It is concluded that Brazil represents one of the world's most attractive market for cogeneration and distributed generation

  5. Multi-objective optimization for the maximization of the operating share of cogeneration system in District Heating Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Versace, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined Heat and Power plants and civil/residential energy uses. • CHP plant supported by auxiliary boilers and thermal energy storage. • Definition of optimal operational strategies for cogeneration plants for District Heating. • Optimal-sized Thermal Energy Storage and a hybrid operational strategy. • Maximization of cogeneration share and reduction of time of operation of auxiliary boilers. - Abstract: The aim of the paper is to define optimal operational strategies for Combined Heat and Power plants connected to civil/residential District Heating Networks. The role of a reduced number of design variables, including a Thermal Energy Storage system and a hybrid operational strategy dependent on the storage level, is considered. The basic principle is to reach maximum efficiency of the system operation through the utilization of an optimal-sized Thermal Energy Storage. Objective functions of both energetic and combined energetic and economic can be considered. In particular, First and Second Law Efficiency, thermal losses of the storage, number of starts and stops of the combined heat and power unit are considered. Constraints are imposed to nullify the waste of heat and to operate the unit at its maximum efficiency for the highest possible number of consecutive operating hours, until the thermal tank cannot store more energy. The methodology is applied to a detailed case study: a medium size district heating system, in an urban context in the northern Italy, powered by a combined heat and power plant supported by conventional auxiliary boilers. The issues involving this type of thermal loads are also widely investigated in the paper. An increase of Second Law Efficiency of the system of 26% (from 0.35 to 0.44) can be evidenced, while the First Law Efficiency shifts from about 0.74 to 0.84. The optimization strategy permits of combining the economic benefit of cogeneration with the idea of reducing the energy waste and exergy losses.

  6. Utilizing primary energy savings and exergy destruction to compare centralized thermal plants and cogeneration/trigeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espirito Santo, Denilson Boschiero do; Gallo, Waldyr Luiz Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Rising energy conversion processes efficiencies reduces CO_2 emissions and global warming implications. Decentralized electricity production through cogeneration/trigeneration systems can save primary energy if it operates with high efficiency. High efficiency is obtained when the system produces electricity and a substantial amount of the energy rejected by the prime mover is used to meet site thermal demands. Environmental concerns and international agreements are directing governments of different countries to incentive high efficiency solutions. Centralized thermal plants and cogeneration/trigeneration efficiency are compared through efficiency indicators using the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics. This paper proposes the use of the primary energy savings analysis and the exergy destruction analysis to compare decentralized power production through cogeneration/trigeneration systems and centralized thermal plants. The analysis concluded that both methods achieve the same results if the thermal efficiency indicator is used to compare the methods. The analysis also revealed that trigeneration systems with the same energy input are comparable with quite different thermal efficiency centralized thermal plants. Case 1 is comparable to a 53% thermal efficiency power plant and case 2 is comparable to a 77% thermal efficiency power plant. - Highlights: • Trigeneration and thermal plants are compared using PES and exergy destruction. • The thermal efficiency indicator is used to compare both methods. • The same equivalent thermal efficiency is achieved by both methods. • Same energy input trigeneration is similar to different thermal efficiency plants. • Evaluated trigeneration are comparable to a 53–77% thermal efficiency power plant.

  7. CDM incidence in the economical feasibility of cogeneration in Argentine; Incidencia del MDL en la factibilidad economica de sistemas de cogeneracion industrial en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, Maria Isabel; Fushimi, Alberto [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, BA (Argentina). Fac. de Ingenieria. Area Departamental Mecanica], e-mail: misosa@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar, e-mail: afushimi@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the contribution to the financial and economic feasibility of cogeneration systems with gas turbine and exhaust gas heat recovery boiler is discussed in function of the financial credit for reduction of greenhouse gases emissions (GH Gs) by using the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It has to be kept in mind the restrictions of these systems to be capital intensive projects subject to the effects of the economy of scale. Other factors to take into account are the constancy of the heat demand, the rates of sale of electricity and steam surpluses, the regulatory laws, the ignorance of the cogeneration technologies on the part of the investor, among others. The profitability of the investment for implementation of a cogeneration system can be elevated in large facilities with gas turbines and heat recovery boiler (T G + HRSG). Results discussed in previous papers are pointed out and new conclusions are enunciated. (author)

  8. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  9. Chapter 10 - Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  10. Chapter 10: Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  11. Multi-objective technico-economic optimization of energy conversion systems: hydrogen and electricity cogeneration from Generation IV nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in environmental considerations, such as the control of greenhouse emissions, and with the decrease in the fossil energy resources, hydrogen is currently considered as a promising energy vector. One of the main technological challenges of a future hydrogen economy is its large scale production without fossil fuel emissions. Under this context, nuclear energy is particularly adapted for hydrogen massive production by thermochemical cycles or high temperature electrolysis. One of the selected nuclear systems is the Very High Temperature Reactor (950 C/1200 C), cooled with helium, and dedicated to hydrogen production or to hydrogen electricity cogeneration. The main objective of this investigation, within the framework of a collaboration between CEA, French Atomic Agency (Cadarache) and LGC (Toulouse), consists in defining a technico-economic optimization methodology of electricity-hydrogen cogeneration systems, in order to identify and propose promising development strategies. Among the massive production processes of hydrogen, the thermochemical cycle Iodine-Sulphur has been considered. Taking into account the diversity of the used energies (i.e., heat and electricity) on the one hand and of the produced energies (hydrogen and electricity) on the other hand of the studied cogeneration system, an exergetic approach has been developed due to its ability to consider various energy forms on the same thermodynamical basis. The CYCLOP software tool (CEA) is used for the thermodynamic modelling of these systems. The economic criterion, calculated using the SEMER software tool (CEA), is based on the minimization of the total production site cost over its lifespan i.e., investment, operating costs and nuclear fuel cost. Capital investment involves the development of cost functions adapted to specific technologies and their specific operating conditions. The resulting optimization problems consist in maximizing the energy production, while minimizing the

  12. Life cycle optimization model for integrated cogeneration and energy systems applications in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ayat E.

    Energy use in commercial buildings constitutes a major proportion of the energy consumption and anthropogenic emissions in the USA. Cogeneration systems offer an opportunity to meet a building's electrical and thermal demands from a single energy source. To answer the question of what is the most beneficial and cost effective energy source(s) that can be used to meet the energy demands of the building, optimizations techniques have been implemented in some studies to find the optimum energy system based on reducing cost and maximizing revenues. Due to the significant environmental impacts that can result from meeting the energy demands in buildings, building design should incorporate environmental criteria in the decision making criteria. The objective of this research is to develop a framework and model to optimize a building's operation by integrating congregation systems and utility systems in order to meet the electrical, heating, and cooling demand by considering the potential life cycle environmental impact that might result from meeting those demands as well as the economical implications. Two LCA Optimization models have been developed within a framework that uses hourly building energy data, life cycle assessment (LCA), and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). The objective functions that are used in the formulation of the problems include: (1) Minimizing life cycle primary energy consumption, (2) Minimizing global warming potential, (3) Minimizing tropospheric ozone precursor potential, (4) Minimizing acidification potential, (5) Minimizing NOx, SO 2 and CO2, and (6) Minimizing life cycle costs, considering a study period of ten years and the lifetime of equipment. The two LCA optimization models can be used for: (a) long term planning and operational analysis in buildings by analyzing the hourly energy use of a building during a day and (b) design and quick analysis of building operation based on periodic analysis of energy use of a building in a

  13. Optimization Design Method and Experimental Validation of a Solar PVT Cogeneration System Based on Building Energy Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic (PV and a conventional solar thermal collector, representing the deep exploitation and utilization of solar energy. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a solar PVT cogeneration system based on specific building energy demand using theoretical modeling and experimental study. Through calculation and simulation, the dynamic heating load and electricity load is obtained as the basis of the system design. An analytical expression for the connection of PVT collector array is derived by using basic energy balance equations and thermal models. Based on analytical results, an optimized design method was carried out for the system. In addition, the fuzzy control method of frequency conversion circulating water pumps and pipeline switching by electromagnetic valves is introduced in this paper to maintain the system at an optimal working point. Meanwhile, an experimental setup is established, which includes 36 PVT collectors with every 6 PVT collectors connected in series. The thermal energy generation, thermal efficiency, power generation and photovoltaic efficiency have been given in this paper. The results demonstrate that the demonstration solar PVT cogeneration system can meet the building energy demand in the daytime in the heating season.

  14. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  15. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a novel electricity-heating cogeneration system (EHCS) based on absorption heat pump applied in the coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhenlin; Zhao, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Presented a novel waste heat recovery method for Combined Heat and Power system. • Established models of the integrated system based on energy and exergy analysis. • Adopted both design and actual data ensuring the reliability of analysis results. - Abstract: A novel electricity-heating cogeneration system (EHCS) which is equipped with an absorption heat pump (AHP) system to recover waste heat from exhaust steam of the steam turbines in coal-fired thermal power plants is proposed to reduce heating energy consumption and improve the utilization of the fossil fuels in existing CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems. According to the first and second thermodynamic law, the changes of the performance evaluation indicators are analyzed, and exergy analyses for key components of the system are carried out as well as changes of exergy indexes focusing on 135 MW direct air cooling units before and after modification. Compared with the conventional heating system, the output power increases by about 3.58 MW, gross coal consumption rate and total exergy loss respectively reduces by 11.50 g/kW h and 4.649 MW, while the total thermal and exergy efficiency increases by 1.26% and 1.45% in the EHCS when the heating load is 99,918 kJ at 75% THA condition. Meanwhile, the decrement of total exergy loss and increment of total exergy efficiency increase with the increasing of the heating load. The scheme cannot only bring great economic benefits but also save fossil resources, which has a promising market application potential.

  16. Maintenance and adjustment of control systems of central heating turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyuk, V.A.; Balashov, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of operation and design of systems of automatic control of steam turbines with controlled heating stem extraction are described. Specific features of maintenance and adjustment of the most common domestic turbines are considered. Recommendations on testing state of turbine control systems and improving reliability of their operation are given. 22 refs., 51 refs

  17. Problems of steam turbine diagnostics and the 'Simens' diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserner, V.; Andrea, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostics system, allowing one to detect changes in the state on single turbine elements at an early stage is described. Besides this system allows one to utilize the turbine plant optimally and efficiency from the viewpoint of the equipment durability. Specially oriented monitoring of the turbine plant and equipment element state saves resources necessary to keep up the working order of the equipment

  18. Modeling of wind turbines for power system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petru, T.

    2001-05-01

    When wind turbines are installed into the electric grid, the power quality is affected. Today, strict installation recommendations often prevail due to a lack of knowledge on this subject. Consequently, it is important to predict the impact of wind turbines on the electric grid before the turbines are installed. The thesis describes relevant power quality issues, discusses different configurations of wind turbines with respect to power quality and draw requirements regarding wind turbine modeling. A model of a stall-regulated, fixed-speed wind turbine system is introduced and its power quality impact on the electric grid is evaluated. The model is verified with field measurements.

  19. Modular cogeneration for commercial light industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhuja, R.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of gas utilities' efforts to market small cogeneration systems could be helpful to entrepreneurs now venturing into this area. Orders have been placed with Thermo Electron, USA for 15 Tecogen modular cogeneration units. Applications range from an airline catering kitchen to a university swimming pool. 5 figures, 1 table.

  20. An evaluation of gas engines as prime movers in cogeneration systems for the power safety in hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Halaris, P.G.; Bourkas, P.D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Malahias, G.N. [Hellenic Naval Academy, Athens (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    Modern hospitals are completely dependent on energy. According to Environmental Protection Agency, healthcare organizations spend over $6 billion on energy each year in USA alone to meet patient needs. The increase in the use of technology in healthcare has increased energy demand within hospitals. At the same time energy costs have been on the rise due to the increased energy demand, aging energy infrastructure, and deregulation of energy markets. Heating, cooling, domestic hot water use and lighting systems are responsible for about 80 per cent of the energy consumed in hospitals. Support functions, such as food service and equipment, account for the remaining 20 per cent. From the fuel utilization viewpoint, the permanent demand for electricity, steam, hot water, heating and cooling makes hospitals an ideal candidates for cogeneration. In addition to reducing energy costs, cogeneration with internal combustion engines can provide emergency power capability, improve power quality, and reduce the burden on utility transmission and distribution systems during periods of peak demand. On-site natural gas power generators can be used for primary power, base load power, peak shaving or emergency power. The security of electrical supply is highly important in hospitals. Reciprocating engines are a proven technology with a range of size and the lowest first capital costs of all combined cooling, heating and power systems. Modern gas engines are designed to provide high output with fuel flexibility, low emission rates, high efficiency and high reliability. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Technical feasibility and economics of retrofitting an existing nuclear power plant to cogeneration for hot water district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, J.O.; Bauman, H.F.; Jones, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the hypothetical conversion of the Prairie Island Nuclear Plant of the Northern States Power Company to cogeneration operation to supply a future hot water district heating system load in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis-St. Paul. The conceptual design of the nuclear turbine retrofitted for cogeneration and of a hot water transmission system has been performed, and the capital investment and annual owning and operating costs have been estimated for thermal energy capacities of 600 and 1200 MW(t). Unit costs of thermal energy (in mid-1982 dollars/million Btu) have been estimated for cogenerated hot water at the plant gate and also for the most economic transmission system from Prairie Island to the Twin Cities. The economic results from the analysis of the Prairie Island plant and transmission route have been generalized for other transmission distances in other locations

  2. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

  3. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  4. Evaluation of a Cogeneration Plant with Integrated Fuel Factory; Integrerad braenslefabrik med kraftvaermeanlaeggning - en utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atterhem, Lars

    2002-12-01

    A feasibility study was carried out in 1993 by Skellefteaa Kraft AB, to analyse the technical and economical possibilities to build a new baseload district heating production plant. The conclusion from the study was that, as a first step, a new cogeneration plant, based on a circulating fluidised bed boiler, should be built. The commissioning of the cogeneration plant took place in autumn 1996. The plant was prepared for a future integration with a biofuel drying process for pellets production. During spring 1996 an investment decision was taken and the fuel factory was erected in may 1997. Vaermeforsk Service AB has financed this research project and the Swedish state energy program (Fabel) has contributed with 33,7 Million SEK to the financing of the recovery electric power generation part of the fuel factory. The aim with this research project has been to evaluate and compare the integrated cogeneration plant fuel factory concept with a conventional co-generation plant, specially when it comes to increased power generation. The fuel factory comprises of fuel feeding system, fuel dryer, steam converter from fuel moisture to low pressure process steam, low pressure condensing turbine, cooling water system, fuel pellets production and storage with ship loading plant in the harbour of Skellefteaa. The steam to the fuel factory is extracted from the cogeneration turbine at a pressure level between 12-26 bar and the extraction flow has then already generated power in the cogeneration turbine. Power is also generated in the low pressure condensing turbine of the fuel factory. The low pressure steam is generated with fuel moisture in the steam converter. During the first years of operation there has been both conventional commissioning problems but also technical problems related to the new process concept. The last are for example corrosion and erosion problems, fouling problems of heat exchangers, capacity and leakage problems. The performance goals of the fuel

  5. A new PI tuning method for an industrial process: A case study from a micro-cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sağlam, Gaye; Tutum, Cem Celal; Kurtulan, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PI controller is implemented with new tuning rules for a micro-cogeneration system. ► These tuning rules ensure a critically damped response as well as safe control signal. ► These rules are totally based on the model parameters unlike some other methods in the literature. ► An evolutionary search algorithm is also used to support the results of the proposed tuning method. ► Both methods give superior results as compared with a few available methods given in the literature. - Abstract: Micro-cogeneration systems are efficient and clean energy sources. For this reason, reliable control of the overall system itself and its sub-components is of great importance. This paper presents a proportional–integral (PI) controller tuning method for cooling of the hydrogen production unit within the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell based micro-cogeneration system having 5 kW electrical and 30 kW thermal capacity. The flow rate control of the coolant water was implemented by means of the modeled temperature control system. Modeling and control system design were implemented in both MATLAB/Simulink and industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) software. The novel analytical tuning rules proposed in this paper, which were developed with the help of the digital control theory and experiences in industrial control problems, are based totally on the model parameters. The output response attained by the proposed controller is a critically damped response (a non-oscillatory system response with damping ratio: ζ = 1) and the control signal is a slowly varying safe control signal. Slowly varying control signal denotes that there is no sudden or fast change in the control effort which causes a wear and tear effect in the actuators and shortens the life cycle of the relevant hardware. Besides, an evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) procedure, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), was used in order to simultaneously

  6. Co-generation system with a linear concentrator and thermoelectric elements; Senkei shukokei to netsuden henkan soshi wo mochiita netsuden heikyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachi, E; Suzuki, A; Fujibayashi, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The co-generation system using a solar cell has the disadvantage that the performance of a cell element deteriorates when the temperature rises. Therefore, the co-generation system in which a BiTe thermoelectric element and linear Fresnel lens are used was constructed. Moreover, the basic characteristics were confirmed and the characteristics of a system model were analyzed. A thermoelectric element area must be reduced to improve the generating efficiency. The generating efficiency depends on the temperature difference between thermoelectric elements rather than the thermoelectric element area. As the thermoelectric area gets lower, the generating efficiency will get higher. This inclination is advantageous on the economic side. The generating efficiency becomes low during operation at high temperature. As a result, the temperature supplied to the thermal load is set to the lower position (100 to 200{degree}C) so as to advance the validity of the system. Even if the co-generation temperature is low, a heat supply capability of 150{degree}C is sufficient for an industrial heat supply system because it holds a large majority of the consumption demand for the whole industry. 3 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of the combustor for a cogeneration system based on the aluminum/water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Paltrinieri, Fabrizio; Stefani, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum reaction with water is studied as a technology for hydrogen production. • A test rig is developed for the analysis of aluminum/water reaction. • The system is the core component of a cogeneration plant for hydrogen/power production. • The interaction of liquid aluminum jet and water steam stream is investigated. • The main capabilities of the injection system are assessed. - Abstract: The paper focuses on the design of the experimental apparatus aimed at analyzing the performance of the combustion chamber of a cogeneration system based on the reaction of liquid aluminum and water steam. The cogeneration system exploits the heat released by the oxidation of aluminum with water for super-heating the vapor of a steam cycle and simultaneously producing hydrogen. The only by-product is alumina, which in a closed loop can be recycled back and transformed again into aluminum. Therefore, aluminum is used as an energy carrier to transport the energy from the alumina reduction plant to the location of the proposed system. The water is also used in a closed loop since the amount of water produced employing the hydrogen obtained by the proposed system corresponds to the oxidizing water for the Al/H 2 O reaction. This study investigates the combustor where the liquid aluminum–steam reaction takes place. In particular, the design of the combustion chamber and the interaction between the liquid aluminum jet and the water steam flow are evaluated using a numerical and an experimental approach. The test rig is specifically designed for the analysis of the liquid aluminum injection in a slightly super-heated steam stream. The first experiments are carried out to verify the correct behavior of the test rig. Thermography is employed to qualitatively assess the steam entrainment of the liquid aluminum jet. Finally, the experimental measurements are compared with the multi-dimension multi-phase flow simulations in order to estimate the influence of

  8. Thermal-economic optimisation of a CHP gas turbine system by applying a fit-problem genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana C. M.; Teixeira, Senhorinha F. C. F.; Silva, Rui G.; Silva, Ângela M.

    2018-04-01

    Cogeneration allows the optimal use of the primary energy sources and significant reductions in carbon emissions. Its use has great potential for applications in the residential sector. This study aims to develop a methodology for thermal-economic optimisation of small-scale micro-gas turbine for cogeneration purposes, able to fulfil domestic energy needs with a thermal power out of 125 kW. A constrained non-linear optimisation model was built. The objective function is the maximisation of the annual worth from the combined heat and power, representing the balance between the annual incomes and the expenditures subject to physical and economic constraints. A genetic algorithm coded in the java programming language was developed. An optimal micro-gas turbine able to produce 103.5 kW of electrical power with a positive annual profit (i.e. 11,925 €/year) was disclosed. The investment can be recovered in 4 years and 9 months, which is less than half of system lifetime expectancy.

  9. Adsorption thermal energy storage for cogeneration in industrial batch processes: Experiment, dynamic modeling and system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Heike; Graf, Stefan; Lanzerath, Franz; Bardow, André

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption thermal energy storage is investigated for heat supply with cogeneration in industrial batch processes. The feasibility of adsorption thermal energy storage is demonstrated with a lab-scale prototype. Based on these experiments, a dynamic model is developed and successfully calibrated to measurement data. Thereby, a reliable description of the dynamic behavior of the adsorption thermal energy storage unit is achieved. The model is used to study and benchmark the performance of adsorption thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration for batch process energy supply. As benchmark, we consider both a peak boiler and latent thermal energy storage based on a phase change material. Beer brewing is considered as an example of an industrial batch process. The study shows that adsorption thermal energy storage has the potential to increase energy efficiency significantly; primary energy consumption can be reduced by up to 25%. However, successful integration of adsorption thermal storage requires appropriate integration of low grade heat: Preferentially, low grade heat is available at times of discharging and in demand when charging the storage unit. Thus, adsorption thermal energy storage is most beneficial if applied to a batch process with heat demands on several temperature levels. - Highlights: • A highly efficient energy supply for industrial batch processes is presented. • Adsorption thermal energy storage (TES) is analyzed in experiment and simulation. • Adsorption TES can outperform both peak boilers and latent TES. • Performance of adsorption TES strongly depends on low grade heat temperature.

