Turbine airfoil having near-wall cooling insert
Martin, Jr., Nicholas F.; Wiebe, David J.
2017-09-12
A turbine airfoil is provided with at least one insert positioned in a cavity in an airfoil interior. The insert extends along a span-wise extent of the turbine airfoil and includes first and second opposite faces. A first near-wall cooling channel is defined between the first face and a pressure sidewall of an airfoil outer wall. A second near-wall cooling channel is defined between the second face and a suction sidewall of the airfoil outer wall. The insert is configured to occupy an inactive volume in the airfoil interior so as to displace a coolant flow in the cavity toward the first and second near-wall cooling channels. A locating feature engages the insert with the outer wall for supporting the insert in position. The locating feature is configured to control flow of the coolant through the first or second near-wall cooling channel.
Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil
Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich
2012-12-18
A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.
Multiple piece turbine airfoil
Kimmel, Keith D; Wilson, Jr., Jack W.
2010-11-02
A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.
Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.
1996-01-01
Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.
Darrieus wind-turbine airfoil configurations
Migliore, P. G.; Fritschen, J. R.
1982-06-01
The purpose was to determine what aerodynamic performance improvement, if any, could be achieved by judiciously choosing the airfoil sections for Darrieus wind turbine blades. Ten different airfoils, having thickness to chord ratios of twelve, fifteen and eighteen percent, were investigated. Performance calculations indicated that the NACA 6-series airfoils yield peak power coefficients at least as great as the NACA. Furthermore, the power coefficient-tip speed ratio curves were broader and flatter for the 6-series airfoils. Sample calculations for an NACA 63 sub 2-015 airfoil showed an annual energy output increase of 17 to 27% depending upon rotor solidity, compared to an NACA 0015 airfoil. An attempt was made to account for the flow curvature effects associated with Darrieus turbines by transforming the NACA 63 sub 2-015 airfoil to an appropriate shape.
New airfoils for small horizontal axis wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giguere, P.; Selig, M.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
1997-12-31
In a continuing effort to enhance the performance of small energy systems, one root airfoil and three primary airfoils were specifically designed for small horizontal axis wind turbines. These airfoils are intended primarily for 1-10 kW variable-speed wind turbines for both conventional (tapered/twisted) or pultruded blades. The four airfoils were wind-tunnel tested at Reynolds numbers between 100,000 and 500,000. Tests with simulated leading-edge roughness were also conducted. The results indicate that small variable-speed wind turbines should benefit from the use of the new airfoils which provide enhanced lift-to-drag ratio performance as compared with previously existing airfoils.
OUT Success Stories: Advanced Airfoils for Wind Turbines
Jones, J.; Green, B.
2000-08-01
New airfoils have substantially increased the aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbines. It is clear that these new airfoils substantially increased energy output from wind turbines. Virtually all new blades built in this country today use these advanced airfoil designs.
OUT Success Stories: Advanced Airfoils for Wind Turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, J.; Green, B.
2000-01-01
New airfoils have substantially increased the aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbines. It is clear that these new airfoils substantially increased energy output from wind turbines. Virtually all new blades built in this country today use these advanced airfoil designs
Design and optimization of tidal turbine airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2012-03-15
To increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and, thereby, to reduce cost of energy, the use of specially tailored airfoils is needed. This work is focused on the design of an airfoil for marine application. Firstly, the requirements for this class of airfoils are illustrated and discussed with reference to the requirements for wind turbine airfoils. Then, the design approach is presented. This is a numerical optimization scheme in which a gradient-based algorithm is used, coupled with the RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints .A section of the present work is dedicated to address this point; particular importance is given to the cavitation phenomenon. Finally, a numerical example regarding the design of a high-efficiency hydrofoil is illustrated, and the results are compared with existing turbine airfoils, considering also the effect on turbine performance due to different airfoils.
Design and optimization of tidal turbine airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2011-07-15
In order to increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and thereby to reduce cost of energy, the use of specially tailored airfoils is needed. This work is focused on the design of an airfoil for marine application. Firstly, the requirements for this class of airfoils are illustrated and discussed with reference to the requirements for wind turbine airfoils. Then, the design approach is presented. This is a numerical optimization scheme in which a gradient based algorithm is used, coupled with RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints; in order to formalize in the most complete and effective way the design requirements, the effects of activating specific constraints are discussed. Particularly importance is given to the cavitation phenomenon. Finally, a numerical example regarding the design of a high efficiency, tidal turbine airfoil is illustrated and the results are compared with existing turbine airfoils.
Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine
None, None
2013-06-25
A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.
Quiet airfoils for small and large wind turbines
Tangler, James L [Boulder, CO; Somers, Dan L [Port Matilda, PA
2012-06-12
Thick airfoil families with desirable aerodynamic performance with minimal airfoil induced noise. The airfoil families are suitable for a variety of wind turbine designs and are particularly well-suited for use with horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) with constant or variable speed using pitch and/or stall control. In exemplary embodiments, a first family of three thick airfoils is provided for use with small wind turbines and second family of three thick airfoils is provided for use with very large machines, e.g., an airfoil defined for each of three blade radial stations or blade portions defined along the length of a blade. Each of the families is designed to provide a high maximum lift coefficient or high lift, to exhibit docile stalls, to be relatively insensitive to roughness, and to achieve a low profile drag.
Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2012-06-15
One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.
Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil
Lee, Ching-Pang
2013-09-17
A serpentine coolant flow path (54A-54G) formed by inner walls (50, 52) in a cavity (49) between pressure and suction side walls (22, 24) of a turbine airfoil (20A). A coolant flow (58) enters (56) an end of the airfoil, flows into a span-wise channel (54A), then flows forward (54B) over the inner surface of the pressure side wall, then turns behind the leading edge (26), and flows back along a forward part of the suction side wall, then follows a loop (54E) forward and back around an inner wall (52), then flows along an intermediate part of the suction side wall, then flows into an aft channel (54G) between the pressure and suction side walls, then exits the trailing edge (28). This provides cooling matched to the heating topography of the airfoil, minimizes differential thermal expansion, revives the coolant, and minimizes the flow volume needed.
Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Sørensen, Niels N.
1999-01-01
Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum...... theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotorwith LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall...... to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFDcomputations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived...
Airfoil selection methodology for Small Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salgado Fuentes, Valentin; Troya, Cesar; Moreno, Gustavo
2016-01-01
On wind turbine technology, the aerodynamic performance is fundamental to increase efficiency. Nowadays there are several databases with airfoils designed and simulated for different applications; that is why it is necessary to select those suitable for a specific application. This work presents...... a new methodology for airfoil selection used in feasibility and optimization of small wind turbines with low cut-in speed. On the first stage, airfoils data is tested on XFOIL software to check its compatibility with the simulator; then, arithmetic mean criteria is recursively used to discard...... underperformed airfoils; the best airfoil data was exported to Matlab for a deeper analysis. In the second part, data points were interpolated using "splines" to calculate glide ratio and stability across multiple angles of attack, those who present a bigger steadiness were conserved. As a result, 3 airfoils...
Airfoil family design for large offshore wind turbine blades
Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.; San Miguel, U.
2014-06-01
Wind turbine blades size has scaled-up during last years due to wind turbine platform increase especially for offshore applications. The EOLIA project 2007-2010 (Spanish Goverment funded project) was focused on the design of large offshore wind turbines for deep waters. The project was managed by ACCIONA Energia and the wind turbine technology was designed by ACCIONA Windpower. The project included the design of a wind turbine airfoil family especially conceived for large offshore wind turbine blades, in the order of 5MW machine. Large offshore wind turbines suffer high extreme loads due to their size, in addition the lack of noise restrictions allow higher tip speeds. Consequently, the airfoils presented in this work are designed for high Reynolds numbers with the main goal of reducing blade loads and mantainig power production. The new airfoil family was designed in collaboration with CENER (Spanish National Renewable Energy Centre). The airfoil family was designed using a evolutionary algorithm based optimization tool with different objectives, both aerodynamic and structural, coupled with an airfoil geometry generation tool. Force coefficients of the designed airfoil were obtained using the panel code XFOIL in which the boundary layer/inviscid flow coupling is ineracted via surface transpiration model. The desing methodology includes a novel technique to define the objective functions based on normalizing the functions using weight parameters created from data of airfoils used as reference. Four airfoils have been designed, here three of them will be presented, with relative thickness of 18%, 21%, 25%, which have been verified with the in-house CFD code, Wind Multi Block WMB, and later validated with wind tunnel experiments. Some of the objectives for the designed airfoils concern the aerodynamic behavior (high efficiency and lift, high tangential coefficient, insensitivity to rough conditions, etc.), others concern the geometry (good for structural design
Airfoil family design for large offshore wind turbine blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Méndez, B; Munduate, X; Miguel, U San
2014-01-01
Wind turbine blades size has scaled-up during last years due to wind turbine platform increase especially for offshore applications. The EOLIA project 2007-2010 (Spanish Goverment funded project) was focused on the design of large offshore wind turbines for deep waters. The project was managed by ACCIONA Energia and the wind turbine technology was designed by ACCIONA Windpower. The project included the design of a wind turbine airfoil family especially conceived for large offshore wind turbine blades, in the order of 5MW machine. Large offshore wind turbines suffer high extreme loads due to their size, in addition the lack of noise restrictions allow higher tip speeds. Consequently, the airfoils presented in this work are designed for high Reynolds numbers with the main goal of reducing blade loads and mantainig power production. The new airfoil family was designed in collaboration with CENER (Spanish National Renewable Energy Centre). The airfoil family was designed using a evolutionary algorithm based optimization tool with different objectives, both aerodynamic and structural, coupled with an airfoil geometry generation tool. Force coefficients of the designed airfoil were obtained using the panel code XFOIL in which the boundary layer/inviscid flow coupling is ineracted via surface transpiration model. The desing methodology includes a novel technique to define the objective functions based on normalizing the functions using weight parameters created from data of airfoils used as reference. Four airfoils have been designed, here three of them will be presented, with relative thickness of 18%, 21%, 25%, which have been verified with the in-house CFD code, Wind Multi Block WMB, and later validated with wind tunnel experiments. Some of the objectives for the designed airfoils concern the aerodynamic behavior (high efficiency and lift, high tangential coefficient, insensitivity to rough conditions, etc.), others concern the geometry (good for structural design
Root region airfoil for wind turbine
Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.
1995-01-01
A thick airfoil for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%-26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4-1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects.
New airfoil sections for straight bladed turbine
Boumaza, B.
1987-07-01
A theoretical investigation of aerodynamic performance for vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine with new airfoils sections is carried out. The blade section aerodynamics characteristics are determined from turbomachines cascade model. The model is also adapted to the vertical Darrieus turbine for the performance prediction of the machine. In order to choose appropriate value of zero-lift-drag coefficient in calculation, an analytical expression is introduced as function of chord-radius ratio and Reynolds numbers. New airfoils sections are proposed and analyzed for straight-bladed turbine.
New airfoil sections for straight bladed turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boumaza, B.
1987-07-01
A theoretical investigation of aerodynamic performance for vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine with new airfoils sections is carried out. The blade section aerodynamics characteristics are determined from turbomachines cascade model. The model is also adapted to the vertical Darrieus turbine for the performance prediction of the machine. In order to choose appropriate value of zero-lift-drag coefficient in calculation, an analytical expression is introduced as function of chord-radius ratio and Reynolds numbers. New airfoils sections are proposed and analyzed for straight-bladed turbine
Boundary layer development on turbine airfoil suction surfaces
Sharma, O. P.; Wells, R. A.; Schlinker, R. H.; Bailey, D. A.
1981-01-01
The results of a study supported by NASA under the Energy Efficient Engine Program, conducted to investigate the development of boundary layers under the influence of velocity distributions that simulate the suction sides of two state-of-the-art turbine airfoils, are presented. One velocity distribution represented a forward loaded airfoil ('squared-off' design), while the other represented an aft loaded airfoil ('aft loaded' design). These velocity distributions were simulated in a low-speed, high-aspect-ratio wind tunnel specifically designed for boundary layer investigations. It is intended that the detailed data presented in this paper be used to develop improved turbulence model suitable for application to turbine airfoil design.
Genetic Algorithms in Wind Turbine Airfoil Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Bizzarrini, N.; Coiro, D.P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy)
2011-03-15
One key element in the aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and thereby to reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of a wind turbine airfoil by using numerical optimization. Firstly, the optimization approach is presented; a genetic algorithm is used, coupled with RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints; in order to formalize in the most complete and effective way the design requirements, the effects of activating specific constraints are discussed. A numerical example regarding the design of a high efficiency airfoil for the outer part of a blade by using genetic algorithms is illustrated and the results are compared with existing wind turbine airfoils. Finally a new hybrid design strategy is illustrated and discussed, in which the genetic algorithms are used at the beginning of the design process to explore a wide domain. Then, the gradient based algorithms are used in order to improve the first stage optimum.
Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators
Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B
2013-08-06
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.
Second Stage Turbine Bucket Airfoil.
Xu, Liming; Ahmadi, Majid; Humanchuk, David John; Moretto, Nicholas; Delehanty, Richard Edward
2003-05-06
The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.
Third-stage turbine bucket airfoil
Pirolla, Peter Paul; Siden, Gunnar Leif; Humanchuk, David John; Brassfield, Steven Robert; Wilson, Paul Stuart
2002-01-01
The third-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinates defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.
Wind turbine airfoil catalogue
Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe; Fuglsang, P.
2001-01-01
The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so...
Design of advanced airfoil for stall-regulated wind turbines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Grasso
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, all the modern megawatt-class wind turbines make use of pitch control to optimise the rotor performance and control the turbine. However, for kilowatt-range machines, stall-regulated solutions are still attractive and largely used for their simplicity and robustness. In the design phase, the aerodynamics plays a crucial role, especially concerning the selection/design of the necessary airfoils. This is because the airfoil performance is supposed to guarantee high wind turbine performance but also the necessary machine control capabilities. In the present work, the design of a new airfoil dedicated to stall machines is discussed. The design strategy makes use of a numerical optimisation scheme, where a gradient-based algorithm is coupled with the RFOIL code and an original Bezier-curves-based parameterisation to describe the airfoil shape. The performances of the new airfoil are compared in free- and fixed-transition conditions. In addition, the performance of the rotor is analysed, comparing the impact of the new geometry with alternative candidates. The results show that the new airfoil offers better performance and control than existing candidates do.
Wind turbine airfoil catalogue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, N.; Johansen, J.; Fuglsang, P.
2001-08-01
The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which air-foils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. The airfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible for the poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads to these discrepancies is identified. Some advices are given for elaborating future airfoil design processes that would involve the numerical code EllipSys2D in particular, and transition modelling in general. (au)
Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system
Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.
2016-09-06
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.
Usage of Numerical Optimization in Wind Turbine Airfoil Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2011-01-15
One important key element in the aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and thereby to reduce the cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of a wind turbine airfoil by using numerical optimization. First, the requirements for this class of airfoils are illustrated and discussed in order to have an exhaustive outline of the complexity of the problem. Then the optimization approach is presented; a gradient-based algorithm is used, coupled with RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints; to formalize the design requirements in the most complete and effective way, the effects of activating specific constraints are discussed. Finally, a numerical example regarding the design of a high-efficiency airfoil for the outer part of a blade is illustrated, and the results are compared with existing wind turbine airfoils.
Second-stage turbine bucket airfoil
Wang, John Zhiqiang; By, Robert Romany; Sims, Calvin L.; Hyde, Susan Marie
2002-01-01
The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X and Y values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket. The second-stage wheel has sixty buckets.
Wind turbine airfoil design method with low noise and experimental analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Quan; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao
2015-01-01
In order to study the noise characteristic of wind turbine airfoils, the airfoil optimal design mathematic model was built based on airfoil functional integrated theory and noise calculated model. The new optimized objective function of maximizing lift/drag to noise was developed on the design......, though there is a certain difference between the theory results and experiment data. Compared with NACA-64-618 airfoil, the CQU-DTU-B18 airfoil exhibits lower noise, which validates the feasibility of this design method. It is a guide to design wind turbine airfoil with lower noise and to reduce airfoil...
Computer investigations of the turbulent flow around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine
Driss, Zied; Chelbi, Tarek; Abid, Mohamed Salah
2015-12-01
In this work, computer investigations are carried out to study the flow field developing around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine. The Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model are considered. These equations are solved numerically to determine the local characteristics of the flow. The models tested are implemented in the software "SolidWorks Flow Simulation" which uses a finite volume scheme. The numerical results are compared with experiments conducted on an open wind tunnel to validate the numerical results. This will help improving the aerodynamic efficiency in the design of packaged installations of the NACA2415 airfoil type wind turbine.
Turbine airfoil to shround attachment
Campbell, Christian X; Morrison, Jay A; James, Allister W; Snider, Raymond G; Eshak, Daniel M; Marra, John J; Wessell, Brian J
2014-05-06
A turbine airfoil (31) with an end portion (42) that tapers (44) toward the end (43) of the airfoil. A ridge (46) extends around the end portion. It has proximal (66) and distal (67) sides. A shroud platform (50) is bi-cast onto the end portion around the ridge without bonding. Cooling shrinks the platform into compression (62) on the end portion (42) of the airfoil. Gaps between the airfoil and platform are formed using a fugitive material (56) in the bi-casting stage. These gaps are designed in combination with the taper angle (44) to accommodate differential thermal expansion while maintaining a gas seal along the contact surfaces. The taper angle (44) may vary from lesser on the pressure side (36) to greater on the suction side (38) of the airfoil. A collar portion (52) of the platform provides sufficient contact area for connection stability.
Airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine
Liang, George
2010-12-21
An airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine is provided. The airfoil comprises a main body comprising a wall structure defining an inner cavity adapted to receive a cooling air. The wall structure includes a first diffusion region and at least one first metering opening extending from the inner cavity to the first diffusion region. The wall structure further comprises at least one cooling circuit comprising a second diffusion region and at least one second metering opening extending from the first diffusion region to the second diffusion region. The at least one cooling circuit may further comprise at least one third metering opening, at least one third diffusion region and a fourth diffusion region.
Turbine airfoil fabricated from tapered extrusions
Marra, John J
2013-07-16
An airfoil (30) and fabrication process for turbine blades with cooling channels (26). Tapered tubes (32A-32D) are bonded together in a parallel sequence, forming a leading edge (21), a trailing edge (22), and pressure and suction side walls (23, 24) connected by internal ribs (25). The tapered tubes may be extruded without camber to simplify the extrusion process, then bonded along matching surfaces (34), forming a non-cambered airfoil (28), which may be cambered in a hot forming process and cut (48) to length. The tubes may have tapered walls that are thinner at the blade tip (T1) than at the base (T2), reducing mass. A cap (50) may be attached to the blade tip. A mounting lug (58) may be forged (60) on the airfoil base and then machined, completing the blade for mounting in a turbine rotor disk.
Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bak, C; Fuglsang, P; Soerensen, N N; Aagaard Madsen, H [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Shen, Wen Zhong; Noerkaer Soerensen, J [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)
1999-03-01
Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are based on four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotor with LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall at the tip is low and that it is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. The use of these characteristics in aeroelastic calculations shows a good agreement in power and flap moments with measurements. Furthermore, a fatigue analysis shows a reduction in the loads of up to 15 % compared to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFD computations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived that can be used to calculate mean values of power and loads. The lift in stall at the tip is low and at the root it is high compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. In particular the power curves were well calculated by use of the optimised airfoil characteristics. In the quasi-3D CFD computations, the airfoil characteristics are derived directly. This Navier-Stokes model takes into account rotational and 3D effects. The model enables the study of the rotational effect of a rotor blade at computing costs similar to what is typical for 2D airfoil calculations. The depicted results show that the model is capable of determining the correct qualitative behaviour for airfoils subject to rotation. The method shows that lift is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil
Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines
Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Shen, W.Z.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1999-01-01
Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scal...
Experimental study of wind-turbine airfoil aerodynamics in high turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devinant, Ph.; Laverne, T.; Hureau, J. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique Ecole Superieure de l' Energie et des Materiaux Universite d' Orleans, rue Leonard de Vinci F-45072 , Cedex 2 Orleans (France)
2002-06-01
Wind turbines very often have to operate in high turbulence related, for example, with lower layers atmospheric turbulence or wakes of other wind turbines. Most available data on airfoil aerodynamics concerns mainly aeronautical applications, which are characterized by a low level of turbulence (generally less than 1%) and low angles of attack. This paper presents wind tunnel test data for the aerodynamic properties-lift, drag, pitching moment, pressure distributions-of an airfoil used on a wind turbine when subjected to incident flow turbulence levels of 0.5-16% and placed at angles of attack up to 90. The results show that the aerodynamic behavior of the airfoil can be strongly affected by the turbulence level both qualitatively and quantitatively. This effect is especially evidenced in the angle of attack range corresponding to airfoil stall, as the boundary layer separation point advances along the leeward surface of the airfoil.
Airfoil shape for a turbine bucket
Hyde, Susan Marie; By, Robert Romany; Tressler, Judd Dodge; Schaeffer, Jon Conrad; Sims, Calvin Levy
2005-06-28
Third stage turbine buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth Table I wherein X and Y values are in inches and the Z values are non-dimensional values from 0 to 0.938 convertible to Z distances in inches by multiplying the Z values by the height of the airfoil in inches. The X and Y values are distances which, when connected by smooth continuing arcs, define airfoil profile sections at each distance Z. The profile sections at each distance Z are joined smoothly to one another to form a complete airfoil shape. The X and Y distances may be scalable as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled up or scaled down airfoil section for the bucket. The nominal airfoil given by the X, Y and Z distances lies within an envelop of .+-.0.150 inches in directions normal to the surface of the airfoil.
Wind turbine airfoil catalogue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe
2001-01-01
The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel...... method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. Theairfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental...... data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible forthe poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads...
Load alleviation on wind turbine blades using variable airfoil geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basualdo, S.
2005-03-01
A two-dimensional theoretical study of the aeroelastic behaviour of an airfoil has been performed, whose geometry can be altered using a rear-mounted flap. This device is governed by a controller, whose objective is to reduce the airfoil displacements and, therefore, the stresses present in a real blade. The aerodynamic problem was solved numerically by a panel method using the potential theory, suitable for modelling attached flows. It is therefore mostly applicable for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed (PRVS) wind turbines, which mainly operate under this flow condition. The results show evident reductions in the airfoil displacements by using simple control strategies having the airfoil position and its first and second derivatives as input, especially at the system's eigenfrequency. The use of variable airfoil geometry is an effective means of reducing the vibration magnitudes of an airfoil that represents a section of a wind turbine blade, when subject to stochastic wind signals. The results of this investigation encourage further investigations with 3D aeroelastic models to predict the reduction in loads in real wind turbines. (author)
Design analysis of vertical wind turbine with airfoil variation
Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Qaedy, T. Masykur Al; Nawawi, Muhammad
2016-03-01
With an ever increasing electrical energy crisis occurring in the Banda Aceh City, it will be important to investigate alternative methods of generating power in ways different than fossil fuels. In fact, one of the biggest sources of energy in Aceh is wind energy. It can be harnessed not only by big corporations but also by individuals using Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT). This paper presents a three-dimensional CFD analysis of the influence of airfoil design on performance of a Darrieus-type vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The main objective of this paper is to develop an airfoil design for NACA 63-series vertical axis wind turbine, for average wind velocity 2,5 m/s. To utilize both lift and drag force, some of designs of airfoil are analyzed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics solver such us Fluent. Simulation is performed for this airfoil at different angles of attach rearranging from -12°, -8°, -4°, 0°, 4°, 8°, and 12°. The analysis showed that the significant enhancement in value of lift coefficient for airfoil NACA 63-series is occurred for NACA 63-412.
Design of the new Risoe-A1 airfoil family for wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuglsang, P; Dahl, K S [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
A new airfoil family for wind turbines was developed by use of a design method using numerical optimization and the flow solver, XFOIL. The results were evaluated with the Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D. The airfoil family constitutes 6 airfoils ranging in thickness from 15% to 30%. The airfoils were designed to have a maximum lift coefficient around 1.5 in natural conditions and high lift-drag ratios below maximum lift. Insensitivity to leading edge roughness was obtained by securing that transition from laminar to turbulent flow on the suction side occurred close to the leading edge just before stall. The airfoil family was designed for a 600 kW wind turbine and provides a basis for further enhancing the characteristics of airfoils for wind turbines and to tailor airfoils for specific rotor sizes and power regulation principles. (au) EFP-95; EFP-98. 16 refs.
Sealing apparatus for airfoils of gas turbine engines
Jones, R.B.
1998-05-19
An improved airfoil tip sealing apparatus is disclosed wherein brush seals are attached to airfoil tips with the distal ends of the brush seal fibers sealingly contacting opposing wall surfaces. Embodiments for variable vanes, stators and both cooled and uncooled turbine blade applications are disclosed. 17 figs.
Turbine airfoil to shroud attachment method
Campbell, Christian X; Kulkarni, Anand A; James, Allister W; Wessell, Brian J; Gear, Paul J
2014-12-23
Bi-casting a platform (50) onto an end portion (42) of a turbine airfoil (31) after forming a coating of a fugitive material (56) on the end portion. After bi-casting the platform, the coating is dissolved and removed to relieve differential thermal shrinkage stress between the airfoil and platform. The thickness of the coating is varied around the end portion in proportion to varying amounts of local differential process shrinkage. The coating may be sprayed (76A, 76B) onto the end portion in opposite directions parallel to a chord line (41) of the airfoil or parallel to a mid-platform length (80) of the platform to form respective layers tapering in thickness from the leading (32) and trailing (34) edges along the suction side (36) of the airfoil.
First-stage high pressure turbine bucket airfoil
Brown, Theresa A.; Ahmadi, Majid; Clemens, Eugene; Perry, II, Jacob C.; Holiday, Allyn K.; Delehanty, Richard A.; Jacala, Ariel Caesar
2004-05-25
The first-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinates defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.
Turbine Airfoil Leading Edge Film Cooling Bibliography: 1972–1998
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. M. Kercher
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Film cooling for turbine airfoil leading edges has been a common practice for at least 35 years as turbine inlet gas temperatures and pressures have continually increased along with cooling air temperatures for higher engine cycle efficiency. With substantial engine cycle performance improvements from higher gas temperatures, it has become increasingly necessary to film cool nozzle and rotor blade leading edges since external heat transfer coefficients and thus heat load are the highest in this airfoil region. Optimum cooling air requirements in this harsh environment has prompted a significant number of film cooling investigations and analytical studies reported over the past 25 years from academia, industry and government agencies. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the complex nature of leading edge film cooling from airfoil cascades, simulated airfoil leading edges and environment. This bibliography is a report of the open-literature references available which provide information on the complex aero–thermo interaction of leading edge gaseous film cooling with mainstream flow. From much of this investigative information has come successful operational leading edge film cooling design systems capable of sustaining airfoil leading edge durability in very hostile turbine environments.
Effects of finite aspect ratio on wind turbine airfoil measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiefer, Janik; Miller, Mark A.; Hultmark, Marcus
2016-01-01
Wind turbines partly operate in stalled conditions within their operational cycle. To simulate these conditions, it is also necessary to obtain 2-D airfoil data in terms of lift and drag coefficients at high angles of attack. Such data has been obtained previously, but often at low aspect ratios...... and only barely past the stall point, where strong wall boundary layer influence is expected. In this study, the influence of the wall boundary layer on 2D airfoil data, especially in the post stall domain, is investigated. Here, a wind turbine airfoil is tested at different angles of attack and with two...
Airfoil optimization for noise emission problem on small scale turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gocmen, Tuhfe; Ozerdem, Baris [Mechanical Engineering Department, Yzmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)
2011-07-01
Wind power is a preferred natural resource and has had benefits for the energy industry and for the environment all over the world. However, noise emission from wind turbines is becoming a major concern today. This study paid close attention to small scale wind turbines close to urban areas and proposes an optimum number of six airfoils to address noise emission concerns and performance criteria. The optimization process aimed to decrease the noise emission levels and enhance the aerodynamic performance of a small scale wind turbine. This study determined the sources and the operating conditions of broadband noise emissions. A new design is presented which enhances aerodynamic performance and at the same time reduces airfoil self noise. It used popular aerodynamic functions and codes based on aero-acoustic empirical models. Through numerical computations and analyses, it is possible to derive useful improvements that can be made to commercial airfoils for small scale wind turbines.
Optimization design of airfoil profiles based on the noise of wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cheng, Jiangtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao
2012-01-01
Based on design theory of airfoil profiles and airfoil self-noise prediction model, a new method with the target of the airfoil average efficiency-noise ratio of design ranges for angle of attack had been developed for designing wind turbine airfoils. The airfoil design method was optimized for a...
Multiple piece turbine engine airfoil with a structural spar
Vance, Steven J [Orlando, FL
2011-10-11
A multiple piece turbine airfoil having an outer shell with an airfoil tip that is attached to a root with an internal structural spar is disclosed. The root may be formed from first and second sections that include an internal cavity configured to receive and secure the one or more components forming the generally elongated airfoil. The internal structural spar may be attached to an airfoil tip and place the generally elongated airfoil in compression. The configuration enables each component to be formed from different materials to reduce the cost of the materials and to optimize the choice of material for each component.
Design and verification of the Risø-B1 airfoil family for wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglsang, P.; Bak, C.; Gaunaa, M.
2004-01-01
This paper presents the design and experimental verification of the Risø-B1 airfoil family for MW-size wind turbines with variable speed and pitch control. Seven airfoils were designed with thickness-to-chord ratios between 15% and 53% to cover the entire span of a wind turbine blade. The airfoils...
Performance assessment of Darrieus wind turbine with symmetric and cambered airfoils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cisse, H.; Trifu, O.; Paraschivoiu, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique
2007-07-01
This paper outlined the wind turbine and design software used to predict the flow conditions and performance of a straight-bladed Darrieus wind turbine. Three different blade sections were considered, notably the NACA 0018; the SNLA NLF 18/50 symmetrical airfoil; and the FX63-137 cambered airfoil. The numerical predictions of the flow conditions during the operation of the rotors were also presented. Torque yield for each blade section under a variety of operating conditions was presented. The numerical software program used in the study was based on a double-multiple streamtube model which considered a partition of the rotor in streamtubes and considered each of the 2 blade elements as an actuator disk. The actuator disk theory was based on a theory of momentum conservation. Wind velocities were determined in order to calculate forces acting on the actuator disks. A second set of equations was used to determine the forces acting on the upwind and downwind blade elements. Equations were also derived for the downwind interference factor. The following 3 main sets of data were used: (1) a geometry definition of the wind turbine; (2) operational conditions; and (3) main control parameters. Results of the study showed that the cambered airfoil blade section produced 10 times more torque in turbine starting conditions than the NACA 0018. Laminar airfoil lift to drag ratio at low angles of attack, and the use of appropriate Reynolds numbers resulted in higher efficiency. The large static stall angle of the cambered airfoil allowed higher power outputs than symmetrical airfoils. It was concluded that the starting torque of a Darrieus turbine can be increased by using a cambered blade section. 13 refs., 19 figs.
Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system
Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.
2016-06-07
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.
Steady and Unsteady Analysis of NACA 0018 Airfoil in Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rogowski, Krzysztof; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Maronski, Ryszard
2018-01-01
Numerical results are presented for aerodynamic unsteady and steady airfoil characteristtcs of the NACA 0018 airfoil of a two-dimensional vertical-axis wind turbine. A geometrical model of the Darrieus-type wind turbine and the rotor operating parameters used for nurnerieal simulation are taken...
Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil.
Tian, Weijun; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jiyue; Li, Ming; Ma, Yi; Cong, Qian
2017-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.
Design of a 3 kW wind turbine generator with thin airfoil blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ameku, Kazumasa; Nagai, Baku M.; Roy, Jitendro Nath [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)
2008-09-15
Three blades of a 3 kW prototype wind turbine generator were designed with thin airfoil and a tip speed ratio of 3. The wind turbine has been controlled via two control methods: the variable pitch angle and by regulation of the field current of the generator and examined under real wind conditions. The characteristics of the thin airfoil, called ''Seven arcs thin airfoil'' named so because the airfoil is composed of seven circular arcs, are analyzed with the airfoil design and analysis program XFOIL. The thin airfoil blade is designed and calculated by blade element and momentum theory. The performance characteristics of the machine such as rotational speed, generator output as well as stability for wind speed changes are described. In the case of average wind speeds of 10 m/s and a maximum of 19 m/s, the automatically controlled wind turbine ran safely through rough wind conditions and showed an average generator output of 1105 W and a power coefficient 0.14. (author)
SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions
Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.
1999-01-01
Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenzhong
2013-01-01
Aerodynamic of airfoil performance is closely related to the continuity of its surface curvature, and airfoil profiles with a better aerodynamic performance plays an important role in the design of wind turbine. The surface curvature distribution along the chord direction and pressure distributio...
Turbine airfoil with controlled area cooling arrangement
Liang, George
2010-04-27
A gas turbine airfoil (10) includes a serpentine cooling path (32) with a plurality of channels (34,42,44) fluidly interconnected by a plurality of turns (38,40) for cooling the airfoil wall material. A splitter component (50) is positioned within at least one of the channels to bifurcate the channel into a pressure-side channel (46) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the pressure side (24) and a suction-side channel (48) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the suction side (26) longitudinally downstream of an intermediate height (52). The cross-sectional area of the pressure-side channel (46) and suction-side channel (48) are thereby controlled in spite of an increasing cross-sectional area of the airfoil along its longitudinal length, ensuring a sufficiently high mach number to provide a desired degree of cooling throughout the entire length of the airfoil.
Turbine Airfoil Optimization Using Quasi-3D Analysis Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjay Goel
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A new approach to optimize the geometry of a turbine airfoil by simultaneously designing multiple 2D sections of the airfoil is presented in this paper. The complexity of 3D geometry modeling is circumvented by generating multiple 2D airfoil sections and constraining their geometry in the radial direction using first- and second-order polynomials that ensure smoothness in the radial direction. The flow fields of candidate geometries obtained during optimization are evaluated using a quasi-3D, inviscid, CFD analysis code. An inviscid flow solver is used to reduce the execution time of the analysis. Multiple evaluation criteria based on the Mach number profile obtained from the analysis of each airfoil cross-section are used for computing a quality metric. A key contribution of the paper is the development of metrics that emulate the perception of the human designer in visually evaluating the Mach Number distribution. A mathematical representation of the evaluation criteria coupled with a parametric geometry generator enables the use of formal optimization techniques in the design. The proposed approach is implemented in the optimal design of a low-pressure turbine nozzle.
Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators
Lee, Ching-Pang
2014-12-30
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.
Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin
Marra, John J
2012-10-23
A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.
Integrated airfoil and blade design method for large wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong
2013-01-01
This paper presents an integrated method for designing airfoil families of large wind turbine blades. For a given rotor diameter and tip speed ratio, the optimal airfoils are designed based on the local speed ratios. To achieve high power performance at low cost, the airfoils are designed...... with an objective of high Cp and small chord length. When the airfoils are obtained, the optimum flow angle and rotor solidity are calculated which forms the basic input to the blade design. The new airfoils are designed based on the previous in-house airfoil family which were optimized at a Reynolds number of 3...... million. A novel shape perturbation function is introduced to optimize the geometry on the existing airfoils and thus simplify the design procedure. The viscos/inviscid code Xfoil is used as the aerodynamic tool for airfoil optimization where the Reynolds number is set at 16 million with a free...
Integrated airfoil and blade design method for large wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2014-01-01
This paper presents an integrated method for designing airfoil families of large wind turbine blades. For a given rotor diameter and a tip speed ratio, optimal airfoils are designed based on the local speed ratios. To achieve a high power performance at low cost, the airfoils are designed...... with the objectives of high Cp and small chord length. When the airfoils are obtained, the optimum flow angle and rotor solidity are calculated which forms the basic input to the blade design. The new airfoils are designed based on a previous in-house designed airfoil family which was optimized at a Reynolds number...... of 3 million. A novel shape perturbation function is introduced to optimize the geometry based on the existing airfoils which simplifies the design procedure. The viscous/inviscid interactive code XFOIL is used as the aerodynamic tool for airfoil optimization at a Reynolds number of 16 million...
Virtual incidence effect on rotating airfoils in Darrieus wind turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchini, Alessandro; Balduzzi, Francesco; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Novel methods to reduce CFD results into 1D aerodynamic parameters. • Assessment of the virtual incidence (VI) effect on Darrieus VAWT blades. • It is shown that blades experience a virtual AoA variation with respect to theoretical expectations. • Real AoAs are calculated for different airfoils in motion and compared to BEM predictions. - Abstract: Small Darrieus wind turbines are one of the most interesting emerging technologies in the renewable energies scenario, even if they still are characterized by lower efficiencies than those of conventional horizontal-axis wind turbines due to the more complex aerodynamics involved in their functioning. In case of small rotors, in which the chord-to-radius ratios are generally high not to limit the blade Reynolds number, the performance of turbine blades has been suggested to be moreover influenced by the so-called “flow curvature effects”. Recent works have indeed shown that the curved flowpath encountered by the blades makes them work like virtually cambered airfoils in a rectilinear flow. In the present study, focus is instead given to a further effect that is generated in reason of the curved streamline incoming on the blades, i.e. an extra-incidence seen by the airfoil, generally referred to as “virtual incidence”. In detail, a novel computational method to define the incidence angle has been applied to unsteady CFD simulations of three airfoils in a Darrieus-like motion and their effective angles of attack have been compared to theoretical expectations. The analysis confirmed the presence of an additional virtual incidence on the airfoils and quantified it for different airfoils, chord-to-radius ratios and tip-speed ratios. A comparative discussion on BEM prediction capabilities is finally reported in the study.
Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl’s Airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weijun Tian
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl’s wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl’s wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44% compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.
Turbine airfoil having outboard and inboard sections
Mazzola, Stefan; Marra, John J
2015-03-17
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and formed from at least an outboard section and an inboard section such that an inner end of the outboard section is attached to an outer end of the inboard section. The outboard section may be configured to provide a tip having adequate thickness and may extend radially inward from the tip with a generally constant cross-sectional area. The inboard section may be configured with a tapered cross-sectional area to support the outboard section.
Aerodynamic analysis of S series wind turbine airfoils by using X foil technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaheer, M.A.; Munir, M.A.; Zahid, I.; Rizwan, M.
2015-01-01
In order to attain supreme energy from wind turbine economically, blade profile enactment must be acquired. For extracting extreme power from wind, it is necessary to develop rotor models of wind turbine which have high rotation rates and power coefficients. Maximum power can also be haul out by using suitable airfoils at root and tip sections of wind turbine blades. In this research four different S-series airfoils have been selected to study their behavior for maximum power extraction from wind. The wind conditions during the research were scertained from the wind speeds over Kallar Kahar Pakistan. In order to study the wind turbine operation, the extremely important parameters are lift and drag forces. Therefore an endeavor to study lift force and drag force at various sections of wind turbine blade is shown in current research. In order to acquire the utmost power from wind turbine, highest value of sliding ratio is prerequisite. At various wind speeds, performance of several blade profiles was analyzed and for every wind speed, the appropriate blade profile is ascertained grounded on the utmost sliding ratio. For every airfoil, prime angle of attack is resolute at numerous wind speeds. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2015-01-01
A design of double-element airfoil is proposed for its use in the vertical axis wind turbine. The double-element airfoil system consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. The design parameters of the double-element airfoil system are given by the position and orientation of the trailing edge......-element airfoil system designed in this paper. Further, the performance of new design of a vertical axis wind turbine shows considerable increase in the power coefficient and the total power output as compared to the reference wind turbine...
Usage of advanced thick airfoils for the outer part of very large offshore turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grasso, F; Ceyhan, O
2014-01-01
Nowadays one of the big challenges in wind energy is connected to the development of very large wind turbines with 100 m blades and 8-10MW power production. The European project INNWIND.EU plays an important role in this challenge because it is focused on exploring and exploiting technical innovations to make these machines not only feasible but also cost effective. In this context, the present work investigates the benefits of adopting thick airfoils also at the outer part of the blade. In fact, if these airfoils are comparable to the existing thinner ones in terms of aerodynamics, the extra thickness would lead to a save in weight. Lightweight blades would visibly contribute to reduce the cost of energy of the turbines and make them cost effective. The reference turbine defined in INNWIND.EU project has been adjusted to use the new airfoils. The results show that the rotor performance is not sacrificed when the 24% airfoils are replaced by the ECN 30% thick airfoils, while 24% extra thickness can be obtained
Design of low noise airfoil with high aerodynamic performance for use on small wind turbines
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Taehyung; KIM; Seungmin; LEE; Hogeon; KIM; Soogab; LEE
2010-01-01
Wind power is one of the most reliable renewable energy sources and internationally installed capacity is increasing radically every year.Although wind power has been favored by the public in general,the problem with the impact of wind turbine noise on people living in the vicinity of the turbines has been increased.Low noise wind turbine design is becoming more and more important as noise is spreading more adverse effect of wind turbine to public.This paper demonstrates the design of 10 kW class wind turbines,each of three blades,a rotor diameter 6.4 m,a rated rotating speed 200 r/min and a rated wind speed 10 m/s.The optimized airfoil is dedicated for the 75% spanwise position because the dominant source of a wind turbine blade is trailing edge noise from the outer 25% of the blade.Numerical computations are performed for incompressible flow and for Mach number at 0.145 and for Reynolds numbers at 1.02×106 with a lift performance,which is resistant to surface contamination and turbulence intensity.The objectives in the design process are to reduce noise emission,while sustaining high aerodynamic efficiency.Dominant broadband noise sources are predicted by semi-empirical formulas composed of the groundwork by Brooks et al.and Lowson associated with typical wind turbine operation conditions.During the airfoil redesign process,the aerodynamic performance is analyzed to reduce the wind turbine power loss.The results obtained from the design process show that the design method is capable of designing airfoils with reduced noise using a commercial 10 kW class wind turbine blade airfoil as a basis.Therefore,the new optimized airfoil showing 2.9 dB reductions of total sound pressure level(SPL) and higher aerodynamic performance are achieved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R K
2014-01-01
Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention due to their suitability in micro-electricity generation. There are few vertical axis wind turbine designs with good power curve. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel test an orientation parameter for the slat airfoil is initially obtained. Further a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of double-element airfoil. The CFD simulations were carried out using ANSYS CFX software. It is observed that there is an increase in the lift coefficient by 26% for single-element airfoil at analysed conditions. The CFD simulation results were validated with wind tunnel tests. It is also observe that by selecting proper airfoil configuration and blade sizes an increase in lift coefficient can further be achieved
Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids
Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew
2017-10-25
A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xiaomin; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)
2013-07-01
It is well established that the power generated by a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) is a function of the number of blades, the tip speed ratio (blade tip speed/wind free stream velocity) and the lift to drag ratio (CL /CD) of the airfoil sections of the blade. The airfoil sections used in HAWT are generally thick airfoils such as the S, DU, FX, Flat-back and NACA 6-series of airfoils. These airfoils vary in (CL /CD) for a given blade and ratio and therefore the power generated by HAWT for different blade airfoil sections will vary. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the effect of different airfoil sections on HAWT performance using the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. In this study, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given blade and ratio and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated by the turbine can be significantly increased. Parametric studies are also conducted by varying the turbine diameter.
Numerical investigation of airfoils for small wind turbine applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natarajan Karthikeyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A detailed numerical investigation of the aerodynamic performance on the five airfoils namely Mid321a, Mid321b, Mid321c, Mid321d, and Mid321e were carried out at Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5×105 to 2.5×105. The airfoils used for small wind turbines are designed for Reynolds number ranges between 3×105 and 5×105 and the blades are tend to work on off-design conditions. The blade element moment method was applied to predict the aerodynamic loads, power coefficient, and blade parameters for the airfoils. Based on the evaluate data, it was found that Mid321c airfoil has better lift to drag ratio over the range of Reynolds numbers and attained maximum power coefficient of 0.4487 at Re = 2×105.
Design of a family of new advanced airfoils for low wind class turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grasso, Francesco
2014-01-01
In order to maximize the ratio of energy capture and reduce the cost of energy, the selection of the airfoils to be used along the blade plays a crucial role. Despite the general usage of existing airfoils, more and more, families of airfoils specially tailored for specific applications are developed. The present research is focused on the design of a new family of airfoils to be used for the blade of one megawatt wind turbine working in low wind conditions. A hybrid optimization scheme has been implemented, combining together genetic and gradient based algorithms. Large part of the work is dedicated to present and discuss the requirements that needed to be satisfied in order to have a consistent family of geometries with high efficiency, high lift and good structural characteristics. For each airfoil, these characteristics are presented and compared to the ones of existing airfoils. Finally, the aerodynamic design of a new blade for low wind class turbine is illustrated and compared to a reference shape developed by using existing geometries. Due to higher lift performance, the results show a sensitive saving in chords, wetted area and so in loads in idling position
On the influence of airfoil deviations on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winstroth, J; Seume, J R
2016-01-01
The manufacture of large wind turbine rotor blades is a difficult task that still involves a certain degree of manual labor. Due to the complexity, airfoil deviations between the design airfoils and the manufactured blade are certain to arise. Presently, the understanding of the impact of manufacturing uncertainties on the aerodynamic performance is still incomplete. The present work analyzes the influence of a series of airfoil deviations likely to occur during manufacturing by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics and the aeroelastic code FAST. The average power production of the NREL 5MW wind turbine is used to evaluate the different airfoil deviations. Analyzed deviations include: Mold tilt towards the leading and trailing edge, thick bond lines, thick bond lines with cantilever correction, backward facing steps and airfoil waviness. The most severe influences are observed for mold tilt towards the leading and thick bond lines. By applying the cantilever correction, the influence of thick bond lines is almost compensated. Airfoil waviness is very dependent on amplitude height and the location along the surface of the airfoil. Increased influence is observed for backward facing steps, once they are high enough to trigger boundary layer transition close to the leading edge. (paper)
Prediction of the wind turbine performance by using BEM with airfoil data extracted from CFD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Hua; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Haoran
2014-01-01
Blade element momentum (BEM) theory with airfoil data is a widely used technique for prediction of wind turbine aerodynamic performance, but the reliability of the airfoil data is an important factor for the prediction accuracy of aerodynamic loads and power. The airfoil characteristics used in BEM...
Trailing edge noise model applied to wind turbine airfoils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F.
2008-01-15
The aim of this work is firstly to provide a quick introduction to the theory of noise generation that are relevant to wind turbine technology with focus on trailing edge noise. Secondly, the socalled TNO trailing edge noise model developed by Parchen [1] is described in more details. The model is tested and validated by comparing with other results from the literature. Finally, this model is used in the optimization process of two reference airfoils in order to reduce their noise signature: the RISOE-B1-18 and the S809 airfoils. (au)
Predicting the Extreme Loads on a Wind Turbine Considering Uncertainty in Airfoil Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdallah, Imad; Natarajan, Anand; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2014-01-01
The sources contributing to uncertainty in a wind turbine blade static airfoil data include wind tunnel testing, CFD calculations, 3D rotational corrections based on CFD or emprircal models, surface roughness corrections, Reynolds number corrections, expansion to the full 360-degree angle of attack...... range, validation by full scale measurements, and geometric distortions of the blade during manufacturing and under loading. In this paper a stochastic model of the static airfoil data is proposed to supplement the prediction of extreme loads effects for large wind turbines. It is shown...... that the uncertainty in airfoil data can have e significant impact on the prediction of extreme loads effects depending on the component, and the correlation along the span of the blade....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2014-01-01
been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade...... for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel...... that there is an increase in the lift coefficient by 26% for single-element airfoil at analysed conditions. The CFD simulation results were validated with wind tunnel tests. It is also observe that by selecting proper airfoil configuration and blade sizes an increase in lift coefficient can further be achieved....
