WorldWideScience

Sample records for turbine aeroengines part

  1. Simulation and measurement of ferromagnetic impurities in non-magnetic aeroengine turbine disks using fluxgate magnetometers

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Hantscher; Ruixin Zhou; Albert Seidl; Johann Hinken; Christian Ziep

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ferromagnetic impurities in paramagnetic aeroengine turbine disks are investigated. Because such inclusions represent a significant threat in aviation, a detailed analysis is required for impured turbine disks. For this purpose, sensitive fluxgate magnetometers are used. After a premagnetisation, this sensor is able to detect small ferromagnetic particles by recording the variation of the magnetic flux density while the disk rotates below the sensor head. This trajectory create...

  2. Volcanic ash ingestion by a large gas turbine aeroengine: fan-particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Andreas; Clarkson, Rory; Durant, Adam; Cassiani, Massimo; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Airborne particles from explosive volcanic eruptions are a major safety threat for aviation operations. The fine fraction of the emitted particles (fan blades and rotor-path components, and can also cause contamination or blockage of electrical systems and the fuel system such as fuel nozzles and air bleed filters. Ash particles that enter the hot-section of the engine (combustor and turbine stages; temperature between 1400-1800°C) are rapidly heated above the glass transition temperature (about 650-1000°C) and become soft (or form a melt) and can stick as re-solidified deposits on nozzle guide vanes. The glass deposits change the internal aerodynamic airflow in the engine and can affect the cooling capability of the different components by clogging the cooling inlets/outlets, which can lead to a loss of power or flame-out. The nature of volcanic ash ingestion is primarily influenced by the fan at the front of the engine which produces the thrust that drives the aircraft. The ingested air is split between the core (compressor/combustor/turbine) and bypass (thrust) at a ratio of typically between, 1:5-10 on modern engines. Consequently, the ash particles are fractionated between the core and bypass by the geometry and dynamics of the fan blades. This study uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of particle-laden airflows into a turbofan engine under different atmospheric and engine operation conditions. The main aim was to investigate the possible centrifugal effect of the fan blades as a function of particle size, and to relate this to the core intake concentration. We generated a generic 3D axial high-bypass turbofan engine using realistic dimensions of the turbofan, engine intake and other aerodynamically relevant parts. The CFD experiments include three scenarios of aircraft performance (climb, cruise and descent) and for two different typical altitude ranges (10000 and 39000 ft). The fluid dynamics simulations were carried out using a commercial

  3. Ceramic Parts for Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. D.; Carpenter, Harry W.; Tellier, Jim; Rollins, Clark; Stormo, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Abilities of ceramics to serve as turbine blades, stator vanes, and other elements in hot-gas flow of rocket engines discussed in report. Ceramics prime candidates, because of resistance to heat, low density, and tolerance of hostile environments. Ceramics considered in report are silicon nitride, silicon carbide, and new generation of such ceramic composites as transformation-toughened zirconia and alumina and particulate- or whisker-reinforced matrices. Report predicts properly designed ceramic components viable in advanced high-temperature rocket engines and recommends future work.

  4. Research and Development of Some Advanced High Temperature Titanium Alloys for Aero-engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Jian-ming

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Some advanced high temperature titanium alloys are usually selected to be manufactured into blade, disc, case, blisk and bling under high temperature environment in compressor and turbine system of a new generation high thrust-mass ratio aero-engine. The latest research progress of 600℃ high temperature titanium alloy, fireproof titanium alloy, TiAl alloy, continuous SiC fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite and their application technology in recent years in China were reviewed in this paper. The key technologies need to be broken through in design, processing and application of new material and component are put forward, including industrial ingot composition of high purified and homogeneous control technology, preparation technology of the large size bar and special forgings, machining technology of blisk and bling parts, material property evaluation and application design technique. The future with the continuous application of advanced high temperature titanium alloys, will be a strong impetus to the development of China's aero-engine technology.

  5. Development in Geared Turbofan Aeroengine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Tobi, A. L.; Ismail, A. E.

    2016-05-01

    This paper looks into the implementation of epicyclic gear system to the aeroengine in order to increase the efficiency of the engine. The improvement made is in the direction of improving fuel consumption, reduction in pollutant gasses and perceived noise. Introduction of epicyclic gear system is capable to achieve bypass ratio of up to 15:1 with the benefits of weight and noise reduction. Radical new aircraft designs and engine installation are being studied to overcome some of the challenges associated with the future geared turbofan and open-rotor engine.

  6. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part......-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part...

  7. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part A: Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meroni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Axial-flow turbines represent a well-established technology for a wide variety of power generation systems. Compactness, flexibility, reliability and high efficiency have been key factors for the extensive use of axial turbines in conventional power plants and, in the last decades, in organic Rankine cycle power systems. In this two-part paper, an overall cycle model and a model of an axial turbine were combined in order to provide a comprehensive preliminary design of the organic Rankine cycle unit, taking into account both cycle and turbine optimal designs. Part A presents the preliminary turbine design model, the details of the validation and a sensitivity analysis on the main parameters, in order to minimize the number of decision variables in the subsequent turbine design optimization. Part B analyzes the application of the combined turbine and cycle designs on a selected case study, which was performed in order to show the advantages of the adopted methodology. Part A presents a one-dimensional turbine model and the results of the validation using two experimental test cases from literature. The first case is a subsonic turbine operated with air and investigated at the University of Hannover. The second case is a small, supersonic turbine operated with an organic fluid and investigated by Verneau. In the first case, the results of the turbine model are also compared to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The results of the validation suggest that the model can predict values of efficiency within ± 1.3%-points, which is in agreement with the reliability of classic turbine loss models such as the Craig and Cox correlations used in the present study. Values similar to computational fluid dynamics simulations at the midspan were obtained in the first case of validation. Discrepancy below 12 % was obtained in the estimation of the flow velocities and turbine geometry. The values are considered to be within a

  8. Transient stress control of aeroengine disks based on active thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Shuiting; Wang, Ziyao; Li, Guo; Liu, Chuankai; Yang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The essence of cooling in turbine system is a process of thermal management. • Active thermal management is proposed to control transient stress of disks. • The correlation between thermal load and transient stress of disks is built. • Stress level can be declined by actively adjusting the thermal load distribution. • Artificial temperature gradient can be used to counteract stress from rotating. - Abstract: The physical essence of cooling in the turbine system is a process of thermal management. In order to overcome the limits of passive thermal management based on thermal protection, the concept of active thermal management based on thermal load redistribution has been proposed. On this basis, this paper focuses on a near real aeroengine disk during a transient process and studies the stress control mechanism of active thermal management in transient conditions by a semi-analytical method. Active thermal management is conducted by imposing extra heating energy on the disk hub, which is represented by the coefficient of extra heat flow η. The results show that the transient stress level can be effectively controlled by actively adjusting the thermal load distribution. The decline ratio of the peak equivalent stress of the disk hub can be 9.0% for active thermal management load condition (η = 0.2) compared with passive condition (η = 0), even at a rotation speed of 10,000 r/min. The reason may be that the temperature distribution of the disk turns into an artificial V-shape because of the extra heating energy on the hub, and the resulting thermal stresses induced by the negative temperature gradients counteract parts of the stress from rotating.

  9. Machining the Integral Impeller and Blisk of Aero-Engines: A Review of Surface Finishing and Strengthening Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Youzhi; Gao, Hang; Wang, Xuanping; Guo, Dongming

    2017-05-01

    The integral impeller and blisk of an aero-engine are high performance parts with complex structure and made of difficult-to-cut materials. The blade surfaces of the integral impeller and blisk are functional surfaces for power transmission, and their surface integrity has significant effects on the aerodynamic efficiency and service life of an aero-engine. Thus, it is indispensable to finish and strengthen the blades before use. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of studies on finishing and strengthening technologies for the impeller and blisk of aero-engines. The review includes independent and integrated finishing and strengthening technologies and discusses advanced rotational abrasive flow machining with back-pressure used for finishing the integral impeller and blisk. A brief assessment of future research problems and directions is also presented.

  10. Steam turbines of large output especially for nuclear power stations. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, J.; Stasny, M.

    1986-01-01

    At the international conference, 53 papers were presented in 3 sessions dealing with the design of large output steam turbines, with problems of flow in steam turbines, and with the reliability and service life of steam turbines. Part 1 of the conference proceedings contains two introductory papers, one reviewing the 100 years history of steam turbines (not included in INIS), the other giving an overview of the development of steam turbines in the eighties; and the 13 papers heard in the session on steam turbine design, all inputted in INIS. (A.K.)

  11. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.

  12. Development of Hot Isostatically Pressed Rene 95 Turbine Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    Jull 17 ,. " 1ENE’ 95 TURBINE PARTS~ 7. AUTHOR(e) CO(A RRNNME P.)Mathur aWJ. Bartos AJ-3C0V hae1 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM...200 mesh coff .,acts prepared in the autoclave at 20500F and the -60 mesh compact prepared by *1650 0F14 hours, 2000°1/1 hour/OQ, + 1400°F/16 hours/AC...Product Acceptance plans (Appendix- Ill); the Quality Control of General Elctric Company was-extended to establish procedures and- organization , to

  13. Powder metallurgy Rene 95 rotating turbine engine parts, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbers, L. G.; Redden, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    A Rene 95 alloy as-HIP high pressure turbine aft shaft in the CF6-50 engine and a HIP plus forged Rene 95 compressor disk in the CFM56 engine were tested. The CF6-50 engine test was conducted for 1000 C cycles and the CFM56 test for 2000 C cycles. Post test evaluation and analysis of the CF6-50 shaft and the CFM56 compressor disk included visual, fluorescent penetrant, and dimensional inspections. No defects or otherwise discrepant conditions were found. These parts were judged to have performed satisfactorily.

  14. Advanced materials and protective coatings in aero-engines application

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hetmańczyk; L. Swadźba; B. Mendala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The following article demonstrates the characteristics of the materials applied as parts of aircraft engine turbines and the stationary gas turbines. The principal technologies for manufacturing the heat resistant coatings and the erosion and corrosion resistant coatings were characterized. Sample applications for the aforementioned coatings are presented: on turbine blades, compressor blades and on parts of combustion chambers of aircraft engines.Design/methodology/approach: The nic...

  15. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine

  16. Numerical simulation of a wind turbine airfoil : part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdenee, D.; Minea, I.S.; Tardiff d' Hamonville, T.; Illinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne

    2010-07-01

    This 2-part study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify and model the aerodynamic and aeroelastic phenomena around wind turbine blades. The aim of the study was to better understand the mechanisms surrounding unsteady flow-structure interactions. Aerodynamic and elastic models were coupled using an ANSYS multi-domain program to simulate the aeroelastic divergence of a typical section airfoil with a single rotational structural degree of freedom. Solvers were used to realize a sequence of multi-domain time steps and coupling iterations between time steps. Each element of the airfoil was divided into interpolation faces which were then transformed into 2-D polygons. An intersection process was used to create a large number of control surfaces that were used to study interactions between the structural and fluid domains. The calculations were used to determine the divergence speed and Eigen modes of vibration. A literature review was also included. 19 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Operation window and part-load performance study of a syngas fired gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fen; Li, Zheng; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) provides a great opportunity for clean utilization of coal while maintaining the advantage of high energy efficiency brought by gas turbines. A challenging problem arising from the integration of an existing gas turbine to an IGCC system is the performance change of the gas turbine due to the shift of fuel from natural gas to synthesis gas, or syngas, mainly consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Besides the change of base-load performance, which has been extensively studied, the change of part-load performance is also of great significance for the operation of a gas turbine and an IGCC plant. In this paper, a detailed mathematical model of a syngas fired gas turbine is developed to study its part-load performance. A baseline is firstly established using the part-load performance of a natural gas fired gas turbine, then the part-load performance of the gas turbine running with different compositions of syngas is investigated and compared with the baseline. Particularly, the impacts of the variable inlet guide vane, the degree of fuel dilution, and the degree of air bleed are investigated. Results indicate that insufficient cooling of turbine blades and a reduced compressor surge margin are the major factors that constrain the part-load performance of a syngas fired gas turbine. Results also show that air bleed from the compressor can greatly improve the working condition of a syngas fired gas turbine, especially for those fired with low lower heating value syngas. The regulating strategy of a syngas fired gas turbine should also be adjusted in accordance to the changes of part-load performance, and a reduced scope of constant TAT (turbine exhaust temperature) control mode is required.

  18. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; La Seta, Angelo; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    Axial-flow turbines represent a well-established technology for a wide variety of power generation systems. Compactness, flexibility, reliability and high efficiency have been key factors for the extensive use of axial turbines in conventional power plants and, in the last decades, in organic...... Rankine cycle power systems. In this two-part paper, an overall cycle model and a model of an axial turbine were combined in order to provide a comprehensive preliminary design of the organic Rankine cycle unit, taking into account both cycle and turbine optimal designs. Part A presents the preliminary...

  19. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  20. Experimental Technique of Titanium Fire in Aero-engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Guangbao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium fire is the typical catastrophic fault in the aero-engine. Aiming at the urgent demand for experimental technique of titanium fire from advanced high thrust-weight ratio aero-engine, the combustion technology and theory of titanium alloy based on friction oxygen concentration method (FOC were systematically studied. The evaluation method of fireproof property and the friction ignition model were built, and the fireproof mechanism was illustrated. By generalizing recent progress in experimental technique of titanium fire from three levels, including evolutionary rule, mechanism and prevention and control technology, the ideas and directions of experimental technique associated with the application research of titanium fire in the future were proposed, namely overall evaluation of fireproof property close to air flow environment of the aero-engine, prediction model of fireproof property and experimental verification of fireproof technique under the air flow environment of aero-engine. It is necessary to establish the prevention system of titanium fire in aero-engine, which contributes to the realization of "full titanium" in compressor and to the increase of high thrust-weight ratio.

  1. Vibration modelling and verifications for whole aero-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a new rotor-ball-bearing-casing coupling dynamic model for a practical aero-engine is established. In the coupling system, the rotor and casing systems are modelled using the finite element method, support systems are modelled as lumped parameter models, nonlinear factors of ball bearings and faults are included, and four types of supports and connection models are defined to model the complex rotor-support-casing coupling system of the aero-engine. A new numerical integral method that combines the Newmark-β method and the improved Newmark-β method (Zhai method) is used to obtain the system responses. Finally, the new model is verified in three ways: (1) modal experiment based on rotor-ball bearing rig, (2) modal experiment based on rotor-ball-bearing-casing rig, and (3) fault simulations for a certain type of missile turbofan aero-engine vibration. The results show that the proposed model can not only simulate the natural vibration characteristics of the whole aero-engine but also effectively perform nonlinear dynamic simulations of a whole aero-engine with faults.

  2. Methodologies for predicting the part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Prediction of the part-load performance of gas turbines is advantageous in various applications. Sometimes reasonable part-load performance is sufficient, while in other cases complete agreement with the performance of an existing machine is desirable. This paper is aimed at providing some guidance...... on methodologies for predicting part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines. Two different design models – one simple and one more complex – are created. Subsequently, for each of these models, the part-load performance is predicted using component maps and turbine constants, respectively. Comparisons...... with manufacturer data are made. With respect to the design models, the simple model, featuring a compressor, combustor and turbines, results in equally good performance prediction in terms of thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature as does a more complex model. As for part-load predictions, the results suggest...

  3. One Generation of New Material, One Generation of New Type Engine:Development Trend of Aero-engine and Its Requirements for Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Da-xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the brief review of accelerated developing status of aircraft power technology in the world, the present status and developing trend of key materials technology for aero-engine were analyzed. In accordance with the idea of "one generation of new material, one generation of new type engine", development requirements for the materials technology of the system and main parts of aero-engine were proposed. Suggestions for improving development and application level of the materials technology in China were presented from aspects of quality stability and technical maturity, investigation and verification for engineering, materials system and data, composite materials, airworthiness certificate,etc.

  4. Investigations of thermal barrier coatings of turbine parts using gas flame heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeshkin, A. R.; Bichkov, N. G.; Ilinskaja, O. I.; Nazarov, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The development of methods for the calculated and experimental investigations thermal barrier coatings and thermal state of gas-turbine engine parts with a thermal barrier coatings is actual work. The gas flame heating was demonstrated to be effectively used during investigations of a thermal ceramic barrier coatings and thermal state of such gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC as the cooled turbine blades and vanes and combustion liner components. The gas-flame heating is considered to be preferable when investigating the gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC in the special cases when both the convective and radiant components of thermal flow are of great importance. The small-size rig with gas-flame flow made it possible to conduct the comparison investigations with the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of thermal protection of the ceramic deposited thermal barrier coatings on APS and EB techniques. The developed design-experiment method was introduced in bench tests of turbine blades and combustion liner components of gas turbine engines.

  5. Optimization of materials for the parts that compose a Tesla turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geovana Vilas Boas da; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Placco, Guilherme M.

    2013-01-01

    The TERRA project (Tecnologia de Reatores Rapidos Avancados) of the Aeronautica (Brazil) aims to develop the necessary technologies for the design of nuclear microreactors. These, in turn, aim to address the thermal and electrical needs in space vehicles. One of the activities of this project is to build a closed thermal cycle, the Rankine type in order to test a Tesla turbine type developed by the group. In this thermodynamic cycle the water is transformed into steam, which triggers a turbine which, in turn, provide power to the alternator to be converted into electricity. The work presented a survey of the materials available on the national market for machining a Tesla type turbine. The surveys were made considering the characteristics and operating conditions of a specific thermal cycle, the interest of the group. Results: cost-benefit tables for each party of the turbine, characteristics of each material, the machining process, as well as a comparison between one of 304L stainless steel model turbine with a turbine with the selected materials. The results from this study raised the level of sophistication of the research involved the TERRA project, since the study of ideal materials that make up the parts of a Tesla type turbine in a heat cycle is unprecedented

  6. Sensor fault diagnosis of aero-engine based on divided flight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Yigang; Liu, Zhexu

    2017-11-01

    Fault diagnosis and safety analysis of an aero-engine have attracted more and more attention in modern society, whose safety directly affects the flight safety of an aircraft. In this paper, the problem concerning sensor fault diagnosis is investigated for an aero-engine during the whole flight process. Considering that the aero-engine is always working in different status through the whole flight process, a flight status division-based sensor fault diagnosis method is presented to improve fault diagnosis precision for the aero-engine. First, aero-engine status is partitioned according to normal sensor data during the whole flight process through the clustering algorithm. Based on that, a diagnosis model is built for each status using the principal component analysis algorithm. Finally, the sensors are monitored using the built diagnosis models by identifying the aero-engine status. The simulation result illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Sensor fault diagnosis of aero-engine based on divided flight status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Yigang; Liu, Zhexu

    2017-11-01

    Fault diagnosis and safety analysis of an aero-engine have attracted more and more attention in modern society, whose safety directly affects the flight safety of an aircraft. In this paper, the problem concerning sensor fault diagnosis is investigated for an aero-engine during the whole flight process. Considering that the aero-engine is always working in different status through the whole flight process, a flight status division-based sensor fault diagnosis method is presented to improve fault diagnosis precision for the aero-engine. First, aero-engine status is partitioned according to normal sensor data during the whole flight process through the clustering algorithm. Based on that, a diagnosis model is built for each status using the principal component analysis algorithm. Finally, the sensors are monitored using the built diagnosis models by identifying the aero-engine status. The simulation result illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Cavitation phenomena occurring on Pelton turbines buckets. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brivio, R.; Zappi, O.

    1995-01-01

    The article takes into consideration the erosion and/or cavitation phenomena occurring on the Pelton turbine buckets. It describes the main geometrical parameters that can cause the deterioration of the hydraulic profile and the provisions taken for avoid it or at least reduce it at the minimum when this deterioration has taken place. Furthermore, this article describes the development of the profiles up to the definition of bucket shapes that can assure high efficiencies and lack of cavitation. Some significant results, obtained about ten years ago in the hydraulic laboratory utilizing a closed circuit and reduced scale models, are then illustrated

  9. Numerical Simulation and Validation of a High Head Model Francis Turbine at Part Load Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rahul; Trivedi, Chirag; Kumar Gandhi, Bhupendra; Cervantes, Michel J.

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operated over an extended operating range to meet the real time electricity demand. Turbines operated at part load have flow parameters not matching the designed ones. This results in unstable flow conditions in the runner and draft tube developing low frequency and high amplitude pressure pulsations. The unsteady pressure pulsations affect the dynamic stability of the turbine and cause additional fatigue. The work presented in this paper discusses the flow field investigation of a high head model Francis turbine at part load: 50% of the rated load. Numerical simulation of the complete turbine has been performed. Unsteady pressure pulsations in the vaneless space, runner, and draft tube are investigated and validated with available experimental data. Detailed analysis of the rotor stator interaction and draft tube flow field are performed and discussed. The analysis shows the presence of a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube at the frequency of 0.3 times of the runner rotational frequency. The frequency of the vortex rope precession, which causes severe fluctuations and vibrations in the draft tube, is predicted within 3.9% of the experimental measured value. The vortex rope results pressure pulsations propagating in the system whose frequency is also perceive in the runner and upstream the runner.

  10. Optimization of Aeroengine Shop Visit Decisions Based on Remaining Useful Life and Stochastic Repair Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide application of condition-based maintenance in aeroengine maintenance practice, it becomes possible for aeroengines to carry out their preventive maintenance in just-in-time (JIT manner by reasonably planning their shop visits (SVs. In this study, an approach is proposed to make aeroengine SV decisions following the concept of JIT. Firstly, a state space model (SSM for aeroengine based on exhaust gas temperature margin is developed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL of aeroengine. Secondly, the effect of SV decisions on risk and service level (SL is analyzed, and an optimization of the aeroengine SV decisions based on RUL and stochastic repair time is performed to carry out JIT manner with the requirement of safety and SL. Finally, a case study considering two CFM-56 aeroengines is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results show that predictive accuracy of RUL with SSM is higher than with linear regression, and the process of SV decisions is simple and feasible for airlines to improve the inventory management level of their aeroengines.

  11. Improvement of the efficiency of the Agnew micro hydro turbine at part loads due to installing guide vanes mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassi, Yousef; hashemloo, Safar [Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), No. 29 Forssat St., Enghelaab Ave., Tehran (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    Agnew turbine is an axial micro hydro of Kaplan type, with its main shaft subtending 45 to the line of horizon. Due to governmental power generating programs for limited hydro potentials in Iran and on the basis of a joint project between the University of Glasgow and the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), the turbine was developed to operate under low heads and limited flow potentials in Iran. However the turbine was originally designed to operate without any guide vanes and test results showed that the turbine achieved an efficiency of 62% at its best point of performance. Later a modified Agnew turbine, consisting of a guide blades mechanism was designed and manufactured, at (IROST). The mechanism was so designed that it was also used as a second support for the turbine's main shaft. The standard turbine tests proved that; the modified version of the Agnew turbine had 23% higher efficiency at its best performance point; compared to the original design. Then the effects of the improvements on the turbine were studied on the performance of the turbine at part loads. However, efficiency improvements were observed under all part load conditions. (author)

  12. Improvement of the efficiency of the Agnew micro hydro turbine at part loads due to installing guide vanes mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassi, Yousef; Hashemloo, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Agnew turbine is an axial micro hydro of Kaplan type, with its main shaft subtending 45 deg. to the line of horizon. Due to governmental power generating programs for limited hydro potentials in Iran and on the basis of a joint project between the University of Glasgow and the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), the turbine was developed to operate under low heads and limited flow potentials in Iran. However the turbine was originally designed to operate without any guide vanes and test results showed that the turbine achieved an efficiency of 62% at its best point of performance. Later a modified Agnew turbine, consisting of a guide blades mechanism was designed and manufactured, at (IROST). The mechanism was so designed that it was also used as a second support for the turbine's main shaft. The standard turbine tests proved that; the modified version of the Agnew turbine had 23% higher efficiency at its best performance point; compared to the original design. Then the effects of the improvements on the turbine were studied on the performance of the turbine at part loads. However, efficiency improvements were observed under all part load conditions.

  13. Part-Load Performance of a Wet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Mazzucco, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT......-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit....

  14. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Combined cycle performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    The part-load performance of combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry gas turbines on the part-load efficiency for combined...... cycles used for ship propulsion. Moreover, the paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various components within combined cycle power plants. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero......-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. The results suggest that by the use of variable geometry gas turbines, the combined cycle part-load performance can be improved. In order to minimise the voyage fuel consumption, a combined cycle featuring two-shaft gas turbines with VAN control...

  15. Dynamic stresses in a Francis model turbine at deep part load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Wilhelm; von Locquenghien, Florian; Conrad, Philipp; Koutnik, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    A comparison between numerically obtained dynamic stresses in a Francis model turbine at deep part load with experimental ones is presented. Due to the change in the electrical power mix to more content of new renewable energy sources, Francis turbines are forced to operate at deep part load in order to compensate stochastic nature of wind and solar power and to ensure grid stability. For the extension of the operating range towards deep part load improved understanding of the harsh flow conditions and their impact on material fatigue of hydraulic components is required in order to ensure long life time of the power unit. In this paper pressure loads on a model turbine runner from unsteady two-phase computational fluid dynamics simulation at deep part load are used for calculation of mechanical stresses by finite element analysis. Therewith, stress distribution over time is determined. Since only few runner rotations are simulated due to enormous numerical cost, more effort has to be spent to evaluation procedure in order to obtain objective results. By comparing the numerical results with measured strains accuracy of the whole simulation procedure is verified.

  16. Application of the aqueous coating suspension for the protection of Gas Turbine Engine parts from corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the physical nature of receiving diffusion coatings from aqueous suspensions of various alloys for various conditions and their further exploitation. Structure of coatings, advantages and features of the production of coatings from aqueous suspensions are shown. Based on the analysis of thermodynamic reactions in the systems of elements formulations of aqueous suspensions were developed and practical recommendations for their application to the parts of gas turbine engine were given.

  17. Direct shaft torque measurements in a transient turbine facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, Paul F; Povey, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a shaft torque measurement system for the Oxford Turbine Research Facility (formerly the Turbine Test Facility (TTF) at QinetiQ, Farnborough), or OTRF. As part of the recent EU TATEF II programme, the facility was upgraded to allow turbine efficiency measurements to be performed. A shaft torque measurement system was developed as part of this upgrade. The system is unique in that, to the authors' knowledge, it provided the first direct measurement of shaft torque in a transient turbine facility although the system has wider applicability to rotating test facilities in which power measurement is a requirement. The adopted approach removes the requirement to quantify bearing friction, which can be difficult to accurately calibrate under representative operating conditions. The OTRF is a short duration (approximately 0.4 s run time) isentropic light-piston facility capable of matching all of the non-dimensional parameters important for aerodynamic and heat studies, namely Mach number, Reynolds number, non-dimensional speed, stage pressure ratio and gas-to-wall temperature ratio. The single-stage MT1 turbine used for this study is a highly loaded unshrouded design, and as such is relevant to modern military, or future civil aero-engine design. Shaft torque was measured directly using a custom-built strain gauge-based torque measurement system in the rotating frame of reference. This paper describes the development of this measurement system. The system was calibrated, including the effects of temperature, to a traceable primary standard using a purpose-built facility. The bias and precision uncertainties of the measured torque were ±0.117% and ±0.183%, respectively. To accurately determine the shaft torque developed by a turbine in the OTRF, small corrections due to inertial torque (associated with changes in the rotational speed) and aerodynamic drag (windage) are required. The methods for performing these

  18. A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Thomas [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    Following the extensive development work carried out in the 1990's, gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) systems burning natural gas represent a reliable and efficient power generation technology widely used in many parts of the world. A critical factor was that, in order to operate at the high turbine entry temperatures required for high efficiency operation, aero-engine technology, i.e., single-crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings, and sophisticated cooling techniques had to be rapidly scaled up and introduced into these large gas turbines. The problems with reliability that resulted have been largely overcome, so that the high-efficiency GTCC power generation system is now a mature technology, capable of achieving high levels of availability. The high price of natural gas and concern about emission of greenhouse gases has focused attention on the desirability of replacing natural gas with gas derived from coal (syngas) in these gas turbine systems, since typical systems analyses indicate that IGCC plants have some potential to fulfil the requirement for a zero-emissions power generation system. In this review, the current status of materials for the critical hot gas path parts in large gas turbines is briefly considered in the context of the need to burn syngas. A critical factor is that the syngas is a low-Btu fuel, and the higher mass flow compared to natural gas will tend to increase the power output of the engine. However, modifications to the turbine and to the combustion system also will be necessary. It will be shown that many of the materials used in current engines will also be applicable to units burning syngas but, since the combustion environment will contain a greater level of impurities (especially sulfur, water vapor, and particulates), the durability of some components may be prejudiced. Consequently, some effort will be needed to develop improved coatings to resist attack by sulfur-containing compounds, and also erosion.