  10. Economic viability study of micro-cogeneration plants at residential scale; Estudo de viabilidade economica de plantas de micro-cogeracao em escala residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Ramalho e Soares, Ravi [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Michalewicz, Jacek Stanislaw [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco (CEFET-PE), Recife, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a technical and economical feasibility study for the use of micro cogeneration systems in residential scale, using natural gas as an energy source. It was considered two micro-cogeneration systems to meet demand of some types of fictitious establishment of commercial and residential plants, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The first system has as a main driving machine a micro turbine with a nominal capacity of 30 kw, the second one uses a gas motor-generator, with nominal capacity of 35 kw. (author)

  11. Heat Pipe Solar Cogeneration System%热管型太阳能热电联产系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勋

    2016-01-01

    Traditional solar photovoltaic modules influenced by temperature, high surface temperature of PV modules will seriously affect the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic cell. Solar cogeneration systems recover heat generated by solar cells, the system reduces the operating temperature of the solar cell, also can produce hot water, while improving power generation efficiency of solar cells. Making full use of heat pipe thermal technology, we independently design heat pipe solar cogeneration system components and solar thermal systems. The system has been running for two years, which output electricity reached 23 700 kW·h, and its annual output of hot water above 45 ℃ average reached 2 000 tons, with significant economic and environmental benefits. The application prospect of the system is vast.%传统的太阳能光伏组件受温度影响较大,光伏组件表面温度的急剧升高会严重影响光伏电池的发电效率。太阳能热电联产系统回收利用太阳能电池产生的热能可降低太阳能电池的工作温度,在提高太阳能电池发电效率的同时亦可产生热水。充分运用热管导热技术,自主设计了热管型太阳能热电联产系统组件、太阳能光热系统。该系统运行两年来,年均产电2.37万kW·h,年产45℃以上热水2000 t,具有显著的经济和环境效益,推广应用前景广阔。

  12. Integrated analysis of wind turbines - The impact of power systems on wind turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio

    Megawatt-size wind turbines nowadays operate in very complex environmental conditions, and increasingly demanding power system requirements. Pursuing a cost-effective and reliable wind turbine design is a multidisciplinary task. However nowadays, wind turbine design and research areas...... conditions that stem from disturbances in the power system. An integrated simulation environment, wind turbine models, and power system models are developed in order to take an integral perspective that considers the most important aeroelastic, structural, electrical, and control dynamics. Applications...... of the integrated simulation environment are presented. The analysis of an asynchronous machine, and numerical simulations of a fixedspeed wind turbine in the integrated simulation environment, demonstrate the effects on structural loads of including the generator rotor fluxes dynamics in aeroelastic studies. Power...

  13. Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

    2013-05-14

    The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

  14. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Renzio, M.; Ciocca, B.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  15. Interference of regional support policies on the economic and environmental performance of a hybrid cogeneration-solar panel energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Dries; Van Passel, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses unintentional interference between different public policies promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy. The paper develops a methodology to study the interference by analysing the economic and technical behaviour of a hybrid energy system. The hybrid energy system in this case consists of an existing cogeneration unit extended with a new installation of thermal solar panels. This puts two complementary heating technologies in juxtaposition. The two technologies are supported with distinct regional support instruments in each region. The design and operation of the energy system is optimised from the point of view of the investor according to the different support instruments. The optimal configuration is analysed as well as its effect on reduced CO 2 -emissions during the lifetime of the project. The methodology is applied to a case-study for two neighbouring regions, the Netherlands and Flanders. The policies in the Netherlands show a beneficial synergy. In Flanders, the hybrid energy system is not interesting, indicating unbalanced high support for cogeneration in this case. From the point of view of the authorities, a more balanced regional policy as in the Netherlands provides a larger CO 2 -emission reduction for a smaller cost. - Highlights: ► Study of interference between various public policies by analysing a hybrid energy system. ► A methodology based on maximum value for the investor based on different public policies. ► Case study in the Netherlands show policies with a beneficial synergy. ► Situation in Flanders indicates unbalanced policies and larger cost for CO 2 -emission reduction.

  16. Study on introduction scenario of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor hydrogen cogeneration system (GTHTR300C). Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takeda, Tetsuaki

    2005-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is carrying out the research and development of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor hydrogen cogeneration system (GTHTR300C) aiming at the practical use around 2030. Preconditions of GTHTR300C introduction are the increase of hydrogen demand and the needs of new nuclear power plants. In order to establish the introduction scenario, it should be clarified that the operational status of existing nuclear power plants, the introduction number of fuel cell vehicles as a main user of hydrogen and the capability of hydrogen supply by existing plants. In this report, estimation of the nuclear power plants that will be decommissioned with a high possibility by 2030 and selection of the model district where the GTHTR300C can be introduced as an alternative system are conducted. Then the hydrogen demand and the capability of hydrogen supply in this district are investigated and the hydrogen supply scenario in 2030 is considered. (author)

  17. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  18. Exergy analysis of a cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez Bosch, Osvaldo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In the following study exergetic evaluation of a cogeneration power plant in operation with installed electrical capacity of 24 MW and process heat demand of 190 MW it is performed. The main objective of the research was to determine the influence of the increase in power generation capacity, raising the superheated steam parameters and the number of regenerative heaters on the second law efficiency and irreversibilities in the different components of the plant. To study the power plant was divided into subsystems: steam generator blowdown expander, main steam pipe, steam turbine regenerative heaters, reduction system, deaerator and pumps. The study results show that exergy losses and irreversibilities differ widely from one subsystem to another. In general, the total irreversibility accounted for 70.7% of primary fuel availability. The steam generator subsystem had the highest contribution to the irreversibility of the plant by 54%. It was determined that the increased steam parameters helps reduce the irreversibility and increase the exergetic efficiency of installation. The suppression of the reduction and incorporation of extraction-condensing turbine produce the same effect and helps to reduce power consumption from the national grid. Based on the results recommendations for improving plant efficiency are made. (full text)

  19. Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

  20. Backup Mechanical Brake System of the Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, E. A.; Solomin, E. V.; Gandzha, S. A.; Kirpichnikova, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    Paper clarifies the necessity of the emergency mechanical brake systems usage for wind turbines. We made a deep analysis of the wind turbine braking methods available on the market, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The electromechanical braking appeared the most technically reasonable and economically attractive. We described the developed combined electromechanical brake system for vertical axis wind turbine driven from electric drive with variable torque enough to brake over the turbine even on the storm wind speed up to 45 m/s. The progress was made due to the development of specific kinematic brake system diagram and intelligent control system managed by special operation algorithm.

  1. Feasibility of cogeneration systems in chemical industry; Viabilidade de sistemas de cogeracao em industria quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Moises Henrique de Andrade; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    1998-07-01

    The increasing penetration of natural gas in the Brazilian energetic market, some industries as pulp and paper, chemical and that ones related to the food and beverage processes are some of the ones that are more interested in the cogeneration practice based on the burning of this fossil fuel. An analysis of a photographic chemical industry consumption data revealed that combined cycles and Diesel units were the most suitable for thermal following strategy, considering that the four compression chillers must be maintained, and steam or gas cycles in the case of a complete substitution for absorption chillers and the same strategy. The economic attractiveness was done according to the internal return rate and payback, revealing that the investment can be returned in short time. (author)

  2. Methodology study: Co-generation feasibility at sawmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report discussed the various factors that should be studied and evaluated before establishing a cogeneration plant. The results of three case studies and a survey of energy needs in smaller and medium size sawmills are also presented. In general, cogeneration is feasible for supplying electric energy required for processing logs using fuelbark and other residues from the manufacturing process. A rebuilt turbine-generator unit is an initial cost saving alternative that is advantageous throughout the life of the operation

  3. Cogeneration in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E. [International Cogeneration Alliance (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The short article discusses pollution abatement and the potential role of cogeneration in Taiwan. A diagram shows the contributions of various energy sources (coal, oil etc.) from 1979-1999 and the growth of cogeneration between 1979 and 1999. The lack of natural gas or diesel does not help the cause of cogeneration in Taiwan, nor does the structure of the local electricity market. Nevertheless, if the proposed new LNG facilities are built in the North, then the opportunities for cogeneration will be very good.

  4. System for damping vibrations in a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-11-24

    A system for damping vibrations in a turbine includes a first rotating blade having a first ceramic airfoil, a first ceramic platform connected to the first ceramic airfoil, and a first root connected to the first ceramic platform. A second rotating blade adjacent to the first rotating blade includes a second ceramic airfoil, a second ceramic platform connected to the second ceramic airfoil, and a second root connected to the second ceramic platform. A non-metallic platform damper has a first position in simultaneous contact with the first and second ceramic platforms.

  5. Exergetic analysis of the operation of a petrochemical pole cogeneration system; Analise exergetica da operacao de uma planta de cogeracao de um polo petroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: ednildo@ufba.br; Gallo, Waldyr L. R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gallo@unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an exergy analysis for a petrochemical cogeneration system (the greater operating in Brazil). The system is described, the method employed to simulate the system is presented, and the exergy efficiencies are defined. The analysis presents the exergy efficiencies and irreversibility for each sub-system. The results obtained from real data were used to compare operation strategies which are not clear from energy balances. (author)

  6. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul

    , connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control......This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built...

  7. A deflection monitoring system for a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine blade comprising a system for monitoring the deflection of a wind turbine blade is described. The system comprises a wireless range-measurement system, having at least one wireless communication device located towards the root end of the blade and at least one wireless communication...

  8. Thermodynamic performance analysis and optimization of DMC (Dual Miller Cycle) cogeneration system by considering exergetic performance coefficient and total exergy output criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ust, Yasin; Arslan, Feyyaz; Ozsari, Ibrahim; Cakir, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Miller cycle engines are one of the popular engine concepts that are available for improving performance, reducing fuel consumption and NO x emissions. There are many research studies that investigated the modification of existing conventional engines for operation on a Miller cycle. In this context, a comparative performance analysis and optimization based on exergetic performance criterion, total exergy output and exergy efficiency has been carried out for an irreversible Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system having finite-rate of heat transfer, heat leak and internal irreversibilities. The EPC (Exergetic Performance Coefficient) criterion defined as the ratio of total exergy output to the loss rate of availability. Performance analysis has been also extended to the Otto–Miller and Diesel-Miller cogeneration cycles which may be considered as two special cases of the Dual–Miller cycle. The effect of the design parameters such as compression ratio, pressure ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, heat consumer temperature ratio, allocation ratio and the ratio of power to heat consumed have also been investigated. The results obtained from this paper will provide guidance for the design of Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system and can be used for selection of optimal design parameters. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic performance estimation tool for DM cogeneration cycle is presented. • Using the model two special cases OM and dM cogeneration cycles can be analyzed. • The effects of r M , ψ, χ 2 and R have been investigated. • The results evaluate exergy output and environmental aspects together.

  9. Presence of renewable sources of energy, cogeneration, energy efficiency and distributed generation in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pares Ferrer, Marianela; Oviedo Rivero, Irayda; Gonzalez Garcia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) it was created in 1970 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (OIEA) with the objective of propitiating the exchange of scientific information and technique on the peaceful uses of the energy atomic. INIS processes most of scientific literature and technique in engineering matters nuclear, safeguard and non proliferation and applications in agriculture and health that it generates in the world and it contributes to create a repository of nuclear information for present and future generations. Additionally it includes economic aspects and environmental of other energy sources that facilitate comparative studies for the taking of decisions. The database INIS, is its main informative product and it counts with more than 3 million registrations. One of the services that lends the Center of Administration of the Information and Development of the Energy (CUBAENERGIA), like center INIS in Cuba, is the search of information on the peaceful use of the science and nuclear technology in the Countries Members and the registration of information on their applications in Cuba. More recently, it extends this service to the Renewable Sources application of Energy in the country; as part of the works of administration of the information that it carries out for the National Group of Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Saving and Energy Efficiency, created in the 2007 and coordinated by the MINBAS with the participation of institutions belonging to Organisms of the Administration Central of the State. In this work the results of a preliminary study are presented on the witnesses in the INIS of the Renewable Sources of Energy, the Cogeneration, Energy Efficiency, and the Distributed Generation. As well as of the application of metric tools to the opposing registrations for the case of the Distributed generation, that which allowed to characterize their historical evolution, the participation for countries in their development and

  10. Tax issues in structuring effective cogeneration vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Canadian income tax laws that apply to cogeneration projects was presented. Certain tax considerations could be taken into account in deciding upon ownership and financing structures for cogeneration projects, particularly those that qualify for class 43.1 capital cost allowance treatment. The tax treatment of project revenues and expenses were described. The paper also reviewed the 1999 federal budget proposals regarding the manufacturing and processing tax credit, the capital cost allowance system applicable to cogeneration assets and the treatment of the Canadian renewable conservation expense

  11. System Reliability for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    E). In consequence, a rational treatment of uncertainties is done in order to assess the reliability of critical details in OWTs. Limit state equations are formulated for fatigue critical details which are not influenced by wake effects generated in offshore wind farms. Furthermore, typical bi-linear S-N curves...... are considered for reliability verification according to international design standards of OWTs. System effects become important for each substructure with many potential fatigue hot spots. Therefore, in this paper a framework for system effects is presented. This information can be e.g. no detection of cracks...... in inspections or measurements from condition monitoring systems. Finally, an example is established to illustrate the practical application of this framework for jacket type wind turbine substructure considering system effects....

  12. Combined micro-cogeneration and electric vehicle system for household application: An energy and economic analysis in a Northern European climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Noro, Marco; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    -thinking of entire energy infrastructures and types of consumption. The Agenda also suggested, among other things, improving the efficiency of energy systems. In this paper, the interactions between charging an electric car and an innovative cogeneration system for household application (micro-solid oxide fuel cell...... with an integrated heating system) are investigated. The charge of the electric car by the cogenerator produces waste heat that can be used to partially cover the heat demand of the house. In this way it may be possible to increase overall efficiency and decrease total energy costs. Different innovative strategies...... are proposed and analyzed to manage charging an electric car and efficiently using the waste heat available. The aims of this study are to make the system grid-independent, to decrease the thermal stress of SOFCs and to determine the nominal power of an integrated heating system. The results show energy...

  13. Thermodynamic and economic studies of two new high efficient power-cooling cogeneration systems based on Kalina and absorption refrigeration cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Ataei, Abtin; Yoo, Chang Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing two new power and cooling cogeneration systems based on absorption chillers and Kalina cycles. • Model-based comparison through thermodynamic and economic standpoints. • Investigating sensitivity of system performance and costs to the key parameters. • Reducing total annual costs of the base system up to 8% by cogeneration. • Increasing thermal efficiency up to 4.9% despite of cooling generation. - Abstract: Two new power and cooling cogeneration systems based on Kalina cycle (KC) and absorption refrigeration cycle (AC) are proposed and studied from thermodynamic and economic viewpoints. The first proposed system, Kalina power-cooling cycle (KPCC), combines the refrigerant loop of the water-ammonia absorption chiller, consisting of an evaporator and two throttling valves with the KC. A portion of the KC mass flow enters the evaporator to generate cooling after being condensed in the KPCC system. KPCC is a flexible system adapting power and cooling cogeneration to the demand. The second proposed system, Kalina lithium bromide absorption chiller cycle (KLACC), consists of the KC and a single effect lithium bromide-water absorption chiller (AC_L_i_B_r_-_w_a_t_e_r). The KC subsystem discharges heat to the AC_L_i_B_r_-_w_a_t_e_r desorber before condensing in the condenser. The performance and economic aspects of both proposed systems are analyzed and compared with the stand alone KC. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of efficiencies and the generated power and cooling quantities to the key operating variables. The results showed that, thermal efficiency and total annual costs decreased by 5.6% and 8% for KPCC system but increased 4.9% and 58% for KLACC system, respectively. Since the power-cooling efficiency of KLACC is 42% higher than KPCC it can be applied where the aim is cooling generation without considering economic aspects.

  14. System control model of a turbine for a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas O, Y.; Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R.; Delfin L, A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work is presented a design of a control system of a turbine for a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model seeks to implement later on at thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The model is developed for control and protection of turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control could be employed for one or several turbines in series. The quality of present designs of control pattern of turbine it is that it considers the parameters more important in the operation of a turbine besides that is has incorporated at control the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a model more detailed. The development of control model of a turbine will be good in short and medium term to realize analysis about the operation of turbine with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction specific steps of turbine to feed other equipment s, besides analyzing the separate effect and integrated effect. (Author)

  15. Parametric performance analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation system equipped with a thermal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz Hussain, M.; Lee, Gwi Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Both thermal and electrical powers varied by changing surface area of collector. • Thermal stratification and total system power were increased at critical flow rate. • Parametric analysis of the CPVC system offers to determine the desired outcome. • Thermal and electrical outputs varied by changing the focal length of Fresnel lens. - Abstract: This article presents a parametric study of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation (CPVC) system with an attached thermal storage tank. The CPVC system utilized dual-axis tracker and multiple solar energy collector (SEC) modules and forced cooling system. Each SEC module comprised 16 triple-junction solar cells, copper tube absorbers, and 16 Fresnel lenses were aligned against each solar cell. This study investigated all possible parameters that can affect the CPVC system performance, including the collector area, solar irradiation, inlet temperature, and mass flow rate. The surface area of the collector and the thermal power were increased by increasing the number of SEC modules connected in series; however, the electrical power output decreased from the first to the fourth SEC module consecutively. At the measured optimal flow rate, mixing and thermal diffusion in the storage tank were decreased, and the total power generation from the CPVC system was increased. Variations in the thermal and electrical power outputs were also observed when the focal length of the Fresnel lens was changed. This parametric analysis enables the CPVC system to obtain the desired output by varying the combination of operational and geometrical parameters

  16. A system to control low pressure turbine temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An improved system to control low pressure turbine cycle steam and metal temperatures by governing the heat transfer operation in a moisture separator-reheater is described. The use of the present invention in a pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor steam turbine system is demonstrated. (UK)

  17. The cogeneration in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Since the years 90 many measures have been decided by the government in favor of the cogeneration, to implement a juridical, fiscal, technical and economical framework. After a presentation of the three main channels and the advantages of the cogeneration, the author presents these measures. (A.L.B.)

  18. Analysis of cogeneration system using fuel cell: cases study; Analise de sistema de cogeracao utilizando celula de combustivel: estudo de casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Jose Luz; Leal, Elisangela Martins [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: joseluz@feg.unesp.br; elisange@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the study of a molten carbonate fuel cell cogeneration system associated to an absorption refrigeration system, for the electricity and cold water production, and applied to two establishments, is presented. This system permits the recovery of waste heat, available between 600 deg C e 700 deg C. Initially, some technical information about the most diffusing types of the fuel cell demonstration in the world are presented. In the next step, an energetic, exergetic and economic analysis are carry out, seeking the use of fuel cells, in conditions of prices and interest of Brazil. In conclusion, the fuel cell cogeneration system may have an excellent opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in the Brazilian energy scene. (author)

  19. Modelling of the change in national exchange rate model depending on the economic parameters of a natural gas cogeneration system: Turkey case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, Aslan; Izgi, Ercan; Ay, Selim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, to what extent a cogeneration system's fixed and variable costs and profits are affected from the exchange rate model implemented in the country is examined. An autoproductor system, as known, uses a part of its electrical energy production for its own requirements while selling the remaining energy to the regional energy corporation. As a function of the load factor and the fuel cost, the production cost and energy sale income of the system are influenced much by the exchange rate model of the country. A cost analysis of a natural gas cogeneration (autoproductor) system has been performed for the numerical application, based on the monetary program supported by the IMF commenced in January 2000. In order to investigate the effect of the change in exchange rate model (introducing the floating exchange rate model) on the fuel cost, both the characteristics of the IMF program and some various forecasting methods have been utilized

  20. Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

  1. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  2. Electricity transport regimes: their impact on cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, Erwan [COGEN, Europe (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    In many cases the main product of cogeneration is heat and the surplus electricity is sold to the grid. However, the economics of cogeneration can be influenced by transport networks (transmission and distribution): the structure of network pricing is relatively new. In a recent note from COGEN Europe it was recommended that cogenerators who use only the local distribution system should not pay for the transmission system and that tariffs should be structured in sufficient detail for the advantages of decentralisation to be realised. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) why is this important? (the omission of the transmission element reduces the overall price of cogeneration); (ii) the advantages of decentralised cogeneration; (iv) the theory - the different systems (the European Directive on electricity market liberalization); (v) the options for transport fees; (vi) current regimes in some EU states (vii) the case of transborder transport; impact of each system on cogeneration; recommendations to policymakers; (viii) the Netherlands and (ix) the UK.

  3. Evolution of near term PBMR steam and cogeneration applications - HTR2008-58219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, R. W.; Hannink, R.; Paul, K.; Kriel, W.; Greyvenstein, R.; Young, R.

    2008-01-01

    US and international applications for large onsite cogeneration (steam and power) systems are emerging as a near term market for the PBMR. The South African PBMR demonstration project applies a high temperature (900 deg. C) Brayton cycle for high efficiency power generation. In addition, a number of new applications are being investigated using an intermediate temperature range (700-750 deg. C) with a simplified heat supply system design. This intermediate helium delivery temperature supports conventional steam Rankine cycle designs at higher efficiencies than obtained from water type reactor systems. These designs can be adapted for cogeneration of steam, similar to the design of gas turbine cogeneration plants that supply steam and power at many industrial sites. This temperature range allows use of conventional or readily qualifiable materials and equipment, avoiding some cost premiums associated with more difficult operating conditions. As gas prices and CO 2 values increase, the potential value of a small nuclear reactor with advanced safety characteristics increases dramatically. Because of its smaller scale, the 400-500 MWt PBMR offers the economic advantages of onsite thermal integration (steam, hot water and desalination co-production) and of providing onsite power at cost versus at retail industrial rates avoiding transmission and distribution costs. Advanced safety characteristics of the PBMR support the location of plants adjacent to steam users, district energy systems, desalination plants, and other large commercial and industrial facilities. Additional benefits include price stability, long term security of energy supply and substantial CO 2 reductions. Target markets include existing sites using gas fired boilers and cogeneration units, new projects such as refinery and petrochemical expansions, and coal-to-liquids projects where steam and power represent major burdens on fuel use and CO 2 emissions. Lead times associated with the nuclear licensing

  4. Design of the measurements validation procedure and the expert system architecture for a cogeneration internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.