Airfoil for a gas turbine engine
Liang, George [Palm City, FL
2011-05-24
An airfoil is provided for a turbine of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil comprises: an outer structure comprising a first wall including a leading edge, a trailing edge, a pressure side, and a suction side; an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced from the first wall and at least one intermediate wall; and structure extending between the first and second walls so as to define first and second gaps between the first and second walls. The second wall and the at least one intermediate wall define at least one pressure side supply cavity and at least one suction side supply cavity. The second wall may include at least one first opening near the leading edge of the first wall. The first opening may extend from the at least one pressure side supply cavity to the first gap. The second wall may further comprise at least one second opening near the trailing edge of the outer structure. The second opening may extend from the at least one suction side supply cavity to the second gap. The first wall may comprise at least one first exit opening extending from the first gap through the pressure side of the first wall and at least one second exit opening extending from the second gap through the suction side of the second wall.
Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose
2015-03-03
A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.
Turbine engine airfoil and platform assembly
Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; James, Allister W [Chuluota, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL
2012-07-31
A turbine airfoil (22A) is formed by a first process using a first material. A platform (30A) is formed by a second process using a second material that may be different from the first material. The platform (30A) is assembled around a shank (23A) of the airfoil. One or more pins (36A) extend from the platform into holes (28) in the shank (23A). The platform may be formed in two portions (32A, 34A) and placed around the shank, enclosing it. The two platform portions may be bonded to each other. Alternately, the platform (30B) may be cast around the shank (23B) using a metal alloy with better castability than that of the blade and shank, which may be specialized for thermal tolerance. The pins (36A-36D) or holes for them do not extend to an outer surface (31) of the platform, avoiding stress concentrations.
Evolving aerodynamic airfoils for wind turbines through a genetic algorithm
Hernández, J. J.; Gómez, E.; Grageda, J. I.; Couder, C.; Solís, A.; Hanotel, C. L.; Ledesma, JI
2017-01-01
Nowadays, genetic algorithms stand out for airfoil optimisation, due to the virtues of mutation and crossing-over techniques. In this work we propose a genetic algorithm with arithmetic crossover rules. The optimisation criteria are taken to be the maximisation of both aerodynamic efficiency and lift coefficient, while minimising drag coefficient. Such algorithm shows greatly improvements in computational costs, as well as a high performance by obtaining optimised airfoils for Mexico City's specific wind conditions from generic wind turbines designed for higher Reynolds numbers, in few iterations.
Numerical simulation of the divergence of a wind turbine airfoil : part 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramdenee, D.; Minea, I.S.; Tardiff d' Hamonville, T.; Illinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne
2010-07-01
The development of larger, more flexible wind turbine blades is creating the need for an improved understanding of the mechanisms surrounding unsteady flow-structure interactions. This 2-part study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify and model the aerodynamic and aeroelastic phenomena around wind turbine blades. Aeroelastic divergence was modelled using coupled aerodynamic and elastic models with an ANSYS software program. The fluid-structure interactions of an NACA0012 airfoil were simulated in order to determine the divergence phenomenon created by aerodynamic loads and transient fluid flow. The airfoil profile was fixed and exempted from all rotational degrees of liberty while being subjected to a constant flow of velocity. The fixing was then removed and the constant flow was compared with a shock wave on the airfoil profile. The profile then oscillated with damped amplitude due to the aerodynamic damping imposed. Results of the analysis will be compared with results obtained in future studies. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.
Adjoint Airfoil Optimization of Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Fuchs, Roman; Nordborg, Henrik
2012-11-01
We present the feasibility of using an adjoint solver to optimize the torque of a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). We start with a 2D cross section of a symmetrical airfoil and restrict us to low solidity ratios to minimize blade vortex interactions. The adjoint solver of the ANSYS FLUENT software package computes the sensitivities of airfoil surface forces based on a steady flow field. Hence, we find the torque of a full revolution using a weighted average of the sensitivities at different wind speeds and angles of attack. The weights are computed analytically, and the range of angles of attack is given by the tip speed ratio. Then the airfoil geometry is evolved, and the proposed methodology is evaluated by transient simulations.
Comparison of NACA 6-series and 4-digit airfoils for Darrieus wind turbines
Migliore, P. G.
1983-08-01
The aerodynamic efficiency of Darrieus wind turbines as effected by blade airfoil geometry was investigated. Analysis was limited to curved-bladed machines having rotor solidities of 7-21 percent and operating at a Reynolds number of 3 x 10 to the 6th. Ten different airfoils, having thickness-to-chord ratios of 12, 15, and 18 percent, were studied. Performance estimates were made using a blade element/momentum theory approach. Results indicated that NACA 6-series airfoils yield peak power coefficients as great as NACA 4-digit airfoils and have broader and flatter power coefficient-tip speed ratio curves. Sample calculations for an NACA 63(2)-015 airfoil showed an annual energy output increase of 17-27 percent, depending on rotor solidity, compared to an NACA 0015 airfoil.
Airfoil data sensitivity analysis for actuator disc simulations used in wind turbine applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilsson, Karl; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ivanell, Stefan; Sørensen, Jens N
2014-01-01
To analyse the sensitivity of blade geometry and airfoil characteristics on the prediction of performance characteristics of wind farms, large-eddy simulations using an actuator disc (ACD) method are performed for three different blade/airfoil configurations. The aim of the study is to determine how the mean characteristics of wake flow, mean power production and thrust depend on the choice of airfoil data and blade geometry. In order to simulate realistic conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. Using three different turbulence intensities and varying the spacing between the turbines, the flow around 4-8 aligned turbines is simulated. The analysis is based on normalized mean streamwise velocity, turbulence intensity, relative mean power production and thrust. From the computations it can be concluded that the actual airfoil characteristics and blade geometry only are of importance at very low inflow turbulence. At realistic turbulence conditions for an atmospheric boundary layer the specific blade characteristics play an minor role on power performance and the resulting wake characteristics. The results therefore give a hint that the choice of airfoil data in ACD simulations is not crucial if the intention of the simulations is to compute mean wake characteristics using a turbulent inflow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weipeng Yue
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Damp air with high humidity combined with foggy, rainy weather, and icing in winter weather often is found to cause turbine performance degradation, and it is more concerned with offshore wind farm development. To address and understand the high humidity effects on wind turbine performance, our study has been conducted with spread sheet analysis on damp air properties investigation for air density and viscosity; then CFD modeling study using Fluent was carried out on airfoil and blade aerodynamic performance effects due to water vapor partial pressure of mixing flow and water condensation around leading edge and trailing edge of airfoil. It is found that the high humidity effects with water vapor mixing flow and water condensation thin film around airfoil may have insignificant effect directly on airfoil/blade performance; however, the indirect effects such as blade contamination and icing due to the water condensation may have significant effects on turbine performance degradation. Also it is that found the foggy weather with microwater droplet (including rainy weather may cause higher drag that lead to turbine performance degradation. It is found that, at high temperature, the high humidity effect on air density cannot be ignored for annual energy production calculation. The blade contamination and icing phenomenon need to be further investigated in the next study.
Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall
Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL
2012-04-03
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.
Design of a new urban wind turbine airfoil using a pressure-load inverse method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henriques, J.C.C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques da Silva, F. [LNEC - Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Av. Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisboa (Portugal); Estanqueiro, A.I. [INETI - Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)
2009-12-15
This paper presents the design methodology of a new wind turbine airfoil that achieves high performance in urban environment by increasing the maximum lift. For this purpose, an inverse method was applied to obtain a new wind turbine blade section with constant pressure-load along the chord, at the design inlet angle. In comparison with conventional blade section designs, the new airfoil has increased maximum lift, reduced leading edge suction peak and controlled soft-stall behaviour, due to a reduction of the adverse pressure gradient on the suction side. Wind tunnel experimental results confirmed the computational results. (author)
Experimental verification of the new RISOe-A1 airfoil family for wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahl, K S; Fuglsang, P; Antoniou, I [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
This paper concerns the experimental verification of a new airfoil family for wind turbines. The family consist of airfoils in the relative thickness range from 15% to 30%. Three airfoils, Risoe-A1-18, Risoe-A1-21, and Risoe-A1-24 were tested in a wind tunnel. The verification consisted of both static and dynamic measurements. Here, the static results are presented for a Reynolds number of 1.6x10{sup 6} for the following airfoil configurations: smooth surface (all three airfoils) and Risoe-A1-24 mounted with leading edge roughness, vortex generators, and Gurney-flaps, respectively. All three airfoils have constant lift curve slope and almost constant drag coefficient until the maximum lift coefficient of about 1.4 is reached. The experimental results are compared with corresponding computational from the general purpose flow solver, EllipSys2D, showing good agreement. (au)
Numerical simulation of transitional flow on a wind turbine airfoil with RANS-based transition model
Zhang, Ye; Sun, Zhengzhong; van Zuijlen, Alexander; van Bussel, Gerard
2017-09-01
This paper presents a numerical investigation of transitional flow on the wind turbine airfoil DU91-W2-250 with chord-based Reynolds number Rec = 1.0 × 106. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes based transition model using laminar kinetic energy concept, namely the k - kL - ω model, is employed to resolve the boundary layer transition. Some ambiguities for this model are discussed and it is further implemented into OpenFOAM-2.1.1. The k - kL - ω model is first validated through the chosen wind turbine airfoil at the angle of attack (AoA) of 6.24° against wind tunnel measurement, where lift and drag coefficients, surface pressure distribution and transition location are compared. In order to reveal the transitional flow on the airfoil, the mean boundary layer profiles in three zones, namely the laminar, transitional and fully turbulent regimes, are investigated. Observation of flow at the transition location identifies the laminar separation bubble. The AoA effect on boundary layer transition over wind turbine airfoil is also studied. Increasing the AoA from -3° to 10°, the laminar separation bubble moves upstream and reduces in size, which is in close agreement with wind tunnel measurement.
Four-wall turbine airfoil with thermal strain control for reduced cycle fatigue
Cambell, Christian X
2013-09-17
A turbine airfoil (20B) with a thermal expansion control mechanism that increases the airfoil camber (60, 61) under operational heating. The airfoil has four-wall geometry, including pressure side outer and inner walls (26, 28B), and suction side outer and inner walls (32, 34B). It has near-wall cooling channels (31F, 31A, 33F, 33A) between the outer and inner walls. A cooling fluid flow pattern (50C, 50W, 50H) in the airfoil causes the pressure side inner wall (28B) to increase in curvature under operational heating. The pressure side inner wall (28B) is thicker than walls (26, 34B) that oppose it in camber deformation, so it dominates them in collaboration with the suction side outer wall (32), and the airfoil camber increases. This reduces and relocates a maximum stress area (47) from the suction side outer wall (32) to the suction side inner wall (34B, 72) and the pressure side outer wall (26).
Design of wind turbine airfoils based on maximum power coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cheng, Jiangtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao
2010-01-01
Based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, the power coefficient of a wind turbine can be expressed in function of local tip speed ratio and lift-drag ratio. By taking the power coefficient in a predefined range of angle of attack as the final design objective and combining with an airfoil...
Propagation of Shock on NREL Phase VI Wind Turbine Airfoil under Compressible Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad A. Hossain
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The work is focused on numeric analysis of compressible flow around National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL phase VI wind turbine blade airfoil S809. Although wind turbine airfoils are low Reynolds number airfoils, a reasonable investigation of compressible flow under extreme condition might be helpful. A subsonic flow (mach no. M=0.8 has been considered for this analysis and the impacts of this flow under seven different angles of attack have been determined. The results show that shock takes place just after the mid span at the top surface and just before the mid span at the bottom surface at zero angle of attack. Slowly the shock waves translate their positions as angle of attack increases. A relative translation of the shock waves in upper and lower face of the airfoil are presented. Variation of Turbulent viscosity ratio and surface Y+ have also been determined. A k-ω SST turbulent model is considered and the commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT is used to find the pressure coefficient (Cp as well as the lift (CL and drag coefficients (CD. A graphical comparison of shock propagation has been shown with different angle of attack. Flow separation and stream function are also determined.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougle, Prasad Devendra
. Mainly, there is the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). HAWTs are more popular than VAWTs due to failure of VAWT commercialization during the late of 1980s on a large scale. However, in recent research work it has been documented that VAWTs are more economical......, and the wind tunnel testing of double-element airfoil is performed. It is found that the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil increased considerably by delaying the angle of stall. These two facts are very suitable for vertical axis wind turbine since they operate in a larger range of angle of attack......, ±40_, compared to the horizontal axis wind turbines which operate in the range of attack, ±15_. A new design of vertical axis wind turbine is then proposed, and aerodynamic performance is evaluated based on double multiple stream tube methods. The performance parameters are almost doubled compared...
Airfoils and method for designing airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
The present invention relates to airfoils and design and design optimization of airfoils, in particular airfoils of rotor blades for wind turbines. One aspect of the invention relates to an airfoil with an external shape provided by an airfoil profile defined by a limited number of parameters......, such as a set of parameters. Another aspect of the invention relates to a method for designing an airfoil by means of an analytical airfoil profile, said method comprising the step of applying a conformal mapping to a near circle in a near circle plane, wherein the near circle is at least partly expressed...... by means of an analytical function, said conformal mapping transforming the near circle in the near circle plane to the airfoil profile in an airfoil plane. L...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seki, K; Shimizu, Y; Yasui, T [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakayama, H [Oriental Kiden Company, Osaka (Japan)
1996-10-27
Features of a straight wing type vertical axis wind turbine (VAW) and its airfoil sections were studied. The wind turbine in which various aerodynamic work components are mounted on the rotation axis normal to the ground surface is named VAW. Like the airfoil section of aircraft, in lift type VAW, wind turbines were driven by lift 70-90 times as large as drag in some cases. Features of the VAW airfoil section which is a straight wing in plan and a fixed pitch wing (with a fixed angle to a blade support arm) in cross section, and those of wind turbines were studied. Some factors affecting the features, work principle and performance of VAW were clarified. On airfoil sections, products of each weight function and each corresponding aerodynamic factor (lift, drag and pitching moment factors) were plotted on an attack angle ({alpha}) axis. From the conditions for increasing the total sum of areas drawn by the products on the {alpha} axis, various characteristics required for airfoil sections were clarified. Such characteristics nearly agreed between an airfoil section for favorable starting characteristics and that for high efficiency. 3 refs., 7 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bale, A.; Orlando, S.; Johnson, D. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Wind Energy Group
2010-07-01
One of the barriers preventing the widespread utilization of wind turbines is the audible sound that they produce. Developing quieter wind turbines will increase the amount of available land onto which wind farms can be built. Noise emissions from wind turbines can be attributed to the aerodynamic effects between the turbine blades and the air surrounding them. A dominant source of these aeroacoustic emissions from wind turbines is known to originate at the trailing edges of the airfoils. This study investigated the flow physics of noise generation in an effort to reduce noise from small-scale wind turbine airfoils. The trailing edge noise was studied on scale-models in wind tunnels and applied to full scale conditions. Microphone phased arrays are popular research tools in wind tunnel aeroacoustic studies because they can measure and locate noise sources. However, large arrays of microphones can be prohibitively expensive. This paper presented preliminary testing of micro-electrical mechanical system (MEMS) microphones in phased arrays for aeroacoustic testing on a small wind turbine airfoil. Preliminary results showed that MEMS microphones are an acceptable low-cost alternative to costly condenser microphones. 19 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.
Liang, George [Palm City, FL
2011-01-18
An airfoil is provided for a gas turbine comprising an outer structure comprising a first wall, an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced relative to the first wall such that a cooling gap is defined between at least portions of the first and second walls, and seal structure provided within the cooling gap between the first and second walls for separating the cooling gap into first and second cooling fluid impingement gaps. An inner surface of the second wall may define an inner cavity. The inner structure may further comprise a separating member for separating the inner cavity of the inner structure into a cooling fluid supply cavity and a cooling fluid collector cavity. The second wall may comprise at least one first impingement passage, at least one second impingement passage, and at least one bleed passage.
Study on optimal design of wind turbine blade airfoil and its application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Min Young; Kim, Dong Yong; Lim, Jae Kyoo
2012-01-01
This study was carried out with two goals. One was the development of a model of a wind turbine blade airfoil and the other was the application of the folding blade. In general, in large sized (MW) wind turbines, damage is prevented in small wind turbines since equipment costs and maintenance costs are high, and therefore, the blade will cause serious damage. The wind turbine proposed in this study does not require maintenance, and the blades do not break during high winds because they are folded in accordance with changes in the wind speed. But generators are not cut out, while maintaining a constant angle will continue to produce. The focus of this study, the wind turbine is continued by folding blade system in strong winds and gusts without stopping production
Study on optimal design of wind turbine blade airfoil and its application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Min Young; Kim, Dong Yong; Lim, Jae Kyoo [Chonbuk Nat' l Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)
2012-05-15
This study was carried out with two goals. One was the development of a model of a wind turbine blade airfoil and the other was the application of the folding blade. In general, in large sized (MW) wind turbines, damage is prevented in small wind turbines since equipment costs and maintenance costs are high, and therefore, the blade will cause serious damage. The wind turbine proposed in this study does not require maintenance, and the blades do not break during high winds because they are folded in accordance with changes in the wind speed. But generators are not cut out, while maintaining a constant angle will continue to produce. The focus of this study, the wind turbine is continued by folding blade system in strong winds and gusts without stopping production.
Design of a 21 m blade with Risø-A1 airfoils for active stall controlled wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglsang, Peter; Sangill, O.; Hansen, P.
2002-01-01
This is the final report, from the project, "Design of a Rotor/Airfoil Family for Active Stall-regulated Wind Turbines by Use of Multi-point Optimization". It describes the full scale testing of a 21 m wind turbine blade specially designed for active stallregulation. Design objectives were...... increased ratio of produced energy to turbine loads and more stable power control characteristics. Both were taken directly into account during the design of the blade using numerical optimization. The blade used theRisø-A1 airfoil family, which was specially designed for operation on wind turbine blades....... The new blade was designed to replace the LM 21.0P blade. A measurement campaign was carried out simultaneously on two identical adjacent wind turbines where onehad the new blades and the other had LM 21.0P blades. Power and loads including blade section moments for the new blades were measured to assess...
Thick airfoil designs for the root of the 10MW INNWIND.EU wind turbine
Mu≁oz, A.; Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.
2016-09-01
The main objective of the “INNWIND.EU” project is to investigate and demonstrate innovative designs for 10-20MW offshore wind turbines and their key components, such as lightweight rotors. In this context, the present paper describes the development of two new airfoils for the blade root region. From the structural point of view, the root is the region in charge of transmitting all the loads of the blade to the hub. Thus, it is very important to include airfoils with adequate structural properties in this region. The present article makes use of high-thickness and blunt trailing edge airfoils to improve the structural characteristics of the airfoils used to build this blade region. CENER's (National Renewable Energy Center of Spain) airfoil design tool uses the airfoil software XFOIL to compute the aerodynamic characteristics of the designed airfoils. That software is based on panel methods which show some problems with the calculation of airfoils with thickness bigger than 35% and with blunt trailing edge. This drawback has been overcome with the development of an empirical correction for XFOIL lift and drag prediction based on airfoil experiments. From the aerodynamic point of view, thick airfoils are known to be very sensitive to surface contamination or turbulent inflow conditions. Consequently, the design optimization takes into account the aerodynamic torque in both clean and contaminated conditions. Two airfoils have been designed aiming to improve the structural and the aerodynamic behaviour of the blade in clean and contaminated conditions. This improvement has been corroborated with Blade Element Momentum (BEM) computations.
Thick airfoil designs for the root of the 10MW INNWIND.EU wind turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muñoz, A; Méndez, B; Munduate, X
2016-01-01
The main objective of the “INNWIND.EU” project is to investigate and demonstrate innovative designs for 10-20MW offshore wind turbines and their key components, such as lightweight rotors. In this context, the present paper describes the development of two new airfoils for the blade root region. From the structural point of view, the root is the region in charge of transmitting all the loads of the blade to the hub. Thus, it is very important to include airfoils with adequate structural properties in this region. The present article makes use of high-thickness and blunt trailing edge airfoils to improve the structural characteristics of the airfoils used to build this blade region. CENER's (National Renewable Energy Center of Spain) airfoil design tool uses the airfoil software XFOIL to compute the aerodynamic characteristics of the designed airfoils. That software is based on panel methods which show some problems with the calculation of airfoils with thickness bigger than 35% and with blunt trailing edge. This drawback has been overcome with the development of an empirical correction for XFOIL lift and drag prediction based on airfoil experiments. From the aerodynamic point of view, thick airfoils are known to be very sensitive to surface contamination or turbulent inflow conditions. Consequently, the design optimization takes into account the aerodynamic torque in both clean and contaminated conditions. Two airfoils have been designed aiming to improve the structural and the aerodynamic behaviour of the blade in clean and contaminated conditions. This improvement has been corroborated with Blade Element Momentum (BEM) computations. (paper)
Aerodynamic characteristics of an oscillating airfoil. [For Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wickens, R H
1986-03-01
Results are reported from wind tunnel tests to study the effects of dynamic aerodynamics on the efficiency of a NACA 0018 airfoil used on a Darreius vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The topic is of interest because of uncontrolled pitching which occurs during operation and which produces stall, turbulence and separation effects that reduce efficiency. Present stream-tube theory and axial momentum models are not applicable in the unstable regimes. The wind tunnel tests were conducted with a 45 m/sec flow with an Re of 1.5 million. The situation mimicked typical wind turbine operational conditions. The airfoil was mounted on a hydraulic actuator to allow it to rotate about its quarter-chord location and to control the extent and frequency of oscillations. Data were also gathered on the performance in a steady flow for comparative purposes. Summary data are provided on the static and total pressures over a complete cycle of oscillation, and related to the angles of attack, time of onset of stall, and the lift and drag coefficients. The limitations of the study with regard to the absence of consideration of the flow acceleration experienced by an advancing blade are noted. 13 references.
Influence of transition on steady and unsteady wind-turbine airfoil aerodynamics
Paterson, Eric; Lavely, Adam; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Brasseur, James
2011-11-01
Laminar-flow airfoils for large stall-regulated horizontal-axis wind turbines are designed to achieve a restrained maximum lift coefficient and a broad laminar low- drag bucket under steady flow conditions and at specific Reynolds numbers. Blind- comparisons of the 2000 NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment showed large discrepancies and illustrated the need for improved physics modeling. We have studied the S809 airfoil under static and dynamic (ramp-up, ramp-down, and oscillatory) conditions, using the four-equation transition model of Langtry and Menter (2009), which has been implemented as a library accessible by an OpenFOAM RANS solver. Model validation is performed using surface-pressure and lift/drag data from U. Glasgow (2009) and OSU (1995) wind tunnel experiments. Performance of the transition model is assessed by analyzing integrated performance metrics, as well as detailed surface pressure and pressure gradient, wall-shear stress, and boundary-layer profiles and separation points. Demonstration of model performance in the light- and deep-stall regimes of dynamic stall is an important step in reducing uncertainties in full 3D simulations of turbines operating in the atmospheric boundary layer. Supported by NSF Grant 0933647.
Numerical simulation of a wind turbine airfoil : part 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramdenee, D.; Minea, I.S.; Tardiff d' Hamonville, T.; Illinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne
2010-07-01
This 2-part study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify and model the aerodynamic and aeroelastic phenomena around wind turbine blades. The aim of the study was to better understand the mechanisms surrounding unsteady flow-structure interactions. Aerodynamic and elastic models were coupled using an ANSYS multi-domain program to simulate the aeroelastic divergence of a typical section airfoil with a single rotational structural degree of freedom. Solvers were used to realize a sequence of multi-domain time steps and coupling iterations between time steps. Each element of the airfoil was divided into interpolation faces which were then transformed into 2-D polygons. An intersection process was used to create a large number of control surfaces that were used to study interactions between the structural and fluid domains. The calculations were used to determine the divergence speed and Eigen modes of vibration. A literature review was also included. 19 refs., 7 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oerlemans, S. [National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Emmeloord (Netherlands); Schepers, J.G. [Unit Wind Energy, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Guidati, G.; Wagner, S. [Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik IAG, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)
2001-07-15
The objective of the European project DATA (Design and Testing of Acoustically Optimized Airfoils for Wind Turbines) is a reduction of trailing-edge (TE) noise by modifying the airfoil shape and/or the application of trailing-edge serrations. This paper describes validation measurements that were performed in the DNW-LLF wind tunnel, on a model scale wind turbine with a two-bladed 4.5 m diameter rotor which was designed in the project. Measurements were done for one reference- and two acoustically optimized rotors, for varying flow conditions. The aerodynamic performance of the rotors was measured using a torque meter in the hub, and further aerodynamic information was obtained from flow visualization on the blades. The acoustic measurements were done with a 136 microphone out-of-flow acoustic array. Besides the location of the noise sources in the (stationary) rotor plane, a new acoustic processing method enabled identification of dominant noise source regions on the rotating blades. The results show dominant noise sources at the trailing-edge of the blade, close to the tip. The optimized airfoil shapes result in a significant reduction of TE noise levels with respect to the reference rotor, without loss in power production. A further reduction can be achieved by the application of trailing-edge serrations. The aerodynamic measurements are generally in good agreement with the aerodynamic predictions made during the design of the model turbine.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rainbird, John M.; Bianchini, Alessandro; Balduzzi, Francesco; Peiró, Joaquim; Graham, J. Michael R.; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Darrieus wind turbine blades are affected by virtual camber. • A NACA 0018 and two transforms of it shaped after virtual camber theory are tested. • A blockage tolerant wind tunnel test section is used for experiments. • Turbine numerical simulations for the same airfoils are compared to experiments. • Virtual camber corrections for low order simulation models are recommended. - Abstract: Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbines are experiencing renewed interest from researchers and manufacturers, though their efficiencies still lag those of horizontal-axis wind turbines. A better understanding of their aerodynamics is required to improve on designs, for example through the development of more accurate low-order (e.g. blade element momentum) models. Many of these models neglect the impact of the curved paths that are followed by blades on their performance. It has been theorized that the curved streamlines of the flow impart a virtual camber and incidence on them, giving a performance analogous to a cambered blade in a rectilinear flow. To test the extent of this effect, wind tunnel experiments have been conducted in a rectilinear flow to obtain lift and drag for three airfoils: a NACA 0018 and two conformal transforms of the profile. The transformed airfoils exhibit the virtual camber that the theory predicts is imparted to a NACA 0018 when used in a Darrieus turbine with blade chord-to-turbine radius ratios, c/R, of 0.114 and 0.25. A parallel computational fluid dynamics campaign has been conducted to study the aerodynamic behavior of the same blades in curvilinear flow in Darrieus-like motion with c/R = 0.114 and 0.25, at tip–speed ratios of 2.1 and 3.1, using novel techniques to obtain blade effective angles of attack. The analysis confirms that the theory holds, with the wind tunnel results for the NACA 0018 being analogous to numerical results for the relevant cambered airfoils. In addition, turbine performance is calculated using
Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system
Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang
2015-08-18
A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YOUNES EL KHCHINE
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The design of rotor blades has a great effect on the aerodynamics performances of horizontal axis wind turbine and its efficiency. This work presents the effects of mesh refinement and boundary layer on aerodynamic performances of wind turbine S809 rotor. Furthermore, the simulation of fluid flow is taken for S809 airfoil wind turbine blade using ANSYS/FLUENT software. The problem is solved by the conservation of mass and momentum equations for unsteady and incompressible flow using advanced SST k-ω turbulence model, in order to predict the effects of mesh refinement and boundary layer on aerodynamics performances. Lift and drag coefficients are the most important parameters in studying the wind turbine performance, these coefficients are calculated for four meshes refinement and different angles of attacks with Reynolds number is 106. The study is applied to S809 airfoil which has 21% thickness, specially designed by NREL for horizontal axis wind turbines.
Airfoil shape for a turbine nozzle
Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Patik, Joseph Francis; Itzel, Gary Michael
2002-01-01
A first-stage nozzle vane includes an airfoil having a profile according to Table I. The annulus profile of the hot gas path is defined in conjunction with the airfoil profile and the profile of the inner and outer walls by the Cartesian coordinate values given in Tables I and II, respectively. The airfoil is a three-dimensional bowed design, both in the airfoil body and in the trailing edge. The airfoil is steam and air-cooled by flowing cooling mediums through cavities extending in the vane between inner and outer walls.
Finding optimum airfoil shape to get maximum aerodynamic efficiency for a wind turbine
Sogukpinar, Haci; Bozkurt, Ismail
2017-02-01
In this study, aerodynamic performances of S-series wind turbine airfoil of S 825 are investigated to find optimum angle of attack. Aerodynamic performances calculations are carried out by utilization of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method withstand finite capacity approximation by using Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stokes (RANS) theorem. The lift and pressure coefficients, lift to drag ratio of airfoil S 825 are analyzed with SST turbulence model then obtained results crosscheck with wind tunnel data to verify the precision of computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approximation. The comparison indicates that SST turbulence model used in this study can predict aerodynamics properties of wind blade.
Viscous-inviscid method for the simulation of turbulent unsteady wind turbine airfoil flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bermudez, L.; Velazquez, A.; Matesanz, A. [Thermal Engineering Area, Carlos III University of Madrid, Avd. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)
2002-06-01
A Viscous-inviscid interaction method is presented that allows for the simulation of unsteady airfoil flow in the context of wind turbine applications. The method couples a 2-D external unsteady potential flow to a 2-D unsteady turbulent boundary layer. The separation point on the airfoil leeward side is determined in a self-consistent way from the boundary-layer equations, and the separated flow region is modelled independently. Wake shape and motion are also determined in a self-consistent way, while an unsteady Kutta condition is implemented. The method is able to deal with attached flow and light stall situations characterised by unsteady turbulent boundary-layer separation size up to 50% of the airfoil chord length. The results of the validation campaign show that the method could be used for industrial design purposes because of its numerical robustness, reasonable accuracy, and limited computational time demands.
Hultgren, Lennart S.; Ashpis, David E.
2003-01-01
Modem low-pressure turbines, in general, utilize highly loaded airfoils in an effort to improve efficiency and to lower the number of airfoils needed. Typically, the airfoil boundary layers are turbulent and fully attached at takeoff conditions, whereas a substantial fraction of the boundary layers on the airfoils may be transitional at cruise conditions due to the change of density with altitude. The strong adverse pressure gradients on the suction side of these airfoils can lead to boundary-layer separation at the latter low Reynolds number conditions. Large separation bubbles, particularly those which fail to reattach, cause a significant degradation of engine efficiency. A component efficiency drop of the order 2% may occur between takeoff and cruise conditions for large commercial transport engines and could be as large as 7% for smaller engines at higher altitude. An efficient means of of separation elimination/reduction is, therefore, crucial to improved turbine design. Because the large change in the Reynolds number from takeoff to cruise leads to a distinct change in the airfoil flow physics, a separation control strategy intended for cruise conditions will need to be carefully constructed so as to incur minimum impact/penalty at takeoff. A complicating factor, but also a potential advantage in the quest for an efficient strategy, is the intricate interplay between separation and transition for the situation at hand. Volino gives a comprehensive discussion of several recent studies on transition and separation under low-pressure-turbine conditions, among them one in the present facility. Transition may begin before or after separation, depending on the Reynolds number and other flow conditions. If the transition occurs early in the boundary layer then separation may be reduced or completely eliminated. Transition in the shear layer of a separation bubble can lead to rapid reattachment. This suggests using control mechanisms to trigger and enhance early
Cooled airfoil in a turbine engine
Vitt, Paul H; Kemp, David A; Lee, Ching-Pang; Marra, John J
2015-04-21
An airfoil in a gas turbine engine includes an outer wall and an inner wall. The outer wall includes a leading edge, a trailing edge opposed from the leading edge in a chordal direction, a pressure side, and a suction side. The inner wall is coupled to the outer wall at a single chordal location and includes portions spaced from the pressure and suction sides of the outer wall so as to form first and second gaps between the inner wall and the respective pressure and suction sides. The inner wall defines a chamber therein and includes openings that provide fluid communication between the respective gaps and the chamber. The gaps receive cooling fluid that provides cooling to the outer wall as it flows through the gaps. The cooling fluid, after traversing at least substantial portions of the gaps, passes into the chamber through the openings in the inner wall.
Development of heat flux sensors for turbine airfoils
Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, Marcia A.; Strange, Richard R.
1985-10-01
The objectives of this program are to develop heat flux sensors suitable for installation in hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft turbine engines and to experimentally verify the operation of these heat flux sensors in a cylinder in a cross flow experiment. Embedded thermocouple and Gardon gauge sensors were developed and fabricated into both blades and vanes. These were then calibrated using a quartz lamp bank heat source and finally subjected to thermal cycle and thermal soak testing. These sensors were also fabricated into cylindrical test pieces and tested in a burner exhaust to verify heat flux measurements produced by these sensors. The results of the cylinder in cross flow tests are given.
Development of heat flux sensors for turbine airfoils
Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, Marcia A.; Strange, Richard R.
1985-01-01
The objectives of this program are to develop heat flux sensors suitable for installation in hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft turbine engines and to experimentally verify the operation of these heat flux sensors in a cylinder in a cross flow experiment. Embedded thermocouple and Gardon gauge sensors were developed and fabricated into both blades and vanes. These were then calibrated using a quartz lamp bank heat source and finally subjected to thermal cycle and thermal soak testing. These sensors were also fabricated into cylindrical test pieces and tested in a burner exhaust to verify heat flux measurements produced by these sensors. The results of the cylinder in cross flow tests are given.
Integrated axial and tangential serpentine cooling circuit in a turbine airfoil
Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J; Dalton, John P
2015-05-05
A continuous serpentine cooling circuit forming a progression of radial passages (44, 45, 46, 47A, 48A) between pressure and suction side walls (52, 54) in a MID region of a turbine airfoil (24). The circuit progresses first axially, then tangentially, ending in a last radial passage (48A) adjacent to the suction side (54) and not adjacent to the pressure side (52). The passages of the axial progression (44, 45, 46) may be adjacent to both the pressure and suction side walls of the airfoil. The next to last radial passage (47A) may be adjacent to the pressure side wall and not adjacent to the suction side wall. The last two radial passages (47A, 48A) may be longer along the pressure and suction side walls respectively than they are in a width direction, providing increased direct cooling surface area on the interiors of these hot walls.
Vortex-Induced Vibration of an Airfoil Used in Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines
Benner, Bridget; Carlson, Daniel; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
2017-11-01
In Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs), when the blades are placed at high angles of attack with respect to the incoming flow, they could experience flow-induced oscillations. A series of experiments in a re-circulating water tunnel was conducted to study the possible Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) of a fully-submerged, flexibly-mounted NACA 0021 airfoil, which is used in some designs of VAWTs. The airfoil was free to oscillate in the crossflow direction, and the tests were conducted in a Reynolds number range of 600
Aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with morphing trailing edge for wind turbine applications
Wolff, T.; Ernst, B.; Seume, J. R.
2014-06-01
The length of wind turbine rotor blades has been increased during the last decades. Higher stresses arise especially at the blade root because of the longer lever arm. One way to reduce unsteady blade-root stresses caused by turbulence, gusts, or wind shear is to actively control the lift in the blade tip region. One promising method involves airfoils with morphing trailing edges to control the lift and consequently the loads acting on the blade. In the present study, the steady and unsteady behavior of an airfoil with a morphing trailing edge is investigated. Two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a typical thin wind turbine airfoil with a morphing trailing edge. Steady-state simulations are used to design optimal geometry, size, and deflection angles of the morphing trailing edge. The resulting steady aerodynamic coefficients are then analyzed at different angles of attack in order to determine the effectiveness of the morphing trailing edge. In order to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of the optimal morphing trailing edge, time- resolved RANS-simulations are performed using a deformable grid. In order to analyze the phase shift between the variable trailing edge deflection and the dynamic lift coefficient, the trailing edge is deflected at four different reduced frequencies for each different angle of attack. As expected, a phase shift between the deflection and the lift occurs. While deflecting the trailing edge at angles of attack near stall, additionally an overshoot above and beyond the steady lift coefficient is observed and evaluated.
Aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with morphing trailing edge for wind turbine applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolff, T; Ernst, B; Seume, J R
2014-01-01
The length of wind turbine rotor blades has been increased during the last decades. Higher stresses arise especially at the blade root because of the longer lever arm. One way to reduce unsteady blade-root stresses caused by turbulence, gusts, or wind shear is to actively control the lift in the blade tip region. One promising method involves airfoils with morphing trailing edges to control the lift and consequently the loads acting on the blade. In the present study, the steady and unsteady behavior of an airfoil with a morphing trailing edge is investigated. Two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a typical thin wind turbine airfoil with a morphing trailing edge. Steady-state simulations are used to design optimal geometry, size, and deflection angles of the morphing trailing edge. The resulting steady aerodynamic coefficients are then analyzed at different angles of attack in order to determine the effectiveness of the morphing trailing edge. In order to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of the optimal morphing trailing edge, time- resolved RANS-simulations are performed using a deformable grid. In order to analyze the phase shift between the variable trailing edge deflection and the dynamic lift coefficient, the trailing edge is deflected at four different reduced frequencies for each different angle of attack. As expected, a phase shift between the deflection and the lift occurs. While deflecting the trailing edge at angles of attack near stall, additionally an overshoot above and beyond the steady lift coefficient is observed and evaluated
Reliability Prediction for Combustors and Turbines. Volume I.
1977-06-01
comprised of many sophisticated components utilizing the latest in high-strength materials and technology. This is especially true in the turbine component...JT9D engine. This inspection technique makes use of a horoscope probe to look into the en- gine hot section while the engine remains installed in the...engine can now be removed based on results observed with the horoscope . This type of failure can be caused by any of the three primary turbine airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yilei He
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to employ a multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA to optimize the shape of a well-known wind turbine airfoil S809 to improve its lift and drag characteristics, in particular to achieve two objectives, that is, to increase its lift and its lift to drag ratio. The commercially available software FLUENT is employed to calculate the flow field on an adaptive structured mesh using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations in conjunction with a two-equation k-ω SST turbulence model. The results show significant improvement in both lift coefficient and lift to drag ratio of the optimized airfoil compared to the original S809 airfoil. In addition, MOGA results are in close agreement with those obtained by the adjoint-based optimization technique.
Closed loop steam cooled airfoil
Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.
2006-04-18
An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.
Discontinuous Galerkin methodology for Large-Eddy Simulations of wind turbine airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frére, A.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Hillewaert, K.
2016-01-01
This paper aims at evaluating the potential of the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methodology for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of wind turbine airfoils. The DG method has shown high accuracy, excellent scalability and capacity to handle unstructured meshes. It is however not used in the wind energy...... sector yet. The present study aims at evaluating this methodology on an application which is relevant for that sector and focuses on blade section aerodynamics characterization. To be pertinent for large wind turbines, the simulations would need to be at low Mach numbers (M ≤ 0.3) where compressible...... at low and high Reynolds numbers and compares the results to state-of-the-art models used in industry, namely the panel method (XFOIL with boundary layer modeling) and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS). At low Reynolds number (Re = 6 × 104), involving laminar boundary layer separation and transition...
Turbine Airfoil With CMC Leading-Edge Concept Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions
Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.
2000-01-01
Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for gas turbine engine hot-sections. When the Navy s Harrier fighter experienced engine (Pegasus F402) failure because of leading-edge durability problems on the second-stage high-pressure turbine vane, the Office of Naval Research came to the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for test support in evaluating a concept for eliminating the vane-edge degradation. The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was selected for testing since it could provide temperature, pressure, velocity, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environment. The study focused on equipping the stationary metal airfoil (Pegasus F402) with a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) leading-edge insert and evaluating the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. The test exposed the component, with and without the CMC insert, to the harsh engine environment in an unloaded condition, with cooling to provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The insert was made using an AlliedSignal Composites, Inc., enhanced HiNicalon (Nippon Carbon Co. LTD., Yokohama, Japan) fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiC/SiC CMC) material fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration. This insert was 45-mils thick and occupied a recessed area in the leading edge and shroud of the vane. It was designed to be free floating with an end cap design. The HPBR tests provided a comparative evaluation of the temperature response and leading-edge durability and included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were aircooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the exact set of internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). In addition to documenting the temperature response of the metal vane for comparison with the CMC, a demonstration of improved leading-edge durability was a primary goal. First, the
Profile catalogue for airfoil sections based on 3D computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe
2006-01-01
This report is a continuation of the Wind Turbine Airfoil Catalogue [1] which objective was, firstly to provide a database of aerodynamic characteristics for a wide range of airfoil profiles aimed at wind turbine applications, and secondly to test thetwo-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D...... and the actual fluid flow, and thereby the incorrect prediction of airfoil characteristics. In addition, other features of the flow solver, such astransition and turbulence modelling, and their influence onto the numerical results are investigated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the evaluation of airfoil...
Investigation of the two-element airfoil with flap structure for the vertical axis wind turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Y; Li, C
2013-01-01
The aerodynamic performance of Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is not as simple as its structure because of the large changing range of angle of attack. We have designed a new kind of two-element airfoil for VAWT on the basis of NACA0012. CFD calculation has been confirmed to have high accuracy by comparison with the experiment data and Xfoil result. The aerodynamic parameter of two-element airfoil has been acquired by CFD calculation in using the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) turbulence model and the Simple scheme. The relationship between changings of angle of attack and flap's tilt angle has been found and quantified. The analysis will lay the foundation for further research on the control method for VAWT
Research on design methods and aerodynamics performance of CQUDTU-B21 airfoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Wen, Zhong Shen
2012-01-01
This paper presents the design methods of CQU-DTU-B21 airfoil for wind turbine. Compared with the traditional method of inverse design, the new method is described directly by a compound objective function to balance several conflicting requirements for design wind turbine airfoils, which based...... on design theory of airfoil profiles, blade element momentum (BEM) theory and airfoil Self-Noise prediction model. And then an optimization model with the target of maximum power performance on a 2D airfoil and low noise emission of design ranges for angle of attack has been developed for designing CQU......-DTU-B21 airfoil. To validate the optimization results, the comparison of the aerodynamics performance by XFOIL and wind tunnels test respectively at Re=3×106 is made between the CQU-DTU-B21 and DU93-W-210 which is widely used in wind turbines. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland....
Desirable airfoil features for smaller-capacity straight-bladed VAWT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Islam, Mazharul; Ting, D.S.-K.; Fartaj, Amir
2007-05-15
In the small scale wind turbine market, the simple straight-bladed Darrieus type vertical axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT) is very attractive for its simple blade design. A detailed aerodynamic performance analysis was conducted on a smaller capacity fixed-pitch SB-VAWT. Brief analyses of the main aerodynamic challenges of this type of wind turbine were first discussed and subsequently the authors conducted further literature survey and computational analysis to shortlist aerodynamic characteristics of a desirable airfoil for a self-starting and better performing SB-VAWT. The required geometric features of the desirable airfoil to achieve the short listed characteristics were also discussed. It has been found out that conventionally used NACA symmetric airfoils are not suitable for smaller capacity SB-VAWT. Rather, it is advantageous to utilize a high-lift and low-drag asymmetric thick airfoil suitable for low speed operation typically encountered by SB-VAWT. (author)
Panther, Chad C.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) have experienced a renewed interest in development for urban, remote, and offshore applications. Past research has shown that VAWTs cannot compete with Horizontals Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs) in terms of energy capture efficiency. VAWT performance is plagued by dynamic stall (DS) effects at low tip-speed ratios (lambda), where each blade pitches beyond static stall multiple times per revolution. Furthermore, for lambdaoperate outside of stall during over 70% of rotation. However, VAWTs offer many advantages such as omnidirectional operation, ground proximity of generator, lower sound emission, and non-cantilevered blades with longer life. Thus, mitigating dynamic stall and improving VAWT blade aerodynamics for competitive power efficiency has been a popular research topic in recent years and the directive of this study. Past research at WVU focused on the addition of circulation control (CC) technology to improve VAWT aerodynamics and expand the operational envelope. A novel blade design was generated from the augmentation of a NACA0018 airfoil to include CC capabilities. Static wind tunnel data was collected for a range of steady jet momentum coefficients (0.01≤ Cmu≤0.10) for analytical vortex model performance projections. Control strategies were developed to optimize CC jet conditions throughout rotation, resulting in improved power output for 2≤lambda≤5. However, the pumping power required to produce steady CC jets reduced net power gains of the augmented turbine by approximately 15%. The goal of this work was to investigate pulsed CC jet actuation to match steady jet performance with reduced mass flow requirements. To date, no experimental studies have been completed to analyze pulsed CC performance on a pitching airfoil. The research described herein details the first study on the impact of steady and pulsed jet CC on pitching VAWT blade aerodynamics. Both numerical and experimental studies were implemented, varying
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dassen, T.; Parchen, R.; Guidati, G.; Wagner, S.; Kang, S.; Khodak, A.E.
1998-01-01
In the ongoing JOULE-III project 'Development of Design Tools for Reduced Aerodynamic Noise Wind Turbines (DRAW)', prediction codes for inflow-turbulence (IT) noise and turbulent boundary layer trailing-edge (TE) noise, are developed and validated. It is shown that the differences in IT noise radiation between airfoils having a different shape, are correctly predicted. The first, preliminary comparison made between predicted and measured TE noise spectra yields satisfactory results. 17 refs
Axial Turbine Aerodynamic Design of Small Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Joung Seok; Lee, Wu Sang; Ryu, Je Wook
2013-01-01
This study describes the aerodynamic design procedure for the axial turbines of a small heavy-duty gas turbine engine being developed by Docosan Heavy Industries. The design procedure mainly consists of three parts: namely, flow path design, airfoil design, and 3a performance calculation. To design the optimized flow path, through flow calculations as well as the loss estimation are widely used to evaluate the effect of geometric variables, for example, shape of meridional plane, mean radius, blades axial gap, and had angle. During the airfoil design procedure, the optimum number of blades is calculated by empirical correlations based on the in/outlet flow angles, and then 2a airfoil planar sections are designed carefully, followed by 2a B2 NS calculations. The designed planar sections are stacked along the span wise direction, leading to a 3a surfaced airfoil shape. To consider the 3a effect on turbine performance, 3a multistage Euler calculation, single row, and multistage NS calculations are performed
Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU
2011-03-08
A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.
Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)
1995-12-31
The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.