  19. Small is working: small turbines are part of the wind boom, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the growth in the use of small wind turbines, and discusses the trends in the manufacture of the turbines. Small turbine technology is examined, with details given of turbine configurations, the merits of two or three blades, blade materials, orientation, robustness, overspeed control, electric generators, and the current market for small wind turbines

  20. Application of laser cladding to the aeroengine component. Koku engine buhin eno laser nikumori yosetsu no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, A [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-08-01

    Keeping the pace with recent development and application of laser cladding, hard-facing is used more frequently on turbine blades made of superalloys used in aeroengines. This paper explains the basic principles and features of laser hard-facing technique, welding parameters, and examples of practical use. Examples of practical use include application to turbine blades used in ALF502R-5 turbo fan engines for commuter aircraft and high-pressure turbine blades used in RB211 turbo fan engines for large passenger aircraft. In the former engine, improvement of abrasion resistance was intended at the shroud section where blades are in contact with each other, for which inconel was used as the base material and CO-group alloy as the welding material. The welding used a powder supply system with a laser generator oscillating CO{sub 2} at 5 kW and employing a beam collecting mirror plus scanner to attain a beam covering wider width. Faces with higher performance were obtained than by the conventional TIG welding, and the finishing time was decreased largely. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Wireless Power Transfer System for Rotary Parts Telemetry of Gas Turbine Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel wireless power transfer approach for the rotary parts telemetry of a gas turbine engine is proposed. The advantages of a wireless power transfer (WPT system in the power supply for the rotary parts telemetry of a gas turbine engine are introduced. By simplifying the circuit of the inductively-coupled WPT system and developing its equivalent circuit model, the mathematical expressions of transfer efficiency and transfer power of the system are derived. A mutual inductance model between receiving and transmitting coils of the WPT system is presented and studied. According to this model, the mutual inductance between the receiving and the transmitting coils can be calculated at different axial distances. Then, the transfer efficiency and transfer power can be calculated as well. Based on the test data, the relationship of the different distances between the two coils, the transfer efficiency, and transfer power is derived. The proper positions where the receiving and transmitting coils are installed in a gas turbine engine are determined under conditions of satisfying the transfer efficiency and transfer power that the telemetry system required.

  2. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part I: Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peretto, A.; Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on the biomass characteristics, namely water content, density....... Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine....../production and of return of the investments (Part II). Keywords: biomass, cogeneration, Gas Turbine, IFGT...

  3. Numerical simulation of the divergence of a wind turbine airfoil : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdenee, D.; Minea, I.S.; Tardiff d' Hamonville, T.; Illinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne

    2010-07-01

    The development of larger, more flexible wind turbine blades is creating the need for an improved understanding of the mechanisms surrounding unsteady flow-structure interactions. This 2-part study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify and model the aerodynamic and aeroelastic phenomena around wind turbine blades. Aeroelastic divergence was modelled using coupled aerodynamic and elastic models with an ANSYS software program. The fluid-structure interactions of an NACA0012 airfoil were simulated in order to determine the divergence phenomenon created by aerodynamic loads and transient fluid flow. The airfoil profile was fixed and exempted from all rotational degrees of liberty while being subjected to a constant flow of velocity. The fixing was then removed and the constant flow was compared with a shock wave on the airfoil profile. The profile then oscillated with damped amplitude due to the aerodynamic damping imposed. Results of the analysis will be compared with results obtained in future studies. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Strategies for Refining IEC 61400-2: Wind Turbine Generator Systems - Part 2: Safety of Small Wind Turbines: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dam, J. J. D.; Forsyth, T. L.; Hansen, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the changes currently being made by IEC Maintenance Team 02 (MT02) to the existing IEC 61400-2 ''Safety of small wind turbines.'' In relation to the work done by IEC MT02, work has been done by NREL and Windward Engineering under the DOE/NREL Small Wind Turbine (SWT) Project. Aeroelastic models were built and measurements taken on a Whisper H40 turbine and an AOC 15/50. Results from this study were used to verify the simple design equations. This verification will be used to evaluate how changes made in the design load estimation section of the standard work out for a broad range of turbine configurations. The work presented here builds on work performed by Van Hulle (1996)

  5. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 2. Experience with Danish 75 kW wind turbine - the first modern turbine in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husted Rich, N; Kildemoes Moeller, T

    1996-04-01

    In June of 1992, the first grid-connected wind turbine (75 kW, 12 m/s) in Brazil was installed in the complex terrain of the island of Fernando de Noronha in the northeastern part of the country. The objective was to install a Danish wind turbine in order to encourage the use of wind energy in Brazil and to demonstrate Danish wind technology with the view of opening up the Brazilian market for Danish windmills. It is claimed that the turbine, backed up by the media, attracted a certain amount of attention despite problems caused by the weakness of the electric grid on the island. The market in Brazil is still not ready for wind turbines and responsibility for any future wind energy policy is held by the political decision makers, so it is recommended that further demonstration projects be set up. The document presents a general view of the wind conditions and a view of the local electric power system with the aim of improving the potential for further installation of Danish wind turbines on the island. It proved difficult to obtain information on the performance of the windmill due to frequent rotations in the hierarchy of the state utility company CELPE, and the highly bureaucratic structure in general. It is stated that CELPE intends to install two more wind turbines on the island and that this could be a proof of recognition that technical problems that arose were caused by the unsatisfactory grid structure on the island and not related to faults in the wind turbine itself, and also a proof of their confidence in the idea of wind energy as a reliable source of electricity production. (AB)

  6. Usage of advanced thick airfoils for the outer part of very large offshore turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, F; Ceyhan, O

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays one of the big challenges in wind energy is connected to the development of very large wind turbines with 100 m blades and 8-10MW power production. The European project INNWIND.EU plays an important role in this challenge because it is focused on exploring and exploiting technical innovations to make these machines not only feasible but also cost effective. In this context, the present work investigates the benefits of adopting thick airfoils also at the outer part of the blade. In fact, if these airfoils are comparable to the existing thinner ones in terms of aerodynamics, the extra thickness would lead to a save in weight. Lightweight blades would visibly contribute to reduce the cost of energy of the turbines and make them cost effective. The reference turbine defined in INNWIND.EU project has been adjusted to use the new airfoils. The results show that the rotor performance is not sacrificed when the 24% airfoils are replaced by the ECN 30% thick airfoils, while 24% extra thickness can be obtained

  7. Optimization of materials for the parts that compose a Tesla turbine; Otimizacao de materiais para as partes que compoe uma turbina tipo Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Geovana Vilas Boas da, E-mail: geovana_dmp@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The TERRA project (Tecnologia de Reatores Rapidos Avancados) of the Aeronautica (Brazil) aims to develop the necessary technologies for the design of nuclear microreactors. These, in turn, aim to address the thermal and electrical needs in space vehicles. One of the activities of this project is to build a closed thermal cycle, the Rankine type in order to test a Tesla turbine type developed by the group. In this thermodynamic cycle the water is transformed into steam, which triggers a turbine which, in turn, provide power to the alternator to be converted into electricity. The work presented a survey of the materials available on the national market for machining a Tesla type turbine. The surveys were made considering the characteristics and operating conditions of a specific thermal cycle, the interest of the group. Results: cost-benefit tables for each party of the turbine, characteristics of each material, the machining process, as well as a comparison between one of 304L stainless steel model turbine with a turbine with the selected materials. The results from this study raised the level of sophistication of the research involved the TERRA project, since the study of ideal materials that make up the parts of a Tesla type turbine in a heat cycle is unprecedented.

  8. Unsteady hydraulic simulation of the cavitating part load vortex rope in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, J.; Segoufin, C.; Duparchy, F.; Lowys, P. Y.; Favrel, A.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    For Francis turbines at part load operation a helical vortex rope is formed due to the swirling nature of the flow exiting the runner. This vortex creates pressure fluctuations which can lead to power swings, and the unsteady loading can lead to fatigue damage of the runner. In the case that the vortex rope cavitates there is the additional risk that hydro-acoustic resonance can occur. It is therefore important to be able to accurately simulate this phenomenon to address these issues. In this paper an unsteady, multi-phase CFD model was used to simulate two part-load operating points, for two different cavitation conditions. The simulation results were validated with test-rig data, and showed very good agreement. These results also served as an input for FEA calculations and fatigue analysis, which are presented in a separate study.

  9. Experimental analysis of pressurised humidification tower for humid air gas turbine cycles. Part A: Experimental campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedemonte, A.A.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most interesting methods of water introduction in a gas turbine circuit is represented by the humid air turbine cycle (HAT). In the HAT cycle, the humidification can be provided by a pressurised saturator (i.e. humidification tower or saturation tower), this solution being known to offer several attractive features. This part A is focused on an experimental study of a pressurised humidification tower, with structured packing inside. After a description of the test rig employed to carry out the measuring campaign, the results relating to the thermodynamic process are presented and discussed. The experimental campaign was carried out over 162 working points, covering a relatively wide range of possible operating conditions. Details about measured data are provided in the appendix. It is shown that the saturator's behaviour, in terms of air outlet humidity and temperature, is primarily driven by, in decreasing order of relevance, the inlet water temperature, the inlet water over inlet dry air mass flow ratio and the inlet air temperature. Finally, the exit relative humidity is shown to be consistently over 100%, which may be explained partially by measurement accuracy and droplet entrainment, and partially by the non-ideal behaviour of air-steam mixtures close to saturation

  10. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments.

  11. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, C; Zobeiri, A; Maruzewski, P; Avellan, F

    2010-01-01

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  12. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolet, C [Power Vision Engineering sarl Ch. des Champs-Courbes 1, CH-1024 Ecublens (Switzerland); Zobeiri, A; Maruzewski, P; Avellan, F, E-mail: christophe.nicolet@powervision-eng.c [Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines, Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne, EPFL Av. de Cour 33bis, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  13. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, C.; Zobeiri, A.; Maruzewski, P.; Avellan, F.

    2010-08-01

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  14. Mechanical property tests in hot gas environment for evaluation of life expectancy of aero-engine turbine blades and for assessment of procedures for prolonging service life. Mechanische Pruefung unter Heissgasatmosphaere zur Ermittlung der Lebenserwartung von Fluggasturbinenschaufeln und zur Bewertung von Verfahren zur Lebensdauerverlaengerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peichl, L

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this programme was the determination and optimization of mechanical testing procedures in order to enable a service life prediction for turbine blades as well as to measure the life consumption of blades which have already been in service. Under these testing conditions procedures were to be investigated which lead to a prolongation of the service life of the blades. The results have shown that the rig test at constant values of load and temperature, which are typical for service conditions, is sufficient for the laboratory simulation. The life consumption of blades run in the engine can be determined by measuring the residual creep life in the rig test. Using the resulting data the life consumption of a particular blade run in the engine can be estimated by the non-destructive measurement of its elongation. The precision of residual life prediction is raised by respecting the master heat and porosity of the blades. From the investigation of high-temperature corrosion resistant coatings it follows that IN 100 can be protected against the attack of sea salt over its whole creep life by coating with a precious metal modified aluminide or by LPPS- or EB-PVD-MCrAlY-coatings. By aluminising, the cooling channels of turbine blades can be protected against oxidation over more than 700 h in the temperature/load cycling test. However, the coating technique used is only applicable under laboratory conditions. In contrary, internal coating by pulse aluminising, which is compatible to production conditions, showed less oxidation resistance.

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Research Performed on the Tesla Turbine - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and experimental research performed on a Tesla turbine driven by compressed air and designed to equip a teaching laboratory [1], [2]. It introduces the operating principle of the Tesla turbine, which was invented by engineer Nikola Tesla, a turbine which uses discs instead of blades, mounted on a shaft at a small distance between them. The turbine geometry, results from stress and flow calculations performed on the turbine rotor and assembly, using the Simulation modules and SolidWorks Flow Simulation program are presented. After designing the turbine, it becomes the subject of experimental research to determine the curve of the speed depending on the pressure. Also, the experimental research focuses on the behaviour of the turbine from a dynamic point of view [3].

  16. Data-Mining Toolset Developed for Determining Turbine Engine Part Life Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    The current practice in aerospace turbine engine maintenance is to remove components defined as life-limited parts after a fixed time, on the basis of a predetermined number of flight cycles. Under this schedule-based maintenance practice, the worst-case usage scenario is used to determine the usable life of the component. As shown, this practice often requires removing a part before its useful life is fully consumed, thus leading to higher maintenance cost. To address this issue, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in a collaborative effort with Pratt & Whitney, has developed a generic modular toolset that uses data-mining technology to parameterize life usage models for maintenance purposes. The toolset enables a "condition-based" maintenance approach, where parts are removed on the basis of the cumulative history of the severity of operation they have experienced. The toolset uses data-mining technology to tune life-consumption models on the basis of operating and maintenance histories. The flight operating conditions, represented by measured variables within the engine, are correlated with repair records for the engines, generating a relationship between the operating condition of the part and its service life. As shown, with the condition-based maintenance approach, the lifelimited part is in service until its usable life is fully consumed. This approach will lower maintenance costs while maintaining the safety of the propulsion system. The toolset is a modular program that is easily customizable by users. First, appropriate parametric damage accumulation models, which will be functions of engine variables, must be defined. The tool then optimizes the models to match the historical data by computing an effective-cycle metric that reduces the unexplained variability in component life due to each damage mode by accounting for the variability in operational severity. The damage increment due to operating conditions experienced during each flight is used to compute

  17. Probabilistic Analysis of Gas Turbine Field Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Rama S. R.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine thermodynamic cycle was computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of the several uncertainties in the performance parameters, which are indices of gas turbine health. Cumulative distribution functions and sensitivity factors were computed for the overall thermal efficiency and net specific power output due to the thermodynamic random variables. These results can be used to quickly identify the most critical design variables in order to optimize the design, enhance performance, increase system availability and make it cost effective. The analysis leads to the selection of the appropriate measurements to be used in the gas turbine health determination and to the identification of both the most critical measurements and parameters. Probabilistic analysis aims at unifying and improving the control and health monitoring of gas turbine aero-engines by increasing the quality and quantity of information available about the engine's health and performance.

  18. Part 1 - Experimental study of the pressure fluctuations on propeller turbine runner blades during steady-state operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, S.; Fraser, R.; Ciocan, G. D.; Deschênes, C.

    2012-11-01

    A good evaluation of the unsteady pressure field on hydraulic turbine blades is critical in evaluating the turbine lifespan and its maintenance schedule. Low-head turbines such as Kaplan and Propeller, using a relatively low number of blades supported only at the hub, may also undergo significant deflections at the blade tips which will lead to higher amplitude vibration compared to Francis turbines. Furthermore, the precise evaluation of the unsteady pressure distribution on low-head turbines is still a challenge for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Within the framework of an international research consortium on low-head turbines, a research project was instigated at the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory in Laval University (LAMH) to perform experimental measurements of the unsteady pressure field on propeller turbine model runner blades. The main objective of the project was to measure the pressure fluctuations on a wide band of frequencies, both in a blade-to-blade channel and on the pressure and suction side of the same blade, to provide validation data for CFD computations. To do so, a 32 channels telemetric data transmission system was used to extract the signal of 31 pressure transducers and two strain gages from the rotating part at an acquisition frequency of 5 KHz. The miniature piezoelectric pressure transducers were placed on two adjacent runner blades according to an estimated pressure distribution coming from flow simulations. Two suction sides and one pressure side were instrumented. The strain gages were mounted in full-bridge on both pressure and suction sides to measure the blade span wise deflection. In order to provide boundary conditions for flow simulations, the test bench conditions during the measurements were acquired. The measurements were made in different operating conditions ranging from part load, where a cavitating vortex occurs, to full load under different heads. The results enabled the identification and the quantification of the

  19. Part 1 – Experimental study of the pressure fluctuations on propeller turbine runner blades during steady-state operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houde, S; Fraser, R; Ciocan, G D; Deschênes, C

    2012-01-01

    A good evaluation of the unsteady pressure field on hydraulic turbine blades is critical in evaluating the turbine lifespan and its maintenance schedule. Low-head turbines such as Kaplan and Propeller, using a relatively low number of blades supported only at the hub, may also undergo significant deflections at the blade tips which will lead to higher amplitude vibration compared to Francis turbines. Furthermore, the precise evaluation of the unsteady pressure distribution on low-head turbines is still a challenge for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Within the framework of an international research consortium on low-head turbines, a research project was instigated at the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory in Laval University (LAMH) to perform experimental measurements of the unsteady pressure field on propeller turbine model runner blades. The main objective of the project was to measure the pressure fluctuations on a wide band of frequencies, both in a blade-to-blade channel and on the pressure and suction side of the same blade, to provide validation data for CFD computations. To do so, a 32 channels telemetric data transmission system was used to extract the signal of 31 pressure transducers and two strain gages from the rotating part at an acquisition frequency of 5 KHz. The miniature piezoelectric pressure transducers were placed on two adjacent runner blades according to an estimated pressure distribution coming from flow simulations. Two suction sides and one pressure side were instrumented. The strain gages were mounted in full-bridge on both pressure and suction sides to measure the blade span wise deflection. In order to provide boundary conditions for flow simulations, the test bench conditions during the measurements were acquired. The measurements were made in different operating conditions ranging from part load, where a cavitating vortex occurs, to full load under different heads. The results enabled the identification and the quantification of the

  20. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part B: Application on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo La Seta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycle (ORC power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. The design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging due to the peculiar physical properties of the working fluid and the gas-dynamic phenomena occurring in the machine. Unlike steam Rankine and Brayton engines, organic Rankine cycle expanders combine small enthalpy drops with large expansion ratios. These features yield turbine designs with few highly-loaded stages in supersonic flow regimes. Part A of this two-part paper has presented the implementation and validation of the simulation tool TURAX, which provides the optimal preliminary design of single-stage axial-flow turbines. The authors have also presented a sensitivity analysis on the decision variables affecting the turbine design. Part B of this two-part paper presents the first application of a design method where the thermodynamic cycle optimization is combined with calculations of the maximum expander performance using the mean-line design tool described in part A. The high computational cost of the turbine optimization is tackled by building a model which gives the optimal preliminary design of an axial-flow turbine as a function of the cycle conditions. This allows for estimating the optimal expander performance for each operating condition of interest. The test case is the preliminary design of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator to increase the overall energy efficiency of an offshore platform. For an increase in expander pressure ratio from 10 to 35, the results indicate up to 10% point reduction in expander performance. This corresponds to a relative reduction in net power output of 8.3% compared to the case when the turbine efficiency is assumed to be 80%. This work also demonstrates that this approach can support the plant designer

  1. Influence of the Operational Wear of the Stator Parts of Shroud Seals on the Economic Efficiency of the Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Dmitriev, S. S.; Petrunin, B. N.; Gusev, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    During the operation of steam turbines under transient conditions, due to different thermal expansion of the stator and rotor parts in the radial and axial directions, the clearances fixed in the course of assembling the seals of the flow path change, which causes rubbing in the seals and the wear of the latter. This inevitably increases the leakages through the seals. A particularly large difference in the relative axial and radial displacements of the rotor and stator parts is observed during the turbine start-ups when the difference in their temperature expansion is maximal. Upon the turbine stops, the turbine shafting runs down freely, as a rule, passing through all critical speeds at which the amplitude of the shafting oscillations reach their peak values, which also leads to seizures in the seals and their wear and tear. The seizures in the seals may also be a consequence of the eccentricity between the rotor and stator caused by the thermal strain of the stator, incorrect choice of the clearances, floating-up of the rotor in the bearing, and many other factors. Recently, standard shroud labyrinth seals are being replaced in the steam turbines by seals with honeycomb stator inserts, the design of which allows the ridges to cut into the honeycomb surface without damaging the former, which allows fixing a radial clearance in the seals of 0.5 mm. On the honeycomb surface where the ridges touch it, grooves are cut through. The wear of the shroud seals reduces the efficiency of the steam turbines during the operation to the greatest degree. However, by the present there have been no exact quantitative data available on the change in the leakage through the worn-out honeycomb seals. The paper presents the results of comparative experimental studies on the flow and power characteristics of seal models with smooth and honeycomb stator parts for various degrees of their wear. The studies showed that the leakages through the worn-out stator parts of the honeycomb seals

  2. Use of computed tomography slices 3D-reconstruction as a powerful tool to improve manufacturing processes on aeroengine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellan, C.; Dastarac, D.

    2000-01-01

    TURBOMECA has been using computed tomography for several years as an inner-health analysis powerful tool for engine components. From 2D slices of the examined part, detailed information about lacks or inclusions could easily be extracted. But, measurements on internal features were quickly required because no other NDT methods were able to do it. CT has thus logically become a powerful 2D dimensional measuring tool. Recently, with new software and the latest computers able to deal with huge files, CT has become a powerful 3D digitization tool and now, TOMO ADOUR can offer a complete solution for reverse engineering of complex parts. Several months ago, TURBOMECA introduced CT into many development, validation and industrialization processes and has demonstrated how to take corrective actions to process deviation on their aeroengine components by: extracting the nonexisting CAD model of a part, generating CAD compatible data to check dimensional conformity and, eventually correct design misfits or manufacturing drifts, highlighting the metallurgical health of first article parts, making the decision of repairing the defining the appropriate method, generating a file (.STL) to build a rapid prototype or a file to pilot tool parts for machining, calculating physical properties such as behavior or flow analysis on a 'real' model. The image also allows a drawing to be made of a part that was originally produced by a supplier or competitor. This paper will be illustrated with a large number of examples

  3. Exergetic optimization of the part-flow evaporative gas turbine cycles. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Sarabch, K.

    2005-01-01

    The evaporative gas turbine cycle is a new high efficiency power cycle that has reached the pilot plant testing stage. The latest configuration proposed for this cycle is known as part flow evaporative gas turbine cycle (PEvGT) in which humidification is combined with steam injection. Having advantages of both steam injected and humid air cycles, it is regarded as a very desirable plant for future. In this paper the exergy equations have been added to the mathematical model. Then exergy analysis and optimization of the PEvGT cycles: PEvGT and PEvGT-IC have been done. This study show that the maximum exergy destruction rate related to combustion chamber in both cycles. The exergetic optimization shows, the maximum first and second efficiency occur in the highest values of part-flow humidification rate. (author)

  4. Part-Load Performance of aWet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pierobon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable working fluid for the organic Rankine process. This step enables to parametrize the part-load model of the plant and to estimate its performance at different power outputs. The novel plant has a nominal power of 250 kW and a thermal efficiency of 43%. The major irreversibilities take place in the burner, recuperator, compressor and in the condenser. Toluene is the optimal working fluid for the organic Rankine engine. The part-load investigation indicates that the plant can operate at high efficiencies over a wide range of power outputs (50%–100%, with a peak thermal efficiency of 45% at around 80% load. While the ORC turbogenerator is responsible for the efficiency drop at low capacities, the off-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit.

  5. A GM (1, 1) Markov Chain-Based Aeroengine Performance Degradation Forecast Approach Using Exhaust Gas Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ning-bo; Yang, Jia-long; Li, Shu-ying; Sun, Yue-wu

    2014-01-01

    Performance degradation forecast technology for quantitatively assessing degradation states of aeroengine using exhaust gas temperature is an important technology in the aeroengine health management. In this paper, a GM (1, 1) Markov chain-based approach is introduced to forecast exhaust gas temperature by taking the advantages of GM (1, 1) model in time series and the advantages of Markov chain model in dealing with highly nonlinear and stochastic data caused by uncertain factors. In this ap...

  6. Power Swing Generated in Francis Turbines by Part Load and Overload Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Valentín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower plays a key role in the actual energy market due to its fast response and regulation capacity. In that way, hydraulic turbines are increasingly demanded to work at off-design conditions, where complex flow patterns and cavitation appear, especially in Francis turbines. The draft tube cavitation surge is a hydraulic phenomenon that appears in Francis turbines below and above its Best Efficiency Point (BEP. It is a low frequency phenomenon consisting of a vortex rope in the runner outlet and draft tube, which can become unstable when its frequency coincides with a natural frequency of the hydraulic circuit. At this situation, the output power can significantly swing, endangering the electrical grid stability. This study is focused on the detection of these instabilities in Francis turbines and their relationship with the output power swings. To do so, extensive experimental tests for different operating conditions have been carried out in a large prototype Francis turbine (444 MW of rated power within the frame of the European Project Hyperbole (FP7-ENERGY-2013-1. Several sensors have been installed in the hydraulic circuit (pressure sensors in the draft tube, spiral casing, and penstock, in the rotating and static structures (vibration sensors, proximity probes, and strain gauges in the runner and in the shaft, as well as in the electrical side (output power, intensity, and voltage. Moreover, a numerical Finite Element Method (FEM has been also used to relate the hydraulic excitation with the output power swing.

  7. Analytical Redundancy Design for Aeroengine Sensor Fault Diagnostics Based on SROS-ELM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical redundancy technique is of great importance to guarantee the reliability and safety of aircraft engine system. In this paper, a machine learning based aeroengine sensor analytical redundancy technique is developed and verified through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation. The modified online sequential extreme learning machine, selective updating regularized online sequential extreme learning machine (SROS-ELM, is employed to train the model online and estimate sensor measurements. It selectively updates the output weights of neural networks according to the prediction accuracy and the norm of output weight vector, tackles the problems of singularity and ill-posedness by regularization, and adopts a dual activation function in the hidden nodes combing neural and wavelet theory to enhance prediction capability. The experimental results verify the good generalization performance of SROS-ELM and show that the developed analytical redundancy technique for aeroengine sensor fault diagnosis based on SROS-ELM is effective and feasible.

  8. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  9. Behaviour and lifetime of multi-perforated parts: application to turbine blades; Comportement et duree de vie des pieces multiperforees: application aux aubes de turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, J.M.

    2000-12-15

    High-pressure turbine blades are submitted to very high thermal and mechanical constraints but also variable with time, thus leading to combined fatigue and creep phenomena. Micro-channels are an efficient mean to reduce the global temperature of parts but they generate temperature gradients and stress concentrations which can be at the origin of cracks. Thus, geometrical singularities are important factors to take into consideration in the analysis of the behaviour and lifetime of HP turbine blades. A 3D calculation of a multi-perforated blade has been performed in isotropic and anisotropic elasticity and visco-plasticity conditions and in isothermal and aniso-thermal conditions. A dimensioning method for turbine blades, based on homogenization methods, has been proposed. It allows to replace the heterogenous area (the holes of the leading edge) by an equivalent homogenous medium having effective properties. This medium has been determined in elasticity using classical homogenization methods, and then in isotropic viscosity and in the monocrystal case using a pragmatic method. The preconized homogenization methods comprise a relocation step allowing to use the informations of the simplified calculation in order to apply suitable boundary conditions to a representative cell with a single cooling hole. Because the reference calculation gives the constraints-deformations status around the holes, the result given by the relocation method can be unambiguously evaluated. The limitations of such an approach in the case of strong stress gradients has been evidenced. In these conditions of operation, the classical homogenization methods are not suitable and the equivalent homogenous medium can be considered as a generalized continuous medium. A thermo-elasticity formulation of the second gradient is proposed. An experimental study has been carried out in parallel at the ONERA in order to analyze the influence of perforation on the behaviour and lifetime. Thermo

  10. The Brief Introduction of Different Laser Diagnostics Methods Used in Aeroengine Combustion Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion test diagnosis has always been one of the most important technologies for the development of aerospace engineering. The traditional methods of measurement have been unable to meet the requirements of accurate capture of the flow field in the development process of the aeroengine combustor. Therefore, the development of high-precision measurement and diagnostic techniques to meet the needs of the aeroengine combustor design is imperative. Laser diagnostics techniques developed quickly in the past several years. They are used to measure the parameters of the combustion flow field such as velocity, temperature, and components concentration with high space and time resolution and brought no disturbance. Planar laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and Raman scattering were introduced systemically in this paper. After analysis of their own advantages and disadvantages, the authors considered validated Raman scattering system and Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography are more suitable for research activities on aeroengine combustion systems.