    2005-01-01

    A research activity has been initiated to study the development of a diagnostic methodology, for the optimization of energy efficiency and the maximization of the operational time in those conditions, based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic. The diagnostic procedure, developed specifically for the cogeneration plant located at the Engineering Department of the University of Perugia, must be characterized by a modular architecture to obtain a flexible architecture applicable to different systems. The first part of the study deals with the identifying the principal modules and the corresponding variables necessary to evaluate the module 'health state'. Also the consequent upgrade of the monitoring system is described in this paper. Moreover it describes the structure proposed for the diagnostic procedure, consisting of a procedure for measurement validation and a fuzzy logic-based inference system. The first reveals the presence of abnormal conditions and localizes their source distinguishing between system failure and instrumentation malfunctions. The second provides an evaluation of module health state and the classification of the failures which have possibly occurred. The procedure was implemented in C++

  5. Maintenance management of gas turbine power plant systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the abundant availability of gas and the significant installed capacity of the electricity from Gas Turbine Power Systems; effective maintenance of Gas Turbine Power Plants in Nigeria could be the panacea for achieving regular power generation and supply. The study identified environmental impact on the machines, ...

  6. Advanced condition monitoring program for turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    It is important for utilities to achieve a stable operation in nuclear power plants. To achieve it, plant anomalies that affect a stable operation must be found out and eliminated. Therefore, the advanced condition monitoring program was developed. In this program, a sophisticated heat balance model based on the actual plant data is adopted to identify plant anomalies at an incipient stage and the symptoms of plant anomalies are found by heat balance changes from the model calculation. The model calculation results have shown precise prediction for actual plant parameters. Moreover, this program has the diagnostic engine that helps operators derive the cause of plant anomalies. By using this monitoring program, the component reliability in the turbine system can be periodically monitored and assessed, and as a result the stable operation of nuclear power plants can be achieved. (author)

  7. optimal selection of hydraulic turbines for small hydro electric power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: optimal selection, SHP turbine, flow duration curve, energy efficiency, annual capacity factor. 1. INTRODUCTION ... depleted, with adverse environmental impacts downstream ..... Technologies, Financing Cogeneration and Small -.

  8. Dynamic Model of Kaplan Turbine Regulating System Suitable for Power System Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Li; Liu, Dichen; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Tian; Wang, Haoyu

    2015-01-01

    Accurate modeling of Kaplan turbine regulating system is of great significance for grid security and stability analysis. In this paper, Kaplan turbine regulating system model is divided into the governor system model, the blade control system model, and the turbine and water diversion system model. The Kaplan turbine has its particularity, and the on-cam relationship between the wicket gate opening and the runner blade angle under a certain water head on the whole range was obtained by high-o...

  9. Entropy, exergy, and cost analyses of solar driven cogeneration systems using supercritical CO_2 Brayton cycles and MEE-TVC desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouta, Amine; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad; Atif, Maimoon; Marshad, Saud Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The entropy, exergy, and cost analyses for two solar cogeneration configurations are conducted. • The recompression cogeneration cycle achieves lower LCOE as compared to the regeneration cogeneration cycle. • The solar tower is the largest contributor to entropy generation in both configurations reaching almost 80%. • The specific entropy generation in the MEE-TVC decreases with decreasing the fraction. - Abstract: In this study, performance and cost analyses are conducted for a solar power tower integrated with supercritical CO_2 (sCO_2) Brayton cycles for power production and a multiple effect evaporation with a thermal vapor compression (MEE-TVC) desalination system for water production. The study is performed for two configurations based on two different supercritical cycles: the regeneration and recompression sCO_2 Brayton cycles. A two-tank molten salt storage is utilized to ensure a uniform operation throughout the day. From the entropy analysis, it was shown that the solar tower is the largest contributor to entropy generation in both configurations, reaching almost 80% from the total entropy generation, followed by the MEE-TVC desalination system, and the sCO_2 power cycle. The entropy generation in the two-tank thermal storage is negligible, around 0.3% from the total generation. In the MEE-TVC system the highest contributing component is the steam jet ejector, which is varying between 50% and 60% for different number of effects. The specific entropy generation in the MEE-TVC decreases as the fraction of the input heat to the desalination system decreases; while the specific entropy generation of the sCO_2 cycle remains constant. The cost analysis performed for different regions in Saudi Arabia and the findings reveal that the regions characterized by the highest average solar irradiation throughout the year have the lowest LCOE and LCOW values. The region achieving the lowest cost is Yanbu, followed by Khabt Al-Ghusn in the second

  10. Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    United Technologies Research Center, Pratt Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

  11. Cogeneration in breweries analysis and simulation of systems for simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration using natural gas; Sistemas de refrigeracao a partir da cogeracao: analise e simulacao de propostas para o caso de cervejarias utilizando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido

    1998-07-01

    The present work analyses some proposals of cogeneration systems for the simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration in a brewery. The requirements of steam, refrigeration and electricity, as well as the production of beer in a plant of the Antarctica Company, located in Jaguariuna - SP were collected monthly for the year of 1997. Three conceptions of systems using two gas turbines with heat recovery steam generator were then proposed to meet the surveyed demand. The proposals differ in the refrigeration system: the first one uses a traditional ammonia compression system while the second uses an ammonia absorption system, the third proposal is a combination of the compression and absorption systems. These proposals are compared to the present configuration which purchases electricity from the Public Utility for power and refrigeration (using an ammonia compression)system, and fuel oil to generate steam for process heat. The technical, economical and environmental feasibility of the proposals, as well as of the present configuration are discussed on the basis of mass balances, energy balances (first law of Thermodynamics), exergy fluxes (second law analysis), operational and capital cost, based on simulation of the performance of each configuration proposed to meet the monthly electricity, steam and refrigeration requirements for the referred plant. The turbines were chosen so as to meet the peek energy demand of the plant and two cases were simulated for each proposal: turbine operational meets only the demand of the plant and turbine operates at full load, selling electricity for the Public utility. Results obtained show that the current operational costs are higher than any of the proposals presented. The high capital costs of the proposals, though,make them less interesting financially. The simulation of the case of excess electricity to the Public Utility is very attractive, considering the cost of natural gas 3,38 U$/M btu and the fare of 40 U

  12. CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-01-01

    So far, the cumulative capacity of renewable energy systems such as bagasse cogeneration in India is far below their theoretical potential despite government subsidy programmes. One of the major barriers is the high investment cost of these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO 2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Bagasse cogeneration projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development. This study assesses the maximum theoretical as well as the realistically achievable CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India. Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO 2 mitigation by the use of bagasse for power generation through cogeneration process in India. The preliminary results indicate that the annual gross potential availability of bagasse in India is more than 67 million tonnes (MT). The potential of electricity generation through bagasse cogeneration in India is estimated to be around 34 TWh i.e. about 5575 MW in terms of the plant capacity. The annual CER potential of bagasse cogeneration in India could theoretically reach 28 MT. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of bagasse cogeneration based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 20-26 million. The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of bagasse cogeneration for power generation is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 20 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced

  13. A biofuel-based cogeneration plant in a natural gas expansion system: An energetic and economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Marco; Modica, Stefano; Portoraro, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Natural Gas Turbo Expander system with a rapeseed oil fueled CHP is studied. • The experimental data of the plant are considered in the analyses. • The energetic index of performance shows the attractiveness of the plant. • Incentives and fuel price volatility effects on economic profitability are analysed. - Abstract: The paper deals with an analysis of the energetic and economic performance of a City Gas Station (CGS) plant, made up of a rapeseed oil cogenerator coupled to a turbo-expansion system for the reduction of natural gas pressure, which is currently in operation in Italy. Although this kind of systems concept is well known, the plant can be considered unusual because the heat needed to pre-heat the gas before its expansion is obtained from a renewable source. The aim of the paper is to analyse the energetic efficiency of the plant and its economic viability, which is affected to a great extent by subsidizing energy policies and by the volatility of vegetable oil prices. All the evaluations have been based on a real set of experimental data.

  14. Dynamic performance assessment of a residential building-integrated cogeneration system under different boundary conditions. Part II: Environmental and economic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio; Scorpio, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A building-integrated micro-cogeneration system was dynamically simulated. • Simulation data were analyzed from both environmental and economic point of views. • The proposed system was compared with a conventional supply system. • The proposed system reduces the environmental impact under heat-led operation. • The proposed system reduces the operating costs whatever the control logic is. - Abstract: This work examines the performance of a residential building-integrated micro-cogeneration system during the winter by means of a whole building simulation software. The cogeneration unit was coupled with a multi-family house composed of three floors, compliant with the transmittance values of both walls and windows suggested by the Italian Law; a stratified combined tank for both heating purposes and domestic hot water production was also used for storing heat. Simulations were performed considering the transient nature of the building and occupant driven loads as well as the part-load characteristics of the cogeneration unit. This system was described in detail and analyzed from an energy point of view in the companion paper. In this paper the simulation results were evaluated in terms of both carbon dioxide equivalent emissions and operating costs; detailed analyses were performed in order to estimate the influence of the most significant boundary conditions on both environmental and economic performance of the proposed system: in particular, three volumes of the hot water storage, four climatic zones corresponding to four Italian cities, two electric demand profiles, as well as two control strategies micro-cogeneration unit were considered. The assessment of environmental impact was performed by using the standard emission factors approach, neglecting the effects of local pollutants. The operating costs due to both natural gas and electric energy consumption were evaluated in detail, whereas both the capital and maintenance costs were

  15. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone's lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector

  16. Experience with managing, operating and maintaining gas turbine powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Stewart ampersand Stevenson, a major supplier of gas turbine powered cogeneration systems to worldwide markets, established plant management, operations and maintenance capabilities in 1985 in order to provide complete service capability to the customer. As of the fall of 1993, twenty-two individual cogeneration facilities are now being operated and maintained by this company with a total capacity of 1100+ MW. More than 300 plant management and operating personnel are employed in this operation. To date, activities have been concentrated in North and South America. Negotiations are in process in a number of other areas including the Pacific Rim, China, and several Middle East countries. 7 figs

  17. System analysis of CO_2 sequestration from biomass cogeneration plants (Bio-CHP-CCS). Technology, economic efficiency, sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Claus

    2014-10-01

    In the present work a system analysis is carried out to determine the extent to which a combination of the three areas of energetic biomass use, combined heat and power (CHP) and CO_2 sequestration (CCS - Carbon Capture and Storage) is fundamentally possible and meaningful. The term ''CO_2 sequestration'' refers to the process chain from CO_2 capture, CO_2 transport and CO_2 storage. While the use of biomass in combined heat and power plants is a common practice, CO_2 sequestration (based on fossil fuels) is at the research and development stage. A combination of CCS with biomass has so far been little studied, a combination with combined heat and power plants has not been investigated at all. The two technologies for the energetic use of biomass and cogeneration represent fixed variables in the energy system of the future in the planning of the German federal government. According to the lead scenario of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, electricity generation from biomass is to be almost doubled from 2008 to 2020. At the same time, the heat generated in cogeneration is to be trebled [cf. Nitsch and Wenzel, 2009, p. 10]. At the same time, the CCS technology is to be used in half of all German coal-fired power plants until 2030 [cf. Krassuki et al., 2009, p. 17]. The combination of biomass and CCS also represents an option which is conceivable for the German federal policy [cf. Bundestag, 2008b, p. 4]. In addition, the CCS technology will provide very good export opportunities for the German economy in the future [cf. Federal Government, 2010, p. 20]. The combination of biomass combined heat and power plants with CCS offers the interesting opportunity to actively remove CO_2 from the atmosphere as a future climate protection instrument by means of CO_2 neutrality. Therefore, in the energy concept of the German federal government called for a storage project for industrial or biogenic CO_2 emissions to be established until 2020, as well as the use of CO_2 as

  18. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  19. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  20. Numerical Analysis of Impulse Turbine for Isolated Pilot OWC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillating water column (OWC is the most widely used wave energy converting technology in the world. The impulse turbine is recently been employed as the radial turbine in OWC facilities to convert bidirectional mechanical air power into electricity power. 3D numerical model for the impulse turbine is established in this paper to investigate its operating performance of the designed impulse turbine for the pilot OWC system which is under the construction on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The proper mesh style, turbulence model, and numerical solutions are employed to study the velocity and air pressure distribution especially around the rotor blade. The operating coefficients obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with corresponding experimental data, which demonstrates that the 3D numerical model proposed here can be applied to the research of impulse turbines for OWC system. Effects of tip clearances on flow field distribution characteristics and operating performances are also studied.

  1. Natural gas cogeneration in the residential sector; La cogeneration au gaz naturel en residentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancelot, C.; Gaudin, S. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The natural gas cogeneration offer is now available and operational in the industrial sector. It is based on technologies of piston engines and gas turbines. Currently, this offer is sufficiently diversified, so much from the point of view of the range of powers available (from 1 MW to more than 40 MW electric) that number of manufacturers. In order to widen the cogeneration market in France to the markets of the commercial and residential sectors, Gaz De France has undertaken a technical economic study to validate the potential of those markets. This study led to work on the assembly of a french die to cogeneration packages of low power (less than 1 MW electric). This step has emerged at the beginning of 1999 with the launching of a commercial offer of cogeneration packages. In margin to this work Gaz De France Research division also initiated a study in order to evaluate the offer of micro cogeneration, products delivering an electric output lower than 10 kW. (authors)

  2. Instrumentation and control of turbine, generator and associated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogtland, U.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give some information on Instrumentation and Control (I and C) for turbine-generators, in this case for nuclear application. The I and C scope of supply for such a turbine-generator can be divided as follows: - Closed-loop controls - Turbine stress control systems - Supervisory instrumentation - Protection systems - Open-loop controls. The main systems used for nuclear application are presented by means of examples taken from these a.m. categories. (orig./RW)

  3. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  4. HTGR-steam cycle/cogeneration plant economic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    The cogeneration of heat and electricity provides the potential for improved fuel utilization and corresponding reductions in energy costs. In the evaluation of the cogeneration plant product costs, it is advantageous to develop joint-product cost curves for alternative cogeneration plant models. The advantages and incentives for cogeneration are then presented in a form most useful to evaluate the various energy options. The HTGR-Steam Cycle/Cogeneration (SC/C) system is envisioned to have strong cogeneration potential due to its high-quality steam capability, its perceived nuclear siting advantages, and its projected cost advantages relative to coal. The economic information presented is based upon capital costs developed during 1980 and the economic assumptions identified herein

  5. Study of a cogeneration system (power and cooling) operating with two distinct prime-movers; Estudo de um sistema de cogeracao (potencia eletrica e refrigeracao) operando com dois motores termicos distintos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, Yipsy Roque; Parise, Jose Alberto Reis [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: gipsyrb@mec.puc-rio.br, e-mail: parise@mec.puc-rio.br; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEM/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2006-07-01

    When dealing with complex thermal systems generating different energy products from a single fuel source (for example, as in the present work, electric and refrigeration power, with two gas-powered prime movers), one has to find the most energy efficient production scheme. To that end, each load demand (power and cooling), the efficiencies of each component, the cooling to power load ratio and the power distribution among the prime-movers, all have to be considered. This work presents the main equations for the energy balance of a cogeneration system with two primemovers (a gas turbine and an internal combustion engine), a waste heat driven absorption chiller and an auxiliary vapor compression chiller. The energy conservation equation was applied for each control volume comprising the system. Three possible cases were defined according to how cooling power demand and cooling power produced by the waste heat driven absorption cycle compared. As a result, characteristic performance curves were obtained for a typical application, allowing for the determination of maximum global efficiency values (represented by an energy conversion ratio) as a function of: the electric power to cooling power demand ratio, of the power generation distribution ratio among the two prime-movers, and of the part-load ratio operation of each prime mover. The resulting system of equations was solved by the software EES (Engineering Equation Solver{sup R}). (author)

  6. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  7. Stochastic risk-constrained short-term scheduling of industrial cogeneration systems in the presence of demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, Manijeh; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam; Zare, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Short-term self-scheduling problem of customers with CHP units is conducted. • Power demand and pool prices are forecasted using ARIMA models. • Risk management problem is conducted by implementing CVaR methodology. • The demand response program is implemented in self-scheduling problem of CHP units. • Non-convex feasible operation region in different types of CHP units is modeled. - Abstract: This paper presents a stochastic programming framework for solving the scheduling problem faced by an industrial customer with cogeneration facilities, conventional power production system, and heat only units. The power and heat demands of the customer are supplied considering demand response (DR) programs. In the proposed DR program, the responsive load can vary in different time intervals. In the paper, the heat-power dual dependency characteristic in different types of CHP units is taken into account. In addition, a heat buffer tank, with the ability of heat storage, has been incorporated in the proposed framework. The impact of the market and load uncertainties on the scheduling problem is characterized through a stochastic programming formulation. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) technique is used to generate the electricity price and the customer demand scenarios. The daily and weekly seasonalities of demand and market prices are taken into account in the scenario generation procedure. The conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) methodology is implemented in order to limit the risk of expected profit due to market price and load forecast volatilities

  8. Digital electro-hydraulic control system for nuclear turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yutaka; Tone, Youichi; Ozono, Jiro

    1985-01-01

    The unit capacity of steam turbines for nuclear power generation is very large, accordingly their unexpected stop disturbs power system, and the lowering of their capacity ratio exerts large influence on power generation cost. Therefore, very high reliability is required for turbine EHC controllers which directly control the turbines for nuclear power generation. In order to meet such requirement, Toshiba Corp. has developed high reliability type analog tripled turbine EHC controllers, and delivered them to No. 3 plant in the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station and No. 1 plant in the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. At present, the trial operation is under way. The development of digital EHC controllers was begun in 1976, and through the digital EHC for a test turbine and that for a small turbine, the digital EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation were developed. In this paper, the function, constitution, features and maintenance of the digital tripled EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation, the application of new technology to them, and the confirmation of the control function by simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. The development of control systems for high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, M.

    1983-01-01

    The functional and technological aspects of developments in the field of control systems for steam turbines over the last twenty years are analyzed. These developments have now culminated in very sophisticated systems which closely link electronics to high pressure hydraulic technology. A detailed description of these systeme high-lighting the high technical level of the control methods and the flexibility and reliability in service of turbines controlled in this way is given [fr

  10. Homogeneous groups of plants, development scenarios, and basic configurations on the cogeneration systems optimization from the alcohol sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Walter, A.C. da; Bajay, S.V.; Carrillo, J.L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of introducing or diffusing new technologies at a macro economic level using micro economic information can be carried out through the careful selection of a small number of homogeneous groups of plants from the point of view of the main technical parameters being considered. In this paper this concept is applied to the study of cogeneration in sugar and alcohol producing plants. The statistical techniques of Cluster Analysis, regressions and mean value testing are used. Basic cogeneration plant designs are proposed for alternatives development scenarios for this industrial branch. These scenarios are based upon differing assumptions about the expansion of alcohol market, use of surplus sugar cane bagasse as saleable commodity, as a fuel or raw material, and price expectations for the sale of surplus power from the cogeneration plants to the local grid. (author)

  11. Cogeneration markets in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poredos, S.

    1993-01-01

    Cogeneration offers a key strategy which supports global competitiveness for Ontario businesses, encourages energy efficiency and environmental protection, and offers natural gas utilities and producers stable long-term incremental markets. By supporting cogeneration projects, electric utilities will benefit from increased flexibility. Natural gas is the fuel of choice for cogeneration, which can in most cases be easily integrated into existing operations. In Ontario, electric demand grew along with the gross domestic product until 1990, but has decreased with the recent economic recession. The provincial utility Ontario Hydro is resizing itself to stabilize total rate increases of 30% over the last three years and supporting reduction of its high debt load. Rate increases are supposed to be limited but this may be difficult to achieve without further cost-cutting measures. Cogeneration opportunities exist with many institutional and industrial customers who are trying to remain globally competitive by cutting operating costs. In general, cogeneration can save 20% or more of total annual energy costs. Due to excess capacity, Ontario Hydro is not willing to purchase electric power, thus only electric load displacement projects are valid at this time. This will reduce overall savings due to economies of scale. In southwestern Ontario, Union Gas Ltd. has been successful in developing 40 MW of electric displacement projects, providing a total load of 5 billion ft 3 of natural gas (50% of which is incremental). Over 3,000 MW of technical cogeneration potential is estimated to exist in the Union Gas franchise area

  12. Control strategies and cycling demands for Li-ion storage batteries in residential micro-cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Kenney, B.; MacNeil, D.D.; Armstrong, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Canadian home energy system modeled with PV, ICE CHP, battery and power grid. • Battery function is modeled on fundamental electrochemical principles. • Techno-economics of control strategies assessed. • Impact of control strategies battery cycles is developed for wear analysis. • Non-monotonic nature of battery cycles with transient renewables is discussed. - Abstract: Energy storage units have become important components in residential micro-cogeneration (MCG) systems. As MCG systems are often connected to single residences or buildings in a wide variety of settings, they are frequently unique and highly customized. Lithium-ion batteries have recently gained some profile as energy storage units of choice, because of their good capacity, high efficiency, robustness and ability to meet the demands of typical residential electrical loads. In the present work, modeled scenarios are explored which examine the performance of a MCG system with an internal combustion engine, photovoltaic input and a Li-ion storage battery. An electricity demand profile from new data collected in Ottawa, Canada is used to provide a full year energy use context for the analyses. The demands placed on the battery are examined to assess the suitability of the battery size and performance, as well as control related functionalities which reveal significantly varying battery use, and led to a quantitative expression for equivalent cycles. The energy use simulations are derived from electrochemical fundamentals adapted for a larger battery pack. Simulation output provides the basis for techno-economic commentary on how to assess large-scale Li-ion batteries for effective electrical storage purposes in MCG systems, and the impact of the nature of the control strategy on the battery service life

  13. Rule - based Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xiao-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the trend of increasing installed capacity of wind power, the intelligent fault diagnosis of wind turbine is of great significance to the safe and efficient operation of wind farms. Based on the knowledge of fault diagnosis of wind turbines, this paper builds expert system diagnostic knowledge base by using confidence production rules and expert system self-learning method. In Visual Studio 2013 platform, C # language is selected and ADO.NET technology is used to access the database. Development of Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine. The purpose of this paper is to realize on-line diagnosis of wind turbine fault through human-computer interaction, and to improve the diagnostic capability of the system through the continuous improvement of the knowledge base.