Sogukpinar, Haci; Bozkurt, Ismail
2018-02-01
Aerodynamic performance of the airfoil plays the most important role to obtain economically maximum efficiency from a wind turbine. Therefore airfoil should have an ideal aerodynamic shape. In this study, aerodynamic simulation of S809 airfoil is conducted and obtained result compared with previously made NASA experimental result and NREL theoretical data. At first, Lift coefficient, lift to drag ratio and pressure coefficient around S809 airfoil are calculated with SST turbulence model, and are compared with experimental and other theoretical data to correlate simulation correctness of the computational approaches. And result indicates good correlation with both experimental and theoretical data. This calculation point out that as the increasing relative velocity, lift to drag ratio increases. Lift to drag ratio attain maximum at the angle around 6 degree and after that starts to decrease again. Comparison shows that CFD code used in this calculation can predict aerodynamic properties of airfoil.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaping Ju
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The Monte Carlo simulation method for turbomachinery uncertainty analysis often requires performing a huge number of simulations, the computational cost of which can be greatly alleviated with the help of metamodeling techniques. An intensive comparative study was performed on the approximation performance of three prospective artificial intelligence metamodels, that is, artificial neural network, radial basis function, and support vector regression. The genetic algorithm was used to optimize the predetermined parameters of each metamodel for the sake of a fair comparison. Through testing on 10 nonlinear functions with different problem scales and sample sizes, the genetic algorithm–support vector regression metamodel was found more accurate and robust than the other two counterparts. Accordingly, the genetic algorithm–support vector regression metamodel was selected and combined with the Monte Carlo simulation method for the uncertainty analysis of a wind turbine airfoil under two types of surface roughness uncertainties. The results show that the genetic algorithm–support vector regression metamodel can capture well the uncertainty propagation from the surface roughness to the airfoil aerodynamic performance. This work is useful to the application of metamodeling techniques in the robust design optimization of turbomachinery.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王骥月; 丛茜; 梁宁; 毛士佳; 关欢欢; 刘林鹏; 陈创发
2015-01-01
针对现有小型风力发电机效率远低于理论值问题，对100 W水平轴风力机叶片进行仿生改进。采用Spalart-Allmaras模型分析不同攻角下海鸥翼型与标准翼型的气动特性；以标准100 W水平轴风力机叶片为原型，结合海鸥翼型、标准弦长和计算得出的安装角，设计得到仿海鸥翼型叶片；利用SST k-ω模型进行仿海鸥翼型叶片与标准叶片气动特性数值模拟；搭建室内风力机效率测试平台，进行仿海鸥翼型风力机与标准风力机效率对比试验。结果表明：海鸥翼型气动性能优良，最大升力系数是标准翼型的2.19倍，最大升阻比是标准翼型的1.34倍；仿海鸥翼型叶片与标准叶片相比，输出功率提高25.77%。该研究可为小型风力发电机的改进设计提供参考。%Power of the existing small-sized wind turbine blades is much less than the theoretical value. This study improved 100 W wind turbine blades to increase the power of wind turbine. First of all, Spalart-Allmaras model which was suitable for airfoil stalling characteristics research was used to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of seagull airfoil and standard airfoil with different angles of attack (AOA). Seagull airfoil and standard airfoil were got from seagull wing and standard blade by portable three-dimension scanner, Imageware software and Geomagic Studio software through standard blade scan, seagull wing scan, point cloud processing, reverse engineering modeling and cross section capture. Lift coefficients and lift-drag ratios of seagull airfoil and standard airfoil were calculated by Fluent software. Secondly, bionic blade was designed based on standard 100 W blades and Glauert theory. Thirdly, numerical simulations of bionic blade and standard blade were performed by using SST(shear stress transport) k-ω model which was suitable for blade performance research to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of bionic blade and standard
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gharali, K.; Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Wind Energy Group
2010-07-01
Natural wind can sometimes have a strong wind shear that causes the Dynamic Stall (DS) phenomena which may result in dynamic loads and varying lift coefficients. The DS phenomena cannot be prevented in horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Therefore, it is necessary to study the unsteady aerodynamics in order to modify common wind turbine rotor designs. This paper reported on a study that investigated the dynamic flow fields around an oscillating 2D S809 airfoil, representing the aerodynamic characteristics of HAWT airfoils for dynamic stall conditions. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow solver package with Fluent was used with different turbulence models, notably the Spalart-Allmaras and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) methods. A sliding mesh is commonly used in numerical methods for simulating an oscillating foil, but sliding meshes suffer from mesh generation complexity and increased computational time. In this study, instead of a sinusoidally pitching airfoil, the direction of the far-field flow was changed according to a user-defined function in the software to simulate a proper angle of attack for the boundary conditions in each time step. This strategy helped to decrease processing time. The simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data and the Beddoes-Leishman model results. The DES method for unsteady 2D flow was not recommended. It was concluded that the Fluent package is time efficient, reliable and economic for the wind turbine industry. 17 refs., 3 figs.
Hultgren, Lennart S.; Volino, Ralph J.
2002-01-01
Modern low-pressure turbine airfoils are subject to increasingly stronger pressure gradients as designers impose higher loading in an effort to improve efficiency and to reduce part count. The adverse pressure gradients on the suction side of these airfoils can lead to boundary-layer separation, particularly under cruise conditions. Separation bubbles, notably those which fail to reattach, can result in a significant degradation of engine efficiency. Accurate prediction of separation and reattachment is hence crucial to improved turbine design. This requires an improved understanding of the transition flow physics. Transition may begin before or after separation, depending on the Reynolds number and other flow conditions, has a strong influence on subsequent reattachment, and may even eliminate separation. Further complicating the problem are the high free-stream turbulence levels in a real engine environment, the strong pressure gradients along the airfoils, the curvature of the airfoils, and the unsteadiness associated with wake passing from upstream stages. Because of the complicated flow situation, transition in these devices can take many paths that can coexist, vary in importance, and possibly also interact, at different locations and instances in time. The present work was carried out in an attempt to systematically sort out some of these issues. Detailed velocity measurements were made along a flat plate subject to the same nominal dimensionless pressure gradient as the suction side of a modern low-pressure turbine airfoil ('Pak-B'). The Reynolds number based on wetted plate length and nominal exit velocity, Re, was varied from 50;000 to 300; 000, covering cruise to takeoff conditions. Low, 0.2%, and high, 7%, inlet free-stream turbulence intensities were set using passive grids. These turbulence levels correspond to about 0.2% and 2.5% turbulence intensity in the test section when normalized with the exit velocity. The Reynolds number and free
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Bum Suk; Kim, Mann Eung [Korean Register of Shipping, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2008-07-15
Despite of the laminar-turbulent transition region co-exist with fully turbulence region around the leading edge of an airfoil, still lots of researchers apply to fully turbulence models to predict aerodynamic characteristics. It is well known that fully turbulent model such as standard k-model couldn't predict the complex stall and the separation behavior on an airfoil accurately, it usually leads to over prediction of the aerodynamic characteristics such as lift and drag forces. So, we apply correlation based transition model to predict aerodynamic performance of the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Phase IV wind turbine. And also, compare the computed results from transition model with experimental measurement and fully turbulence results. Results are presented for a range of wind speed, for a NREL Phase IV wind turbine rotor. Low speed shaft torque, power, root bending moment, aerodynamic coefficients of 2D airfoil and several flow field figures results included in this study. As a result, the low speed shaft torque predicted by transitional turbulence model is very good agree with the experimental measurement in whole operating conditions but fully turbulent model(K- {epsilon}) over predict the shaft torque after 7m/s. Root bending moment is also good agreement between the prediction and experiments for most of the operating conditions, especially with the transition model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Bum Suk; Kim, Mann Eung; Lee, Young Ho
2008-01-01
Despite of the laminar-turbulent transition region co-exist with fully turbulence region around the leading edge of an airfoil, still lots of researchers apply to fully turbulence models to predict aerodynamic characteristics. It is well known that fully turbulent model such as standard k-model couldn't predict the complex stall and the separation behavior on an airfoil accurately, it usually leads to over prediction of the aerodynamic characteristics such as lift and drag forces. So, we apply correlation based transition model to predict aerodynamic performance of the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Phase IV wind turbine. And also, compare the computed results from transition model with experimental measurement and fully turbulence results. Results are presented for a range of wind speed, for a NREL Phase IV wind turbine rotor. Low speed shaft torque, power, root bending moment, aerodynamic coefficients of 2D airfoil and several flow field figures results included in this study. As a result, the low speed shaft torque predicted by transitional turbulence model is very good agree with the experimental measurement in whole operating conditions but fully turbulent model(K- ε) over predict the shaft torque after 7m/s. Root bending moment is also good agreement between the prediction and experiments for most of the operating conditions, especially with the transition model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse
of resolved inflow turbulence on airfoil simulations in CFD. The detached-eddy simulation technique is used because it can resolve the inflow turbulence without becoming too computationally expensive due to its limited requirements for mesh resolution in the boundary layer. It cannot resolve the turbulence......Wind turbines operate in inflow turbulence whether it originates from the shear in the atmospheric boundary layer or from the wake of other wind turbines. Consequently, the airfoils of the wings experience turbulence in the inflow. The main topic of this thesis is to investigate the effect...... that is formed in attached boundary layers, but the freestream turbulence can penetrate the boundary layer. The idea is that the resolved turbulence from the freestream should mix high momentum flow into the boundary layer and thereby increase the resistance against separation and increase the maximum lift...
Airfoil, platform, and cooling passage measurements on a rotating transonic high-pressure turbine
Nickol, Jeremy B.
An experiment was performed at The Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory for a film-cooled high-pressure turbine stage operating at design-corrected conditions, with variable rotor and aft purge cooling flow rates. Several distinct experimental programs are combined into one experiment and their results are presented. Pressure and temperature measurements in the internal cooling passages that feed the airfoil film cooling are used as boundary conditions in a model that calculates cooling flow rates and blowing ratio out of each individual film cooling hole. The cooling holes on the suction side choke at even the lowest levels of film cooling, ejecting more than twice the coolant as the holes on the pressure side. However, the blowing ratios are very close due to the freestream massflux on the suction side also being almost twice as great. The highest local blowing ratios actually occur close to the airfoil stagnation point as a result of the low freestream massflux conditions. The choking of suction side cooling holes also results in the majority of any additional coolant added to the blade flowing out through the leading edge and pressure side rows. A second focus of this dissertation is the heat transfer on the rotor airfoil, which features uncooled blades and blades with three different shapes of film cooling hole: cylindrical, diffusing fan shape, and a new advanced shape. Shaped cooling holes have previously shown immense promise on simpler geometries, but experimental results for a rotating turbine have not previously been published in the open literature. Significant improvement from the uncooled case is observed for all shapes of cooling holes, but the improvement from the round to more advanced shapes is seen to be relatively minor. The reduction in relative effectiveness is likely due to the engine-representative secondary flow field interfering with the cooling flow mechanics in the freestream, and may also be caused by shocks and other
Aero-elastic stability of airfoil flow using 2-D CFD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansen, J [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
A three degrees-of-freedom structural dynamics model has been coupled to a two-dimensional incompressible CFD code. The numerical investigation considers aero-elastic stability for two different airfoils; the NACA0012 and the LM 2 18 % airfoils. Stable and unstable configurations and limit cycle oscillations are predicted in accordance with literature for the first airfoil. An attempt to predict stall induced edge-wise vibrations on a wind turbine airfoil fails using this two-dimensional approach. (au)
Profile catalogue for airfoil sections based on 3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe
2006-12-15
This report is a continuation of the Wind Turbine Airfoil Catalogue which objective was, firstly to provide a database of aerodynamic characteristics for a wide range of airfoil profiles aimed at wind turbine applications, and secondly to test the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D by comparing its results with experimental data. In the present work, the original two-dimensional results are compared with three-dimensional calculations as it was surmised that the two-dimensional assumption might be in some cases responsible for discrepancies between the numerical flow solution and the actual fluid flow, and thereby the incorrect prediction of airfoil characteristics. In addition, other features of the flow solver, such as transition and turbulence modelling, and their influence onto the numerical results are investigated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the evaluation of airfoil aerodynamic characteristics, as well as the use of the Navier-Stokes solver for fluid flow calculations in general. (au)
Recent developments in high temperature coatings for gas turbine airfoils
Goward, G. W.
1983-01-01
The importance of coatings for hot section airfoils has increased with the drive for more cost-effective use of fuel in a wide variety of gas turbine engines. Minor additions of silicon have been found to appreciably increase the oxidation resistance of plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY coatings on a single crystal nickel-base superalloy. Increasing the chromium content of MCrAlY coatings substantially increases the resistance to acidic (Na2SO4-SO3) hot corrosion at temperatures of about 1300 F (704 C) but gives no significant improvement beyond contemporary coatings in the range of 1600 F (871 C). Surface enrichment of MCrAlY coatings with silicon also gives large increases in resistance to acidic hot corrosion in the 1300 F region. The resistance to the thermal stress-induced spalling of zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings has been improved by lowering coating stresses with segmented structures and by controlling the substrate temperature during coating fabrication.
Modular turbine airfoil and platform assembly with independent root teeth
Campbell, Christian X; Davies, Daniel O; Eng, Darryl
2013-07-30
A turbine airfoil (22E-H) extends from a shank (23E-H). A platform (30E-H) brackets or surrounds a first portion of the shank (23E-H). Opposed teeth (33, 35) extend laterally from the platform (30E-H) to engage respective slots (50) in a disk. Opposed teeth (25, 27) extend laterally from a second portion of the shank (29) that extends below the platform (30E-H) to engage other slots (52) in the disk. Thus the platform (30E-H) and the shank (23E-H) independently support their own centrifugal loads via their respective teeth. The platform may be formed in two portions (32E-H, 34E-H), that are bonded to each other at matching end-walls (37) and/or via pins (36G) passing through the shank (23E-H). Coolant channels (41, 43) may pass through the shank beside the pins (36G).
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D...... Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils....
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils
Numerical flow simulation over clean and iced wind turbine blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villalpando, F.; Reggio, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Wind Energy Group
2009-07-01
The impact of ice accretion on the drag and lift coefficients of a wind turbine blade was studied. Computerized simulations were conducted for both clean and ice-accreted 2-D airfoils at various angles of attack. The finite volume-based commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program FLUENT was used to simulate the 2-D geometries of turbulent, unsteady and incompressible flow around the airfoils. Pressure coefficients and the contribution of pressure and friction forces to the lift and drag coefficients were analyzed. The study showed that traditional calculations over-predict the lift and drag of ice-accreted airfoil profiles. Ice accreted over the profile's pressure side provoked a bigger lift reduction and drag increase than that caused by ice accreted on the suction side. The poor performance of the aerodynamic coefficients was attributed to the contribution of pressure forces. Further experimentation is required to determine if de-icing systems for turbine blades should be developed to prevent or melt ice over the profile pressure side. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2014-01-01
characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase......The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL...... methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST...
Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1986-01-01
Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)
Timmer, W.A.
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the NACA 63 and 64 6-digit series of airfoils tested in the NACA LTPT in view to verify the RFOIL calculated airfoil characteristics for high Reynolds numbers. Some anomalies in the zero-lift angles of 15% and 18% thick airfoils from these series are identified, both in the
Composite turbine bucket assembly
Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres
2014-05-20
A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oerlemans, S.
2004-08-01
The U.S. Department of Energy, working through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is engaged in a comprehensive research effort to improve our understanding of wind turbine aeroacoustics. Quiet wind turbines are an inducement to widespread deployment, so the goal of NREL's aeroacoustic research is to develop tools that the U.S. wind industry can use in developing and deploying highly efficient, quiet wind turbines at low wind speed sites. NREL's National Wind Technology Center is implementing a multifaceted approach that includes wind tunnel tests, field tests, and theoretical analyses in direct support of low wind speed turbine development by its industry partners. To that end, wind tunnel aerodynamic tests and aeroacoustic tests have been performed on six airfoils that are candidates for use on small wind turbines. Results are documented in this report.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Haoran; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun
2014-01-01
The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 10 6 . The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions
Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure
Campbell,; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay, A [Oviedo, FL
2011-12-20
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.
Inviscid double wake model for stalled airfoils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marion, L; Ramos-García, N; Sørensen, J N
2014-01-01
An inviscid double wake model based on a steady two-dimensional panel method has been developed to predict aerodynamic loads of wind turbine airfoils in the deep stall region. The separated flow is modelled using two constant vorticity sheets which are released at the trailing edge and at the separation point. A calibration of the code through comparison with experiments has been performed using one set of airfoils. A second set of airfoils has been used for the validation of the calibrated model. Predicted aerodynamic forces for a wide range of angles of attack (0 to 90 deg) are in overall good agreement with wind tunnel measurements
Turbine bucket for use in gas turbine engines and methods for fabricating the same
Garcia-Crespo, Andres
2014-06-03
A turbine bucket for use with a turbine engine. The turbine bucket includes an airfoil that extends between a root end and a tip end. The airfoil includes an outer wall that defines a cavity that extends from the root end to the tip end. The outer wall includes a first ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrate that extends a first distance from the root end to the tip end. An inner wall is positioned within the cavity. The inner wall includes a second CMC substrate that extends a second distance from the root end towards the tip end that is different than the first distance.
The Effect of Aerodynamic Evaluators on the Multi-Objective Optimization of Flatback Airfoils
Miller, M.; Slew, K. Lee; Matida, E.
2016-09-01
With the long lengths of today's wind turbine rotor blades, there is a need to reduce the mass, thereby requiring stiffer airfoils, while maintaining the aerodynamic efficiency of the airfoils, particularly in the inboard region of the blade where structural demands are highest. Using a genetic algorithm, the multi-objective aero-structural optimization of 30% thick flatback airfoils was systematically performed for a variety of aerodynamic evaluators such as lift-to-drag ratio (Cl/Cd), torque (Ct), and torque-to-thrust ratio (Ct/Cn) to determine their influence on airfoil shape and performance. The airfoil optimized for Ct possessed a 4.8% thick trailing-edge, and a rather blunt leading-edge region which creates high levels of lift and correspondingly, drag. It's ability to maintain similar levels of lift and drag under forced transition conditions proved it's insensitivity to roughness. The airfoil optimized for Cl/Cd displayed relatively poor insensitivity to roughness due to the rather aft-located free transition points. The Ct/Cn optimized airfoil was found to have a very similar shape to that of the Cl/Cd airfoil, with a slightly more blunt leading-edge which aided in providing higher levels of lift and moderate insensitivity to roughness. The influence of the chosen aerodynamic evaluator under the specified conditions and constraints in the optimization of wind turbine airfoils is shown to have a direct impact on the airfoil shape and performance.
Experimental benchmark and code validation for airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baldacchino, D.; Manolesos, M.; Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias
2016-01-01
Experimental results and complimentary computations for airfoils with vortex generators are compared in this paper, as part of an effort within the AVATAR project to develop tools for wind turbine blade control devices. Measurements from two airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators, a 30...
Evaluation of Erosion Resistance of Advanced Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings
Zhu, Dongming; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Miller, Robert A.; Cuy, Michael D.
2007-01-01
The erosion resistant turbine thermal barrier coating system is critical to aircraft engine performance and durability. By demonstrating advanced turbine material testing capabilities, we will be able to facilitate the critical turbine coating and subcomponent development and help establish advanced erosion-resistant turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings design tools. The objective of this work is to determine erosion resistance of advanced thermal barrier coating systems under simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments, validating advanced turbine airfoil thermal barrier coating systems based on nano-tetragonal phase toughening design approaches.
Beyhaghi, Saman
as compared to the baseline DES. In the second part of this study, the focus is on improving the aerodynamic performance of airfoils and wind turbines in terms of lift and drag coefficients and power generation. One special type of add-on feature for wind turbines and airfoils, i.e., leading-edge slots are investigated through numerical simulation and laboratory experiments. Although similar slots are designed and employed for aircrafts, a special slot with a reversed flow direction is drilled in the leading edge of a sample wind turbine airfoil to study its influence on the aerodynamic performance. The objective is to vary the five main geometrical parameters of slot and characterize the performance improvement of the new design under different operating conditions. A number of Design of Experiment and optimization studies are conducted to determine the most suitable slot configuration to maximize the lift or lift-over-drag ratio. Results indicate that proper sizing and placement of slot can improve the lift coefficient, while it has negligible negative impact on the drag. Some recommendations for future investigation on slot are proposed at the end. The performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine blade equipped with leading-edge slot is also studied, and it is concluded that slotted blades can generate about 10% more power than solid blades, for the two operating conditions investigated. The good agreement between the CFD predictions and experimental data confirms the validity of the model and results.
Aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils at high angles-of-attack
Timmer, W.A.
2010-01-01
Airfoil characteristics at deep stall angles were investigated. It appeared that the maximum drag coefficient as a function of the airfoil upwind y/c ordinate at x/c=0.0125 can be approximated by a straight line. The lift-drag ratios in deep stall of a number of airfoils with moderate lower surface
Veres, Joseph P.
1993-01-01
The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.
Aerodynamics of S809 Airfoil at Low and Transitional Reynolds Numbers
Carreras, Jaime J.; Laal-Dehghani, Nader; Gorumlu, Serdar; Mehdi, Faraz; Castillo, Luciano; Aksak, Burak; Sheng, Jian
2013-11-01
The S809 is a thick airfoil extensively used in wind turbine design applications and model studies in wind tunnel. With increased interests in reducing energy production cost and understanding turbulence and turbine interactions, scaled down models (Re ~103) are often used as an alternative to full scale field experimentation (Re >106). This Reynolds number discrepancy raises the issue of scaling for the airfoil performance from laboratory studies to field scale applications. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies existing in literature to characterize the lift- and drag-coefficients of S809 airfoil at Re less than 3 ×105 . This study is to fill the deficit in the current state of knowledge by performing high resolution force measurements. The lift and drag measurements are carried out in Texas Tech Wind Tunnel Facility using an in-house developed dual-cell force balance. The configuration eliminates the large torque and torsion often accompanied by conventional mounts. This unique design allows us to reach a measurement accuracy of 0.02N (0.1%). Comparative studies are performed on a two-dimensional airfoil with a smooth- as well as a well-engineered surface covered by micro-pillar array to simulate the surface conditions of a real life airfoil.
S833, S834, and S835 Airfoils: November 2001--November 2002
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Somers, D. M.
2005-08-01
A family of quiet, thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S833, S834, and S835, for 1 - 3-meter-diameter, variable-speed/variable-pitch, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoils should exhibit docile stalls, which meet the design goal. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoils thicknesses have been satisfied.
S830, S831, and S832 Airfoils: November 2001-November 2002
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Somers, D. M.
2005-08-01
A family of quiet, thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S830, S831, and S832, for 40 - 50-meter-diameter, variable-speed/variable-pitch, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoils should exhibit docile stalls, which meet the design goal. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoils thicknesses have been satisfied.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergami, Leonardo; Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim Christian
2013-01-01
The aeroelastic response of wind turbines is often simulated in the time domain by using indicial response techniques. Unsteady aerodynamics in attached flow are usually based on Jones's approximation of the flat plate indicial response, although the response for finite‐thickness airfoils differs...... from the flat plate one. The indicial lift response of finite‐thickness airfoils is simulated with a panel code, and an empirical relation is outlined connecting the airfoil indicial response to its geometric characteristics. The effects of different indicial approximations are evaluated on a 2D...... of equivalent fatigue loads, ultimate loads, and stability limits. The agreement with CFD computations of a 2D profile in harmonic motion is improved by the indicial function accounting for the finite‐thickness of the airfoil. Concerning the full wind turbine aeroelastic behavior, the differences between...
Drop "impact" on an airfoil surface.
Wu, Zhenlong
2018-05-17
Drop impact on an airfoil surface takes place in drop-laden two-phase flow conditions such as rain and icing, which are encountered by wind turbines or airplanes. This phenomenon is characterized by complex nonlinear interactions that manifest rich flow physics and pose unique modeling challenges. In this article, the state of the art of the research about drop impact on airfoil surface in the natural drop-laden two-phase flow environment is presented. The potential flow physics, hazards, characteristic parameters, droplet trajectory calculation, drop impact dynamics and effects are discussed. The most key points in establishing the governing equations for a drop-laden flow lie in the modeling of raindrop splash and water film. The various factors affecting the drop impact dynamics and the effects of drop impact on airfoil aerodynamic performance are summarized. Finally, the principle challenges and future research directions in the field as well as some promising measures to deal with the adverse effects of drop-laden flows on airfoil performance are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cross-Validation of Numerical and Experimental Studies of Transitional Airfoil Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frere, Ariane; Hillewaert, Koen; Sarlak, Hamid
2015-01-01
The aerodynamic performance characteristic of airfoils are the main input for estimating wind turbine blade loading as well as annual energy production of wind farms. For transitional flow regimes these data are difficult to obtain, both experimentally as well as numerically, due to the very high...... sensitivity of the flow to perturbations, large scale separation and performance hysteresis. The objective of this work is to improve the understanding of the transitional airfoil flow performance by studying the S826 NREL airfoil at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 4:104 and 1:105) with two inherently different...
Prediction of unsteady airfoil flows at large angles of incidence
Cebeci, Tuncer; Jang, H. M.; Chen, H. H.
1992-01-01
The effect of the unsteady motion of an airfoil on its stall behavior is of considerable interest to many practical applications including the blades of helicopter rotors and of axial compressors and turbines. Experiments with oscillating airfoils, for example, have shown that the flow can remain attached for angles of attack greater than those which would cause stall to occur in a stationary system. This result appears to stem from the formation of a vortex close to the surface of the airfoil which continues to provide lift. It is also evident that the onset of dynamic stall depends strongly on the airfoil section, and as a result, great care is required in the development of a calculation method which will accurately predict this behavior.
Design and Experimental Validation of Thick Airfoils for Large Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hrgovan, Iva; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2015-01-01
In this chapter, two new airfoils with thickness to chord ratios of 30 and 36 % are presented, which were designed with an objective of good aerodynamic and structural features. Airfoil design is based on a direct method using shape perturbation function. The optimization algorithm is coupled wit...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac
2015-01-01
The present study investigated physical phenomena related to stall-induced vibrations potentially existing on wind turbine blades at standstill conditions. The study considered two-dimensional airfoil sections while it omitted three-dimensional effects. In the study, a new engineering-type...... computational model for the aeroelastic response of an elastically mounted airfoil was used to investigate the influence of temporal lag in the aerodynamic response on the aeroelastic stability in deep stall. The study indicated that even a relatively low lag significantly increases the damping of the model....... A comparison between the results from a model with lag imposed on all force components with the results from a model with lag imposed exclusively on the lift showed only marginal difference between the damping in the two cases. A parameter study involving positions of the elastic hinge point and the center...
Design and validation of the high performance and low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cheng, Jiangtao; Zhu, Wei Jun; Fischer, Andreas
2014-01-01
with the blade element momentum theory, the viscous-inviscid XFOIL code and an airfoil self-noise prediction model, an optimization algorithm has been developed for designing the high performance and low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils with targets of maximum power coefficient and low noise emission...... emission between the CQU-DTU-LN118 airfoil and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 64618 airfoil, which is used in modern wind turbine blades, are carried out. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
CFD analysis for H-rotor Darrieus turbine as a low speed wind energy converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.H. Mohamed
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbines like the Darrieus turbine appear to be promising for the conditions of low wind speed, but suffer from a low efficiency compared to horizontal axis turbines. A fully detailed numerical analysis is introduced in this work to improve the global performance of this wind turbine. A comparison between ANSYS Workbench and Gambit meshing tools for the numerical modeling is performed to summarize a final numerical sequence for the Darrieus rotor performance. Then, this model sequence is applied for different blade airfoils to obtain the best performance. Unsteady simulations performed for different speed ratios and based on URANS turbulent calculations using sliding mesh approach. Results show that the accuracy of ANSYS Workbench meshing is improved by using SST K-omega model but it is not recommended for other turbulence models. Moreover, this CFD procedure is used in this paper to assess the turbine performance with different airfoil shapes (25 airfoils. The results introduced new shapes for this turbine with higher efficiency than the regular airfoils by 10%. In addition, blade pitch angle has been studied and the results indicated that the zero pitch angle gives best performance.
Demonstration of Enabling Spar-Shell Cooling Technology in Gas Turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Downs, James [Florida Turbine Technologies Inc., Jupiter, FL (United States)
2014-12-29
In this Advanced Turbine Program-funded Phase III project, Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) has developed and tested, at a pre-commercial prototypescale, spar-shell turbine airfoils in a commercial gas turbine. The airfoil development is based upon FTT’s research and development to date in Phases I and II of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants. During this program, FTT has partnered with an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Siemens Energy, to produce sparshell turbine components for the first pre-commercial prototype test in an F-Class industrial gas turbine engine and has successfully completed validation testing. This project will further the commercialization of this new technology in F-frame and other highly cooled turbine airfoil applications. FTT, in cooperation with Siemens, intends to offer the spar-shell vane as a first-tier supplier for retrofit applications and new large frame industrial gas turbines. The market for the spar-shell vane for these machines is huge. According to Forecast International, 3,211 new gas turbines units (in the >50MW capacity size range) will be ordered in ten years from 2007 to 2016. FTT intends to enter the market in a low rate initial production. After one year of successful extended use, FTT will quickly ramp up production and sales, with a target to capture 1% of the market within the first year and 10% within 5 years (2020).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Hua; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Haoran
2013-01-01
Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory is a widely used technique for prediction of wind turbine aerodynamics performance, but the reliability of airfoil data is an important factor to improve the prediction accuracy of aerodynamic loads and power using a BEM code. The airfoil characteristics used...
System for damping vibrations in a turbine
Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis
2015-11-24
A system for damping vibrations in a turbine includes a first rotating blade having a first ceramic airfoil, a first ceramic platform connected to the first ceramic airfoil, and a first root connected to the first ceramic platform. A second rotating blade adjacent to the first rotating blade includes a second ceramic airfoil, a second ceramic platform connected to the second ceramic airfoil, and a second root connected to the second ceramic platform. A non-metallic platform damper has a first position in simultaneous contact with the first and second ceramic platforms.
An Experimental Comparison Between Flexible and Rigid Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers
Uzodinma, Jaylon; Macphee, David
2017-11-01
This study uses experimental and computational research methods to compare the aerodynamic performance of rigid and flexible airfoils at a low Reynolds number throughout varying angles of attack. This research can be used to improve the design of small wind turbines, micro-aerial vehicles, and any other devices that operate at low Reynolds numbers. Experimental testing was conducted in the University of Alabama's low-speed wind tunnel, and computational testing was conducted using the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM. For experimental testing, polyurethane-based (rigid) airfoils and silicone-based (flexible) airfoils were constructed using acrylic molds for NACA 0012 and NACA 2412 airfoil profiles. Computer models of the previously-specified airfoils were also created for a computational analysis. Both experimental and computational data were analyzed to examine the critical angles of attack, the lift and drag coefficients, and the occurrence of laminar boundary separation for each airfoil. Moreover, the computational simulations were used to examine the resulting flow fields, in order to provide possible explanations for the aerodynamic performances of each airfoil type. EEC 1659710.
Aerodynamic Optimization of Airfoil Profiles for Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Cemal Benim
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the development of an automated two-dimensional airfoil shape optimization procedure for small horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT, with an emphasis on high thrust and aerodynamically stable performance. The procedure combines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis with the Response Surface Methodology (RSM, the Biobjective Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (BiMADS optimization algorithm and an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool. In CFD analysis, a Reynolds Averaged Numerical Simulation (RANS is applied in combination with a two-equation turbulence model. For describing the system behaviour under alternating wind conditions, a number of CFD 2D-RANS-Simulations with varying Reynolds numbers and wind angles are performed. The number of cases is reduced by the use of RSM. In the analysis, an emphasis is placed upon the role of the blade-to-blade interaction. The average and the standard deviation of the thrust are optimized by a derivative-free optimization algorithm to define a Pareto optimal set, using the BiMADS algorithm. The results show that improvements in the performance can be achieved by modifications of the blade shape and the present procedure can be used as an effective tool for blade shape optimization.
Separated Flow over Wind Turbines
Brown, David; Lewalle, Jacques
2015-11-01
The motion of the separation point on an airfoil under unsteady flow can affect its performance and longevity. Of interest is to understand and control the performance decrease in wind turbines subject to turbulent flow. We examine flow separation on an airfoil at a 19 degree angle of attack under unsteady flow conditions. We are using a DU-96-W180 airfoil of chord length 242 mm. The unsteadiness is generated by a cylinder with diameter 203 mm located 7 diameters upstream of the airfoil's leading edge. The data comes from twenty surface pressure sensors located on the top and bottom of the airfoil as well as on the upstream cylinder. Methods of analysis include Mexican hat transforms, Morlet wavelet transforms, power spectra, and various cross correlations. With this study I will explore how the differences of signals on the pressure and suction sides of an airfoil are related to the motion of the separation point.
Self-induced vibrations of a DU96-W-180 airfoil in stall
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Sørensen, Niels N.
2014-01-01
This work presents an analysis of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) non-moving, prescribed motion and elastically mounted airfoil computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations. The elastically mounted airfoil computations were performed by means of a 2D structural model with two...... degrees of freedom. The computations aimed at investigating the mechanisms of both vortex-induced and stall-induced vibrations related to a wind turbine blade at standstill conditions. In this work, a DU96-W-180 airfoil was used in the angle-of-attack region potentially corresponding to stallinduced...... vibrations. The analysis showed significant differences between the aerodynamic stability limits predicted by 2D and 3D CFD computations. A general agreement was reached between the prescribed motion and elastically mounted airfoil computations. 3D computations indicated that vortex-induced vibrations...
A New Method for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT Blade Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammadreza Mohammadi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Iran has a great potential for wind energy. This paper introduces optimization of 7 wind turbine blades for small and medium scales in a determined wind condition of Zabol site, Iran, where the average wind speed is considered 7 m /s. Considered wind turbines are 3 bladed and radius of 7 case study turbine blades are 4.5 m, 6.5 m, 8 m, 9 m, 10 m, 15.5 m and 20 m. As the first step, an initial design is performed using one airfoil (NACA 63-215 across the blade. In the next step, every blade is divided into three sections, while the 20 % of first part of the blade is considered as root, the 5% of last the part is considered as tip and the rest of the blade as mid part. Providing necessary input data, suitable airfoils for wind turbines including 43 airfoils are extracted and their experimental data are entered in optimization process. Three variables in this optimization problem would be airfoil type, attack angle and chord, where the objective function is maximum output torque. A MATLAB code was written for design and optimization of the blade, which was validated with a previous experimental work. In addition, a comparison was made to show the effect of optimization with two variables (airfoil type and attack angle versus optimization with three variables (airfoil type, attack angle and chord on output torque increase. Results of this research shows a dramatic increase in comparison to initial designed blade with one airfoil where two variable optimization causes 7.7% to 22.27 % enhancement and three variable optimization causes 17.91% up to 24.48% rise in output torque .Article History: Received Oct 15, 2015; Received in revised form January 2, 2016; Accepted January 14, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohammadi, M., Mohammadi, A. and Farahat, S. (2016 A New Method for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT Blade Optimization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.1-8
Large eddy simulations of an airfoil in turbulent inflow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels N.
2008-01-01
Wind turbines operate in the turbulent boundary layer of the atmosphere and due to the rotational sampling effect the blades experience a high level of turbulence [1]. In this project the effect of turbulence is investigated by large eddy simulations of the turbulent flow past a NACA 0015 airfoil...
Airfoil data sensitivity analysis for actuator disc simulations used in wind turbine applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Karl; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2014-01-01
To analyse the sensitivity of blade geometry and airfoil characteristics on the prediction of performance characteristics of wind farms, large-eddy simulations using an actuator disc (ACD) method are performed for three different blade/airfoil configurations. The aim of the study is to determine ...
Roughness Sensitivity Comparisons of Wind Turbine Blade Sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilcox, Benjamin J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; White, Edward B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.
2017-10-01
One explanation for wind turbine power degradation is insect roughness. Historical studies on insect-induced power degradation have used simulation methods which are either un- representative of actual insect roughness or too costly or time-consuming to be applied to wide-scale testing. Furthermore, the role of airfoil geometry in determining the relations between insect impingement locations and roughness sensitivity has not been studied. To link the effects of airfoil geometry, insect impingement locations, and roughness sensitivity, a simulation code was written to determine representative insect collection patterns for different airfoil shapes. Insect collection pattern data was then used to simulate roughness on an NREL S814 airfoil that was tested in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 1.6 x 10^{6} and 4.0 x 10^{6}. Results are compared to previous tests of a NACA 63_{3} -418 airfoil. Increasing roughness height and density results in decreased maximum lift, lift curve slope, and lift-to-drag ratio. Increasing roughness height, density, or Reynolds number results in earlier bypass transition, with critical roughness Reynolds numbers lying within the historical range. Increased roughness sensitivity on the 25% thick NREL S814 is observed compared to the 18% thick NACA 63 3 -418. Blade-element-momentum analysis was used to calculate annual energy production losses of 4.9% and 6.8% for a NACA 63_{3} -418 turbine and an NREL S814 turbine, respectively, operating with 200 μm roughness. These compare well to historical field measurements.
A study on double flap of Wells turbine for wave power conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J. H.; Kim, B. S.; Lee, Y. H.; Yoon, S. H.; Lee, Y. W.
2001-01-01
A numerical investigation was performed to determine the effect of airfoil on the optimum flap height using NACA 0021 wells turbine. The five double flaps which have 0.5% chord height difference were selected. A Navier-Stokes code, FLUENT, was used to calculate the flow field of the Wells turbine. The basic feature of the Wells turbine is that even though the cyclic airflow produces oscillating axial forces on the airfoil blades, the tangential force on the rotor is always in the same direction. Geometry used to define the 3-D numerical grid is based upon that of an experimental test rig. This paper tries to analyze the optimum double flap of Wells turbine with the numerical analysis
Modal Parameter Identification of New Design of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2013-01-01
Vertical axis wind turbines have lower power efficiency than the horizontal axis wind turbines. However vertical axis wind turbines are proven to be economical and noise free on smaller scale. A new design of three bladed vertical axis wind turbine by using two airfoils in construction of each...... blade has been proposed to improve power efficiency. The purpose of two airfoils in blade design of vertical axis wind turbine is to create high lift which in turns gives higher power output. In such case the structural parameter identification is important to understand the system behavior due to its...... first kind of design before experimental analysis. Therefore a study is carried out to determine the natural frequency to avoid unstable state of the system due to rotational frequency of rotor. The present paper outlines a conceptual design of vertical axis wind turbine and a modal analysis by using...
Nainiger, J. J.
1978-01-01
An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.
Interaction of an Artificially Thickened Boundary Layer with a Vertically Mounted Pitching Airfoil
Hohman, Tristen; Smits, Alexander; Martinelli, Luigi
2011-11-01
Wind energy represents a large portion of the growing market in alternative energy technologies and the current landscape has been dominated by the more prevalent horizontal axis wind turbine. However, there are several advantages to the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) or Darrieus type design and yet there is much to be understood about how the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) affects their performance. In this study the ABL was simulated in a wind tunnel through the use of elliptical shaped vortex generators, a castellated wall, and floor roughness elements as described in the method of Counihan (1967) and then verified its validity by hot wire measurement of the mean velocity profile as well as the turbulence intensity. The motion of an blade element around a vertical axis is approximated through the use of a pitching airfoil. The wake of the airfoil is investigated through hot wire anemometry in both uniform flow and in the simulated boundary layer both at Re = 1 . 37 ×105 based on the chord of the airfoil. Sponsored by Hopewell Wind Power (Hong Kong) Limited.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Francis A. Di Bella
2010-06-01
The Phase I SBIR effort completed the feasibility design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of a self-actuated blade articulation mechanism that uses a torsion bar and a lightweight airfoil to affect the articulation of the Wells airfoil. The articulation is affected only by the air stream incident on the airfoil. The self-actuating blade eliminates the complex and costly linkage mechanism that is now needed to perform this function on either a variable pitch Wells-type or Dennis-Auld air turbine. Using the results reported by independent researchers, the projected improvement in the Wells-type turbine efficiency is 20-40%, in addition to an increase in the operating air flow range by 50-100%, therefore enabling a smaller or slower single turbine to be used.
Experimental Investigation of a Passively Deforming Airfoil Under Dynamic Flow Conditions
Cordes, Ulrike
2016-01-01
A rigid and a passively deforming airfoil, designed to alleviate fatigue causing load fluctuations that appear during normal operation of wind turbines, is investigated under unsteady conditions in two dimensional wind tunnel experiments. In a first series of experiments, a vertical gust encounter is generated by means of an active grid. This approximates the wind turbine blade’s passage through the atmospheric boundary layer and corresponds to the theoretical formulation of the Sears problem...
Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerhard, T; Carolus, T; Erbslöh, S
2014-01-01
The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length
Prediction of the Effect of Vortex Generators on Airfoil Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian
2014-01-01
Vortex Generators (VGs) are widely used by the wind turbine industry, to control the flow over blade sections. The present work describes a computational fluid dynamic procedure that can handle a geometrical resolved VG on an airfoil section. After describing the method, it is applied to two...... different airfoils at a Reynolds number of 3 million, the FFA- W3-301 and FFA-W3-360, respectively. The computations are compared with wind tunnel measurements from the Stuttgart Laminar Wind Tunnel with respect to lift and drag variation as function of angle of attack. Even though the method does...
Unsteady Double Wake Model for the Simulation of Stalled Airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos García, Néstor; Cayron, Antoine; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2015-01-01
In the present work, the recent developed Unsteady Double Wake Model, USDWM, is used to simulate separated flows past a wind turbine airfoil at high angles of attack. The solver is basically an unsteady two-dimensional panel method which uses the unsteady double wake technique to model flow separ...
OPTIMASI AIRFOIL MENGGUNAKAN PARTICLE SWARM DENGAN PARAMETERISASI CST (CLASS SHAPE TRANSFORMATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Hertnacahyani Herraprastanti
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Airfoil merupakan profil penampang yang diaplikasikan pada sarana transportasi maupun pembangkit energi sebagai penampang sudu turbin. Airfoil yang dirancang diharapkan menghasilkan gaya angkat (lift maksimal namun gaya hambat (drag seminimal mungkin. Tujuan penelitian 1 Validasi aerodinamika metode panel dengan Interaksi Viskos-Tak Viskos; 2 Analisis aerodinamika airfoil untuk menentukan koefisien lift dan drag; 3 Menerapkan metode optimasi Particle Swarm Optimization untuk mendapatkan geometri airfoil dengan rasio koefisien lift dan drag maksimum (CL/CD maks. Tahap pertama menentukan profil airfoil Class Shape Transformation (CST. Airfoil akan dianalisis menggunakan metoda panel selanjutnya diterapkan model aliran singularitas source dan doublet. Solusi yang diperoleh dari metode panel merupakan kondisi aliran yang dianggap tak viskos. Apabila sudut serang cukup tinggi solusi yang diperoleh dengan pendekatan tersebut sudah tidak akurat lagi. Untuk memperbaiki hasil maka diterapkan metode interaksi viskos-tak viskos kuasi simultan. Proses ini diulang sampai konvergensi dan diperoleh koefisien lift, dan drag. Dengan menggunakan optimasi Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO akan didapat profil airfoil dengan koefisien lift dan drag maksimum. Namun apabila prosedur optimasi belum optimal, akan dilakukan update geometri, sampai didapat konvergensi. Kesimpulan penelitian :1 Metode panel dengan interaksi viskos tak viskos memberikan hasil yang cukup baik dan akurat, dengan rata-rata kesalahan dibawah 9.5%; 2 Semakin besar bilangan Reynold maka nilai CL/CD maksimum akan semakin tinggi; 3 Ketebalan (thickness dan camber maksimum cenderung meningkat dengan peningkatan bilangan Reynold; 4 Untuk airfoil CST optimasi dengan PSO memberikan hasil yang lebih baik.
Experimental parameter study for passive vortex generators on a 30% thick airfoil
Baldacchino, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.; De Tavernier, D.A.M.; Timmer, W.A.; van Bussel, G.J.W.
2018-01-01
Passive vane-type vortex generators (VGs) are commonly used on wind turbine blades to mitigate the effects of flow separation. However, significant uncertainty surrounds VG design guidelines. Understanding the influence of VG parameters on airfoil performance requires a systematic approach
Energy and exergy efficiency comparison of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pope, K.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)
2010-09-15
In this paper, an energy and exergy analysis is performed on four different wind power systems, including both horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines. Significant variability in turbine designs and operating parameters are encompassed through the selection of systems. In particular, two airfoils (NACA 63(2)-215 and FX 63-137) commonly used in horizontal axis wind turbines are compared with two vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). A Savonius design and Zephyr VAWT benefit from operational attributes in wind conditions that are unsuitable for airfoil type designs. This paper analyzes each system with respect to both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The aerodynamic performance of each system is numerically analyzed by computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. A difference in first and second law efficiencies of between 50 and 53% is predicted for the airfoil systems, whereas 44-55% differences are predicted for the VAWT systems. Key design variables are analyzed and the predicted results are discussed. The exergetic efficiency of each wind turbine is studied for different geometries, design parameters and operating conditions. It is shown that the second law provides unique insight beyond a first law analysis, thereby providing a useful design tool for wind power development. (author)
Investigation of flow past a translatoric oscillating airfoil using detached eddy simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reck, Mads; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2003-01-01
Wind turbine rotor blades in operation have been observed to undergo stall-induced lead-lag instabilities resulting in dramatic reduction of blade life, due to structural fatigue. Previous attempts to numerically simulate the flow past a translatoric oscillating airfoil have been few and feeble...... at the high angle of attacks often experienced by the individual rotor blade. The present paper covers simulation of a translatoric oscillating NACA 0015 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 555,000, corresponding to avialable experimental data, using the newly adopted Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach...
Numerical study of unsteady viscous flow past oscillating airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin Yan; Yuan Xin [Tsinghua Univ., Dept. of Thermal Engineering, Beijing (China)
2001-07-01
Accurate simulation of the dynamic stall of an oscillating airfoil is of major importance to wing and wind turbine blade design. However, dynamic stall is complicated and influenced by many factors, such as geometry shape of the airfoil, reduced frequency, etc. The difficulties of simulation are both mathematical (numerical method) and physical (turbulence model). The present paper has introduced a new numerical method (new LU-type scheme and fourth-order higher resolution MUSCL TVD scheme) and q-{omega} turbulence modelling to calculate the unsteady flowfields of an oscillating NACA0015 airfoil. The test targets include attached flow, light-stall and deep-stall of the airfoil. The calculated results for attached flow and light-stall are in good agreement with those of experiments. The calculated results for deep-stall also show improvement, especially during the downstroke of the oscillation. However, there is still a significant difference between the results of calculation and experiment in the hysteresis curves of the drag coefficient. One reason is that the q-{omega} turbulence model still has limitations. Another is that the drag coefficient is difficult to measure and the experiments are not reliable. (Author)
Sogukpinar, Haci
2018-02-01
In this paper, some of the NACA 64A series airfoils data are estimated and aerodynamic properties are calculated to facilitate great understandings effect of relative thickness on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil by using COMSOL software. 64A201-64A204 airfoils data are not available in literature therefore 64A210 data are used as reference data to estimate 64A201, 64A202, 64A203, 64A204 airfoil configurations. Numerical calculations are then conducted with the angle of attack from -12° to +16° by using k-w turbulence model based on the finite-volume approach. The lift and drag coefficient are one of the most important parameters in studying the airplane performance. Therefore lift, drag and pressure coefficient around selected airfoil are calculated and compared at the Reynolds numbers of 6 × 106 and also stalling characteristics of airfoil section are investigated and presented numerically.
Gas turbine bucket with impingement cooled platform
Jones, Raphael Durand
2002-01-01
In a turbine bucket having an airfoil portion and a root portion, with a substantially planar platform at an interface between the airfoil portion and root portion, a platform cooling arrangement including at least one bore in the root portion and at least one impingement cooling tube seated in the bore, the tube extending beyond the bore with an outlet in close proximity to a targeted area on an underside of the platform.