  11. Viscous and Aeroelastic Effects on Wind Turbine Blades. The VISCEL Project. Part II: Aeroelastic Stability Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaviaropoulos, P. K.; Soerensen, N. N.; Hansen, M. O. L.; Nikolaou, I. G.; Aggelis, K. A.; Johansen, J.; Gaunaa, Mac; Hambraus, T.; Frhr. von Geyr, Heiko; Hirsch, Ch.; Shun, Kang; Voutsinas, S. G.; Tzabiras, G.; Perivolaris, Y.; Dyrmose, S. Z.

    2003-10-01

    The recent introduction of ever larger wind turbines poses new challenges with regard to understanding the mechanisms of unsteady flow-structure interaction. An important aspect of the problem is the aeroelastic stability of the wind turbine blades, especially in the case of combined flap/lead-lag vibrations in the stall regime. Given the limited experimental information available in this field, the use of CFD techniques and state-of-the-art viscous flow solvers provides an invaluable alternative towards the identification of the underlying physics and the development and validation of sound engineering-type aeroelastic models. Navier-Stokes-based aeroelastic stability analysis of individual blade sections subjected to combined pitch/flap or flap/lead-lag motion has been attempted by the present consortium in the framework of the concluded VISCEL JOR3-CT98-0208 Joule III project.

  12. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  13. Prediction of Francis Turbine Prototype Part Load Pressure and Output Power Fluctuations with Hydroelectric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligné, S.; Nicolet, C.; Béguin, A.; Landry, C.; Gomes, J.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    The prediction of pressure and output power fluctuations amplitudes on Francis turbine prototype is a challenge for hydro-equipment industry since it is subjected to guarantees to ensure smooth and reliable operation of the hydro units. The European FP7 research project Hyperbole aims to setup a methodology to transpose the pressure fluctuations induced by the cavitation vortex rope from the reduced scale model to the prototype generating units. A Francis turbine unit of 444MW with a specific speed value of ν = 0.29, is considered as case study. A SIMSEN model of the power station including electrical system, controllers, rotating train and hydraulic system with transposed draft tube excitation sources is setup. Based on this model, a frequency analysis of the hydroelectric system is performed for all technologies to analyse potential interactions between hydraulic excitation sources and electrical components. Three technologies have been compared: the classical fixed speed configuration with Synchronous Machine (SM) and the two variable speed technologies which are Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) and Full Size Frequency Converter (FSFC).

  14. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part II: effects of inflow turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponcheel, Matthieu; Chatelain, Philippe; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Winckelmans, Gregoire

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. Large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines have been performed using a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI level is assessed.

  15. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part II - multi-objective constrained optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

    2002-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner blade geometry. In order to obtain a better design plan with good performance, a new comprehensive performance optimization procedure has been presented by combining a multi-variable multi-objective constrained optimization model with a Q3D inverse computation and a performance prediction procedure. With careful analysis of the inverse design of axial hydraulic turbine runner, the total hydraulic loss and the cavitation coefficient are taken as optimization objectives and a comprehensive objective function is defined using the weight factors. Parameters of a newly proposed blade bound circulation distribution function and parameters describing positions of blade leading and training edges in the meridional flow passage are taken as optimization variables.The optimization procedure has been applied to the design optimization of a Kaplan runner with specific speed of 440 kW. Numerical results show that the performance of designed runner is successfully improved through optimization computation. The optimization model is found to be validated and it has the feature of good convergence. With the multi-objective optimization model, it is possible to control the performance of designed runner by adjusting the value of weight factors defining the comprehensive objective function. Copyright

  16. Shark skin inspired riblet structures as aerodynamically optimized high temperature coatings for blades of aeroengines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büttner, Claudia C; Schulz, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with different structuring methods for high temperature resistant nickel alloys. The ideal structured surface for a possible application on the blades of aeroengines combines high oxidation resistance with low drag in a hot gas flow. The effect of drag reduction due to riblet structured surfaces was originally inspired by shark scales, which have a drag reducing riblet structure. The necessary riblet sizes for effective drag reduction depend on the temperature, pressure and velocity of the flowing medium (gas or liquid). These riblet sizes were calculated for the different sections in an aeroengine. The riblets were successfully produced on a NiCoCrAlY coating by picosecond laser treatment. This method is suitable for larger structures within the range of some tens of micrometers. Furthermore, experiments were performed by depositing different materials through polymer and metal masks via electrodeposition and physical vapor deposition. All fabricated structures were oxidized at 900–1000 °C for up to 100 h to simulate the temperature conditions in an aeroengine. The resulting shape of the riblets was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The most accurate structures were obtained by using photolithography with a subsequent electrodeposition of nickel. This method is suited for single digit micrometer structures. The reduction of the wall shear stress was measured in an oil channel. The riblet structures prior to oxidation showed a reduction of the wall shear stress of up to 4.9% compared to a normal smooth surface. This proves that the fabricated riblet design can be used as a drag reducing surface

  17. Recent trends in superalloys research for critical aero-engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, Luc [Mine ParisTech, CNRS UMR 7633, 91 - Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux; Guedou, Jean-Yves [Snecma Safran Group, Moissy-Cramayel (France). Materials and Processes Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a brief survey of common research activity on superalloys for aero-engines between Snecma and Mines ParisTech Centre des Materiaux during recent years. First in disks applications, the development of new powder metallurgy superalloys is shown. Then grain boundary engineering is investigated in a wrought superalloy. Secondly, design oriented research on single crystals blades is shown: a damage model for low cycle fatigue is used for life prediction when cracks initiated at casting pores. The methodology developed for assessing coating life is illustrated for thermal barrier coating deposited on AMI single crystal superalloy. (orig.)

  18. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Seta, Angelo; Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. The design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging...... due to the peculiar physical properties of the working fluid and the gas-dynamic phenomena occurring in the machine. Unlike steam Rankine and Brayton engines, organic Rankine cycle expanders combine small enthalpy drops with large expansion ratios. These features yield turbine designs with few highly...... is the preliminary design of an organic Rankine cycle turbogenerator to increase the overall energy efficiency of an offshore platform. For an increase in expander pressure ratio from 10 to 35, the results indicate up to 10% point reduction in expander performance. This corresponds to a relative reduction in net...

  19. NOx emission control for gas turbines: A 1991 update on regulations and technology (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The technologies that are available for the control of NO x emissions from gas turbines utilize the factors that impact the formation of NO x described in the previous section and include (1) diluent injection (i.e., water or steam) into the combustion zone, which is a front-end control technology that lowers the combustor flame temperature, (2) selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which is a back-end exhaust gas cleanup system, (3) dry low NO x combustors (DLN), which use staged combustion and very lean fuel-air mixtures (they are currently being introduced), and (4) catalytic combustion systems that hold the promise of achieving extremely low emission levels without resorting to exhaust gas cleanup. This last option is being developed to burn very lean fuel-air mixtures, but will require significant technological breakthroughs; it is still several years away from becoming commercially available

  20. Aircraft propulsion and gas turbine engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii xxxi xxxiii xxxv Part I Aero Engines and Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C...

  1. Effect of channel aspect ratio on chemical recuperation process in advanced aeroengines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Silong; Cui, Naigang; Xiong, Yuefei; Feng, Yu; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The working process of an advanced aeroengine such as scramjet with endothermic hydrocarbon fuel cooling is a chemical recuperative cycle. The design of cooling channel in terms of engine real working conditions is very important for the chemical recuperation process. To study the effects of channel aspect ratio (AR) on chemical recuperation process of advanced aeroengines, three dimensional model of pyrolysis coolant flow inside asymmetrical rectangular cooling channels with fins is introduced and validated through experiments. Cases when AR varies from 1 to 8 are carried out. In the pyrolysis zone of the cooling channel, decreasing the channel aspect ratio can reduce the temperature difference and non-uniformity of fuel conversion in the channel cross section, and it can also increase the final conversion and corresponding chemical heat absorption. A small channel aspect ratio is beneficial for the chemical recuperation process and can guarantee the engine cooling performance in the pyrolysis zone of the cooling channel. - Highlights: • Large non-uniformity of conversion is bad for the chemical recuperation. • Small channel aspect ratio is beneficial for improving the chemical recuperation effectiveness. • Small channel aspect ratio is also beneficial for reducing the engine wall temperature.

  2. The Chaotic Prediction for Aero-Engine Performance Parameters Based on Nonlinear PLS Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the aero-engine performance parameters is very important for aero-engine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. In this paper, the chaotic phase space of engine exhaust temperature (EGT time series which come from actual air-borne ACARS data is reconstructed through selecting some suitable nearby points. The partial least square (PLS based on the cubic spline function or the kernel function transformation is adopted to obtain chaotic predictive function of EGT series. The experiment results indicate that the proposed PLS chaotic prediction algorithm based on biweight kernel function transformation has significant advantage in overcoming multicollinearity of the independent variables and solve the stability of regression model. Our predictive NMSE is 16.5 percent less than that of the traditional linear least squares (OLS method and 10.38 percent less than that of the linear PLS approach. At the same time, the forecast error is less than that of nonlinear PLS algorithm through bootstrap test screening.

  3. Numerical Prediction of the Influence of Thrust Reverser on Aeroengine's Aerodynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqiang, Wang; Xigang, Shen; Jun, Hu; Xiang, Gao; Liping, Liu

    2017-11-01

    A numerical method was developed to predict the aerodynamic stability of a high bypass ratio turbofan engine, at the landing stage of a large transport aircraft, when the thrust reverser was deployed. 3D CFD simulation and 2D aeroengine aerodynamic stability analysis code were performed in this work, the former is to achieve distortion coefficient for the analysis of engine stability. The 3D CFD simulation was divided into two steps, the single engine calculation and the integrated aircraft and engine calculation. Results of the CFD simulation show that with the decreasing of relative wind Mach number, the engine inlet will suffer more severe flow distortion. The total pressure and total temperature distortion coefficients at the inlet of the engines were obtained from the results of the numerical simulation. Then an aeroengine aerodynamic stability analysis program was used to quantitatively analyze the aerodynamic stability of the high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The results of the stability analysis show that the engine can work stably, when the reverser flow is re-ingested. But the anti-distortion ability of the booster is weaker than that of the fan and high pressure compressor. It is a weak link of engine stability.

  4. Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model identification for turbofan aero-engines with guaranteed stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruichao LI

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with identifying a Takagi-Sugeno (TS fuzzy model for turbofan aero-engines working under the maximum power status (non-afterburning. To establish the fuzzy system, theoretical contributions are made as follows. First, by fixing antecedent parameters, the estimation of consequent parameters in state-space representations is formulated as minimizing a quadratic cost function. Second, to avoid obtaining unstable identified models, a new theorem is proposed to transform the prior-knowledge of stability into constraints. Then based on the aforementioned work, the identification problem is synthesized as a constrained quadratic optimization. By solving the constrained optimization, a TS fuzzy system is identified with guaranteed stability. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the turbofan aero-engine using simulation data generated from an aerothermodynamics component-level model. Results show the identified fuzzy model achieves a high fitting accuracy while stabilities of the overall fuzzy system and all its local models are also guaranteed. Keywords: Constrained optimization, Fuzzy system, Stability, System identification, Turbofan engine

  5. Fuselage boundary-layer refraction of fan tones radiated from an installed turbofan aero-engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, James; McAlpine, Alan; Kingan, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    A distributed source model to predict fan tone noise levels of an installed turbofan aero-engine is extended to include the refraction effects caused by the fuselage boundary layer. The model is a simple representation of an installed turbofan, where fan tones are represented in terms of spinning modes radiated from a semi-infinite circular duct, and the aircraft's fuselage is represented by an infinitely long, rigid cylinder. The distributed source is a disk, formed by integrating infinitesimal volume sources located on the intake duct termination. The cylinder is located adjacent to the disk. There is uniform axial flow, aligned with the axis of the cylinder, everywhere except close to the cylinder where there is a constant thickness boundary layer. The aim is to predict the near-field acoustic pressure, and in particular, to predict the pressure on the cylindrical fuselage which is relevant to assess cabin noise. Thus no far-field approximations are included in the modelling. The effect of the boundary layer is quantified by calculating the area-averaged mean square pressure over the cylinder's surface with and without the boundary layer included in the prediction model. The sound propagation through the boundary layer is calculated by solving the Pridmore-Brown equation. Results from the theoretical method show that the boundary layer has a significant effect on the predicted sound pressure levels on the cylindrical fuselage, owing to sound radiation of fan tones from an installed turbofan aero-engine.

  6. A Co-modeling Method Based on Component Features for Mechatronic Devices in Aero-engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhao, Haocen; Ye, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Data-fused and user-friendly design of aero-engine accessories is required because of their structural complexity and stringent reliability. This paper gives an overview of a typical aero-engine control system and the development process of key mechatronic devices used. Several essential aspects of modeling and simulation in the process are investigated. Considering the limitations of a single theoretic model, feature-based co-modeling methodology is suggested to satisfy the design requirements and compensate for diversity of component sub-models for these devices. As an example, a stepper motor controlled Fuel Metering Unit (FMU) is modeled in view of the component physical features using two different software tools. An interface is suggested to integrate the single discipline models into the synthesized one. Performance simulation of this device using the co-model and parameter optimization for its key components are discussed. Comparison between delivery testing and the simulation shows that the co-model for the FMU has a high accuracy and the absolute superiority over a single model. Together with its compatible interface with the engine mathematical model, the feature-based co-modeling methodology is proven to be an effective technical measure in the development process of the device.

  7. TurbinAID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation

  8. Grid dependency and relaxation of an iteration procedure for flow calculations in stationary hydraulic turbine parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliev, Igor; Markov, Zoran [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The numerical methods for iterative solving of discretized governing equations often require special treatment for the purpose of achieving not only sufficiently accurate and reliable results, but stable and gradual convergence of the solution too. The general remedy for such challenge, for a certain case, is to use a fine mesh to a certain level and/or to slow down the numerical procedure, a two useful strategies by which numerical instabilities will be avoided on the account of a greater CPU load. This paper presents the employment of these two strategies by conducting a grid dependency analysis for a 2D model of the stay and guide vanes of a hydraulic Francis turbine and furthering the solution to iteration procedure adjustment for a 3D representation of the same model. The ultimate accent is placed on how to deal with a particular numerical instability problem in a pure mathematical fashion without getting into the experimental validation of the results and calibration of the method. (Author)

  9. Tests Performed on Hydraulic Turbines at Commissioning or after Capital Repairs. Part II. Tests Performed on a 6.5 MW Kaplan Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cuzmoş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the tests performed on a hydraulic turbine on commissioning, the devices, test methods and the results obtained from the respective tests, as well as the conclusions and recommendations resulted from these tests. This kind of tests can be performed for the verification of guarantees.

  10. Pressure measurements and high speed visualizations of the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition in a Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K; Müller, A; Favrel, A; Landry, C; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    In a hydraulic power plant, it is essential to provide a reliable, sustainable and flexible energy supply. In recent years, in order to cover the variations of the renewable electricity production, hydraulic power plants are demanded to operate with more extended operating range. Under these off-design conditions, a hydraulic turbine is subject to cavitating swirl flow at the runner outlet. It is well-known that the helically/symmetrically shaped cavitation develops at the runner outlet in part load/full load condition, and it gives severe damage to the hydraulic systems under certain conditions. Although there have been many studies about partial and full load conditions, contributions reporting the deep part load condition are limited, and the cavitation behaviour at this condition is not yet understood. This study aims to unveil the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition by high speed visualizations focusing on the draft tube cone as well as the runner blade channel, and pressure fluctuations associated with the phenomena were also investigated

  11. Poređenje snage za jednu i dve kontrarotirajuće hidro turbine u Venturijevoj cevi - II deo / Comparison of power for one and two contra-rotating hydro turbines in a Venturi tube: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko S. Kozić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available U prvom delu rada izloženi su rezultati istraživanja koja daju priraštaj snage dobijen sa dve kontrarotirajuće hidroturbine u poređenju sa snagom jedne turbine, smeštene u Venturijevoj cevi, a koje se obrću sa n = 50 o/min. Izvršena su istraživanja koja je trebalo da daju odgovor na pitanje da li se može dobiti veći priraštaj snage sa povećanjem broja obrtaja. U drugom delu rada prikazani su rezultati za jednu i dve kontrarotirajuće turbine pri najvećem broju obrtaja pri kojem se ne javlja kavitacija na lopaticama. Rezultati su dobijeni numeričkim simulacijama uz korišćenje softvera koji rešava usrednjene Navije-Stoksove jednačine. / In the first part of the paper, the results of the research are presented, giving the increment of the power obtained with two contra-rotating hydro turbines, compared to one turbine, placed in a Venturi tube and rotating at 50 rpm. Since a small increment of power is obtained, research was carried out in order to give an answer to the question whether a larger increment of power could be obtained by increasing a number of revolutions per minute. In the second part of the paper, the results are shown for one and two contra-rotating turbines at the highest revolution at which no cavitation appears on the blades. The results are obtained with numerical simulations using software for solving Navier-Stokes equations.

  12. Modal behavior of a reduced scale pump-turbine impeller. Part 1: Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaler, X; Huetter, J K; Egusquiza, E; Farhat, M; Avellan, F

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to quantify the effects of surrounding fluid on the modal behavior of a reduced scale pump-turbine impeller. The modal properties of the fluid-structure system have been obtained by Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) with the impeller suspended in air and inside a water reservoir. The impeller has been excited with an instrumented hammer and the response has been measured by means of miniature accelerometers. The Frequency Response Functions (FRF's) have been obtained from a large number of impacting positions in order to ensure the identification of the main mode shapes. As a result, the main modes of vibration have been well characterized both in air and in water in terms of natural frequency, damping ratio and mode shape. The first mode is the 2 Nodal Diameter (ND), the second one is the 0ND and the following ones are the 3ND coupled with the 1ND. The visual observation of the animated mode shapes and the level of the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) have permitted to correlate the homologous modes of vibration of the fluid-structure system in air and in water. From this comparison the added mass effect on the natural frequencies and the fluid effect on the damping ratios have been quantified for the most significant modes. With the surrounding water, the natural frequencies decrease in average by 10%. On the other hand, the damping ratios increase in average by 0.5%. In any case, the damping ratio appears to decrease with the frequency value of the mode.

  13. Comparison Between Conventional Design and Cathode Gas Recirculation Design of a Direct-Syngas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell–Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems Part I: Design Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Azami

    2017-06-01

    Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell, Gas turbine, Cathode gas recirculation, Exergy. Article History: Received Feb 23rd 2017; Received in revised form May 26th 2017; Accepted June 1st 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Azami, V, and Yari, M. (2017 Comparison between conventional design and cathode gas recirculation design of a direct-syngas solid oxide fuel cell–gas turbine hybrid systems part I: Design performance. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(2, 127-136. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.2.127-136

  14. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  15. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing, Part II: Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Arnold, Steven M.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Eugene; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Lao, Chao; Rhein, Morgan; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the second part of the three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimides-Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 mixed with 10% chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25 to 31%. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties. A preliminary modeling was also initiated to predict the mechanical properties of FDM-printed Ultem 9085 coupons in relation to varied raster angles and void contents, using the GRC-developed MAC/GMC program.

  16. Influence of upstream disturbance on the draft-tube flow of Francis turbine under part-load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zheng, Xianghao; Zhang, Yu-ning; Li, Shengcai

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the part-load operations for the enhancement of grid flexibility, the Francis turbine often suffers from severe low-frequency and large-amplitude hydraulic instability, which is mostly pertinent to the highly unsteady swirling vortex rope in the draft tube. The influence of disturbances in the upstream (e.g., large-scale vortex structures in the spiral casing) on the draft-tube vortex flow is not well understood yet. In the present paper, the influence of the upstream disturbances on the vortical flow in the draft tube is studied based on the vortex identification method and the analysis of several important parameters (e.g., the swirl number and the velocity profile). For a small guide vane opening (representing the part-load condition), the vortices triggered in the spiral casing propagate downstream and significantly affect the swirling vortex-rope precession in the draft tube, leading to the changes of the intensity and the processional frequency of the swirling vortex rope. When the guide vane opening approaches the optimum one (representing the full-load condition), the upstream disturbance becomes weaker and thus its influences on the downstream flow are very limited.

  17. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  18. Optimum Control for Nonlinear Dynamic Radial Deformation of Turbine Casing with Time-Varying LSSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the high performance and high reliability of aeroengine, the blade-tip radial running clearance (BTRRC of high pressure turbine seriously influences the reliability and performance of aeroengine, wherein the radial deformation control of turbine casing has to be concerned in BTRRC design. To improve BTRRC design, the optimum control-based probabilistic optimization of turbine casing radial deformation was implemented using time-varying least square support vector machine (T-LSSVM by considering nonlinear material properties and dynamic thermal load. First the T-LSSVM method was proposed and its mathematical model was established. And then the nonlinear dynamic optimal control model of casing radial deformation was constructed with T-LSSVM. Thirdly, through the numerical experiments, the T-LSSVM method is demonstrated to be a promising approach in reducing additional design samples and improving computational efficiency with acceptable computational precision. Through the optimum control-based probabilistic optimization for nonlinear dynamic radial turbine casing deformation, the optimum radial deformation is 7.865 × 10−4 m with acceptable reliability degree 0.995 6, which is reduced by 7.86 × 10−5 m relative to that before optimization. These results validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed T-LSSVM method, which provides a useful insight into casing radial deformation, BTRRC control, and the development of gas turbine with high performance and high reliability.

  19. Switching LPV Control with Double-Layer LPV Model for Aero-Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lili; Huang, Jinquan; Pan, Muxuan

    2017-11-01

    To cover the whole range of operating conditions of aero-engine, a double-layer LPV model is built so as to take into account of the variability due to the flight altitude, Mach number and the rotational speed. With this framework, the problem of designing LPV state-feedback robust controller that guarantees desired bounds on both H_∞ and H_2 performances is considered. Besides this, to reduce the conservativeness caused by a single LPV controller of the whole flight envelope and the common Lyapunov function method, a new method is proposed to design a family of LPV switching controllers. The switching LPV controllers can ensure that the closed-loop system remains stable in the sense of Lyapunov under arbitrary switching logic. Meanwhile, the switching LPV controllers can ensure the parameters change smoothly. The validity and performance of the theoretical results are demonstrated through a numerical example.

  20. Reliability Estimation of Aero-engine Based on Mixed Weibull Distribution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhongda; Deng, Junxiang; Wang, Dawei

    2018-02-01

    Aero-engine is a complex mechanical electronic system, based on analysis of reliability of mechanical electronic system, Weibull distribution model has an irreplaceable role. Till now, only two-parameter Weibull distribution model and three-parameter Weibull distribution are widely used. Due to diversity of engine failure modes, there is a big error with single Weibull distribution model. By contrast, a variety of engine failure modes can be taken into account with mixed Weibull distribution model, so it is a good statistical analysis model. Except the concept of dynamic weight coefficient, in order to make reliability estimation result more accurately, three-parameter correlation coefficient optimization method is applied to enhance Weibull distribution model, thus precision of mixed distribution reliability model is improved greatly. All of these are advantageous to popularize Weibull distribution model in engineering applications.

  1. Advanced Engineering Methods for Assessing Welding Distortion in Aero-Engine Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Kathryn; Darlington, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Welding remains an attractive fabrication method for aero-engine assemblies, offering high production rates and reduced total cost, particularly for large complex assemblies. However, distortion generated during the welding process continues to provide a major challenge in terms of the control of geometric tolerances and residual stress. The welding distortion is influenced by the sequence and position of joints, the clamping configuration and the design of the assembly. For large complex assemblies the range of these options may be large. Hence the use of numerical simulation at an early stage of the product development process is valuable to enable a wide range of these factors to be explored with the aim of minimising welding distortions before production commences, and thereby reducing the product development time. In this paper, a new technique for simulation of welding distortions based on a shrinkage analysis is evaluated for an aero-engine assembly. The shrinkage simulations were built and solved using the ESI Group software Weld Planner. The rapid simulation speed enabled a wide range of welding plans to be explored, leading to recommendations for the fabrication process. The sensitivity of the model to mesh size and material properties is reported. The results of the shrinkage analysis were found to be similar to those of a transient analysis generated using ESI Group software SysWeld. The solution times were found to be significantly lower for the shrinkage analysis than the transient analysis. Hence it has been demonstrated that shrinkage analysis is a valuable tool for exploring the fabrication process of a welded assembly at an early stage of the product development process.

  2. The spectral analysis of an aero-engine assembly incorporating a squeeze-film damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R.; Dede, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Aero-engine structures have very low inherent damping and so artificial damping is often introduced by pumping oil into annular gaps between the casings and the outer races of some or all of the rolling-element bearings supporting the rotors. The thin oil films so formed are called squeeze film dampers and they can be beneficial in reducing rotor vibration due to unbalance and keeping to reasonable limits the forces transmitted to the engine casing. However, squeeze-film dampers are notoriously non-linear and as a result can introduce into the assembly such phenomena as subharmonic oscillations, jumps and combination frequencies. The purpose of the research is to investigate such phenomena both theoretically and experimentally on a test facility reproducing the essential features of a medium-size aero engine. The forerunner of this work was published. It was concerned with the examination of a squeeze-film damper in series with housing flexibility when supporting a rotor. The structure represented to a limited extent the essentials of the projected Rolls Royce RB401 engine. That research demonstrated the ability to calculate the oil-film forces arising from the squeeze film from known motions of the bearing components and showed that the dynamics of a shaft fitted with a squeeze film bearing can be predicted reasonably accurately. An aero-engine will normally have at least two shafts and so in addition to the excitation forces which are synchronous with the rotation of one shaft, there will also be forces at other frequencies from other shafts operating on the squeeze-film damper. Theoretical and experimental work to consider severe loading of squeeze-film dampers and to include these additional effects are examined.

  3. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 2; Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary studies on two turbine engine applications relevant to the tilt-rotor rotary wing aircraft are performed. The first case-study is the application of variable pitch turbine for the turbine performance improvement when operating at a substantially lower shaft speed. The calculations are made on the 75 percent speed and the 50 percent speed of operations. Our results indicate that with the use of the variable pitch turbines, a nominal (3 percent (probable) to 5 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 75 percent speed, and a notable (6 percent (probable) to 12 percent (hypothetical)) efficiency improvement at the 50 percent speed, without sacrificing the turbine power productions, are achievable if the technical difficulty of turning the turbine vanes and blades can be circumvented. The second casestudy is the contingency turbine power generation for the tilt-rotor aircraft in the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) scenario. For this study, calculations are performed on two promising methods: throttle push and steam injection. By isolating the power turbine and limiting its air mass flow rate to be no more than the air flow intake of the take-off operation, while increasing the turbine inlet total temperature (simulating the throttle push) or increasing the air-steam mixture flow rate (simulating the steam injection condition), our results show that an amount of 30 to 45 percent extra power, to the nominal take-off power, can be generated by either of the two methods. The methods of approach, the results, and discussions of these studies are presented in this paper.

  4. On the manufacturing of a gas turbine engine part through metal spinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, A. El; Astarita, A.; Scherillo, F.; Velotti, C.; Squillace, A.; Liguori, A.

    2018-05-01

    Metal spinning processes represents an interesting alternative to traditional sheet metal forming processes in several industrial contexts, such as automotive and aerospace. In this work, the production of a combustion chamber liner top prototype using AISI 304L stainless steel is proposed, in order to evaluate the process feasibility for the required part geometry. The prototypes production was carried out using a two-stage semiautomatic spinning process. The effects in terms of wall thickness reduction were investigated. Using optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques, the microstructural behavior of the metal subjected to the forming process was investigated, while for an evaluation of the influence on the mechanical properties Vickers micro-indentation tests were performed. The main result of the process, as observed from all the investigation techniques adopted, is the formation of strain induced martensite due to the severe plastic deformation and cold reduction of the material, ranging in this case from 30% to 50%. In some areas of the part section, some rips indicating an excessive tensile stress were also detected.

  5. Development Algorithm of the Technological Process of Manufacturing Gas Turbine Parts by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.; Smelov, V. G.; Kyarimov, R. R.

    2018-01-01

    The technology of the selective laser melting (SLM) allows making products from powders of aluminum, titanium, heat-resistant alloys and stainless steels. Today the use of SLM technology develops at manufacture of the functional parts. This in turn requires development of a methodology projection of technological processes (TP) for manufacturing parts including databases of standard TP. Use of a technique will allow to exclude influence of technologist’s qualification on made products quality, and also to reduce labor input and energy consumption by development of TP due to use of the databases of standard TP integrated into a methodology. As approbation of the developed methodology the research of influence of the modes of a laser emission on a roughness of a surface of synthesized material was presented. It is established that the best values of a roughness of exemplars in the longitudinal and transversal directions make 1.98 μm and 3.59 μm respectively. These values of a roughness were received at specific density of energy 6.25 J/mm2 that corresponds to power and the speed of scanning of 200 W and 400 mm/s, respectively, and a hatch distance of 0.08 mm.