  14. Evaluation of turbine systems for compressed air energy storage plants. Final report for FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsounes, G.T.

    1976-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage plants for electric utility peak-shaving applications comprise four subsystems: a turbine system, compressor system, an underground air storage reservoir, and a motor/generator. Proposed plant designs use turbines that are derived from available gas and steam turbines with proven reliability. The study examines proposed turbine systems and presents an evaluation of possible systems that may reduce capital cost and/or improve performance. Six new turbine systems are identified for further economic evaluation.

  15. Nuclear hydrogen - cogeneration and the transitional pathway to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbin, G.M.; Talbot, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the next phase of the Bruce Energy Centre, in cooperation with Ontario Hydro, will see the introduction of a series of integrated energy processes whose end products will have environmental value added. Cogenerated nuclear steam and electricity were selected on the basis of economics, sustainability and carbon emissions. The introduction of hydrogen to combine with CO 2 from alcohol fermentation provided synthetic methanol as a feedstock to refine into ether for the rapidly expanding gasoline fuel additive market, large volumes of O 2 will enhance combustion processes and improve closed-looping of the systems. In the implementation of the commercial development, the first stage will require simultaneous electrolysis, methanol synthesis and additional fermentation capacity. Electricity and steam pricing will be key to viability and an 80-MV 'backup' fossil-fuelled, back pressure turbine cogeneration facility could be introduced in a compatible matter. Successful demonstration of transitional and integrating elements necessary to achieve sustainable development can serve as a model for electric utilities throughout the world. 11 ref., 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-05

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as

  17. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  18. Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    networks and more and more wind power stations, acting as power plants, are connected directly to the transmission networks. As the grid penetration and power level of the wind turbines increase steadily, the wind power starts to have significant impacts to the power grid system. Therefore, more advanced...... generators, power electronic systems, and control solutions have to be introduced to improve the characteristics of the wind power plant and make it more suitable to be integrated into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are also some emerging technology challenges, which need to be further clarified......Wind power is still the most promising renewable energy in the year of 2013. The wind turbine system (WTS) started with a few tens of kilowatt power in the 1980s. Now, multimegawatt wind turbines are widely installed even up to 6-8 MW. There is a widespread use of wind turbines in the distribution...

  19. Vortex system studies on small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomerie, Bjoern; Dahlberg, Jan-Aake [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Aeronautics, FFA

    2003-10-01

    The wind tunnel experiment reported included a small wind turbine setup and smoke to visualize the trailing tip vortices for different wind turbine configurations. Several combinations of tunnel wind speeds and tip speed ratios generated a database where the end result functions were radius and pitch, of the tip vortex spirals, versus the downstream coordinate. The Reynolds number in the experiment was very low compared to that of full size turbines. The results should therefore be seen as valid only for low Reynolds numbers. The models were 18 and 25 cm diameter turbines. This is thought to be complementary to the information obtained in similar wind tunnel investigations for much larger models. The database is meant to be a fundamental tool for the construction of practical aerodynamic induction methods. Such methods typically employ the Biot-Savart law has been shown to lead to a flow field, which deviates considerably from that of reality. E.g. concentration into tip vortices does not happen when the flow is simulated with Biot-Savart law only. Thus, a combination of the induction method and its modification, based on investigations such as the one reported, is foreseen to replace the widely used Blade Element Momentum method for wind turbine loads and performance prediction.

  20. System Identification of Wind Turbines for Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena

    Structural health monitoring is a multi-disciplinary engineering field that should allow the actual wind turbine maintenance programmes to evolve to the next level, hence increasing safety and reliability and decreasing turbines downtime. The main idea is to have a sensing system on the structure...... cases are considered, two practical problems from the wind industry are studied, i.e. monitoring of the gearbox shaft torque and the tower root bending moments. The second part of the thesis is focused on the influence of friction on the health of the wind turbine and on the nonlinear identification...... that monitors the system responses and notifies the operator when damages or degradations have been detected. However, some of the response signals that contain important information about the health of the wind turbine components cannot be directly measured, or measuring them is highly complex and costly...

  1. INCOGEN: Nuclear cogeneration in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, A.I. van

    1997-01-01

    A small heat and power cogeneration plant with a pebble bed high temperature reactor (HTR) is discussed. Cogeneration could be a new market for nuclear power and the HTR could be very suitable. The 40 MWth INCOGEN system is presented. Philosophy, layout, characteristics and performance are described. The lower power level, advanced component technologies and inherent safety features are used to obtain a maximally simplified system. Static and dynamic cycle analyses of the energy conversion system are discussed, as well as the behaviour of the reactor cavity cooling system. Although the cost study has not been finished yet, cost reduction trends are indicated. (author)

  2. Concept of turbines for ultrasupercritical, supercritical, and subcritical steam conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Pichugin, I. I.; Kovalev, I. A.; Bozhko, V. V.; Vladimirskii, O. A.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article describes the design features of condensing turbines for ultrasupercritical initial steam conditions (USSC) and large-capacity cogeneration turbines for super- and subcritical steam conditions having increased steam extractions for district heating purposes. For improving the efficiency and reliability indicators of USSC turbines, it is proposed to use forced cooling of the head high-temperature thermally stressed parts of the high- and intermediate-pressure rotors, reaction-type blades of the high-pressure cylinder (HPC) and at least the first stages of the intermediate-pressure cylinder (IPC), the double-wall HPC casing with narrow flanges of its horizontal joints, a rigid HPC rotor, an extended system of regenerative steam extractions without using extractions from the HPC flow path, and the low-pressure cylinder's inner casing moving in accordance with the IPC thermal expansions. For cogeneration turbines, it is proposed to shift the upper district heating extraction (or its significant part) to the feedwater pump turbine, which will make it possible to improve the turbine plant efficiency and arrange both district heating extractions in the IPC. In addition, in the case of using a disengaging coupling or precision conical bolts in the coupling, this solution will make it possible to disconnect the LPC in shifting the turbine to operate in the cogeneration mode. The article points out the need to intensify turbine development efforts with the use of modern methods for improving their efficiency and reliability involving, in particular, the use of relatively short 3D blades, last stages fitted with longer rotor blades, evaporation techniques for removing moisture in the last-stage diaphragm, and LPC rotor blades with radial grooves on their leading edges.

  3. Implementing of the multi-objective particle swarm optimizer and fuzzy decision-maker in exergetic, exergoeconomic and environmental optimization of a benchmark cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Babaie, Meisam; Farmani, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective optimization for design of a benchmark cogeneration system namely as the CGAM cogeneration system is performed. In optimization approach, Exergetic, Exergoeconomic and Environmental objectives are considered, simultaneously. In this regard, the set of Pareto optimal solutions known as the Pareto frontier is obtained using the MOPSO (multi-objective particle swarm optimizer). The exergetic efficiency as an exergetic objective is maximized while the unit cost of the system product and the cost of the environmental impact respectively as exergoeconomic and environmental objectives are minimized. Economic model which is utilized in the exergoeconomic analysis is built based on both simple model (used in original researches of the CGAM system) and the comprehensive modeling namely as TTR (total revenue requirement) method (used in sophisticated exergoeconomic analysis). Finally, a final optimal solution from optimal set of the Pareto frontier is selected using a fuzzy decision-making process based on the Bellman-Zadeh approach and results are compared with corresponding results obtained in a traditional decision-making process. Further, results are compared with the corresponding performance of the base case CGAM system and optimal designs of previous works and discussed. -- Highlights: → A multi-objective optimization approach has been implemented in optimization of a benchmark cogeneration system. → Objective functions based on the environmental impact evaluation, thermodynamic and economic analysis are obtained and optimized. → Particle swarm optimizer implemented and its robustness is compared with NSGA-II. → A final optimal configuration is found using various decision-making approaches. → Results compared with previous works in the field.

  4. Integration Research on Gas Turbine and Tunnel Kiln Combined System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hefei; Ma, Liangdong; Liu, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    Through the integrated modeling of gas turbine and tunnel kiln combined system, a thermodynamic calculation method of combined system is put forward, and the combined system operation parameters are obtained. By this method, the optimization of the combined system is analyzed and the optimal configuration of the gas turbine is calculated. At the same time, the thermal efficiency of the combined system is analyzed, and the heat distribution and thermal efficiency of the system before and after the improvement are explained. Taking the 1500 kg/h ceramic production as an example, pointed out that if the tunnel kiln has a gas turbine with a power of 342 kw. The amount of electricity of the combined system that produced per unit volume of the fuel which consumes more than it used to will be 7.19 kwh, the system thermal efficiency will reach 57.49%, which higher than the individual gas turbine’s cycle thermal efficiency 20% at least.

  5. Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM Modular Generator sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, G.

    1994-12-31

    Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM modular generator sets are outlined. The following topics are discussed: GE LM gas turbine history, operating experience, maintenance, gas turbine spare engines, modular gas turbine generator sets, typical LM2500 cogeneration plant and STIG cycle plant, factory packaging concept, gas turbine/generator package, performance, comparison, competitive capital cost, phased construction, comparison of revenue requirements, capacity evaluation, heat rate evaluation, fuel evaluation, startup, and dispatch flexibility without maintenance penalty.

  6. The California cogeneration success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiggemann, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter describes the involvement of Southern California Gas Company(SoCalGas) in the promotion and demonstration of the benefits of cogeneration in California. The topics covered in this chapter are market strategy, cogeneration program objectives, cogeneration program, incentive cofunding, special gas rate, special service priority, special gas pressure and main options, advertising, promotional brochures and handbooks, technical support, program accomplishments, cogeneration outlook, and reasons for success of the program

  7. Smart intermittency-friendly cogeneration: Techno-economic performance of innovative double storage concept for integrating compression heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten

    2011-01-01

    cogeneration plants rather than central power plants are giving way for wind power in the electricity mix. Could intermittent renewables be a threat to the system-wide energy, economic and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration have to offer? This paper investigates how existing cogeneration...... plants may adapt their plant design and operational strategy to improve the co-existence between cogeneration and intermittent renewables. A novel intermittency-friendly and super-efficient concept in cogeneration is presented that involves integrating a high-pressure compression heat pump using heat...

  8. Comparative exergoeconomic analysis of prime movers of cogeneration plants; Avaliacao exergoeconomica comparativa de acionadores primarios de plantas de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donatelli, Joao L.M. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: donatelli@lttc.com.ufrj.br; Vieira, Leonardo S.R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Conhecimento de Materiais e Mecanica]. E-mail: lsrv@cepel.br; Cruz, Manuel E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: manuel@serv.com.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we apply exergoeconomic principles to perform a comparative analysis of the use of internal combustion engines or gas turbines as prime movers of cogeneration plants. A preliminary comparison of these movers can be obtained by analysing them individually, considering the complete utilization of the generated products rated on a common exergetic basis. However, when these movers are integrated in a cogeneration plant, it is necessary to perform a global system analysis, which will consider the coupling between generation capacity and demand, under the design conditions. The design of a cogeneration plant should, ideally, consider all the aspects that affect its performance. In this paper we take into account several aspects which are not normally collectively considered in similar analyses encountered in the literature. Specifically, the comparative procedure considers the electrical tariff on an hourly basis, the electrical and thermal load profiles, the influence of the environmental conditions on the performance of the prime movers, sizing and operation mode options to meet plant loads, part-load efficiency, different criteria for cost partitioning, and, finally, the effect of size on plant cost. Once the operating conditions of the cogeneration plant are defined, the procedure attributes costs to all the fluxes, allowing for the identification of the ranges of capacity where each mover is economically advantageous. We apply the procedure to the energetic supply analysis of a typical process of Brazilian shopping centers. (author)

  9. FY1999 annual report on the research and development on practical industrial cogeneration technology; 1999 nendo sangyoyo cogeneration jitsuyo gijutsu kaihatsu kenkyu seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The basic plan aims to quicken the practical application of the industrial HBGT (hybrid gas turbine) cogeneration technology and thereby to realize high-efficiency energy utilization for reduction in CO2 emission. For this purpose, a medium-scale HBGT, expected to be high in efficiency and low in polluting, and its components are subjected to assessment tests and endurance tests to prove that there are reliability and soundness in HBGT. Ceramic members are developed which are high in strength at elevated temperatures and in resistance to oxidation, and are subjected to assessment so that they will be further improved in reliability and durability. An HBGT is designed, fabricated, and operated. The engine system is tested for performance, and the performance is improved. It is put to a long-term operation, which is to confirm the presence of soundness and reliability in HBGT as an industrial cogeneration system. Industrial fields in which HBGT will be useful are selected and surveys are conducted to find out how it will function in such selected fields. Problems which HBGT will encounter upon practical application are extracted, and measures for solving them are clarified. Such an HBGT will have a shaft output of approximately 8,000kW, engine thermal efficiency of not less than 34%, and a turbine inlet temperature of approximately 1,250 degrees C. (NEDO)

  10. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  11. Method and system to facilitate sealing in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Victor John; Foster, Gregory Thomas; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar

    2017-09-12

    A method and system for sealing between components within a gas turbine is provided. A first recess defined in a first component receives a seal member. A second recess defined in a second component adjacent the first component also receives the seal member. The first and second recesses are located proximate a hot gas path defined through the gas turbine, and define circumferential paths about the turbine axis. The seal member includes a sealing face that extends in a direction substantially parallel to the turbine axis. The seal member also includes a plurality of seal layers, wherein at least one of the seal layers includes at least one stress relief region for facilitating flexing of the first seal member.

  12. Cogeneration. Energy efficiency - Micro-cogeneration; La Cogeneration. Efficacite Energetique - Micro-cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudellal, M.

    2010-07-01

    Depletion of natural resources and of non-renewable energy sources, pollution, greenhouse effect, increasing energy needs: energy efficiency is a major topic implying a better use of the available primary energies. In front of these challenges, cogeneration - i.e. the joint production of electricity and heat, and, at a local or individual scale, micro-cogeneration - can appear as interesting alternatives. This book presents in a detailed manner: the present day and future energy stakes; the different types of micro-cogeneration units (internal combustion engines, Stirling engine, fuel cell..), and the available models or the models at the design stage; the different usable fuels (natural gas, wood, biogas..); the optimization rules of a facility; the costs and amortizations; and some examples of facilities. (J.S.)

  13. Thermionic cogeneration burner design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczy, G.; Goodale, D.; Moffat, A. L.; Morgan, D. T.

    Since thermionic converters receive heat at very high temperatures (approximately 1800 K) and reject heat at moderately high temperatures (approximately 800 K), they are useful for cogeneration applications involving high temperature processes. The electric power from thermionic converters is produced as a high amperage, low-voltage direct current. An ideal cogeneration application would be to utilize the reject heat at the collector temperature and the electricity without power conditioning. A cogeneration application in the edible oil industry fulfills both of these requirements since both direct heat and hydrogen gas are required in the hydrogenation of the oils. In this application, the low-voltage direct current would be used in a hydrogen electrolyzer.

  14. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  15. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. ...

  16. Evaluation of high temperature gas reactor for demanding cogeneration load follow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Modular nuclear reactor systems are being developed around the world for new missions among which is cogeneration for industries and remote areas. Like existing fossil energy counterpart in these markets, a nuclear plant would need to demonstrate the feasibility of load follow including (1) the reliability to generate power and heat simultaneously and alone and (2) the flexibility to vary cogeneration rates concurrent to demand changes. This article reports the results of JAEA's evaluation on the high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) to perform these duties. The evaluation results in a plant design based on the materials and design codes developed with JAEA's operating test reactor and from additional equipment validation programs. The 600 MWt-HTGR plant generates electricity efficiently by gas turbine and 900degC heat by a topping heater. The heater couples via a heat transport loop to industrial facility that consumes the high temperature heat to yield heat product such as hydrogen fuel, steel, or chemical. Original control methods are proposed to automate transition between the load duties. Equipment challenges are addressed for severe operation conditions. Performance limits of cogeneration load following are quantified from the plant system simulation to a range of bounding events including a loss of either load and a rapid peaking of electricity. (author)

  17. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren

    energy and an increase in the loading of the wind turbine structure and components. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that there are advantages of basing a yaw system on hydraulic components instead of normal electrical components. This is done through a state of the art analysis followed...... in the wind turbine yaw system along with minor reductions in the blades and main shaft. Optimization of the damping and stiffness of the hydraulic soft yaw system have been conducted and an optimum found for load reduction. Linear control algorithms for control of damping pressure peaks have been developed...... the full turbine code in FAST, and the mathematical model of the hydraulic yaw system in Matlab/Simulink and Amesim is developed in order to analyze a full scale model of the hydraulic yaw system in combination with the implemented friction model for the yaw system. These results are also promising...

  18. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  19. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM SUMMARY AND DIRECTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz

    2004-07-01

    The South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), administratively housed at Clemson University, has participated in the advancement of combustion turbine technology for over a decade. The University Turbine Systems Research Program, previously referred to as the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program, has been administered by SCIES for the U.S. DOE during the 1992-2003 timeframe. The structure of the program is based on a concept presented to the DOE by Clemson University. Under the supervision of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UTSR consortium brings together the engineering departments at leading U.S. universities and U.S. combustion turbine developers to provide a solid base of knowledge for the future generations of land-based gas turbines. In the UTSR program, an Industrial Review Board (IRB) (Appendix C) of gas turbine companies and related organizations defines needed gas turbine research. SCIES prepares yearly requests for university proposals to address the research needs identified by the IRB organizations. IRB technical representatives evaluate the university proposals and review progress reports from the awarded university projects. To accelerate technology transfer technical workshops are held to provide opportunities for university, industry and government officials to share comments and improve quality and relevancy of the research. To provide educational growth at the Universities, in addition to sponsored research, the UTSR provides faculty and student fellowships. The basis for all activities--research, technology transfer, and education--is the DOE Turbine Program Plan and identification, through UTSR consortium group processes, technology needed to meet Program Goals that can be appropriately researched at Performing Member Universities.

  20. Transient behaviour of small HTR for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, E.C.; Van Heek, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch market for combined generation of heat and power identifies a unit size of 40 MW thermal for the conceptual design of a nuclear cogeneration plant. The ACACIA system provides 14 MWe electricity combined with 17 t/h of high temperature steam (220 deg C, 10 bar) with a pebble-bed high temperature reactor directly coupled with a helium compressor and a helium turbine. The design of this small CHP unit that is used for industrial applications is mainly based on a pre-feasibility study in 1996, performed by a joint working group of five Dutch organisations, in which technical feasibility was shown. Thermal hydraulic and reactor physics analyses show favourable control characteristics during normal operation and a benign response to loss of helium coolant and loss of flow conditions. Throughout the response on these highly infrequent conditions, ample margin exists between the highest fuel temperatures and the temperature above which fuel degradation will occur. To come to quantitative statements about the ACACIA transient behaviour, a calculational coupling between the high temperature reactor core analysis code package PANTHER/DIREKT and the thermal hydraulic code RELAP5 for the energy conversion system has been made. This coupling offers a more realistic simulation of the entire system, since it removes the necessity of forcing boundary conditions on the simulation models at the data transfer points. In this paper, the models used for the dynamic components of the energy conversion system are described, and the results of the calculation for two operational transients in order to demonstrate the effects of the interaction between reactor core and its energy conversion system are shown. Several transient cases that are representative as operational transients for an HTR will be discussed, including one representing a load rejection case that shows the functioning of the control system, in particular the bypass valve. Another transient is a load following

  1. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of

  2. Installation of a small central thermoelectric using biomass and cogeneration with absorption refrigeration system: alternative for small rural isolated communities; Instalacao de uma pequena central termeletrica a biomassa e cogeracao com sistema de refrigeracao por absorcao: alternativa para pequenas comunidades agricolas isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos; Marcon, Rogerio Olavo; Reys, Marcos Alves dos [Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas (CEULP), TO (Brazil); Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of electrical energy in several localities of Brazil results in a slow perspective of in terms of economic growth and scientific and technological development. In order to minimize these problems it is proposed the use of co-generation systems with small thermoelectric plants burning rice rusk (an abundant biomass in certain regions of Brazil, as for example the Tocantins State) as a heat source and to utilize the discharged steam from the turbine to generate cold through an absorption refrigeration system. The work intends to show a possible solution to the problems originated from the absence of electric power in small and isolated rural villages, also problems of processing storage of agricultural residues and to generate cold for several applications. (author)

  3. The system design and performance test of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyantoro, Bambang Arip; Suphandani, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a tool that is being developed to generate energy from wind. One cause is still little use of wind energy is the design of wind turbines that are less precise. Therefore in this study will be developed the system design of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine and tested performance with experimental methods. The design of hybrid turbine based on a straight bladed Darrieus turbine along with a double step Savonius turbine. The method used to design wind turbines is by studying literature, analyzing the critical parts of a wind turbine and the structure of the optimal design. Wind turbine prototype of the optimal design characteristic tests in the wind tunnel experimentally by varying the speed of the wind. From the experimental results show that the greater the wind speed, the greater the wind turbine rotation and torque is raised. The hybrid vertical axis wind turbine has much better self-starting and better conversion efficiency.