Airfoil design: Finding the balance between design lift and structural stiffness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Christian; Gaudern, Nicholas; Zahle, Frederik
2014-01-01
When upscaling wind turbine blades there is an increasing need for high levels of structural efficiency. In this paper the relationships between the aerodynamic characteristics; design lift and lift-drag ratio; and the structural characteristics were investigated. Using a unified optimization setup......, the design lift coefficient increases if the box length reduces and at the same time the relative thickness increases. Even though the conclusions are specific to the airfoil design approach used, the study indicated that an increased design lift required slightly higher relative thickness compared...... to airfoils with lower design lift to maintain the flapwise stiffness. Also, the study indicated that the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was relatively independent of the airfoil design with a tendency that the lift-drag ratio decreased for large box lengths. The above conclusions were...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yilmaz, Özlem Ceyhan; Pires, Oscar; Munduate, Xabier
2017-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of a blind test campaign organized in the AVATAR project to predict the high Reynolds number performance of a wind turbine airfoil for wind turbine applications. The DU00-W-210 airfoil was tested in the DNW-HDG pressurized wind tunnel in order to investigate...... the flow at high Reynolds number range from 3 to 15 million which is the operating condition of the future large 10MW+ offshore wind turbine rotors. The results of the experiment was used in a blind test campaign to test the prediction capability of the CFD tools used in the wind turbine rotor simulations....... As a result of the blind test campaign it was found that although the codes are in general capable of predicting increased max lift and decreased minimum drag with Re number, the Re trend predictions in particular the glide ratio (lift over drag) need further improvement. In addition to that, the significant...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchini, Alessandro; Balduzzi, Francesco; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • New method to calculate the incidence angle from a computed CFD flow field. • Applicable to each airfoil rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction. • Composed by four, easily automatable steps explained in details. • Robustness of the model assessed on two Darrieus turbine study cases. - Abstract: Numerical simulations provided in the last few years a significant contribution for a better understanding of many phenomena connected to the flow past rotating blades. In case of airfoils rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction, one of the most critical issues is represented by the definition of the incidence angle on the airfoil from the computed flow field. Incidence indeed changes continuously as a function of the azimuthal position of the blade and a distribution of peripheral speed is experienced along the airfoil’s thickness due to radius variation. The possibility of reducing the flow to lumped parameters (relative speed modulus and direction), however, would be of capital relevance to transpose accurate CFD numerical results into effective inputs to low-order models that are often exploited for preliminary design analyses. If several techniques are available for this scope in the case of blades rotating around an axis parallel to flow direction (e.g., horizontal-axis wind turbines), the definition of a robust procedure in case the revolution axis is orthogonal to the flow is still missing. In the study, a novel technique has been developed using data from Darrieus-like rotating airfoils. The method makes use of the virtual camber theory to define a virtual airfoil whose pressure coefficient distributions in straight flow are used to match those of the real airfoil in curved flow. Even if developed originally for vertical-axis wind turbines, the method is of general validity and is thought to represent in the near future a valuable tool for researchers to get a new insight on many complex phenomena connected to flow
Wind or water turbine power augmentation using the system of guiding surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bashurin, V P; Ktitorov, L V; Lazareva, A S; Pletenev, F A; Budnikov, I N; Hatunkin, V Yu; Klevtsov, V A; Meshkov, E E; Novikova, I A; Yanbaev, G M
2016-01-01
As fluid flows through a conventional wind or hydro turbine, it slows from losing energy to extraction from a turbine and spreads out to a wider area. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power more effectively, it was suggested to place the turbine inside a system of specially designed airfoils (‘a flow booster’). One part of the booster (‘a nozzle’) improves the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades. The other part of the accelerating system (‘a diffuser’) creates a field of low pressure behind the turbine which helps to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration. The flow booster accumulates the kinetic energy of the flow (e.g. river flow or wind) in a small volume where the smaller turbine can be installed. Another possible application of the booster could be the improvement of wind turbine efficiency during low wind period. The present paper also discusses the possibility of kinetic energy accumulation by the use of several accelerating systems of different sizes—the smaller one can be installed inside the bigger one. It helps to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine blades. We call this method the kinetic energy cumulation. Lab and field experiments and CFD simulations of shrouded turbine demonstrate significant increase in velocity in comparison of those for conventional (bare) turbines. (paper)
Airfoil design: Finding the balance between design lift and structural stiffness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, Christian; Gaudern, Nicholas; Zahle, Frederik; Vronsky, Tomas
2014-01-01
When upscaling wind turbine blades there is an increasing need for high levels of structural efficiency. In this paper the relationships between the aerodynamic characteristics; design lift and lift-drag ratio; and the structural characteristics were investigated. Using a unified optimization setup, airfoils were designed with relative thicknesses between 18% and 36%, a structural box height of 85% of the relative thickness, and varying box widths in chordwise direction between 20% and 40% of the chord length. The results from these airfoil designs showed that for a given flapwise stiffness, the design lift coefficient increases if the box length reduces and at the same time the relative thickness increases. Even though the conclusions are specific to the airfoil design approach used, the study indicated that an increased design lift required slightly higher relative thickness compared to airfoils with lower design lift to maintain the flapwise stiffness. Also, the study indicated that the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was relatively independent of the airfoil design with a tendency that the lift-drag ratio decreased for large box lengths. The above conclusions were supported by an analysis of the three airfoil families Riso-C2, DU and FFA, where the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was decreasing, but relatively independent of the airfoil design, and the design lift coefficient was varying depending on the design philosophy. To make the analysis complete also design lift and lift- drag ratio as a function of edgewise and torsional stiffness were shown
Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2011-01-01
The present work considers incompressible flow over a 2D airfoil with a deformable trailing edge. The aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with a trailing edge flap is numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics. A novel hybrid immersed boundary (IB) technique is applied...... to simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...... results show that the hybrid approach is an efficient and accurate method for solving turbulent flows past airfoils with a trailing edge flap and flow control using trailing edge flap is an efficient way to regulate the aerodynamic loading on airfoils....
Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.
1982-01-01
A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.
Numerical Simulations of Vortex Shedding in Hydraulic Turbines
Dorney, Daniel; Marcu, Bogdan
2004-01-01
Turbomachines for rocket propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. Oxidizer boost turbines often operate in liquid oxygen, resulting in an incompressible flow field. Vortex shedding from airfoils in this flow environment can have adverse effects on both turbine performance and durability. In this study the effects of vortex shedding in a low-pressure oxidizer turbine are investigated. Benchmark results are also presented for vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder. The predicted results are compared with available experimental data.
Free-stream turbulence effects on the flow around an S809 wind turbine airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres-Nieves, Sheilla; Maldonado, Victor; Lebron, Jose [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Kang, Hyung-Suk [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Meneveau, Charles [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Castillo, Luciano [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)
2012-07-01
Two-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D PIV) measurements were performed to study the effect of free-stream turbulence on the flow around a smooth and rough surface airfoil, specifically under stall conditions. A 0.25-m chord model with an S809 profile, common for horizontal-axis wind turbine applications, was tested at a wind tunnel speed of 10 m/s, resulting in Reynolds numbers based on the chord of Re{sub c} {approx} 182,000 and turbulence intensity levels of up to 6.14%. Results indicate that when the flow is fully attached, turbulence significantly decreases aerodynamic efficiency (from L/D {approx} 4.894 to L/D {approx} 0.908). On the contrary, when the flow is mostly stalled, the effect is reversed and aerodynamic performance is slightly improved (from L/D {approx} 1.696 to L/D {approx} 1.787). Analysis of the mean flow over the suction surface shows that, contrary to what is expected, free-stream turbulence is actually advancing separation, particularly when the turbulent scales in the free-stream are of the same order as the chord. This is a result of the complex dynamics between the boundary layer scales and the free-stream turbulence length scales when relatively high levels of active-grid generated turbulence are present. (orig.)
Numerical study of the static and pitching RISØ-B1-18 airfoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck
2004-01-01
The objective of this report is the better understanding of the physics of the aeroelastic motion of wind turbine blades in order to improve the numerical models used for their design. In this study, the case of the RISØ-B1-18 airfoil which was equippedand measured in an open jet wind tunnel...... that are available both for the static airfoil and in the case of pitching motions. It is shown that the Navier-Stokes simulations can reproduced the maincharacteristic features of the flow. The DES model seems also to be able to reproduce some details of the unsteady aerodynamics. The Navier-Stokes computations can...
Frey, G.A.; Twardochleb, C.Z.
1998-01-13
Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally ``C`` configuration of the airfoil. The generally ``C`` configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion. 6 figs.
Review paper on wind turbine aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
2011-01-01
The paper describes the development and description of the aerodynamic models used to estimate the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine constructions. This includes a status of the capabilities of computation fluid dynamics and the need for reliable airfoil data for the simpler engineering models...
Optimization of wind turbine rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nygaard, Tor Anders
1999-07-01
The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest
Influences of some parameters on the performance of a small vertical axis wind turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumitrache Alexandru
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of various parameters on the performance of a straight bladed vertical axis wind turbine, using the vortex model, have been numerically investigated. A vortex model has been used to evaluate the performance of a vertical axis wind turbine, by means of aerodynamic characteristics of different airfoils for Reynolds numbers between 105 and 106. Parameters such as the thickness and the camber of the blade airfoil, the solidity, the type of blade profile, the number of blades and the pitch angle, which influence the power coefficient, CP, and the start-up regime. This study can be used in the designing an optimal vertical axis wind turbine in a specific location, when the prevailed wind regime is known.
Wind Tunnel and Numerical Analysis of Thick Blunt Trailing Edge Airfoils
McLennan, Anthony William
Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of several thick blunt trailing edge airfoils are presented. These airfoils are not only directly applicable to the root section of wind turbine blades, where they provide the required structural strength at a fraction of the material and weight of an equivalent sharp trailing edge airfoil, but are also applicable to the root sections of UAVs having high aspect ratios, that also encounter heavy root bending forces. The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code, ARC2D, was the primary numerical tool used to analyze each airfoil. The UCD-38-095, referred to as the Pareto B airfoil in this thesis, was also tested in the University of California, Davis Aeronautical Wind Tunnel. The Pareto B has an experimentally determined maximum lift coefficient of 1.64 at 14 degrees incidence, minimum drag coefficient of 0.0385, and maximum lift over drag ratio of 35.9 at a lift coefficient of 1.38, 10 degrees incidence at a Reynolds number of 666,000. Zig-zag tape at 2% and 5% of the chord was placed on the leading edge pressure and suction side of the Pareto B model in order to determine the aerodynamic performance characteristics at turbulent flow conditions. Experimental Pareto B wind tunnel data and previous FB-3500-0875 data is also presented and used to validate the ARC2D results obtained in this study. Additionally MBFLO, a detached eddy simulation Navier-Stokes code, was used to analyze the Pareto B airfoil for comparison and validation purposes.
Wind tunnel test on airfoil Riso-B1-18 with an Active Trailing Edge Flap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac; Andersen, Peter Bjørn
2010-01-01
A wind tunnel test of the wind turbine airfoil Risø-B1-18 equipped with an Active Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF) was carried out. The ATEF was 9% of the total chord, made of piezo electric actuators attached to the trailing edge of a non-deformable airfoil and actuated using an (electric) amplifier....... The airfoil was tested at Re = 1.66 × 106. Steady state and dynamic tests were carried out with prescribed deflections of the ATEF. The steady state tests showed that deflecting the ATEF towards the pressure side (positive ) translated the lift curve to higher lift values and deflecting the ATEF towards...... the suction side (negative ) translated the lift curve to lower lift values. Testing the airfoil for a step change of the ATEF from = -3.0 to +1.8 showed that the obtainable cl was 0.10 to 0.13 in the linear part of the lift curve. Modeling the step response with an indicial function formulation showed...
Turbine design and application volumes 1, 2, and 3
Glassman, Arthur J. (Editor)
1994-01-01
NASA has an interest in turbines related primarily to aeronautics and space applications. Airbreathing turbine engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion, as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. Propellant-driven turbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for spacecraft. Closed-cycle turbine engines using inert gases, organic fluids, and metal fluids have been studied for providing long-duration electric power for spacecraft. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include land-vehicle (cars, trucks, buses, trains, etc.) propulsion power and ground-based electrical power. In view of the turbine-system interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center, a course entitled 'Turbine Design and Application' was presented during 1968-69 as part of the In-house Graduate Study Program. The course was somewhat revised and again presented in 1972-73. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, fundamental turbine concepts, velocity diagrams, losses, blade aerodynamic design, blade cooling, mechanical design, operation, and performance. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Such a publication can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course, a means for self-study, or a reference for selected topics. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. Two commonly used consistent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. These are the SI units and the U.S. customary units. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U.S. customary units and defining as unity those not required for the SI units. Three volumes are compiled into one.
Comprehensive performance comparison of airfoil fin PCHEs with NACA 00XX series airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Fei, E-mail: chenfei@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Heating Technology Research and Development Center, Beijing District Heating Group, Beijing 100028 (China); Zhang, Lishen, E-mail: lishenzhang@sina.com [Heating Technology Research and Development Center, Beijing District Heating Group, Beijing 100028 (China); Huai, Xiulan, E-mail: hxl@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Jufeng, E-mail: lijufeng.net@163.com [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100082 (China); Zhang, Hang, E-mail: zhanghang@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhigang, E-mail: zgliu9322@163.com [Energy Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250014 (China)
2017-04-15
Highlights: • Pressure drop of NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE reduces strikingly in comparison with the zigzag PCHE. • Pressure drop of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE decreases as airfoil thickness increases. • Heat transfer performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness rises. • Comprehensive performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE degrades as airfoil thickness increases. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) can be used in supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle. The present study compares NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE with conventional zigzag PCHE by numerical analysis. Pressure drop of the former has a striking reduction while maintaining excellent heat transfer performance. Comparison on four NACA 00XX series airfoil fin PCHEs is performed to investigate the influence of airfoil profile on flow and heat transfer performance. With a fixed vertical pitch, heat transfer performance of NACA series airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness increases. However, comprehensive performance, in which both flow and heat transfer are taken into account, degrades with increasing airfoil thickness. Among four NACA airfoil fin PCHEs presented in this paper, NACA 0010 airfoil fin PCHE demonstrates the best comprehensive performance.
Comprehensive performance comparison of airfoil fin PCHEs with NACA 00XX series airfoil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Fei; Zhang, Lishen; Huai, Xiulan; Li, Jufeng; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Zhigang
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Pressure drop of NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE reduces strikingly in comparison with the zigzag PCHE. • Pressure drop of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE decreases as airfoil thickness increases. • Heat transfer performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness rises. • Comprehensive performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE degrades as airfoil thickness increases. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) can be used in supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO_2) Brayton cycle. The present study compares NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE with conventional zigzag PCHE by numerical analysis. Pressure drop of the former has a striking reduction while maintaining excellent heat transfer performance. Comparison on four NACA 00XX series airfoil fin PCHEs is performed to investigate the influence of airfoil profile on flow and heat transfer performance. With a fixed vertical pitch, heat transfer performance of NACA series airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness increases. However, comprehensive performance, in which both flow and heat transfer are taken into account, degrades with increasing airfoil thickness. Among four NACA airfoil fin PCHEs presented in this paper, NACA 0010 airfoil fin PCHE demonstrates the best comprehensive performance.
Effects of Hot Streak Shape on Rotor Heating in a High-Subsonic Single-Stage Turbine
Dorney, Daniel J.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen L.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
Experimental data have shown that combustor temperature non-uniformities can lead to the excessive heating of first-stage rotor blades in turbines. This heating of the rotor blades can lead to thermal fatigue and degrade turbine performance. The results of recent studies have shown that variations in the circumferential location (clocking) of the hot streak relative to the first-stage vane airfoils can be used to minimize the adverse effects of the hot streak. The effects of the hot streak/airfoil count ratio on the heating patterns of turbine airfoils have also been evaluated. In the present investigation, three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations have been performed for a single-stage high-pressure turbine operating in high subsonic flow. In addition to a simulation of the baseline turbine, simulations have been performed for circular and elliptical hot streaks of varying sizes in an effort to represent different combustor designs. The predicted results for the baseline simulation show good agreement with the available experimental data. The results of the hot streak simulations indicate: that a) elliptical hot streaks mix more rapidly than circular hot streaks, b) for small hot streak surface area the average rotor temperature is not a strong function of hot streak temperature ratio or shape, and c) hot streaks with larger surface area interact with the secondary flows at the rotor hub endwall, generating an additional high temperature region.
Static and dynamic modelling of gas turbines in advanced cycles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gustafsson, Jan-Olof
1998-12-01
Gas turbines have been in operation for at least 50 years. The engine is used for propulsion of aircraft and high speed ships. It is used for power production in remote locations and for peak load and emergency situations. Gas turbines have been used in combined cycles for 20 to 30 years. Highly efficient power plants based on gas turbines are a competitive option for the power industry today. The thermal efficiency of the simple cycle gas turbine has increased due to higher turbine inlet temperatures and improved compressor and expander designs. Equally important are the improved cycles in which the gas turbine operates. One example is the combined cycle that uses steam for turbine cooling. Steam is extracted from the bottoming cycle, then used as airfoil coolant in a closed loop and returned to the bottoming cycle. The Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), also known as the Humid Air Turbine (HAT), is another advanced cycle. A mixture of air and water vapour is used as working media. Air from the compressor outlet is humidified and then preheated in a recuperator prior to combustion. The static and dynamic performance is changed when the gas turbine is introduced in an evaporative cycle. The cycle is gaining in popularity, but so far it has not been demonstrated. A Swedish joint program to develop the cycle has been in operation since 1993. As part of the program, a small pilot plant is being erected at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH). The plant is based on a 600 kW gas turbine, and demonstration of the EvGT cycle started autumn 1998 and will continue, in the present phase, for one year. This thesis presents static and dynamic models for traditional gas turbine components, such as, the compressor, combustor, expander and recuperator. A static model for the humidifier is presented, based on common knowledge for atmospheric humidification. All models were developed for the pilot plant at LTH with the objective to support evaluation of the process and individual
Detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oerlemans, S.
2009-01-01
This thesis deals with the detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines using phased microphone arrays. First, the reliability of the array technique is assessed using airframe noise measurements in open and closed wind tunnels. It is demonstrated that quantitative acoustic measurements are possible in both wind tunnels. Then, the array technique is applied to characterize the noise sources on two modern large wind turbines. It is shown that practically all noise emitted to the ground is produced by the outer part of the blades during their downward movement. This asymmetric source pattern, which causes the typical swishing noise during the passage of the blades, can be explained by trailing edge noise directivity and convective amplification. Next, a semi-empirical prediction method is developed for the noise from large wind turbines. The prediction code is successfully validated against the experimental results, not only with regard to sound levels, spectra, and directivity, but also with regard to the noise source distribution in the rotor plane and the temporal variation in sound level (swish). The validated prediction method is then applied to calculate wind turbine noise footprints, which show that large swish amplitudes can occur even at large distance. The influence of airfoil shape on blade noise is investigated through acoustic wind tunnel tests on a series of wind turbine airfoils. Measurements are carried out at various wind speeds and angles of attack, with and without upstream turbulence and boundary layer tripping. The speed dependence, directivity, and tonal behaviour are determined for both trailing edge noise and inflow turbulence noise. Finally, two noise reduction concepts are tested on a large wind turbine: acoustically optimized airfoils and trailing edge serrations. Both blade modifications yield a significant trailing edge noise reduction at low frequencies, but also cause increased tip noise at high frequencies
Experimental benchmark and code validation for airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldacchino, D; Ferreira, C; Florentie, L; Timmer, N; Van Zuijlen, A; Manolesos, M; Chaviaropoulos, T; Diakakis, K; Papadakis, G; Voutsinas, S; González Salcedo, Á; Aparicio, M; García, N R.; Sørensen, N N.; Troldborg, N
2016-01-01
Experimental results and complimentary computations for airfoils with vortex generators are compared in this paper, as part of an effort within the AVATAR project to develop tools for wind turbine blade control devices. Measurements from two airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators, a 30% thick DU97W300 and an 18% thick NTUA T18 have been used for benchmarking several simulation tools. These tools span low-to-high complexity, ranging from engineering-level integral boundary layer tools to fully-resolved computational fluid dynamics codes. Results indicate that with appropriate calibration, engineering-type tools can capture the effects of vortex generators and outperform more complex tools. Fully resolved CFD comes at a much higher computational cost and does not necessarily capture the increased lift due to the VGs. However, in lieu of the limited experimental data available for calibration, high fidelity tools are still required for assessing the effect of vortex generators on airfoil performance. (paper)
Prediction of the Effect of Vortex Generators on Airfoil Performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sørensen, Niels N; Zahle, F; Bak, C; Vronsky, T
2014-01-01
Vortex Generators (VGs) are widely used by the wind turbine industry, to control the flow over blade sections. The present work describes a computational fluid dynamic procedure that can handle a geometrical resolved VG on an airfoil section. After describing the method, it is applied to two different airfoils at a Reynolds number of 3 million, the FFA- W3-301 and FFA-W3-360, respectively. The computations are compared with wind tunnel measurements from the Stuttgart Laminar Wind Tunnel with respect to lift and drag variation as function of angle of attack. Even though the method does not exactly capture the measured performance, it can be used to compare different VG setups qualitatively with respect to chord- wise position, inter and intra-spacing and inclination of the VGs already in the design phase
Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades...... as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades......, and characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils. Part two discusses the fatigue behavior of composite wind turbine blades, including the micromechanical modelling and fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials, and the effects of resin and reinforcement variations on the fatigue resistance...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Troldborg, Niels
2005-01-01
A comprehensive computational study, in both steady and unsteady flow conditions, has been carried out to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the Risø-B1.18 airfoil equipped with variable trailing edge geometry as produced by a hinged flap. The function of such flaps should...... on the baseline airfoil showed excellent agreement with measurements on the same airfoil with the same specified conditions. Furthermore, a more widespread comparison with an advanced potential theory code is presented. The influence of various key parameters, such as flap shape, flap size and oscillating...... frequencies, was investigated so that an optimum design can be suggested for application with wind turbine blades. It is concluded that a moderately curved flap with flap chord to airfoil curve ratio between 0.05 and 0.10 would be an optimum choice....
Design of a 4 1/2 stage turbine with a stage loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output
Webster, P. F.
1976-01-01
The aerodynamic design of a highly loaded multistage fan drive turbine is discussed. Turbine flowpath and airfoil sections are presented along with respective pressure and velocity distributions. Vibrational modes are identified in the expected turbine operating range.
Fluidic load control for wind turbines blades
Boeije, C.S.; Vries, de H.; Cleine, I.; Emden, van E.; Zwart, G.G.M.; Stobbe, H.; Hirschberg, A.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.; Maureen Hand, xx
2009-01-01
This paper describes the initial steps into the investigation of the possibility of reducing fatigue loads on wind turbine blades by the application of fluidic jets. This investigation involves static pressure measurements as well as numerical simulations for a non-rotating NACA-0018 airfoil. The
Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nix, Andrew Carl [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)
2015-03-23
The focus of this program was to experimentally investigate advanced gas turbine cooling schemes and the effects of and factors that contribute to surface deposition from particulate matter found in coal syngas exhaust flows on turbine airfoil heat transfer and film cooling, as well as to characterize surface roughness and determine the effects of surface deposition on turbine components. The program was a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary collaborative effort between aero-thermal and materials faculty researchers and the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The primary technical objectives of the program were to evaluate the effects of combustion of syngas fuels on heat transfer to turbine vanes and blades in land-based power generation gas turbine engines. The primary questions to be answered by this investigation were; What are the factors that contribute to particulate deposition on film cooled gas turbine components? An experimental program was performed in a high-temperature and pressure combustion rig at the DOE NETL; What is the effect of coal syngas combustion and surface deposition on turbine airfoil film cooling? Deposition of particulate matter from the combustion gases can block film cooling holes, decreasing the flow of the film coolant and the film cooling effectiveness; How does surface deposition from coal syngas combustion affect turbine surface roughness? Increased surface roughness can increase aerodynamic losses and result in decreased turbine hot section efficiency, increasing engine fuel consumption to maintain desired power output. Convective heat transfer is also greatly affected by the surface roughness of the airfoil surface; Is there any significant effect of surface deposition or erosion on integrity of turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings (TBC) and do surface deposits react with the TBC in any way to decrease its thermal insulating capability? Spallation and erosion of TBC is a persistent problem in
Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.
Dynamic Stall Control on the Wind Turbine Airfoil via a Co-Flow Jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He-Yong Xu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Dynamic stall control of a S809 airfoil is numerically investigated by implementing a co-flow jet (CFJ. The numerical methods of the solver are validated by comparing results with the baseline experiment as well as a NACA 6415-based CFJ experiment, showing good agreement in both static and dynamic characteristics. The CFJ airfoil with inactive jet is simulated to study the impact that the jet channel imposes upon the dynamic characteristics. It is shown that the presence of a long jet channel could cause a negative effect of decreasing lift and increasing drag, leading to fluctuating extreme loads in terms of drag and moment. The main focus of the present research is the investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the CFJ airfoil with three different jet momentum coefficients, which are compared with the baseline, giving encouraging results. Dynamic stall can be greatly suppressed, showing a very good control performance of significantly increased lift and reduced drag and moment. Analysis of the amplitude of variation in the aerodynamic coefficients indicates that the fluctuating extreme aerodynamic loads are significantly alleviated, which is conducive to structural reliability and improved life cycle. The energy consumption analysis shows that the CFJ concept is applicable and economical in controlling dynamic stall.
Numerical study on small scale vertical axis wind turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parra-Santos Teresa
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT is numerically analyzed. The set-up is Hdarrieus with three straight blades airfoils NACA attached to a rotating vertical shaft. The wind turbine has solidity equals to the unity operating with wind velocity of 7 m/s. Influence of pitch angle is tested to get design tendencies. 2D, transient, Navier Stokes equations are solved using the code Ansys-Fluent. Conservation equations were solved with a Third-Order MUSCL scheme using SIMPLE to couple pressure and velocity. More than six revolutions must be simulated to get the periodic behavior. Two models of turbulence have been contrasted Realizable k-epsilon and Transition SST concluding the last one show more realistic flow features. Pitch angles of 0º, -6º and -10º have been tested with Tip Speed Ratios ranging from 0.7 and 1.6. The no null pitch angles improve the performance of the wind turbine. Instantaneous and averaged power coefficients as well as detailed flow field around the airfoils are showed.
Research of performance prediction to energy on hydraulic turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quan, H; Li, R N; Li, Q F; Han, W; Su, Q M
2012-01-01
Refer to the low specific speed Francis turbine blade design principle and double-suction pump structure. Then, design a horizontal double-channel hydraulic turbine Francis. Through adding different guide vane airfoil and and no guide vane airfoil on the hydraulic conductivity components to predict hydraulic turbine energy and using Fluent software to numerical simulation that the operating conditions and point. The results show that the blade pressure surface and suction surface pressure is low when the hydraulic turbine installation is added standard positive curvature of the guide vane and modified positive curvature of guide vane. Therefore, the efficiency of energy recovery is low. However, the pressure of negative curvature guide vane and symmetric guide vane added on hydraulic turbine installations is larger than that of the former ones, and it is conducive to working of runner. With the decreasing of guide vane opening, increasing of inlet angle, flow state gets significantly worse. Then, others obvious phenomena are that the reflux and horizontal flow appeared in blade pressure surface. At the same time, the vortex was formed in Leaf Road, leading to the loss of energy. Through analyzing the distribution of pressure, velocity, flow lines of over-current flow in the the back hydraulic conductivity components in above programs we can known that the hydraulic turbine installation added guide vane is more reasonable than without guide vanes, it is conducive to improve efficiency of energy conversion.
Aerodynamic Performance of a NREL S809 Airfoil in an Air-Sand Particle Two-Phase Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitra C. Douvi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper opens up a new perspective on the aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine airfoil. More specifically, the paper deals with a steady, incompressible two-phase flow, consisting of air and two different concentrations of sand particles, over an airfoil from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL S809. The numerical simulations were performed on turbulence models for aerodynamic operations using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD code. The computational results obtained for the aerodynamic performance of an S809 airfoil at various angles of attack operating at Reynolds numbers of Re = 1 × 106 and Re = 2 × 106 in a dry, dusty environment were compared with existing experimental data on air flow over an S809 airfoil from reliable sources. Notably, a structured mesh consisting of 80,000 cells had already been identified as the most appropriate for numerical simulations. Finally, it was concluded that sand concentration significantly affected the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil; there was an increase in the values of the predicted drag coefficients, as well as a decrease in the values of the predicted lift coefficients caused by increasing concentrations of sand particles. The region around the airfoil was studied by using contours of static pressure and discrete phase model (DPM concentration.
A strong viscous–inviscid interaction model for rotating airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-three dimensional (3D), steady and unsteady, viscous–inviscid interactive codes capable of predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbine airfoils are presented. The model is based on a viscous–inviscid interaction technique using strong coupling between...... a boundary-layer trip or computed using an en envelope transition method. Validation of the incompressible 2D version of the code is carried out against measurements and other numerical codes for different airfoil geometries at various Reynolds numbers, ranging from 0.9 ⋅ 106 to 8.2 ⋅ 106. In the quasi-3D...... version, a parametric study on rotational effects induced by the Coriolis and centrifugal forces in the boundary-layer equations shows that the effects of rotation are to decrease the growth of the boundary-layer and delay the onset of separation, hence increasing the lift coefficient slightly while...
Investigation of Airfoil Aeroacoustics with Blowing Control Mechanism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baha ZAFER
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this investigation, it is dealt with computational aero-acoustic analysis of an airfoil with jet blowing. The airfoil shape is selected as NACA0015 profile with jet blowing on upper surface. The calculations of analysis are done by using commercial finite volume solver. The k-ε turbulence model is used for the turbulence modeling and the Ffowcs Williams and Hawking acoustic analogy model is run for determination of acoustic data. The numerical results are compared with experimental data for computed Sound Pressure Level without jet blowing and well agreement is observed. In the case of jet blowing, the effects of different jet angle, velocity ratio and angle of attack on airfoil are investigated and noise levels of non jet cases and jet blowing cases are studied.
Inverse airfoil design method for low-speed straight-bladed Darrieus-type VAWT applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saeed, F. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Paraschivoiu, I.; Trifu, O. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Hess, M.; Gabrys, C. [Mariah Power Inc., Reno, NV (United States)
2008-07-01
Inverse airfoil design of a low-speed straight-bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) can help improve aerodynamic performance and power output by eliminating undesirable flow field characteristics at very low Reynolds number. This study used an interactive inverse airfoil design method (PROFOIL) that allows specification of velocity and boundary-layer characteristics over different segments of the airfoil subject to constraints on the geometry (closure) and the flow field (far field boundary). Additional constraints were also considered to address pitching moment coefficient, thickness and the power output for a given tip-speed ratio. Performance analyses of the airfoil and the VAWT were carried out using state-of-the-art analyses codes XFOIL and CARDAAV, respectively. XFOIL is a panel method with a coupled boundary-layer scheme and is used to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of resulting airfoil shapes. The final airfoil geometry is obtained through a multi-dimensional Newton iteration. The study showed that the strength of the method lies in the inverse design methodology whereas its weaknesses is in reliably predicting aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at low Reynolds numbers and high angles of attack. A 10-15 per cent increase in the relative performance of the VAWT was achieved with this method. Although the results of the study showed that the method has great application potential for VAWTs in general, there is much room for improvement in flow analysis capabilities for low Re flows in reliably predicting post-stall aerodynamic characteristics. In the absence of such analysis capabilities, the authors suggested that the results should be viewed qualitatively and not quantitatively. 36 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.
Unsteady load on an oscillating Kaplan turbine runner
Puolakka, O.; Keto-Tokoi, J.; Matusiak, J.
2013-02-01
A Kaplan turbine runner oscillating in turbine waterways is subjected to a varying hydrodynamic load. Numerical simulation of the related unsteady flow is time-consuming and research is very limited. In this study, a simplified method based on unsteady airfoil theory is presented for evaluation of the unsteady load for vibration analyses of the turbine shaft line. The runner is assumed to oscillate as a rigid body in spin and axial heave, and the reaction force is resolved into added masses and dampings. The method is applied on three Kaplan runners at nominal operating conditions. Estimates for added masses and dampings are considered to be of a magnitude significant for shaft line vibration. Moderate variation in the added masses and minor variation in the added dampings is found in the frequency range of interest. Reference results for added masses are derived by solving the boundary value problem for small motions of inviscid fluid using the finite element method. Good correspondence is found in the added mass estimates of the two methods. The unsteady airfoil method is considered accurate enough for design purposes. Experimental results are needed for validation of unsteady load analyses.
Effect of Geometric Uncertainties on the Aerodynamic Characteristic of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ernst, Benedikt; Schmitt, Henning; Seume, Jörg R
2014-01-01
Offshore wind turbines operate in a complex unsteady flow environment which causes unsteady aerodynamic loads. The unsteady flow environment is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. In addition, geometry variations and material imperfections also cause uncertainties in the design process. Probabilistic design methods consider these uncertainties in order to reach acceptable reliability and safety levels for offshore wind turbines. Variations of the rotor blade geometry influence the aerodynamic loads which also affect the reliability of other wind turbine components. Therefore, the present paper is dealing with geometric uncertainties of the rotor blades. These can arise from manufacturing tolerances and operational wear of the blades. First, the effect of geometry variations of wind turbine airfoils on the lift and drag coefficients are investigated using a Latin hypercube sampling. Then, the resulting effects on the performance and the blade loads of an offshore wind turbine are analyzed. The variations of the airfoil geometry lead to a significant scatter of the lift and drag coefficients which also affects the damage-equivalent flapwise bending moments. In contrast to that, the effects on the power and the annual energy production are almost negligible with regard to the assumptions made
Dynamic stall - The case of the vertical axis wind turbine
Laneville, A.; Vittecoq, P.
1986-05-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on a driven Darrieus turbine rotating at different tip speed ratios. For a Reynolds number of 3.8 x 10 to the 4th, the results indicate the presence of dynamic stall at tip speed ratio less than 4, and that helicopter blade aerodynamics can be used in order to explain some aspects of the phenomenon. It was observed that in deep stall conditions, a vortex is formed at the leading edge; this vortex moves over the airfoil surface with 1/3 of the airfoil speed and then is shed at the trailing edge. After its shedding, the vortex can interact with the airfoil surface as the blade passes downstream.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziaul Huque
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and response surface-based multiobjective design optimization were performed for six different 2D airfoil profiles, and the Pareto optimal front of each airfoil is presented. FLUENT, which is a commercial CFD simulation code, was used to determine the relevant aerodynamic loads. The Lift Coefficient (CL and Drag Coefficient (CD data at a range of 0° to 12° angles of attack (α and at three different Reynolds numbers (Re=68,459, 479, 210, and 958, 422 for all the six airfoils were obtained. Realizable k-ε turbulence model with a second-order upwind solution method was used in the simulations. The standard least square method was used to generate response surface by the statistical code JMP. Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II was used to determine the Pareto optimal set based on the response surfaces. Each Pareto optimal solution represents a different compromise between design objectives. This gives the designer a choice to select a design compromise that best suits the requirements from a set of optimal solutions. The Pareto solution set is presented in the form of a Pareto optimal front.
Validation of DYSTOOL for unsteady aerodynamic modeling of 2D airfoils
González, A.; Gomez-Iradi, S.; Munduate, X.
2014-06-01
From the point of view of wind turbine modeling, an important group of tools is based on blade element momentum (BEM) theory using 2D aerodynamic calculations on the blade elements. Due to the importance of this sectional computation of the blades, the National Renewable Wind Energy Center of Spain (CENER) developed DYSTOOL, an aerodynamic code for 2D airfoil modeling based on the Beddoes-Leishman model. The main focus here is related to the model parameters, whose values depend on the airfoil or the operating conditions. In this work, the values of the parameters are adjusted using available experimental or CFD data. The present document is mainly related to the validation of the results of DYSTOOL for 2D airfoils. The results of the computations have been compared with unsteady experimental data of the S809 and NACA0015 profiles. Some of the cases have also been modeled using the CFD code WMB (Wind Multi Block), within the framework of a collaboration with ACCIONA Windpower. The validation has been performed using pitch oscillations with different reduced frequencies, Reynolds numbers, amplitudes and mean angles of attack. The results have shown a good agreement using the methodology of adjustment for the value of the parameters. DYSTOOL have demonstrated to be a promising tool for 2D airfoil unsteady aerodynamic modeling.
Validation of DYSTOOL for unsteady aerodynamic modeling of 2D airfoils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
González, A; Gomez-Iradi, S; Munduate, X
2014-01-01
From the point of view of wind turbine modeling, an important group of tools is based on blade element momentum (BEM) theory using 2D aerodynamic calculations on the blade elements. Due to the importance of this sectional computation of the blades, the National Renewable Wind Energy Center of Spain (CENER) developed DYSTOOL, an aerodynamic code for 2D airfoil modeling based on the Beddoes-Leishman model. The main focus here is related to the model parameters, whose values depend on the airfoil or the operating conditions. In this work, the values of the parameters are adjusted using available experimental or CFD data. The present document is mainly related to the validation of the results of DYSTOOL for 2D airfoils. The results of the computations have been compared with unsteady experimental data of the S809 and NACA0015 profiles. Some of the cases have also been modeled using the CFD code WMB (Wind Multi Block), within the framework of a collaboration with ACCIONA Windpower. The validation has been performed using pitch oscillations with different reduced frequencies, Reynolds numbers, amplitudes and mean angles of attack. The results have shown a good agreement using the methodology of adjustment for the value of the parameters. DYSTOOL have demonstrated to be a promising tool for 2D airfoil unsteady aerodynamic modeling
Super titanium blades for advanced steam turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coulon, P.A.
1990-01-01
In 1986, the Alsthom Steam Turbines Department launched the manufacture of large titanium alloy blades: airfoil length of 1360 mm and overall length of 1520 mm. These blades are designed for the last-stage low pressure blading of advanced steam turbines operating at full speed (3000 rpm) and rating between 300 and 800 MW. Using titanium alloys for steam turbine exhaust stages as substitutes for chrome steels, due to their high strength/density ratio and their almost complete resistance to corrosion, makes it possible to increase the length of blades significantly and correspondingly that steam passage section (by up to 50%) with a still conservative stresses level in the rotor. Alsthom relies on 8 years of experience in the field of titanium, since as early as 1979 large titanium blades (airfoil length of 1240 mm, overall length of 1430 mm) were erected for experimental purposes on the last stage of a 900 MW unit of the Dampierre-sur-Loire power plant and now totals 45,000 operating hours without problems. The paper summarizes the main properties (chemical, mechanical and structural) recorded on very large blades and is based in particular on numerous fatigue corrosion test results to justify the use of the Ti 6 Al 4 V alloy in a specific context of micrographic structure
2-D and 3-D CFD Investigation of NREL S826 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cakmakcioglu, S C; Sert, I O; Tugluk, O; Sezer-Uzol, N
2014-01-01
In this study CFD investigation of flow over the NREL S826 airfoil is performed. NREL S826 airfoil was designed for HAWTs of 10-15 meter diameters. However, it is used in the NTNU wind turbine rotor model and low Reynolds number flow characteristics become important in the validations with the test cases of this rotor model. The airfoil CFD simulations are carried out in 2-D and 3-D computational domains. The k-rn SST turbulence model with Langtry-Menter (γ-Re θ ) transition prediction model for turbulence closure is used in the calculations. The Delayed DES is also performed in the stall region for comparisons. The results are compared with the available METUWIND experimental data, and are shown to be in fair agreement. It is observed that 3-D CFD analysis provides increased accuracy at increased computational cost
Development and optimization design of pit turbine with super low-head
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C X; Li, X X; Huang, F J; Zheng, Y; QZhou, D
2012-01-01
Tubular turbines have many advantages such as large flow, high-speed, high efficiency, wide and high efficiency area, compact structure, simple layout, etc. With those advantages, tubular turbine is becoming one of the most economic and suitable types of turbines to develop low head hydraulic resources. According to the general situation of the hydropower station in the north of Jiangsu, a super low head pit turbine which head is set as about 2m is developed by the research to utilize the low head hydraulic resource.The CFD technology was used to calculate the flow field. The computing zone was meshed with unstructured gird. The whole flow passage of shaft type tubular turbine was calculated by 3-d steady turbulent numerical simulation. The detail of flowthrough the whole flowpassage was attained and the influence to the turbine's performance was analyzed by the low head runner blade's various diameters, airfoils and setting angles. The best turbine runner was obtained by considering all the methods. Meeting the station's requirements, the results show that the runner exhibits the highest performance in the efficiency, hydraulic loss and static pressure sides with 1.75m diameter, optimized airfoil and 23 degree setting angle. The developed super low head pit turbine shows highest efficiency under the design condition of 2.1m water head and 10m 3 /s flow rate. GD-WS-35 turbine model test was carried out tostudy the performance of the turbine. On the basis ofmodel transformation principle,the numerical simulationresultof GD-WS-175turbine was compared with the model results. It's showed that the model test result is basically consistent with numerical simulationresult. The producing error in the numerical computation is not easy to control. The efficiency's error range is ±3%.
A new method for measuring lift forces acting on an airfoil under dynamic conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolken-Moehlmann, Gerrit; Peinke, Joachim [Institute of Physics, University of Oldenburg (Germany)
2008-07-01
Wind turbines operate in a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer and are exposed to strong wind fluctuations in time and space. This can induce the dynamic stall, a phenomenon that causes extra loads. Dynamic stall occurs under fast changes in the angle of attack (AoA) and was determined in detail in helicopter research. But in contrast to helicopter aerodynamics, the changes in the AoA of wind turbine airfoils are in general non-sinusoidal, and thus it seems to be difficult to use these measurements and models. Our goal is to acquire lift data under conditions more comparable to real wind turbines, including non-periodic changes in the AoA. For this purpose a closed test section for our wind tunnel was built. An airfoil with a chord length of 0.2m will be rotated by a stepping motor with angular velocities of up to 300 {sup circle} /s. With a maximum wind velocity of 50m/s, Reynolds numbers of Re=700 000 can be realized. The lift force is determined by the counter forces acting on the wind tunnel walls. These are measured by two lines of 40 pressure sensors with sampling rates up to 2kHz. The results show distinct dynamic stall characteristics. Further experiments with different parameters and foils will give a better insight in dynamic stall and a verification and improvement of existing models.
Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...
Knowledge-based system for detailed blade design of turbines
Goel, Sanjay; Lamson, Scott
1994-03-01
A design optimization methodology that couples optimization techniques to CFD analysis for design of airfoils is presented. This technique optimizes 2D airfoil sections of a blade by minimizing the deviation of the actual Mach number distribution on the blade surface from a smooth fit of the distribution. The airfoil is not reverse engineered by specification of a precise distribution of the desired Mach number plot, only general desired characteristics of the distribution are specified for the design. Since the Mach number distribution is very complex, and cannot be conveniently represented by a single polynomial, it is partitioned into segments, each of which is characterized by a different order polynomial. The sum of the deviation of all the segments is minimized during optimization. To make intelligent changes to the airfoil geometry, it needs to be associated with features observed in the Mach number distribution. Associating the geometry parameters with independent features of the distribution is a fairly complex task. Also, for different optimization techniques to work efficiently the airfoil geometry needs to be parameterized into independent parameters, with enough degrees of freedom for adequate geometry manipulation. A high-pressure, low reaction steam turbine blade section was optimized using this methodology. The Mach number distribution was partitioned into pressure and suction surfaces and the suction surface distribution was further subdivided into leading edge, mid section and trailing edge sections. Two different airfoil representation schemes were used for defining the design variables of the optimization problem. The optimization was performed by using a combination of heuristic search and numerical optimization. The optimization results for the two schemes are discussed in the paper. The results are also compared to a manual design improvement study conducted independently by an experienced airfoil designer. The turbine blade optimization
Assessment of low-order theories for analysis and design of shrouded wind turbines using CFD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aranake, Aniket C; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K; Duraisamy, Karthik
2014-01-01
The use of a shroud around the rotor of a wind turbine has been known to augment the airflow through the rotor plane and hence result in improved performance. This work uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to assess the validity of several simple theories which attempt to extend Betz theory to shrouded turbines. Two CFD models are employed and compared to predictions of previously published models. The first makes use of a fixed pressure-drop actuator disk, while the second incorporates the twist and chord distribution of the turbine blade as well as an airfoil polar using a technique much like the classical blade element momentum (BEM) method. Calculations are performed for a sweep of turbine loadings using the fixed pressure-drop model and a sweep of tip speed ratios using the BEM model for both an open and shrouded turbine. Power is computed using a control volume approach for the fixed pressure-drop model and by integrating tangential forces for the BEM model. Information including mass flow ratio, power coefficient ratio, axial induction, and shroud force is extracted from the solution fields and compared against the predictions of low-order theories. Finally, the blade element model is used to redesign the turbine twist distribution to achieve greater performance across a range of tip speed ratios
Airfoil System for Cruising Flight
Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Liu, Tianshu (Inventor)
2014-01-01
An airfoil system includes an airfoil body and at least one flexible strip. The airfoil body has a top surface and a bottom surface, a chord length, a span, and a maximum thickness. Each flexible strip is attached along at least one edge thereof to either the top or bottom surface of the airfoil body. The flexible strip has a spanwise length that is a function of the airfoil body's span, a chordwise width that is a function of the airfoil body's chord length, and a thickness that is a function of the airfoil body's maximum thickness.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.
2009-01-01
When predicting the flow over airfoils and rotors, the laminar-turbulent transition process can be important for the aerodynamic performance. Today, the most widespread approach is to use fully turbulent computations, where the transitional process is ignored and the entire boundary layer...... to flow over a flat plate, flow over the S809 and the NACA63-415 airfoils, flow over a prolate spheroid at zero and thirty degrees angle of attack, and finally to the NREL Phase VI wind turbine rotor for the zero yaw upwind cases from the NREL/NASA Ames wind tunnel test. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons...
Parametric dependence of a morphing wind turbine blade on material elasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puterbaugh, Martin; Beyene, Asfaw
2011-01-01
A few recent works have suggested a morphing blade for wind turbine energy conversion. The concept is derived from fin and wing motions that better adapt to varying load conditions. Previous research has provided the fluid mechanic justification of this new concept. This paper establishes a parametric relationship between an asymmetric wind turbine blade and constituent material modulus to predict the geometric response of the morphing blade for a given material characteristic. The airfoil's trailing edge deflection is associated to a prescribed fluid exit angle via the Moment Area (MA) method. Subsequently, a mathematical model is derived to predict material deformation with respect to imparted aerodynamic forces. Results show that an airfoil, much like a tapered beam, can be modeled as a non-prismatic cantilevered beam using this well established method. -- Research highlights: →A mathematical model relating morphing airfoil thickness and elastic modulus was established. →For non-prismatic beam under a uniform distributive load, the slope and deflection of the airfoil's trailing edge were related to the fluid exit angle. →The main driver of blade deformation was the angular drag force. The Moment Area method was used, verified by Finite Element method. →Displacement to the exit angle is predicated upon the elastic modulus value given that other parameters are constant. →Optimum power output is obtained in part load conditions when the blade deforms to the applicable exit angle.
Laminar-Turbulent transition on Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinez Hernandez, Gabriel Gerardo
The present thesis deals with the study of the rotational effects on the laminar-turbulent transition on wind turbine blades. Linear stability theory is used to formulate the stability equations that include the effect of rotation. The mean flow required as an input to stability computations...... parametrized and adapted to an wind turbine rotor geometry. The blade is resolved in radial sections along which calculations are performed. The obtained mean flow is classified according to the parameters used on the rotating configuration, geometry and operational conditions. The stability diagrams have been...... to define the resultant wave magnitude and direction. The propagation of disturbances in the boundary layers in three dimensional flows is relatively a complicated phenomena. The report discusses the available methods and techniques used to predict the transition location. Some common wind turbine airfoils...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breton, S-P; Nilsson, K; Ivanell, S; Olivares-Espinosa, H; Masson, C; Dufresne, L
2014-01-01
The effect of a downstream turbine on the production of a turbine located upstream of the latter is studied in this work. This is done through the use of two CFD simulation codes, namely OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D, which solve the Navier-Stokes equations in their incompressible form using a finite volume approach. In both EllipSys3D and OpenFoam, the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) technique is used for modelling turbulence. The wind turbine rotors are modelled as actuator disks whose loading is determined through the use of tabulated airfoil data by applying the blade-element method. A generator torque controller is used in both simulation methods to ensure that the simulated turbines adapt, in terms of rotational velocity, to the inflow conditions they are submited to. Results from both simulation codes, although they differ slightly, show that the downstream turbine affects the upstream one when the spacing between the turbines is small. This is also suggested to be the case looking at measurements performed at the Lillgrund offshore wind farm, whose turbines are located unusually close to each other. However, for distances used in today's typical wind farms, this effect is shown by our calculations not to be significant
Airfoil design and optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lutz, T. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik
2001-07-01
The aerodynamic efficiency of mildly swept wings is mainly influenced by the characteristics of the airfoil sections. The specific design of airfoils is therefore one of the classical tasks of aerodynamics. Since the airfoil characteristics are directly dependent on the inviscid pressure distribution the application of inverse calculation methods is obvious. The direct numerical airfoil optimization offers an alternative to the manual design and attracts increasing interest. (orig.)
A shape adaptive airfoil for a wind turbine blade
Daynes, Stephen; Weaver, Paul M.