  6. Experimental evidence of inter-blade cavitation vortex development in Francis turbines at deep part load condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Avellan, F.

    2017-10-01

    Francis turbines are subject to various types of cavitation flow depending on the operating condition. To enable a smooth integration of the renewable energy sources, hydraulic machines are now increasingly required to extend their operating range, especially down to extremely low discharge conditions called deep part load operation. The inter-blade cavitation vortex is a typical cavitation phenomenon observed at deep part load operation. However, its dynamic characteristics are insufficiently understood today. In an objective of revealing its characteristics, the present study introduces a novel visualization technique with instrumented guide vanes embedding the visualization devices, providing unprecedented views on the inter-blade cavitation vortex. The binary image processing technique enables the successful evaluation of the inter-blade cavitation vortex in the images. As a result, it is shown that the probability of the inter-blade cavitation development is significantly high close to the runner hub. Furthermore, the mean vortex line is calculated and the vortex region is estimated in the three-dimensional domain for the comparison with numerical simulation results. In addition, the on-board pressure measurements on a runner blade is conducted, and the influence of the inter-blade vortex on the pressure field is investigated. The analysis suggests that the presence of the inter-blade vortex can magnify the amplitude of pressure fluctuations especially on the blade suction side. Furthermore, the wall pressure difference between pressure and suction sides of the blade features partially low or negative values near the hub at the discharge region where the inter-blade vortex develops. This negative pressure difference on the blade wall suggests the development of a backflow region caused by the flow separation near the hub, which is closely related to the development of the inter-blade vortex. The development of the backflow region is confirmed by the numerical

  7. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 1; Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    For the preliminary design and the off-design performance analysis of axial flow turbines, a pair of intermediate level-of-fidelity computer codes, TD2-2 (design; reference 1) and AXOD (off-design; reference 2), are being evaluated for use in turbine design and performance prediction of the modern high performance aircraft engines. TD2-2 employs a streamline curvature method for design, while AXOD approaches the flow analysis with an equal radius-height domain decomposition strategy. Both methods resolve only the flows in the annulus region while modeling the impact introduced by the blade rows. The mathematical formulations and derivations involved in both methods are documented in references 3, 4 for TD2-2) and in reference 5 (for AXOD). The focus of this paper is to discuss the fundamental issues of applicability and compatibility of the two codes as a pair of companion pieces, to perform preliminary design and off-design analysis for modern aircraft engine turbines. Two validation cases for the design and the off-design prediction using TD2-2 and AXOD conducted on two existing high efficiency turbines, developed and tested in the NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (GE-E3) Program, the High Pressure Turbine (HPT; two stages, air cooled) and the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT; five stages, un-cooled), are provided in support of the analysis and discussion presented in this paper.

  8. Application of image based measurement techniques for the investigation of aeroengine performance on a commercial aircraft in ground operation

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Andreas; Geisler, Reinhard; Schanz, Daniel; Agocs, Janos; Pallek, Dieter; Schroll, Michael; Klinner, Joachim; Beversdorff, Manfred; Voges, Melanie; Willert, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of the flow and sound field upstream and downstream of a full scale aeroengine is aimed at providing important reference data required for reliable modeling and prediction. In this regard a wide variety of contactless and non-invasive laser optical and acoustic measurement techniques have matured in recent years to allow their application on full scale aircraft. Within a measurement campaign involving an Airbus A320 DLR research aircraft inside a sound-attenuating hangar at ...

  9. Influence of Hydraulic Design on Stability and on Pressure Pulsations in Francis Turbines at Overload, Part Load and Deep Part Load based on Numerical Simulations and Experimental Model Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnoli, M V; Maiwald, M

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines have been running more and more frequently in part load conditions, in order to satisfy the new market requirements for more dynamic and flexible energy generation, ancillary services and grid regulation. The turbines should be able to be operated for longer durations with flows below the optimum point, going from part load to deep part load and even speed-no-load. These operating conditions are characterised by important unsteady flow phenomena taking place at the draft tube cone and in the runner channels, in the respective cases of part load and deep part load. The current expectations are that new Francis turbines present appropriate hydraulic stability and moderate pressure pulsations at overload, part load, deep part load and speed-no-load with high efficiency levels at normal operating range. This study presents series of investigations performed by Voith Hydro with the objective to improve the hydraulic stability of Francis turbines at overload, part load and deep part load, reduce pressure pulsations and enlarge the know-how about the transient fluid flow through the turbine at these challenging conditions. Model test measurements showed that distinct runner designs were able to influence the pressure pulsation level in the machine. Extensive experimental investigations focused on the runner deflector geometry, on runner features and how they could reduce the pressure oscillation level. The impact of design variants and machine configurations on the vortex rope at the draft tube cone at overload and part load and on the runner channel vortex at deep part load were experimentally observed and evaluated based on the measured pressure pulsation amplitudes. Numerical investigations were employed for improving the understanding of such dynamic fluid flow effects. As example for the design and experimental investigations, model test observations and pressure pulsation curves for Francis machines in mid specific speed range, around n qopt = 50

  10. A GM (1, 1 Markov Chain-Based Aeroengine Performance Degradation Forecast Approach Using Exhaust Gas Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-bo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance degradation forecast technology for quantitatively assessing degradation states of aeroengine using exhaust gas temperature is an important technology in the aeroengine health management. In this paper, a GM (1, 1 Markov chain-based approach is introduced to forecast exhaust gas temperature by taking the advantages of GM (1, 1 model in time series and the advantages of Markov chain model in dealing with highly nonlinear and stochastic data caused by uncertain factors. In this approach, firstly, the GM (1, 1 model is used to forecast the trend by using limited data samples. Then, Markov chain model is integrated into GM (1, 1 model in order to enhance the forecast performance, which can solve the influence of random fluctuation data on forecasting accuracy and achieving an accurate estimate of the nonlinear forecast. As an example, the historical monitoring data of exhaust gas temperature from CFM56 aeroengine of China Southern is used to verify the forecast performance of the GM (1, 1 Markov chain model. The results show that the GM (1, 1 Markov chain model is able to forecast exhaust gas temperature accurately, which can effectively reflect the random fluctuation characteristics of exhaust gas temperature changes over time.

  11. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  12. Flow development through HP & LP turbines, Part II: Effects of the hub endwall secondary sealing air flow on the turbine's mainstream flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jialin; Du, Qiang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Pei; Liu, Guang; Liu, Hongrui; Du, Meimei

    2017-08-01

    Although many literatures have been focused on the underneath flow and loss mechanism, very few experiments and simulations have been done under the engines' representative working conditions or considering the real cavity structure as a whole. This paper aims at realizing the goal of design of efficient turbine and scrutinizing the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the rim seal. With the aid of numerical method, a numerical model describing the flow pattern both in the purge flow spot and within the mainstream flow path is established, fluid migration and its accompanied flow mechanism within the realistic cavity structure (with rim seal structure and considering mainstream & secondary air flow's interaction) is used to evaluate both the flow pattern and the underneath flow mechanism within the inward rotating cavity. Meanwhile, the underneath flow and loss mechanism are also studied in the current paper. The computational results show that the sealing air flow's ingestion and ejection are highly interwound with each other in both upstream and downstream flow of the rim seal. Both the down-stream blades' potential effects as well as the upstream blades' wake trajectory can bring about the ingestion of the hot gas flow within the cavity, abrupt increase of the static pressure is believed to be the main reason. Also, the results indicate that sealing air flow ejected through the rear cavity will cause unexpected loss near the outlet section of the blades in the downstream of the HP rotor passages.

  13. Dynamic behavior of aero-engine rotor with fusing design suffering blade off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun WANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan blade off (FBO from a running turbofan rotor will introduce sudden unbalance into the dynamical system, which will lead to the rub-impact, the asymmetry of rotor and a series of interesting dynamic behavior. The paper first presents a theoretical study on the response excited by sudden unbalance. The results reveal that the reaction force of the bearing located near the fan could always reach a very high value which may lead to the crush of ball, journal sticking, high stress on the other components and some other failures to endanger the safety of engine in FBO event. Therefore, the dynamic influence of a safety design named “fusing” is investigated by mechanism analysis. Meantime, an explicit FBO model is established to simulate the FBO event, and evaluate the effectiveness and potential dynamic influence of fusing design. The results show that the fusing design could reduce the vibration amplitude of rotor, the reaction force on most bearings and loads on mounts, but the sudden change of support stiffness induced by fusing could produce an impact effect which will couple with the influence of sudden unbalance. Therefore, the implementation of the design should be considered carefully with optimized parameters in actual aero-engine.

  14. Simulations of the vortex in the Dellenback abrupt expansion, resembling a hydro turbine draft tube operating at part-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, H

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an OpenFOAM case-study, based on the experimental studies of the swirling flow in the abrupt expansion by Dellenback et al.[1]. The case yields similar flow conditions as those of a helical vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft tube working at part-load. The case-study is set up similar to the ERCOFTAC Conical Diffuser and Centrifugal Pump OpenFOAM case-studies [2,3], making all the files available and the results fully reproducable using OpenSource software. The mesh generation is done using m4 scripting and the OpenFOAM built-in blockMesh mesh generator. The swirling inlet boundary condition is specified as an axi-symmetric profile. The outlet boundary condition uses the zeroGradient condition for all variables except for the pressure, which uses the fixed mean value boundary condition. The wall static pressure is probed at a number of locations during the simulations, and post-processing of the time-averaged solution is done using the OpenFOAM sample utility. Gnuplot scripts are provided for plotting the results. The computational results are compared to one of the operating conditions studied by Dellenback, and measurements for all the experimentally studied operating conditions are available in the case-study. Results from five cases are here presented, based on the kEpsilon model, the kOmegaSST model, and a filtered version of the same kOmegaSST model, named kOmegaSSTF [4,5]. Two different inlet boundary conditions are evaluated. It is shown that kEpsilon and kOmegaSST give steady solutions, while kOmegaSSTF gives a highly unsteady solution. The time-averaged solution of the kOmegaSSTF model is much more accurate than the other models. The kEpsilon and kOmegaSST models are thus unable to accurately model the effect of the large-scale unsteadiness, while kOmegaSSTF resolves those scales and models only the smaller scales. The use of two different boundary conditions shows that the boundary conditions are more important than the choice between

  15. A review on the use of gas and steam turbine combined cycles as prime movers for large ships. Part I: Background and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the prospects of using combined cycles as prime movers for large ships, like, container ships, tankers and bulk carriers. The paper is divided into three parts of which this paper constitutes Part I. Here, the environmental and human health concerns of international shipping are outlined. The regulatory framework relevant for shipping and the design of combined cycles are discussed. In Part II, previous work and experience are reviewed, and an overview of the implications of introducing combined cycles as prime movers is included. In Part III, marine fuels are discussed and the pollutant emissions of gas turbines are compared with those of two-stroke, slow-speed diesel engines. Environmental effects of shipping include contributions to the formation of ground-level ozone, acidification, eutrophication and climate impact. Tightening environmental regulations limit the fuel sulphur content and pollutant emissions. For moderate live steam pressures, a vertical HRSG of drum-type mounted directly over the gas turbine, is suggested to be a viable configuration that minimizes ground floor and space requirements

  16. Agile Manufacturing Research of Aeroengine Turbine Blade%防火墙的安全机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨生强

    2000-01-01

    防火墙安全机制是Internet推广和应用关键技术之一.本文通过对防火墙实现技术的分析,论述了防火墙的安全机制,描述防火墙实现的典型结构,以及采用的安全保护实现方法,并对防火墙的安全策略和设计要求进行了深入的探索.

  17. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part I - an improved Q3D inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

    2002-06-01

    With the aim of constructing a comprehensive design optimization procedure of axial flow hydraulic turbine, an improved quasi-three-dimensional inverse method has been proposed from the viewpoint of system and a set of rotational flow governing equations as well as a blade geometry design equation has been derived. The computation domain is firstly taken from the inlet of guide vane to the far outlet of runner blade in the inverse method and flows in different regions are solved simultaneously. So the influence of wicket gate parameters on the runner blade design can be considered and the difficulty to define the flow condition at the runner blade inlet is surmounted. As a pre-computation of initial blade design on S2m surface is newly adopted, the iteration of S1 and S2m surfaces has been reduced greatly and the convergence of inverse computation has been improved. The present model has been applied to the inverse computation of a Kaplan turbine runner. Experimental results and the direct flow analysis have proved the validation of inverse computation. Numerical investigations show that a proper enlargement of guide vane distribution diameter is advantageous to improve the performance of axial hydraulic turbine runner. Copyright

  18. Social assessment of wind power. Part 4: International position and development conditions of the Danish wind turbine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnoee, P.; Joergensen, U.

    1995-12-01

    Today, the Danish wind turbine industry is positioned as a global market leader on a fast growing international market. The conclusion and observation of this report are: 1. The international market for wind power is likely to grow fast over the next 5 years (a self-reinforcing development) and the Danish wind turbine industry has the potential to increase export from the present DKK 2 billion per year to DKK 4 billion per year. 2. The leading market position is achieved after the collapse of the California market in 1987. The last four years have been export-driven growth together with the development of complementary assets to support a strong product technology. 3. The Danish position might be threatened by the new competitors, but it is our view that it takes 2-3 years before they have equivalent competences, and since the Danish companies are presently also mobilizing resources and competences it is not likely that they are easily outperformed. 4. A continued installation of wind power in Denmark is important to support the sustaining of the international position in the coming years. Through, it is not the volume size of the domestic market, but rather a stable market which serves as a home base for the industry. Not only for the reference and testing of new wind turbines, but also the knowledge networks between manufacturers and suppliers and between manufacturers and the Test Station for Windmills at Risoe. (EG) 51 refs

  19. Dynamic modeling and vibration characteristics analysis of the aero-engine dual-rotor system with Fan blade out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pingchao; Zhang, Dayi; Ma, Yanhong; Hong, Jie

    2018-06-01

    Fan Blade Out (FBO) from a running rotor of the turbofan engine will not only introduce the sudden unbalance and inertia asymmetry into the rotor, but also apply large impact load and induce rotor-to-stator rubbing on the rotor, which makes the mass, gyroscopic and stiffness matrixes of the dynamic equation become time-varying and highly nonlinear, consequently leads to the system's complicated vibration. The dynamic analysis of the aero-engine rotor system is one essential requirement of the authorities and is vital to the aero-engine's safety. The paper aims at studying the dynamic responses of the complicated dual-rotor systems at instantaneous and windmilling statuses when FBO event occurs. The physical process and mechanical characteristics of the FBO event are described qualitatively, based on which the dynamic modeling for an aero-engine dual-rotor system is carried out considering several excitations caused by FBO. Meanwhile the transient response during the instantaneous status and steady-state response at the windmilling status are obtained. The results reveal that the sudden unbalance can induce impact load to the rotor, and lead to the sharp increase of the vibration amplitude and reaction force. The rub-impact will apply constraint effects on the rotor and restrict the transient vibration amplitude, while the inertia asymmetry has little influence on the transient response. When the rotor with huge unbalance operates at windmilling status, the rub-impact turns to be the main factor determining the rotor's dynamic behavior, and several potential motion states, such as instable dry whip, intermittent rubbing and synchronous full annular rubbing would happen on certain conditions.

  20. Hydro-acoustic resonance behavior in presence of a precessing vortex rope: observation of a lock-in phenomenon at part load Francis turbine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favrel, A; Landry, C; Müller, A; Yamamoto, K; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be observed in presence of cavitation. In the case of a matching between the precession frequency and the synchronous surge frequency, hydro-acoustic resonance occurs in the draft tube inducing high pressure fluctuations throughout the entire hydraulic system, causing torque and power pulsations. The risk of such resonances limits the possible extension of the Francis turbine operating range. A more precise knowledge of the phenomenon occurring at such resonance conditions and prediction capabilities of the induced pressure pulsations needs therefore to be developed. This paper proposes a detailed study of the occurrence of hydro-acoustic resonance for one particular part load operating point featuring a well-developed precessing vortex rope and corresponding to 64% of the BEP. It focuses particularly on the evolution of the local interaction between the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency and the synchronous surge mode passing through the resonance condition. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is performed on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine, including pressure fluctuation measurements in the draft tube and in the upstream piping system. Changing the pressure level in the draft tube, resonance occurrences are highlighted for different Froude numbers. The evolution of the hydro-acoustic response of the system suggests that a lock-in effect between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency may occur at low Froude number, inducing a hydro

  1. Surface integrity of GH4169 affected by cantilever finish grinding and the application in aero-engine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available GH4169 is the main material for aero-engine blades and integrated blisks. Because GH4169 has a poor milling performance, the profile precision and surface integrity of blades and integrated blisks are difficult to be met by utilizing the conventional milling process, which directly influence the global performance and reliability of aero-engines. Through grinding experiments on parameters and surface integrity optimization, the helical cantilever grinding process utilizing a 300# CBN RB wheel is presented and applied in finish machining of GH4169 blades. The profile errors of the blade surface are within ±0.01 mm, the roughness is less than 0.4 μm, the residual compressive stresses and the hardening rate are appropriate, there are no phenomena of burr and smearing with the grinding chips, and the leading/trailing edge can be smoothly connected with the suction/pressure surface. All the experimental results indicate that this grinding process is greatly suitable for the profile finish machining of GH4169 blades.

  2. Heat Transfer and Flow on the First Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine. Part 1; Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Bailey, Jeremy C.; Ameri, Ali A.

    1999-01-01

    A combined computational and experimental study has been performed to investigate the detailed distribution of convective heat transfer coefficients on the first stage blade tip surface for a geometry typical of large power generation turbines(>100MW). This paper is concerned with the design and execution of the experimental portion of the study. A stationary blade cascade experiment has been run consisting of three airfoils, the center airfoil having a variable tip gap clearance. The airfoil models the aerodynamic tip section of a high pressure turbine blade with inlet Mach number of 0.30, exit Mach number of 0.75, pressure ratio of 1.45, exit Reynolds number based on axial chord of 2.57 x 10(exp 6), and total turning of about 110 degrees. A hue detection based liquid crystal method is used to obtain the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution on the blade tip surface for flat, smooth tip surfaces with both sharp and rounded edges. The cascade inlet turbulence intensity level took on values of either 5% or 9%. The cascade also models the casing recess in the shroud surface ahead of the blade. Experimental results are shown for the pressure distribution measurements on the airfoil near the tip gap, on the blade tip surface, and on the opposite shroud surface. Tip surface heat transfer coefficient distributions are shown for sharp-edge and rounded-edge tip geometries at each of the inlet turbulence intensity levels.

  3. APPLICATION OF ROUGH SET THEORY TO MAINTENANCE LEVEL DECISION-MAKING FOR AERO-ENGINE MODULES BASED ON INCREMENTAL KNOWLEDGE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓华; 左洪福; 蔡景

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of an aero-engine usually includes three levels ,and the maintenance cost and period greatly differ depending on the different maintenance levels .To plan a reasonable maintenance budget program , airlines would like to predict the maintenance level of aero-engine before repairing in terms of performance parame-ters ,which can provide more economic benefits .The maintenance level decision rules are mined using the histori-cal maintenance data of a civil aero-engine based on the rough set theory ,and a variety of possible models of upda-ting rules produced by newly increased maintenance cases added to the historical maintenance case database are in-vestigated by the means of incremental machine learning .The continuously updated rules can provide reasonable guidance suggestions for engineers and decision support for planning a maintenance budget program before repai-ring .The results of an example show that the decision rules become more typical and robust ,and they are more accurate to predict the maintenance level of an aero-engine module as the maintenance data increase ,which illus-trates the feasibility of the represented method .

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  5. Repair of steam turbines by welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnstedt, H.J.; Loebert, P.

    1987-01-01

    In some cases, turbine parts can be repaired by welding, even rotating parts such as the shaft or the blades. Practical examples of successful repair work are explained, as for instance: welding of the last web of the turbine wheel of two MD-rotors, repair of erosion damage on turbine blades, of solid-matter erosion on a medium-pressure blading, or welding repair of a high-pressure turbine casing. (DG) [de

  6. Vertical axis wind turbine turbulent response model. Part 2: Response of Sandia National laboratories' 34-meter VAWT with aeroelastic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic response of Sandia National Laboratories' 34-m Darrieus rotor wind turbine at Bushland, Texas, is presented. The formulation used a double-multiple streamtube aerodynamic model with a turbulent airflow and included the effects of linear aeroelastic forces. The structural analysis used established procedures with the program MSC/NASTRAN. The effects of aeroelastic forces on the damping of natural modes agree well with previous results at operating rotor speeds, but show some discrepancies at very high rotor speeds. A number of alternative expressions for the spectrum of turbulent wind were investigated. The model loading represented by each does not differ significantly; a more significant difference is caused by imposing a full lateral coherence of the turbulent flow. Spectra of the predicted stresses at various locations show that without aeroelastic forces, very severe resonance is likely to occur at certain natural frequencies. Inclusion of aeroelastic effects greatly attenuates this stochastic response, especially in modes involving in-plane blade bending.

  7. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  8. Studies of two stage gas turbine combustor for biomass powder. Part 1, Atmospheric cyclone gasification experiments with wood powder. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerman, Bengt; Hedin, Johan; Fredriksson, Christian; Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Salman, Hassan [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-10-01

    and Na in the gas entering a gas turbine with inlet temperature of 850 deg C has been estimated to 10 - 20 mg/kg gas. Reduction of this load of alkali metals requires improved separation function of the cyclone. One possibility to achieve this could be to use a wood powder with larger particles. Tests with a prototype for a double piston feeder to be used for pressurisation of the wood powder showed after several modifications that the pistons will move as intended. The difficulties experienced however also show a need for a much more detailed design study than could be carried out in this project. A problem area to be studied in particular is the choice of sealing design to eliminate risk for penetration of wood powder into the space between moving parts. The pressurised test facility has been designed and the main parts have been installed. Some completions are necessary before commissioning tests can be done.

  9. Turbine disintegration debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holecek, M.; Martinec, P.; Malotin, V.; Peleska, P.; Voldrich, J.

    1997-01-01

    The determination, evaluation and analysis of possible unacceptable consequences of the disintegration turbine (turbo-set) missiles is a part of the wide conceived project put by the company Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce (NPPM), the Slovak Republic. The aim of the project is to take measures reducing the probability of striking a target of safety importance in NPPM by a turbine (turbo-set) missile below the prescribed limit of 10 -6 per turbine year. Following the IAEA Safety Guides, all potential events leading to the generation of a missile are to be analysed. It is necessary to evaluate the probability of unacceptable consequences of such missiles and analyse each event whose probability is not acceptable low. This complex problem thus carries especially: complex analysis of fragment generation; evaluation of the probability of unacceptable events; location of strike zones of possible turbine missiles; assessment the possibility of the turbo-set casing penetration; and projection of additional design requirements if necessary

  10. A model for the response of vertical axis wind turbines to turbulent flow: Parts 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, D. R.

    1988-07-01

    This report describes a project intended to incorporate the effects of atmospheric turbulence into the structural response of Darrieus rotor, vertical axis wind turbines. The basis of the technique is the generation of a suitable time series of wind velocities, which are passed through a double multiple streamtube aerodynamic representation of the rotor. The aerodynamic loads are decomposed into components of the real eigenvectors of the rotor and subsequently into full-power and cross-spectral densities. These modal spectra are submitted as input to a modified NASTRAN random load analysis and the power spectra of selected responses are obtained. This procedure appears to be successful. Results at zero turbulence agree with alternative solutions, and when turbulence is included, the predicted stress spectra for the Indal 6400 rotor are in good agreement with field data. The model predicts that the effect of turbulence on harmonic frequency peaks and on all lead-lag bending will not be great. However, it appears that only 11 percent turbulence intensity can almost double the rms of cyclic flatwise blade bending.

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part I: from the airfoil performance to the very far wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Philippe; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Marichal, Yves; Winckelmans, Gregoire

    2017-11-01

    A vortex particle-mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. Large-eddy simulation (LES) of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) flows is performed. The complex wake development is captured in detail and over up to 15 diameters downstream: from the blades to the near-wake coherent vortices and then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied with respect to the VAWT geometry and its operating point. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics and topological flow features, such as a recirculation region influenced by the tip speed ratio and the rotor geometry.

  12. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-02

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane.

  13. Performance and safety of hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, H

    2010-01-01

    The first part of the paper contains the choice of small turbines for run of the river power plants. Then a discussion is given on the optimization of the performance of different types of large turbines. Finally a discussion on the safety and necessary maintenance of turbines is given with special attention to bolt connections.

  14. Full and part load exergetic analysis of a hybrid micro gas turbine fuel cell system based on existing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalis, Diamantis P.; Stamatis, Anastassios G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid SOFC/GT system based on existing components. ► Exergy analysis using AspenPlus™ software. ► Greenhouse gases emission is significantly affected by SOFC stack temperature. ► Comparison with a conventional GT of similar power. ► SOFC/GT is almost twice efficient in terms of second low efficiency and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The paper deals with the examination of a hybrid system consisting of a pre-commercially available high temperature solid oxide fuel cell and an existing recuperated microturbine. The irreversibilities and thermodynamic inefficiencies of the system are evaluated after examining the full and partial load exergetic performance and estimating the amount of exergy destruction and the efficiency of each hybrid system component. At full load operation the system achieves an exergetic efficiency of 59.8%, which increases during the partial load operation, as a variable speed control method is utilized. Furthermore, the effects of the various performance parameters such as fuel cell stack temperature and fuel utilization factor are assessed. The results showed that the components in which chemical reactions occur have the higher exergy destruction rates. The exergetic performance of the system is affected significantly by the stack temperature. Based on the exergetic analysis, suggestions are given for reducing the overall system irreversibility. Finally, the environmental impact of the operation of the hybrid system is evaluated and compared with a similarly rated conventional gas turbine plant. From the comparison it is apparent that the hybrid system obtains nearly double exergetic efficiency and about half the amount of greenhouse gas emissions compared with the conventional plant.

  15. A Combined High and Low Cycle Fatigue Model for Life Prediction of Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Peng Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined high and low cycle fatigue (CCF generally induces the failure of aircraft gas turbine attachments. Based on the aero-engine load spectrum, accurate assessment of fatigue damage due to the interaction of high cycle fatigue (HCF resulting from high frequency vibrations and low cycle fatigue (LCF from ground-air-ground engine cycles is of critical importance for ensuring structural integrity of engine components, like turbine blades. In this paper, the influence of combined damage accumulation on the expected CCF life are investigated for turbine blades. The CCF behavior of a turbine blade is usually studied by testing with four load-controlled parameters, including high cycle stress amplitude and frequency, and low cycle stress amplitude and frequency. According to this, a new damage accumulation model is proposed based on Miner’s rule to consider the coupled damage due to HCF-LCF interaction by introducing the four load parameters. Five experimental datasets of turbine blade alloys and turbine blades were introduced for model validation and comparison between the proposed Miner, Manson-Halford, and Trufyakov-Kovalchuk models. Results show that the proposed model provides more accurate predictions than others with lower mean and standard deviation values of model prediction errors.

  16. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  17. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Composites. Part III; Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Ramsey, Jack; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the third part of a three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce ceramic matrix composite materials and aircraft engine components by the binder jet process. Different SiC powders with median sizes ranging from 9.3 to 53.0 microns were investigated solely and in powder blends in order to maximize powder packing. Various infiltration approaches were investigated to include polycarbosilane (SMP-10), phenolic, and liquid silicon. Single infiltrations of SMP-10 and phenolic only slightly filled in the interior. When the SMP-10 was loaded with sub-micron sized SiC powders, the infiltrant gave a much better result of filling in the interior. Silicon carbide fibers were added to the powder bed to make ceramic matrix composite materials. Microscopy showed that the fibers were well distributed with no preferred orientation on the horizontal plane and fibers in the vertical plane were at angles as much as 45deg. Secondary infiltration steps were necessary to further densify the material. Two to three extra infiltration steps of SMP-10 increased the density by 0.20 to 0.55 g/cc. However, the highest densities achieved were 2.10 to 2.15 g/cc. Mechanical tests consisting of 4 point bend tests were conducted. Samples from the two CMC panels had higher strengths and strains to failure than the samples from the two nonfiber reinforced panels. The highest strengths were from Set N with 65 vol% fiber loading which had an average strength of 66 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surfaces did not reveal pullout of the reinforcing fibers. Blunt fiber failure suggested that there was not composite behavior. The binder jet additive manufacturing method was used to also demonstrate the fabrication of turbine engine vane components of two different designs and sizes. The

  18. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-I: 3D thermo-chemical process simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.; Akkerman, Remko

    2015-01-01

    A novel three dimensional thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process is presented. A simulation is performed for the pultrusion of a NACA0018 blade profile having a curved geometry, as a part of the DeepWind project. The finite element/nodal control volume (FE/NCV) technique is used.