  4. Cogeneration: a win-win option for Cadbury Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayo, Felix; Bogunjoko, S.B.; Sobanwa, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Like most developing countries, Nigeria is looking to cogeneration as a sustainable and reliable means of overcoming its present unreliable supply of energy. The article focuses on the efforts of the food company Cadbury Nigeria which uses cogeneration for all its steam and power requirements within its own factory. The Company recently decided to upgrade further by switching from liquid fossil fuels to natural gas. Diagrams show the existing system as well as the systems for cogeneration with natural gas. Some of the obstacles to be overcome to improve the viability of cogeneration in developing countries are listed. It is hoped that the outcome of the COP6 meeting to be held in April 2001 will offer encouragement for cogeneration

  5. Cogeneration: a win-win option for Cadbury Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayo, Felix [Triple ' E' Systems Associates Ltd. (Nigeria); Bogunjoko, S.B.; Sobanwa, A.C. [Cadbury Nigeria plc. (Nigeria)

    2001-02-01

    Like most developing countries, Nigeria is looking to cogeneration as a sustainable and reliable means of overcoming its present unreliable supply of energy. The article focuses on the efforts of the food company Cadbury Nigeria which uses cogeneration for all its steam and power requirements within its own factory. The Company recently decided to upgrade further by switching from liquid fossil fuels to natural gas. Diagrams show the existing system as well as the systems for cogeneration with natural gas. Some of the obstacles to be overcome to improve the viability of cogeneration in developing countries are listed. It is hoped that the outcome of the COP6 meeting to be held in April 2001 will offer encouragement for cogeneration.

  6. The financial viability of an SOFC cogeneration system in single-family dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanne, Kari; Saari, Arto; Ugursal, V. Ismet; Good, Joel

    In the near future, fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems will compete with traditional methods of energy supply. A micro-CHP system may be considered viable if its incremental capital cost compared to its competitors equals to cumulated savings during a given period of time. A simplified model is developed in this study to estimate the operation of a residential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A comparative assessment of the SOFC system vis-à-vis heating systems based on gas, oil and electricity is conducted using the simplified model for a single-family house located in Ottawa and Vancouver. The energy consumption of the house is estimated using the HOT2000 building simulation program. A financial analysis is carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the maximum allowable capital cost with respect to system sizing, acceptable payback period, energy price and the electricity buyback strategy of an energy utility. Based on the financial analysis, small (1-2 kW e) SOFC systems seem to be feasible in the considered case. The present study shows also that an SOFC system is especially an alternative to heating systems based on oil and electrical furnaces.

  7. Fault Detection and Isolation for Wind Turbine Electric Pitch System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangsheng; Ma, Kuichao; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and isolation scheme applied on electric pitch system of wind turbines. Pitch system is one of the most critical components due to its effect on the operational safety and the dynamics of wind turbines. Faults in this system should be precisely...... detected to prevent failures and decrease downtime. To detect faults of electric pitch actuators and sensors, an extended kalman filter (EKF) based multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) designed to estimate the states of the system. The proposed method is demonstrated in case studies. The simulation...

  8. Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Soumitr

    2011-12-01

    The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account

  9. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  10. Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-09-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.

  11. Integration of a PAFC-Cogeneration Plant into an existing District-Heating-System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ulrich; Geiger, Bernd; Grohmann, Juergen

    1999-01-01

    The Studiengesellschaft Brennstoffzellen e. V. assigned in the middle of 1995 the Institutions ''Lehrstuhl fir Energiewirtschaft mid Kraftwerkstechnik (IfE)'' to design a concept to integrate an ONSI-PAFC Model C in an existing district heating system. The fuel cell generates about 200 kW electrical and 215 kW thermal power consuming 500 kW natural gas. In the case of complete use of thermal power the fuel cell surpasses the efficiency of conventional systems by about 30 %. The possibilities to install the fuel cell were investigated at three locations, two housing areas, one with 36.000 m2 the other with 60.000 m2 heated area, and one indoor pool. The heating systems are representative of the Federal Republic of Germany. It turned out that the integration of the fuel cell into the existing heating system might be difficult at each location, either the annual consumption of thermal energy was too low or the heating system was operating at a temperature level reducing the usable thermal power of the fuel cell. After further studies the larger housing area was selected, with the intention of using the thermal power of the fuel cell during the whole year and to get high thermal load factors. Some difficulties are caused by the temperature level of the heating system, which is 70/55 o C. (author)

  12. Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal...... fatigue design of OWTs is discussed and results for reliability assessment of typical fatigue critical design of offshore steel support structures are presented....

  13. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Southwest Windpower H40 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Link, H.; Meadors, M.; Bianchi, J.

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this test was to evaluate the safety and function characteristics of the Whisper H40 wind turbine. The general requirements of wind turbine safety and function tests are defined in the IEC standard WT01. The testing was conducted in accordance with the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) Quality Assurance System, including the NWTC Certification Team Certification Quality Manual and the NWTC Certification Team General Quality Manual for the Testing of Wind Turbines, as well as subordinate documents. This safety and function test was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Field Verification Program for small wind turbines.

  14. Stability improvement of induction generator-based wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hu, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The stability improvement of induction-generator-based wind turbine systems under power system fault conditions has been studied. Two types of generators are considered, namely rotor short-circuited induction generators and dynamic slip-controlled wound rotor induction generators. The factors...... affecting the stability are analysed. The characteristics of the induction-generator-based wind turbines are described, and possible methods of improving stability of the wind generators are discussed. The system modelling is presented, and then the discussed methods of improving stability are investigated...

  15. District heating system of Belgrade supplied from the co-generation plant 'Obrenovac' (Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, P.; Dobric, Z.; Studovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents most relevant technical and economic features of the Project called 'System for supplying Belgrade with heat' (SDGB) from the thermal power plant 'Obrenovac', based on domestic coal and reconstruction of condensing power plant for combined generation of electricity and heat for the needs of municipal energy consumption. The system is designed for transport thermal energy, with capacity of 730 MJ/s from the Thermal Power Plant 'Nikola Tesla' / A to the existing heat plant 'Novi Beograd' based on the natural gas. The paper also gives the comparison of most important technical and economic features of 'SDGB' Project with the similar Project of District Heating System for supplying Prague with the thermal energy from Thermal Power Plant Melnik. (Author)

  16. High Efficiency, Low Cost Parabolic Dish System for Cogeneration of Electricity and Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayet, Haim; Lozovsky, Ilan; Kost, Ori; Loeckenhoff, Ruediger; Rasch, Klaus-Dieter

    2010-10-01

    Highly efficient combined heat and power generating system based on CPV technology using unique dish design consisting of multiple simple flat mirrors mounted on a plastic parabolic surface. The dish of total aperture area of 11 m2 focuses 10.3 kWp onto a heat and electricity generating receiver. The receiver comprises a water cooled, dense triple junction cell array of 176 cm2 aperture area. A unique arrangement of the cells compensates for the non-uniformity of the reflected flux. Depending on the flow rate, the temperature of the hot water can be adjusted to suit from temperatures for domestic use, to temperatures suited for process heat. The output of 2.3 kWp electrical and 5.5 kWp thermal power from one dish system represent 20 to 21% electrical and 50% thermal conversion efficiency adding to 70% overall system efficiency.

  17. Dynamic Model of Kaplan Turbine Regulating System Suitable for Power System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of Kaplan turbine regulating system is of great significance for grid security and stability analysis. In this paper, Kaplan turbine regulating system model is divided into the governor system model, the blade control system model, and the turbine and water diversion system model. The Kaplan turbine has its particularity, and the on-cam relationship between the wicket gate opening and the runner blade angle under a certain water head on the whole range was obtained by high-order curve fitting method. Progressively the linearized Kaplan turbine model, improved ideal Kaplan turbine model, and nonlinear Kaplan turbine model were developed. The nonlinear Kaplan turbine model considered the correction function of the blade angle on the turbine power, thereby improving the model simulation accuracy. The model parameters were calculated or obtained by the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. For the blade control system model, the default blade servomotor time constant given by value of one simplified the modeling and experimental work. Further studies combined with measured test data verified the established model accuracy and laid a foundation for further research into the influence of Kaplan turbine connecting to the grid.

  18. The choice of equipment mix and parameters for HTGR-based nuclear cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malevski, A L; Stoliarevski, A Ya; Vladimirov, V T; Larin, E A; Lesnykh, V V; Naumov, Yu V; Fedotov, I L

    1990-07-01

    Improvement of heat and electricity supply systems based on cogeneration is one of the high-priority problems in energy development of the USSR. Fossil fuel consumption for heat supply exceeds now its use for electricity production and amounts to about 30% of the total demands. District heating provides about 80 million t.c.e. of energy resources conserved annually and meets about 50% of heat consumption of the country, including about 30% due to cogeneration. The share of natural gas and liquid fuel in the fuel consumption for district heating is about 70%. The analysis of heat consumption dynamics in individual regions and industrial-urban agglomerations shows the necessity of constructing cogeneration plants with the total capacity of about 60 million kW till the year 2000. However, their construction causes some serious problems. The most important of them are provision of environmentally clean fuels for cogeneration plants and provision of clear air. The limited reserves of oil and natural gas and the growing expenditures on their production require more intensive introduction of nuclear energy in the national energy balance. Possible use of nuclear energy based on light-water reactors for substitution of deficient hydrocarbon fuels is limited by the physical, technical and economic factors and requirements of safety. Further development of nuclear energy in the USSR can be realized on a new technological base with construction of domestic reactors of increased and ultimate safety. The most promising reactors under design are high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) of low and medium capacity with the intrinsic property of safety. HTGR of low (about 200-250 MW(th) in a steel vessel), medium (about 500 MW(th) in a steel-concrete vessel) and high (about 1000-2500 MW(th) in a prestressed concrete vessel) are now designed and studied in the country. At outlet helium temperature of 920-1020 K it is possible to create steam turbine installations producing both

  19. The choice of equipment mix and parameters for HTGR-based nuclear cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malevski, A.L.; Stoliarevski, A.Ya.; Vladimirov, V.T.; Larin, E.A.; Lesnykh, V.V.; Naumov, Yu.V.; Fedotov, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    Improvement of heat and electricity supply systems based on cogeneration is one of the high-priority problems in energy development of the USSR. Fossil fuel consumption for heat supply exceeds now its use for electricity production and amounts to about 30% of the total demands. District heating provides about 80 million t.c.e. of energy resources conserved annually and meets about 50% of heat consumption of the country, including about 30% due to cogeneration. The share of natural gas and liquid fuel in the fuel consumption for district heating is about 70%. The analysis of heat consumption dynamics in individual regions and industrial-urban agglomerations shows the necessity of constructing cogeneration plants with the total capacity of about 60 million kW till the year 2000. However, their construction causes some serious problems. The most important of them are provision of environmentally clean fuels for cogeneration plants and provision of clear air. The limited reserves of oil and natural gas and the growing expenditures on their production require more intensive introduction of nuclear energy in the national energy balance. Possible use of nuclear energy based on light-water reactors for substitution of deficient hydrocarbon fuels is limited by the physical, technical and economic factors and requirements of safety. Further development of nuclear energy in the USSR can be realized on a new technological base with construction of domestic reactors of increased and ultimate safety. The most promising reactors under design are high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) of low and medium capacity with the intrinsic property of safety. HTGR of low (about 200-250 MW(th) in a steel vessel), medium (about 500 MW(th) in a steel-concrete vessel) and high (about 1000-2500 MW(th) in a prestressed concrete vessel) are now designed and studied in the country. At outlet helium temperature of 920-1020 K it is possible to create steam turbine installations producing both

  20. Fixed-Time Stability of the Hydraulic Turbine Governing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoyuan Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of fixed-time stability of hydraulic turbine governing system with the elastic water hammer nonlinear model. To control and improve the quality of hydraulic turbine governing system, a new fixed-time control strategy is proposed, which can stabilize the water turbine governing system within a fixed time. Compared with the finite-time control strategy where the convergence rate depends on the initial state, the settling time of the fixed-time control scheme can be adjusted to the required value regardless of the initial conditions. Finally, we numerically show that the fixed-time control is more effective than and superior to the finite-time control.

  1. Cogeneration systems in district heating. Dimensioning and economic efficiency; BHKW in der Nahwaermeversorgung. Dimensionierung und Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadtmueller, H. [Isar-Amperwerke AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Even operators of industrial-scale power stations have good reasons to look into combined heat and power generation. CHP systems have a high thermal and electric efficiency, especially in case of optimized integration into the existing power station park of a public utility. Utilities can supply heat as well as electricity and thus improve customer loyalty by full-scale coverage of a locally limited market. The author presents activities for gaining strategic advances in the (niche) market for combined heat and power generation systems. [German] Auch fuer ein EVU, das Grosskraftwerke betreibt, gibt es gute Gruende sich mit BHKW zu beschaeftigen. Diese sind ein hoher energetischer Gesamtnutzungsgrad fuer Strom- und Waermeauskopplung, besonders bei optimierter Integration in den bestehenden Kraftwerkspark des EVU, Erweiterung des Kerngeschaeftes Stromversorgung durch Waermelieferung, dadurch auch verstaerkte Kundenbindung. Systemfuehrerschaft Energie bei moeglichst vollstaendiger Praesenz im lokal begrenzten Markt. Dargestellt werden Aktivitaeten, um den (Nischen-)Markt KWK im Wettbewerb erfolgreich zu besetzen (orig./RHM)

  2. Policy schemes, operational strategies and system integration of residential co-generation fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    a heat-driven strategy, with and without time-differentiated tariffs, and an electricity price driven strategy for the operation as a virtual power plant. The corresponding support schemes identified cover feed-in tariffs, net metering and feed-in premiums. Additionally, the interplay of the micro......CHP units with the national energy systems has been analysed. Our main findings are that net metering would be an appropriate tool to support FC based microCHP in Denmark, whereas a price premium would be the preferable tool in France and Portugal. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC....... Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Cogeneration (hydrogen and electrical power) using the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.

    1994-01-01

    The information herein presents preliminary technical and cost data for an actual case study using Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) technology, incorporated as part of an overall refinery upgrade project. This study is based on gasification of asphalt and vacuum residue (see Table 1, feedstock properties) to produce hydrogen plus carbon monoxide (synthesis gas) for the ultimate production of high purity hydrogen and power at a major refinery in Eastern Europe. A hydrogen production of 101,000 Nm 3 /hr (9.1 tons/hr) at 99.9 (wt.%) purity plus 50 MW (net) power slated to be used by the refinery was considered for this study. Figure I shows a block diagram depicting the general refinery configuration upgrade as envisioned by the owner operator; included in the configuration as shown in the shaded area is the TGPS plant. Figure II shows a block flow diagram depicting the TGPS unit and its battery limits as defined for this project. The technology best suited to meet the demand for clean and efficient electric power generation and hydrogen production is the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) process. This technology is based upon Texaco's proprietary gasification technology which is well proven with over 40 years of gasification experience. There are currently 37 operating units in the world today which have licensed the Texaco gasification process technology, with another 12 in design/construction. Total synthesis gas (hydrogen + carbon monoxide) production capacity is over 2,8 billion standard cubic feet per day. The TGPS, which is basically the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) based upon the Texaco gasification technology, was developed by combining and integrating gasification with power generation facilities. (author). 3 figs., 9 tabs., 4 refs

  4. Limerick BWR turbine control and protection system upgrade success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.K.; Pietryka, T.S.; Federico, P.A.; Williams, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Westinghouse and Exelon have successfully implemented a digital electro-hydraulic control (DEHC) at Limerick BWR Unit 1 Station to perform the turbine control, protection and reactor pressure functions. The DEHC replaces analog controls and addressed system performance, obsolescence and reliability. This was a first-of-a-kind application for control and protection of the main turbine and BWR pressure control for the distributed control system utilized. The demolition of analog equipment, main control room and front standard modifications, and acceptance testing were completed on schedule during the normal 2014 outage. Key aspects of the project that facilitated this success will be discussed and presented. (author)

  5. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  6. Limerick BWR turbine control and protection system upgrade success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, C.K.; Pietryka, T.S.; Federico, P.A., E-mail: tangck@westinghouse.com, E-mail: pietryt@westinghouse, E-mail: federipa@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Williams, J.C., E-mail: Jonathan.Williams@exeloncorp.com [Exelon Nuclear, Warrenville, IL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Westinghouse and Exelon have successfully implemented a digital electro-hydraulic control (DEHC) at Limerick BWR Unit 1 Station to perform the turbine control, protection and reactor pressure functions. The DEHC replaces analog controls and addressed system performance, obsolescence and reliability. This was a first-of-a-kind application for control and protection of the main turbine and BWR pressure control for the distributed control system utilized. The demolition of analog equipment, main control room and front standard modifications, and acceptance testing were completed on schedule during the normal 2014 outage. Key aspects of the project that facilitated this success will be discussed and presented. (author)

  7. A Semi-active Control System for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, N.; Georgakis, Christos T.; Trinchillo, F.

    2014-01-01

    A semi-active (SA) control system based on the use of smart magnetorheological (MR) dampers to control the structural response of a wind turbine is proposed herein. The innovative approach is based on the implementation and use of a variable-properties base restraint. This is able to modify in real......, and a control algorithm that instantaneously commands the latter during the motion, making them to modulate the reactive force as needed to achieve the performance goals. The design and operation of such a system are shown with reference to a case study consisting of an almost 100 m tall wind turbine, realized...

  8. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  9. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-01-01

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions

  10. Adaptive Controller for Drive System PMSG in Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanambal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG wind turbine and direct power control for grid side inverter for transformer less integration of wind energy. PMSG wind turbine with two back to back voltage source converters are considered more efficient, used to make real and reactive power control. The optimal control strategy has introduced for integrated control of PMSG Maximum Power Extraction, DC link voltage control and grid voltage support controls. Simulation model using MATLAB Simulink has developed to investigate the performance of proposed control techniques for PMSG wind turbine steady and variable wind conditions. This paper shows that the direct driven grid connected PMSG system has excellent performances and confirms the feasibility of the proposed techniques. While the wind turbine market continues to be dominated by conventional gear-driven wind turbine systems, the direct drive is attracting attention. PM machines are more attractive and superior with higher efficiency and energy yield, higher reliability, and power-to-weight ratio compared with electricity-excited machines.

  11. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find defects in the wind turbine blade and reduce the cost of inspection. A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating an Sb–Be source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. The simulated system has a wide range of radiography parameters.

  12. Electric power plants in cogeneration: a promising potential even in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Implantation of cogeneration power plants has increased in France since two years but stays below other countries such as northern Europe. Technical, economical, legal and financial aspects of cogeneration have been debated during the ''Euroforum'' seminar (June 14-16, 1995). The european association Cogen Europe, created in 1993 with the financial support of the SAVE european program, has analysed the barriers that restrain cogeneration development and their solutions. Advantages of cogeneration are undeniable at any scale (from small engines to huge industrial systems) if efficiency of energy used reaches 85%. Opinions of representatives from different industries implied in cogeneration technology are reported. (J.S.). 1 photo

  13. Nuclear Co-generation: The Analysis of Technical Capabilities and Cost Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Reński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of the parallel connection of a nuclear power plant fitted to provide heat for district heating application, with the CHP and heat plants existing in the supply region, in this case with the heating systems of Wejherowo and Gdynia. Presented variant proposes to add heat to a nuclear power plant’s total output by supplying heat exchangers with the steam from bleeders of low pressure (LP turbine stage and from the crossover pipe between its high pressure (HP and intermediate pressure (IP stages. A detailed diagram of the EPR nuclear turbine system adapted to supply district heat is also presented. Also determined are the formulas for: electric power output of a nuclear CHP plant; electric power generated strictly in cogeneration, and the decrease in the electric power and energy resulting from the operation in cogeneration mode. Finally, the profitability (competitiveness criteria for a nuclear power plant adapted to supply district heat in a selected heat supply region were proposed.

  14. Construction of a power plant with prototype DLN combustion turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.L. [CSW Energy, Dallas, TX (United States); Drummond, L.J. [Zurn NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Design and construction of a power plant is always a difficult process and this is especially true when the main keystone, the combustion turbine engine, is being modified by the manufacturer resulting in numerous changes in the design interfaces. The development of the design and construction of the Orange Cogeneration Facility has been in parallel with major modification of the LM6000 to DLE technology (a Dry Low NO{sub x} combustion system). The Dry Low NO{sub x} Combustion System for a combustion turbine offered a means to reduce water usage, lower Zero Liquid Discharge System operating costs and reduce emissions to meet Florida Department of Environmental Protection requirements. This development was successfully accomplished by Owner, EPC contractor and Combustion Turbine Manufacturer by maintaining flexibility in the design and construction while the design interfaces and performance of the combustion turbines were being finalized.

  15. Rated power factor and excitation system of large turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Takashi; Banjou, Minoru.

    1979-01-01

    As for the rated power factor of turbine generators for thermal power stations, 90% has been adopted since around 1960. On the other hand, power transmission system has entered 500 kV age, and 1,000 kV transmission is expected in the near future. As for the supply of reactive power from thermal and nuclear turbine generators, the necessity of supplying leading reactive power has rather increased. Now, the operating power factor of thermal and nuclear generators becomes 96 to 100% actually. As for the excess stability of turbine generators owing to the strengthening of transmission system and the adoption of super-high voltage, the demand of strict conditions can be dealt with by the adoption of super-fast response excitation system of thyristor shunt winding self exciting type. The adoption of the turbine generators with 90 to 95% power factor and the adoption of the thyristor shunt winding self exciting system were examined and evaluated. The rated power factor of generators, excitation system and economy of adopting these systems are explained. When the power factor of generators is increased from 0.9 to 0.95, about 6% of saving can be obtained in the installation cost. When the thyristor shunt winding self excitation is adopted, it is about 10% more economical than AC excitation. (Kako, I.)