2011-04-01
The loads on wind turbine components are primarily from the blades. It is important to control these blade loads in order to avoid damaging the wind turbine. Rotor control technology is currently limited to controlling the rotor speed and the pitch of the blades. As blades increase in length it becomes less desirable to pitch the entire blade as a single rigid body, but instead there is a requirement to control loads more precisely along the length of the blade. This can be achieved with aerodynamic control devices such as flaps. Morphing technologies are good candidates for wind turbine flaps because they have the potential to create structures that have the conflicting abilities of being load carrying, light-weight and shape adaptive. A morphing flap design with a highly anisotropic cellular structure is presented which is able to undergo large deflections and high strains without a large actuation penalty. An aeroelastic analysis couples the work done by aerodynamic loads on the flap, the flap strain energy and the required actuation work to change shape. The morphing flap is experimentally validated with a manufactured demonstrator and shown to have reduced actuation requirements compared to a conventional hinged flap.
Heat Transfer Measurements for a Film Cooled Turbine Vane Cascade
2008-05-01
Performance of Turbine Airfoils. Journal of Turbomachinery 1998, 120, 522– 529. Arnone, A.; Liou, M.-S.; Povinelli , L. A. Multigrid Calculation of... Povinelli , L. A. Development of an Explicit Multiblock/Multigrid Flow Solver for Viscous Flows in Complex Geometries; AIAA-93-2380; 1993. Wilcox, D. C
Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 4
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator are documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This volume contains 5 books of which this is the fourth, providing drawings 47A380128 through 47A387125. In addition to the parts listing and where-used list, the logic design of the controller software and the code listing of the controller software are provided. Also given are the aerodynamic profile coordinates.
Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 2
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the second book of volume four. Some of the items it contains are specs for the emergency shutdown panel, specs for the simulator software, simulator hardware specs, site operator terminal requirements, control data system requirements, software project management plan, elastomeric teeter bearing requirement specs, specs for the controls electronic cabinet, and specs for bolt pretensioning.
Computational Acoustic Beamforming for Noise Source Identification for Small Wind Turbines.
Ma, Ping; Lien, Fue-Sang; Yee, Eugene
2017-01-01
This paper develops a computational acoustic beamforming (CAB) methodology for identification of sources of small wind turbine noise. This methodology is validated using the case of the NACA 0012 airfoil trailing edge noise. For this validation case, the predicted acoustic maps were in excellent conformance with the results of the measurements obtained from the acoustic beamforming experiment. Following this validation study, the CAB methodology was applied to the identification of noise sources generated by a commercial small wind turbine. The simulated acoustic maps revealed that the blade tower interaction and the wind turbine nacelle were the two primary mechanisms for sound generation for this small wind turbine at frequencies between 100 and 630 Hz.
Nozzle airfoil having movable nozzle ribs
Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael
2002-01-01
A nozzle vane or airfoil structure is provided in which the nozzle ribs are connected to the side walls of the vane or airfoil in such a way that the ribs provide the requisite mechanical support between the concave side and convex side of the airfoil but are not locked in the radial direction of the assembly, longitudinally of the airfoil. The ribs may be bi-cast onto a preformed airfoil side wall structure or fastened to the airfoil by an interlocking slide connection and/or welding. By attaching the nozzle ribs to the nozzle airfoil metal in such a way that allows play longitudinally of the airfoil, the temperature difference induced radial thermal stresses at the nozzle airfoil/rib joint area are reduced while maintaining proper mechanical support of the nozzle side walls.
A Novel Dual-Rotor Turbine for Increased Wind Energy Capture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, A; Selvaraj, S; Sharma, A
2014-01-01
Horizontal axis wind turbines suffer from aerodynamic inefficiencies in the blade root region (near the hub) due to several non-aerodynamic constraints. Aerodynamic interactions between turbines in a wind farm also lead to significant loss of wind farm efficiency. A new dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) concept is proposed that aims at mitigating these two losses. A DRWT is designed that uses an existing turbine rotor for the main rotor, while the secondary rotor is designed using a high lift-to-drag ratio airfoil. Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to optimize the design. Large eddy simulations confirm the increase energy capture potential of the DRWT. Wake comparisons however do not show enhanced entrainment of axial momentum
Progress in Protective Coatings for Aircraft Gas Turbines: A Review of NASA Sponsored Research
Merutka, J. P.
1981-01-01
Problems associated with protective coatings for advanced aircraft gas turbines are reviewed. Metallic coatings for preventing titanium fires in compressors are identified. Coatings for turbine section are also considered, Ductile aluminide coatings for protecting internal turbine-blade cooling passage surface are also identified. Composite modified external overlay MCrAlY coatings deposited by low-pressure plasma spraying are found to be better in surface protection capability than vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings. Thermal barrier coating (TBC), studies are presented. The design of a turbine airfoil is integrated with a TBC, and computer-aided manufacturing technology is applied.
Aerodynamics and Optimal Design of Biplane Wind Turbine Blades
Chiu, Phillip
In order to improve energy capture and reduce the cost of wind energy, in the past few decades wind turbines have grown significantly larger. As their blades get longer, the design of the inboard region (near the blade root) becomes a trade-off between competing structural and aerodynamic requirements. State-of-the-art blades require thick airfoils near the root to efficiently support large loads inboard, but those thick airfoils have inherently poor aerodynamic performance. New designs are required to circumvent this design compromise. One such design is the "biplane blade", in which the thick airfoils in the inboard region are replaced with thinner airfoils in a biplane configuration. This design was shown previously to have significantly increased structural performance over conventional blades. In addition, the biplane airfoils can provide increased lift and aerodynamic efficiency compared to thick monoplane inboard airfoils, indicating a potential for increased power extraction. This work investigates the fundamental aerodynamic aspects, aerodynamic design and performance, and optimal structural design of the biplane blade. First, the two-dimensional aerodynamics of biplanes with relatively thick airfoils are investigated, showing unique phenomena which arise as a result of airfoil thickness. Next, the aerodynamic design of the full biplane blade is considered. Two biplane blades are designed for optimal aerodynamic loading, and their aerodynamic performance quantified. Considering blades with practical chord distributions and including the drag of the mid-blade joint, it is shown that biplane blades have comparable power output to conventional monoplane designs. The results of this analysis also show that the biplane blades can be designed with significantly less chord than conventional designs, a characteristic which enables larger blade designs. The aerodynamic loads on the biplane blades are shown to be increased in gust conditions and decreased under
Mod-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4: Drawings and Specifications, Book 1
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the first of five books of volume four. It contains structural design criteria, generator step-up transformer specs, specs for design, fabrication and testing of the system, specs for the ground control enclosure, systems specs, slip ring specs, and control system specs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scungio, M.; Arpino, F.; Focanti, V.; Profili, M.; Rotondi, M.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Wind tunnel investigations of Darrieus-style VAWT with auxiliary blades have been made. • Results have been compared with those from standard Darrieus VAWT. • Static and dynamic power and torque coefficients were measured and evaluated. • The auxiliary airfoils have demonstrated to give more torque at the lower wind speeds. • The proposed VAWT configuration is able to work in a wide range of wind speeds. - Abstract: Renewable sources of energy, needed because of the increasing price of fossil derivatives, global warming and energy market instabilities, have led to an increasing interest in wind energy. Among the different typologies, small scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) present the greatest potential for off grid power generation at low wind speeds. In the present work, wind tunnel investigations about the performance of an innovative configuration of straight-blades Darrieus-style vertical axis micro wind turbine, specifically developed for small scale energy conversion at low wind speeds, has been made on scaled models. The micro turbine under investigation consists of three pairs of airfoils. Each pair consists of a main and auxiliary airfoil with different chord lengths. A standard Darrieus configuration, consisting of three single airfoils, was also tested for comparison. The experiments were conducted in a closed circuit open chamber wind tunnel facility available at the Laboratory of Industrial Measurements (LaMI) of the University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale (UNICLAM). Measured data were reported in terms of dimensionless power and torque coefficients for dynamic performance analysis and static torque coefficient for static performance analysis. The adoption of auxiliary airfoils has demonstrated to give more dynamic torque at the lower wind speeds with respect to a standard Darrieus rotor, resulting in better performance for all the wind speeds considered. In terms of dynamic power coefficient, the standard Darrieus
Aeroelastic optimization of MW wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartvig Hansen, M.; Zahle, F.
2011-12-15
This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project ''Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine'' (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beam element for HAWC2. 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis of controlled wind turbines. 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes. 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools. 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils. The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given in Section 2. Thereafter, the results from each Work Package are described in eight subsequent chapters. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, L.; Tang, X. [Univ. of Central Lancashire. Engineering and Physical Sciences, Preston (United Kingdom); Liu, X. [Univ. of Cumbria. Sustainable Engineering, Workington (United Kingdom)
2012-07-01
The aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine depends very much on its blade geometric design, typically based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, which divides the blade into several blade elements. In current blade design practices based on Schmitz rotor design theory, the blade geometric parameters including chord and twist angle distributions are determined based on airfoil aerodynamic data at a specific Reynolds number. However, rotating wind turbine blade elements operate at different Reynolds numbers due to variable wind speed and different blade span locations. Therefore, the blade design through Schmitz rotor theory at a specific Reynolds number does not necessarily provide the best power performance under operational conditions. This paper aims to provide an optimal blade design strategy for horizontal-axis wind turbines operating at different Reynolds numbers. A fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine with S809 airfoil is chosen as a case study and a Matlab program which considers Reynolds number effects is developed to determine the optimized chord and twist angle distributions of the blade. The performance of the optimized blade is compared with that of the preliminary blade which is designed based on Schmitz rotor design theory at a specific Reynolds number. The results demonstrate that the proposed blade design optimization strategy can improve the power performance of the wind turbine. This approach can be further developed for any practice of horizontal axis wind turbine blade design. (Author)
2D Numerical Investigation of the Laminar and Turbulent Flow Over Different Airfoils Using OpenFOAM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahimi, H; Stoevesandt, B; Peinke, J; Medjroubi, W
2014-01-01
The aim of this work is to assess the prediction capabilities of the turbulence models and the transition model kkl-ω available in OpenFOAM and to achieve a database of airfoil aerodynamical characteristics. The airfoils chosen for the simulations are FX 79-W- 15A and NACA 63-430, which are widely used in wind turbines. The numerically obtained lift and drag coefficients are compared with available experimental results. A quantitative and qualitative study is conducted to determine the influence of meshing strategies, computational time step together with interpolation and temporal schemes. Two Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes models (RANS models) are used, which are the k-ω SST model by Menter and the kkl-ω model (which involves transition modeling) by Walters and Davor
Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil
Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian
2002-01-01
Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.
Pressure distribution over an NACA 23012 airfoil with an NACA 23012 external-airfoil flap
Wenzinger, Carl J
1938-01-01
Report presents the results of pressure-distribution tests of an NACA 23012 airfoil with an NACA 23012 external airfoil flap made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section on both the main airfoil and on the flap for several different flap deflections and at several angles of attack. A test installation was used in which the airfoil was mounted horizontally in the wind tunnel between vertical end planes so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are presented in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as graphs of calculated coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combination and for the flap alone.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Troldborg, N.
2005-03-01
A comprehensive computational study, in both steady and unsteady flow conditions, has been carried out to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the Risoe-B1-18 airfoil equipped with variable trailing edge geometry as produced by a hinged flap. The function of such flaps should be to decrease fatigue-inducing oscillations on the blades. The computations were conducted using a 2D incompressible RANS solver with a k-w turbulence model under the assumption of a fully developed turbulent flow. The investigations were conducted at a Reynolds number of Re = 1.6 - 10{sup 6}. Calculations conducted on the baseline airfoil showed excellent agreement with measurements on the same airfoil with the same specified conditions. Furthermore, a more widespread comparison with an advanced potential theory code is presented. The influence of various key parameters, such as flap shape, flap size and oscillating frequencies, was investigated so that an optimum design can be suggested for application with wind turbine blades. It is concluded that a moderately curved flap with flap chord to airfoil curve ratio between 0.05 and 0.10 would be an optimum choice. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhenyu ZHANG; Ning ZHAO; Wei ZHONG; Long WANG; Bofeng XU
2016-01-01
The computational ?uid dynamics (CFD) methods are applied to aerody-namic problems for large scale wind turbines. The progresses including the aerodynamic analyses of wind turbine pro?les, numerical ?ow simulation of wind turbine blades, evalu-ation of aerodynamic performance, and multi-objective blade optimization are discussed. Based on the CFD methods, signi?cant improvements are obtained to predict two/three-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine airfoils and blades, and the vorti-cal structure in their wake ?ows is accurately captured. Combining with a multi-objective genetic algorithm, a 1.5 MW NH-1500 optimized blade is designed with high e?ciency in wind energy conversion.
Airfoil computations using the gamma-Retheta model; Wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soerensen, Niels N.
2009-05-15
The present work addresses the validation of the implementation of the Menter, Langtry et al. gamma-theta correlation based transition model [1, 2, 3] in the EllipSys2D code. Firstly the 2. order of accuracy of the code is verified using a grid refinement study for laminar, turbulent and transitional computations. Based on this, an estimate of the error in the computations is determined to be approximately one percent in the attached region. Following the verification of the implemented model, the model is applied to four airfoils, NACA64-018, NACA64-218, NACA64-418 and NACA64-618 and the results are compared to measurements [4] and computations using the Xfoil code by Drela et al. [5]. In the linear pre stall region good agreement is observed both for lift and drag, while differences to both measurements and Xfoil computations are observed in stalled conditions. (au)
Progress in wind tunnel experimental techniques for wind turbine?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jingping XIAO; Li CHEN; Qiang WANG; Qiao WANG
2016-01-01
Based on the unsteady aerodynamics experiment (UAE) phase VI and the model experiment in controlled conditions (MEXICO) projects and the related research carried out in China Aerodynamic Research and Development Center (CARDC), the recent progress in the wind tunnel experimental techniques for the wind turbine is sum-marized. Measurement techniques commonly used for di?erent types of wind tunnel ex-periments for wind turbine are reviewed. Important research achievements are discussed, such as the wind tunnel disturbance, the equivalence of the airfoil in?ow condition, the three-dimensional (3D) e?ect, the dynamic in?ow in?uence, the ?ow ?eld structure, and the vortex induction. The corresponding research at CARDC and some ideas on the large wind turbine are also introduced.
Hybrid immersed boundary method for airfoils with a trailing-edge flap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Behrens, Tim; Shen, Wen Zhong
2013-01-01
In this paper, a hybrid immersed boundary technique has been developed for simulating turbulent flows past airfoils with moving trailing-edge flaps. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil, the equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique, whereas the moving trailing......-edge flap is simulated using the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. An existing in-house-developed flow solver is employed to solve the incompressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with the k-ω turbulence model. To achieve consistent wall boundary conditions at the immersed...... boundaries the k-ωturbulence model is modified and adapted to the local conditions associated with the immersed boundary method. The obtained results show that the hybrid approach is an efficient and accurate method for solving turbulent flows past airfoils with a trailing-edge flap and that flow control...
Implementation of creep-fatigue model into finite-element code to assess cooled turbine blade.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dedekind, MO
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Turbine blades which are designed with airfoil cooling are subject to thermo-mechanical fatigue as well as creep damage. These problems arise due to thermal cycling and high operating temperatures in service. An implementation of fatigue and creep...
Development of design tools for reduced aerodynamic noise wind turbines (draw)
Wagner, S.; Guidati, G.; Ostertag, J.; Bareiss, R.; Wittum, G.; Huurdeman, B.; Braun, K.; Hirsch, C.; Kang, S.; Khodak, A.; Overmeire, M. van; Bladt, G.; Nienhaus, A.; Dassen, A.G.M.; Parchen, R.R.; Looijmans, K.
1997-01-01
The major aim of the present project was the development of new predictïon models for the aerodynamic noise generation at wind turbine blades. These models should be transferred to computer codes and should be sensitive enough to consider even small changes in the airfoil geometry. This accuracy is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manela, A.
2016-01-01
The acoustic signature of an acoustically compact tandem airfoil setup in uniform high-Reynolds number flow is investigated. The upstream airfoil is considered rigid and is actuated at its leading edge with small-amplitude harmonic pitching motion. The downstream airfoil is taken passive and elastic, with its motion forced by the vortex-street excitation of the upstream airfoil. The non-linear near-field description is obtained via potential thin-airfoil theory. It is then applied as a source term into the Powell-Howe acoustic analogy to yield the far-field dipole radiation of the system. To assess the effect of downstream-airfoil elasticity, results are compared with counterpart calculations for a non-elastic setup, where the downstream airfoil is rigid and stationary. Depending on the separation distance between airfoils, airfoil-motion and airfoil-wake dynamics shift between in-phase (synchronized) and counter-phase behaviors. Consequently, downstream airfoil elasticity may act to amplify or suppress sound through the direct contribution of elastic-airfoil motion to the total signal. Resonance-type motion of the elastic airfoil is found when the upstream airfoil is actuated at the least stable eigenfrequency of the downstream structure. This, again, results in system sound amplification or suppression, depending on the separation distance between airfoils. With increasing actuation frequency, the acoustic signal becomes dominated by the direct contribution of the upstream airfoil motion, whereas the relative contribution of the elastic airfoil to the total signature turns negligible.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manela, A. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2016-07-15
The acoustic signature of an acoustically compact tandem airfoil setup in uniform high-Reynolds number flow is investigated. The upstream airfoil is considered rigid and is actuated at its leading edge with small-amplitude harmonic pitching motion. The downstream airfoil is taken passive and elastic, with its motion forced by the vortex-street excitation of the upstream airfoil. The non-linear near-field description is obtained via potential thin-airfoil theory. It is then applied as a source term into the Powell-Howe acoustic analogy to yield the far-field dipole radiation of the system. To assess the effect of downstream-airfoil elasticity, results are compared with counterpart calculations for a non-elastic setup, where the downstream airfoil is rigid and stationary. Depending on the separation distance between airfoils, airfoil-motion and airfoil-wake dynamics shift between in-phase (synchronized) and counter-phase behaviors. Consequently, downstream airfoil elasticity may act to amplify or suppress sound through the direct contribution of elastic-airfoil motion to the total signal. Resonance-type motion of the elastic airfoil is found when the upstream airfoil is actuated at the least stable eigenfrequency of the downstream structure. This, again, results in system sound amplification or suppression, depending on the separation distance between airfoils. With increasing actuation frequency, the acoustic signal becomes dominated by the direct contribution of the upstream airfoil motion, whereas the relative contribution of the elastic airfoil to the total signature turns negligible.
Research in aeroelasticity[Wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bak, C.
2006-05-15
In the Energy Research Project 'Program for Research in Applied Aeroelasticity' (EFP2005), Risoe National Laboratory (Risoe) and the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) have applied and further developed the tools in the aeroelastic design complex. The main results from the project are: 1) Adding a winglet to a wind turbine blade for minimizing the induced drag of the blade led to the biggest increase in power of 1.4%. 2) Transient wind loads during pitch motion are determined using CFD. Compared to the NREL/NASA Ames test, reasonably good agreement is seen. 3) A general method was developed for the determination of 3D angle of attack for rotating blades from either measurements or numerical computations using CFD. 4) A model of the far wake behind wind turbines was developed for stability studies of the tip vortices in the far wake. 5) Investigating the blade root region showed that the power efficiency, CP, locally can be increased significantly beyond the Betz limit, but that the global CP for the rotor cannot exceed the Betz limit. When including tip losses and a minimum blade drag coefficient, a maximum rotor CP in the range of 0.51-0.52 was obtained. 6) A new airfoil family was designed and a 3D airfoil design tool was developed. Compared to the Risoe-B1 family, the new airfoil family showed similar or improved aerodynamic and structural characteristics. 7) Four different airfoils were analyzed to reveal the differences between 2D and 3D CFD. The major conclusions are the dependency of computational results to transition modelling, and the ability of 3D DES calculations to realistically simulate the turbulent wake of an airfoil in stall. 8) The capability of a theory for simulation of Gaussian turbulence driven gust events was demonstrated by emulating a violent shear gust event from a complex site. An asymptotic model for the PDF of the largest excursion from the mean level, during an arbitrary recurrence period, has been derived for a stochastic
Wind Turbine design and fabrication to power street lights
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khan Mohammad
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to design and build a wind turbine which can be used to power small street lights. Considering the typical wind speeds in Abu Dhabi, UAE and ease of construction, the design of the wind turbine was chosen to be Sea Hawk design from vertical axis wind turbine category. A three phase AC generator was used for its availability over the DC motors within the region. A 12V battery was used for storage and a charge controller was used for controlling the charge flow into the battery and for controlling the turbine rotation when the battery is fully charged. The blades used in the turbine were made of foam board according to the NACA 0018 airfoil shape with a chord length of 15cm. The connecting shaft was made of stainless steel. Structural analysis and CFD analysis were performed along with other calculations. Testing was executed to calculate the voltage output from the turbine at different wind speeds. The maximum voltage the turbine produced at 6.4 m/s wind speed was 2.4Vand the rotational speed of the turbine was 60.3 rpm.
VISUALISASI DISTRIBUSI TEKANAN PADA AIRFOIL JOUKOWSKY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eddy Maryonoto
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The goal of this research is to develop a computer based system that can beused to visualize pressure distribution on the Joukowsky's airfoil and streamlinespattern around the airfoil. The pressure on the airfoil is calculdted usingformulasderived from potensial theory. Visualization of pressure distribution implementedby using color gradation technique and coded b.v using Borland Delphi 6programming language. The result of the test shotus lhat lhe system has performedperfectly. Pressure dislribution on some kinds of JoukowslE's airfoil shapes andstresmlines pattern around the airfoils can be presenled and seen clearly byusing this visualization system, where the paltern of the pressure distribution onthe airfoil marked by color gradation.
Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems Annual Program Review meeting. Volume 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-10-01
Goal of the 8-year program is to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. The conference is held annually for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties industry, academia, and Government. Advanced turbine systems topics discussed during five technical sessions included policy and strategic issues, program element overviews and technical reviews, related activities, university/industry consortium interactions, and supportive projects. Twenty-one papers presented during the technical sessions are contained in this volume; they are processed separately for the data base.
Alternative Liquid Fuel Effects on Cooled Silicon Nitride Marine Gas Turbine Airfoils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holowczak, J.
2002-03-01
With prior support from the Office of Naval Research, DARPA, and U.S. Department of Energy, United Technologies is developing and engine environment testing what we believe to be the first internally cooled silicon nitride ceramic turbine vane in the United States. The vanes are being developed for the FT8, an aeroderivative stationary/marine gas turbine. The current effort resulted in further manufacturing and development and prototyping by two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers, preliminary development of both alumina, and YTRIA based environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) and testing or ceramic vanes with an EBC coating.
Unsteady Navier-Stokes computations over airfoils using both fixed and dynamic meshes
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Anderson, W. Kyle
1989-01-01
A finite volume implicit approximate factorization method which solves the thin layer Navier-Stokes equations was used to predict unsteady turbulent flow airfoil behavior. At a constant angle of attack of 16 deg, the NACA 0012 airfoil exhibits an unsteady periodic flow field with the lift coefficient oscillating between 0.89 and 1.60. The Strouhal number is 0.028. Results are similar at 18 deg, with a Strouhal number of 0.033. A leading edge vortex is shed periodically near maximum lift. Dynamic mesh solutions for unstalled airfoil flows show general agreement with experimental pressure coefficients. However, moment coefficients and the maximum lift value are underpredicted. The deep stall case shows some agreement with experiment for increasing angle of attack, but is only qualitatively comparable past stall and for decreasing angle of attack.
Vapor deposition on doublet airfoil substrates: Control of coating thickness and microstructure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)
2015-11-15
Gas jet assisted vapor deposition processes for depositing coatings are conducted at higher pressures than conventional physical vapor deposition methods, and have shown promise for coating complex shaped substrates including those with non-line-of-sight (NLS) regions on their surface. These regions typically receive vapor atoms at a lower rate and with a wider incident angular distribution than substrate regions in line-of-sight (LS) of the vapor source. To investigate the coating of such substrates, the thickness and microstructure variation along the inner (curved) surfaces of a model doublet airfoil containing both LS and NLS regions has been investigated. Results from atomistic simulations and experiments confirm that the coating's thickness is thinner in flux-shadowed regions than in other regions for all the coating processes investigated. They also indicated that the coatings columnar microstructure and pore volume fraction vary with surface location through the LS to NLS transition zone. A substrate rotation strategy for optimizing the thickness over the entire doublet airfoil surface was investigated, and led to the identification of a process that resulted in only small variation of coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and pore volume fraction on all doublet airfoil surfaces.
A CFD Database for Airfoils and Wings at Post-Stall Angles of Attack
Petrilli, Justin; Paul, Ryan; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Frink, Neal T.
2013-01-01
This paper presents selected results from an ongoing effort to develop an aerodynamic database from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational analysis of airfoils and wings at stall and post-stall angles of attack. The data obtained from this effort will be used for validation and refinement of a low-order post-stall prediction method developed at NCSU, and to fill existing gaps in high angle of attack data in the literature. Such data could have potential applications in post-stall flight dynamics, helicopter aerodynamics and wind turbine aerodynamics. An overview of the NASA TetrUSS CFD package used for the RANS computational approach is presented. Detailed results for three airfoils are presented to compare their stall and post-stall behavior. The results for finite wings at stall and post-stall conditions focus on the effects of taper-ratio and sweep angle, with particular attention to whether the sectional flows can be approximated using two-dimensional flow over a stalled airfoil. While this approximation seems reasonable for unswept wings even at post-stall conditions, significant spanwise flow on stalled swept wings preclude the use of two-dimensional data to model sectional flows on swept wings. Thus, further effort is needed in low-order aerodynamic modeling of swept wings at stalled conditions.
Design guidelines for passive instability suppression - Task-11 report[Wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hansen, M.H.; Buhl, T.
2006-12-15
In these guidelines for passive instability suppression, eight relevant topics within aeroelastic stability of turbines are considered for the parameter variations: 1. Effect of airfoil aerodynamics: The airfoil aerodynamics given by the profile coefficients for aerodynamic lift, drag, and moment are shown to have a direct effect on aerodynamic damping of blade vibrations. A redesign of the airfoils can improve the power performance of the rotor without loss of aerodynamic damping. 2. Effect of flap/edgewise frequency coincidence: The natural frequencies of the first flapwise and first edgewise blade bending modes become closer as the blades become more slender. This 1-1 resonance may lead to a coupling flap- and edgewise blade vibrations which increases the edgewise blade mode damping. 3. Effect of flap/edgewise whirling coupling: The aerodynamic damping of blade vibrations close to the rotor plane are generally lower than the aerodynamic damping of vibrations out of the rotor plane. A structural coupling between the flapwise and edgewise whirling modes can increase the overall aerodynamic damping by adding more out of plane blade motion to the edgewise whirling modes. 4. Effect of torsional blade stiffness: A low torsional blade stiffness may lead to flutter where the first torsional blade mode couples to a flapwise bending mode in a flutter instability through the aerodynamic forces. 5. Can whirl flutter happen on a wind turbine? Whirl flutter is an aeroelastic instability similar to blade flutter. Whirl flutter can occur on turbines with very low natural frequencies of the tilt and yaw modes (about 5 % of their original values). 6. Edgewise/torsion coupling for large flapwise deflections: The large flapwise deflection of modern slender blades lead to a geometric coupling of edgewise bending and torsion. The aeroelastic damping of the blade modes are affected by a flapwise prebend of the blade. 7. Effect of yaw error on damping from wake: The wake behind the
Cooling system with compressor bleed and ambient air for gas turbine engine
Marsh, Jan H.; Marra, John J.
2017-11-21
A cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine blade cooling fluid supply and from an ambient air source to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The cooling system may include a compressor bleed conduit extending from a compressor to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply that provides cooling fluid to at least one turbine blade. The compressor bleed conduit may include an upstream section and a downstream section whereby the upstream section exhausts compressed bleed air through an outlet into the downstream section through which ambient air passes. The outlet of the upstream section may be generally aligned with a flow of ambient air flowing in the downstream section. As such, the compressed air increases the flow of ambient air to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply.
Multiple piece turbine rotor blade
Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A
2013-05-21
A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.
Mueller, T. J. (Editor)
1985-01-01
Topics of interest in the design, flow modeling and visualization, and turbulence and flow separation effects for low Reynolds number (Re) airfoils are discussed. Design methods are presented for Re from 50,000-500,000, including a viscous-inviscid coupling method and by using a constrained pitching moment. The effects of pressure gradients, unsteady viscous aerodynamics and separation bubbles are investigated, with particular note made of factors which most influence the size and location of separation bubbles and control their effects. Attention is also given to experimentation with low Re airfoils and to numerical models of symmetry breaking and lift hysteresis from separation. Both steady and unsteady flow experiments are reviewed, with the trials having been held in wind tunnels and the free atmosphere. The topics discussed are of interest to designers of RPVs, high altitude aircraft, sailplanes, ultralights and wind turbines.
Direct Numerical Simulations of a Full Stationary Wind-Turbine Blade
Qamar, Adnan; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-11-01
Direct numerical simulation of flow past a full stationary wind-turbine blade is carried out at Reynolds number, Re = 10,000 placed at 0 and 5 (degree) angle of attack. The study is targeted to create a DNS database for verification of solvers and turbulent models that are utilized in wind-turbine modeling applications. The full blade comprises of a circular cylinder base that is attached to a spanwise varying airfoil cross-section profile (without twist). An overlapping composite grid technique is utilized to perform these DNS computations, which permits block structure in the mapped computational space. Different flow shedding regimes are observed along the blade length. Von-Karman shedding is observed in the cylinder shaft region of the turbine blade. Along the airfoil cross-section of the blade, near body shear layer breakdown is observed. A long tip vortex originates from the blade tip region, which exits the computational plane without being perturbed. Laminar to turbulent flow transition is observed along the blade length. The turbulent fluctuations amplitude decreases along the blade length and the flow remains laminar regime in the vicinity of the blade tip. The Strouhal number is found to decrease monotonously along the blade length. Average lift and drag coefficients are also reported for the cases investigated. Supported by funding under a KAUST OCRF-CRG grant.
Cadel, Daniel R.; Zhang, Di; Lowe, K. Todd; Paterson, Eric G.
2018-04-01
Wind turbines with thick blade profiles experience turbulent, periodic approach flow, leading to unsteady blade loading and large torque fluctuations on the turbine drive shaft. Presented here is an experimental study of a surrogate problem representing some key aspects of the wind turbine unsteady fluid mechanics. This experiment has been designed through joint consideration by experiment and computation, with the ultimate goal of numerical model development for aerodynamics in unsteady and turbulent flows. A cylinder at diameter Reynolds number of 65,000 and Strouhal number of 0.184 is placed 10.67 diameters upstream of a NACA 63215b airfoil with chord Reynolds number of 170,000 and chord-reduced frequency of k=2π fc/2/V=1.5. Extensive flow field measurements using particle image velocimetry provide a number of insights about this flow, as well as data for model validation and development. Velocity contours on the airfoil suction side in the presence of the upstream cylinder indicate a redistribution of turbulent normal stresses from transverse to streamwise, consistent with rapid distortion theory predictions. A study of the boundary layer over the suction side of the airfoil reveals very low Reynolds number turbulent mean streamwise velocity profiles. The dominance of the high amplitude large eddy passages results in a phase lag in streamwise velocity as a function of distance from the wall. The results and accompanying description provide a new test case incorporating moderate-reduced frequency inflow for computational model validation and development.
Aeroelastic Stability of a 2D Airfoil Section equipped with a Trailing Edge Flap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergami, Leonardo
Recent studies conclude that important reduction of the fatigue loads encountered by a wind turbine blade can be achieved using a deformable trailing edge control system. The focus of the current work is to determine the effect of this flap-like system on the aeroelastic stability of a 2D airfoil...... section. A simulation tool is implemented to predict the flow speed at which a flap equipped section may become unstable, either due to flutter or divergence. First, the stability limits of the airfoil without flap are determined, and, in the second part of the work, a deformable trailing edge flap...... is applied. Stability is investigated for the uncontrolled flap, and for three different control algorithms. The three controls are tuned for fatigue load alleviation and they are based on, respectively, measurement of the heave displacement and velocity, measurement of the local angle of attack, measurement...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Řidký Václav
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The work is devoted to 3D and 2D parallel numerical computation of pressure and velocity fields around an elastically supported airfoil self-oscillating due to interaction with the airflow. Numerical solution is computed in the OpenFOAM package, an open-source software package based on finite volume method. Movement of airfoil is described by translation and rotation, identified from experimental data. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the airfoil was implemented. The results of numerical simulations (velocity are compared with data measured in a wind tunnel, where a physical model of NACA0015 airfoil was mounted and tuned to exhibit the flutter instability. The experimental results were obtained previously in the Institute of Thermomechanics by interferographic measurements in a subsonic wind tunnel in Nový Knín.
Numerical study of the static and pitching RISOe-B1-18 airfoil[STALL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F.
2004-01-01
The objective of this report is the better understanding of the physics of the aeroelastic motion of wind turbine blades in order to improve the numerical models used for their design. In this study, the case of the RISOe-B1-18 airfoil which was equipped and measured in an open jet wind tunnel is studied. Two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes calculations using the k-w SST and Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence models are conducted. An engineering semi-empirical dynamic stall model is also used for performing calculations. Computational results are compared to the experimental results that are available both for the static airfoil and in the case of pitching motions. It is shown that the Navier-Stokes simulations can reproduced the main characteristic features of the flow. The DES model seems also to be able to reproduce some details of the unsteady aerodynamics. The Navier-Stokes computations can then be used to improve the performance of the engineering model. (au)
Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)
1997-12-31
The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 3, book 2 describes the performance and characteristics of the MOD-5A wind turbine generator in its final configuration. The subsystem for power generation, control, and instrumentation subsystems is described in detail. The manufacturing and construction plans, and the preparation of a potential site on Oahu, Hawaii, are documented. The quality assurance and safety plan, and analyses of failure modes and effects, and reliability, availability and maintainability are presented.
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 1 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The conceptual design studies, which defined a baseline configuration and determined the weights, costs and sizes of each subsystem, are described. The development and optimization of the wind turbine generator are presented through the description of the ten intermediate configurations between the conceptual and final designs. Analyses of the system's load and dynamics are presented.
Vinci, Samuel, J.
2012-01-01
This report is the third part of a three-part final report of research performed under an NRA cooperative Agreement contract. The first part was published as NASA/CR-2012-217415. The second part was published as NASA/CR-2012-217416. The study of the very high lift low-pressure turbine airfoil L1A in the presence of unsteady wakes was performed computationally and compared against experimental results. The experiments were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel under high (4.9%) and then low (0.6%) freestream turbulence intensity for Reynolds number equal to 25,000 and 50,000. The experimental and computational data have shown that in cases without wakes, the boundary layer separated without reattachment. The CFD was done with LES and URANS utilizing the finite-volume code ANSYS Fluent (ANSYS, Inc.) under the same freestream turbulence and Reynolds number conditions as the experiment but only at a rod to blade spacing of 1. With wakes, separation was largely suppressed, particularly if the wake passing frequency was sufficiently high. This was validated in the 3D CFD efforts by comparing the experimental results for the pressure coefficients and velocity profiles, which were reasonable for all cases examined. The 2D CFD efforts failed to capture the three dimensionality effects of the wake and thus were less consistent with the experimental data. The effect of the freestream turbulence intensity levels also showed a little more consistency with the experimental data at higher intensities when compared with the low intensity cases. Additional cases with higher wake passing frequencies which were not run experimentally were simulated. The results showed that an initial 25% increase from the experimental wake passing greatly reduced the size of the separation bubble, nearly completely suppressing it.
Influence of loading distribution on the performance of high pressure turbine blades
Corriveau, Daniel
Midspan measurements were made in a transonic wind tunnel for three High Pressure (HP) turbine blade cascades at both design and off-design incidences. Comparisons with two-dimensional numerical simulations of the cascade flow were also made. The baseline profile is the midspan section of a HP turbine blade of fairly recent design. It is considered mid-loaded. To gain a better understanding of blade loading limits and the influence of loading distributions, the profile of the baseline airfoil was modified to create two new airfoils having aft-loaded and front-loaded pressure distributions. Tests were performed for exit Mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.2. In addition, measurements were made for an extended range of Reynolds numbers for constant Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.85, 0.95 and 1.05. At the design exit Mach number of 1.05 and at design incidence, the aft-loaded airfoil showed a reduction of almost 20% in the total pressure losses compared with the baseline airfoil. Based on the analysis of wake traverse data and base pressure measurements combined with numerical results, it was found that the poorer loss performance of the baseline mid-loaded profile compared to the aft-loaded blade could be attributed to the former's higher rear suction side curvature, which resulted in higher flow velocity in that region, which, in turn, contributed to reducing the base pressure. The lower base pressure at the trailing edge resulted in a stronger trailing edge shock system for the mid-loaded blade. This shock system increased the losses for the mid-loaded baseline profile when compared to the aft-loaded profile. On the negative side, it was also found that as Mach numbers were increased beyond the design value the performance of the aft-loaded blade deteriorated rapidly. Under such conditions, the front-loaded airfoil showed generally inferior performance compared with the baseline airfoil. At off-design incidence, the aft-loaded blade maintained a superior loss performance over a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duncan, T.; Fotsing, I.; Pearson, S. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2010-07-01
This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the energy losses that can occur as a result of icing on wind turbines. Airfoil deterioration can occur in the presence of rime and glaze ice. Anemometers are also impacted by ice, and shut-downs can occur as a result of icing events. Availability deficits that occur during the winter months can lead to annual energy losses of 0.5 percent. The impact of icing events on total wind power energy production in Quebec is estimated at between 1.3 percent to 2.7 percent. Ice loss estimates are considered during the pre-construction phases of wind power projects. However, ice loss prediction methods are often inaccurate. Studies have demonstrated that preconstruction masts show a reasonable correlation with wind turbine icing, and that icing losses are site-specific. tabs., figs.
Flow past a self-oscillating airfoil with two degrees of freedom: measurements and simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šidlof Petr
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on investigation of the unsteady subsonic airflow past an elastically supported airfoil for subcritical flow velocities and during the onset of the flutter instability. A physical model of the NACA0015 airfoil has been designed and manufactured, allowing motion with two degrees of freedom: pitching (rotation about the elastic axis and plunging (vertical motion. The structural mass and stiffness matrix can be tuned to certain extent, so that the natural frequencies of the two modes approach as needed. The model was placed in the measuring section of the wind tunnel in the aerodynamic laboratory of the Institute of Thermomechanics in Nový Knín, and subjected to low Mach number airflow up to the flow velocities when self-oscillation reach amplitudes dangerous for the structural integrity of the model. The motion of the airfoil was registered by a high-speed camera, with synchronous measurement of the mechanic vibration and discrete pressure sensors on the surface of the airfoil. The results of the measurements are presented together with numerical simulation results, based on a finite volume CFD model of airflow past a vibrating airfoil.
Vibrational analysis of vertical axis wind turbine blades
Kapucu, Onur
The goal of this research is to derive a vibration model for a vertical axis wind turbine blade. This model accommodates the affects of varying relative flow angle caused by rotating the blade in the flow field, uses a simple aerodynamic model that assumes constant wind speed and constant rotation rate, and neglects the disturbance of wind due to upstream blade or post. The blade is modeled as elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam under transverse bending and twist deflections. Kinetic and potential energy equations for a rotating blade under deflections are obtained, expressed in terms of assumed modal coordinates and then plugged into Lagrangian equations where the non-conservative forces are the lift and drag forces and moments. An aeroelastic model for lift and drag forces, approximated with third degree polynomials, on the blade are obtained assuming an airfoil under variable angle of attack and airflow magnitudes. A simplified quasi-static airfoil theory is used, in which the lift and drag coefficients are not dependent on the history of the changing angle of attack. Linear terms on the resulting equations of motion will be used to conduct a numerical analysis and simulation, where numeric specifications are modified from the Sandia-17m Darrieus wind turbine by Sandia Laboratories.
Design and development of nautilus whorl-wind turbine
R, Pramod; Kumar, G. B. Veeresh; Harsha, P. Sai Sri; Kumar, K. A. Udaya
2017-07-01
Our life is directly related to energy and its consumption, and the issues of energy research are extremely important and highly sensitive. Scientists and researchers attempt to accelerate solutions for wind energy generation, design parameters under the influence of novel policies adopted for energy management and the concerns for global warming and climate change. The objective of this study is to design a small wind turbine that is optimized for the constraints that come with residential use. The study is aimed at designing a wind turbine for tapping the low speed wind in urban locations. The design process includes the selection of the wind turbine type and the determination of the blade airfoil, finding the maximum drag model and manufacturing of the turbine economically. In this study, the Nautilus turbine is modeled, simulated and the characteristic curves are plotted. The cutting in wind speed for the turbine is around 1m/s. The turbine rotates in a range of 20 rpm to 500 rpm at wind speeds 1m/s to 10m/s On a below average day at noon where the wind speed are usually low the turbine recorded an rpm of 120 (average value) at 4m/s wind speeds. This study focuses on a computational fluid dynamics analysis of compressible radially outward flow.
Airfoil Shape Optimization in Transonic Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Islam, Z.
2004-01-01
A computationally efficient and adaptable design tool is constructed by coupling a flow analysis code based on Euler equations, with the well established numerical optimization algorithms. Optimization technique involving two analysis methods of Simplex and Rosenbrock have been used. The optimization study involves the minimization of wave drag for two different airfoils with geometric constraints on the airfoil maximum thickness or the cross sectional area along with aerodynamic constraint on lift coefficient. The method is applied to these airfoils transonic flow design points, and the results are compared with the original values. This study shows that the conventional low speed airfoils can be optimized to become supercritical for transonic flight speeds, while existing supercritical airfoils can still be improved further at particular design condition. (author)
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 3, book 1 describes the performance and characteristics of the MOD-5A wind turbine generator in its final configuration. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation is described in detail.
Analysis of VAWT Efficiency of NACA00 Series Airfoil%NACA00系列翼型的VAWT效能影响因素分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹阳; 时玉娟; 吴国庆; 李巧梅
2017-01-01
采用滑移网格技术对不同参数下的小型垂直轴叶轮瞬态流场进行了数值计算,着重研究了不同安装角、翼型、叶片弦长、叶片数对叶轮功率的影响,得出不同转速下使叶轮获得最大功率的最佳翼型、叶片安装角、弦长和叶片数,并通过吹风实验验证了最佳叶片数和最佳弦长时的垂直轴风力机具有较优的气动性能.%Numerical simulation on unsteady rotated flow of vertical axis wind turbine with different parameters is done based on moving meshes,and it's mainly studied that power of vertical axis wind turbine is affected by different installation angles,airfoils,chord lengths,number of blades.It is proved that when the blade installation Angle,the chord length,the number of blade,and airfoil are best,vertical axis wind turbine can obtain maximum power.At last,the optimal number of blades and chord lengths are testified in the further blowing experiments,and now the optimal aerodynamic performance of vertical axis wind turbine is gotten.
Sogukpinar, Haci; Bozkurt, Ismail
2018-02-01
In this paper, aerodynamic calculations of NACA 4 series airfoil of 0012 are performed by using Finite-Volume Method and obtained results are compared with experimental data to correlate the numerical accuracy of CFD approximation. Then other airfoils are simulated with k-ɛ, k-w Spalart-Allmaras and SST model. The governing equations are the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The performance of different airfoils (NACA 0008, 0009, 0010, 0012, 0015, 0018, 0021, 0024) at different angle of attack are investigated and compared with most used turbulence models for industrial applications. According to the results of the comparison of numerical calculations and experimental data, k-w and SST models are considered to be closest to experimental results for the calculation of the lift coefficient.
Gas turbine vane platform element
Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Schiavo, Anthony L [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL
2012-08-28
A gas turbine CMC shroud plate (48A) with a vane-receiving opening (79) that matches a cross-section profile of a turbine vane airfoil (22). The shroud plate (48A) has first and second curved circumferential sides (73A, 74A) that generally follow the curves of respective first and second curved sides (81, 82) of the vane-receiving opening. Walls (75A, 76A, 77A, 78A, 80, 88) extend perpendicularly from the shroud plate forming a cross-bracing structure for the shroud plate. A vane (22) may be attached to the shroud plate by pins (83) or by hoop-tension rings (106) that clamp tabs (103) of the shroud plate against bosses (105) of the vane. A circular array (20) of shroud plates (48A) may be assembled to form a vane shroud ring in which adjacent shroud plates are separated by compressible ceramic seals (93).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyun Ju Jung
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The two-dimensional unsteady flow around a vertical axis turbine for tidal stream energy conversion was investigated using a computational fluid dynamics tool solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The geometry of the turbine blade section was NACA653-018 airfoil. The computational analysis was done at several different angles of attack and the results were compared with the corresponding experimental data for validation and calibration. Simulations were then carried out for the two-dimensional cross section of a vertical axis turbine. The simulation results demonstrated the usefulness of the method for the typical unsteady flows around vertical axis turbines. The optimum turbine efficiency was achieved for carefully selected combinations of the number of blades and tip speed ratios.
Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows
Ramesh, Kiran
Unsteady flow phenomena are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, aerodynamics of insect flight, dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, leading-edge vortices in delta wings, micro-air vehicle (MAV) design, gust handling and flow control. The most significant characteristics of unsteady flows are rapid changes in the circulation of the airfoil, apparent-mass effects, flow separation and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) phenomenon. Although experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have enabled the detailed study of unsteady flows and their underlying features, a reliable and inexpensive loworder method for fast prediction and for use in control and design is still required. In this research, a low-order methodology based on physical principles rather than empirical fitting is proposed. The objective of such an approach is to enable insights into unsteady phenomena while developing approaches to model them. The basis of the low-order model developed here is unsteady thin-airfoil theory. A time-stepping approach is used to solve for the vorticity on an airfoil camberline, allowing for large amplitudes and nonplanar wakes. On comparing lift coefficients from this method against data from CFD and experiments for some unsteady test cases, it is seen that the method predicts well so long as LEV formation does not occur and flow over the airfoil is attached. The formation of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) in unsteady flows is initiated by flow separation and the formation of a shear layer at the airfoil's leading edge. This phenomenon has been observed to have both detrimental (dynamic stall in helicopters) and beneficial (high-lift flight in insects) effects. To predict the formation of LEVs in unsteady flows, a Leading Edge Suction Parameter (LESP) is proposed. This parameter is calculated from inviscid theory and is a measure of the suction at the airfoil's leading edge. It
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khaled Yassin
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This work aims to optimize the aerodynamic parameters (airfoil chord lengths and twist angles smoothed using Bezier curves of the NREL 5MW wind turbine and a wind turbine designed for site-specific wind conditions to increase the wind turbine's annual energy production (AEP under this site conditions. This optimization process is carried out using a Genetic Algorithm (GA developed in MATLAB and coupled with NREL's FAST Modularization Framework. The results shows that after optimizing the NREL 5MW wind turbine design, the AEP was improved by 5.9% of the baseline design AEP while a site-specific designed wind turbine using Schmitz equations shows 1.2% improvement in AEP. These results shows that optimization of wind turbine blade aerodynamic parameters for site-specific wind conditions leads to improvement in AEP and hence decreasing cost of energy generated by wind turbines.
Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade.
Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De
2015-01-01
At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project.
Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade
Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De
2015-01-01
At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (C Popt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger C Popt or AEP (C Popt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same C Popt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum C popt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and C popt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project. PMID:26528815
Software tool for horizontal-axis wind turbine simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vitale, A.J. [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia, Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7, 5 CC 804, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Rossi, A.P. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)
2008-07-15
The main problem of a wind turbine generator design project is the design of the right blades capable of satisfying the specific energy requirement of an electric system with optimum performance. Once the blade has been designed for optimum operation at a particular rotor angular speed, it is necessary to determine the overall performance of the rotor under the range of wind speed that it will encounter. A software tool that simulates low-power, horizontal-axis wind turbines was developed for this purpose. With this program, the user can calculate the rotor power output for any combination of wind and rotor speeds, with definite blade shape and airfoil characteristics. The software also provides information about distribution of forces along the blade span, for different operational conditions. (author)
Examples of using CFD for wind turbine aerodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hansen, M.O.L.; Soerensen, J.N. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Energy Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, N.N. [Risoe National Lab., Test Station for Wind Turbines (Denmark)
1997-12-31
Overall it is concluded that in order to improve the results from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) for wind turbine aerodynamics characterized by: high angles of attack; thick airfoils; 3-D effects; instationary effects. Extreme care must be put on turbulence and transition models, and fine grids are necessary especially at the suction peak. If these precautions are taken CFD can be used as a tool for obtaining lift and drag coefficients for the BEM (Blade Element Momentum) model. (au)
Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Zahle, Frederik
This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project “Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine” (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beamelement forHAWC2 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis...... of controlled wind turbines 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Johnson, David A
2014-01-01
One of the strategies used to improve performance and increase the life-span of wind turbines is active flow control. It involves the modification of the aerodynamic characteristics of a wind turbine blade by means of moveable aerodynamic control surfaces. Trailing edge flaps are relatively small moveable control surfaces placed at the trailing edge of a blade's airfoil that modify the lift of a blade or airfoil section. An instrumented wind turbine test rig and rotor were specifically developed to enable a wide-range of experiments to investigate the potential of trailing edge flaps as an active control technique. A modular blade based on the S833 airfoil was designed to allow accurate instrumentation and customizable settings. The blade is 1.7 meters long, had a constant 178mm chord and a 6° pitch. The modular aerodynamic parts were 3D printed using plastic PC-ABS material. The blade design point was within the range of wind velocities in the available large test facility. The wind facility is a large open jet wind tunnel with a maximum velocity of 11m/s in the test area. The capability of the developed system was demonstrated through an initial study of the effect of stationary trailing edge flaps on blade load and performance. The investigation focused on measuring the changes in flapwise bending moment and power production for different trailing edge flap spanwise locations and deflection angles. The relationship between the load reduction and deflection angle was linear as expected from theory and the highest reduction was caused by the flap furthest from the rotor center. Overall, the experimental setup proved to be effective in measuring small changes in flapwise bending moment within the wind turbine blade and will provide insight when (active) flap control is targeted
Moghadassian, Behnam; Sharma, Anupam
2017-01-01
A method for inverse design of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) is presented in this paper. The direct solver for aerodynamic analysis solves the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations, where the effect of the turbine rotor is modeled as momentum sources using the actuator disk model (ADM); this approach is referred to as RANS/ADM. The inverse problem is posed as follows: for a given selection of airfoils, the objective is to find the blade geometry (described as blade twist an...
Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.
Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin
2014-01-01
Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villalpando, Fernando; Reggio, Marcelo; Ilinca, Adrian
2016-01-01
An approach to numerically simulate ice accretion on 2D sections of a wind turbine blade is presented. The method uses standard commercial ANSYS-Fluent and Matlab tools. The Euler-Euler formulation is used to calculate the water impingement on the airfoil, and a UDF (Used Defined Function) has been devised to turn the airfoil's solid wall into a permeable boundary. Mayer's thermodynamic model is implemented in Matlab for computing ice thickness and for updating the airfoil contour. A journal file is executed to systematize the procedure: meshing, droplet trajectory calculation, thermodynamic model application for computing ice accretion, and the updating of airfoil contours. The proposed ice prediction strategy has been validated using iced airfoil contours obtained experimentally in the AMIL refrigerated wind tunnel (Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory). Finally, a numerical prediction method has been generated for anti-icing assessment, and its results compared with data obtained in this laboratory. - Highlights: • A methodology for ice accretion prediction using commercial software is proposed. • Euler model gives better prediction of airfoil water collection with detached flow. • A source term is used to change from a solid wall to a permeable wall in Fluent. • Energy needed for ice-accretion mitigation system is predicted.
Nonlinear aeroelastic behavior of compliant airfoils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thwapiah, G; Campanile, L F
2010-01-01
Since the beginning of aviation and up to the present time, airfoils have always been built as rigid structures. They are designed to fly under their divergence speed in order to avoid static aeroelastic instabilities and the resulting large deformations, which are not compatible with the typically low compliance of such airfoils. In recent years, research on airfoil morphing has generated interest in innovative ideas like the use of compliant systems, i.e. systems built to allow for large deformations without failure, in airfoil construction. Such systems can operate in the neighborhood of divergence and take advantage of large aeroelastic servo-effects. This, in turn, allows compact, advanced actuators to control the airfoil's deformation and loads, and hence complement or even replace conventional flaps. In order to analyze and design such compliant, active aeroelastic structures a nonlinear approach to static aeroelasticity is needed, which takes into account the effect of large deformations on aerodynamics and structure. Such an analytical approach is presented in this paper and applied to a compliant passive airfoil as the preliminary step in the realization of a piezoelectrically driven, active aeroelastic airfoil. Wind tunnel test results are also presented and compared with the analytic prediction. The good agreement and the observed behavior in the wind tunnel give confidence in the potential of this innovative idea
Nonlinear aeroelastic behavior of compliant airfoils
Thwapiah, G.; Campanile, L. F.
2010-03-01
Since the beginning of aviation and up to the present time, airfoils have always been built as rigid structures. They are designed to fly under their divergence speed in order to avoid static aeroelastic instabilities and the resulting large deformations, which are not compatible with the typically low compliance of such airfoils. In recent years, research on airfoil morphing has generated interest in innovative ideas like the use of compliant systems, i.e. systems built to allow for large deformations without failure, in airfoil construction. Such systems can operate in the neighborhood of divergence and take advantage of large aeroelastic servo-effects. This, in turn, allows compact, advanced actuators to control the airfoil's deformation and loads, and hence complement or even replace conventional flaps. In order to analyze and design such compliant, active aeroelastic structures a nonlinear approach to static aeroelasticity is needed, which takes into account the effect of large deformations on aerodynamics and structure. Such an analytical approach is presented in this paper and applied to a compliant passive airfoil as the preliminary step in the realization of a piezoelectrically driven, active aeroelastic airfoil. Wind tunnel test results are also presented and compared with the analytic prediction. The good agreement and the observed behavior in the wind tunnel give confidence in the potential of this innovative idea.
Recent Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine aerodynamical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories
Klimas, P. C.
1981-01-01
Experiments contributing to the understanding of the aerodynamics of airfoils operating in the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) environment are described. These experiments are ultimately intended to reduce VAWT cost of energy and increase system reliability. They include chordwise pressure surveys, circumferential blade acceleration surveys, effects of blade camber, pitch and offset, blade blowing, and use of sections designed specifically for VAWT application.
The aerodynamic design of an advanced rotor airfoil
Blackwell, J. A., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.
1978-01-01
An advanced rotor airfoil, designed utilizing supercritical airfoil technology and advanced design and analysis methodology is described. The airfoil was designed subject to stringent aerodynamic design criteria for improving the performance over the entire rotor operating regime. The design criteria are discussed. The design was accomplished using a physical plane, viscous, transonic inverse design procedure, and a constrained function minimization technique for optimizing the airfoil leading edge shape. The aerodynamic performance objectives of the airfoil are discussed.
Wake structure and similar behavior of wake profiles downstream of a plunging airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali R. DAVARI
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Very limited attention has already been paid to the velocity behavior in the wake region in unsteady aerodynamic problems. A series of tests has been performed on a flapping airfoil in a subsonic wind tunnel to study the wake structure for different sets of mean angle of attack, plunging amplitude and reduced frequency. In this study, the velocity profiles in the wake for various oscillation parameters have been measured using a wide shoulder rake, especially designed for the present experiments. The airfoil under consideration was a critical section of a 660 kW wind turbine. The results show that for a flapping airfoil the wake structure can be of drag producing type, thrust producing or neutral, depending on the mean angle of attack, oscillation amplitude and reduced frequency. In a thrust producing wake, a high-momentum high-velocity jet flow is formed in the core region of the wake instead of the conventional low-momentum flow. As a result, the drag force normally experienced by the body due to the momentum deficit would be replaced by a thrust force. According to the results, the momentum loss in the wake decreases as the reduced frequency increases. The thrust producing wake pattern for the flapping airfoil has been observed for sufficiently low angles of attack in the absence of the viscous effects. This phenomenon has also been observed for either high oscillation amplitudes or high reduced frequencies. According to the results, for different reduced frequencies and plunging amplitudes, such that the product of them be a constant, the velocity profiles exhibit similar behavior and coalesce on each other. This similarity parameter works excellently at small angles of attack. However, at near stall boundaries, the similarity is not as evident as before.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belkheir, N. [Khemis Miliana Univ., Ain Defla (Algeria); Dizene, R. [Univ. des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria). Laboratoire de Mecanique Avancee; Khelladi, S.; Massouh, F.; Dobrev, I. [Arts et Metiers Paris Tech., Paris (France)
2010-07-01
The shape of an airfoil is designed to achieve the best aerodynamic performance. An aerofoil section undergoes dynamic stall when subjected to any form of unsteady angle of pitch. The study of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) under wind operating conditions is complex because it is subject to instantaneous speed and wind direction variation. When turbine blades are driven into a dynamic stall, the lift coefficient drops suddenly resulting in a degradation in aerodynamic performance. This study presented steady and unsteady wind load predictions over an oscillating S809 airfoil tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. A model of sinusoidal pitch oscillations was used. The values for the angles of attack in steady state ranged from -20 to +40 degrees. The model considered 3 frequencies and 2 amplitudes. The two-dimensional numerical model simulated the instantaneous change of wind direction with respect to the turbine blade. Results were compared with data measurements of S809 aerofoil. Reasonable deviations were obtained between the predicted and experimental results for pitch oscillations. The URANS approach was used to predict the stall while the software FLUENT was used for the numerical solution. It was concluded that the behaviour of the unsteady flow in the wind farm must be considered in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the wind turbine aerodynamic load. 12 refs., 5 figs.
Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems Annual Program Review meeting. Volume 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-10-01
Goal of the 8-year program are to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. The conference is held annually for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties in industry, academia, and Government. This volume contains 28 poster presentations and appendices; the poster papers are processed separately for the data base.
Turbine Internal and Film Cooling Modeling For 3D Navier-Stokes Codes
DeWitt, Kenneth; Garg Vijay; Ameri, Ali
2005-01-01
The aim of this research project is to make use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities in order to develop, validate and apply aerodynamic, heat transfer, and turbine cooling models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as the Glenn-" code. Specific areas of effort include: Application of the Glenn-HT code to specific configurations made available under Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC), and Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) projects. Validating the use of a multi-block code for the time accurate computation of the detailed flow and heat transfer of cooled turbine airfoils. The goal of the current research is to improve the predictive ability of the Glenn-HT code. This will enable one to design more efficient turbine components for both aviation and power generation. The models will be tested against specific configurations provided by NASA Glenn.
Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2010-01-01
This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....
Characterization of Oscillatory Lift in MFC Airfoils
Lang Jr, Joseph Reagle
2014-01-01
The purpose of this research is to characterize the response of an airfoil with an oscillatory morphing, Macro-fiber composite (MFC) trailing edge. Correlation of the airfoil lift with the oscillatory input is presented. Modal analysis of the test airfoil and apparatus is used to determine the frequency response function. The effects of static MFC inputs on the FRF are presented and compared to the unactuated airfoil. The transfer function is then used to determine the lift component du...
Numerical Simulation of Tower Rotor Interaction for Downwind Wind Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isam Janajreh
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Downwind wind turbines have lower upwind rotor misalignment, and thus lower turning moment and self-steered advantage over the upwind configuration. In this paper, numerical simulation to the downwind turbine is conducted to investigate the interaction between the tower and the blade during the intrinsic passage of the rotor in the wake of the tower. The moving rotor has been accounted for via ALE formulation of the incompressible, unsteady, turbulent Navier-Stokes equations. The localized CP, CL, and CD are computed and compared to undisturbed flow evaluated by Panel method. The time history of the CP, aerodynamic forces (CL and CD, as well as moments were evaluated for three cross-sectional tower; asymmetrical airfoil (NACA0012 having four times the rotor's chord length, and two circular cross-sections having four and two chords lengths of the rotor's chord. 5%, 17%, and 57% reductions of the aerodynamic lift forces during the blade passage in the wake of the symmetrical airfoil tower, small circular cross-section tower and large circular cross-section tower were observed, respectively. The pronounced reduction, however, is confined to a short time/distance of three rotor chords. A net forward impulsive force is also observed on the tower due to the high speed rotor motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, Christian
2007-01-01
In this paper the influence of different key parameters in aerodynamic wind turbine rotor design on the power efficiency, C p , and energy production has been investigated. The work was divided into an analysis of 2D airfoils/blade sections and of entire rotors. In the analysis of the 2D airfoils it was seen that there was a maximum of the local C p for airfoils with finite maximum C l /C d values. The local speed ratio should be between 2.4 and 3.8 for airfoils with maximum c l /c d between 50 and 200, respectively, to obtain maximum local C p . Also, the investigation showed that Re had a significant impact on CP and especially for Re p for rotors was made with three blades and showed that with the assumption of constant maximum c l /c d along the entire blade, the design tip speed ratio changed from X=6 to X=12 for c l /cd=50 and c l /c d =200, respectively, with corresponding values of maximum c p of 0.46 and 0.525. An analysis of existing rotors re-designed with new airfoils but maintaining the absolute thickness distribution to maintain the stiffness showed that big rotors are more aerodynamic efficient than small rotors caused by higher Re. It also showed that the design tip speed ratio was very dependent on the rotor size and on the assumptions of the airfoil flow being fully turbulent (contaminated airfoil) or free transitional (clean airfoil). The investigations showed that rotors with diameter D=1.75m, should be designed for X around 5.5, whereas rotors with diameter D=126m, should be designed for Xbetween 6.5 and 8.5, depending on the airfoil performance
Sogukpinar, Haci
2018-02-01
In this study, aerodynamic performances of NACA 0012 airfoils with distinct modification are numerically investigated to obtain high lift coefficient and post-stall airfoils. NACA 0012 airfoil is divided into two part thought chord line then suction sides kept fixed and by changing the thickness of the pressure side new types of airfoil are created. Numerical experiments are then conducted by varying thickness of NACA 0012 from lower surface and different relative thicknesses asymmetrical airfoils are modified and NACA 0012-10, 0012-08, 0012-07, 0012-06, 0012-04, 0012-03, 0012-02, 0012-01 are created and simulated by using COMSOL software.
Botha, J. D. M.; Shahroki, A.; Rice, H.
2017-12-01
This paper presents an enhanced method for predicting aerodynamically generated broadband noise produced by a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). The method improves on existing work for VAWT noise prediction and incorporates recently developed airfoil noise prediction models. Inflow-turbulence and airfoil self-noise mechanisms are both considered. Airfoil noise predictions are dependent on aerodynamic input data and time dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations are carried out to solve for the aerodynamic solution. Analytical flow methods are also benchmarked against the CFD informed noise prediction results to quantify errors in the former approach. Comparisons to experimental noise measurements for an existing turbine are encouraging. A parameter study is performed and shows the sensitivity of overall noise levels to changes in inflow velocity and inflow turbulence. Noise sources are characterised and the location and mechanism of the primary sources is determined, inflow-turbulence noise is seen to be the dominant source. The use of CFD calculations is seen to improve the accuracy of noise predictions when compared to the analytic flow solution as well as showing that, for inflow-turbulence noise sources, blade generated turbulence dominates the atmospheric inflow turbulence.
The effect of annealing and desulfurization on oxide spallation of turbine airfoil material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briant, C.L.; Murphy, W.H.; Schaeffer, J.C.
1995-01-01
In this paper the authors report a study that addresses the sulfur-induced spallation theory. Previous work has shown that a high temperature anneal in hydrogen desulfurizes nickel-base alloys and greatly improves their resistance to oxide spallation. The authors will show that such an anneal can be applied successfully to a Ni-base airfoil material. Both Auger segregation experiments and chemical analyses show that this anneal desulfurizes the material, at least in the absence of yttrium. However, the results suggest that factors other than desulfurization may be contributing to the improvement in spallation resistance produced by the anneal
Whitcomb, R. T. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
An airfoil is examined that has an upper surface shaped to control flow accelerations and pressure distribution over the upper surface and to prevent separation of the boundary layer due to shock wave formulation at high subsonic speeds well above the critical Mach number. A highly cambered trailing edge section improves overall airfoil lifting efficiency. Diagrams illustrating supersonic flow and shock waves over the airfoil are shown.
Wake Survey of a Marine Current Turbine Under Steady Conditions
Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen
2016-11-01
A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to study the wake of a horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine was tested in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross section. Separate wind tunnel testing has shown the foil section used on the turbine to be Reynolds number independent with respect to lift at the experimental parameters of tow carriage speed (Utow = 1 . 68 m/s) and tip speed ratio (TSR = 7). The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft, and to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed into a single field of investigation. Results include streamwise and vertical ensemble average velocity fields averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, as well as higher-order statistics. Turbine tip vortex centers were identified and plotted showing increasing aperiodicity with wake age. keywords: horizontal axis marine current turbine, particle image velocimetry, towing tank, wake survey
Improving Turbine Performance with Ceramic Matrix Composites
DiCarlo, James A.
2007-01-01
Under the new NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, efforts are on-going within the Supersonics Project aimed at the implementation of advanced SiC/SiC ceramic composites into hot section components of future gas turbine engines. Due to recent NASA advancements in SiC-based fibers and matrices, these composites are lighter and capable of much higher service temperatures than current metallic superalloys, which in turn will allow the engines to operate at higher efficiencies and reduced emissions. This presentation briefly reviews studies within Task 6.3.3 that are primarily aimed at developing physics-based concepts, tools, and process/property models for micro- and macro-structural design, fabrication, and lifing of SiC/SiC turbine components in general and airfoils in particular. Particular emphasis is currently being placed on understanding and modeling (1) creep effects on residual stress development within the component, (2) fiber architecture effects on key composite properties such as design strength, and (3) preform formation processes so that the optimum architectures can be implemented into complex-shaped components, such as turbine vanes and blades.
Airfoil flow instabilities induced by background flow oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selerowicz, W.C.; Szumowski, A.P. [Technical Univ. Warsaw (Poland)
2002-04-01
The effect of background flow oscillations on transonic airfoil (NACA 0012) flow was investigated experimentally. The oscillations were generated by means of a rotating plate placed downstream of the airfoil. Owing to oscillating chocking of the flow caused by the plate, the airfoil flow periodically accelerated and decelerated. This led to strong variations in the surface pressure and the airfoil loading. The results are presented for two angles of attack, {alpha}=4 and {alpha}=8.5 , which correspond to the attached and separated steady airfoil flows, respectively. (orig.)
VISUALISASI DISTRIBUSI TEKANAN PADA AIRFOIL JOUKOWSKY
Eddy Maryonoto
2009-01-01
The goal of this research is to develop a computer based system that can beused to visualize pressure distribution on the Joukowsky's airfoil and streamlinespattern around the airfoil. The pressure on the airfoil is calculdted usingformulasderived from potensial theory. Visualization of pressure distribution implementedby using color gradation technique and coded b.v using Borland Delphi 6programming language. The result of the test shotus lhat lhe system has performedperfectly. Pressure disl...
Bunker, Ronald S.; Bailey, Jeremy C.; Ameri, Ali A.
1999-01-01
A combined computational and experimental study has been performed to investigate the detailed distribution of convective heat transfer coefficients on the first stage blade tip surface for a geometry typical of large power generation turbines(>100MW). This paper is concerned with the design and execution of the experimental portion of the study. A stationary blade cascade experiment has been run consisting of three airfoils, the center airfoil having a variable tip gap clearance. The airfoil models the aerodynamic tip section of a high pressure turbine blade with inlet Mach number of 0.30, exit Mach number of 0.75, pressure ratio of 1.45, exit Reynolds number based on axial chord of 2.57 x 10(exp 6), and total turning of about 110 degrees. A hue detection based liquid crystal method is used to obtain the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution on the blade tip surface for flat, smooth tip surfaces with both sharp and rounded edges. The cascade inlet turbulence intensity level took on values of either 5% or 9%. The cascade also models the casing recess in the shroud surface ahead of the blade. Experimental results are shown for the pressure distribution measurements on the airfoil near the tip gap, on the blade tip surface, and on the opposite shroud surface. Tip surface heat transfer coefficient distributions are shown for sharp-edge and rounded-edge tip geometries at each of the inlet turbulence intensity levels.
Transonic Airfoil Flow Simulation. Part I: Mesh Generation and Inviscid Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir CARDOS
2010-06-01
Full Text Available A calculation method for the subsonic and transonic viscous flow over airfoil using thedisplacement surface concept is described. Part I presents a mesh generation method forcomputational grid and a finite volume method for the time-dependent Euler equations. The inviscidsolution is used for the inviscid-viscous coupling procedure presented in the Part II.
Design of Shrouded Airborne Wind Turbine & CFD Analysis
Anbreen, Faiqa; Faiqa Anbreen Collaboration
2015-11-01
The focus is to design a shrouded airborne wind turbine, capable to generate 70 kW to propel a leisure boat. The idea of designing an airborne turbine is to take the advantage of different velocity layers in the atmosphere. The blades have been designed using NREL S826 airfoil, which has coefficient of lift CL of 1.4 at angle of attack, 6°. The value selected for CP is 0.8. The rotor diameter is 7.4 m. The balloon (shroud) has converging-diverging nozzle design, to increase the mass flow rate through the rotor. The ratio of inlet area to throat area, Ai/At is 1.31 and exit area to throat area, Ae/At is1.15. The Solidworks model has been analyzed numerically using CFD. The software used is StarCCM +. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Simulation (URANS) K- ɛ model has been selected, to study the physical properties of the flow, with emphasis on the performance of the turbine. Stress analysis has been done using Nastran. From the simulations, the torque generated by the turbine is approximately 800N-m and angular velocity is 21 rad/s.
Performance and Feasibility Analysis of a Wind Turbine Power System for Use on Mars
Lichter, Matthew D.; Viterna, Larry
1999-01-01
A wind turbine power system for future missions to the Martian surface was studied for performance and feasibility. A C++ program was developed from existing FORTRAN code to analyze the power capabilities of wind turbines under different environments and design philosophies. Power output, efficiency, torque, thrust, and other performance criteria could be computed given design geometries, atmospheric conditions, and airfoil behavior. After reviewing performance of such a wind turbine, a conceptual system design was modeled to evaluate feasibility. More analysis code was developed to study and optimize the overall structural design. Findings of this preliminary study show that turbine power output on Mars could be as high as several hundred kilowatts. The optimized conceptual design examined here would have a power output of 104 kW, total mass of 1910 kg, and specific power of 54.6 W/kg.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...... and trailing edge noise, recognized to be the two main sources of noise from wind turbines, this work contributes to a more detailed insight into noise from wind turbines. The study comprises analysis and interpretation of measurement data that were acquired during an experimental campaign involving a 2 MW...... wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush...
Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Feasibility with a Trailing Edge Flap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, W J; Shen, W Z; Sørensen, J N
2014-01-01
This paper concerns a numerical study of employing an adaptive trailing edge flap to control the lift of an airfoil subject to unsteady inflow conditions. The periodically varying inflow is generated by two oscillating airfoils, which are located upstream of the controlled airfoil. To establish the control system, a standard PID controller is implemented in a finite volume based incompressible flow solver. An immersed boundary method is applied to treat the problem of simulating a deformable airfoil trailing edge. The flow field is solved using a 2D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes finite volume solver. In order to more accurately simulate wall bounded flows around the immersed boundary, a modified boundary condition is introduced in the k- ω turbulence model. As an example, turbulent flow over a NACA 64418 airfoil with a deformable trailing edge is investigated. Results from numerical simulations are convincing and may give some highlights for practical implementations of trailing edge flap to a wind turbine rotor blade
Unsteady Aerodynamics of Deformable Thin Airfoils
Walker, William Paul
2009-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic theories are essential in the analysis of bird and insect flight. The study of these types of locomotion is vital in the development of flapping wing aircraft. This paper uses potential flow aerodynamics to extend the unsteady aerodynamic theory of Theodorsen and Garrick (which is restricted to rigid airfoil motion) to deformable thin airfoils. Frequency-domain lift, pitching moment and thrust expressions are derived for an airfoil undergoing harmonic oscillations and def...
Study on Trailing Edge Ramp of Supercritical Airfoil
2016-03-30
China Abstract Trailing edge flow control method could improve the performance of supercritical airfoil with a small modification on the original...stall behaviour . As a result, the non-separation ramp could increase the thickness of airfoil, which benefits wing structure and aerodynamic...direction based on the original RAE2822 airfoil, which will thicken the airfoil. The interpolation is implemented as shown in Eqn. 1. This modification could
MOD-5A wind turbine generator program design report: Volume 1: Executive Summary
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, summarizes all phases of the MOD-5A program. The performance and cost of energy generated by the MOD-5A are presented. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation, power generation, and control and instrumentation subsystems - is described briefly. The early phases of the MOD-5A program, during which the design was analyzed and optimized, and new technologies and materials were developed, are discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and safety plans are presented. The volume concludes with an index of volumes 2 and 3.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiers, S.H.
2002-02-01
The steady growing of industrialization, the densification of the anthroposphere, the increasing concern over the effects of gas turbine cruise emissions on the atmosphere threaten the growth of air transportation, and the perception about the possible climatic impact of CO{sub 2} emissions causes a public distinctive sense of responsibility. The conventional energy production techniques, which are based on fossil fuel, will keep its central importance within the global energy production. Forecasts about the increasing air transportation give duplication in the next 10-15 years. The optimization of the specific fuel consumption is necessary to decrease the running costs and the pollution emissions in the atmosphere, which makes an increased process efficiency of stationary turbines as well as of jet engines essential. This leads to the necessity of an increased thermodynamic efficiency of the overall process and the optimization of the aerodynamic components. Due to the necessity of more detailed three-dimensional data on the behavior of film cooled blades an annular sector cascade turbine test facility has gone into service. The annular sector cascade facility is a relative cost efficient solution compared to a full annular facility to investigate three-dimensional effects on a non cooled and cooled turbine blade. The aerodynamic investigations on the annular sector cascade facility are part of a broad perspective where experimental data from a hot annular sector cascade facility and the cold annular sector facility are used to verify, calibrate and understand the physics for both internal and external calculation methods for flow and heat transfer prediction. The objective of the present study is the design and validation of a cold flow annular sector cascade facility, which meets the flow conditions in a modem turbine as close as possible, with emphasis on achieving periodic flow conditions. The first part of this study gives the necessary background on this
Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 3
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. This volume contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. This volume is divided into 5 books of which this is the third, containing drawings 47A380074 through 47A380126. A full breakdown parts listing is provided as well as a where used list.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tahani, Mojtaba; Kavari, Ghazale; Masdari, Mehran
2017-01-01
This study is aimed to aerodynamically design a 1 mega-Watt horizontal axis wind turbine in order to obtain the maximum power coefficient by linearizing the chord and twist distributions. A new linearization method has been used for chord and twist distributions by crossing tangent line through...... the geometry of the blades determines the power generated by rotor, designing the blade is a very important issue. Herein, calculations are done for different types of airfoil families namely Risø-A1-21, Risø-A1-18, S809, S814 and Du 93-W-210. Hence, the effect of selecting different airfoil families is also...
1984-01-01
The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind tunnel generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 2 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The development tests, which determined or characterized many of the materials and components of the wind turbine generator, are described.
Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Methodology for Noise Assessment of Wind Turbine
Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin
2014-01-01
Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method. PMID:25075621
Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahaboddin Shamshirband
Full Text Available Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.
Babb, Grace
2017-11-01
This work aims to produce a higher fidelity model of the blades for NASA's X-57 all electric propeller driven experimental aircraft. This model will, in turn, allow for more accurate calculations of the thrust each propeller can generate. This work uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to first analyze the propeller blades as a series of 11 differently shaped airfoils and calculate, among other things, the coefficients for lift and drag associated with each airfoil at different angles of attack. OpenFOAM-a C + + library that can be used to create series of applications for pre-processing, solving, and post-processing-is one of the primary tools utilized in these calculations. By comparing the data OpenFOAM generates about the NACA 23012 airfoil with existing experimental data about the NACA 23012 airfoil, the reliability of our model is measured and verified. A trustworthy model can then be used to generate more data and sent to NASA to aid in the design of the actual aircraft.
An Integrated Method for Airfoil Optimization
Okrent, Joshua B.
Design exploration and optimization is a large part of the initial engineering and design process. To evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a design, viscous Navier-Stokes solvers can be used. However this method can prove to be overwhelmingly time consuming when performing an initial design sweep. Therefore, another evaluation method is needed to provide accurate results at a faster pace. To accomplish this goal, a coupled viscous-inviscid method is used. This thesis proposes an integrated method for analyzing, evaluating, and optimizing an airfoil using a coupled viscous-inviscid solver along with a genetic algorithm to find the optimal candidate. The method proposed is different from prior optimization efforts in that it greatly broadens the design space, while allowing the optimization to search for the best candidate that will meet multiple objectives over a characteristic mission profile rather than over a single condition and single optimization parameter. The increased design space is due to the use of multiple parametric airfoil families, namely the NACA 4 series, CST family, and the PARSEC family. Almost all possible airfoil shapes can be created with these three families allowing for all possible configurations to be included. This inclusion of multiple airfoil families addresses a possible criticism of prior optimization attempts since by only focusing on one airfoil family, they were inherently limiting the number of possible airfoil configurations. By using multiple parametric airfoils, it can be assumed that all reasonable airfoil configurations are included in the analysis and optimization and that a global and not local maximum is found. Additionally, the method used is amenable to customization to suit any specific needs as well as including the effects of other physical phenomena or design criteria and/or constraints. This thesis found that an airfoil configuration that met multiple objectives could be found for a given set of nominal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chong, W.T.; Fazlizan, A.; Poh, S.C.; Pan, K.C.; Hew, W.P.; Hsiao, F.B.
2013-01-01
Graphical abstract: Solar energy, renewable energy, urban wind energy, environment, augmented wind turbine. Highlights: ► A system for on-site wind–solar hybrid power generation and rain water collection. ► The omni-direction-guide-vane (ODGV) overcomes the weak wind and turbulence conditions in urban areas. ► The ODGV improves the wind turbine performance by speeding-up and guiding the wind. ► The ODGV is designed to blend into the building architecture with safety enhancement. ► The wind tunnel test and CFD simulation results are presented. - Abstract: A novel omni-direction-guide-vane (ODGV) that surrounds a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is designed to improve the wind turbine performance. Wind tunnel testing was performed to evaluate the performance of a 5-bladed (Wortmann FX63-137 airfoil) H-rotor wind turbine, with and without the integration of the ODGV. The test was conducted using a scaled model turbine which was constructed to simulate the VAWT enclosed by the ODGV placed on a building. The VAWT shows an improvement on its self-starting behavior where the cut-in speed was reduced with the integration of the ODGV. Since the VAWT is able to self-start at a lower wind speed, the working hour of the wind turbine would increase. At a wind speed of 6 m/s and under free-running condition (only rotor inertia and bearing friction were applied), the ODGV helps to increase the rotor rotational speed by 182%. With extra load application at the same wind speed (6 m/s), the wind turbine power output was increased by 3.48 times at its peak torque with the aid of the ODGV. The working concept of the ODGV is to minimize the negative torque zone of a lift-type VAWT and to reduce turbulence and rotational speed fluctuation. It was verified by re-simulating the torque coefficient data of a single bladed (NACA 0015 airfoil) VAWT published by the Sandia National Laboratories. From the simulation results, with the presence of the ODGV, it was shown that the
Flow and heat transfer experiments in the turbine airfoil/endwall region
Chung, Jin Taek
An experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow and heat transfer near the junction between the endwall and suction wall of a gas turbine was performed. A large-scale, two-half-blade facility which simulates a turbine cascade was introduced. The simulator consists of two large half-blade sections, one wall simulating the pressure surface and the other wall simulating the suction surface. The advantage of this configuration is that the features of the secondary flow are large, because of the relatively large test section, and the flow is easily accessible with probes. Qualification of this simulator was by comparison to a multi-blade cascade flow. Various flow visualization techniques--oil and lampblack, ink and oil of wintergeeen, a single tuft probe, and a tuft grid--were employed to confirm that the important features of the cascade flow were replicated in this simulator. The triangular region on the suction surface, which was affected by the passage vortex, and the endwall secondary crossflow were observed by shear stress visualization and the liquid crystal measurement techniques. In order to investigate the effects of the turbulence level on the secondary flow in a turbine passage, a turbulence generator, designed to reproduce the characteristics of a combustor exit flow, was built. The generator was designed not only to generate a high turbulence level but to produce three main features of a combustor exit flow. The generator produced a turbulence intensity level of about 10 percent and an integral length scale of 5 centimeters. It was observed that the endwall secondary flow, including the passage vortex, is not significantly influenced by freestream turbulence levels up to 10 percent. A flow management technique using a boundary layer fence designed to reduce some harmful effects of secondary flow in the endwall region of a turbine passage was introduced. The boundary layer fence is effective in changing the passage of the vortex and reducing
Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly
Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.
1997-06-03
An airfoil and nozzle assembly are disclosed including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached. 5 figs.
Effects of Leading Edge Defect on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of an S809 Airfoil.
Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaojing; Hu, Ruifeng; Wang, Ping
Unexpected performance degradation occurs in wind turbine blades due to leading edge defect when suffering from continuous impacts with rain drops, hails, insects, or solid particles during its operation life. To assess this issue, this paper numerically investigates the steady and dynamic stall characteristics of an S809 airfoil with various leading edge defects. More leading edge defect sizes and much closer to practical parameters are investigated in the paper. Numerical computation is conducted using the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the method has been validated by comparison with existed published data. In order to ensure the calculation convergence, the residuals for the continuity equation are set to be less than 10-7 and 10-6 in steady state and dynamic stall cases. The simulations are conducted with the software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. It is found that the characteristics of aerodynamic coefficients and flow fields are sensitive to leading edge defect both in steady and dynamic conditions. For airfoils with the defect thickness of 6%tc, leading edge defect has a relative small influence on the aerodynamics of S809 airfoil. For other investigated defect thicknesses, leading edge defect has much greater influence on the flow field structures, pressure coefficients and aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at relative small defect lengths. For example, the lift coefficients decrease and drag coefficients increase sharply after the appearance of leading edge defect. However, the aerodynamic characteristics could reach a constant value when the defect length is large enough. The flow field, pressure coefficient distribution and aerodynamic coefficients do not change a lot when the defect lengths reach to 0.5%c,1%c, 2%c and 3%c with defect thicknesses of 6%tc, 12%tc,18%tc and 25%tc, respectively. In addition, the results also show that the critical defect length/thickness ratio is 0.5, beyond which the aerodynamic characteristics nearly remain unchanged. In
KNOW-Blade Task-2 report - Aerodynamic accessories[Wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansen, J.; Soerensen, N.N.; Zahle, F.; Kang, S.; Nikolaou, I.; Politis, E.S.; Chaviaropoulos, P.K.; Ekaterinaris, J.
2004-11-01
In the EC project KNOW-BLADE a work package has been defined to investigate the possibility to numerically model aerodynamic accessories in existing Navier-Stokes solvers. Four different aerodynamic accessories have been investigated. Firstly, the potential of applying active flow control by means of a pulsating jet placed at the leading edge in order to enhance mean lift. The general trend is that increased pulsation frequency is beneficial, in that it reduces the oscillation amplitude and raises the mean lift level while lowering the mean drag level. An increased jet exit velocity has a tendency to increase the oscillation amplitude, which is not very attractive for load control on wind turbines. Secondly, the effect of vortex generators has been modelled using two phenomenological vortex generator models. The models have been applied to three airfoil configurations. For all cases investigated the models shows qualitatively the correct behaviour, even though there are a considerable spread in the degree of success. Thirdly, the influence of adding a stall strip for changing the airfoil characteristics was investigated. Stall strips at three different positions were directly modelled by changing the airfoil geometry. In general the 7mm stall strips placed at P00 and P-02 had the greatest effect on the max lift followed by stall strip P02. Unfortunately, there was not sufficient agreement between the experimental results and the simulations to draw any conclusions of optimum position and geometry of the stall strip. Finally, the effect of surface roughness was modelled by either modifying the boundary condition of the turbulence model or by modifying the airfoil geometry. Using the roughness model gave relatively good agreement with measurements and it must be concluded that the effect of using roughness tape can be better predicted with a roughness model compared to using a modified airfoil surface. (au)
An Innovative Approach To Making Ultra Light Weight Wind Turbine Blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhail Zaki Farooqui
2012-04-01
Full Text Available An innovative mould free method for the fabrication of ultimate light weight small wind turbine blades made out of composites has been suggested in this paper. The method has been practically applied with very satisfactory results. The method is low cost and is specifically suitable for individual small wind turbine makers. The airfoils used are simple to shape and possess good Cl/Cd characteristics. The blades are crafted using galvanized iron sheets, aluminum pipes, hard paper and fiberglass. A computer program is included with tip correction features to design the blades at the required power rating, wind speed, tip speed ratio and the chosen constant angle of attack. Results of the program run for designing 250 and 500 watt wind turbine blades at 8 m/s wind speed and tip speed ratios of 5.5 are tabulated. Performance results of the blades thus produced are also discussed.
Testing of ceramic gas turbine components under service-like conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siebmanns, W [Motoren- und Turbinen-Union G.m.b.H., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)
1978-08-01
If all gas turbine components which are in contact with hot gas are manufactured from special ceramics (silicon nitride, silicon carbide), cycle and component temperatures can be increased up to 1600/sup 0/K. MTU is developing various components, such as combustor and turbine wheel, step by step until they are ready for service. At present, combustors are surviving comprehensive service-like cyclic tests in hot gas at atmospheric pressure (1000 h, 1000 starts per component) without damage. Tests above atmospheric pressure (5 bar) are underway. At MTU, a rotor wheel variant consisting of a metallic hub with inserted single blades is being constructed. The step to aerodynamically contoured airfoils will follow, as soon as the stress problems encountered in connection with the blade root are fully under control. The program will be completed in 1980 with a test run of a prototype turbine made from ceramic components developed by various companies under the leadership of the DFVLR (Aerospace Research and Testing Institute).
Machine learning paradigms in design optimization: Applications in turbine aerodynamic design
Goel, Sanjay
observed as indicated by an improvement in the truss quality, where the latter is defined as the weighted sum of the truss weight and the design constraint violations. The thesis describes the basic concept and architecture of the new scheme, and the results obtained by applying this technique to solve the optimization problem. The classifiers based optimization scheme is also applied to a complex aerodynamic optimization problem with multidisciplinary constraints. In this investigation, the 3D geometry of an airfoil is optimized by simultaneously optimizing multiple 2D slices of the airfoil. To automate this problem an optimization formulation, which simulates the human design process has been devised. In the formulation, numerical algorithms are used to approximate the numerous criteria which constitute the visual perspective of the designer in evaluating the airfoil. Also, design variables across multiple airfoil sections are constrained by polynomial fits which allow a smooth 3D variation of geometry during design changes. Results from the optimization of a low pressure turbine nozzle and bucket using this approach have been presented in the thesis. Results obtained using standard numerical optimization techniques are also presented to show a comparison of the two techniques.
Advanced Airfoils Boost Helicopter Performance
2007-01-01
Carson Helicopters Inc. licensed the Langley RC4 series of airfoils in 1993 to develop a replacement main rotor blade for their Sikorsky S-61 helicopters. The company's fleet of S-61 helicopters has been rebuilt to include Langley's patented airfoil design, and the helicopters are now able to carry heavier loads and fly faster and farther, and the main rotor blades have twice the previous service life. In aerial firefighting, the performance-boosting airfoils have helped the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service control the spread of wildfires. In 2003, Carson Helicopters signed a contract with Ducommun AeroStructures Inc., to manufacture the composite blades for Carson Helicopters to sell
High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHOU Yimei
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.
Pinkel, Benjamin; Deutsch, George C; Morgan, William C
1955-01-01
Stresses om tje root fastenings of turbine blades were appreciably reduced by redesign of the root. The redesign consisted in curving the root to approximately conform to the camber of the airfoil and elimination of the blade platform. Full-scale jet-engine tests at rated speed using cermet blades of the design confirmed the improvement.
Modeling and Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils
Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Pennline, James A.; Schilling, Herbert W.
2007-01-01
SmaggIce Version 2.0 is a software toolkit for geometric modeling and grid generation for two-dimensional, singleand multi-element, clean and iced airfoils. A previous version of SmaggIce was described in Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 8 (August 2004), page 32. To recapitulate: Ice shapes make it difficult to generate quality grids around airfoils, yet these grids are essential for predicting ice-induced complex flow. This software efficiently creates high-quality structured grids with tools that are uniquely tailored for various ice shapes. SmaggIce Version 2.0 significantly enhances the previous version primarily by adding the capability to generate grids for multi-element airfoils. This version of the software is an important step in streamlining the aeronautical analysis of ice airfoils using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The user may prepare the ice shape, define the flow domain, decompose it into blocks, generate grids, modify/divide/merge blocks, and control grid density and smoothness. All these steps may be performed efficiently even for the difficult glaze and rime ice shapes. Providing the means to generate highly controlled grids near rough ice, the software includes the creation of a wrap-around block (called the "viscous sublayer block"), which is a thin, C-type block around the wake line and iced airfoil. For multi-element airfoils, the software makes use of grids that wrap around and fill in the areas between the viscous sub-layer blocks for all elements that make up the airfoil. A scripting feature records the history of interactive steps, which can be edited and replayed later to produce other grids. Using this version of SmaggIce, ice shape handling and grid generation can become a practical engineering process, rather than a laborious research effort.
Arpino, F.; Cortellessa, G.; Dell'Isola, M.; Scungio, M.; Focanti, V.; Profili, M.; Rotondi, M.
2017-11-01
The increasing price of fossil derivatives, global warming and energy market instabilities, have led to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources such as wind energy. Amongst the different typologies of wind generators, small scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) present the greatest potential for off grid power generation at low wind speeds. In the present work, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed in order to investigate the performance of an innovative configuration of straight-blades Darrieus-style vertical axis micro wind turbine, specifically developed for small scale energy conversion at low wind speeds. The micro turbine under investigation is composed of three pairs of airfoils, consisting of a main and auxiliary blades with different chord lengths. The simulations were made using the open source finite volume based CFD toolbox OpenFOAM, considering different turbulence models and adopting a moving mesh approach for the turbine rotor. The simulated data were reported in terms of dimensionless power coefficients for dynamic performance analysis. The results from the simulations were compared to the data obtained from experiments on a scaled model of the same VAWT configuration, conducted in a closed circuit open chamber wind tunnel facility available at the Laboratory of Industrial Measurements (LaMI) of the University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale (UNICLAM). From the proposed analysis, it was observed that the most suitable model for the simulation of the performances of the micro turbine under investigation is the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras, even if under the conditions analysed in the present work and for TSR values higher than 1.1, some discrepancies between numerical and experimental data can be observed.
Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft
Namgoong, Howoong
Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations and optimization strategies to design an airfoil for morphing aircraft that include the energy required for shape change. A morphing aircraft can deform its wing shape, so the aircraft wing has different optimum shapes as the flight condition changes. The actuation energy needed for moving the airfoil surface is modeled and used as another design objective. Several multi-objective approaches are applied to a low-speed, incompressible flow problem and to a problem involving low-speed and transonic flow. The resulting solutions provide the best tradeoff between low drag, high energy and higher drag, low energy sets of airfoil shapes. From this range of solutions, design decisions can be made about how much energy is needed to achieve a desired aerodynamic performance. Additionally, an approach to model aerodynamic work, which would be more realistic and may allow using pressure on the airfoil to assist a morphing shape change, was formulated and used as part of the energy objective. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a morphing airfoil that exploits the airflow to reduce actuator energy.
Large-eddy simulation analysis of turbulent flow over a two-blade horizontal wind turbine rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Tae Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh (United States); You, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
2016-11-15
Unsteady turbulent flow characteristics over a two-blade horizontal wind turbine rotor is analyzed using a large-eddy simulation technique. The wind turbine rotor corresponds to the configuration of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) phase VI campaign. The filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a non-inertial reference frame fixed at the centroid of the rotor, are solved with centrifugal and Coriolis forces using an unstructured-grid finite-volume method. A systematic analysis of effects of grid resolution, computational domain size, and time-step size on simulation results, is carried out. Simulation results such as the surface pressure coefficient, thrust coefficient, torque coefficient, and normal and tangential force coefficients are found to agree favorably with experimental data. The simulation showed that pressure fluctuations, which produce broadband flow-induced noise and vibration of the blades, are especially significant in the mid-chord area of the suction side at around 70 to 95 percent spanwise locations. Large-scale vortices are found to be generated at the blade tip and the location connecting the blade with an airfoil cross section and the circular hub rod. These vortices propagate downstream with helical motions and are found to persist far downstream from the rotor.
Acoustics of a Mixed Porosity Felt Airfoil
2016-06-06
NUWC-NPT Technical Report 12,212 6 June 2016 Acoustics of a Mixed Porosity Felt Airfoil Aren M. Hellum Undersea Warfare Weapons...Felt Airfoil 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Aren M. Hellum 5.d PROJECT NUMBER 5e...existing literature. Geyer et al. [5] measured a sound reduction of 5 to 15 dB for airfoils made entirely of porous material. A 1973 patent
Dynamic stall study of a multi-element airfoil
Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.
1992-01-01
Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a VR-7 airfoil with and without a slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 degrees at a Reynolds number of 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag and pitching moment data. A fluorescing dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flow field and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.
A review and analysis of boundary layer transition data for turbine application
Gaugler, R. E.
1985-01-01
A number of data sets from the open literature that include heat transfer data in apparently transitional boundary layers, with particular application to the turbine environment, were reviewed and analyzed to extract transition information. The data were analyzed by using a version of the STAN5 two-dimensional boundary layer code. The transition starting and ending points were determined by adjusting parameters in STAN5 until the calculations matched the data. The results are presented as a table of the deduced transition location and length as functions of the test parameters. The data sets reviewed cover a wide range of flow conditions, from low-speed, flat-plate tests to full-scale turbine airfoils operating at simulated turbine engine conditions. The results indicate that free-stream turbulence and pressure gradient have strong, and opposite, effects on the location of the start of transition and on the length of the transition zone.
Development and testing of airfoils for high-altitude aircraft
Drela, Mark (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
Specific tasks included airfoil design; study of airfoil constraints on pullout maneuver; selection of tail airfoils; examination of wing twist; test section instrumentation and layout; and integrated airfoil/heat-exchanger tests. In the course of designing the airfoil, specifically for the APEX test vehicle, extensive studies were made over the Mach and Reynolds number ranges of interest. It is intended to be representative of airfoils required for lightweight aircraft operating at extreme altitudes, which is the primary research objective of the APEX program. Also considered were thickness, pitching moment, and off-design behavior. The maximum ceiling parameter M(exp 2)C(sub L) value achievable by the Apex-16 airfoil was found to be a strong constraint on the pullout maneuver. The NACA 1410 and 2410 airfoils (inverted) were identified as good candidates for the tail, with predictable behavior at low Reynolds numbers and good tolerance to flap deflections. With regards to wing twist, it was decided that a simple flat wing was a reasonable compromise. The test section instrumentation consisted of surface pressure taps, wake rakes, surface-mounted microphones, and skin-friction gauges. Also, a modest wind tunnel test was performed for an integrated airfoil/heat-exchanger configuration, which is currently on Aurora's 'Theseus' aircraft. Although not directly related to the APEX tests, the aerodynamics or heat exchangers has been identified as a crucial aspect of designing high-altitude aircraft and hence is relevant to the ERAST program.
Modelling lidar volume-averaging and its significance to wind turbine wake measurements
Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.; Borraccino, A.