  19. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-I: 3D thermo-chemical process simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    novel three dimensional thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process is presented. A simulation is performed for the pultrusion of a NACA0018 blade profile having a curved geometry, as a part of the DeepWind project. The finite element/nodal control volume (FE/NCV) technique is used. First...

  20. Techno-economic comparison of combined cycle gas turbines with advanced membrane configuration and MEA solvent at part load conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Bonalumi, Davide; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Ramirez, Andrea; Faaij, André P.C.

    2018-01-01

    This work compares the part load techno-economic performance of CO2 capture from a CCGT using a membrane configuration with selective CO2 recycle and using MEA solvent, under the assumption of flexible power plant dispatch. This is the first time that the techno-economic performance of CO2 capture

  1. Distributed collaborative probabilistic design for turbine blade-tip radial running clearance using support vector machine of regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Cheng-Wei; Bai, Guang-Chen

    2014-12-01

    To improve the computational precision and efficiency of probabilistic design for mechanical dynamic assembly like the blade-tip radial running clearance (BTRRC) of gas turbine, a distribution collaborative probabilistic design method-based support vector machine of regression (SR)(called as DCSRM) is proposed by integrating distribution collaborative response surface method and support vector machine regression model. The mathematical model of DCSRM is established and the probabilistic design idea of DCSRM is introduced. The dynamic assembly probabilistic design of aeroengine high-pressure turbine (HPT) BTRRC is accomplished to verify the proposed DCSRM. The analysis results reveal that the optimal static blade-tip clearance of HPT is gained for designing BTRRC, and improving the performance and reliability of aeroengine. The comparison of methods shows that the DCSRM has high computational accuracy and high computational efficiency in BTRRC probabilistic analysis. The present research offers an effective way for the reliability design of mechanical dynamic assembly and enriches mechanical reliability theory and method.

  2. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  3. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  4. Dynamic modeling and simulation of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafari Seadat, M.H.; Kheradmand Keysami, M.; Lari, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using wind energy for generating electricity in wind turbines is a good way for using renewable energies. It can also help to protect the environment. The main objective of this paper is dynamic modeling by energy method and simulation of a wind turbine aided by computer. In this paper, the equations of motion are extracted for simulating the system of wind turbine and then the behavior of the system become obvious by solving the equations. The turbine is considered with three blade rotor in wind direction, induced generator that is connected to the network and constant revolution for simulation of wind turbine. Every part of the wind turbine should be simulated for simulation of wind turbine. The main parts are blades, gearbox, shafts and generator

  5. Pelton turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengji

    2016-01-01

    This book concerns the theoretical foundations of hydromechanics of Pelton turbines from the engineering viewpoint. For reference purposes, all relevant flow processes and hydraulic aspects in a Pelton turbine have been analyzed completely and systematically. The analyses especially include the quantification of all possible losses existing in the Pelton turbine and the indication of most available potential for further enhancing the system efficiency. As a guideline the book therefore supports further developments of Pelton turbines with regard to their hydraulic designs and optimizations. It is thus suitable for the development and design engineers as well as those working in the field of turbo machinery. Many laws described in the book can also be directly used to simplify aspects of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or to develop new computational methods. The well-executed examples help better understand the related flow mechanics.

  6. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richarz, W.; Richarz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  8. Gas fired advanced turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecren, R. T.; White, D. J.

    The basic concept thus derived from the Ericsson cycle is an intercooled, recuperated, and reheated gas turbine. Theoretical performance analyses, however, showed that reheat at high turbine rotor inlet temperatures (TRIT) did not provide significant efficiency gains and that the 50 percent efficiency goal could be met without reheat. Based upon these findings, the engine concept adopted as a starting point for the gas-fired advanced turbine system is an intercooled, recuperated (ICR) gas turbine. It was found that, at inlet temperatures greater than 2450 F, the thermal efficiency could be maintained above 50%, provided that the turbine cooling flows could be reduced to 7% of the main air flow or lower. This dual and conflicting requirement of increased temperatures and reduced cooling will probably force the abandonment of traditional air cooled turbine parts. Thus, the use of either ceramic materials or non-air cooling fluids has to be considered for the turbine nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades. The use of ceramic components for the proposed engine system is generally preferred because of the potential growth to higher temperatures that is available with such materials.

  9. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  10. Recent progress in fan and compressor for aeroengine. Koku engine yo fan asshukuki no saikin no gijutsu shinpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y [National Aerospace Lab., Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-10

    As the main components of the aeroengine, the fan and compressor reach to extremely high level stage technologically. Also at present when about 50 years passed after the jet engine was applied in practice, however, an effort for a modification is being continued, and furthermore even in the 1990s, the engines that adopted the new technologies are in succession being put in practical application. New engines in the 1990s are being applied in practice by adopting the study results on fan and compressor from the 1970s to the 1980s. Because, which way the future fan and compressor of the aircraft will go to has a relation with an aircraft trend from now on, and even in the 2000s the high subsonic speed aircrafts will be a center of the private air planes. The engine of high subsonic speed aircraft in the next generation will become an ultrahigh bypass ratio engine, the thrust efficiency is raised and noise is lowered, by lowering a fan pressure ratio and by increasing an air flow quantity compared with the current high bypass ratio turbofan engine. 16 figs.

  11. Experimental measurements and analytical analysis related to gas turbine heat transfer. Part 1: Time-averaged heat-flux and surface-pressure measurements on the vanes and blades of the SSME fuel-side turbine and comparison with prediction. Part 2: Phase-resolved surface-pressure and heat-flux measurements on the first blade of the SSME fuel-side turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Time averaged Stanton number and surface-pressure distributions are reported for the first-stage vane row, the first stage blade row, and the second stage vane row of the Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine two-stage fuel-side turbine. Unsteady pressure envelope measurements for the first blade are also reported. These measurements were made at 10 percent, 50 percent, and 90 percent span on both the pressure and suction surfaces of the first stage components. Additional Stanton number measurements were made on the first stage blade platform blade tip, and shroud, and at 50 percent span on the second vane. A shock tube was used as a short duration source of heated and pressurized air to which the turbine was subjected. Platinum thin-film heat flux gages were used to obtain the heat flux measurements, while miniature silicon-diaphragm flush-mounted pressure transducers were used to obtain the pressure measurements. The first stage vane Stanton number distributions are compared with predictions obtained using a version of STAN5 and a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes solution. This same quasi-3D N-S code was also used to obtain predictions for the first blade and the second vane.

  12. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending,a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models...

  13. New guidelines for wind turbine gearboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States); Errichello, R. [GEARTECH, Townsend, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The American Gear Manufacturers Association in cooperation with the American Wind Energy Association will soon be publishing AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 {open_quotes}Recommended Practices for Design and Specification of Gearboxes for Wind Turbine Generator Systems.{close_quotes} Much has been learned about the unique operation and loading of gearboxes in wind turbine applications since the burgeoning of the modern wind turbine industry in the early 1980`s. AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 documents this experience in a manner that provides valuable information to assist gear manufacturers and wind turbine designers, operators, and manufacturers in developing reliable wind turbine gearboxes. The document provides information on procurement specification development, wind turbine architecture, environmental considerations, and gearbox load determination, as well as the design, manufacturing, quality assurance, lubrication, operation and maintenance of wind turbine gearboxes. This paper presents the salient parts of the practices recommended in AGMA/AWEA 921-A97.

  14. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  15. Wind turbine technology principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionPart I: AerodynamicsWind Turbine Blade Design; Peter J. Schubel and Richard J. CrossleyA Shrouded Wind Turbine Generating High Output Power with Wind-Lens Technology; Yuji Ohya and Takashi KarasudaniEcomoulding of Composite Wind Turbine Blades Using Green Manufacturing RTM Process; Brahim AttafAerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Using Differential Evolution; Travis J. Carrigan, Brian H. Dennis, Zhen X. Han, and Bo P. WangPart II: Generators and Gear Systems

  16. Sound wave contours around wind turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Van Blokland, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Noise pollution is an important factor in selecting suitable sites for wind turbines in order to realize 1000 MW of wind power as planned by the Dutch government for the year 2000. Therefore an accurate assessment of wind turbine noise is important. The amount of noise pollution from a wind turbine depends on the wind conditions. An existing standard method to assess wind turbine noise is supplemented and adjusted. In the first part of the investigation the method was developed and applied for a solitary sound source. In the second part attention is paid to the use of the method for wind turbine arrays. It appears that the adjusted method results in a shift of the contours of the permitted noise level. In general the contours are 15-25% closer to the wind farm, which means that the minimal permitted distance between houses and wind turbine arrays can be reduced. 14 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices, 7 refs

  17. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  18. Investigation into CO2 laser cleaning of titanium alloys for gas-turbine component manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.W.; Crouse, P.L.; Li, L; Smith, A.J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports results of the investigation into the feasibility of using a CO 2 laser technology to perform critical cleaning of gas-turbine aero-engine components for manufacture. It reports the results of recent trials and relates these to a thermal model of the cleaning mechanisms, and describes resultant component integrity. The paper defines the experimental conditions for the laser cleaning of various aerospace-grade contaminated titanium alloys, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser. Laser cleaning of Ti64 proved successful for electron beam welding, but not for the more sensitive Ti6246. For diffusion bonding the trials produced a defective standard of joint. Effects of oxide formation is modelled and examined experimentally

  19. Influence of internal channel geometry of gas turbine blade on flow structure and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwaba, Ryszard; Kaczynski, Piotr; Telega, Janusz; Doerffer, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the study of the influence of channel geometry on the flow structure and heat transfer, and also their correlations on all the walls of a radial cooling passage model of a gas turbine blade. The investigations focus on the heat transfer and aerodynamic measurements in the channel, which is an accurate representation of the configuration used in aeroengines. Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop used in the design of internal cooling passages are often developed from simplified models. It is important to note that real engine passages do not have perfect rectangular cross sections, but include a corner fillets, ribs with fillet radii and a special orientation. Therefore, this work provides detailed fluid flow and heat transfer data for a model of radial cooling geometry which has very realistic features.

  20. Flow structure and heat exchange analysis in internal cooling channel of gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwaba, Ryszard; Kaczynski, Piotr; Doerffer, Piotr; Telega, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the study of the flow structure and heat transfer, and also their correlations on the four walls of a radial cooling passage model of a gas turbine blade. The investigations focus on heat transfer and aerodynamic measurements in the channel, which is an accurate representation of the configuration used in aeroengines. Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop used in the design of radial cooling passages are often developed from simplified models. It is important to note that real engine passages do not have perfect rectangular cross sections, but include corner fillet, ribs with fillet radii and special orientation. Therefore, this work provides detailed fluid flow and heat transfer data for a model of radial cooling geometry which possesses very realistic features.

  1. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors elaborate the economical efficiency evaluation technique that could be universal and applied for technical-and-economic feasibility study of the ball-cleaning system installation on the steam turbines of the electric power plants. Besides the effect from reducing the exhaust steam pressure in the condenser by means of the ball-cleaning system implementation, this technique also accounts for the effect of lowering the condenser hydraulic pressure.The article refers to the practical results of the ball-cleaning system introduction on the steam turbines of Gomel CHP-2. As a result of regular application of the ball-cleaning system the temperature difference of the condensers of all blocks Т-180/210-130-1 confined into the regulatory values and the cleanness coefficient of all three turbine units reached 0,85. The authors consider the working results, implementation experience of the ball-cleaning system at Gomel CHP-2 and its efficiency evaluation technique to be worth disseminating when introducing the analogous systems at the plants of Belarusian power network.The authors suggest measures on the condenser automatic-cleaning system improvement with the turbine mathematical-simulation model employment that will make it possible to optimize the condenser cleaning regimes and to increase the ball-cleaning system effectiveness with the condenser cleanness coefficient growing up to 0,90–0,92.

  2. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling water at the power plant, they apply various methods of the condenser tubes clearing: heat drying, vacuum dehydration, acid-washing, pipes-shooting with water and water-air pistols, ablution with high-pressure water jet etc. All the applied cleaning methods are the periodical means to fight the sedimentations and require the turbine halting or unloading, predetermine the equipment operating between clearings with constantly smearing cooling surfaces of the condensers, i.e. with reduced efficiency of equipment operation.The installation of the ball-cleaning system practically excludes defects of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods, which leads to the condenser pipes life-in-service increase, the full-flow condensate quality improvement, reliability and efficient performance enhancement of the steam turbines equipment. The authors consider developed algorithms of data processing and designed system control of the condenser cleaning that allowed realizing its operation in automatic mode.

  3. Evaluation of advanced turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 3. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Pistner, C.

    1980-08-01

    This is the final report in a series of three on studies of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. All three reports address Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines. The first report covered single-stage regulated units; the second report covered two-stage regulated units; the present report covers multistage unregulated units. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines offer an economically attractive option for heads of 1000 to 1500 m. The feasibility of developing such machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1500 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six multistage pump/turbines. The designs are for nominal capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 1000, 1250, and 1500 m. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost with no unsolvable problems. Efficiencies of 85.8% and 88.5% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1500-m unit. Performances of the other five machines are at least comparable, and usually better. Over a 1000 to 1500-m head range, specific $/kW costs of the pump/turbines in mid-1978 US dollars vary from 19.0 to 23.1 for the 500-MW machines, and from 21.0 to 24.1 for the 350-MW machines.

  4. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  5. On the Fatigue Analysis of Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    1999-06-01

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. Operational experiences with these large rotating machines indicated that their components (primarily blades and blade joints) were failing at unexpectedly high rates, which led the wind turbine community to develop fatigue analysis capabilities for wind turbines. Our ability to analyze the fatigue behavior of wind turbine components has matured to the point that the prediction of service lifetime is becoming an essential part of the design process. In this review paper, I summarize the technology and describe the ''best practices'' for the fatigue analysis of a wind turbine component. The paper focuses on U.S. technology, but cites European references that provide important insights into the fatigue analysis of wind turbines.

  6. Electrohydraulic system to control NPP turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.; Rozhanskij, V.E.; Rokhlenko, V.Yu.; Gapunin, A.Ya.; Zhornitskaya, T.Ya.; Rasskazov, I.Eh.; Butsenko, V.N.; Brajnin, L.S.; Makarenko, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Operation regimes of electrohydraulic regulation system (EHRS) of NPP turbines, designed to control the turbine in start-up and working conditions, have been decribed. In start-up regimes EHRS ensures the testing of control valves of the turbine, the turn of the turbine from zero to the nominal rotation frequency (automatic, semiautomatic and manual regulation), turbine acceleration to test safety automatic systems, gradual change in rotation frequency during generator synchronization with circuit. Under working conditions EHRS ensures the maintenance of frequency, power and vapour pressure before the turbine. A block diagram of EHRS is presented. Sensors and electronic part of EHRS are supplied with triple reservation, which ensures a high relaibility of the system

  7. Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  8. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades...... as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades......, and characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils. Part two discusses the fatigue behavior of composite wind turbine blades, including the micromechanical modelling and fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials, and the effects of resin and reinforcement variations on the fatigue resistance...

  9. Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabric for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems, Phase II. Part 3; Material Model Development and Simulation of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J.; Erlich, D.; Shockey, D.

    2009-01-01

    A team consisting of Arizona State University, Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center, and SRI International collaborated to develop computational models and verification testing for designing and evaluating turbine engine fan blade fabric containment structures. This research was conducted under the Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence and was sponsored by the Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program. The research was directed toward improving the modeling of a turbine engine fabric containment structure for an engine blade-out containment demonstration test required for certification of aircraft engines. The research conducted in Phase II began a new level of capability to design and develop fan blade containment systems for turbine engines. Significant progress was made in three areas: (1) further development of the ballistic fabric model to increase confidence and robustness in the material models for the Kevlar(TradeName) and Zylon(TradeName) material models developed in Phase I, (2) the capability was improved for finite element modeling of multiple layers of fabric using multiple layers of shell elements, and (3) large-scale simulations were performed. This report concentrates on the material model development and simulations of the impact tests.

  10. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  11. Active control: Wind turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, Henrik

    1999-07-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project `Active Control of Wind Turbines`. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to design controllers. This report describes the model developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This has been done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending, a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models. The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated through comparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind turbine. The model and the measurements corresponds well in the relevant frequency range. The developed model is therefore applicable for controller design. (au) EFP-91. 18 ills., 22 refs.

  12. Endoscopic inspection of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliniemi, H.; Muukka, E.

    1990-01-01

    For over ten years, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed, complementary inspection methods for steam turbine condition monitoring, which can be applied both during operation and shutdown. One important method used periodically during outages is endoscopic inspection. The inspection is based on the method where the internal parts of the turbine is inspected through access borings with endoscope and where the magnified figures of the internal parts is seen on video screen. To improve inspection assurance, an image-processing based pattern recognition method for cracks has been developed for the endoscopic inspection of turbine blades. It is based on the deduction conditions derived from the crack shape. The computer gives an alarm of a crack detection and prints a simulated image of the crack, which is then checked manually

  13. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of inlet distortion in the fan system of a gas-turbine aero-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotts, Nathan

    As modern trends in commercial aircraft design move toward high-bypass-ratio fan systems of increasing diameter with shorter, nonaxisymmetric nacelle geometries, inlet distortion is becoming common in all operating regimes. The distortion may induce aerodynamic instabilities within the fan system, leading to catastrophic damage to fan blades, should the surge margin be exceeded. Even in the absence of system instability, the heterogeneity of the flow affects aerodynamic performance significantly. Therefore, an understanding of fan-distortion interaction is critical to aircraft engine system design. This thesis research elucidates the complex fluid dynamics and fan-distortion interaction by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of a complete engine fan system; including rotor, stator, spinner, nacelle and nozzle; under conditions typical of those encountered by commercial aircraft. The CFD simulations, based on a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach, were unsteady, three-dimensional, and of a full-annulus geometry. A thorough, systematic validation has been performed for configurations from a single passage of a rotor to a full-annulus system by comparing the predicted flow characteristics and aerodynamic performance to those found in literature. The original contributions of this research include the integration of a complete engine fan system, based on the NASA rotor 67 transonic stage and representative of the propulsion systems in commercial aircraft, and a benchmark case for unsteady RANS simulations of distorted flow in such a geometry under realistic operating conditions. This study is unique in that the complex flow dynamics, resulting from fan-distortion interaction, were illustrated in a practical geometry under realistic operating conditions. For example, the compressive stage is shown to influence upstream static pressure distributions and thus suppress separation of flow on the nacelle. Knowledge of such flow physics is valuable for engine system design.

  14. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 8.1-8.5 Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains five modules covering turbines. The modules provide information on the following topics: types, components, and auxiliaries of steam turbines; operation and maintenance of steam turbines; and gas turbines. Each module consists…

  15. Modeling pressure drop of inclined flow through a heat exchanger for aero-engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlis, D.; Yakinthos, K.; Storm, P.; Goulas, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work further numerical predictions for the flow field through a specific type of a heat exchanger, which is planned to be used in the exhaust nozzle of aircraft engines. In order to model the flow field through the heat exchanger, a porous medium model is used based on a simple quadratic relation, which connects the pressure drop with the inlet air velocity in the external part of the heat exchanger. The aim of this work is to check the applicability of the quadratic law in a variety of velocity inlet conditions configured by different angles of attack. The check is performed with CFD and the results are compared with new available experimental data for these inlet conditions. A detailed qualitative analysis shows that although the quadratic law has been derived for a zero angle of attack, it performs very well for alternative non-zero angles. These observations are very helpful since this simple pressure drop law can be used for advanced computations where the whole system of the exhaust nozzle together with the heat exchangers can be modeled within a holistic approach

  16. THE DETECTION OF THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS OF EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF THE BALL CLEANING SYSTEM OF THE TUBES OF STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of an increase of the power of turbine by improving heat transfer in condensers of steam turbines is considered in the article as a topical one. The analysis of contamination of the internal surfaces of cooling tubes and of the influence of pollution on the process of heat transfer in turbine condensers has been fulfilled. The existing method of cleaning of condenser tubes with the use of porous elastic balls of sponge rubber that is implemented on a number of large thermal power plants and state region power plants of the Republic of Belarus is examined. In the operation of the ball cleaning system a significant drawback has been revealed, viz. a low efficiency of this method due to the failure to comply with preparation the system of circulating water for operation. Also, a certain imperfection of ball cleaning system technology has been determined. One of the prerequisites for the effective functioning of the ball cleaning system is a certain degree of purity of the pipe system of the condenser, characterized by the coefficient of purity. To determine the effectiveness of ball cleaning system a series of experiments on the launching of porous rubber balls in the pipe system of the main and the embedded bunches of the T-250/300-240 UTMZ turbine has been produced. Immediately before the experiments hydraulic cleaning of the tubes of the condenser by a high-pressure installation were carried out. During the experiments, records of the number of downloaded porous rubber balls, of the number of rubber balls captured in a loading chamber, and of the number of rubber balls that remained in a calibration device were kept. A large proportion of default of the balls caused by the presence of residues of the carbonate sediments, that obstruct the movement of porous rubber balls in the tubes of the condenser, was determined. The presence of carbonate deposits in the tubes of the condenser indicates a lack of effectiveness of antiscale treatment

  17. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  18. 5 kHz thermometry in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine model combustor using chirped probe pulse femtosecond CARS. Part 1: Temporally resolved swirl-flame thermometry

    KAUST Repository

    Dennis, Claresta N.

    2016-06-20

    Single-laser-shot temperature measurements at 5 kHz were performed in a gas turbine model combustor using femtosecond (fs) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The combustor was operated at two conditions; one exhibiting a low level of thermoacoustic instability and the other a high level of instability. Measurements were performed at 73 locations within each flame in order to resolve the spatial flame structure and compare to previously published studies. The measurement procedures, including the procedure for calibrating the laser system parameters, are discussed in detail. Despite the high turbulence levels in the combustor, signals were obtained on virtually every laser shot, and these signals were strong enough for spectral fitting analysis for determination of flames temperatures. The spatial resolution of the single-laser shot temperature measurements was approximately 600 µm, the precision was approximately ±2%, and the estimated accuracy was approximately ±3%. The dynamic range was sufficient for temperature measurements ranging from 300 K to 2200 K, although some detector saturation was observed for low temperature spectra. These results demonstrate the usefulness of fs-CARS for the investigation of highly turbulent combustion phenomena. In a companion paper, the time-resolved fs CARS data are analyzed to provide insight into the temporal dynamics of the gas turbine model combustor flow field.

  19. 5 kHz thermometry in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine model combustor using chirped probe pulse femtosecond CARS. Part 1: Temporally resolved swirl-flame thermometry

    KAUST Repository

    Dennis, Claresta N.; Slabaugh, Carson D.; Boxx, Isaac G.; Meier, Wolfgang; Lucht, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Single-laser-shot temperature measurements at 5 kHz were performed in a gas turbine model combustor using femtosecond (fs) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The combustor was operated at two conditions; one exhibiting a low level of thermoacoustic instability and the other a high level of instability. Measurements were performed at 73 locations within each flame in order to resolve the spatial flame structure and compare to previously published studies. The measurement procedures, including the procedure for calibrating the laser system parameters, are discussed in detail. Despite the high turbulence levels in the combustor, signals were obtained on virtually every laser shot, and these signals were strong enough for spectral fitting analysis for determination of flames temperatures. The spatial resolution of the single-laser shot temperature measurements was approximately 600 µm, the precision was approximately ±2%, and the estimated accuracy was approximately ±3%. The dynamic range was sufficient for temperature measurements ranging from 300 K to 2200 K, although some detector saturation was observed for low temperature spectra. These results demonstrate the usefulness of fs-CARS for the investigation of highly turbulent combustion phenomena. In a companion paper, the time-resolved fs CARS data are analyzed to provide insight into the temporal dynamics of the gas turbine model combustor flow field.

  20. Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor Discharge-Flow Overexpansion and Limit-Loading Condition, Part I: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.

    2017-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) investigation is conducted over a two-dimensional axial-flow turbine rotor blade row to study the phenomena of turbine rotor discharge flow overexpansion at subcritical, critical, and supercritical conditions. Quantitative data of the mean-flow Mach numbers, mean-flow angles, the tangential blade pressure forces, the mean-flow mass flux, and the flow-path total pressure loss coefficients, averaged or integrated across the two-dimensional computational domain encompassing two blade-passages, are obtained over a series of 14 inlet-total to exit-static pressure ratios, from 1.5 (un-choked; subcritical condition) to 10.0 (supercritical with excessively high pressure ratio.) Detailed flow features over the full domain-of-computation, such as the streamline patterns, Mach contours, pressure contours, blade surface pressure distributions, etc. are collected and displayed in this paper. A formal, quantitative definition of the limit loading condition based on the channel flow theory is proposed and explained. Contrary to the comments made in the historical works performed on this subject, about the deficiency of the theoretical methods applied in analyzing this phenomena, using modern CFD method for the study of this subject appears to be quite adequate and successful. This paper describes the CFD work and its findings.

  1. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  2. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  3. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  4. The system design and performance test of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyantoro, Bambang Arip; Suphandani, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a tool that is being developed to generate energy from wind. One cause is still little use of wind energy is the design of wind turbines that are less precise. Therefore in this study will be developed the system design of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine and tested performance with experimental methods. The design of hybrid turbine based on a straight bladed Darrieus turbine along with a double step Savonius turbine. The method used to design wind turbines is by studying literature, analyzing the critical parts of a wind turbine and the structure of the optimal design. Wind turbine prototype of the optimal design characteristic tests in the wind tunnel experimentally by varying the speed of the wind. From the experimental results show that the greater the wind speed, the greater the wind turbine rotation and torque is raised. The hybrid vertical axis wind turbine has much better self-starting and better conversion efficiency.

  5. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  6. Wind Turbine Control: Robust Model Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood

    . Wind turbines are the most common wind energy conversion systems and are hoped to be able to compete economically with fossil fuel power plants in near future. However this demands better technology to reduce the price of electricity production. Control can play an essential part in this context....... This is because, on the one hand, control methods can decrease the cost of energy by keeping the turbine close to its maximum efficiency. On the other hand, they can reduce structural fatigue and therefore increase the lifetime of the wind turbine. The power produced by a wind turbine is proportional...... to the square of its rotor radius, therefore it seems reasonable to increase the size of the wind turbine in order to capture more power. However as the size increases, the mass of the blades increases by cube of the rotor size. This means in order to keep structural feasibility and mass of the whole structure...

  7. Noise annoyance from wind turbines a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja

    2003-08-01

    This study summarises present knowledge on noise perception and annoyances from wind turbines in areas were people live or spend recreation time. There are two main types of noise from a wind turbine: mechanical noise and aerodynamic noise. The aerodynamic noise emits from the rotor blades passing the air. It has a swishing character with a modulation that makes it noticeable from the background noise. This part of the wind turbine noise was found to be the most annoying. Field studies performed among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines showed that there was a correlation between sound pressure level and noise annoyance, but annoyance was also influenced by visual factors such as the attitude to wind turbines' impact on the landscape. Noise annoyance was found at lower sound pressure levels than in studies of annoyance from traffic noise. There is no scientific evidence that noise at levels created by wind turbines could cause health problems other than annoyance. No studies on noise from wind turbines in wilderness areas have been found, but the reaction to other noise sources such as aircraft have been studied. In recreational areas, the expectation of quietness is high among visitors, but wind turbines are, in contrary to aircraft, stationary and could be avoided by recreationists. The visual impact of wind turbines might though be the dominant source of annoyance. Regulations on noise from wind turbines are based on different principles. Some states, e.g. Denmark, have a special legislation concerning wind turbines, while others, like Sweden, have used recommendations originally developed for a different noise source. The noise level could either be absolute, as in Germany, or related to the background noise level as in France. This background noise level could be standardised, measured or related to wind speed

  8. Power Performance Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  9. Low speed turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugol'nikov, V.V.; Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Work of the Kharkov turbine plant on planning and manufacture for nuclear power plants of low-speed (1500 rpm) turbines with a power of 500-1000 MW is described. The selection of a construction diagram for the turbine assembly, determined basically by the presence or absence of parts of average pressure, is considered. Special construction features of the condenser and turbine are described. Turbine K-500, with a rate of 1500 rpm, was calculated for operation in a two-loop nuclear power plant with saturated steam with intermediate separation and two-stage steam regeneration. On the base of this turbine, three models of 1000-MW turbines were developed. The first model has a cylinder of average pressure (TsSD) and a lateral condenser. The second has no TsSD but a low location of the condensers. The third has no TsSD and the condensers are located laterally. Calculations of the heat efficiency of the three types of turbines showed that several advantages are offered by the model with a TsSD. Better aerodynamic properties of the exhaust nozzles and condensers with lateral location allows decreasing the specific heat consumption to 0.5-1% or, at the same power, a 10-20% decrease in cooling water consumption

  10. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  11. The swirl turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Rudolf, P.