  16. Numerical Analysis of Combined Valve Hydrodynamic Characteristics for Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, P. K.; Shamim, J. A.; Gairola, A.; Arif, M.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Flow characteristic curves are plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate. The flow characteristic curves are utilized to accurately test the performance of the control valve of turbine system to ensure the highest controllability and reliability of the power conversion system of large and small power plants. Turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in power conversion system. The electrical energy output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate (steam or gas) to the turbine through valves and nozzles. The turbine comprises fast acting governing control valves and stop valves acting against the seat in the flow passage in the closed position. The turbine control valve regulates the mass flow rate entering the first nozzle of a turbine. The main function of stop valve is to close the fluid inlet rapidly in response to a fast close signal to swiftly cut off the flow through the valve inlet. Both these valves contribute attractively to improvement of the power system transient stability as well. To improve the efficiency of power conversion system many investigation have been done by researcher by focusing on the cycle layout or working fluid or by improving the flow path of the working fluid. The main focus is to find out the best option for combined cycle power plant by analyzing four different cycle configuration. Next research phase focused on different way to enhance the cycle efficiency. As the electrical power output from the generator is proportional to the mass flow rate to the turbine through the valve, it should preferably operate linearly. In reality, however, the valve has the various flow characteristics pursuant to the stem lift. Thus, the flow characteristic and control performance are needed to be designed

  17. Numerical Analysis of Combined Valve Hydrodynamic Characteristics for Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, P. K.; Shamim, J. A.; Gairola, A.; Arif, M.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2014-01-01

    Flow characteristic curves are plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate. The flow characteristic curves are utilized to accurately test the performance of the control valve of turbine system to ensure the highest controllability and reliability of the power conversion system of large and small power plants. Turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in power conversion system. The electrical energy output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate (steam or gas) to the turbine through valves and nozzles. The turbine comprises fast acting governing control valves and stop valves acting against the seat in the flow passage in the closed position. The turbine control valve regulates the mass flow rate entering the first nozzle of a turbine. The main function of stop valve is to close the fluid inlet rapidly in response to a fast close signal to swiftly cut off the flow through the valve inlet. Both these valves contribute attractively to improvement of the power system transient stability as well. To improve the efficiency of power conversion system many investigation have been done by researcher by focusing on the cycle layout or working fluid or by improving the flow path of the working fluid. The main focus is to find out the best option for combined cycle power plant by analyzing four different cycle configuration. Next research phase focused on different way to enhance the cycle efficiency. As the electrical power output from the generator is proportional to the mass flow rate to the turbine through the valve, it should preferably operate linearly. In reality, however, the valve has the various flow characteristics pursuant to the stem lift. Thus, the flow characteristic and control performance are needed to be designed

  18. Cogeneration: One way to use biomass efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Johansson, B.

    1993-01-01

    Cogeneration in district heating systems is the most energy-efficient way to convert biomass into heat and electricity with current or nearly commercial technologies. Methanol produced from biomass and used in vehicles instead of petrol or diesel could reduce carbon dioxide emissions nearly as much per unit of biomass as if the biomass were used to replace natural gas for cogeneration, but at some higher cost per unit of carbon dioxide reduction. The most energy-efficient way to use biomass for cogeneration appears to be combined cycle technology, and the world's first demonstration plant is now being built. Potentially, this technology can be used for electricity production in Swedish district heating systems to provide nearly 20% of current Swedish electricity production, while simultaneously reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the district heating systems by some 55%. The heat costs from cogeneration with biomass are higher than the heat costs from fossil fuel plants at current fuel prices. Biomass can only compete with fossil fuel if other advantages, for example a lower environmental impact are considered. (au) (35 refs.)

  19. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.; Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, P.

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. The report...

  20. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. Some criteria and tools for evaluating and improving the critical performances of the wind power converters have been proposed and established. The book addresses some emerging problems...

  1. A-10/TF34 Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The hardware and software development of the A-10/TF34 turbine engine monitoring system (TEMS) is described. The operation and interfaces of the A-10/TF34 TEMS hardware are discussed with particular emphasis on function, capabilities, and limitations. The TEMS data types are defined and the various data acquisition modes are explained. Potential data products are also discussed.

  2. Hydraulic turbines uses for rural electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genta, J.; Nunes, V.

    1994-01-01

    The micro turbines use for electric generation either in autonomous systems or in connection to the national net is presented like an alternative whose viability has been studied in the Agreement taken place between the UTE Administracion Nacional de Usinas y transmisiones Electricas y la Facultad de Ingenieria. The Agreement S tudy for the Installation of Micro turbines that initially considered areas far from the national electric net it extended then to near areas to the same one to analyze the cogeneration alternative. They were considered smaller and bigger powers than 1 MW and up to 5MW. For the whole study range a methodology is described of calculate primary, starting from a minimum of field information that allows a first estimate of viability of a certain place and the selection of the turbine type, for a later detailed study

  3. Development turbine blade for ultramicro hydro power generation by 3D printer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, T.; Itoh, H.; Sugiura, K.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed micro generation system for effective use of unutilized energy and the spread of a self-controlled dispersion energy supply system. The turbine blade was designed for achieving high performance by special shape. The turbine type was called quasi-Peace turbine type. Turbine with a diameter of 30cm is made of metal, it was created by the 5-axis milling machine. The experimental apparatus was fabricated by the 3D printer. An experiment was carried out in the scale down model. The specific speed of this turbine was much lower than that of existing turbines.

  4. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  5. Simulation of an air conditioning absorption refrigeration system in a co-generation process combining a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky, I.; Gamboa, S.A.; Rivera, W. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Romero, R.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas - UAEM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Isaza, C.A. [Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin (Colombia). Instituto de Energia y Termodinamica; Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Moreira, J. [Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In this work, a computer simulation program was developed to determine the optimum operating conditions of an air conditioning system during the co-generation process. A 1 kW PEMFC was considered in this study with a chemical/electrical theoretical efficiency of 40% and a thermal efficiency of 30% applying an electrical load of 100%. A refrigeration-absorption cycle (RAC) operating with monomethylamine-water solutions (MMA-WS), with low vapor generation temperatures (up to 80 C) is proposed in this work. The computer simulation was based on the refrigeration production capacity at the maximum power capacity of the PEMFC. Heat losses between the fuel cell and the absorption air conditioning system at standard operating conditions were considered to be negligible. The results showed the feasibility of using PEMFC for cooling, increasing the total efficiency of the fuel cell system. (author)

  6. Proposed Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity Studies Using Helicopter Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladkany, Samaan G.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced systems for the analysis of rotary wing aeroelastic structures (helicopters) are being developed at NASA Ames by the Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch, ARA. The research has recently been extended to the study of wind turbines, used for electric power generation Wind turbines play an important role in Europe, Japan & many other countries because they are non polluting & use a renewable source of energy. European countries such as Holland, Norway & France have been the world leaders in the design & manufacture of wind turbines due to their historical experience of several centuries, in building complex wind mill structures, which were used in water pumping, grain grinding & for lumbering. Fossil fuel cost in Japan & in Europe is two to three times higher than in the USA due to very high import taxes. High fuel cost combined with substantial governmental subsidies, allow wind generated power to be competitive with the more traditional sources of power generation. In the USA, the use of wind energy has been limited mainly because power production from wind is twice as expensive as from other traditional sources. Studies conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) indicate that the main cost in the production of wind turbines is due to the materials & the labor intensive processes used in the construction of turbine structures. Thus, for the US to assume world leadership in wind power generation, new lightweight & consequently very flexible wind turbines, that could be economically mass produced, would have to be developed [4,5]. This effort, if successful, would result in great benefit to the US & the developing nations that suffer from overpopulation & a very high cost of energy.

  7. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  8. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  9. Dynamic Systems Analysis for Turbine Based Aero Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The aircraft engine design process seeks to optimize the overall system-level performance, weight, and cost for a given concept. Steady-state simulations and data are used to identify trade-offs that should be balanced to optimize the system in a process known as systems analysis. These systems analysis simulations and data may not adequately capture the true performance trade-offs that exist during transient operation. Dynamic systems analysis provides the capability for assessing the dynamic tradeoffs at an earlier stage of the engine design process. The dynamic systems analysis concept, developed tools, and potential benefit are presented in this paper. To provide this capability, the Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) was developed to provide the user with an estimate of the closed-loop performance (response time) and operability (high pressure compressor surge margin) for a given engine design and set of control design requirements. TTECTrA along with engine deterioration information, can be used to develop a more generic relationship between performance and operability that can impact the engine design constraints and potentially lead to a more efficient engine.

  10. Advanced tools for modeling, design and optimization of wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.

    2005-01-01

    As wind turbine technology and control has advanced over the last decade, this has led to a high penetration of wind turbines into the power system. Whether it be for a large wind turbine or an offshore wind farm with hundreds of MW power capacity, the electrical system has become more and more i...

  11. 77 FR 32497 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Generating Sets) Fort Smith... special-purpose subzone at the wind turbine nacelle and generating set manufacturing facility of... related to the manufacturing of wind turbine nacelles and generating sets at the Mitsubishi Power Systems...

  12. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  13. Procedure for cogeneration plant evaluation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollettini, U.; Savelli, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a step-by-step approach to the evaluation of cogeneration plants for on-site power generation. The aim is to allow prospective cogeneration plant owners to build energy/cost efficient plants and to be able to make a proper assessment of eligible financial assistance which may be obtained through the provisions of energy conservation normatives and laws set up by the Italian National Energy Plan. The approach has three principal phases - the verification of the availability of the required human resources able to perform the plant evaluation (engineering, legal and business consultants), an energy/viability audit of any existing energy plant considered for retrofitting and, finally, the identification of the best technical/economic cogeneration alternative. The programmed set of evaluation tasks includes the determination of optimal contracts with ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board), especially for the case of excess power to be ceded to the national grid, and the making of comparisons with reference cogeneration systems whose relative design/cost data are stored in existing computerized data bases

  14. Micro-turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a principle of micro-turbines operation, type of micro-turbines and their characteristics is presented. It is shown their usage in cogeneration and three generation application with the characteristics, the influence of more factors on micro-turbines operation as well as the possibility for application in Macedonia. The paper is result of the author's participation in the training program 'Micro-turbine technology' in Florida, USA. The characteristics of different types micro-turbines by several world producers are shown, with accent on US micro-turbines producers (Capstone, Elliott). By using the gathered Author's knowledge, contacts and the previous knowledge, conclusions and recommendations for implementation of micro-turbines in Macedonia are given. (Author)

  15. Wind or water turbine power augmentation using the system of guiding surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashurin, V P; Ktitorov, L V; Lazareva, A S; Pletenev, F A; Budnikov, I N; Hatunkin, V Yu; Klevtsov, V A; Meshkov, E E; Novikova, I A; Yanbaev, G M

    2016-01-01

    As fluid flows through a conventional wind or hydro turbine, it slows from losing energy to extraction from a turbine and spreads out to a wider area. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power more effectively, it was suggested to place the turbine inside a system of specially designed airfoils (‘a flow booster’). One part of the booster (‘a nozzle’) improves the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades. The other part of the accelerating system (‘a diffuser’) creates a field of low pressure behind the turbine which helps to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration. The flow booster accumulates the kinetic energy of the flow (e.g. river flow or wind) in a small volume where the smaller turbine can be installed. Another possible application of the booster could be the improvement of wind turbine efficiency during low wind period. The present paper also discusses the possibility of kinetic energy accumulation by the use of several accelerating systems of different sizes—the smaller one can be installed inside the bigger one. It helps to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine blades. We call this method the kinetic energy cumulation. Lab and field experiments and CFD simulations of shrouded turbine demonstrate significant increase in velocity in comparison of those for conventional (bare) turbines. (paper)

  16. Reviving manufacturing with a federal cogeneration policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; Cox, Matt; Baer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Improving the energy economics of manufacturing is essential to revitalizing the industrial base of advanced economies. This paper evaluates ex-ante a federal policy option aimed at promoting industrial cogeneration—the production of heat and electricity in a single energy-efficient process. Detailed analysis using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and spreadsheet calculations suggest that industrial cogeneration could meet 18% of U.S. electricity requirements by 2035, compared with its current 8.9% market share. Substituting less efficient utility-scale power plants with cogeneration systems would produce numerous economic and environmental benefits, but would also create an assortment of losers and winners. Multiple perspectives to benefit/cost analysis are therefore valuable. Our results indicate that the federal cogeneration policy would be highly favorable to manufacturers and the public sector, cutting energy bills, generating billions of dollars in electricity sales, making producers more competitive, and reducing pollution. Most traditional utilities, on the other hand, would lose revenues unless their rate recovery procedures are adjusted to prevent the loss of profits due to customer owned generation and the erosion of utility sales. From a public policy perspective, deadweight losses would be introduced by market-distorting federal incentives (ranging annually from $30 to $150 million), but these losses are much smaller than the estimated net social benefits of the federal cogeneration policy. - Highlights: ► Industrial cogeneration could meet 18% of US electricity demand by 2035, vs. 8.9% today. ► The policy would be highly favorable to manufacturers and the public. ► Traditional electric utilities would likely lose revenues. ► Deadweight loss would be introduced by tax incentives. ► The policy’s net social benefits would be much larger.

  17. Cogeneration trends in Europe history -- State of the art - Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunschofsky, H.

    1998-01-01

    Cogeneration, the utilization of heat created while producing electricity from fossil fuels, is by no means a new technology. In 1926, 71 years ago, a brochure from MAN in Germany showed a heat recovery system for diesel engines. Despite the fact that cogeneration has existed for a long time, it took half a century and the first so called ''oil crisis'' in the 1970's for societies to become aware of limited energy resources. Environmental groups gave cogeneration an additional boost in the 1980's. Additionally, governments in the Western European Nations attracted cogeneration investors by not only providing subsidies and tax breaks but also regulating electricity prices. Although there has been much growth in the cogeneration market in the past years, the industry has still not reached its peak in Europe. A variety of studies have shown that there is still significant growth potential in the future: WWF (World Wildlife Fund) published a study in 1996 suggesting a target of 330 Twh of generation will be produced through cogeneration by the year 2005, a tripling of current generation. Due to the EU's belief that cogeneration is an optimal form of generation, it has developed a cogeneration strategy. As part of this strategy, the EC is promoting cogeneration so that it accounts for 20% of all European generation by the year 2010. These factors would give a variety of companies such as equipment suppliers, investment companies, utilities, consultants and energy brokers a wide range of opportunities in Europe. Detailed information and some hints will be given as to how to participate in this fast growing industry. Ways to overcome obstacles in those markets will be shown as well as the pros and cons of different entry strategies

  18. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  19. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  20. Cogeneration in Italian agricultural industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfitto, E.; Jacoboni, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the technical, environmental and economical feasibility of an industrial cogeneration system which incorporates combined gas-steam cycles and a biomass/agricultural waste sludge fired fluidized bed combustion system. It cites the suitability of the use of fluidized bed combustion for the combustion of biomass and agricultural waste sludges - high combustion efficiency, uniform and relatively low combustion temperatures (850 C) within the combustion chamber to reduce scaling, reduced nitrogen oxide and micro-pollutant emissions, the possibility to control exhaust gas acidity through the injection of calcium carbonates, the possibility of the contemporaneous feeding of different fuels. Reference is made to test results obtained with an ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) pilot plant fired by vineyard wastes. Attention is given to an analysis of the fuel's physical-chemical characteristics and the resulting flue gas chemical composition and ash characteristics. Comparisons are made with legal release limits

  1. The alarming future for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2000-01-01

    Low prices and uncertainty in pricing of energy, higher costs for investment and expensive fuels are the most important reasons why the growth of cogeneration capacity in the Netherlands stagnates. The liberalization of the energy market appears to be the malefactor. A brief overview is given of the ECN (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation) report 'Toekomst warmtekrachtkoppeling' (Future of cogeneration)

  2. The condition monitoring system of turbine system components for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigetoshi

    2013-01-01

    The thermal and nuclear power plants have been imposed a stable supply of electricity. To certainly achieve this, we built the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. If there are some performance changes on the turbine system components of their power plants, the heat and mass balance of the turbine system will change. This system has ability to detect the abnormal signs of their components by finding the changes of the heat and mass balance. Moreover we note that this system is built for steam turbine cycle operating with saturated steam conditions. (author)

  3. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS(ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2001-06-01

    The following paper provides an overview of GE's H System{trademark} technology, and specifically, the design, development, and test activities associated with the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program. There was intensive effort expended in bringing this revolutionary advanced technology program to commercial reality. In addition to describing the magnitude of performance improvement possible through use of H System{trademark} technology, this paper discusses the technological milestones during the development of the first 9H (50Hz) and 7H (60 Hz) gas turbines. To illustrate the methodical product development strategy used by GE, this paper discusses several technologies that were essential to the introduction of the H System{trademark}. Also included are analyses of the series of comprehensive tests of materials, components and subsystems that necessarily preceded full scale field testing of the H System{trademark}. This paper validates one of the basic premises with which GE started the H System{trademark} development program: exhaustive and elaborate testing programs minimized risk at every step of this process, and increase the probability of success when the H System{trademark} is introduced into commercial service. In 1995, GE, the world leader in gas turbine technology for over half a century, in conjunction with the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's ATS program, introduced its new generation of gas turbines. This H System{trademark} technology is the first gas turbine ever to achieve the milestone of 60% fuel efficiency. Because fuel represents the largest individual expense of running a power plant, an efficiency increase of even a single percentage point can substantially reduce operating costs over the life of a typical gas-fired, combined-cycle plant in the 400 to 500 megawatt range. The H System{trademark} is not simply a state-of-the-art gas turbine. It is an advanced, integrated, combined-cycle system in which every

  4. Design of a wind turbine pitch angle controller for power system stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens; Islam, S.M.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    The design of a PID pitch angle controller for a fixed speed active-stall wind turbine, using the root locus method is described in this paper. The purpose of this controller is to enable an active-stall wind turbine to perform power system stabilisation. For the purpose of controller design......, the transfer function of the wind turbine is derived from the wind turbine's step response. The performance of this controller is tested by simulation, where the wind turbine model with its pitch angle controller is connected to a power system model. The power system model employed here is a realistic model...... of the North European power system. A short circuit fault on a busbar close to the wind turbine generator is simulated, and the dynamic responses of the system with and without the power system stabilisation of the wind turbines are presented. Simulations show that in most operating points the pitch controller...

  5. Cogeneration feasibility study in the Gulf States Utilities service area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Sites in the Gulf States Utilities service are considered for cogeneration feasibility studies. The sources of steam considered for the Orange, Texas and Geismar, Lake Charles, and North Baton Rouge, Louisiana sites include oil, coal, HTGR steamers, consolidated nuclear steam system, atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustion, and coal gasification. Concepts concerning cogeneration fuel systems were categorized by technical applicability as: current technology (pulverized coal-fired boilers and fuel oil-fired boilers), advanced technology under development (HTGR steamers and the CNSS), and advanced technology for future development (atmospheric fluidized-bed boilers and coal gasification). In addition to providing data on cogeneration plant generally useful in the US, the study determined the technical and economic feasibility of steam and electric power cogeneration using coal and nuclear fuels for localized industrial complexes. Details on site selection, plant descriptions, cost estimates, economic analysis, and plant schedule and implementation. (MCW)

  6. State of the art-hydraulic yaw systems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the yawing systems of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT’s). HAWT’s represents close to all of the commercial large wind turbines sold today and must be considered state-of-the art within wind turbine technology. Two choices exists when considering components for the active ...

  7. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH-HIGH EFFICIENCY ENGINES AND TURBINES (UTSR-HEET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz; William H. Day

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the U S Department of Energy established a cooperative agreement for a program now designated as the University Turbine Systems (UTSR) Program. As stated in the cooperative agreement, the objective of the program is to support and facilitate development of advanced energy systems incorporating turbines through a university research environment. This document is the first annual, technical progress report for the UTSR Program. The Executive Summary describes activities for the year of the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), which administers the UTSR Program. Included are descriptions of: Outline of program administrative activities; Award of the first 10 university research projects resulting from a year 2001 RFP; Year 2002 solicitation and proposal selection for awards in 2003; Three UTSR Workshops in Combustion, Aero/Heat Transfer, and Materials; SCIES participation in workshops and meetings to provide input on technical direction for the DOE HEET Program; Eight Industrial Internships awarded to higher level university students; Increased membership of Performing Member Universities to 105 institutions in 40 states; Summary of outreach activities; and a Summary table describing the ten newly awarded UTSR research projects. Attachment A gives more detail on SCIES activities by providing the monthly exceptions reports sent to the DOE during the year. Attachment B provides additional information on outreach activities for 2002. The remainder of this report describes in detail the technical approach, results, and conclusions to date for the UTSR university projects.

  8. Reactor trip on turbine trip inhibit control system for nuclear power generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.M.; Musick, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    A reactor trip on turbine trip inhibit control system for a nuclear power generating system which utilizes steam bypass valves is described. The control system inhibits a normally automatic reactor trip on turbine trip when the bypass valves have the capability of bypassing enough steam to prevent reactor trip limits from being reached and/or to prevent opening of the secondary safety pressure valves. The control system generates a bypass valve capability signal which is continuously compared with the reactor power. If the capability is greater than the reactor power, then an inhibit signal is generated which prevents a turbine trip signal from tripping the nuclear reactor. 10 claims, 4 figures

  9. Electric power supply: the viability of natural gas cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, C.P. de; Ennes, S.A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The technical and economical aspects of Natural Gas conversion into electricity through cogeneration, analysing the potentials and costs of the power systems connections to downstream processes is related. The insertion impacts of these cogeneration potentials into the Electrical Network are also analysed, with special emphasis on the supply deficit risk reduction. The generation conditions for both auto-sufficiency and exceeding supply to network are determined, regarding the purposes of attendance efficiency improvement and the necessary new service stimulus. (author)

  10. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....

  11. Solar Cogeneration of Electricity and Hot Water at DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    the cogeneration system displaces more energy (the impact is not 4-5X because the GHG intensity factors for offsetting electricity generation and...visibility to Army energy managers. Additional benefits of Cogenra’s solar cogeneration system are the engineering and design jobs at Cogenra’s...certification. Solar cogeneration can help earn LEED points in three areas: Optimizing Energy Efficiency Performance, On-Site Renewable Energy , and

  12. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  13. Risk-based and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, K.; Nagai, S.; Akikuni, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Furuya, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takagi, K.; Kawabata, T.

    2003-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants. (orig.)