2017-05-01
Lidar velocity measurements need to be interpreted differently than conventional in-situ readings. A commonly ignored factor is “volume-averaging”, which refers to lidars not sampling in a single, distinct point but along its entire beam length. However, especially in regions with large velocity gradients, like the rotor wake, can it be detrimental. Hence, an efficient algorithm mimicking lidar flow sampling is presented, which considers both pulsed and continous-wave lidar weighting functions. The flow-field around a 2.3 MW turbine is simulated using Detached Eddy Simulation in combination with an actuator line to test the algorithm and investigate the potential impact of volume-averaging. Even with very few points discretising the lidar beam is volume-averaging captured accurately. The difference in a lidar compared to a point measurement is greatest at the wake edges and increases from 30% one rotor diameter (D) downstream of the rotor to 60% at 3D.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ro, Ki Deok
2014-01-01
In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of Weis-Fogh type water turbine were calculated by the advanced vortex method. The wing (NACA0010 airfoil) and both channel walls were approximated by source and vortex panels, and free vortices are introduced away from the body surfaces. The distance from the trailing edge of the wing to the wing axis, the width of the water channel and the maximum opening angle were selected as the calculation parameters, the important design factors. The maximum efficiency and the power coefficient for one wing of this water turbine were 26% and 0.4 at velocity ratio U/V = 2.0 respectively. The flow field of this water turbine is very complex because the wing moves unsteadily in the channel. However, using the advanced vortex method, it could be calculated accurately
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ro, Ki Deok [Gyeongsang Nat' l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)
2014-03-15
In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of Weis-Fogh type water turbine were calculated by the advanced vortex method. The wing (NACA0010 airfoil) and both channel walls were approximated by source and vortex panels, and free vortices are introduced away from the body surfaces. The distance from the trailing edge of the wing to the wing axis, the width of the water channel and the maximum opening angle were selected as the calculation parameters, the important design factors. The maximum efficiency and the power coefficient for one wing of this water turbine were 26% and 0.4 at velocity ratio U/V = 2.0 respectively. The flow field of this water turbine is very complex because the wing moves unsteadily in the channel. However, using the advanced vortex method, it could be calculated accurately.
Fault diagnosis of direct-drive wind turbine based on support vector machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An, X L; Jiang, D X; Li, S H; Chen, J
2011-01-01
A fault diagnosis method of direct-drive wind turbine based on support vector machine (SVM) and feature selection is presented. The time-domain feature parameters of main shaft vibration signal in the horizontal and vertical directions are considered in the method. Firstly, in laboratory scale five experiments of direct-drive wind turbine with normal condition, wind wheel mass imbalance fault, wind wheel aerodynamic imbalance fault, yaw fault and blade airfoil change fault are carried out. The features of five experiments are analyzed. Secondly, the sensitive time-domain feature parameters in the horizontal and vertical directions of vibration signal in the five conditions are selected and used as feature samples. By training, the mapping relation between feature parameters and fault types are established in SVM model. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is verified through experimental data. The results show that the proposed method is effective in identifying the fault of wind turbine. It has good classification ability and robustness to diagnose the fault of direct-drive wind turbine.
Defining the Field of Existence of Shrouded Blades in High-Speed Gas Turbines
Belousov, Anatoliy I.; Nazdrachev, Sergeiy V.
2018-01-01
This work provides a method for determining the region of existence of banded blades of gas turbines for aircraft engines based on the analytical evaluation of tensile stresses in specific characteristic sections of the blade. This region is determined by the set of values of the parameter, which forms the law of distribution of the cross-sectional area of the cross-sections along the height of the airfoil. When seven independent parameters (gas-dynamic, structural and strength) are changed, the choice of the best option is proposed at the early design stage. As an example, the influence of the dimension of a turbine on the domain of the existence of banded blades is shown.
A Numerical Study on a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Inclined Arms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agostino De Marco
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This work focuses on a particular type of vertical-axis wind turbine, in which a number of inclined arms with airfoil-shaped cross-sections are mounted to connect the principal blades to their hub. While the majority of the known studies on vertical-axis turbines is devoted to the role of principal blades, in most of the cases without taking into account other parts of the wind turbine, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of uncommon arm geometries, such as the inclined arms. The inclined arms are known to have a potentially beneficial role in the power extraction from the wind current but, due to the complexity of the phenomena, the investigation on aerodynamics of this type of turbine is often impossible through analytical models, such as blade-element momentum theory. It turns out that adequate studies can only be carried out by wind tunnel experiments or CFD simulations. This work presents a methodical CFD study on how inclined arms can be used on a selected wind turbine configuration to harvest additional power from the wind. The turbine configuration, geometry, and some fundamental definitions are introduced first. Then an in-depth CFD analysis is presented and discussed.
Effect of Wavy Trailing Edge on 100meter Flatback Wind Turbine Blade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, SJ; Baeder, J D
2016-01-01
The flatback trailing edge design for modern 100meter wind turbine blade has been developed and proposed to make wind turbine blade to be slender and lighter. On the other hand, it will increase aerodynamic drag; consequently the increased drag diminishes turbine power generation. Thus, an aerodynamic drag reducing technique should be accompanied with the flatback trailing edge in order to prevent loss of turbine power generation. In this work, a drag mitigation design, span-wise wavy trailing edge blade, has been applied to a modern 100meter blade. The span-wise trailing edge acts as a vortex generator, and breaks up the strong span-wise coherent trailing edge vortex structure at the flatback airfoil trailing edge which is a major source of large drag. Three-dimensional unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed for real scale wind turbine blade geometries. Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) with the modified laminar-turbulent transition model has been applied to obtain accurate flow field predictions. Graphical Processor Unit (GPU)-accelerated computation has been conducted to reduce computational costs of the real scale wind turbine blade simulations. To verify the structural reliability of the wavy modification of the blade a simple Eigen buckling analysis has been performed in the current study. (paper)
Reversible airfoils for stopped rotors in high speed flight
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemiec, Robert; Jacobellis, George; Gandhi, Farhan
2014-01-01
This study starts with the design of a reversible airfoil rib for stopped-rotor applications, where the sharp trailing-edge morphs into the rounded leading-edge, and vice-versa. A NACA0012 airfoil is approximated in a piecewise linear manner and straight, rigid outer profile links used to define the airfoil contour. The end points of the profile links connect to control links, each set on a central actuation rod via an offset. Chordwise motion of the actuation rod moves the control and the profile links and reverses the airfoil. The paper describes the design methodology and evolution of the final design, based on which two reversible airfoil ribs were fabricated and used to assemble a finite span reversible rotor/wing demonstrator. The profile links were connected by Aluminum strips running in the spanwise direction which provided stiffness as well as support for a pre-tensioned elastomeric skin. An inter-rib connector with a curved-front nose piece supports the leading-edge. The model functioned well and was able to reverse smoothly back-and-forth, on application and reversal of a voltage to the motor. Navier–Stokes CFD simulations (using the TURNS code) show that the drag coefficient of the reversible airfoil (which had a 13% maximum thickness due to the thickness of the profile links) was comparable to that of the NACA0013 airfoil. The drag of a 16% thick elliptical airfoil was, on average, about twice as large, while that of a NACA0012 in reverse flow was 4–5 times as large, even prior to stall. The maximum lift coefficient of the reversible airfoil was lower than the elliptical airfoil, but higher than the NACA0012 in reverse flow operation. (paper)
Local vibrations and lift performance of low Reynolds number airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TariqAmin Khan
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved based on the finite volume method and dynamic mesh technique is used to carry out partial fluid structure interaction. The local flexible structure (hereinafter termed as flexible structure vibrates in a single mode located on the upper surface of the airfoil. The Influence of vibration frequency and amplitude are examined and the corresponding fluid flow characteristics are investigated which add complexity to the inherent problem in unsteady flow. The study is conducted for flow over NACA0012 airfoil at 600≤Re≤3000 at a low angle of attack. Vibration of flexible structure induces a secondary vortex which modifies the pressure distribution and lift performance of the airfoil. At some moderate vibration amplitude, frequency synchronization or lock-in phenomenon occurs when the vibration frequency is close to the characteristic frequency of rigid airfoil. Evolution and shedding of vortices corresponding to the deformation of flexible structure depends on the Reynolds number. In the case of Re≤1000, the deformation of flexible structure is considered in-phase with the vortex shedding i.e., increasing maximum lift is linked with the positive deformation of flexible structure. At Re=1500 a phase shift of about 1/π exists while they are out-of-phase at Re>1500. Moreover, the oscillation amplitude of lift coefficient increases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re≤1500 while it decreases with increasing vibration amplitude for Re>1500. As a result of frequency lock-in, the average lift coefficient is increased with increasing vibration amplitude for all investigated Reynolds numbers (Re. The maximum increase in the average lift coefficient is 19.72% within the range of investigated parameters.
Methodology for wind turbine blade geometry optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perfiliev, D.
2013-11-01
Nowadays, the upwind three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine is the leading player on the market. It has been found to be the best industrial compromise in the range of different turbine constructions. The current wind industry innovation is conducted in the development of individual turbine components. The blade constitutes 20-25% of the overall turbine budget. Its optimal operation in particular local economic and wind conditions is worth investigating. The blade geometry, namely the chord, twist and airfoil type distributions along the span, responds to the output measures of the blade performance. Therefore, the optimal wind blade geometry can improve the overall turbine performance. The objectives of the dissertation are focused on the development of a methodology and specific tool for the investigation of possible existing wind blade geometry adjustments. The novelty of the methodology presented in the thesis is the multiobjective perspective on wind blade geometry optimization, particularly taking simultaneously into account the local wind conditions and the issue of aerodynamic noise emissions. The presented optimization objective approach has not been investigated previously for the implementation in wind blade design. The possibilities to use different theories for the analysis and search procedures are investigated and sufficient arguments derived for the usage of proposed theories. The tool is used for the test optimization of a particular wind turbine blade. The sensitivity analysis shows the dependence of the outputs on the provided inputs, as well as its relative and absolute divergences and instabilities. The pros and cons of the proposed technique are seen from the practical implementation, which is documented in the results, analysis and conclusion sections. (orig.)
Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
1996-07-01
Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.
Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S801 airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
1996-01-01
Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculation of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. A S801 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3x5 subsonic wind tunnel (3x5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers used for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5 {degrees}and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees} 14{degrees} and 20{degrees} For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means that the airfoil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, J. B.; Brincker, Rune; Glavind, L.
2017-01-01
Analysis algorithm. The vibrational data are extracted in the original state of the blade as well as various ice build-up scenario states. In the perturbation tests sand bags are used to simulate the presence of ice. The output of the detection algorithm is an estimate of location, within 4 discrete areas......Operating wind turbines in northern and/or mountainous regions create the demand for effective ice detection and ice removal systems. Ice accretion on the rotor blades of a wind turbine leads, among other things, to added loads, safety issues and diminished aerodynamic performance of the airfoil...
Effects of Leading Edge Defect on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of an S809 Airfoil.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Wang
Full Text Available Unexpected performance degradation occurs in wind turbine blades due to leading edge defect when suffering from continuous impacts with rain drops, hails, insects, or solid particles during its operation life. To assess this issue, this paper numerically investigates the steady and dynamic stall characteristics of an S809 airfoil with various leading edge defects. More leading edge defect sizes and much closer to practical parameters are investigated in the paper.Numerical computation is conducted using the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the method has been validated by comparison with existed published data. In order to ensure the calculation convergence, the residuals for the continuity equation are set to be less than 10-7 and 10-6 in steady state and dynamic stall cases. The simulations are conducted with the software ANSYS Fluent 13.0.It is found that the characteristics of aerodynamic coefficients and flow fields are sensitive to leading edge defect both in steady and dynamic conditions. For airfoils with the defect thickness of 6%tc, leading edge defect has a relative small influence on the aerodynamics of S809 airfoil. For other investigated defect thicknesses, leading edge defect has much greater influence on the flow field structures, pressure coefficients and aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at relative small defect lengths. For example, the lift coefficients decrease and drag coefficients increase sharply after the appearance of leading edge defect. However, the aerodynamic characteristics could reach a constant value when the defect length is large enough. The flow field, pressure coefficient distribution and aerodynamic coefficients do not change a lot when the defect lengths reach to 0.5%c,1%c, 2%c and 3%c with defect thicknesses of 6%tc, 12%tc,18%tc and 25%tc, respectively. In addition, the results also show that the critical defect length/thickness ratio is 0.5, beyond which the aerodynamic characteristics nearly remain
Numerical optimization of circulation control airfoils
Tai, T. C.; Kidwell, G. H., Jr.; Vanderplaats, G. N.
1981-01-01
A numerical procedure for optimizing circulation control airfoils, which consists of the coupling of an optimization scheme with a viscous potential flow analysis for blowing jet, is presented. The desired airfoil is defined by a combination of three baseline shapes (cambered ellipse, and cambered ellipse with drooped and spiralled trailing edges). The coefficients of these shapes are used as design variables in the optimization process. Under the constraints of lift augmentation and lift-to-drag ratios, the optimal airfoils are found to lie between those of cambered ellipse and the drooped trailing edge, towards the latter as the angle of attack increases. Results agree qualitatively with available experimental data.
Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
1995-10-01
The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. This requires experiments in appropriate research facilities in which complete flow field data, not only point measurements, are obtained and analyzed. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows.
Symmetric airfoil geometry effects on leading edge noise.
Gill, James; Zhang, X; Joseph, P
2013-10-01
Computational aeroacoustic methods are applied to the modeling of noise due to interactions between gusts and the leading edge of real symmetric airfoils. Single frequency harmonic gusts are interacted with various airfoil geometries at zero angle of attack. The effects of airfoil thickness and leading edge radius on noise are investigated systematically and independently for the first time, at higher frequencies than previously used in computational methods. Increases in both leading edge radius and thickness are found to reduce the predicted noise. This noise reduction effect becomes greater with increasing frequency and Mach number. The dominant noise reduction mechanism for airfoils with real geometry is found to be related to the leading edge stagnation region. It is shown that accurate leading edge noise predictions can be made when assuming an inviscid meanflow, but that it is not valid to assume a uniform meanflow. Analytic flat plate predictions are found to over-predict the noise due to a NACA 0002 airfoil by up to 3 dB at high frequencies. The accuracy of analytic flat plate solutions can be expected to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness, leading edge radius, gust frequency, and Mach number.
Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)
Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE
2013-01-01
Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti
Device for passive flow control around vertical axis marine turbine
Coşoiu, C. I.; Georgescu, A. M.; Degeratu, M.; Haşegan, L.; Hlevca, D.
2012-11-01
The power supplied by a turbine with the rotor placed in a free stream flow may be increased by augmenting the velocity in the rotor area. The energy of the free flow is dispersed and it may be concentrated by placing a profiled structure around the bare turbine in order to concentrate more energy in the rotor zone. At the Aerodynamic and Wind Engineering Laboratory (LAIV) of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest (UTCB) it was developed a concentrating housing to be used for hydro or aeolian horizontal axis wind turbines, in order to increase the available energy in the active section of turbine rotor. The shape of the concentrating housing results by superposing several aero/hydro dynamic effects, the most important being the one generated by the passive flow control devices that were included in the housing structure. Those concentrating housings may be also adapted for hydro or aeolian turbines with vertical axis. The present paper details the numerical research effectuated at the LAIV to determine the performances of a vertical axis marine turbine equipped with such a concentrating device, in order to increase the energy quantity extracted from the main flow. The turbine is a Darrieus type one with three vertical straight blades, symmetric with respect to the axis of rotation, generated using a NACA4518 airfoil. The global performances of the turbine equipped with the concentrating housing were compared to the same characteristics of the bare turbine. In order to validate the numerical approach used in this paper, test cases from the literature resulting from experimental and numerical simulations for similar situations, were used.
Device for passive flow control around vertical axis marine turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coşoiu, C I; Georgescu, A M; Degeratu, M; Haşegan, L; Hlevca, D
2012-01-01
The power supplied by a turbine with the rotor placed in a free stream flow may be increased by augmenting the velocity in the rotor area. The energy of the free flow is dispersed and it may be concentrated by placing a profiled structure around the bare turbine in order to concentrate more energy in the rotor zone. At the Aerodynamic and Wind Engineering Laboratory (LAIV) of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest (UTCB) it was developed a concentrating housing to be used for hydro or aeolian horizontal axis wind turbines, in order to increase the available energy in the active section of turbine rotor. The shape of the concentrating housing results by superposing several aero/hydro dynamic effects, the most important being the one generated by the passive flow control devices that were included in the housing structure. Those concentrating housings may be also adapted for hydro or aeolian turbines with vertical axis. The present paper details the numerical research effectuated at the LAIV to determine the performances of a vertical axis marine turbine equipped with such a concentrating device, in order to increase the energy quantity extracted from the main flow. The turbine is a Darrieus type one with three vertical straight blades, symmetric with respect to the axis of rotation, generated using a NACA4518 airfoil. The global performances of the turbine equipped with the concentrating housing were compared to the same characteristics of the bare turbine. In order to validate the numerical approach used in this paper, test cases from the literature resulting from experimental and numerical simulations for similar situations, were used.
Aeroacoustic Computations for Turbulent Airfoil Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2009-01-01
a NACA 0015 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.2 and a Reynolds number of 1.6 x 10(5) for different angles of attack. The flow solutions are validated by comparing lift and drag characteristics with experimental data. The comparisons show good agreements between the computed and measured airfoil lift...
Geometrical effects on the airfoil flow separation and transition
Zhang, Wei
2015-04-25
We present results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of incompressible flow over two airfoils, NACA-4412 and NACA-0012-64, to investigate the effects of the airfoil geometry on the flow separation and transition patterns at Re=104 and 10 degrees incidence. The two chosen airfoils are geometrically similar except for maximum camber (respectively 4%C and 0 with C the chord length), which results in a larger projection area with respect to the incoming flow for the NACA-4412 airfoil, and a larger leeward surface curvature at the leading edge for the NACA-0012-64 airfoil. The governing equations are discretized using an energy conservative fourth-order spatial discretization scheme. An assessment on the two-point correlation indicates that a spanwise domain size of 0.8C is sufficiently large for the present simulations. We discuss flow separation at the airfoil leading edge, transition of the separated shear layer to three-dimensional flow and subsequently to turbulence. Numerical results reveal a stronger adverse pressure gradient field in the leading edge region of the NACA-0012-64 airfoil due to the rapidly varying surface curvature. As a result, the flow experiences detachment at x/C=0.08, and the separated shear layer transition via Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism occurs at x/C=0.29 with fully developed turbulent flow around x/C=0.80. These flow development phases are delayed to occur at much downstream positions, respectively, observed around x/C=0.25, 0.71 and 1.15 for the NACA-4412 airfoil. The turbulent intensity, measured by the turbulent fluctuations and turbulent Reynolds stresses, are much larger for NACA-0012-64 from the transition onset until the airfoil trailing edge, while turbulence develops significantly downstream of the trailing edge for the NACA-4412 airfoil. For both airfoils, our DNS results indicate that the mean Reynolds stress u\\'u\\'/U02 reaches its maximum value at a distance from the surface approximately equal to the displacement
Pitching Airfoil Boundary Layer Investigations
Raffel, Markus; Richard, Hugues; Richter, Kai; Bosbach, Johannes; Geißler, Wolfgang
2006-01-01
The present paper describes an experiment performed in a transonic wind tunnel facility where a new test section has been developed especially for the investigation of the unsteady flow above oscillating airfoils under dynamic stall conditions. Dynamic stall is characterized by the development, movement and shedding of one or more concentrated vortices on the airfoils upper surface. The hysteresis loops of lift-, drag- and pitching moment are highly influenced by these vortices. To understand...
Damping element for reducing the vibration of an airfoil
Campbell, Christian X; Marra, John J
2013-11-12
An airfoil (10) is provided with a tip (12) having an opening (14) to a center channel (24). A damping element (16) is inserted within the opening of the center channel, to reduce an induced vibration of the airfoil. The mass of the damping element, a spring constant of the damping element within the center channel, and/or a mounting location (58) of the damping element within the center channel may be adjustably varied, to shift a resonance frequency of the airfoil outside a natural operating frequency of the airfoil.
On the extraction of pressure fields from PIV velocity measurements in turbines
Villegas, Arturo; Diez, Fancisco J.
2012-11-01
In this study, the pressure field for a water turbine is derived from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Measurements are performed in a recirculating water channel facility. The PIV measurements include calculating the tangential and axial forces applied to the turbine by solving the integral momentum equation around the airfoil. The results are compared with the forces obtained from the Blade Element Momentum theory (BEMT). Forces are calculated by using three different methods. In the first method, the pressure fields are obtained from PIV velocity fields by solving the Poisson equation. The boundary conditions are obtained from the Navier-Stokes momentum equations. In the second method, the pressure at the boundaries is determined by spatial integration of the pressure gradients along the boundaries. In the third method, applicable only to incompressible, inviscid, irrotational, and steady flow, the pressure is calculated using the Bernoulli equation. This approximated pressure is known to be accurate far from the airfoil and outside of the wake for steady flows. Additionally, the pressure is used to solve for the force from the integral momentum equation on the blade. From the three methods proposed to solve for pressure and forces from PIV measurements, the first one, which is solved by using the Poisson equation, provides the best match to the BEM theory calculations.
Self-sustained Flow-acoustic Interactions in Airfoil Transitional Boundary Layers
2015-07-09
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0235 Self-sustained flow-acoustic interactions in airfoil transitional boundary layers Vladimir Golubev EMBRY-RIDDLE...From - To) 01-04-2012 to 31-03-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Self-sustained flow-acoustic interactions in airfoil transitional boundary layers 5a...complementary experimental and numerical studies of flow-acoustic resonant interactions in transitional airfoils and their impact on airfoil surface
Supercritical Airfoil Coordinates
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rectangular Supercritical Wing (Ricketts) - design and measured locations are provided in an Excel file RSW_airfoil_coordinates_ricketts.xls . One sheet is with Non...
Separation control of NACA0015 airfoil using plasma actuators
Harada, Daisuke; Sakakibara, Jun
2017-11-01
Separation control of NACA0015 airfoil by means of plasma actuators was investigated. Plasma actuators in spanwise intermittent layout on the suction surface of the airfoil were activated with spanwise phase difference φ = 0 or φ = π in the case of dimensionless burst frequencyF+ = 6 and F+ = 0.5 at Re = 6.3 ×104 . The lift and drag of the airfoil were measured using a two component force balance. The flow around the airfoil was measured by PIV analysis. In the condition of F+ = 6 and φ = π at around stall angle, which is 10 degrees, the lift-to-drag ratio was higher than that ofF+ = 6 and φ = 0 . Therefore, it was confirmed that aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil improved by disturbances with temporal and spatial phase difference.
The NASA Low-Pressure Turbine Flow Physics Program: A Review
Ashpis, David E.
2002-01-01
An overview of the NASA Glenn Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) Flow Physics Program will be presented. The flow in the LPT is unique for the gas turbine. It is characterized by low Reynolds number and high freestream turbulence intensity and is dominated by interplay of three basic mechanisms: transition, separation and wake interaction. The flow of most interest is on the suction surface, where large losses are generated due to separation. The LPT is a large, multistage, heavy, jet engine component that suffers efficiency degradation between takeoff and cruise conditions due to decrease in Reynolds number with altitude. The performance penalty is around 2 points for large commercial bypass engines and as much as 7 points for small, high cruise altitude, military engines. The gas-turbine industry is very interested in improving the performance of the LPT and in reducing its weight, part count and cost. Many improvements can be accomplished by improved airfoil design, mainly by increasing the airfoil loading that can yield reduction of airfoils and improved performance. In addition, there is a strong interest in reducing the design cycle time and cost. Key enablers of the needed improvements are computational tools that can accurately predict LPT flows. Current CFD tools in use cannot yet satisfactorily predict the unsteady, transitional and separated flow in the LPT. The main reasons are inadequate transition & turbulence models and incomplete understanding of the LPT flow physics. NASA Glenn has established its LPT program to answer these needs. The main goal of the program is to develop and assess models for unsteady CFD of LPT flows. An approach that consists of complementing and augmenting experimental and computational work elements has been adopted. The work is performed in-house and by several academic institutions, in cooperation and interaction with industry. The program was reviewed at the Minnowbrook II meeting in 1997. This review will summarize the progress
Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils
Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne
2011-01-01
In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…
Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application
Pijawka, W. C.
1984-08-01
A NASA/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an epoxy-bonded wood laminate material which was a successful outgrowth of the MOD-OA airfoil design. Preliminary data from operational tests carried out at the NASA Plumbrook test facility are presented.
Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application
Pijawka, W. C.
1984-01-01
A NASA/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an epoxy-bonded wood laminate material which was a successful outgrowth of the MOD-OA airfoil design. Preliminary data from operational tests carried out at the NASA Plumbrook test facility are presented.
Aerodynamic loading on a cylinder behind an airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, H.J.; Huang, L.; Zhou, Y. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2005-05-01
The interaction between the wake of a rotor blade and a downstream cylinder holds the key to the understanding and control of electronic cooling fan noise. In this paper, the aerodynamic characteristics of a circular cylinder are experimentally studied in the presence of an upstream NACA 4412 airfoil for the cylinder-diameter-based Reynolds numbers of Re{sub d}=2,100-20,000, and the airfoil chord-length-based Reynolds numbers of Re{sub c}=14,700-140,000. Lift and drag fluctuations on the cylinder, and the longitudinal velocity fluctuations of the flow behind the cylinder were measured simultaneously using a load cell and two hot wires, respectively. Data analysis shows that unsteady forces on the cylinder increase significantly in the presence of the airfoil wake. The dependence of the forces on two parameters is investigated, that is, the lateral distance (T) between the airfoil and the cylinder, and the Reynolds number. The forces decline quickly as Tincreases. For Re{sub c}<60,000, the vortices shed from the upstream airfoil make a major contribution to the unsteady forces on the cylinder compared to the vortex shedding from the cylinder itself. For Re{sub c}>60,000, no vortices are generated from the airfoil, and the fluctuating forces on the cylinder are caused by its own vortex shedding. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Qing
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In order to alleviate the dynamic stall effects in helicopter rotor, the sequential quadratic programming (SQP method is employed to optimize the characteristics of airfoil under dynamic stall conditions based on the SC1095 airfoil. The geometry of airfoil is parameterized by the class-shape-transformation (CST method, and the C-topology body-fitted mesh is then automatically generated around the airfoil by solving the Poisson equations. Based on the grid generation technology, the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations are chosen as the governing equations for predicting airfoil flow field and the highly-efficient implicit scheme of lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS is adopted for temporal discretization. To capture the dynamic stall phenomenon of the rotor more accurately, the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model is employed to close the RANS equations. The optimized airfoil with a larger leading edge radius and camber is obtained. The leading edge vortex and trailing edge separation of the optimized airfoil under unsteady conditions are obviously weakened, and the dynamic stall characteristics of optimized airfoil at different Mach numbers, reduced frequencies and angles of attack are also obviously improved compared with the baseline SC1095 airfoil. It is demonstrated that the optimized method is effective and the optimized airfoil is suitable as the helicopter rotor airfoil.
Transonic Airfoil Flow Simulation. Part II: Inviscid-Viscous Coupling Scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir CARDOŞ
2010-09-01
Full Text Available A calculation method for the subsonic and transonic viscous flow over airfoil using the displacement surface concept is described. This modelling technique uses a finite volume method for the time-dependent Euler equations and laminar and turbulent boundary-layer integral methods. In additional special models for transition, laminar or turbulent separation bubbles and trailing edge treatment have been selected. However, the flow is limited to small parts of trailing edge-type separation. Comparisons with experimental data and other methods are shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, C C; Choi, Y D; Yoon, H Y
2013-01-01
Most tidal current turbine design are focused on middle and large scale for deep sea, less attention was paid in low water level channel, such as the region around the islands, coastal seas and rivers. This study aims to develop a horizontal axis tidal current turbine rotor blade which is applicable to low water level island region in southwest of Korea. The blade design is made by using BEMT(blade element momentum theory). The section airfoil profile of NACA63-415 is used, which shows good performance of lift coefficient and drag coefficient. Power coefficient, pressure and velocity distributions are investigated according to TSR by CFD analysis
Virtual tool for simulation and wind turbine design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monteiro Farias, Gustavo; Barros Galhardo, Marcos André; Tavares Pinho, João
2015-01-01
This paper presents an educational tool to simulate wind turbines in a virtual environment. This tool can be used for research applications as well as to evaluate the operation conditions of a wind turbine by reproducing its behaviour. The first step is to apply the Blade Element Theory in order to obtain the induction factors when the tip- speed ratio and the airfoil characteristics are configured. With these values as starting point, the geometric shape of the wind blade is created and visualized. In order to evaluate the performance of the turbine, an integration method is applied, and then the power coefficient curve is plotted versus the tip-speed ratio. The power coefficient curve reaches the maximum value at the rated operation, which is essential to the transient behaviour of the wind turbine. The transient model described in this work shows the influence of all efforts acting on the rotor, which disturb the rotation. The inertial mass of the components and the air density are set up during the simulation.Using the virtual instrumentation applied to the transient model together with a 3D computer animation, the variables of the program can be controlled and visualized in graphics, and the animation of the wind turbine shows when it accelerates or decelerates the shaft rotation due to the variation of the wind speed. The tool provides the power supplied by the wind rotor to the electric generator, which can be evaluated at the end of the simulation. (full text)
Cascade Analysis of a Floating Wind Turbine Rotor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliassen, Lene; Jakobsen, Jasna B; Knauer, Andreas; Nielsen, Finn Gunnar
2014-01-01
Mounting a wind turbine on a floating foundation introduces more complexity to the aerodynamic loading. The floater motion contains a wide range of frequencies. To study some of the basic dynamic load effect on the blades due to these motions, a two-dimensional cascade approach, combined with a potential vortex method, is used. This is an alternative method to study the aeroelastic behavior of wind turbines that is different from the traditional blade element momentum method. The analysis tool demands little computational power relative to a full three dimensional vortex method, and can handle unsteady flows. When using the cascade plane, a ''cut'' is made at a section of the wind turbine blade. The flow is viewed parallel to the blade axis at this cut. The cascade model is commonly used for analysis of turbo machineries. Due to the simplicity of the code it requires little computational resources, however it has limitations in its validity. It can only handle two-dimensional potential flow, i.e. including neither three-dimensional effects, such as the tip loss effect, nor boundary layers and stall effects are modeled. The computational tool can however be valuable in the overall analysis of floating wind turbines, and evaluation of the rotor control system. A check of the validity of the vortex panel code using an airfoil profile is performed, comparing the variation of the lift force, to the theoretically derived Wagner function. To analyse the floating wind turbine, a floating structure with hub height 90 m is chosen. An axial motion of the rotor is considered
The Influence of Eroded Blades on Wind Turbine Performance Using Numerical Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Schramm
2017-09-01
Full Text Available During their operation, wind turbine blades are eroded due to rain and hail, or they are contaminated with insects. Since the relative inflow velocity is higher at the outer than at the inner part of the blades, erosion occurs mostly at the outer blade region. In order to prevent strong erosion, it is possible to install a leading edge protection, which can be applied to the blades after the initial installation, but changes the shape of the initial airfoil sections. It is unclear how this modification influences the aerodynamic performance of the turbine. Hence, it is investigated in this work. The NREL 5 MW turbine is simulated with clean and eroded blades, which are compared to coated blades equipped with leading edge protection. Aerodynamic polars are generated by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and load calculations are conducted using the blade element momentum theory. The analysis in this work shows that, compared to clean rotor blades, the worse aerodynamic behaviour of strongly eroded blades can lead to power losses of 9 % . In contrast, coated blades only have a small impact on the turbine power of less than 1 % .
Energy efficient engine high pressure turbine test hardware detailed design report
Halila, E. E.; Lenahan, D. T.; Thomas, T. T.
1982-01-01
The high pressure turbine configuration for the Energy Efficient Engine is built around a two-stage design system. Moderate aerodynamic loading for both stages is used to achieve the high level of turbine efficiency. Flowpath components are designed for 18,000 hours of life, while the static and rotating structures are designed for 36,000 hours of engine operation. Both stages of turbine blades and vanes are air-cooled incorporating advanced state of the art in cooling technology. Direct solidification (DS) alloys are used for blades and one stage of vanes, and an oxide dispersion system (ODS) alloy is used for the Stage 1 nozzle airfoils. Ceramic shrouds are used as the material composition for the Stage 1 shroud. An active clearance control (ACC) system is used to control the blade tip to shroud clearances for both stages. Fan air is used to impinge on the shroud casing support rings, thereby controlling the growth rate of the shroud. This procedure allows close clearance control while minimizing blade tip to shroud rubs.
Aerodynamic shape optimization of Airfoils in 2-D incompressible flow
Rangasamy, Srinivethan; Upadhyay, Harshal; Somasekaran, Sandeep; Raghunath, Sreekanth
2010-11-01
An optimization framework was developed for maximizing the region of 2-D airfoil immersed in laminar flow with enhanced aerodynamic performance. It uses genetic algorithm over a population of 125, across 1000 generations, to optimize the airfoil. On a stand-alone computer, a run takes about an hour to obtain a converged solution. The airfoil geometry was generated using two Bezier curves; one to represent the thickness and the other the camber of the airfoil. The airfoil profile was generated by adding and subtracting the thickness curve from the camber curve. The coefficient of lift and drag was computed using potential velocity distribution obtained from panel code, and boundary layer transition prediction code was used to predict the location of onset of transition. The objective function of a particular design is evaluated as the weighted-average of aerodynamic characteristics at various angles of attacks. Optimization was carried out for several objective functions and the airfoil designs obtained were analyzed.
Research on the aerodynamic characteristics of a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaojing Sun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Compared with a drag-type vertical axis wind turbines, one of the greatest advantages for a lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is its higher power coefficient (Cp. However, the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines is not a self-starting turbine as its starting torque is very low. In order to combine the advantage of both the drag-type and the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, a lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines was designed in this article and its aerodynamics and starting performance was studied in detail with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations. Numerical results indicate that the power coefficient of this lift drag hybrid vertical axis wind turbines declines when the distance between its drag-type blades and the center of rotation of the turbine rotor increases, whereas its starting torque can be significantly improved. Studies also show that unlike the lift-type vertical axis wind turbines, this lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines could be able to solve the problem of low start-up torque. However, the installation position of the drag blade is very important. If the drag blade is mounted very close to the spindle, the starting torque of the lift drag hybrid-type vertical axis wind turbines may not be improved at all. In addition, it has been found that the power coefficient of the studied vertical axis wind turbines is not as good as expected and possible reasons have been provided in this article after the pressure distribution along the surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blades of the hybrid turbine was analyzed.
Fiberglass Composite Blades for the 4 MW - WTS-4 Wind Turbine
Bussolari, R. J.
1982-01-01
The design and fabrication of composite blades for the WTS-4, a four-megawatt horizontal-axis wind turbine, is discussed. The blade consists of a two-cell, monolithic structure of filament-wound, fiberglass/epoxy composite. Filament winding is a low-cost process which can produce a blade with an aerodynamically efficient airfoil and planform with nonlinear twist to achieve high performance in terms of energy capture. Its retention provides a redundant attachment for long, durable life and safety. Advanced tooling concepts and as sophisticated computer control is used to achieve the unique filament-wound shape.
Computational method for the design of wind turbine blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vitale, A.J. [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia, Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7.5, CC 804, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Rossi, A.P. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)
2008-07-15
Zeus Disenador was developed to design low-power, horizontal-axis wind turbine blades, by means of an iterative algorithm. With this software, it is possible to obtain the optimum blade shape for a wind turbine to satisfy energy requirements of an electric system with optimum rotor efficiency. The number of blades, the airfoil curves and the average wind velocity can be specified by the user. The user can also request particular edge conditions for the width of the blades and for the pitch angle. Results are provided in different windows. Two- and three-dimensional graphics show the aspect of the resultant blade. Numerical results are displayed for blade length, blade surface, pitch angle variation along the blade span, rotor angular speed, rotor efficiency and rotor output power. Software verifications were made by comparing rotor power and rotor efficiency for different designs. Results were similar to those provided by commercial wind generator manufacturers. (author)
Airfoil shape for flight at subsonic speeds
Whitcomb, Richard T.
1976-01-01
An airfoil having an upper surface shaped to control flow accelerations and pressure distribution over the upper surface and to prevent separation of the boundary layer due to shock wave formulation at high subsonic speeds well above the critical Mach number. A highly cambered trailing edge section improves overall airfoil lifting efficiency.
Numerical simulation of airfoil trailing edge serration noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong
In the present work, numerical simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with and without serrated Trailing Edge. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy is implemented into the in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity...... field are obtained using Large Eddy Simulation. To obtain the time history data of sound pressure, the flow quantities are integrated around the airfoil surface through the FW-H approach. The extended length of the serration is about 16.7% of the airfoil chord and the geometric angle of the serration...... is 28 degrees. The chord based Reynolds number is around 1.5x106. Simulations are compared with existing wind tunnel experiments at various angles of attack. Even though the airfoil under investigation is already optimized for low noise emission, numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments show...
Non-intrusive load characterization of an airfoil using PIV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oudheusden, B.W. van; Scarano, F.; Casimiri, E.W.F. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Delft Univ. of Tech., Delft (Netherlands)
2006-06-15
An assessment is made of the feasibility of using PIV velocity data for the non-intrusive aerodynamic force characterization (lift, drag and pitching moment) of an airfoil. The method relies upon the application of control-volume approaches in combination with the deduction of the pressure from the PIV experimental data, by making use of the momentum equation. First, the consistency of the method is verified by means of synthetic data obtained from CFD. Subsequently, the procedure was applied in an experimental investigation, in which the PIV approach is validated against standard pressure-based methods (surface pressure distribution and wake rake). (orig.)
Airfoil shape optimization using non-traditional optimization technique and its validation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Mukesh
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is one of the computer-based solution methods which is more widely employed in aerospace engineering. The computational power and time required to carry out the analysis increase as the fidelity of the analysis increases. Aerodynamic shape optimization has become a vital part of aircraft design in the recent years. Generally if we want to optimize an airfoil we have to describe the airfoil and for that, we need to have at least hundred points of x and y co-ordinates. It is really difficult to optimize airfoils with this large number of co-ordinates. Nowadays many different schemes of parameter sets are used to describe general airfoil such as B-spline, and PARSEC. The main goal of these parameterization schemes is to reduce the number of needed parameters as few as possible while controlling the important aerodynamic features effectively. Here the work has been done on the PARSEC geometry representation method. The objective of this work is to introduce the knowledge of describing general airfoil using twelve parameters by representing its shape as a polynomial function. And also we have introduced the concept of Genetic Algorithm to optimize the aerodynamic characteristics of a general airfoil for specific conditions. A MATLAB program has been developed to implement PARSEC, Panel Technique, and Genetic Algorithm. This program has been tested for a standard NACA 2411 airfoil and optimized to improve its coefficient of lift. Pressure distribution and co-efficient of lift for airfoil geometries have been calculated using the Panel method. The optimized airfoil has improved co-efficient of lift compared to the original one. The optimized airfoil is validated using wind tunnel data.
An Experimental Investigation of an Airfoil Traversing Across a Shear Flow
Hamedani, Borhan A.; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr
2017-11-01
While the aerodynamics of an airfoil in a uniform approach flow is well understood, less attention has been paid to airfoils in non-uniform flows. An aircraft encounters such flow, for example, during landing through the air wake of an aircraft carrier. The present work is focused on investigating the fundamental aerodynamics of airfoils in such an environment using canonical flow experiments. To generate a shear approach flow, a shaped honeycomb block is employed in a wind tunnel setup. Direct force measurements are performed on a NACA 0012 airfoil, with an aspect ratio of 1.8, as the airfoil traverses steadily across the shear region. Measurements are conducted at a chord Reynolds number Rec 75k, based on the mean approach stream velocity at the center of the shear zone, for a range of airfoil traverse velocities and angles of attack (0 - 12 degree). The results are compared to those obtained for the same airfoil when placed statically at different points along the traverse path inside the shear zone. The comparison enables examination of the applicability of quasi-steady analysis in computing the forces on the moving airfoil. This work is supported by ONR Grant Number N00014-16-1-2760.
Panel method for the wake effects on the aerodynamics of vertical-axis wind turbines
Goyal, Udit; Rempfer, Dietmar
2011-11-01
A formulation based on the panel method is implemented for studying the unsteady aerodynamics of straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbines. A combination of source and vortex distributions is used to represent an airfoil in Darrieus type motion. Our approach represents a low-cost computational technique that takes into account the dynamic changes in angle of attack of the blade during a cycle. A time-stepping mechanism is introduced for the wake convection, and its effects on the aerodynamic forces on the blade are discussed. The focus of the study is to describe the effect of the trailing wakes on the upstream flow conditions and coefficient of performance of the turbines. Results show a decrease in Cp until the wake structure develops and assumes a quasi-steady behavior. A comparison with other models such as single and multiple streamtubes is discussed, and optimization of the blade pitch angle is performed to increase the instantaneous torque and hence the power output from the turbine.
Aeroservoelastic stability of a 2D airfoil section equipped with a trailing edge flap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergami, Leonardo
2008-11-15
Recent studies conclude that important reduction of the fatigue loads encountered by a wind turbine blade can be achieved using a deformable trailing edge control system. The focus of the current work is to determine the effect of this flap-like system on the aeroelastic stability of a 2D airfoil section. A simulation tool is implemented to predict the flow speed at which a flap equipped section may become unstable, either due to flutter or divergence. First, the stability limits of the airfoil without flap are determined, and, in the second part of the work, a deformable trailing edge flap is applied. Stability is investigated for the uncontrolled flap, and for three different control algorithms. The three controls are tuned for fatigue load alleviation and they are based on, respectively, measurement of the heave displacement and velocity, measurement of the local angle of attack, measurement of the pressure difference between the two sides of the airfoil. The stability of the aeroservoelastic system in a defined equilibrium state, and for a given flow speed, is then determined by solving an eigenvalue problem. Results show that the trailing edge control system modifies significantly the stability limits of the section. In the investigated case, increased flutter limits are reported when the elastic flap is left without control, whereas, by applying any of the control algorithms, the flutter velocity is reduced. Nevertheless, only in the heave control case the flutter limit becomes critically close to normal operation flow speeds. Furthermore, a marked dependence of the stability limits on the control gain is also observed and, by tuning the gain parameters, flutter and divergence can be suppressed for flow speed even above the flutter velocity encountered with uncontrolled flap. (author)
Investigation of piezoelectric flaps for load alleviation using CFD; Wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinz, J.C.
2010-03-15
Cost efficient wind power generation demands for large wind turbines with a long lifetime. These demands place high interests on sophisticated load control techniques such as deformable trailing edge flaps. In this work a previously tested prototype airfoil was investigated by using the 2D incompressible RANS solver EllipSys2D. The prototype was built with a Risoe-B1-18 airfoil where piezoelectric actuators THUNDER TH-6R were attached at the trailing edge to realize a movable flap. The results of the simulation were compared to measurements of the previous wind tunnel test and comprehensive steady state computations were conducted to gain information about the general airfoil properties. The model was subsequently used to investigate aero-servo-elastic effects on the 2D airfoil section exposed to a fluctuating inflow. It is explained how a fluctuating inflow was simulated with EllipSys2D and how the CFD solver was coupled with a 3 DOF structural model and with two different control algorithms. Control 1 used the measured AOA in front of the LE as input, Control 2 used the pressure difference between suction and pressure side as input. The model showed a substantial load reduction potential for the present prototype airfoil. For a wind step from 10 m/s to 10.5 m/s the standard deviation of the structural deflection normal to the rotor plane could be reduced with up to 98 % (Control 1) and 96 % (Control 2). A 4 s turbulent inflow with TI=2.2 % could be reduced with up to 81 % (Control 1) and 82 % (Control 2). For a 12 s inflow with TI=2.4 % the standard deviation could be reduced with up to 68 % (Control 1) and 67 % (Control 2). The influence of possible time lags inside the control loop on the reduction potential of the prototype was also investigated. For a 12 s inflow with a tripled turbulence intensity of TI=7.7 % the prototype airfoil could still reach a reduction of up to 54 %. For an extended flap range of -6 to +6 degrees the reduction could be returned to 66
Wind tunnel study of helical and straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine wakes
Bagheri, Maryam; Araya, Daniel
2017-11-01
It is hypothesized that blade curvature can serve as a passive means to control fluid entrainment and wake recovery in vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) arrays. We test this experimentally in a wind tunnel using two different VAWT configurations, one with straight blades and another with helical blades, keeping all other experimental parameters fixed. A small-scale, commercially available VAWT (15W max power) is used as the baseline wind tunnel model in each case. The commercial VAWT blades are replaced with either straight or helical blades that are 3D-printed extrusions of the same airfoil cross-section. Results from smoke flow visualization, three-component wake velocity measurements, and turbine power data are presented. These results give insight into the potential use of VAWTs with curved blades in utility-scale wind farms.
Development and application of a dynamic stall model for rotating wind turbine blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, B F; Yuan, Y; Wang, T G
2014-01-01
In unsteady conditions of wind turbines, both the dynamic stall phenomenon and the three-dimensional (3D) rotational effect affect the rotor aerodynamics. The dynamic stall mechanism for rotating wind turbine blades is first investigated. Through the comparison of the aerodynamic data between the rotating blade and the two-dimensional (2D) airfoil, the normal force slope in the attached flow and the separation point expression in the separated flow are modified in the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) dynamic stall model for rotating NREL wind turbine blades. The modified model is validated by the comparison between the calculation results and the experimental results of the lift and drag coefficients at different radial positions. Both the hysteresis loop shapes and the calculation values are closer to the experiment than the 2D dynamic stall model. The present dynamic stall model is then coupled to a free vortex wake model. The coupled model is used to calculate the unsteady blade aerodynamic loads and the low speed shaft torque of the NREL wind turbine in a yawed condition. The accuracy is greatly improved by the corrections presented in the paper
Active Control of Flow Separation Over an Airfoil
Ravindran, S. S.
1999-01-01
Designing an aircraft without conventional control surfaces is of interest to aerospace community. In this direction, smart actuator devices such as synthetic jets have been proposed to provide aircraft maneuverability instead of control surfaces. In this article, a numerical study is performed to investigate the effects of unsteady suction and blowing on airfoils. The unsteady suction and blowing is introduced at the leading edge of the airfoil in the form of tangential jet. Numerical solutions are obtained using Reynolds-Averaged viscous compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Unsteady suction and blowing is investigated as a means of separation control to obtain lift on airfoils. The effect of blowing coefficients on lift and drag is investigated. The numerical simulations are compared with experiments from the Tel-Aviv University (TAU). These results indicate that unsteady suction and blowing can be used as a means of separation control to generate lift on airfoils.
NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TWO ELEMENT CAMBER MORPHING AIRFOIL IN LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER FLOWS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RAJESH SENTHIL KUMAR T.
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of a two-element camber morphing airfoil was investigated at low Reynolds number using the transient SST model in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 and eN method in XFLR5. The two-element camber morphing concept was employed to morph the baseline airfoil into another airfoil by altering the orientation of mean-line at 35% of the chord to achieve better aerodynamic efficiency. NACA 0012 was selected as baseline airfoil. NACA 23012 was chosen as the test case as it has the camber-line similar to that of the morphed airfoil and as it has the same thickness as that of the baseline airfoil. The simulations were carried out at chord based Reynolds numbers of 2.5×105 and 3.9×105. The aerodynamic force coefficients, aerodynamic efficiency and the location of the transition point of laminar separation bubble over these airfoils were studied for various angles of attack. It was found that the aerodynamic efficiency of the morphed airfoil was 12% higher than that of the target airfoil at 4° angle of attack for Reynolds number of 3.9×105 and 54% rise in aerodynamic performance was noted as Reynolds number was varied from 2.5×105 to 3.9×105. The morphed airfoil exhibited the nature of low Reynolds number airfoil.
Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of airfoils with morphing structures
Ai, Qing; Azarpeyvand, Mahdi; Lachenal, Xavier; Weaver, Paul M.