    2012-11-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHηh = -u2vu2. From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  12. A multi-level simulation platform of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid generation system - Part II. Balancing units model library and system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Cai, Ningsheng; Croiset, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Following our integrated hierarchical modeling framework of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (IRSOFC), this paper firstly introduces the model libraries of main balancing units, including some state-of-the-art achievements and our specific work. Based on gPROMS programming code, flexible configuration and modular design are fully realized by specifying graphically all unit models in each level. Via comparison with the steady-state experimental data of Siemens-Westinghouse demonstration system, the in-house multi-level SOFC-gas turbine (GT) simulation platform is validated to be more accurate than the advanced power system analysis tool (APSAT). Moreover, some units of the demonstration system are designed reversely for analysis of a typically part-load transient process. The framework of distributed and dynamic modeling in most of units is significant for the development of control strategies in the future.

  13. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely in the future. The work presented...... in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have design and constructed a HTS machine experimental...... setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises from...

  14. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2002-01-01

    A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...

  15. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  16. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  17. Stabilization of gas turbine unit power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolotovskii, I.; Larin, E.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new cycle air preparation unit which helps increasing energy power of gas turbine units (GTU) operating as a part of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units of thermal power stations and energy and water supply systems of industrial enterprises as well as reducing power loss of gas turbine engines of process blowers resulting from variable ambient air temperatures. Installation of GTU power stabilizer at CCGT unit with electric and thermal power of 192 and 163 MW, respectively, has resulted in reduction of produced electrical energy production costs by 2.4% and thermal energy production costs by 1.6% while capital expenditures after installation of this equipment increased insignificantly.

  18. Determination of turbine relative efficiency in SHPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džepčeski Dane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the fulfillment of contract conditions for the equipment delivery, determining the properties and capabilities of a generating unit or some part of it, the measurements carried out under real operating conditions were necessary. In this paper, the results of the test that was carried out in a small hydropower plant (SHPP, aimed at determining the relative efficiency of the hydraulic turbine and its comparison with the guaranteed values, are presented. The dependence of the turbine efficiency on the turbine discharge was determined based on the test results, using the index method. The test was performed at one net head.

  19. Wind turbines - generating noise or electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Wind turbine technology has made great strides in the past few years. Annual energy output is up by two orders of magnitude and nacelle weight and noise has been halved. Computational fluid dynamics has paid a part in advancing knowledge of air flow and turbulence around wind generators. Current research is focused on how to increase turbine size and improve efficiency. A problem is that while larger wind turbines will produce cheaper electricity, the noise problem will mean that the number of acceptable sites will decrease. The biggest wind generators will need about 800 m clearance from the nearest house. (UK)

  20. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  1. Effect of Trailing Edge Damage on Full-Scale Wind Turbine Blade Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich; Branner, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Modern wind turbine rotor blades are normally assembled from large parts bonded together by adhesive joints. The structural parts of wind turbine blades are usually made of composite materials, where sandwich core materials as well as fibre composites are used. For most of the modern wind turbine...

  2. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

    2010-11-01

    This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

  3. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  4. Analytical Modelling of the Effects of Different Gas Turbine Cooling Techniques on Engine Performance =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Selcuk Can

    In this research, MATLAB SimulinkRTM was used to develop a cooled engine model for industrial gas turbines and aero-engines. The model consists of uncooled on-design, mean-line turbomachinery design and a cooled off-design analysis in order to evaluate the engine performance parameters by using operating conditions, polytropic efficiencies, material information and cooling system details. The cooling analysis algorithm involves a 2nd law analysis to calculate losses from the cooling technique applied. The model is used in a sensitivity analysis that evaluates the impacts of variations in metal Biot number, thermal barrier coating Biot number, film cooling effectiveness, internal cooling effectiveness and maximum allowable blade temperature on main engine performance parameters of aero and industrial gas turbine engines. The model is subsequently used to analyze the relative performance impact of employing Anti-Vortex Film Cooling holes (AVH) by means of data obtained for these holes by Detached Eddy Simulation-CFD Techniques that are valid for engine-like turbulence intensity conditions. Cooled blade configurations with AVH and other different external cooling techniques were used in a performance comparison study. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. Review: TASHI'S TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R O'Neill

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Amitabh Raj Joshi (director, producer. 2015. Tashi's Turbine. New York City, NY: Vacant Light LLC. 56 mins. http://bit.ly/2tg9fTx, Nepali and Lowa, English subtitles. Color. (Institutional use 320USD; (personal use 34.95USD. In the windswept valleys of Upper Mustang, Nepal, renewable energy is transforming lives. Micro-turbine projects have connected off-grid communities with basic electricity, providing hope for sustainable growth on the Roof of the World. The documentary Tashi's Turbine follows two friends as they experiment with these technologies in Nyamdok Village, along the Sino-Nepali border. Recognizing that high-mountain valleys, including Mustang, Palpa, and Khumbu, are rich in wind resources, Tashi and his friend, Jeevan Kumar Oli, attempt to mitigate poverty using grassroots energy. Tashi Bista was inspired in his youth by tales of "wind machines" at Kagbeni Village in Upper Mustang. In 1987, the Danish Government had funded a twenty-kilowatt turbine in the area; but, it was rapidly decommissioned due to maintenance complications. In 1996, the Government of Nepal established the Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC to revive this and other wind programs and address related challenges. Nevertheless, AEPC's latest Wind Energy Resource Assessment revealed two decades of inaction. Wind programs in other parts of the country remain nascent; much of Central and Western Nepal have yet to be connected to the national grid. Director and cinematographer Amitabh Raj Joshi cultivates a nuanced vision of these developments by juxtaposing majestic landscapes against simple homes and everyday struggles for existence. The film opens with panoramas of the sapphire skies and canvas valleys of Mustang. Minutes later, kerosene fixtures illuminate paltry yields from subsistence harvests; children attempt to study under candlelight, often to no avail. Voicing the narratives of villagers like Chhimi Lhamo, Karma Lutok, and Pemba Tashi, Joshi captures

  6. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which

  7. Study of cavitation in hydro turbines. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Saini, R.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2010-01-15

    Reaction turbines basically Francis turbines and propeller/Kaplan turbines are suitable for medium and low head hydropower sites. The management of the small hydropower plants is an important factor, for achieving higher efficiency of hydro turbines with time. Turbines show declined performance after few years of operation, as they get severely damaged due to various reasons. One of the important reasons is erosive wear of the turbines due to cavitation. Reaction turbines, however are more prone to cavitation especially Francis turbines where a zone in the operating range is seriously affected by cavitation and considered as forbidden zone. Cavitation is a phenomenon which manifests itself in the pitting of the metallic surfaces of turbine parts because of the formation of cavities. In the present paper, studies undertaken in this field by several investigators have been discussed extensively. Based on literature survey various aspects related to cavitation in hydro turbines, different causes for the declined performance and efficiency of the hydro turbines and suitable remedial measures suggested by various investigators have been discussed. (author)

  8. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  9. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  10. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions

  11. Gas turbines and operation of gas turbines 2011; Gasturbinen und Gasturbinenbetrieb 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the VGB Conference at 11th and 12th May, 2011 in Offenbach/Main (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The future of high temperature gas turbines in power plants (Konrad Vogeler); (2) Development of reliable thermal barrier coatings for high-loaded turbine and combustor parts (Hans-Peter Bossmann); (3) CCPP Irsching 4 with gas turbine SGT5-8000H, on the way to 60 % CC efficiency (Willibald Fischer); (4) First test results of MAN's new 6 MW gas turbine (Markus Beukenberg); (5) Design characteristics and key thermodynamic parameters of the recuperated 4 MW solar turbines Mercury 50 gas turbines: - Economics and environmental feasibility, - operating experience in combined cycle applications with recuperation (Ulrich Stang); (6) Medium size gas turbines - OEM concept for continued reduction of life cycle costs (Vladimir Navrotsky); (7) Fracture mechanical analysis on fatigue failures of gas turbine components: - Root cause analysis - fracture mechanics - stress corrosion cracking - examples of failure analysis (Peter Verstraete); (8) The effectiveness of blade superalloy reheat treatment (Michael Wood); (9) An innovative combustion technology for high efficient gas turbines (Christian Oliver Paschereit); (10) Damping of thermo-acoustic vibrations in gas turbine combustion chambers (Sermed Sadig); (11) Alstom GT13E2 combustor upgrade for Vattenfalls Berlin Mitte combined heat and power plant (Klaus Doebbeling); (12) Optimisation of air inlet filtration for dust, rain and humidity (Heiko Manstein); (13) Life cycle cost reduction through high efficiency membrane based air intake filters (Helmut Krah); (14) Status and impact of national, European and international standardization on GT plants; GT standardizing status quo? (Gerd Weber); (15) Technical and thermodynamic aspects of compresssed air energy storage (Peter Radgen); (16) Requirements on the gas turbine in the course of time - intelligent OEM-concepts to ensure reliable

  12. Micro-turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a principle of micro-turbines operation, type of micro-turbines and their characteristics is presented. It is shown their usage in cogeneration and three generation application with the characteristics, the influence of more factors on micro-turbines operation as well as the possibility for application in Macedonia. The paper is result of the author's participation in the training program 'Micro-turbine technology' in Florida, USA. The characteristics of different types micro-turbines by several world producers are shown, with accent on US micro-turbines producers (Capstone, Elliott). By using the gathered Author's knowledge, contacts and the previous knowledge, conclusions and recommendations for implementation of micro-turbines in Macedonia are given. (Author)

  13. Multiple Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Mann, Jakob

    and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison of selected datasets from the campaign showed good far wake agreements of mean wake expansion with Actuator Line CFD computations and simpler engineering models. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction...... for modeling the resulting double wake deficit is only relevant at high turbine thrust coefficients. For high wind speed and low thrust coefficient, linear summation should be primarily used. The first iteration of a new engineering model capable of modeling the overlapped wake deficit is formulated and its...... measurement and simulation is seen in both the fixed and the meandering frame of reference. A benchmark of several wake accumulation models is performed as a basis for the subsequent development of an engineering model for wake interaction.Finally, the validated numerical CFD model is used as part...

  14. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2002-01-01

    A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...... in polar coordinates. The developed algorithm is combined with a so-called actuator-line technique in which the loading is distributed along lines representing the blade forces. Computations are carried out for the 500kW Nordtank wind turbine equipped with three LM19 blades. ©2001 The American Institute...

  15. Improved Governing of Kaplan Turbine Hydropower Plants Operating Island Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the consequences of a major fault in the electric power grid, functioning parts of the grid can be divided into smaller grid islands. The grid islands are operated isolated from the power network, which places new demands on a faster frequency regulation. This thesis investigates a Kaplan turbine hydropower plant operating an island grid. The Kaplan turbine has two control signals, the wicket gate and the turbine blade positions, controlling the mechanical power. The inputs are comb...

  16. Steam turbines of large output. Vol. 1, 2, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings contain 52 papers of which 14 have been inputted in INIS. They concern the development of high output turbines for power plants, the designing and testing of moisture separators, aerodynamics and vibrations of revolving parts of turbines, turbines suitable for heat extraction, the calculations and testing of steam flow characteristics, the mathematical model of thermodynamic cycles in wet steam, reliability, corrosion, and the questions of economics. (M.D.)

  17. Noise from wind turbines. Final report of project JOU2-CT92-0124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Borg, N.; Andersen, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Klug, H.; Theofiloyannakos, D.

    1995-04-01

    Part of the planning procedure for the erection of a wind turbine or a wind farm is the prediction of the acoustic noise due to the wind turbine(s) at the nearest dwelling. The noise is normally predicted using the acoustic characteristics of the regarded wind turbine as measured on a wind turbine of equal make and model and using a general noise propagation model. Both inputs introduce uncertainties in the predicted noise level: (a) turbines of equal make and model may have different acoustic characteristics; (b) the acoustic characteristics of a turbine may change in time - from day to day (repeatability of the measurement), - during the years (ageing of the turbine); (c) the general propagation model does not take into account the effects of source elevation and wind. The project aimed at the quantification of these uncertainties and at the development of a wind turbine noise propagation model. Statistical information has been collected on the individual differences of the sound power and tonality of turbines of equal make and model by measuring 6 different types of wind turbines. Of each type 5 individual turbines have been measured (total 30 turbines). Additionally the sound power of a series of 4 wind turbines and of a series of 29 wind turbines (from earlier measurements) have been introduced into the project. Statistical information has been collected on the day to day variations of the sound power and tonality of wind turbines by measuring 3 different turbines 5 times (total 15 measurements). Statistical information has been collected on the effect of ageing on the sound power and tonality of wind turbines by the repeated measurement of 5 wind turbines that have been measured in an identical situation 3 to 7 years earlier. A method for the prediction of wind turbine noise propagation has been developed based on measurements of sound propagation from an elevated noise source and theoretical calculations. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Frequency Based Fault Detection in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain lower cost of energy for wind turbines fault detection and accommodation is important. Expensive condition monitoring systems are often used to monitor the condition of rotating and vibrating system parts. One example is the gearbox in a wind turbine. This system is operated...... in parallel to the control system, using different computers and additional often expensive sensors. In this paper a simple filter based algorithm is proposed to detect changes in a resonance frequency in a system, exemplified with faults resulting in changes in the resonance frequency in the wind turbine...... gearbox. Only the generator speed measurement which is available in even simple wind turbine control systems is used as input. Consequently this proposed scheme does not need additional sensors and computers for monitoring the condition of the wind gearbox. The scheme is evaluated on a wide-spread wind...

  19. Development of Pelton turbine using numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K; Patel, B; Yadav, M [Hydraulic Engineer, ALSTOM Hydro R and D India Ltd., GIDC Maneja, Vadodara - 390 013, Gujarat (India); Foggia, T, E-mail: patel@power.alstom.co [Hydraulic Engineer, Alstom Hydro France, Etablissement de Grenoble, 82, avenue Leon Blum BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    This paper describes recent research and development activities in the field of Pelton turbine design. Flow inside Pelton turbine is most complex due to multiphase (mixture of air and water) and free surface in nature. Numerical calculation is useful to understand flow physics as well as effect of geometry on flow. The optimized design is obtained using in-house special optimization loop. Either single phase or two phase unsteady numerical calculation could be performed. Numerical results are used to visualize the flow pattern in the water passage and to predict performance of Pelton turbine at full load as well as at part load. Model tests are conducted to determine performance of turbine and it shows good agreement with numerically predicted performance.

  20. Development of Pelton turbine using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K.; Patel, B.; Yadav, M.; Foggia, T.

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes recent research and development activities in the field of Pelton turbine design. Flow inside Pelton turbine is most complex due to multiphase (mixture of air and water) and free surface in nature. Numerical calculation is useful to understand flow physics as well as effect of geometry on flow. The optimized design is obtained using in-house special optimization loop. Either single phase or two phase unsteady numerical calculation could be performed. Numerical results are used to visualize the flow pattern in the water passage and to predict performance of Pelton turbine at full load as well as at part load. Model tests are conducted to determine performance of turbine and it shows good agreement with numerically predicted performance.

  1. Development of Pelton turbine using numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K; Patel, B; Yadav, M; Foggia, T

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes recent research and development activities in the field of Pelton turbine design. Flow inside Pelton turbine is most complex due to multiphase (mixture of air and water) and free surface in nature. Numerical calculation is useful to understand flow physics as well as effect of geometry on flow. The optimized design is obtained using in-house special optimization loop. Either single phase or two phase unsteady numerical calculation could be performed. Numerical results are used to visualize the flow pattern in the water passage and to predict performance of Pelton turbine at full load as well as at part load. Model tests are conducted to determine performance of turbine and it shows good agreement with numerically predicted performance.

  2. Turbine lubrication fluid varnish mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Khalid [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Varnish deposits on internal surfaces in turbine lube systems result in a number of adverse operational issues, especially the restriction and sticking of the moving parts of servo- or directional control valves, resulting in their malfunction. The lubrication fluid has limited solvency for the varnish-forming material, hence a typical turbine will have the majority of this material as deposits and a relatively small portion as suspension in the fluid phase, in quasi-equilibrium with the deposits. The lube system needs to be cleaned by removing the suspended varnish-forming material from the fluid phase, which allows the deposits to re-entrain into the fluid phase, until the majority of the transferable deposits are removed and the fluid carries no significant amount of the material to have any adverse effect. The methods used for the removal of varnish from turbine lube systems include chemical cleaning/flushing, electrostatic charge induced agglomeration/retention, and the adsorption of the varnish suspended in the oil on an adsorbent medium. The paper discusses an absorption-based removal method that utilizes a fibrous medium that has pronounced affinity for the removal and retention of the varnish-forming material from the fluid as well as the deposits from surfaces that are in quasi-equilibrium with the varnish precursors in the fluid. The filtration medium is a composite, made with cellulose bonded by specially formulated, temperature-cured resins. The absorptive medium exhibits high structural and chemical integrity and has been thoroughly tested on operating turbines, showing reduction in varnish levels from the critical range to below normal range in a relatively short time. The experience with the utilization of the absorptive medium in laboratory tests and in two operating turbines is presented. (orig.)

  3. Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...

  4. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-II: combining the manufacturing process simulation with a subsequent loading scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2015-01-01

    This paper in particular deals with the integrated modeling of a pultruded NACA0018 blade profile being a part of EU funded DeepWind project. The manufacturing aspects of the pultrusion process are associated with the preliminary subsequent service loading scenario. A 3D thermochemical analysis...

  5. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-II: combining the manufacturing process simulation with a subsequent loading scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper H.; Tutum, Cem C.; Akkerman, Remko

    2015-01-01

    This paper in particular deals with the integrated modeling of a pultruded NACA0018 blade profile being a part of EU funded DeepWind project. The manufacturing aspects of the pultrusion process are associated with the preliminary subsequent service loading scenario. A 3D thermo-chemical analysis of

  6. Wind turbine operated sailboat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.

    1990-07-31

    A wind powered boat is disclosed which incorporates a vertical axis rotary turbine. A shaft portion extends downwardly from the turbine to a water pump, with the boat being provided with a forwardly opening inlet and a rearwardly opening outlet from the water pump. When rotating, the turbine operates the pump by the shaft to draw in water through the inlet, thereby creating a low pressure area in front of the boat, and to force the water out through the outlet for propelling the boat. In a preferred embodiment, the boat has a catamaran construction or is a large ocean going vessel with enough width to provide a buffer to either side of the turbine, and the turbine is the Darrieus rotor type. The pump is a standard centrifugal type of pump. A self adjusting braking device for the turbine is also disclosed, which prevents over-rotation and is also capable of storing heat energy generated during braking. 4 figs.

  7. The swirl turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, M; Pochylý, F; Rudolf, P

    2012-01-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHη h = −u 2 v u2 . From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  8. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  9. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  10. Bimetallic Blisks with Shrouded Turbine Blades for Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Magerramova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses prospects of using blisks with shrouded blades. Increasing an engine life and efficiency as well as mass reduction can also be achieved by increasing blade numbers and decreasing disk diameter. But design engineers are faced with the problem of blade placement because of the disk size and root dimensions.The problem of increasing life and cyclic durability, vibration strength, and lightweight design of the turbine gas turbine wheels, can be solved by an elimination of blade - disk locks.The technology of manufacturing one-piece blisks by connecting the blades with the disc part using hot isostatic pressing was developed. This technology allows us to use blades with shrouds. It is necessary to increase efficiency and to improve high cycle fatigue performance of rotor blades.One of the pressing problems is to ensure the necessary position of shrouds in relation to each other in the manufacturing process as well as in the service. Numerical studies of the influence of the shroud mounting position on blade strength during operation allowed us to develop a methodology of choosing a shroud mounting position.Based on the two turbine wheels (LPT and HPT calculations advantages of blisk design with respect to the lock-based design were shown. Application of bimetallic blisks with shrouded blades resulted in a lifespan increase and weight reduction.In addition, other advantages of blisk design are as follows: possible reduction in the number of parts, elimination of leaks and fretting that take place in the blade - disk locks, exception of expensive broaching operations and disk alloy saving. The shortcoming is elimination of damping in root connection. In addition, there are no widely used repair methods.Despite these disadvantages the usage of bimetallic turbine blisks with shrouded blades is very promising.

  11. ORTURB, HTGR Steam Turbine Dynamic for FSV Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORTURB was written specifically to calculate the dynamic behavior of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) steam turbines. The program is divided into three main parts: the driver subroutine; turbine subroutines to calculate the pressure-flow balance of the high-, intermediate-, and low-pressure turbines; and feedwater heater subroutines. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses a relationship derived for ideal gas flow in an iterative fashion that minimizes computational time to determine the pressure and flow in the FSV steam turbines as a function of plant transient operating conditions. An important computer modeling characteristic, unique to FSV, is that the high-pressure turbine exhaust steam is used to drive the reactor core coolant circulators prior to entering the reheater. A feedwater heater dynamic simulation model utilizing seven state variables for each of the five heaters is included in the ORTURB computer simulation of the regenerative Rankine cycle steam turbines. The seven temperature differential equations are solved at each time- step using a matrix exponential method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The turbine shaft is assumed to rotate at a constant (rated) speed of 3600 rpm. Energy and mass storage of steam in the high-, intermediate-, and low-pressure turbines is assumed to be negligible. These limitations exclude the use of ORTURB during a turbine transient such as startup from zero power or very low turbine flows

  12. Small wind turbines - Technical sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication first proposes an overview of the technical context of small wind turbines (from less than 1 kW to 36 kW). It discusses issues related to mast height, indicates the various technologies in terms of machine geometry (vertical or horizontal axis), of mast and foundations, of mechanism of orientation with respect to the wind. It also outlines that power curves are not always reliable due to a lack of maturity of techniques and technologies. Other issues are discussed: wind characteristics, and the assessment of the national potential source. The next parts address the regulatory and economic context, environmental impacts (limited impact on landscape, noise), propose an overview of actors and market (supply and demand of small wind turbines in the USA and in France, actors involved in the chain value in France), and give some recommendations for the development of small wind turbines in France. The last part proposes a technical focus on self-consumption by professional in rural areas (production and consumption in farms)

  13. Predicting Faults in Wind Turbines Using SCADA Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Anders Bech; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The cost of operation and maintenance of wind turbines is a significant part of the overall cost of wind turbines. To reduce this cost a method for enabling early fault detection is proposed and tested in this paper. The method is taking advantage of the fact that wind turbines in wind farms...... and tested on historical Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from nine operational turbines over a testing period of nine months. The performance of the fault detection is found to be acceptable based on the testing period. During the testing period several gear related services were...

  14. Flow in Pelton turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Kjartan

    2013-01-01

    The flow in Pelton turbines is subsonic, turbulent, multiphase (water, air, and water vapor from cavitation), has high speeds, sharp gradients, free surface and dynamic boundary conditions. A static grid is unsuitable for modeling this mainly due to the turbine wheel and the liquid having a non-stationary relative motion.In recent times, significant progress in CFD simulation has been made, which also is relevant for Pelton turbines.Nevertheless, it is still common to perform costly model tes...

  15. State of the art in wind turbine aerodynamics and aeroelasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Voutsinas, S

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive review of wind turbine aeroelasticity is given. The aerodynamic part starts with the simple aerodynamic Blade Element Momentum Method and ends with giving a review of the work done applying CFD on wind turbine rotors. In between is explained some methods of intermediate complexity...

  16. Multiscale modelling of single crystal superalloys for gas turbine blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, T.

    2009-01-01

    Gas turbines are extensively used for power generation and for the propulsion of aircraft and vessels. Their most severely loaded parts, the turbine rotor blades, are manufactured from single crystal nickel-base superalloys. The superior high temperature behaviour of these materials is attributed to

  17. Capturing the journey of wind from the wind turbines (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbine design, control strategies often assume Taylor’s frozen turbulence where the fluctuating part of the wind is assumed to be constant. In practise, the wind turbine faces higher turbulence in case of gusts and lower turbulence in some cases. With Lidar technology, the frozen turbulence

  18. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  19. Investigating the impact of non-linear geometrical effects on wind turbine blades—Part 1: Current status of design and test methods and future challenges in design optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Puri, Amit S.; Dear, John P.

    2011-01-01

    This article is the first part of a three-article series and it deals with full-scale tests of a load-carrying box girder. The two other articles present more details on smaller sub-component levels as well as cap specimens (article 2) and shear webs (article 3). This article also links to the two...... may also have a significant impact on present wind turbine blades. In this article, a 34 m long load-carrying box girder has been tested in static flap-wise bending, and it has been demonstrated that, for this design, the Brazier effect is a critical phenomenon of great relevance for the ultimate...... failure strength. The box girder has been evaluated with and without a cap (wire) reinforcement. The cap reinforcement is one out of seven inventions Risø DTU published in 2008, which are all intended to result in a lighter and more reliable blade design. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Main trends of upgrading the 1000 MW steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1990-01-01

    Parameters are compared for the 1000 MW steam turbine manufactured by the Skoda Works, Czechoslovakia, and turbines in the same power range by other manufacturers, viz. ABB, Siemens/KWU, GEC and LMZ. The Skoda turbine compares well with the other turbines with respect to all design parameters, and moreover, enables the most extensive heat extraction for district heating purposes. The main trends in upgrading this turbine are outlined; in particular, they include an additional increase in the heat extraction, which is made possible by a new design of the low-pressure section or by using a ''satellite'' turbine. The studies performed also indicate that the output of the full-speed saturated steam turbine can be increased to 1300 MW. An experimental turbine representing one flow of the high-pressure part of the 1000 MW turbine is being built on the 1:1 scale. It will serve to verify the methods of calculation of the wet steam flow and to experimentally test the high-pressure part over a wide span of the parameters. (Z.M.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 7 refs

  1. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Southwest Windpower H40 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Link, H.; Meadors, M.; Bianchi, J.

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this test was to evaluate the safety and function characteristics of the Whisper H40 wind turbine. The general requirements of wind turbine safety and function tests are defined in the IEC standard WT01. The testing was conducted in accordance with the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) Quality Assurance System, including the NWTC Certification Team Certification Quality Manual and the NWTC Certification Team General Quality Manual for the Testing of Wind Turbines, as well as subordinate documents. This safety and function test was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Field Verification Program for small wind turbines.

  2. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, H; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, T [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Wind or water turbine power augmentation using the system of guiding surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashurin, V P; Ktitorov, L V; Lazareva, A S; Pletenev, F A; Budnikov, I N; Hatunkin, V Yu; Klevtsov, V A; Meshkov, E E; Novikova, I A; Yanbaev, G M

    2016-01-01

    As fluid flows through a conventional wind or hydro turbine, it slows from losing energy to extraction from a turbine and spreads out to a wider area. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power more effectively, it was suggested to place the turbine inside a system of specially designed airfoils (‘a flow booster’). One part of the booster (‘a nozzle’) improves the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades. The other part of the accelerating system (‘a diffuser’) creates a field of low pressure behind the turbine which helps to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration. The flow booster accumulates the kinetic energy of the flow (e.g. river flow or wind) in a small volume where the smaller turbine can be installed. Another possible application of the booster could be the improvement of wind turbine efficiency during low wind period. The present paper also discusses the possibility of kinetic energy accumulation by the use of several accelerating systems of different sizes—the smaller one can be installed inside the bigger one. It helps to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine blades. We call this method the kinetic energy cumulation. Lab and field experiments and CFD simulations of shrouded turbine demonstrate significant increase in velocity in comparison of those for conventional (bare) turbines. (paper)

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Nitrogen Oxide Emission Limits for New Stationary Combustion Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stationary Combustion Turbines 1 Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Pt. 60, Subpt. KKKK, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60—Nitrogen Oxide Emission Limits for New Stationary Combustion Turbines Combustion...