  14. Risk-based inspection and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, Kazunari; Nagai, Satoshi; Akikuni, Yasunari; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Furuya, Kenichiro; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Takagi, Kentaro; Kawabata, Taro

    2004-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants

  15. Advance monitoring of turbine generators and auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemers, D.

    2005-01-01

    The STUDIS turbine generator diagnosing system has been designed for diagnosing and early fault detection as a prerequisite for status-dependent preventive maintenance. Based on the data collected in the monitoring part, which are gathered continously, checked extensively and compressed any deviations from normal behavior as well as potential defects are detected and reported in an expert system. In addition, STUDIS can also be used as a mobile system for problem analysis. STUDIS is not meant to replace experts, but is able to relieve them of routine evaluations of defects whose causes and effects as well as symptoms are known, and to make their work more effective. The advanced operating architecture allows unkilled users to detect familiar faults and defects quickly and respond promptly. Experts will find an extensive toolbox above all for complex analyses of malfunctions. The point of departure for operating staff and experts alike is the so-called ''magic eye'', a highly condensed survey of relevant measurement and assessment parameters of the entire turbine generator relative to tolerance bands determined as a function of the operating point. The power of Studies in elucidating faults and defects is explained by a practical case of a blade defect in a gas turbine. (orig.)

  16. The Energy Conversion Analysis of HTR Gas Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utaja

    2000-01-01

    The energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by hand calculation is tedious work and need much time. This difficulty comes from the repeated thermodynamic process calculation, both on compression or expansion of the cycle. To make the analysis faster and wider variable analyzed, HTR-1 programme is used. In this paper, the energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 will be described. The result is displayed as efficiency curve and block diagram with the input and output temperature of the component. This HTR-1 programme is developed by Basic language programming and be compiled by Visual Basic 5.0 . By this HTR-1 programme, the efficiency, specific power and effective compression of the amount of gas can be recognized fast. For example, for CO 2 gas between 40 o C and 700 o C, the compression on maximum efficiency is 4.6 and the energy specific is 18.9 kcal/kg, while the temperature changing on input and output of the component can be traced on monitor. This process take less than one second, while the manual calculation take more than one hour. It can be concluded, that the energy conversion analysis of the HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 can be done faster and more variable analyzed. (author)

  17. IMIS: Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The report describes a feasibility study on the Integrated Marine Installation System for offshore wind turbines. The aspects covered are (1) Background and why the study is required; (2) Aims and objectives of the project; (3) Summary of methods adopted; (4) Design criteria according to the area for deployment; (5) Conclusions and recommendations. The ultimate goal will be to install and secure the wind turbine in position using an integrated approach to avoid using lifting vessels. To date, an initial feasibility study has been carried out where four different concepts were considered. The next phase of the project will be to address a number of possible risks and constraints before the chosen concept can be demonstrated to be viable. The work is being carried out by Setech Ltd, Armstrong Technology Associates Ltd and Smith Rea Energy Ltd for the DTI.

  18. An object-oriented computational model for combined cycle cogeneration analysis; Um modelo computacional para analise de ciclos combinados para projetos de sistemas de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre M. da; Balestieri, Jose A.P.; Magalhaes Filho, Paulo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: amarcial@uol.com.br; perella@feg.unesp.br; pfilho@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the use of computational resources in a simulation procedure to predict the performance of combined cycle cogeneration systems in which energetic analysis is used in the modeling. Thermal demand of a consuming process are used as the main entrance data and, associated to the performance characteristics of each component of the system, it is evaluated the influence of some parameters of the system such as thermal efficiency and global efficiency. The computational language is Visual Basic for Applications associated to an electronic sheet. Two combined cycle cogeneration schemes are pre-defined: one is composed of a gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine with one extraction, in which both are connected to the different pressure level process plant; the other scheme has a difference a two extraction-condensing steam turbine instead of the back pressure one. Some illustrative graphics are generated for allowing comparison of the appraised systems. The strategy of the system simulation is obtained by carefully linking the information of various components according to the flow diagrams. (author)

  19. Sustainability assessment of cogeneration sector development in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liposcak, Marko; Afgan, Naim H.; Duic, Neven; Graca Carvalho, Maria da

    2006-01-01

    The effective and rational energy generation and supply is one of the main presumptions of sustainable development. Combined heat and power production, or co-generation, has clear environmental advantages by increasing energy efficiency and decreasing carbon emissions. However, higher investment cost and more complicated design and maintenance sometimes-present disadvantages from the economical viability point of view. As in the case of most of economies in transition in Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has a strong but not very efficient co-generation sector, delivering 12% of the final energy consumption. District heating systems in the country's capital Zagreb and in city of Osijek represent the large share of the overall co-generation capacity. Besides district heating, co-generation in industry sector is also relatively well developed. The paper presents an attempt to assess the sustainability of Croatian co-generation sector future development. The sustainability assessment requires multi-criteria assessment of specific scenarios to be taken into consideration. In this respect three scenarios of Croatian co-generation sector future development are taken into consideration and for each of them environmental, social and economic sustainability indicators are defined and calculated. The assessment of complex relationships between environmental, social and economic aspects of the system is based on the multi-criteria decision-making procedure. The sustainability assessment is based on the General Sustainability Index rating for different cases reflecting different criteria and their priority. The method of sustainability assessment is applied to the Croatian co-generation sector contributing to the evaluation of different strategies and definition of a foundation for policy related to the sustainable future cogeneration sector development

  20. Performance estimation of Tesla turbine applied in small scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei; Li, Xue-song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional model of the Tesla turbine is improved and applied in ORC system. • Working fluid properties and system operating conditions impact efficiency. • The influence of turbine efficiency on ORC system performance is evaluated. • Potential of using Tesla turbine in ORC systems is estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system has been proven to be an effective method for the low grade energy utilization. In small scale applications, the Tesla turbine offers an attractive option for the organic expander if an efficient design can be achieved. The Tesla turbine is simple in structure and is easy to be manufactured. This paper improves the one-dimensional model for the Tesla turbine, which adopts a non-dimensional formulation that identifies the dimensionless parameters that dictates the performance features of the turbine. The model is used to predict the efficiency of a Tesla turbine that is applied in a small scale ORC system. The influence of the working fluid properties and the operating conditions on the turbine performance is evaluated. Thermodynamic analysis of the ORC system with different organic working fluids and under various operating conditions is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the ORC system can generate a considerable net power output. Therefore, the Tesla turbine can be regarded as a potential choice to be applied in small scale ORC systems.

  1. Alternatives to electrical cogeneration: The direct application of steam engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Although small to medium sized industrial facilities are aware of electrical cogeneration, often they are too small for it to be economically justifiable. The direct application of steam turbine power to equipment formerly powered by electric motors, can allow them to use steam capacity to reduce electrical demand and consumption, bypassing cogeneration. Cogeneration converts the heat energy of steam into circular mechanical motion and then converts the circular mechanical motion into electricity. Each conversion entails a loss of energy due to friction and other conversion losses. A substantial amount of the generated electricity is then converted back into circular motion with electric motors, again incurring energy losses. Directly applying the mechanical motion of turbines eliminates both the motion-to-electricity (generator) and the electricity-to-motion (motor) conversion losses. Excess steam capacity during the summer is not unusual for facilities that use steam to provide winter heating. Similarly, most of these facilities experience a large electrical demand peak during the cooling season due to the electricity needed to operate centrifugal chillers. Steam capacity via a turbine to power the chillers can allow the boilers to operate at a higher loading while reducing electrical consumption and demand precisely those periods when demand reduction is most needed. In facilities where the steam generating capacity is sufficient, air compressors provide an appropriate year-round application for turbine power. This paper is the result of an on-going project by the Energy Division, State of North Carolina, Department of Economic and Community Development, in conjunction with the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The objective of this project is to educate the operating engineers and managers of small to medium sized manufacturing facilities on the technical application and economic justification of steam turbine power

  2. Modelling and control of variable speed wind turbines for power system studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2010-01-01

    and implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Important issues like the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of these wind turbine concepts are addressed. The paper reveals that advanced control of variable speed wind turbines can improve power system stability. Finally......, it will be shown in the paper that wind parks consisting of variable speed wind turbines can help nearby connected fixed speed wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......Modern wind turbines are predominantly variable speed wind turbines with power electronic interface. Emphasis in this paper is therefore on the modelling and control issues of these wind turbine concepts and especially on their impact on the power system. The models and control are developed...

  3. System reliability effects in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    from reliability point of view. The present paper discusses the specifics of system reliability behavior of laminated composite sandwich panels, and solves an example system reliability problem for a glass fiber-reinforced composite sandwich structure subjected to in-plane compression.......Laminated composite sandwich panels have a layered structure, where individual layers have randomly varying stiffness and strength properties. The presence of multiple failure modes and load redistribution following partial failures are the reason for laminated composites to exhibit system behavior...

  4. Matching of wind turbine type and system scale to wind conditions; Chiten no fukyo ni taisuru furyoku turbine no keitai to sytem taikaku no seigosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Hashizume, T.

    2000-09-25

    The matching of the wind turbine type and system scale of the stand-alone wind turbine generator system to wind conditions is investigated using our dynamic simulation model. This paper examines three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine, the Darrieus turbine proper and the up-wind Propeller turbine. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient. As a computed result of the net extracting energy under fluctuations of wind speed and direction, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for other wind turbines, large-scale systems do not always have advantages over small-scale systems as the effect of the dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine under wind direction fluctuations is much reduced when compared with that of the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, it is concluded that the appropriate wind turbine type and system scale exist for each wind condition. (author)

  5. Development of technology and systems for air-conditioned and cogenerations using natural gas; Desenvolvimento de tecnologia e sistemas para climatizaco e cogeracao usando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos Antonio Cabral dos; Varani, Celina Maria Ribeiro [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This preset work deal with a technological project that has as main objective the development of national technology in absorption refrigeration for application in the human thermal comfort with natural gas as energy source in direct fired or through energy recuperation of the combustion gases in cogeneration systems. This project makes part of the REDEGASENERGY and also receive financial support from CT-PETRO founds through FINEP, and also has as partner the local gas distributed company. The focus to be reached is the obtaining of a system of double effect using the solution pair Water-Lithium Bromide as work fluid to the capacity range of five to fifty tons of refrigeration. This range means a important branch on the market for minis-shopping, medical clinics, conveniences shopping, small hotels, motels, etc. The system is compound basically of heat exchangers: vapor generator, absorber, condenser, evaporator and intermediary exchanger. The design of the system is based on the thermodynamic, heat and mass analyses for each component. The concepts of exergy and irreversibility are used for through second thermodynamic law to realize the exegetic analysis and to identify the points of the most thermal lost. The correction on the identified components allows the improvements on the performance of each components and all system. As proposed steps to reach the final objective is established first the development of a single effect system operating in similar conditions of capacity and work fluid that the intended double effect system. (author)

  6. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  7. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  8. Cogeneration. Section 2: Products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This is a directory of suppliers of products and services in the area of cogeneration. The subheadings of this directory include developers and owner operators, system packagers, manufacturers of prime movers, equipment manufacturers, instruments and controls manufacturing, consulting services, appraisal and valuation, computer services, environmental services, feasibility services, hydrology, marketing, measurements, meteorology, regulatory and licensing, research, testing, training and personnel, engineering and construction, operations and maintenance, and insurance, financial and legal services

  9. Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed $1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

  10. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abdullatif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  11. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Abdullatif; Alaktiwi, Abdulsalam; Talbi, Mosbah

    2017-11-01

    High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR) fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR) cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  12. Mini/micro cogeneration, basis for installation. Dimensioning, accounting and potential. Project report 1; Mini/mikrokraftvarme, forudsaetninger for installation. Dimensionering, afregningsforhold og potentiale. Projektrapport 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, J. de; Iskov, H.

    2005-11-15

    Cogeneration is quite spread in Denmark. Approx. 50 % of the power supply and 80 % of the district heating supply come from cogeneration. Combined heat and power is produced on both centralized (large) plants and decentralized plants. Decentralized combined heat and power plants (typically based on natural gas) use gas motors or gas turbines for power and heat production. Cogeneration of heat and power saves primary fuels and a directly derived effect from cogeneration is CO{sub 2} emission reduction. If fuels with higher specific CO{sub 2} emission than natural gas (e.g. coal, oil) are substituted, additional CO{sub 2} reduction can be reached. (BA)

  13. Development of cogeneration in Spain and financing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    From 1980 there is in force in Spain a proper legal framework that could be considered a sound support to further cogeneration development. Despite this cogeneration law, a very few schemes were built. In 1986 IDAE, a state company attached to the Spanish Ministry of Industry and Energy, began a Cogeneration Programme focussed to a higher cogeneration utilisation. This programme has three main foundations: Technology dissemination; Technical support; Investment financing. As a result of these activities more than 1000 MW additional power schemes have been ordered all over the country and, as a consequence, cogenerated electricity will be multiplied by three in respect with the previous situation. A 20% of this new capacity has been developed directly by IDAE, that has invested approximately 90 million US Dollar through third party financing technics. The National Energy Plan 1991-2000 established the energy policy actuations in Spain for the present decade, giving importance to cogeneration development. This paper explains the way this development has been achieved, outlining IDAE's engagement to finance combined heat and power schemes through its comprehensive way of performing third party financing systems. (au)

  14. Design and Experimental Validation of Hydraulic Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    market. A hydraulic yaw system is such a new technology, and so a mathematical model of the full scale system and test rig system is derived and compared to measurements from the system. This is done in order to have a validated model, which wind turbine manufacturers may use for test in their simulation......To comply with the increasing demands for life time and reliability of wind turbines as these grow in size, new measures needs to be taken in the design of wind turbines and components hereof. One critical point is the initial testing of the components and systems before they are implemented...... in an actual turbine. Full scale hardware testing is both extremely expensive and time consuming, and so the wind turbine industry moves more towards simulations when testing. In order to meet these demands it is necessary with valid models of systems in order to introduce new technologies to the wind turbine...

  15. Research on simulation of supercritical steam turbine system in large thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the stability and safety of supercritical steam turbine system operation in large thermal power station, the body of the steam turbine is modeled in this paper. And in accordance with the hierarchical modeling idea, the steam turbine body model, condensing system model, deaeration system model and regenerative system model are combined to build a simulation model of steam turbine system according to the connection relationship of each subsystem of steam turbine. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by design and operation data of the 600MW supercritical unit. The results show that the maximum simulation error of the model is 2.15%, which meets the requirements of the engineering. This research provides a platform for the research on the variable operating conditions of the turbine system, and lays a foundation for the construction of the whole plant model of the thermal power plant.

  16. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eek, Jarle

    2009-12-15

    A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

  17. Installation and investigation of a cogeneration system in a hospital building at Anieres; Installation et suivi d'un couplage chaleur-force (CCF) sur le site de l'ORT a Anieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    A system for combined heat and power generation has been added to the complex energy system of the ORT building of the general hospital at Anieres (canton Geneva, Southwestern Switzerland). Such a system allows both to reduce deficiencies of electric power and to supply the necessary sanitary hot water. The detailed investigation showed that the hydraulic inclusion of the cogeneration unit is of prime importance for obtaining a high number of operating hours, a prerequisite for economic operation. A hydraulic control of the primary loop by a temperature sensor in the return flow has proven to be adequate. Another critical point is the control of the cogeneration unit. The control must be very precisely adjusted if the requirements for electric power and warm water are to be fulfilled without heat dissipation. In this context, the management of the warm water storage tanks plays a decisive role.

  18. Status report on compact gasifier cogeneration units in Germany. Applications of the cogeneration gasifier technology; Stand kleintechnischer Vergaser-BHKW-Anlagen in Deutschland. Einsatz der BHKW-Vergasertechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschunke, Tobias; Schuessler, Ingmar; Salomo, Bert [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany); Braekow, Dieter [Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V., Berlin (Germany); Treppe, Konrad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Umwelttechnik

    2010-07-01

    In contrast to biogas, the use of solid biomass with low water content in cogeneration units is lagging several years of development behind. A promising variant is a wood gas engine cogeneration unit. Different energy sources can be combined, e.g. in an Otto engine and a Stirling engine. The authors describe the technology for compact systems. (orig.)

  19. Kongiganak Wind Turbine Replacement and System Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonstra, Patrick [Intelligent Energy Systems, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Native Village of Kongiganak, Alaska was awarded a grant to upgrade the braking systems on five wind turbines and upgrade the monitoring and data collection unit to insure that enough energy is available to power the utility. The project manager for this award is Intelligent Energy Systems, LLC located in Anchorage, Alaska. In addition to accomplishing these upgrades, it was the intent for a local wind tech crew to be trained in Kongiganak so that routine maintenance and future repairs will be made by local workers.

  20. System Reduction in Nonlinear Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Rubak, Rune

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the system reduction in nonlinear multibody dynamics of wind turbines is investigated for various updating schemes of the moving frame of reference. In one case, the moving frame of reference is updated to a stiff body, relative to which the elastic deformations are fixed at one end....... In the other case, the stiff body motion is defined as the chord line connecting the end points of the beam, and the elastic deformations are simply supported at the end points. The system reduction is performed by discretizing the spatial motion into a set of rigid body modes and linear elastic eigenmodes...

  1. Cogenerators stretch the capital markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Danielle.

    1993-01-01

    Independent power generation projects are being planned worldwide. But to finance them, the developers are starting to look increasingly for non-bank sources of funds. Key cogeneration finance deals are discussed in this article. (Author)

  2. Least cost analysis of Belarus electricity generation system with focus on nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.; Yakushau, A.

    2004-01-01

    A basic feature of the Belarus electricity system is that about 50% of the installed power capacity is used to produce heat for the central heating supply system. The Republic has one of the most developed districts heating system in Europe. The installation started in 1930, and developed very fast after 1945. Co-generation of electricity and thermal energy in central power plants has played a fundamental role in the local economy. Presently, Belarus electricity generation system includes: Total installed capacities of condensing turbines 3665 MW; Total installed capacities of co-generation turbines 3889 MW. It is expected that in 2020 in accordance with electricity demand forecast peak load demand will be equaled approximately 9500 MW. Taking into account that operation time of 60 % existent co-generation turbine and 70 % of condensing turbine can be extended up to 2020 during the period 2005 - 2020 it is necessity to install about 1500 MW of new co-generation units and about 2000 MW of condensing turbines. To select the least cost scenario for electricity generation system expansion improved computer code WASP-IV for Windows had been used. As far code WASP-IV do not allow finding out optimal solution for electricity generation system with high share of co-generation directly the methodology of application of this program for this case had been developed. Methodology is based on utilization of code WASP-IV for simulation condensing turbines and module BALANCE for modeling co-generation part of the system. The scenarios for the electricity system expansion plan included only conventional technologies. Presently, the works connected with the preparedness for NPP construction in the Republic including site survey for NPP are being carried out. The first stage of siting process according to the IAEA classification has been completed. It was based on a set of criteria answered to A Safety Guide of the IAEA Site Survey for Nuclear Power Plants and requirements to be

  3. Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system for the olive oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, D.; Jurado, F.; Mena, B. de; Schories, G.

    2011-01-01

    The olive oil industry generates during the extraction process several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings, exhausted pomace and olive pits. These renewable wastes could be used for power and heat applications. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of two small-scale CHP systems: a gasification- gas turbine system and an EFGT (externally fired gas turbine system). For this reason, several parameters have been calculated: generated heat and power, electric and overall efficiencies, biomass consumption, exergy efficiency, optimum pressure ratio, etc. These systems provide 30 kW e and about 60kW th . Simulation results show that the electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in EFGT system (19.1% and 59.3%, respectively) are significantly higher than those obtained in the gasification plant (12.3% and 45.4%). The proposed CHP systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. -- Highlights: ► Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system. ► Olive oil industry generates several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings. ► Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. ► Systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. ► Simulation results show electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in the systems.

  4. Thermodynamic study of residual heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor to analyze its viability in cogeneration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillan R, A.; Valle H, J.; Escalante, J. A.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the thermodynamic study of a nuclear power plant of high temperature at gas turbine (GTHTR300) is presented for estimating the exploitable waste heat in a process of desalination of seawater. One of the most studied and viable sustainable energy for the production of electricity, without the emission of greenhouse gases, is the nuclear energy. The fourth generation nuclear power plants have greater advantages than those currently installed plants; these advantages have to do with security, increased efficiencies and feasibility to be coupled to electrical cogeneration processes. In this paper the thermodynamic study of a nuclear power plant type GTHTR300 is realized, which is selected by greater efficiencies and have optimal conditions for use in electrical cogeneration processes due to high operating temperatures, which are between 700 and 950 degrees Celsius. The aim of the study is to determine the heat losses and the work done at each stage of the system, determining where they are the greatest losses and analyzing in that processes can be taken advantage. Based on the study was appointed that most of the energy losses are in form of heat in the coolers and usually this is emitted into the atmosphere without being used. From the results a process of desalination of seawater as electrical cogeneration process is proposed. This paper contains a brief description of the operation of the nuclear power plant, focusing on operation conditions and thermodynamic characteristics for the implementation of electrical cogeneration process, a thermodynamic analysis based on mass and energy balance was developed. The results allow quantifying the losses of thermal energy and determining the optimal section for coupling of the reactor with the desalination process, seeking to have a great overall efficiency. (Author)

  5. Cogeneration in Australia. Situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Research Paper is mainly concerned with the status and prospects for cogeneration in Australia. An introductory chapter reviews the fundamentals of cogeneration, covering both technical and institutional aspects. A range of technologies are employed in cogeneration: these technologies and their efficiency and environmental impact effects are discussed in Chapter 2. The economics of cogeneration are a major factor in the profitability of current and potential plants. Potential factors affecting cogeneration economics are discussed .The status of cogeneration in Australia is reviewed for each State and Territory, and includes a number of case studies of existing plants. Government (federal, state, territory) policies that have a significant impact on the attractiveness of cogeneration are reviewed. Finally, the future prospects for cogeneration in Australia, drawing on the preceding chapters and a review of estimated potentials for cogeneration in Australia are presented

  6. Entropy generation minimization: A practical approach for performance evaluation of temperature cascaded co-generation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a practical tool that employs entropy generation minimization (EGM) approach for an in-depth performance evaluation of a co-generation plant with a temperature-cascaded concept. Co-generation plant produces useful effect production sequentially, i.e., (i) electricity from the micro-turbines, (ii) low pressure steam at 250 °C or about 8-10 bars, (iii) cooling capacity of 4 refrigeration tones (Rtons) and (iv) dehumidification of outdoor air for air conditioned space. The main objective is to configure the most efficient configuration of producing power and heat. We employed entropy generation minimization (EGM) which reflects to minimize the dissipative losses and maximize the cycle efficiency of the individual thermally activated systems. The minimization of dissipative losses or EGM is performed in two steps namely, (i) adjusting heat source temperatures for the heat-fired cycles and (ii) the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA), to seek out the sensitivity of heat transfer areas, flow rates of working fluids, inlet temperatures of heat sources and coolant, etc., over the anticipated range of operation to achieve maximum efficiency. With EGM equipped with GA, we verified that the local minimization of entropy generation individually at each of the heat-activated processes would lead to the maximum efficiency of the system. © 2012.