2016-01-01
Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of airfoils fitted with morphing trailing edges are investigated using a coupled structure/fluid/noise model. The control of the flow over the surface of an airfoil using shape optimization techniques can significantly improve the load distribution along the chord and span lengths whilst minimising noise generation. In this study, a NACA 63-418 airfoil is fitted with a morphing flap and various morphing profiles are considered with two features that di...
Airfoil gust response and the sound produced by airifoil-vortex interaction
Amiet, R. K.
1986-01-01
This paper contributes to the understanding of the noise generation process of an airfoil encountering an unsteady upwash. By using a fast Fourier transform together with accurate airfoil response functions, the lift-time waveform for an airfoil encountering a delta function gust (the indicial function) is calculated for a flat plate airfoil in a compressible flow. This shows the interesting property that the lift is constant until the generated acoustic wave reaches the trailing edge. Expressions are given for the magnitude of this constant and for the pressure distribution on the airfoil during this time interval. The case of an airfoil cutting through a line vortex is also analyzed. The pressure-time waveform in the far field is closely related to the left-time waveform for the above problem of an airfoil entering a delta function gust. The effects of varying the relevant parameters in the problem are studied, including the observed position, the core diameter of the vortex, the vortex orientation and the airfoil span. The far field sound varies significantly with observer position, illustrating the importance of non-compactness effects. Increasing the viscous core diameter tends to smooth the pressure-time waveform. For small viscous core radius and infinite span, changing the vortex orientation changes only the amplitude of the pressure-time waveform, and not the shape.
Prediction of unsteady separated flows on oscillating airfoils
Mccroskey, W. J.
1978-01-01
Techniques for calculating high Reynolds number flow around an airfoil undergoing dynamic stall are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on predicting the values of lift, drag, and pitching moments. Methods discussed include: the discrete potential vortex method; thin boundary layer method; strong interaction between inviscid and viscous flows; and solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. Empirical methods for estimating unsteady airloads on oscillating airfoils are also described. These methods correlate force and moment data from wind tunnel tests to indicate the effects of various parameters, such as airfoil shape, Mach number, amplitude and frequency of sinosoidal oscillations, mean angle, and type of motion.
3D CFD Quantification of the Performance of a Multi-Megawatt Wind Turbine
Laursen, J.; Enevoldsen, P.; Hjort, S.
2007-07-01
This paper presents the results of 3D CFD rotor computations of a Siemens SWT-2.3-93 variable speed wind turbine with 45m blades. In the paper CFD is applied to a rotor at stationary wind conditions without wind shear, using the commercial multi-purpose CFD-solvers ANSYS CFX 10.0 and 11.0. When comparing modelled mechanical effects with findings from other models and measurements, good agreement is obtained. Similarly the computed force distributions compare very well, whereas some discrepancies are found when comparing with an in-house BEM model. By applying the reduced axial velocity method the local angle of attack has been derived from the CFD solutions, and from this knowledge and the computed force distributions, local airfoil profile coefficients have been computed and compared to BEM airfoil coefficients. Finally, the transition model of Langtry and Menter is tested on the rotor, and the results are compared with the results from the fully turbulent setup.
3D CFD Quantification of the Performance of a Multi-Megawatt Wind Turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laursen, J; Enevoldsen, P; Hjort, S
2007-01-01
This paper presents the results of 3D CFD rotor computations of a Siemens SWT-2.3-93 variable speed wind turbine with 45m blades. In the paper CFD is applied to a rotor at stationary wind conditions without wind shear, using the commercial multi-purpose CFD-solvers ANSYS CFX 10.0 and 11.0. When comparing modelled mechanical effects with findings from other models and measurements, good agreement is obtained. Similarly the computed force distributions compare very well, whereas some discrepancies are found when comparing with an in-house BEM model. By applying the reduced axial velocity method the local angle of attack has been derived from the CFD solutions, and from this knowledge and the computed force distributions, local airfoil profile coefficients have been computed and compared to BEM airfoil coefficients. Finally, the transition model of Langtry and Menter is tested on the rotor, and the results are compared with the results from the fully turbulent setup
Suslov, D; Schulz, A; Wittig, S
2001-05-01
The development of effective cooling methods is of major importance for the design of new gas turbines blades. The conception of optimal cooling schemes requires a detailed knowledge of the heat transfer processes on the blade's surfaces. The thermal load of turbine blades is predominantly determined by convective heat transfer which is described by the local heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer is closely related to the boundary layer development along the blade surface and hence depends on various flow conditions and geometrical parameters. Particularly Reynolds number, pressures gradient and turbulence level have great impact on the boundary layer development and the according heat transfer. Therefore, in the present study, the influence of Reynolds number, turbulence intensity, and periodic unsteady inflow on the local heat transfer of a typical low pressure turbine airfoil is experimentally examined in a plane cascade.
CMC blade with pressurized internal cavity for erosion control
Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Goike, Jerome Walter
2016-02-02
A ceramic matrix composite blade for use in a gas turbine engine having an airfoil with leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction side surfaces, a blade shank secured to the lower end of each airfoil, one or more interior fluid cavities within the airfoil having inlet flow passages at the lower end which are in fluid communication with the blade shank, one or more passageways in the blade shank corresponding to each one of the interior fluid cavities and a fluid pump (or compressor) that provides pressurized fluid (nominally cool, dry air) to each one of the interior fluid cavities in each airfoil. The fluid (e.g., air) is sufficient in pressure and volume to maintain a minimum fluid flow to each of the interior fluid cavities in the event of a breach due to foreign object damage.
Numerical simulation of the RISOe1-airfoil dynamic stall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, N. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
1997-12-31
In this paper we are concerned with the numerical computation of the dynamic stall that occur in the viscous flowfield over an airfoil. These results are compared to experimental data that were obtained with the new designed RISOe1-airfoil, both for a motionless airfoil and for a pitching motion. Moreover, we present some numerical computations of the plunging and lead-lag motions. We also investigate the possibility of using the pitching motion to simulate the plunging and lead-lag situations. (au)
Validation of the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Fischer, Andreas
2014-01-01
The CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils were designed with an objective of high lift and low noise emission. In the design process, the aerodynamic performance is obtained using XFOIL while noise emission is obtained with the BPM model. In this paper we present some validations of the designed CQU......, the designed Cl and Cl/Cd agrees well with the experiment and are in general higher than those of the NACA airfoil. For the acoustic features, the noise emission of the LN118 airfoil is compared with the acoustic measurements and that of the NACA airfoil. Comparisons show that the BPM model can predict...
AirborneWind Energy: Airfoil-Airmass Interaction
Zanon , Mario; Gros , Sebastien; Meyers , Johan; Diehl , Moritz
2014-01-01
The Airborne Wind Energy paradigm proposes to generate energy by flying a tethered airfoil across the wind flow at a high velocity. While Airborne Wind Energy enables flight in higher-altitude, stronger wind layers, the extra drag generated by the tether motion imposes a significant limit to the overall system efficiency. To address this issue, two airfoils with a shared tether can reduce overall system drag. A study proposed in Zanon et al. (2013) confirms this claim by showing that, in the ...
Elovic, E. (Editor); O'Brien, J. E. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)
1988-01-01
The present conference on heat transfer characteristics of gas turbines and three-dimensional flows discusses velocity-temperature fluctuation correlations at the flow stagnation flow of a circular cylinder in turbulent flow, heat transfer across turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients, the effect of jet grid turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer, and heat transfer characteristics predictions for discrete-hole film cooling. Also discussed are local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoil leading edges, secondary flows in vane cascades and curved ducts, three-dimensional numerical modeling in gas turbine coal combustor design, numerical and experimental results for tube-fin heat exchanger airflow and heating characteristics, and the computation of external hypersonic three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer characteristics.
Dynamic Stall Characteristics of Drooped Leading Edge Airfoils
Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Sahin, Mehmet; Gopal, Naveen
2000-01-01
Helicopters in high-speed forward flight usually experience large regions of dynamic stall over the retreating side of the rotor disk. The rapid variations in the lift and pitching moments associated with the stall process can result in vibratory loads, and can cause fatigue and failure of pitch links. In some instances, the large time lag between the aerodynamic forces and the blade motion can trigger stall flutter. A number of techniques for the alleviation of dynamic stall have been proposed and studied by researchers. Passive and active control techniques have both been explored. Passive techniques include the use of high solidity rotors that reduce the lift coefficients of individual blades, leading edge slots and leading edge slats. Active control techniques include steady and unsteady blowing, and dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE) airfoils. Considerable amount of experimental and numerical data has been collected on the effectiveness of these concepts. One concept that has not received as much attention is the drooped-leading edge airfoil idea. It has been observed in wind tunnel studies and flight tests that drooped leading edge airfoils can have a milder dynamic stall, with a significantly milder load hysteresis. Drooped leading edge airfoils may not, however, be suitable at other conditions, e.g. in hover, or in transonic flow. Work needs to be done on the analysis and design of drooped leading edge airfoils for efficient operation in a variety of flight regimes (hover, dynamic stall, and transonic flow). One concept that is worthy of investigation is the dynamically drooping airfoil, where the leading edge shape is changed roughly once-per-rev to mitigate the dynamic stall.
Thermal barrier coatings issues in advanced land-based gas turbines
Parks, W. P.; Lee, W. Y.; Wright, I. G.
1995-01-01
The Department of Energy's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program is aimed at forecasting the development of a new generation of land-based gas turbine systems with overall efficiencies significantly beyond those of current state-of-the-art machines, as well as greatly increased times between inspection and refurbishment, improved environmental impact, and decreased cost. The proposed duty cycle of ATS turbines will require the use of different criteria in the design of the materials for the critical hot gas path components. In particular, thermal barrier coatings will be an essential feature of the hot gas path components in these machines. While such coatings are routinely used in high-performance aircraft engines and are becoming established in land-based turbines, the requirements of the ATS turbine application are sufficiently different that significant improvements in thermal barrier coating technology will be necessary. In particular, it appears that thermal barrier coatings will have to function on all airfoil sections of the first stage vanes and blades to provide the significant temperature reduction required. In contrast, such coatings applied to the blades and vances of advanced aircraft engines are intended primarily to reduce air cooling requirements and extend component lifetime; failure of those coatings can be tolerated without jeopardizing mechanical or corrosion performance. A major difference is that in ATS turbines these components will be totally reliant on thermal barrier coatings which will, therefore, need to be highly reliable even over the leading edges of first stage blades. Obviously, the ATS program provides a very challenging opportunity for TBC's, and involves some significant opportunities to extend this technology.
On the effect of leading edge blowing on circulation control airfoil aerodynamics
Mclachlan, B. G.
1987-01-01
In the present context the term circulation control is used to denote a method of lift generation that utilizes tangential jet blowing over the upper surface of a rounded trailing edge airfoil to determine the location of the boundary layer separation points, thus setting an effective Kutta condition. At present little information exists on the flow structure generated by circulation control airfoils under leading edge blowing. Consequently, no theoretical methods exist to predict airfoil performance under such conditions. An experimental study of the flow field generated by a two dimensional circulation control airfoil under steady leading and trailing edge blowing was undertaken. The objective was to fundamentally understand the overall flow structure generated and its relation to airfoil performance. Flow visualization was performed to define the overall flow field structure. Measurements of the airfoil forces were also made to provide a correlation of the observed flow field structure to airfoil performance. Preliminary results are presented, specifically on the effect on the flow field structure of leading edge blowing, alone and in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.
2D Numerical Simulation and Sensitive Analysis of H-Darrieus Wind Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Mohammad E. Saryazdi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Recently, a lot of attention has been devoted to the use of Darrieus wind turbines in urban areas. The aerodynamics of a Darrieus turbine are very complex due to dynamic stall and changing forces on the turbine triggered by changing horizontal angles. In this study, the aerodynamics of H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT has been studied using computational fluid dynamics via two different turbulence models. Shear stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model was used to simulate a 2D unsteady model of the H-Darrieus turbine. In order to complete this simulation, sensitivity analysis of the effective turbine parameters such as solidity factor, airfoil shape, wind velocity and shaft diameter were done. To simulate the flow through the turbine, a 2D simplified computational domain has been generated. Then fine mesh for each case consisting of different turbulence models and dimensions has been generated. Each mesh in this simulation dependent on effective parameters consisted of domain size, mesh quality, time step and total revolution. The sliding mesh method was applied to evaluate the unsteady interaction between the stationary and rotating components. Previous works just simulated turbine, while in our study sensitivity analysis of effective parameters was done. The simulation results closely match the experimental data, providing an efficient and reliable foundation to study wind turbine aerodynamics. This also demonstrates computing the best value of the effective parameter. The sensitivity analysis revealed best value of the effective parameter that could be used in the process of designing turbine. This work provides the first step in developing an accurate 3D aerodynamic modeling of Darrieus wind turbines. Article History: Received :August 19th 2017; Received: December 15th 2017; Accepted: Januari 14th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Saryazdi, S. M. E. and Boroushaki, M. (2018 2D Numerical Simulation and Sensitive
Unsteady aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with and without a slat
Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.
1993-01-01
Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a 2D VR-7 airfoil with and without a leading-edge slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 deg at Re = 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag, and pitching moment data. A fluorescent dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flowfield and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.
Extraction of airfoil data using PIV and pressure measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Hua; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2011-01-01
of the rotor. The extraction technique is verified by employing the derived airfoil characteristics as input to computations using the BEM technique and comparing the calculated axial and tangential forces to the measured data. The comparison also demonstrates that the used technique of determining the AOA...... airfoil data are compared to 2D data from wind tunnel experiments and XFOIL computations. The comparison suggests that the rotor is subject to severe 3D effects originating from the geometry of the rotor, and explains why the Blade Element Momentum technique with 2D airfoil data over‐predicts the loading......A newly developed technique for determining the angle of attack (AOA) on a rotating blade is used to extract AOAs and airfoil data from measurements obtained during the MEXICO (Model rotor EXperiments in COntrolled conditions) rotor experiment. Detailed surface pressure and Particle Image...
Effect of number of blades on aerodynamic forces on a straight-bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Furukawa, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Masayuki
2015-01-01
Small wind turbine performance and safety standard for straight-bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) have not been developed in the world because of the lack of fundament experimental data. This paper focuses on the evaluation of aerodynamic forces depending on several numbers of blades in wind tunnel experiment. In the present study, the test airfoil of blade is symmetry airfoil of NACA 0021 and the number of blades is from two to five. Pressure acting on the surface of rotor blade is measured during rotation by multiport pressure devices and transmitted to a stationary system through wireless LAN. And then, the aerodynamic forces (tangential force, normal force et al.) are discussed as a function of azimuth angle, achieving a quantitative analysis of the effect of numbers of blades. Finally, the loads are compared with the experimental data of six-component balance. As a result, it is clarified that the power coefficient decreases with the increase of numbers of blades. Furthermore, the power which is absorbed from wind by wind turbine mainly depends on upstream region of azimuth angle of θ = 0°∼180°. In this way, these results are very important for developing the simple design equations and applications for straight-bladed VAWT. - Highlights: • Aerodynamic forces are measured by not only torque meter but also six-component balance. • The pressure distribution on the surface of rotor blade is directly measured by multiport pressure devices. • The power coefficient decreases with the increase of numbers of blades. • The fluctuation amplitudes from six-component balance show larger value than the results of pressure distribution.
Geometrical effects on the airfoil flow separation and transition
Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Wan; Gao, Wei; Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-01-01
We present results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of incompressible flow over two airfoils, NACA-4412 and NACA-0012-64, to investigate the effects of the airfoil geometry on the flow separation and transition patterns at Re=104 and 10
A Multi-Element Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Søren Hjort
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A new class of diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs is presented. The new diffuser concept exploits aero-dynamic principles for the creation of high-lift airfoil configurations known from the aircraft industry. Combining this with our objective of obtaining a compact power-efficient design has enabled creation of a family of DAWT designs with energy capture potentials which exceed the power efficiency based on the diffuser exit area by 50%. The paper presents the 1D momentum theory governing the DAWTs, and discusses upper limits for power extraction, similar to the Betz limit applicable for bare Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs. Inviscid axisymmetric panel code calculations are then used to drive the diffuser design towards higher power coefficients. Axisymmetric actuator disk Navier-Stokes calculations reveal the types of stall that inhibit the functionality of the ideal inviscid optimum, leading the design towards the new class of DAWTs. DAWT performance has been differently measured over time, creating confusion. Proper comparison with performance of existing DAWT designs is therefore emphasized. This involves reference to established literature results, and recalculation of earlier DAWT designs in an attempt to project all results onto a common metric.
Influences of surface temperature on a low camber airfoil aerodynamic performances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeriu DRAGAN
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The current note refers to the comparison between a NACA 2510 airfoil with adiabatic walls and the same airfoil with heated patches. Both suction and pressure sides were divided into two regions covering the leading edge (L.E. and trailing edge (T.E.. A RANS method sensitivity test has been performed in the preliminary stage while for the extended 3D cases a DES-SST approach was used. Results indicate that surface temperature distribution influences the aerodynamics of the airfoil, in particular the viscous drag component but also the lift of the airfoil. Moreover, the influence depends not only on the surface temperature but also on the positioning of the heated surfaces, particularly in the case of pressure lift and drag. Further work will be needed to optimize the temperature distribution for airfoil with higher camber.
Optimal design of marine steam turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Chengyang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun
2012-01-01
The marine steam turbine is one of the key equipment in marine power plant, and it tends to using high power steam turbine, which makes the steam turbine to be heavier and larger, it causes difficulties to the design and arrangement of the steam turbine, and the marine maneuverability is seriously influenced. Therefore, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques to the design of the steam turbine in order to achieve the minimum weight or volume by means of finding the optimum combination of design parameters. The math model of the marine steam turbine design calculation was established. The sensitivities of condenser pressure, power ratio of HP turbine with LP turbine, and the ratio of diameter with height at the end stage of LP turbine, which influence the weight of the marine steam turbine, were analyzed. The optimal design of the marine steam turbine, aiming at the weight minimization while satisfying the structure and performance constraints, was carried out with the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that, steam turbine weight is reduced by 3.13% with the optimization scheme. Finally, the optimization results were analyzed, and the steam turbine optimization design direction was indicated. (authors)
Modification of the NACA 632-415 leading edge for better aerodynamic performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.
2002-01-01
Double stall causes more than one power level when stall-regulated wind turbines operate in stall. This involves significant uncertainty on power production and loads. To avoid double stall, a new leading edge was designed for the NACA 632-415 airfoil, an airfoil that is often used in the tip...... region of wind turbines. A numerical optimization tool incorporating XFOIL was used with a special formulation for the airfoil leading edge shape. The EllipSys2D CFD code was used to analyze the modified airfoil. In theory and in wind tunnel tests, the modified airfoil showed smooth and stable stall...... stall and aerodynamic damping characteristics for the modified airfoil and the NACA 632-415 airfoil were the same. The modified airfoil with leading edge roughness in general had better characteristics compared with the NACA 632-415 airfoil. ©2002 ASME...
EUDP Project: Low Noise Airfoil - Final Report
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This document summarizes the scientific results achieved during the EUDP-funded project `Low-Noise Airfoil'. The goals of this project are, on one side to develop a measurement technique that permits the evaluation of trailing edge noise in a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel, and on the other side...... to develop and implement a design procedure to manufacture airfoil profiles with low noise emission. The project involved two experimental campaigns: one in the LM Wind Power wind tunnel, a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel, in Lunderskov (DK), the second one in the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel....... In particular, the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model could be significantly improved by introducing turbulence anisotropy in its formulation, as well as the influence of the boundary layer mean pressure gradient. This two characteristics are inherent to airfoil flows but were neglected in the original...
Ristau, Neil; Siden, Gunnar Leif
2015-07-21
An airfoil includes a leading edge, a trailing edge downstream from the leading edge, a pressure surface between the leading and trailing edges, and a suction surface between the leading and trailing edges and opposite the pressure surface. A first convex section on the suction surface decreases in curvature downstream from the leading edge, and a throat on the suction surface is downstream from the first convex section. A second convex section is on the suction surface downstream from the throat, and a first convex segment of the second convex section increases in curvature.
A Two Element Laminar Flow Airfoil Optimized for Cruise. M.S. Thesis
Steen, Gregory Glen
1994-01-01
Numerical and experimental results are presented for a new two-element, fixed-geometry natural laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise Reynolds numbers on the order of three million. The airfoil design consists of a primary element and an independent secondary element with a primary to secondary chord ratio of three to one. The airfoil was designed to improve the cruise lift-to-drag ratio while maintaining an appropriate landing capability when compared to conventional airfoils. The airfoil was numerically developed utilizing the NASA Langley Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis computer code running on a personal computer. Numerical results show a nearly 11.75 percent decrease in overall wing drag with no increase in stall speed at sailplane cruise conditions when compared to a wing based on an efficient single element airfoil. Section surface pressure, wake survey, transition location, and flow visualization results were obtained in the Texas A&M University Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental data, the effects of the relative position and angle of the two elements, and Reynolds number variations from 8 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 6) for the optimum geometry case are presented.
Vertical axis wind turbines : past initiatives and future prospects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Islam, M.; Fartaj, A.; Ting, D. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering
2003-08-01
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) are the two categories of modern wind turbines used for producing electricity and pumping water. While their popularity declined in the 1970s and 1980s to more economical fossil fuel resources, many countries have expressed a renewed interest in wind power in response to environmental concerns and energy security. Renewable energy sources supply more than 14 per cent of the total global energy demand, and wind energy plays the biggest role. In 2002, more than $7 billion was invested in wind technology. Canada has been a leader in VAWT technology. In 1966, Engineers at the Low Speed Aerodynamics Laboratory of the National Research Council devised a VAWT configuration with non-adjustable hoop-shaped airfoils that had greater efficiency that conventional high-solidity VAWT. In the early 1980s, a multi-megawatt VAWT was built in Quebec under the auspices of the EOLE project. The EOLE is the largest VAWT in the world. In 1980, Canada's national Atlantic Wind Test Site was developed for the purpose of testing and developing wind technology. Research at this facility has focused on dynamically soft Darrieus rotors, a concept which can reduce structural loads. Early development has shown that although VAWT is slightly less efficient than HAWT, it can be built larger and more cost effectively. This paper presents the outstanding features of VAWT products including the Solwind SW 10/4800 series VAWT, the Chinook 2000 wind turbine, the Ropatec Windrotor, the Windside Turbine, the VAWTEX, the Windstar VAWT, and Windtec. 19 refs., 13 figs.
Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Bruce Philip; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Bryant, Joshua; Johnson, Wesley D.; Paquette, Joshua
2016-01-01
The Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility, operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program, is a wind energy research site with multiple wind turbines scaled for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. The SWiFT site currently includes three variable-speed, pitch-regulated, three-bladed wind turbines. The six volumes of this manual provide a detailed description of the SWiFT wind turbines, including their operation and user interfaces, electrical and mechanical systems, assembly and commissioning procedures, and safety systems. Further dissemination only as authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE programmatic authority. 111 UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED RELEASE Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual (SAND2016-0746 ) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Site Supervisor Dave Mitchell (6121) Date Note: Document revision logs are found after the title page of each volume of this manual. iv
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren
2014-01-01
Awareness about wind energy is constantly growing in the world. Especially a demand for small scale wind turbine is increasing and various products are available in market. There are mainly two types of wind turbines, horizontal axis wind turbine and vertical axis wind turbines. Horizontal axis wind turbines are suitable for high wind speed whereas vertical axis wind turbines operate relatively low wind speed area. Vertical axis wind turbines are cost effective and simple in construction as compared to the horizontal axis wind turbine. However, vertical axis wind turbines have inherent problem of self-start inability and has low power coefficient as compare to the horizontal axis wind turbine. These two problems can be eliminated by incorporating the blade pitching mechanism. So, in this paper overview of various pitch control systems is discussed and design of self-acting pitch mechanism is given. A pitch control linkage mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine is modeled by multi-body approach using MSC Software. Aerodynamic loads are predicted from a mathematical model based on double multiple stream tube method. An appropriate airfoil which works at low Reynolds number is selected for blade design. It is also focused on commercialization of the vertical axis wind turbine which incorporates the self-acting pitch control system. These aerodynamic load model will be coupled with the multi-body model in future work for optimization of the pitch control linkage mechanism. A 500 Watt vertical axis wind turbine is designed and it is planned to implement the self-acting pitch control mechanism in real model
Sub-scale Inverse Wind Turbine Blade Design Using Bound Circulation
Kelley, Christopher; Berg, Jonathan
2014-11-01
A goal of the National Rotor Testbed project at Sandia is to design a sub-scale wind turbine blade that has similitude to a modern, commercial size blade. However, a smaller diameter wind turbine operating at the same tip-speed-ratio exhibits a different range of operating Reynolds numbers across the blade span, thus changing the local lift and drag coefficients. Differences to load distribution also affect the wake dynamics and stability. An inverse wind turbine blade design tool has been implemented which uses a target, dimensionless circulation distribution from a full-scale blade to find the chord and twist along a sub-scale blade. In addition, airfoil polar data are interpolated from a few specified span stations leading to a smooth, manufacturable blade. The iterative process perturbs chord and twist, after running a blade element momentum theory code, to reduce the residual sum of the squares between the modeled sub-scale circulation and the target full-scale circulation. It is shown that the converged sub-scale design also leads to performance similarity in thrust and power coefficients. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Gaunaa, Mac
2010-01-01
. By enabling the trailing edge to move independently and quickly along the spanwise position of the blade, local small flutuations in the aerodynamic forces can be alleviated by deformation of the airfoil flap. Strain gauges are used as input for the flap controller, and the effect of placing strain gauges......The present work contains a deformable trailing edge flap controller integrated in a numerically simulated modern, variablespeed, pitch-regulated megawatt (MW)-size wind turbine. The aeroservoelastic multi-body code HAWC2 acts as a component in the control loop design. At the core of the proposed...... edge flaps on a wind turbine blade rather than a conclusive control design with traditional issues like stability and robustness fully investigated. Recent works have shown that the fatigue load reduction by use of trailing edge flaps may be greater than for traditional pitch control methods...
Aerodynamic sound of flow past an airfoil
Wang, Meng
1995-01-01
The long term objective of this project is to develop a computational method for predicting the noise of turbulence-airfoil interactions, particularly at the trailing edge. We seek to obtain the energy-containing features of the turbulent boundary layers and the near-wake using Navier-Stokes Simulation (LES or DNS), and then to calculate the far-field acoustic characteristics by means of acoustic analogy theories, using the simulation data as acoustic source functions. Two distinct types of noise can be emitted from airfoil trailing edges. The first, a tonal or narrowband sound caused by vortex shedding, is normally associated with blunt trailing edges, high angles of attack, or laminar flow airfoils. The second source is of broadband nature arising from the aeroacoustic scattering of turbulent eddies by the trailing edge. Due to its importance to airframe noise, rotor and propeller noise, etc., trailing edge noise has been the subject of extensive theoretical (e.g. Crighton & Leppington 1971; Howe 1978) as well as experimental investigations (e.g. Brooks & Hodgson 1981; Blake & Gershfeld 1988). A number of challenges exist concerning acoustic analogy based noise computations. These include the elimination of spurious sound caused by vortices crossing permeable computational boundaries in the wake, the treatment of noncompact source regions, and the accurate description of wave reflection by the solid surface and scattering near the edge. In addition, accurate turbulence statistics in the flow field are required for the evaluation of acoustic source functions. Major efforts to date have been focused on the first two challenges. To this end, a paradigm problem of laminar vortex shedding, generated by a two dimensional, uniform stream past a NACA0012 airfoil, is used to address the relevant numerical issues. Under the low Mach number approximation, the near-field flow quantities are obtained by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically at chord
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, P; Kurosawa, S
2014-01-01
The understanding and accurate prediction of the flow behaviour related to cavitation and pressure fluctuation in a Kaplan turbine are important to the design work enhancing the turbine performance including the elongation of the operation life span and the improvement of turbine efficiency. In this paper, high accuracy turbine and cavitation performance prediction method based on entire flow passage for a Kaplan turbine is presented and evaluated. Two-phase flow field is predicted by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed by volume of fluid method tracking the free surface and combined with Reynolds Stress model. The growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles are modelled by the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The prediction accuracy is evaluated by comparing with the model test results of Ns 400 Kaplan model turbine. As a result that the experimentally measured data including turbine efficiency, cavitation performance, and pressure fluctuation are accurately predicted. Furthermore, the cavitation occurrence on the runner blade surface and the influence to the hydraulic loss of the flow passage are discussed. Evaluated prediction method for the turbine flow and performance is introduced to facilitate the future design and research works on Kaplan type turbine
Ko, P.; Kurosawa, S.
2014-03-01
The understanding and accurate prediction of the flow behaviour related to cavitation and pressure fluctuation in a Kaplan turbine are important to the design work enhancing the turbine performance including the elongation of the operation life span and the improvement of turbine efficiency. In this paper, high accuracy turbine and cavitation performance prediction method based on entire flow passage for a Kaplan turbine is presented and evaluated. Two-phase flow field is predicted by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed by volume of fluid method tracking the free surface and combined with Reynolds Stress model. The growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles are modelled by the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The prediction accuracy is evaluated by comparing with the model test results of Ns 400 Kaplan model turbine. As a result that the experimentally measured data including turbine efficiency, cavitation performance, and pressure fluctuation are accurately predicted. Furthermore, the cavitation occurrence on the runner blade surface and the influence to the hydraulic loss of the flow passage are discussed. Evaluated prediction method for the turbine flow and performance is introduced to facilitate the future design and research works on Kaplan type turbine.
Unsteady flow model for circulation-control airfoils
Rao, B. M.
1979-01-01
An analysis and a numerical lifting surface method are developed for predicting the unsteady airloads on two-dimensional circulation control airfoils in incompressible flow. The analysis and the computer program are validated by correlating the computed unsteady airloads with test data and also with other theoretical solutions. Additionally, a mathematical model for predicting the bending-torsion flutter of a two-dimensional airfoil (a reference section of a wing or rotor blade) and a computer program using an iterative scheme are developed. The flutter program has a provision for using the CC airfoil airloads program or the Theodorsen hard flap solution to compute the unsteady lift and moment used in the flutter equations. The adopted mathematical model and the iterative scheme are used to perform a flutter analysis of a typical CC rotor blade reference section. The program seems to work well within the basic assumption of the incompressible flow.
Estimation of gas turbine blades cooling efficiency
Moskalenko, A.B.; Kozhevnikov, A.
2016-01-01
This paper outlines the results of the evaluation of the most thermally stressed gas turbine elements, first stage power turbine blades, cooling efficiency. The calculations were implemented using a numerical simulation based on the Finite Element Method. The volume average temperature of the blade
尾缘加厚翼型的三维旋转特性研究%Study on 3D rotation characteristics of trailing edge enlarged airfoils
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐浩然; 杨华; 马桂超
2016-01-01
In this paper,Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was employed to predict the lift and drag coefficients of airfoils at different radii of MEXICO (Model EXperiments In Controlled cOnditions) experimental wind turbine,the computational results were compared with experimental results to validate the prediction accuracy of CFD,the results show that CFD can predict the lift and drag coefficients of airfoils under rotating conditions accurately.Then,CFD method was used to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of a rotor which is newly designed with trailing edge enlarged airfoil and the same chord length along the radial direction,so the characteristics of trailing edge enlarged airfoil under rotating conditions can be obtained which show that the lift coefficients of trailing edge enlarged airfoil is 10 percent larger than that of respectively original airfoil below an angle of attack of 15 degrees.What's more,the roughness sensitivity of trailing edge enlarged airfoil is better than that of respectively original airfoil under rotating conditions.At last,with the increase of radius,the lift coefficients of trailing edge enlarged and original airfoils both increase but stall occurs ahead,the increment of lift coefficients of trailing edge enlarged airfoil is larger than that of respectively original airfoil under rotating conditions.%采用计算流体动力学(CFD)方法对MEXICO试验风力机叶片不同部位翼型在旋转状态下的升阻力系数进行计算,并与试验数据进行比较分析,验证了CFD方法能够准确预测翼型在旋转状态下的升阻力系数.通过采用尾缘对称加厚到5％翼型弦长的DU 97-W-300-05翼型和对应的尾缘未加厚的DU 97-W-300翼型设计,得到沿叶片径向具有相同弦长的风力机叶片,并采用CFD方法对该叶片在旋转状态下的气动特性进行计算.结果表明:在旋转状态下,当攻角小于15.时,尾缘加厚翼型的升力系数比相对应的尾缘未加厚翼型大10
Parametric analyses on dynamic stall control of rotor airfoil via synthetic jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qijun ZHAO
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The effects of synthetic jet control on unsteady dynamic stall over rotor airfoil are investigated numerically. A moving-embedded grid method and an Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS solver coupled with k-Ï Shear Stress Transport (SST turbulence model are established for predicting the complex flowfields of oscillatory airfoil under jet control. Additionally, a velocity boundary condition modeled by sinusoidal function has been developed to fulfill the perturbation effect of periodic jet. The validity of present CFD method is evaluated by comparisons of the calculated results of baseline dynamic stall case for rotor airfoil and jet control case for VR-7B airfoil with experimental data. Then, parametric analyses are conducted emphatically for an OA212 rotor airfoil to investigate the effects of jet control parameters (jet location, dimensionless frequency, momentum coefficient, jet angle, jet type and dual-jet on dynamic stall characteristics of rotor airfoil. It is demonstrated by the calculated results that efficiency of jet control could be improved with specific momentum coefficient and jet angle when the jet is located near separation point of rotor airfoil. Furthermore, the dual-jet could improve control efficiency more obviously on dynamic stall of rotor airfoil with respect to the unique jet, and the influence laws of dual-jetâs angles and momentum coefficients on control effects are similar to those of the unique jet. Finally, unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of rotor via synthetic jet which is located on the upper surface of rotor blade in forward flight are calculated, and asÂ a result, the aerodynamic characteristics of rotor are improved compared with the baseline. The results indicate that synthetic jet has the capability in improving aerodynamic characteristics of rotor. Keywords: Airfoil, Dynamic stall characteristics, Flow control, Moving-embedded grid methodology, Navier-Stokes equations, Parametric
An airloads theory for morphing airfoils in dynamic stall with experimental correlation
Ahaus, Loren A.
Helicopter rotor blades frequently encounter dynamic stall during normal flight conditions, limiting the applicability of classical thin-airfoil theory at large angles of attack. Also, it is evident that because of the largely different conditions on the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor, future rotorcraft may incorporate dynamically morphing airfoils (trailing-edge aps, dynamic camber, dynamic droop, etc.). Reduced-order aerodynamic models are needed for preliminary design and ight simulation. A unified model for predicting the airloads on a morphing airfoil in dynamic stall is presented, consisting of three components. First, a linear airloads theory allows for arbitrary airfoil deformations consistent with a morphing airfoil. Second, to capture the effects of the wake, the airloads theory is coupled to an induced ow model. Third, the overshoot and time delay associated with dynamic stall are modeled by a second-order dynamic filter, along the lines of the ONERA dynamic stall model. This paper presents a unified airloads model that allows arbitrary airfoil morphing with dynamic stall. Correlations with experimental data validate the theory.
Turbulence intensity measurement in the wind tunnel used for airfoil flutter investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šidlof Petr
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper reports on hot wire turbulence intensity measurements performed in the entry of a suction-type wind tunnel, used for investigation of flow-induced vibration of airfoils and slender structures. The airfoil is elastically supported with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge in the test section of the wind tunnel with lateral optical access for interferometric measurements, and free to oscillate. The turbulence intensity was measured for velocities up to M = 0.3 i with the airfoil blocked, ii with the airfoil self-oscillating. Measurements were performed for a free inlet and further with two different turbulence grids generating increased turbulence intensity levels. For the free inlet and static airfoil, the turbulence intensity lies below 0.4%. The turbulence grids G1 and G2 increase the turbulence level up to 1.8% and 2.6%, respectively. When the airfoil is free to oscillate due to fluid-structure interaction, its motion disturbs the surrounding flow field and increases the measured turbulence intensity levels up to 5%.
Recent progress in the analysis of iced airfoils and wings
Cebeci, Tuncer; Chen, Hsun H.; Kaups, Kalle; Schimke, Sue
1992-01-01
Recent work on the analysis of iced airfoils and wings is described. Ice shapes for multielement airfoils and wings are computed using an extension of the LEWICE code that was developed for single airfoils. The aerodynamic properties of the iced wing are determined with an interactive scheme in which the solutions of the inviscid flow equations are obtained from a panel method and the solutions of the viscous flow equations are obtained from an inverse three-dimensional finite-difference boundary-layer method. A new interaction law is used to couple the inviscid and viscous flow solutions. The newly developed LEWICE multielement code is amplified to a high-lift configuration to calculate the ice shapes on the slat and on the main airfoil and on a four-element airfoil. The application of the LEWICE wing code to the calculation of ice shapes on a MS-317 swept wing shows good agreement with measurements. The interactive boundary-layer method is applied to a tapered iced wing in order to study the effect of icing on the aerodynamic properties of the wing at several angles of attack.
Modelling of the impact of biofouling on hydrodynamics downstream of a tidal turbine
Bennis, A. C.; Rivier, A.; Dauvin, J. C.
2016-02-01
Biological organisms, like barnacles, mussels or bryozoans, colonize rapidly an immersed surface and could form a thickness until several centimeters on it. This biofouling could modify hydrodynamics around tidal turbine by increasing drag and hence resistance and could be detrimental to the performance of turbine (e.g. Orme et al., 2001; Khor and Xiao, 2011). Our work focuses on modifications of vortices downstream of a tidal turbine due to biofouling using CFD. Fixed biological organisms are solved explicitly by the model and are considered by modifying the blade profile. Firstly an airfoil colonized by barnacles is modelled for various fouling height and spacing and results are compared to experimental and simulated data (Orme et al., 2001; Khor and Xiao, 2011) in order to assess the capacity of the model to reproduce the flow around a blade with biofouling. Then a Darrieus vertical axis tidal turbine is modelled using a dynamic mesh. Configuration with smooth clean blades is assessed by comparison with experiments and simulations made by Roa (2011) and Bossard (2012). Biological organisms with various heights, spacing and shapes are fixed on blades and wakes downstream of clean and colonized tidal turbine are compared. Vorticity fields around the tidal turbine are clearly modified when blades are colonized. Samples will be taken from location where farms are planned to be built (Alderney Race/Raz Blanchard) to characterize more precisely the characteristics of species which are liable to fix on tidal turbine.Reference:Bossard (2012). Doctoral dissertation, Université de Grenoble.Khor & Xiao. (2011). Ocean Eng, 38(10), 1065-1079. Orme et al. (2001). Marine Renewable Energy Conference, Newcastle.Roa (2011).Doctoral dissertation, Université de Grenoble.
Numerical Simulation of Airfoil Aerodynamic Penalties and Mechanisms in Heavy Rain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenlong Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations that are conducted on a transport-type airfoil, NACA 64-210, at a Reynolds number of 2.6×106 and LWC of 25 g/m3 explore the aerodynamic penalties and mechanisms that affect airfoil performance in heavy rain conditions. Our simulation results agree well with the experimental data and show significant aerodynamic penalties for the airfoil in heavy rain. The maximum percentage decrease in CL is reached by 13.2% and the maximum percentage increase in CD by 47.6%. Performance degradation in heavy rain at low angles of attack is emulated by an originally creative boundary-layer-tripped technique near the leading edge. Numerical flow visualization technique is used to show premature boundary-layer separation at high angles of attack and the particulate trajectories at various angles of attack. A mathematic model is established to qualitatively study the water film effect on the airfoil geometric changes. All above efforts indicate that two primary mechanisms are accountable for the airfoil aerodynamic penalties. One is to cause premature boundary-layer transition at low AOA and separation at high AOA. The other occurs at times scales consistent with the water film layer, which is thought to alter the airfoil geometry and increase the mass effectively.
Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen
2015-11-01
A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was designed and built at the U.S. Naval Academy. The system was used to study the wake of a scale-independent horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross-section. The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed by registering the resultant vector fields together into a single field of investigation. Results include the field of investigation from a representative case, for the mean velocity field averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, and turbulent statistics including turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Waked Turbines in a Scaled Wind Farm Facility
Wang, J.; McLean, D.; Campagnolo, F.; Yu, T.; Bottasso, C. L.
2017-05-01
The aim of this paper is to present the numerical simulation of waked scaled wind turbines operating in a boundary layer wind tunnel. The simulation uses a LES-lifting-line numerical model. An immersed boundary method in conjunction with an adequate wall model is used to represent the effects of both the wind turbine nacelle and tower, which are shown to have a considerable effect on the wake behavior. Multi-airfoil data calibrated at different Reynolds numbers are used to account for the lift and drag characteristics at the low and varying Reynolds conditions encountered in the experiments. The present study focuses on low turbulence inflow conditions and inflow non-uniformity due to wind tunnel characteristics, while higher turbulence conditions are considered in a separate study. The numerical model is validated by using experimental data obtained during test campaigns conducted with the scaled wind farm facility. The simulation and experimental results are compared in terms of power capture, rotor thrust, downstream velocity profiles and turbulence intensity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liangyu Zhao
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In order to investigate the impact of airfoil thickness on flapping performance, the unsteady flow fields of a family of airfoils from an NACA0002 airfoil to an NACA0020 airfoil in a pure plunging motion and a series of altered NACA0012 airfoils in a pure plunging motion were simulated using computational fluid dynamics techniques. The “class function/shape function transformation“ parametric method was employed to decide the coordinates of these altered NACA0012 airfoils. Under specified plunging kinematics, it is observed that the increase of an airfoil thickness can reduce the leading edge vortex (LEV in strength and delay the LEV shedding. The increase of the maximum thickness can enhance the time-averaged thrust coefficient and the propulsive efficiency without lift reduction. As the maximum thickness location moves towards the leading edge, the airfoil obtains a larger time-averaged thrust coefficient and a higher propulsive efficiency without changing the lift coefficient.
Enhancements to NURBS-Based FEA Airfoil Modeler: SABER
Saleeb, A. F.; Trowbridge, D. A.
2003-01-01
NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) have become a common way for CAD programs to fit a smooth surface to discrete geometric data. This concept has been extended to allow for the fitting of analysis data in a similar manner and "attaching" the analysis data to the geometric definition of the structure. The "attaching" of analysis data to the geometric definition allows for a more seamless sharing of data between analysis disciplines. NURBS have become a useful tool in the modeling of airfoils. The use of NURBS has allowed for the development of software that easily and consistently generates plate finite element models of the midcamber surface of a given airfoil. The resulting displacements can then be applied to the original airfoil surface and the deformed shape calculated.
Bahadir, Osman; Kosucu, Polat
2012-12-01
To objectively assess the efficacy of radiofrequency thermal ablation of inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Thirty-five patients with nasal obstruction secondary to inferior turbinate hypertrophy were prospectively enrolled. Radiofrequency energy was delivered to four sites in each inferior turbinate. Patients were evaluated before and 8 weeks after intervention. Subjective evaluation of nasal obstruction was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and objective evaluation of the turbinate volume reduction was calculated using multidetector CT. Volumetric measurements of the preoperative inferior turbinate were compared with postoperative values on both sides. The great majority of patients (91.4%) exhibited subjective postoperative improvement. Mean obstruction (VAS) improved significantly from 7.45±1.48 to 3.54±1.96. Significant turbinate volume reduction was achieved by the surgery on both right and left sides [(preoperative vs. postoperative, right: 6.55±1.62cm(3) vs. 5.10±1.47cm(3), (PRadiofrequency is a safe and effective surgical procedure in reducing turbinate volume in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Multidetector CT is an objective method of assessment in detecting radiofrequency turbinate volume reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Development, construction and testing of a vertical axis 200 kW wind turbine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1974-12-20
It is proposed to design and develop a large vertical axis wind turbine that will generate economically 200 kilowatts of power at a wind speed of about 30 miles per hour. The scope of this proposal is to carry out studies, build, erect and test an electrical power generation plant that will feed into existing power grids. Preliminary technical studies indicate that the power of the turbine increases with the third power of the the wind speed. The rotor power loading should be as high as the prevailing winds allow; thus it would always be advisable to let the rotor run at as high an rpm as the economics will allow. For turbines up to about 100 ft in diameter, an extruded blade seems to be the best solution for economic rotor design. A 300 ft/s runaway tip speed seems to be acceptable as an rpm limit. Structurally, it is advantageous to increase the blade airfoil section to 18%. The proposed program has a very high probability of success in that each element of the total system involves a very low technical risk. The manufacturing methods rely on existing technology, and preliminary research indicates that readily available commercial materials can be used. There will be no involvement with highly stressed, fatigue-sensitive components. The total unit energy cost will be about fifty percent less for the proposed 90 ft. turbine than for the 15 ft. turbine produced for the National Research Council. 8 figs., 12 tabs.
DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF COATINGS FOR FUTURE POWER GENERATION TURBINES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvin, Maryanne; Klotz, K.; McMordie, B.; Gleeson, B.; Zhu, D.; Warnes, B.; Kang, B.; Tannenbaum, J.
2012-01-01
The NETL-Regional University Alliance (RUA) continues to advance technology development critical to turbine manufacturer efforts for achieving DOE Fossil Energy (FE's) Advanced Turbine Program Goals. In conjunction with NETL, Coatings for Industry (CFI), the University of Pittsburgh, NASA GRC, and Corrosion Control Inc., efforts have been focused on development of composite thermal barrier coating (TBC) architectures that consist of an extreme temperature coating, a commercially applied 7-8 YSZ TBC, a reduced cost bond coat, and a diffusion barrier coating that are applied to nickel-based superalloys or single crystal airfoil substrate materials for use at temperatures >1450 C (> 2640 F). Additionally, construction of a unique, high temperature ({approx}1100 C; {approx}2010 F), bench-scale, micro-indentation, nondestructive (NDE) test facility at West Virginia University (WVU) was completed to experimentally address in-situ changes in TBC stiffness during extended cyclic oxidation exposure of coated single crystal coupons in air or steam containing environments. The efforts and technical accomplishments in these areas are presented in the following sections of this paper.
Analogy between a flapping wing and a wind turbine with a vertical axis of revolution
Gorelov, D. N.
2009-03-01
Based on an analysis of available experimental data, the hypothesis about an analogy between a flapping wing and a wind turbine of the Darrieus rotor type is justified. It is demonstrated that the torque on the shaft of the Darrieus rotor is generated by thrust forces acting on the blades in a pulsed flow. A conclusion is drawn that it is necessary to perform aerodynamic calculations of blades on the basis of the nonlinear theory of the wing in an unsteady flow with allowance for the airfoil thickness.
Muraca, R. J.; Stephens, M. V.; Dagenhart, J. R.
1975-01-01
A general analysis capable of predicting performance characteristics of cross-wind axis turbines was developed, including the effects of airfoil geometry, support struts, blade aspect ratio, windmill solidity, blade interference and curved flow. The results were compared with available wind tunnel results for a catenary blade shape. A theoretical performance curve for an aerodynamically efficient straight blade configuration was also presented. In addition, a linearized analytical solution applicable for straight configurations was developed. A listing of the computer program developed for numerical solutions of the general performance equations is included in the appendix.
Unsteady lift forces on highly cambered airfoils moving through a gust
Atassi, H.; Goldstein, M.
1974-01-01
An unsteady airfoil theory in which the flow is linearized about the steady potential flow of the airfoil is presented. The theory is applied to an airfoil entering a gust. After transformation to the W-plane, the problem is formulated in terms of a Poisson's equation. The solutions are expanded in a Fourier-Bessel series. The theory is applied to a circular arc with arbitrary camber. Closed form expressions for the velocity and pressure on the surface of the airfoil are obtained. The unsteady aerodynamic forces are then calculated and shown to contain two terms. One in an explicit closed analytical form represents the contribution of the oncoming vortical disturbance, the other depends on a single quadrature and accounts for the effect of the wake.