  5. Damping of wind turbine tower vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Pedersen, Mikkel Melters

    Damping of wind turbine vibrations by supplemental dampers is a key ingredient for the continuous use of monopiles as support for offshore wind turbines. The present thesis consists of an extended summary with four parts and appended papers [P1-P4] concerning novel strategies for damping of tower...... dominated vibrations.The first part of the thesis presents the theoretical framework for implementation of supplemental dampers in wind turbines. It is demonstrated that the feasibility of installing dampers at the bottom of the tower is significantly increased when placing passive or semiactive dampers...... in a stroke amplifying brace, which amplifies the displacement across the damper and thus reduces the desired level of damper force. For optimal damping of the two lowest tower modes, a novel toggle-brace concept for amplifying the bending deformation of the tower is presented. Numerical examples illustrate...

  6. Guide to hydro turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This listing is a guide to turbines for hydroelectric projects of independent energy projects. The listing is in directory format and includes the supplier's name, the name of the supplier's contact, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company and the types of turbines, services and expertise available for energy projects. The listing is international in scope

  7. Improvement of turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobeit, W.; Pfeifer, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Materials for turbine blades and rotors are discussed with a view to the following subjects: Long period creep behaviour, gas/metal reactions, fatigue behaviour in long-term and creep strength testing, fracture mechanics testing, creep/fatigue interactions, development of a turbine blade of TZM, jointing of TZM, decontamination. (orig./IHOE) [de

  8. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  9. Graphene in turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  10. Safety and Function Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and Function testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, duration, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  11. Duration Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  12. Duration Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2013-06-01

    This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines. Five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of round one of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. Test results will provide manufacturers with reports that can be used to fulfill part of the requirements for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment included a grid-connected Ventera Energy Corporation VT10 wind turbine mounted on an 18.3-m (60-ft) self-supporting lattice tower manufactured by Rohn.

  13. Vortical structures and pressure pulsations in draft tube of a Francis-99 turbine at part load: RANS and hybrid RANS/LES analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, A.A.; Sentyabov, A.V.; Dekterev, A.A.; Hanjalić, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulations showed the formation of spiralling coherent vortices in the draft tube. • Both hybrid RANS-LES and Re-stress models reproduced well the measured fluctuations. • Re-stress model resolved the precessing vortex core and coherent spiralling vortices. - Abstract: Recognizing the limitations of the conventional linear-eddy-viscosity (LEVM) Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models to reproduce complex three-dimensional unsteady flows in hydraulic machinery, we performed a comparative assessment of a second-moment (Re-stress model, RSM) RANS closure and a hybrid RANS/LES method in capturing the flow and vortical structures in the draft tube of a Francis hydroturbine at off-design conditions. Considered is a case of part load (PL) at a flow rate of only 35% of the best efficiency point (BEP) characterised by multiple unsteady vortex systems. Despite some remaining uncertainties in generating the inflow conditions, both approaches reproduced reasonably well the measured mean velocity and the rms of its fluctuations, as well as the pressure spectrum with peaks detecting the precessing vortex core. In contrast to the common LEVMs, the Re-stress closure showed sufficient receptivity to intrinsic unsteadiness and reproduced well the overall flow and vortical patterns as well as the associated pressure pulsations in accord with the experiments. The hybrid RANS/LES method gave similar predictions as the RSM, but resolving a wider range of scales, which however, showed no significant effect on the dynamics of the dominant processing vortex core and the pressure pulsations.

  14. Integrated smart bearings for next generation aero-engines Part 1: Development of a sensor suite for automatic bearing health monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Imran; Wang, Ling; Harvey, Terence; Zaghari, Bahareh; Weddell, Alexander; White, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The development of smart bearing solutions will contribute to increased aircraft engine reliability, allowing the early detection of bearing failure through robust health monitoring. This project aims to develop intelligent bearing systems for an Ultra High Propulsion Efficiency (UHPE) ground test demonstrator, where a fully integrated self-powered wireless sensing system will be developed for future aircraft. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art smart bearing te...

  15. Steam turbine of WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The manufacture was started by Skoda of a saturated steam, 1,000 MW, 3,000 rpm turbine designed for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine provides steam for heating water for district heating, this either with an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at 150/60 degC, or of 570 MW for a two-stage water heating at 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized with respect to the thermal efficiency of the cycle and to the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum through-flow of steam entering the turbine. This makes 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts after shutdowns for 55 to 88 hours and 600 starts after shutdown for 8 hours are envisaged for the entire turbine service life. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  16. Advanced turbine cooling, heat transfer, and aerodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Je-Chin Han; Schobeiri, M.T. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The contractual work is in three parts: Part I - Effect of rotation on enhanced cooling passage heat transfer, Part II - Effect on Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) spallation on surface heat transfer, and Part III - Effect of surface roughness and trailing edge ejection on turbine efficiency under unsteady flow conditions. Each section of this paper has been divided into three parts to individually accommodate each part. Part III is further divided into Parts IIIa and IIIb.

  17. Analysis of the energy production of Danish wind turbines 1981-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godtfredsen, F.

    1995-10-01

    A study of 1981-1992 energy production from Danish wind turbines has been carried out. The study is based on production data from the greater part of Danish wind turbines, as reported by the turbine owners and published in the magazine Naturlig Energi. The study shows a significant rise in the average energy production from 55 kW turbines erected in the early eighties to modern 150-500 kW turbines erected in 1992. The average yearly energy production of new turbines raised from rather more than 400 MWh per square meter swept rotor area in 1981 to 750-900 MWh in 1992. The main reasons for this increase are the development of larger wind turbines (with larger generator capacity, rotor area and hub height), more efficient turbines. (au) 18 tabs., 14 ills., 8 refs

  18. Results of a wind turbine FDI competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    In this paper some newly published methods for fault detection and isolation developed for a wind turbine benchmark model are tested, compared and evaluated. These methods have been presented as a part of an international competition. The tested methods cover different types of fault detection...... benchmark model....

  19. Experience on CP1 turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinaud, C.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the experience acquired on the behaviour of the turbine itself, excluding alternators, superheaters... of the nuclear power plants of the French program contract CP1 (Fessenhein prototype): method of anomaly process (assumption, scenarios, calculations and hierarchy of the assumptions), study of the accidents on the shutdown valves and control valves (HP admission devices), on the LP admission devices, on the HP module (leakage at the parting line, bolt and screw accidents), on the LP module (diaphragm, diapragm support erosion, rotor anomaly, blade anomaly with rupture of the wire bracing), behaviour of the shafting and of the pillars (radial and axial floating) and at last global behaviour of the group [fr

  20. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  1. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of

  2. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  3. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  4. Design of wind turbines. What does the public like?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuzendam, C.; Uitzinger, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen wind turbine designs are assessed by the public. The study was carried out by means of a face-to-face survey among 76 occupants of the municipalities Schagen (western part of the Netherlands) and Zutphen (eastern part of the Netherlands). Use has been made of illustrations of the 15 different wind turbine types and four different types of landscapes. The illustrations are included in this report

  5. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2003-10-01

    Rolls-Royce Corporation has completed a cooperative agreement under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FC21-96MC33066 in support of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program to stimulate industrial power generation markets. This DOE contract was performed during the period of October 1995 to December 2002. This final technical report, which is a program deliverable, describes all associated results obtained during Phases 3A and 3B of the contract. Rolls-Royce Corporation (formerly Allison Engine Company) initially focused on the design and development of a 10-megawatt (MW) high-efficiency industrial gas turbine engine/package concept (termed the 701-K) to meet the specific goals of the ATS program, which included single digit NOx emissions, increased plant efficiency, fuel flexibility, and reduced cost of power (i.e., $/kW). While a detailed design effort and associated component development were successfully accomplished for the 701-K engine, capable of achieving the stated ATS program goals, in 1999 Rolls-Royce changed its focus to developing advanced component technologies for product insertion that would modernize the current fleet of 501-K and 601-K industrial gas turbines. This effort would also help to establish commercial venues for suppliers and designers and assist in involving future advanced technologies in the field of gas turbine engine development. This strategy change was partly driven by the market requirements that suggested a low demand for a 10-MW aeroderivative industrial gas turbine, a change in corporate strategy for aeroderivative gas turbine engine development initiatives, and a consensus that a better return on investment (ROI) could be achieved under the ATS contract by focusing on product improvements and technology insertion for the existing Rolls-Royce small engine industrial gas turbine fleet.

  6. Heat generation by a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corten, G.P. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    It will be shown that an actuator disk operating in wind turbine mode extracts more energy from the fluid than can be transferred into useful energy. At the Lanchester-Betz limit the decrease of the kinetic energy in the wind is converted by 2 /3 into useful power and by 1 /3 into heat. Behind the wind turbine the outer flow and the flow that has passed the actuator disk will mix. In this process momentum is conserved but part of the kinetic energy will dissipate in heat via viscous shear. 7 refs.

  7. Control system for NPP powerfull turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, V.D.; Rozhanskij, V.E.; Rokhlenko, V.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for NPP 1000 MW turbines safety is described. The turbine safety system has a hydraulic drive to actuate in case of increasipg of rotational speed of a turbine rotor and an electrohydraulic drce to operate in case of pressure reduction in the lubrication system, axial displacement deviation, etc. The system is highly reliable due to application of a safety system without slide valves and long-term operation of hydraulic controls in guarding conditions; the system epsures multifunctional control with high accuracy and speed due to application of the intricate electronic part, high speed of response with a limited use of high pressure oil due to application of two-pressure pumps, pneumohydraulic accumulators and oil discharge valves. Steady-state serviceability of the system is maintained by devices for valve cooling dawn. A shockless change from electrohydraulic to hydraulic control channels is provided

  8. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  9. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  10. Ceramics technology for advanced industrial gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anson, D.; Sheppard, W.J.; DeCorso, M.; Parks, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication of high strength ceramic materials and in their application to automotive and aerospace gas turbine engines may lead also to significant improvements in the performance of industrial gas turbines. This paper presents a brief review of the improvements projected in a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The future costs of power generated by small gas turbines (up to 25 MW) are predicted, as well as the potential for fuel savings. Gas turbines in this size range are used extensively for gas compression and for cogeneration, as well as in a variety of more diverse applications. This paper includes results of analyses of the ways in which changes in gas turbine cost and performance are likely to affect market penetration. These results lead to predictions of future savings in U.S. fuel consumption in the industrial sector that would result. The paper also presents a brief overview of the scope of a suggested R and D program, with an appropriate schedule, which would provide a technical basis for achieving the projected results. Important parts of this program would cover ceramic design and fabrication technology, engine development and demonstration, and combustion technology

  11. On the biological plausibility of Wind Turbine Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert V

    2015-01-01

    An emerging environmental health issue relates to potential ill-effects of wind turbine noise. There have been numerous suggestions that the low-frequency acoustic components in wind turbine signals can cause symptoms associated with vestibular system disorders, namely vertigo, nausea, and nystagmus. This constellation of symptoms has been labeled as Wind Turbine Syndrome, and has been identified in case studies of individuals living close to wind farms. This review discusses whether it is biologically plausible for the turbine noise to stimulate the vestibular parts of the inner ear and, by extension, cause Wind Turbine Syndrome. We consider the sound levels that can activate the semicircular canals or otolith end organs in normal subjects, as well as in those with preexisting conditions known to lower vestibular threshold to sound stimulation.

  12. European wind turbine catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  13. Wind turbines and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C.

    2010-01-01

    This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Wind turbines and infrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  15. A review of damage detection methods for wind turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Song, Gangbing; Ren, Liang; Li, Hongnan; Ho, Siu-Chun M

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources and many countries are predicted to increase wind energy portion of their whole national energy supply to about twenty percent in the next decade. One potential obstacle in the use of wind turbines to harvest wind energy is the maintenance of the wind turbine blades. The blades are a crucial and costly part of a wind turbine and over their service life can suffer from factors such as material degradation and fatigue, which can limit their effectiveness and safety. Thus, the ability to detect damage in wind turbine blades is of great significance for planning maintenance and continued operation of the wind turbine. This paper presents a review of recent research and development in the field of damage detection for wind turbine blades. Specifically, this paper reviews frequently employed sensors including fiber optic and piezoelectric sensors, and four promising damage detection methods, namely, transmittance function, wave propagation, impedance and vibration based methods. As a note towards the future development trend for wind turbine sensing systems, the necessity for wireless sensing and energy harvesting is briefly presented. Finally, existing problems and promising research efforts for online damage detection of turbine blades are discussed. (topical review)

  16. Static and dynamic modelling of gas turbines in advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jan-Olof

    1998-12-01

    Gas turbines have been in operation for at least 50 years. The engine is used for propulsion of aircraft and high speed ships. It is used for power production in remote locations and for peak load and emergency situations. Gas turbines have been used in combined cycles for 20 to 30 years. Highly efficient power plants based on gas turbines are a competitive option for the power industry today. The thermal efficiency of the simple cycle gas turbine has increased due to higher turbine inlet temperatures and improved compressor and expander designs. Equally important are the improved cycles in which the gas turbine operates. One example is the combined cycle that uses steam for turbine cooling. Steam is extracted from the bottoming cycle, then used as airfoil coolant in a closed loop and returned to the bottoming cycle. The Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), also known as the Humid Air Turbine (HAT), is another advanced cycle. A mixture of air and water vapour is used as working media. Air from the compressor outlet is humidified and then preheated in a recuperator prior to combustion. The static and dynamic performance is changed when the gas turbine is introduced in an evaporative cycle. The cycle is gaining in popularity, but so far it has not been demonstrated. A Swedish joint program to develop the cycle has been in operation since 1993. As part of the program, a small pilot plant is being erected at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH). The plant is based on a 600 kW gas turbine, and demonstration of the EvGT cycle started autumn 1998 and will continue, in the present phase, for one year. This thesis presents static and dynamic models for traditional gas turbine components, such as, the compressor, combustor, expander and recuperator. A static model for the humidifier is presented, based on common knowledge for atmospheric humidification. All models were developed for the pilot plant at LTH with the objective to support evaluation of the process and individual

  17. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We...... investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number...... of wind turbines

  18. CFD-Driven Valve Shape Optimization for Performance Improvement of a Micro Cross-Flow Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endashaw Tesfaye Woldemariam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbines are critical parts in hydropower facilities, and the cross-flow turbine is one of the widely applied turbine designs in small- and micro-hydro facilities. Cross-flow turbines are relatively simple, flexible and less expensive, compared to other conventional hydro-turbines. However, the power generation efficiency of cross-flow turbines is not yet well optimized compared to conventional hydro-turbines. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-driven design optimization approach is applied to one of the critical parts of the turbine, the valve. The valve controls the fluid flow, as well as determines the velocity and pressure magnitudes of the fluid jet leaving the nozzle region in the turbine. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS function is employed to generate construction points for the valve profile curve. Control points from the function that are highly sensitive to the output power are selected as optimization parameters, leading to the generation of construction points. Metamodel-assisted and metaheuristic optimization tools are used in the optimization. Optimized turbine designs from both optimization methods outperformed the original design with regard to performance of the turbine. Moreover, the metamodel-assisted optimization approach reduced the computational cost, compared to its counterpart.

  19. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  20. Balancing Energy Processes in Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balicki Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of balancing energy processes in turbine engines in operation in aeronautic and marine propulsion systems with the aim to analyse and evaluate basic operating parameters. The first part presents the problem of enormous amounts of energy needed for driving fans and compressors of the largest contemporary turbofan engines commonly used in long-distance aviation. The amounts of the transmitted power and the effect of flow parameters and constructional properties of the engines on their performance and real efficiency are evaluated. The second part of the article, devoted to marine applications of turbine engines, presents the energy balance of the kinetic system of torque transmission from main engine turbines to screw propellers in the combined system of COGAG type. The physical model of energy conversion processes executed in this system is presented, along with the physical model of gasodynamic processes taking place in a separate driving turbine of a reversing engine. These models have made the basis for formulating balance equations, which then were used for analysing static and dynamic properties of the analysed type of propulsion, in particular in the aspect of mechanical loss evaluation in its kinematic system.

  1. Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    and applied to laminar flows. An aero-acoustic formulation for turbulent flows was in [15] developed for Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation (URANS) and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). In [16] a collocated grid / finite volume method for aero-acoustic computations...... with Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA). With the spread of wind turbines near urban areas, there is an increasing need for accurate predictions of aerodynamically generated noise. Indeed, noise has become one of the most important issues for further development of wind power, and the ability of controlling...... and aero-acoustics of wind turbines. The papers are written in the period from 1997 to 2008 and numbered according to the list in page v. The work consists of two parts: an aerodynamic part based on Computational Fluid Dynamics and an aero-acoustic part based on Computational Aero Acoustics for wind...

  2. Electrical components library for HAWC2; Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutululis, N.A.; Larsen, Torben J.; Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D. (Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Iov, F. (Aalborg Univ., Institute of Energy Technology (DK))

    2007-12-15

    The work presented in this report is part of the EFP project called ''A Simulation Platform to Model, Optimize and Design Wind Turbines'' partly funded by the Danish Energy Authority under contract number 1363/04-0008. The project is carried out in cooperation between Risoe National Laboratory and Aalborg University. In this project, the focus is on the development of a simulation platform for wind turbine systems using different simulation tools. This report presents the electric component library developed for use in the aeroelastic code HAWC2. The developed library includes both steady state and dynamical models for fixed and variable speed wind turbines. A simple steady-state slip model was developed for the fixed speed wind turbine. This model is suitable for aeroelastic design of wind turbines under normal operation. A dynamic model of an induction generator for the fixed speed wind turbine was developed. The model includes the dynamics of the rotor fluxes. The model is suitable for a more detailed investigation of the mechanical-electrical interaction, both under normal and fault operation. For the variable speed wind turbine, a steadystate model, typically used in aeroelastic design, was implemented. The model can be used for normal and, to some extent, for fault operation. The reduced order dynamic model of a DFIG was implemented. The model includes only the active power controller and can be used for normal operation conditions. (au)

  3. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2011-06-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (2.3-3.6 MW) than for small turbines (≤ 2 MW), and the difference is statistically significant. The difference can also be expressed as a downward shift of the spectrum of approximately one-third of an octave. A further shift of similar size is suggested for future turbines in the 10-MW range. Due to the air absorption, the higher low-frequency content becomes even more pronounced, when sound pressure levels in relevant neighbor distances are considered. Even when A-weighted levels are considered, a substantial part of the noise is at low frequencies, and for several of the investigated large turbines, the one-third-octave band with the highest level is at or below 250 Hz. It is thus beyond any doubt that the low-frequency part of the spectrum plays an important role in the noise at the neighbors. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  4. Gas turbine engine turbine blade damaging estimate in maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ель-Хожайрі Хусейн

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The factors determining character and intensity of corrosive damages of gas turbine blades are analyzed in the article. The classification of detrimental impurities polluting gas turbine airflow duct and injuring blade erosion damages are given. Common features of the method of turbine blade corrosive damage estimation are shown in the article.

  5. Deflector plants turbine aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Sheppard, A.R.; Widener, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Water quality requirements have become a focal point in recent re-licensing of hydroelectric projects. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has significantly increased the relevance of license conditions to insure that turbine discharges meet state or other specific criteria for dissolved oxygen (D.O.). Due to naturally occurring depletion of D.O. at increased depths in large reservoirs, water withdrawn from this strata may result in unacceptably low levels of D.O. Different researchers have evaluated various methods of improving D.O. content in hydro turbine discharges, including; diffusers, weirs, oxygen injection, and variations of turbine venting. The authors describe an approach called deflector plate turbine aeration. This computer based, engineered approach allows systems to be evaluated, designed, and installed with predictable performance and costs. Many experts in this field now agree that, to the extent practical, turbine venting offers the most dependable, maintenance free, and cost effective solution to the low D.O. problem. The approach presented in this paper has resulted in proven results

  6. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  7. Optimization under Uncertainty of Site-Specific Turbine Configurations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian; Dykes, Katherine; Graf, Peter; Zahle, Frederik

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty affects many aspects of wind energy plant performance and cost. In this study, we explore opportunities for site-specific turbine configuration optimization that accounts for uncertainty in the wind resource. As a demonstration, a simple empirical model for wind plant cost of energy is used in an optimization under uncertainty to examine how different risk appetites affect the optimal selection of a turbine configuration for sites of different wind resource profiles. If there is unusually high uncertainty in the site wind resource, the optimal turbine configuration diverges from the deterministic case and a generally more conservative design is obtained with increasing risk aversion on the part of the designer.

  8. Turbines, generators and associated plant incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Littler, DJ

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of new 500 MW and 660 MW turbine generator plant in nuclear, coal- and oil-fired power stations has been partly responsible for the increase in generating capacity of the CEGB over the last 30 years. This volume provides a detailed account of experience gained in the development, design, manufacture, operation and testing of large turbine-generators in the last 20 years. With the advance in analytical and computational techniques, the application of this experience to future design and operation of large turbine-generator plant will be of great value to engineers in the indust

  9. Dynamic computer simulation of the Fort St. Vrain steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is described for the dynamic response of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear reactor regenerative intermediate- and low-pressure steam turbines. The fundamental computer-modeling assumptions for the turbines and feedwater heaters are developed. A turbine heat balance specifying steam and feedwater conditions at a given generator load and the volumes of the feedwater heaters are all that are necessary as descriptive input parameters. Actual plant data for a generator load reduction from 100 to 50% power (which occurred as part of a plant transient on November 9, 1981) are compared with computer-generated predictions, with reasonably good agreement

  10. Optimization Under Uncertainty of Site-Specific Turbine Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.; Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Zahle, F.

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty affects many aspects of wind energy plant performance and cost. In this study, we explore opportunities for site-specific turbine configuration optimization that accounts for uncertainty in the wind resource. As a demonstration, a simple empirical model for wind plant cost of energy is used in an optimization under uncertainty to examine how different risk appetites affect the optimal selection of a turbine configuration for sites of different wind resource profiles. If there is unusually high uncertainty in the site wind resource, the optimal turbine configuration diverges from the deterministic case and a generally more conservative design is obtained with increasing risk aversion on the part of the designer.

  11. A Benchmark Evaluation of Fault Tolerant Wind Turbine Control Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    As the world’s power supply to a larger and larger degree depends on wind turbines, it is consequently and increasingly important that these are as reliable and available as possible. Modern fault tolerant control (FTC) could play a substantial part in increasing reliability of modern wind turbin...... accommodation is handled in software sensor and actuator blocks. This means that the wind turbine controller can continue operation as in the fault free case. The other two evaluated solutions show some potential but probably need improvements before industrial applications....

  12. Computer Aided Design of Kaplan Turbine Piston with\tSolidWorks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Jianu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for 3D computer aided design (CAD of Kaplan turbine piston made in SolidWorks.The present paper is a tutorial for a Kaplan turbine piston 3D geometry, which is dedicaded to the Parts Sketch and Parts Features design and Drawing Geometry and Drawing Annotation.

  13. Computer Aided Design of Kaplan Turbine Piston with SolidWorks

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Jianu

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the steps for 3D computer aided design (CAD) of Kaplan turbine piston made in SolidWorks.The present paper is a tutorial for a Kaplan turbine piston 3D geometry, which is dedicaded to the Parts Sketch and Parts Features design and Drawing Geometry and Drawing Annotation.

  14. Reduction of Erosion Wear of Mean Pressure Cylinder of Steam Turbines Operating Beyond Critical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kascheev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems leading to erosion wear of flowing part of a mean pressure turbine cylinder operating beyond critical parameters. Explanation of erosion wear of flowing part of a mean pressure turbine cylinder which is proved in practice and recommendations for wear reduction are given in the paper

  15. A detection of the coarse water droplets in steam turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Ondřej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel method for the detection of coarse water droplets in a low pressure part of steam turbines. The photogrammetry method has been applied for the measurement of coarse droplets in the low-pressure part of a steam turbine. A new probe based on this measurement technique was developed and tested in the laboratory and in a steam turbine in the Počerady power-plant. The probe was equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. The paper contains results from laboratory tests and the first preliminary measurements in a steam turbine. Possible applications of this method have been examined.

  16. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  17. Urban small wind turbine applications for reducing GHC emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullis, S.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' There are advantages to power generation at or near the points of consumption and this is still true for low carbon sustainable power sources, including wind. Consequently, there is interest in wind power generation in cities and suburbs. The potential now exists for realistic power small-scale generation in building mounted turbines. This presentation provides the benefits and obstacles to their use, as well as details of such turbines and the design and operations requirements for them. The main issues associated with locating turbines in cities and suburbs are: the highly turbulent, unsteady wind in the urban/suburban environment produces lower power outputs; vibration is a large concern on mounting turbines on buildings, and safety (turbine failure or even just ice shedding) with pedestrians below. Past and current thinking has just been straightforward in that it is not worth it, and the previous attempts at simply mounting small-scale turbines on rooftops has done more harm than good to the reputation of the small wind, and wind in general, industries. Recently there has been a reconsideration of urban small wind led by reputable companies such as Quiet Revolution (UK), Turby (NL) and Cleanfield (Canada) combined with academic research. A common feature of all of these companies is the use of vertical axis turbines (VAWTs) to help deal with the highly turbulent, unsteady urban winds. Large-scale VAWTs enjoyed a brief flurry of interest in the 1970s and 80s with large amounts of research done at Sandia and NRC in Canada. Vibration and fatigue in the large-scale turbines were among the issues that led to their decline. These, particularly vibration, remain issues for small-scale turbines, but there are some mitigating strategies available. These are now leading to the development of reputable, practical and reliable turbines that can become part of the urban/suburban environment. (author)

  18. Annoyance, detection and recognition of wind turbine noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Timothy; Bockstael, Annelies; De Weirt, Valentine; Botteldooren, Dick

    2013-07-01

    Annoyance, recognition and detection of noise from a single wind turbine were studied by means of a two-stage listening experiment with 50 participants with normal hearing abilities. In-situ recordings made at close distance from a 1.8-MW wind turbine operating at 22 rpm were mixed with road traffic noise, and processed to simulate indoor sound pressure levels at LAeq 40 dBA. In a first part, where people were unaware of the true purpose of the experiment, samples were played during a quiet leisure activity. Under these conditions, pure wind turbine noise gave very similar annoyance ratings as unmixed highway noise at the same equivalent level, while annoyance by local road traffic noise was significantly higher. In a second experiment, listeners were asked to identify the sample containing wind turbine noise in a paired comparison test. The detection limit of wind turbine noise in presence of highway noise was estimated to be as low as a signal-to-noise ratio of -23 dBA. When mixed with local road traffic, such a detection limit could not be determined. These findings support that noticing the sound could be an important aspect of wind turbine noise annoyance at the low equivalent levels typically observed indoors in practice. Participants that easily recognized wind-turbine(-like) sounds could detect wind turbine noise better when submersed in road traffic noise. Recognition of wind turbine sounds is also linked to higher annoyance. Awareness of the source is therefore a relevant aspect of wind turbine noise perception which is consistent with previous research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Turbine design and application volumes 1, 2, and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA has an interest in turbines related primarily to aeronautics and space applications. Airbreathing turbine engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion, as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. Propellant-driven turbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for spacecraft. Closed-cycle turbine engines using inert gases, organic fluids, and metal fluids have been studied for providing long-duration electric power for spacecraft. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include land-vehicle (cars, trucks, buses, trains, etc.) propulsion power and ground-based electrical power. In view of the turbine-system interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center, a course entitled 'Turbine Design and Application' was presented during 1968-69 as part of the In-house Graduate Study Program. The course was somewhat revised and again presented in 1972-73. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, fundamental turbine concepts, velocity diagrams, losses, blade aerodynamic design, blade cooling, mechanical design, operation, and performance. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Such a publication can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course, a means for self-study, or a reference for selected topics. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. Two commonly used consistent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. These are the SI units and the U.S. customary units. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U.S. customary units and defining as unity those not required for the SI units. Three volumes are compiled into one.

  20. Wind Turbine With Concentric Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Wind Turbine device is relatively compact and efficient. Converging inner and outer ducts increase pressure difference across blades of wind turbine. Turbine shaft drives alternator housed inside exit cone. Suitable for installation on such existing structures as water towers, barns, houses, and commercial buildings.