  7. Entropy generation minimization: A practical approach for performance evaluation of temperature cascaded co-generation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2012-10-01

    We present a practical tool that employs entropy generation minimization (EGM) approach for an in-depth performance evaluation of a co-generation plant with a temperature-cascaded concept. Co-generation plant produces useful effect production sequentially, i.e., (i) electricity from the micro-turbines, (ii) low pressure steam at 250 °C or about 8-10 bars, (iii) cooling capacity of 4 refrigeration tones (Rtons) and (iv) dehumidification of outdoor air for air conditioned space. The main objective is to configure the most efficient configuration of producing power and heat. We employed entropy generation minimization (EGM) which reflects to minimize the dissipative losses and maximize the cycle efficiency of the individual thermally activated systems. The minimization of dissipative losses or EGM is performed in two steps namely, (i) adjusting heat source temperatures for the heat-fired cycles and (ii) the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA), to seek out the sensitivity of heat transfer areas, flow rates of working fluids, inlet temperatures of heat sources and coolant, etc., over the anticipated range of operation to achieve maximum efficiency. With EGM equipped with GA, we verified that the local minimization of entropy generation individually at each of the heat-activated processes would lead to the maximum efficiency of the system. © 2012.

  8. Grid integration policies of gas-fired cogeneration in Peninsular Malaysia: Fallacies and counterexamples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaaban, M., E-mail: m.shaaban@fke.utm.my [Centre of Electrical Energy Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Azit, A.H. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Wisma TNB, Jalan Timur, 46200 Petaling Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Nor, K.M. [Centre of Electrical Energy Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Despite the abundance of natural gas reserves in Malaysia coupled with serious government thrusts to promote cogeneration, its (cogeneration) development pace lags far off expectations. There are widespread fallacies among potential cogeneration developers and concerned professionals that cogeneration is uncompetitive in Malaysia due to existing policies of subsidized gas prices and grid-connection charges. This paper exposes these fallacies through counterexamples of practical cogeneration system design and evaluation of some segments of the industrial and service sectors in Peninsular Malaysia. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the cogeneration were modeled based on heat rate characteristics at partial loading patterns. A hierarchical mathematical programming approach that uses mixed-integer nonlinear optimization and dynamic programming principle, if necessary, is employed to determine the optimal size of cogeneration and its related auxiliary equipment as well as the optimal operation schedule. Financial assessment is integrated at a later stage to assess the economic viability of the system. Analyses of the cogeneration potential for several facilities of miscellaneous activities were carried out using various gas and electricity prices. Results obtained consistently rebuff the perpetuated fallacies and confirm that there is no real barrier to cogeneration development in Malaysia under current policies of gas prices and electricity tariffs. - Highlights: > Mixed-integer nonlinear programming and dynamic programming are used in the design. > Various loading levels are modeled and hourly operation schedule is determined. > Standby electricity charge has a minimal impact on cogeneration feasibility. > Gas and electricity prices are interrelated and affect cogeneration investment. > Under existing policies, there is no barrier to cogeneration adoption in Malaysia.

  9. Grid integration policies of gas-fired cogeneration in Peninsular Malaysia: Fallacies and counterexamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Azit, A.H.; Nor, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the abundance of natural gas reserves in Malaysia coupled with serious government thrusts to promote cogeneration, its (cogeneration) development pace lags far off expectations. There are widespread fallacies among potential cogeneration developers and concerned professionals that cogeneration is uncompetitive in Malaysia due to existing policies of subsidized gas prices and grid-connection charges. This paper exposes these fallacies through counterexamples of practical cogeneration system design and evaluation of some segments of the industrial and service sectors in Peninsular Malaysia. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the cogeneration were modeled based on heat rate characteristics at partial loading patterns. A hierarchical mathematical programming approach that uses mixed-integer nonlinear optimization and dynamic programming principle, if necessary, is employed to determine the optimal size of cogeneration and its related auxiliary equipment as well as the optimal operation schedule. Financial assessment is integrated at a later stage to assess the economic viability of the system. Analyses of the cogeneration potential for several facilities of miscellaneous activities were carried out using various gas and electricity prices. Results obtained consistently rebuff the perpetuated fallacies and confirm that there is no real barrier to cogeneration development in Malaysia under current policies of gas prices and electricity tariffs. - Highlights: → Mixed-integer nonlinear programming and dynamic programming are used in the design. → Various loading levels are modeled and hourly operation schedule is determined. → Standby electricity charge has a minimal impact on cogeneration feasibility. → Gas and electricity prices are interrelated and affect cogeneration investment. → Under existing policies, there is no barrier to cogeneration adoption in Malaysia.

  10. System Statement of Tasks of Calculating and Providing the Reliability of Heating Cogeneration Plants in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryuk, V. V.; Tsapkova, A. B.; Larin, E. A.; Livshiz, M. Y.; Sheludko, L. P.

    2018-01-01

    A set of mathematical models for calculating the reliability indexes of structurally complex multifunctional combined installations in heat and power supply systems was developed. Reliability of energy supply is considered as required condition for the creation and operation of heat and power supply systems. The optimal value of the power supply system coefficient F is based on an economic assessment of the consumers’ loss caused by the under-supply of electric power and additional system expences for the creation and operation of an emergency capacity reserve. Rationing of RI of the industrial heat supply is based on the use of concept of technological margin of safety of technological processes. The definition of rationed RI values of heat supply of communal consumers is based on the air temperature level iside the heated premises. The complex allows solving a number of practical tasks for providing reliability of heat supply for consumers. A probabilistic model is developed for calculating the reliability indexes of combined multipurpose heat and power plants in heat-and-power supply systems. The complex of models and calculation programs can be used to solve a wide range of specific tasks of optimization of schemes and parameters of combined heat and power plants and systems, as well as determining the efficiency of various redundance methods to ensure specified reliability of power supply.

  11. Simulation of gas turbines operating in off-design condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Arnaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: walter@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In many countries thermal power plants based on gas turbines have been the main option for new investment into the electric system due to their relatively high efficiency and low capital cost. Cogeneration systems based on gas turbines have also been an important option for the electric industry. Feasibility studies of power plants based on gas turbine should consider the effect of atmospheric conditions and part-load operation on the machine performance. Doing this, an off-design procedure is required. A G T off-design simulation procedure is described in this paper. Ruston R M was used to validate the simulation procedure that, general sense, presents deviations lower than 2.5% in comparison to manufacturer's data. (author)

  12. Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armanasco, Fabio; Colombo, Luigi Pietro Maria; Lucchini, Andrea; Rossetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ► The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ► A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ► Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

  13. A preliminary examination of the economics of cogeneration with fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelrigg, G.A.; Coleman, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration, the process of using reject heat from electric energy generation plants, offers substantial savings in energy consumption and thus is likely to see increased implementation, especially in the form of district heating, over the next few decades. The use of fusion plants for cogeneration offers added advantages of potentially low marginal costs and reduced siting restrictions compared to nuclear and coal plants, and freedom from use of limited fossil fuels. Fusion can thus provide increased economic incentive to the implementation of cogeneration systems. Conversely, cogeneration improves the economics of fusion and thus provides both added incentive for its development and reduced economic requirements on commercial fusion technologies

  14. Feasibility study on combined use of residential SOFC cogeneration system and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle from energy-saving viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Wada, Naohiro; Yokoyama, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimal operational planning for combined use of SOFC-CGS and PHEV is conducted. ► Charging PHEV with SOFC-CGS increases electric capacity factor of SOFC-CGS. ► Energy-saving effect of combined use is higher than that of their separate use. ► Combined use provides energy savings in both residential and transport sectors. - Abstract: The energy-saving effect of a combined use of a residential solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration system (SOFC-CGS) that adopts a continuous operation, and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is discussed by optimal operational planning based on mixed-integer linear programming. This combined use aims to increase the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS by charging the PHEV using the SOFC-CGS electric power output late at night, and targets the application in regions where the reverse power flow from residential cogeneration systems to commercial electric power systems is not permitted, like in Japan. The optimal operation patterns of the combined use of 0.7-kWe SOFC-CGS and PHEV for a simulated energy demand with a sampling time of 1 h and various daily running distances of the PHEV show that this combined use increases the electric capacity factor of the SOFC-CGS and saves more energy in comparison with their separate use in which the SOFC-CGS is used but the PHEV is charged only with purchased electric power. Furthermore, it is found that at the PHEV daily running distance of 12 km/d, the reduction rate of the annual primary energy consumption for this combined use increases by up to 3.7 percentage points relative to their separate use. Consequently, this feasibility study reveals that the combined use of the SOFC-CGS and PHEV provides the synergistic effect on energy savings in the residential and transport sectors. For the practical use, simulation scenarios considering the energy demand fluctuations with short periods and real-time pricing of the purchased electric power must be considered as future

  15. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} caused by the consumption of hydrocarbon fuel is one of the main gases which affect the global climate. In order to reduce the formation of CO{sub 2}, it is necessary to conserve energy as effectively as possible. Therefore the heat energy provided by the fuel should be utilized in multi-cascades. The energy at the high temperature should be used for the generation of electric power and the energy at low temperature could be used for making the steam and the hot water. The gas turbine is preferable for this purpose. The heat energy of exhaust gas can be reused more easily. The two systems are proposed by using the gas turbine as the high temperature stage. One is the cogeneration system and the other is the combined cycle. The former generates electric power by the gas turbine and make steam or hot water in the exhaust gas. The latter employs the gas turbine as the high temperature cycle and the steam turbine as the low temperature cycle.

  16. Semi-Immersive Virtual Turbine Engine Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Mustufa H.; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman M.; Ahmad, Ali; Darmoul, Saber; Ameen, Wadea

    2018-05-01

    The design and verification of assembly operations is essential for planning product production operations. Recently, virtual prototyping has witnessed tremendous progress, and has reached a stage where current environments enable rich and multi-modal interaction between designers and models through stereoscopic visuals, surround sound, and haptic feedback. The benefits of building and using Virtual Reality (VR) models in assembly process verification are discussed in this paper. In this paper, we present the virtual assembly (VA) of an aircraft turbine engine. The assembly parts and sequences are explained using a virtual reality design system. The system enables stereoscopic visuals, surround sounds, and ample and intuitive interaction with developed models. A special software architecture is suggested to describe the assembly parts and assembly sequence in VR. A collision detection mechanism is employed that provides visual feedback to check the interference between components. The system is tested for virtual prototype and assembly sequencing of a turbine engine. We show that the developed system is comprehensive in terms of VR feedback mechanisms, which include visual, auditory, tactile, as well as force feedback. The system is shown to be effective and efficient for validating the design of assembly, part design, and operations planning.

  17. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2004-01-01

    . This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The reportprovides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level......-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). Theinitialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1...... of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations....

  18. Multi-objective optimization of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell – gas turbine hybrid system integrated with seawater reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloy, Valerie; Rodgers, Peter; Al Alili, Ali

    2017-01-01

    To improve the capacity and efficiency of distributed power and fresh water generation in coastal industrial facilities affected by regional water scarcity, a natural gas-fueled, pressurized solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid is integrated with a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant. This power and water co-generation system is optimized in terms of two objectives, maximum exergy efficiency and minimum cost rate, using a genetic algorithm. The exergetic and economic performance of three solutions representing maximum exergy efficiency, minimum cost rate, and a compromise between efficiency and cost rate, are compared. When imposing a water production requirement (reference case), the selected compromise multi-objective optimization solution delivers a net power output of 2.4 MWe and 636 m"3/day of permeate, at a co-generation exergy efficiency and cost rate of 71.3% and 0.0256 USD/s, respectively. The system payback time is estimated to be less than six years for typical economic parameters, but would become unprofitable in the most unfavorable economic scenario considered. Overall, the results indicate the thermodynamic and economic benefits of reverse osmosis over thermal desalination processes for integration with high-efficiency power generation systems in coastal regions impacted by domestic gas shortages and water scarcity. - Highlights: • Integration of a pressurized SOFC-GT hybrid system with a reverse osmosis unit. • Multi-objective, exergetic and economic optimization using a genetic algorithm. • Optimum solution delivers 2.4 MWe and 636 m"3/day of desalinated water. • Overall exergy efficiency and cost rate of 71.3% and 0.0256 USD/s, respectively. • System payback time estimated at less than six years for typical economic conditions.

  19. Development of a compound energy system for cold region houses using small-scale natural gas cogeneration and a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kikuchi, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Kyosuke; Kawai, Masahito; Yoshiaki, Kashiwaya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an independent energy system for houses in cold regions was developed using a small-scale natural gas CGS (cogeneration), air-source heat pump, heat storage tank, and GHB (gas hydrate battery). Heat sources for the GHB were the ambient air and geothermal resources of the cold region. The heat cycle of CO 2 hydrate as a source of energy was also experimentally investigated. To increase the formation speed of CO 2 hydrates, a ferrous oxide–graphite system catalyst was used. The ambient air of cold regions was used as a heat source for the formation process (electric charge) of the GHB, and the heat supplied by a geothermal heat exchanger was used for the dissociation process (electric discharge). Using a geothermal heat source, fuel consumption was halved because of an increased capacity for hydrate formation in the GHB, a shortening of the charging and discharging cycle, and a decrease in the freeze rate of hydrate formation space. Furthermore, when the GHB was introduced into a cold region house, the application rate of renewable energy was 47–71% in winter. The spread of the GHB can greatly reduce fossil fuel consumption and the associated greenhouse gases released from houses in cold regions. - Highlights: • Compound energy system for cold region houses by a gas hydrate battery was proposed. • Heat sources of a gas hydrate battery are exhaust heat of the CGS and geothermal. • Drastic reduction of the fossil fuel consumption in a cold region is realized

  20. Low Leakage Turbine Shaft Seals for Advanced Combined Cycle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Study of Shaft Face Seal With Self-Acting Lift Augmentation", N71- 11579, Nov. 1970 29p. Povinelli , V.P. and McKibbin, A. H., "Development of...34, N73-24086, May 1973, 28p. Povinelli , V. P. and McKibbin, A. H., "Development of Mainshaft Seals for Advanced Air Breathing Propulsion Systems... Povinelli , V. P., "Current Seal Designs and Future Requirements for Turbine Engine Seals and Bearings", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 12, No. 4, April 1975

  1. Basic Principles for Elaboration of Technical Requirements to Control and Protective TRB Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Panteley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and provides methodology for calculation of maximum over speeding value of a turbine rotor in the case when we face the failure of all its protective systems. It is presented a derivation of main equations required for making the calculation and the paper also cites results of their practical application at an industrial TRB (Turbine of the Republic of Belarus turbine while constructing its protective control systems.

  2. Stability improvement of wind turbine penetrated using power system stabilizer (PSS) on South Sulawesi transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Agus; Gunadin, Indar Chaerah; Said, Sri Mawar; Suyuti, Ansar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the stability of interconnection of South Sulawesi system caused by penetration new wind turbine in Sidrap area on bus 2 and in Jeniponto area on bus 34. The method used in this research was via software Power System analysis Toolbox (PSAT) under MATLAB. In this research, there are two problems that are evaluated, the stability of the system before and after penetration wind turbine into the system South Sulawesi system. From the simulation result shows that penetration of wind turbine on bus 2 Sidrap, bus 37 Jeniponto give effect oscillation on the system. The oscillation was damped by installation of Power System Stabilizer (PSS) on bus 29 area Sungguminasa, that South Sulawesi system stable according to normal condition.

  3. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

    2010-11-01

    This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

  4. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    , connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control......This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built...

  5. Analysis of cogeneration in the present energy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde Lazaro, E.; Ramos Millan, A.; Reina Peral, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a general vision of cogeneration penetration in the European Union is shown; after this, a case study is included, evaluating as a function of two factors (electricity and emission allowance prices) the suitability of installing, for an industry with a determined thermal demand, two different options. The first one is a gas turbine cogeneration plant generating steam through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The second one consists of installing a natural gas boiler for steam production covering the electricity demand from the grid. The CO 2 emissions from both options are compared regarding different kinds of generation mixes from the electricity grid in the case of using the industrial boiler; taking into account the advantages of using biomass in relation to emissions, a last comparison has been carried out considering a biomass boiler instead of the natural gas boiler. (author)

  6. EVALUATION OF ENERGY COGENERATION FROM SUGAR CANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanserth Abreu Elizundia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper were simulated and evaluated five alternatives of cogeneration scheme that promote a higher production of thermal and electrical energies as well as its right management. The first three alternatives are directed to increasing the boiler pressure and a change of steam turbines which are the extraction-condensation type, and then the fourth alternative proposed a boiler change to implement a bubbling fluidized bed and finally in the fifth alternative a scheme of biomass gasification is analyzed. All scheme were analyzed energetic and exergetically. The five cogeneration alternatives were simulated in ASPEN PLUS; they showed that the largest surplus bagasse and electricity are obtained with the scheme of a biomass gasification and the worst results in these parameters were obtained in the alternative that function in low pressure and temperature parameters

  7. A Novel Degradation Identification Method for Wind Turbine Pitch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Dong

    2018-04-01

    It’s difficult for traditional threshold value method to identify degradation of operating equipment accurately. An novel degradation evaluation method suitable for wind turbine condition maintenance strategy implementation was proposed in this paper. Based on the analysis of typical variable-speed pitch-to-feather control principle and monitoring parameters for pitch system, a multi input multi output (MIMO) regression model was applied to pitch system, where wind speed, power generation regarding as input parameters, wheel rotation speed, pitch angle and motor driving currency for three blades as output parameters. Then, the difference between the on-line measurement and the calculated value from the MIMO regression model applying least square support vector machines (LSSVM) method was defined as the Observed Vector of the system. The Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was applied to fitting the distribution of the multi dimension Observed Vectors. Applying the model established, the Degradation Index was calculated using the SCADA data of a wind turbine damaged its pitch bearing retainer and rolling body, which illustrated the feasibility of the provided method.

  8. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted horn DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include fill speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  9. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-15

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

  10. Development and industrial tests of the first LNG hydraulic turbine system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic hydraulic turbine can be used to replace the conventional J–T valve for LNG or mixed refrigerant throttling and depressurization in a natural gas liquefaction plant. This advanced technology is not only to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction plant, but to usher a new trend in the development of global liquefaction technologies. China has over 136 liquefaction plants, but the cryogenic hydraulic turbines have not been deployed in industrial utilization. In addition, these turbines cannot be manufactured domestically. In this circumstance, through working on the key technologies for LNG hydraulic turbine process & control system development, hydraulic model optimization design, structure design and manufacturing, the first domestic cryogenic hydraulic turbine with a flow rate of 40 m3/h was developed to recover the pressure energy from the LNG of cold box. The turbine was installed in the CNOOC Zhuhai Natural Gas Liquefaction Plant for industrial tests under multiple working conditions, including start-stop, variable flow rates and variable rotation speeds. Test results show that the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine has satisfactory mechanical and operational performances at low temperatures as specified in design. In addition, the process & control system and frequency-conversion power-generation system of the turbine system are designed properly to automatically and smoothly replace the existing LNG J–T valve. As a result, the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine system can improve LNG production by an average of 2% and generate power of 8.3 kW.

  11. Modernization of turbine control system and reactor control system in Almaraz 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, C.; Diez, J.; Carrasco, J. A.; Lopez, L.

    2005-01-01

    The replacement of the Turbine Control System and Reactor Control System are part of the Almaraz modernization program for the Instrumentation and Control. For these upgrades Almaraz has selected the Ovation Platform that provides open architecture and easy expansion to other systems, these platforms is highly used in many nuclear and thermal plants around the world. One of the main objective for this project were to minimize the impact on the installation and operation of the plant, for that reason the project is implemented in two phases, Turbine Control upgrade and Reactor Control upgrade. Another important objective was to increase the reliability of the control system making them fully fault tolerant to single failures. The turbine Control System has been installed in Units 1 and 2 while the Reactor Control System will be installed in 2006 and 2007 outages. (Author)

  12. Cooling system with compressor bleed and ambient air for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Marra, John J.

    2017-11-21

    A cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine blade cooling fluid supply and from an ambient air source to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The cooling system may include a compressor bleed conduit extending from a compressor to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply that provides cooling fluid to at least one turbine blade. The compressor bleed conduit may include an upstream section and a downstream section whereby the upstream section exhausts compressed bleed air through an outlet into the downstream section through which ambient air passes. The outlet of the upstream section may be generally aligned with a flow of ambient air flowing in the downstream section. As such, the compressed air increases the flow of ambient air to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply.

  13. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  14. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  15. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  16. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results.

  17. Procedure to determine the convenience of installing a co-generation system; Procedimiento para determinar la conveniencia de instalar un sistema de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos; Acosta Torres, Aracely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this article a methodology for the selection of the co-generation system better adapted to the energy needs of an industry is presented, covering the following schemes: a) Satisfy the thermal demand and delive