  1. Wind turbine spoiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  2. Steam turbine installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the arrangement described is to enable raising steam for driving steam turbines in a way suited to operating with liquid metals, such as Na, as heat transfer medium. A preheated water feed, in heat transfer relationship with the liquid metals, is passed through evaporator and superheater stages, and the superheated steam is supplied to the highest pressure stage of the steam turbine arrangement. Steam extracted intermediate the evaporator and superheater stages is employed to provide reheat for the lower pressure stage of the steam turbine. Only a major portion of the preheated water feed may be evaporated and this portion separated and supplied to the superheater stage. The feature of 'steam to steam' reheat avoids a second liquid metal heat transfer and hence represents a simplification. It also reduces the hazard associated with possible steam-liquid metal contact. (U.K.)

  3. Hydro turbines: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The various types of hydraulic turbines currently used in hydroelectric power plants are described. The descriptions are intended for use by non-engineers who are concerned with fish passage and fish mortality at a hydro power facility. Terminology used in the hydro industry is explained. Since the extent of cavitation is one of the factors affecting mortality rates of fish passing through hydraulic turbines, an equation is introduced which measures the extent of cavitation likely to be experienced in a turbine. An example of how the cavitation index can be calculated is provided for two typical power plants. The relation between certain parameters of power plant operation and the extent of cavitation, and therefore of fish mortality, is illustrated. 2 refs., 14 figs

  4. Variable stator radial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  5. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  6. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand......, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model...

  7. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  8. Micro turbines on gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Microturbines are small gas turbine engines that drive a generator with sizes ranging from 30-350 kW. Although similar in function to bigger gas turbines, their simple radial flow turbine and high-speed generator offer better performance, greater reliability, longer service intervals, reduced maintenance lower emission and lower noise. Microturbines can generate power continuously and very economically to reduce electricity costs or they can be operated selectively for peak shaving. These benefits are further enhanced by the economics of using the microturbine's waste heat for hot water needs or other heating applications. That is why on-site microturbine power is widely used for independent production of electricity and heat in industrial and commercial facilities, hotels, hospitals, office buildings, residential buildings etc. (Original)

  9. New gas turbine technology 2012-2014 - Gas Turbine Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genrup, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [LTH, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    an important verification that the plant fulfills the expectations. One important thing, however, is not to accept the test uncertainty as a test tolerance since it will provide the manufacturer overwhelming and unfair odds. Nowadays, it is common to have a maintenance agreement at some level for risk mitigation. There are different levels of contractual services ranging from parts agreement to full coverage 'bumper-to-bumper' LTSA services. One can chose to use either the OEM or another (third party) service provider. In many cases, the financing organs or insurer requires an LTSA (or better) for risk mitigation to level the insurance cost at a reasonable level. There are ways of potentially reducing the maintenance spending and one should always avoid lumped methods with equivalent hours. The word 'lumped' is used in a sense that the two different ageing mechanisms (creep, oxidation, regular wear and tear and stresses related to thermal gradients during start and stop) are evaluated as equivalent time by e.g. assuming that a start consumes time rather being a low cycle. A competent monitoring system can be a good investment - even if only a single failure can be avoided. The total world-wide gas turbine fleet is in the order of 47 000 units and the total value of the gas turbine after market was 2009 13.8 BEuro (13.8x10{sup 9} Euro). The after-market is, indeed, valuable to the manufacturers since all 47 000 units requires maintenance on a regular basis. Certain in-house produced parts may be offered with several hundred percent's margin - in contrast to about ten percent for a complete new turn-key power plant. The reward for the user, by having a LTSA, is discounted parts and prioritized treatment by the supplier. The combined cycle has about half the carbon dioxide emission compared to a coal fired plant. The large difference is driven by the higher efficiency and the higher hydrogen content in natural gas. This in combination with the

  10. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)

  11. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  12. Wind Turbine Blades: An End of Life Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Brøndsted, Povl

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the first offshore windfarm constructed in the world—located in Denmark, near Ravnsborg—is turning 25 years old, and will soon be decommissioned. After decommissioning, most of the material of the turbine can be recycled; only the composite materials found in the blades represent...... a challenge. This part looks at end of life solutions for this material. Wind turbine blade structure and material are described. The ends of life solutions existing and under development are detailed....

  13. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  14. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  15. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  16. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  17. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  18. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Keith D; Wilson, Jr., Jack W.

    2010-11-02

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

  19. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  20. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  1. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  2. Characteristics of reversible-pump turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olimstad, Grunde

    2012-07-01

    The primary goal for this PhD project has been to investigate instability of reversible-pump turbines (RPTs) as a phenomenon and to find remedies to solve it. The instability occurs for turbines with s-shaped characteristics, unfavourable waterway and limited rotating inertia. It is only observed for certain operation pints at either high speed or low load. These correspond to ether high values of Ned or low values of Qed. The work done in this PhD thesis can be divided in to the three following categories. Investigate and understand the behaviour of a pump turbine: A model was designed in order to investigate the pump turbine behaviour related to its characteristics. This model was manufactured and measurements were performed in the laboratory. By using throttling valves or torque as input the full s-shaped characteristics was measured. When neither of these techniques is used, the laboratory system has unstable operation points which result in hysteresis behaviour. Global behaviour of the RPT in power plant system was investigated through analytical stability analysis and dynamic system simulations. The latter included both rigid and elastic representation of the water column. Turbine internal flow: The flow inside the runner was investigated by computer simulations (CFD). Two-dimensional analysis was used to study the inlet part of the runner. This showed that a vortex forming at the inlet is one of the causes for the unstable operation range. Measurements at different pressure levels showed that the characteristics were dependent on the Reynolds number at high Ned values in turbine mode. This means that the similarity of flows is not sufficiently described by constant Qed and Ned values at this part of the characteristics. Design modifications: The root of the stability problem was considered to be the runners geometric design at the inlet in turbine mode. Therefore different design parameters were investigated to find relations to the characteristics. Methods

  3. Power output from Tage Basse's Wave Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, E.A.; Mikkelsen, R.

    2000-10-01

    Tage Basse's Wave Turbine is a floating, slack moored device, placed in deep water. Via a long vertical shaft a Wells turbine is connected to a circular horizontal plate, below the turbine. The plate is in still water, preventing the device from moving up and down in the waves. At the top end of the shaft there is a float containing the power take off. The efficiency was measured to 5.1 % as an average over the year. This is measured with a rigid suspension of the turbine. If the bottom plate, in the floating version, is designed properly the result is still applicable. One reason for the large increase in efficiency shown could be that when the vertical kinetic energy in the wave is tapped by the turbine, part of the potential energy in the wave is transformed into vertical kinetic energy and is then accessible to the turbine. Turbine efficiency might increase in a full-scale device due to more favorable Reynolds number. Reynolds number in the model tests is approx. 80,000. (EHS)

  4. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  5. Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...

  6. Alcoa wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  7. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  8. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  9. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  10. Gas turbine electric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masaaki; Yuhara, Tetsuo.

    1993-01-01

    When troubles are caused to a boundary of a gas turbine electric generator, there is a danger that water as an operation medium for secondary circuits leaks to primary circuits, to stop a plant and the plant itself can not resume. Then in the present invention, helium gases are used as the operation medium not only for the primary circuits but also for the secondary circuits, to provide so-called a direct cycle gas turbine system. Further, the operation media of the primary and secondary circuits are recycled by a compressor driven by a primary circuit gas turbine, and the turbine/compressor is supported by helium gas bearings. Then, problems of leakage of oil and water from the bearings or the secondary circuits can be solved, further, the cooling device in the secondary circuit is constituted as a triple-walled tube structure by way of helium gas, to prevent direct leakage of coolants into the reactor core even if cracks are formed to pipes. (N.H.)

  11. Integrated turbine bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Dickenson, R.J.; Parry, W.T.; Retzlaff, K.M.

    1982-07-01

    Turbine steam-flow bypasses have been used for years in various sizes and applications. Because of differing system requirements, their use has been more predominant in Europe than in the United States. Recently, some utilities and consulting engineers have been re-evaluating their need for various types of bypass operation in fossil-fuelled power plants.

  12. Floating offshore turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    metric of energy production per unit steel mass. Floating offshore wind turbines represent a promising technology. The successful operation of HyWind and WindFloat in full scale demonstrates a well advanced technology readiness level, where further development will go into refining the concepts, cost...

  13. Radial gas turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausche, S.; Ohlsson, Johan

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a program dealing with design point calculations of radial turbine machinery, including both compressor and turbine, with as few input data as possible. Some simple stress calculations and turbine metal blade temperatures were also included. This program was then implanted in a German thermodynamics program, Gasturb, a program calculating design and off-design performance of gas turbines. The calculations proceed with a lot of assumptions, necessary to finish the task, concerning pressure losses, velocity distribution, blockage, etc., and have been correlated with empirical data from VAT. Most of these values could have been input data, but to prevent the user of the program from drowning in input values, they are set as default values in the program code. The output data consist of geometry, Mach numbers, predicted component efficiency etc., and a number of graphical plots of geometry and velocity triangles. For the cases examined, the error in predicted efficiency level was within {+-} 1-2% points, and quite satisfactory errors in geometrical and thermodynamic conditions were obtained Examination paper. 18 refs, 36 figs

  14. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the res...

  15. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Q

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  16. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Q, E-mail: qhshi@dfem.com.c [Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., Ltd., DEC 188, Huanghe West Road, Deyang, 618000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  17. Unsteady Flow in a Supersonic Turbine with Variable Specific Heats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Huber, Frank; Sondak, Douglas L.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Modern high-work turbines can be compact, transonic, supersonic, counter-rotating, or use a dense drive gas. The vast majority of modern rocket turbine designs fall into these Categories. These turbines usually have large temperature variations across a given stage, and are characterized by large amounts of flow unsteadiness. The flow unsteadiness can have a major impact on the turbine performance and durability. For example, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel turbine, a high work, transonic design, was found to have an unsteady inter-row shock which reduced efficiency by 2 points and increased dynamic loading by 24 percent. The Revolutionary Reusable Technology Turbopump (RRTT), which uses full flow oxygen for its drive gas, was found to shed vortices with such energy as to raise serious blade durability concerns. In both cases, the sources of the problems were uncovered (before turbopump testing) with the application of validated, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the designs. In the case of the RRTT and the Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) turbines, the unsteady CFD codes have been used not just to identify problems, but to guide designs which mitigate problems due to unsteadiness. Using unsteady flow analyses as a part of the design process has led to turbine designs with higher performance (which affects temperature and mass flow rate) and fewer dynamics problems. One of the many assumptions made during the design and analysis of supersonic turbine stages is that the values of the specific heats are constant. In some analyses the value is based on an average of the expected upstream and downstream temperatures. In stages where the temperature can vary by 300 to 500 K, however, the assumption of constant fluid properties may lead to erroneous performance and durability predictions. In this study the suitability of assuming constant specific heats has been investigated by performing three-dimensional unsteady Navier

  18. System Identification of Wind Turbines for Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena

    Structural health monitoring is a multi-disciplinary engineering field that should allow the actual wind turbine maintenance programmes to evolve to the next level, hence increasing safety and reliability and decreasing turbines downtime. The main idea is to have a sensing system on the structure...... cases are considered, two practical problems from the wind industry are studied, i.e. monitoring of the gearbox shaft torque and the tower root bending moments. The second part of the thesis is focused on the influence of friction on the health of the wind turbine and on the nonlinear identification...... that monitors the system responses and notifies the operator when damages or degradations have been detected. However, some of the response signals that contain important information about the health of the wind turbine components cannot be directly measured, or measuring them is highly complex and costly...

  19. The fracture mechanics of steam turbine electron beam welded rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Increased steam turbine unit ratings presupposes that steelmakers are capable of manufacturing larger and larger rotor components. However, there are few steelmakers in the world capable of manufacturing monobloc rotors for high rated turbines, which limits the choice of supplier. Most nuclear turbine rotors have a composite arrangement and are made either by shrinking discs on a shaft or using elements welded together. Those in favour of welding have applied a classical socalled ''submerged'' method using a filler metal. However welding can also be performed by using an Electron Beam in a vacuum room without a filler metal. This technique has many advantages: mechanical characteristics of the joint are identical to those of the base material after tempering without heat affected zones. Moreover, parts are only very slightly deformed during welding. Two steam turbine rotors have been produced in this way. This paper described the destructive tests carried out in the four Electron Beam (EB) welds (two on each rotor)

  20. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  1. SMART POWER TURBINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirm V. Nirmalan

    2003-11-01

    Gas turbines are the choice technology for high-performance power generation and are employed in both simple and combined cycle configurations around the world. The Smart Power Turbine (SPT) program has developed new technologies that are needed to further extend the performance and economic attractiveness of gas turbines for power generation. Today's power generation gas turbines control firing temperatures indirectly, by measuring the exhaust gas temperature and then mathematically calculating the peak combustor temperatures. But temperatures in the turbine hot gas path vary a great deal, making it difficult to control firing temperatures precisely enough to achieve optimal performance. Similarly, there is no current way to assess deterioration of turbine hot-gas-path components without shutting down the turbine. Consequently, maintenance and component replacements are often scheduled according to conservative design practices based on historical fleet-averaged data. Since fuel heating values vary with the prevalent natural gas fuel, the inability to measure heating value directly, with sufficient accuracy and timeliness, can lead to maintenance and operational decisions that are less than optimal. GE Global Research Center, under this Smart Power Turbine program, has developed a suite of novel sensors that would measure combustor flame temperature, online fuel lower heating value (LHV), and hot-gas-path component life directly. The feasibility of using the ratio of the integrated intensities of portions of the OH emission band to determine the specific average temperature of a premixed methane or natural-gas-fueled combustion flame was demonstrated. The temperature determined is the temperature of the plasma included in the field of view of the sensor. Two sensor types were investigated: the first used a low-resolution fiber optic spectrometer; the second was a SiC dual photodiode chip. Both methods worked. Sensitivity to flame temperature changes was

  2. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  3. Concept of turbines for ultrasupercritical, supercritical, and subcritical steam conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Pichugin, I. I.; Kovalev, I. A.; Bozhko, V. V.; Vladimirskii, O. A.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article describes the design features of condensing turbines for ultrasupercritical initial steam conditions (USSC) and large-capacity cogeneration turbines for super- and subcritical steam conditions having increased steam extractions for district heating purposes. For improving the efficiency and reliability indicators of USSC turbines, it is proposed to use forced cooling of the head high-temperature thermally stressed parts of the high- and intermediate-pressure rotors, reaction-type blades of the high-pressure cylinder (HPC) and at least the first stages of the intermediate-pressure cylinder (IPC), the double-wall HPC casing with narrow flanges of its horizontal joints, a rigid HPC rotor, an extended system of regenerative steam extractions without using extractions from the HPC flow path, and the low-pressure cylinder's inner casing moving in accordance with the IPC thermal expansions. For cogeneration turbines, it is proposed to shift the upper district heating extraction (or its significant part) to the feedwater pump turbine, which will make it possible to improve the turbine plant efficiency and arrange both district heating extractions in the IPC. In addition, in the case of using a disengaging coupling or precision conical bolts in the coupling, this solution will make it possible to disconnect the LPC in shifting the turbine to operate in the cogeneration mode. The article points out the need to intensify turbine development efforts with the use of modern methods for improving their efficiency and reliability involving, in particular, the use of relatively short 3D blades, last stages fitted with longer rotor blades, evaporation techniques for removing moisture in the last-stage diaphragm, and LPC rotor blades with radial grooves on their leading edges.

  4. Aseismic design of turbine houses of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Labes, M.

    1975-01-01

    The turbine house does not belong to the safety-related parts of equipment of a nuclear power plant. A special protection against earthquakes is not demanded by the authorities as long as it is proven that safety-related parts of equipment will not be restricted in their function by a collaps of the turbine house. The degree of an aseismic design is largely up to the customer, who has to weigh the risk of costs and availability against the additional costs, that are necessary for the earthquake calculation and for constructive hardening. In comparison to the high-tuned turbine foundations as they are in use in the USA today, low-tuned turbine foundations as a result of helical-spring-support, which are constructed by the KWU exclusively, pose special problems with the aseismic design. This is discussed in the present report. The spring-supported mass constitutes about a quarter of the building-mass. For mechanical reasons the spring elements are chosen in such a way, that the turbine foundation has a natural frequency of approximately 3 Hz. Thus it remains within the same frequency range as the turbine house and within that very range which is particularly amplificated by an earthquake. It is therefore likely that resonance effects as well as oscillation annulment effects may occur. The standardized calculation methods for conventional buildings without safety function such as DIN 4149 (Germany) or SIA 162 (Switzerland) do not cover the oscillation conduct of such a complicate structure. One receives informations about possible relative displacements between the building and the turbine foundation (hammering-effect) and about the stresses on the turbine and other components only by dynamic calculation methods such as the time-history or the response-spectrum method

  5. Study on gas turbines. Leading role of high efficiency power generation; Gas turbine kenkyu. Kokoritsu hatsuden no shuyaku wo nerau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    This review summarizes research works of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry on gas turbines playing a leading role of high efficiency power generation. This article describes historical changes of gas turbine technology, changes and current status from the viewpoint of electric power industry, and development trend in various makers. Increase in the flow-in gas temperature, low NOx combustion technology, use of various fuels, and durability evaluation and improvement technology for high temperature parts are described as technological problems and development trends. The increase in temperature is indispensable for the improvement of efficiency. Materials having heat resistance, anticorrosion and strength are required. Accordingly, Ni-based single crystal super alloy has been developed. Developments of ceramic gas turbine and catalytic combustor are also described. The coal gasification combined power generation is expected as a new power generation technology having availability of various coals, high efficiency, and excellent environmental protection. Development of 1500 {degree}C class combustor for turbines has been promoted. Evaluation and improvement of durability of high temperature parts are also described. For the new utilization technology of gas turbines, repowering and compressed air storage gas turbine power generation technology are introduced. 92 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible...... in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important....... Firstly, it is assumed that the nonlinear processes can be divided into a dynamic linear part and static nonlinear part. Consequently the processes with input nonlinearity and output nonlinearity are treated separately. With the nonlinearity at the input it is easy to set up a model which is linear...

  7. Steam Turbine Control Valve Stiction Effect on Power System Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power system dynamic stability is low frequency oscillations. This kind of oscillation has significant effects on the stability and security of the power system. In some previous papers, a fact was introduced that a steam pressure continuous fluctuation in turbine steam inlet pipeline may lead to a kind of low frequency oscillation of power systems. Generally, in a power generation plant, steam turbine system composes of some main components, i.e. a boiler or steam generator, stop valves, control valves and turbines that are connected by piping. In the conventional system, the turbine system is composed with a lot of stop and control valves. The steam is provided by a boiler or steam generator. In an abnormal case, the stop valve shuts of the steal flow to the turbine. The steam flow to the turbine is regulated by controlling the control valves. The control valves are provided to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine for starting, increasing or decreasing the power, and also maintaining speed control with the turbine governor system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherent static friction (stiction) nonlinearity characteristics. Industrial surveys indicated that about 20-30% of all control loops oscillate due to valve problem caused by this nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, steam turbine control valve stiction effect on power system oscillation is presented. To analyze the stiction characteristic effect, firstly a model of control valve and its stiction characteristic are derived by using Newton's laws. A complete tandem steam prime mover, including a speed governing system, a four-stage steam turbine, and a shaft with up to for masses is adopted to analyze the performance of the steam turbine. The governor system consists of some important parts, i.e. a proportional controller, speed relay, control valve with its stiction characteristic, and stem lift position of control valve controller. The steam turbine has

  8. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  9. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard

    During the last decades, wind turbines have been continuously developed with the aim of maximizing the life cycle benefits (production of electricity) minus the costs of planning, materials, installation, operation & maintenance as well as possible failure. In order to continue this development...... turbines and the central topics considered are statistical load extrapolation of extreme loads during operation and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades. Wind turbines differ from most civil engineering structures by having a control system which highly influences the loading. In the literature......, methods for estimating the extreme load-effects on a wind turbine during operation, where the control system is active, have been proposed. But these methods and thereby the estimated loads are often subjected to a significant uncertainty which influences the reliability of the wind turbine...

  10. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  11. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  12. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical......A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...

  13. A Comparative Study of CFD Models of a Real Wind Turbine in Solar Chimney Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Gholamalizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar chimney power plant consists of four main parts, a solar collector, a chimney, an energy storage layer, and a wind turbine. So far, several investigations on the performance of the solar chimney power plant have been conducted. Among them, different approaches have been applied to model the turbine inside the system. In particular, a real wind turbine coupled to the system was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD in three investigations. Gholamalizadeh et al. simulated a wind turbine with the same blade profile as the Manzanares SCPP’s turbine (FX W-151-A blade profile, while a CLARK Y blade profile was modelled by Guo et al. and Ming et al. In this study, simulations of the Manzanares prototype were carried out using the CFD model developed by Gholamalizadeh et al. Then, results obtained by modelling different turbine blade profiles at different turbine rotational speeds were compared. The results showed that a turbine with the CLARK Y blade profile significantly overestimates the value of the pressure drop across the Manzanares prototype turbine as compared to the FX W-151-A blade profile. In addition, modelling of both blade profiles led to very similar trends in changes in turbine efficiency and power output with respect to rotational speed.

  14. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  15. Gas turbine premixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  16. Airfoils for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  17. Karhunen Loeve Basis Used for Detection of Gearbox Faults in a Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Reliability and sustainability of wind turbines increase in importance as wind turbines contribute with increasing power generation to the world's power grids. One possible way to achieve this is by using advanced fault detection and isolation methods in wind turbines based on the measurements...... provided to the control system. In this paper a Karhunen-Loeve basis approach is designed for detecting changes in frequency response from rotating parts like a gearbox. The potential of this method is shown by applying it to an established Wind Turbine FDI and FTC Benchmark model. These faults...

  18. SINGLE PHASE ANALYTICAL MODELS FOR TERRY TURBINE NOZZLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; O' Brien, James

    2016-11-01

    All BWR RCIC (Reactor Core Isolation Cooling) systems and PWR AFW (Auxiliary Feed Water) systems use Terry turbine, which is composed of the wheel with turbine buckets and several groups of fixed nozzles and reversing chambers inside the turbine casing. The inlet steam is accelerated through the turbine nozzle and impacts on the wheel buckets, generating work to drive the RCIC pump. As part of the efforts to understand the unexpected “self-regulating” mode of the RCIC systems in Fukushima accidents and extend BWR RCIC and PWR AFW operational range and flexibility, mechanistic models for the Terry turbine, based on Sandia National Laboratories’ original work, has been developed and implemented in the RELAP-7 code to simulate the RCIC system. RELAP-7 is a new reactor system code currently under development with the funding support from U.S. Department of Energy. The RELAP-7 code is a fully implicit code and the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method is used to solve the discretized nonlinear system. This paper presents a set of analytical models for simulating the flow through the Terry turbine nozzles when inlet fluid is pure steam. The implementation of the models into RELAP-7 will be briefly discussed. In the Sandia model, the turbine bucket inlet velocity is provided according to a reduced-order model, which was obtained from a large number of CFD simulations. In this work, we propose an alternative method, using an under-expanded jet model to obtain the velocity and thermodynamic conditions for the turbine bucket inlet. The models include both adiabatic expansion process inside the nozzle and free expansion process out of the nozzle to reach the ambient pressure. The combined models are able to predict the steam mass flow rate and supersonic velocity to the Terry turbine bucket entrance, which are the necessary input conditions for the Terry Turbine rotor model. The nozzle analytical models were validated with experimental data and

  19. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  20. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  1. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  2. Power turbine ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  3. Composite wind turbine towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed experiments conducted to optimized the advanced composite materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) used to fabricate wind turbine towers. FRP materials are used in tubular steel, lattice, guyed, and reinforced concrete towers. The towers and turbine blades are transported in segments and assembled on-site, sometimes in offshore or remote locations.The FRP composites are used to build towers with a high strength-to-weight ratio as well as to provide resistance to chemical attacks and corrosion. Use of the materials has resulted in towers that do not require heavy installation equipment. Experimental programs were conducted to verify the structural behaviour of the tower structure's individual-scaled cells as well as to evaluate the performance of multi-cell assemblies. Joint assembly designs were optimized, and a filament winding machine was used to conduct the experimental study and to test individual cells. Failure mode analyses were conducted to determine local buckling and shear rupture. Tension, compression, and shear properties of the FRP materials were tested experimentally, and data from the test were then used to develop finite element models of the composite towers as well as to obtain load deflection curves and tip oscillation data. A case study of a 750 kW wind turbine in Churchill, Manitoba was used to test the design. tabs., figs.

  4. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  5. Creep equations for gas turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Preussler, T.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term high-temperature deformation behaviour of typical gas turbine materials can be described on the basis of a differentiated evaluation which takes the results from thermal tension tests, short-term creep tests with continuous extension measurement, long-term creep tests with discontinuous extension measurement as well as annealing tests with contraction measurement into account. By this, especially the 'negative creeping' can be controlled. Equations were developed for individual materials of the type IN-738 LC, IN-939, IN-100 and FSX-414, which describe the high-temperature deformation behaviour with consideration to the primary and secondary creeping and partly the tertiary creeping. The equations are valid in the entire application-relevant range, i.e. up to 100 000 h in the case of industrial turbine materials. (orig.) [de

  6. Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

  7. Airfoil selection methodology for Small Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgado Fuentes, Valentin; Troya, Cesar; Moreno, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    On wind turbine technology, the aerodynamic performance is fundamental to increase efficiency. Nowadays there are several databases with airfoils designed and simulated for different applications; that is why it is necessary to select those suitable for a specific application. This work presents...... a new methodology for airfoil selection used in feasibility and optimization of small wind turbines with low cut-in speed. On the first stage, airfoils data is tested on XFOIL software to check its compatibility with the simulator; then, arithmetic mean criteria is recursively used to discard...... underperformed airfoils; the best airfoil data was exported to Matlab for a deeper analysis. In the second part, data points were interpolated using "splines" to calculate glide ratio and stability across multiple angles of attack, those who present a bigger steadiness were conserved. As a result, 3 airfoils...

  8. Effect of the shaft on the aerodynamic performance of urban vertical axis wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaeiha, A.; Kalkman, I.; Montazeri, H.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2017-01-01

    The central shaft is an inseparable part of a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). For small turbines such as those typically used in urban environments, the shaft could operate in the subcritical regime, resulting in large drag and considerable aerodynamic power loss. The current study aims to (i)

  9. Renewable Energy and Negative Externalities: The Effect of Wind Turbines on House Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Koster, H.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    In many countries, wind turbines are constructed as part of a strategy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this paper, we measure the external effect of wind turbines on the transaction prices of nearby houses. A unique Dutch house price dataset covering the period 1985–2011 is used, as well as

  10. Renewable energy and negative externalities: the effect of wind turbines on house prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Koster, H.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, wind turbines are constructed as part of a strategy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this paper, we measure the external effect of wind turbines on the transaction prices of nearby houses. A unique house price dataset covering the period 1985-2011 is used, including the

  11. Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying the Criticality Index Model. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... This study has carefully shown and expressed a step by step computation of the severity level of the Turbine component parts, using the Criticality Index model.

  12. Iterative tuning of feedforward IPC for two-bladed wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, S.P.; van Solingen, E.; van Wingerden, J.W.; Beerens, J; Bossanyi, E.; Chaviaropoulos, T.; Cheng, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    At present, the cost of offshore wind energy does not meet the level of onshore wind and fossil-based energy sources. One way to extend the turbine lifetime, and thus reduce cost, is by reduction of the fatigue loads of blades and other turbine parts using Individual Pitch Control (IPC). This type

  13. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  14. Ceramics for Turbine Engine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    permet de travailler en compression. 2 - LES TURBINES CONTRAROTATIVES Connues depuis plus de 50 ans dsns lea turbines A vapeur (A grilles radiales) lea...AD-AO87 594 ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT--ETC F/6 11/2 CERAMICS FOR TURBINE ENGINE APPICATIONS.(U) MAR 8G H M GURTE, J...for Turbine Engine Applications ( X.,, ~LAJ DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY Ths ai’-t~ ~ru O ACK COVER forp"~ ~So’ 8 6 0 40 NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY

  15. Advanced LP turbine blade design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.; Pfeiffer, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1990-01-01

    In the 1960's and early 1970's, the development of steam turbines for the utility industry was mainly influenced by the demand for increasing unit sizes. Nuclear plants in particular, required the design of LP turbines with large annulus areas for substantial mass and volumetric steam flows. Since then the development of more efficient LP turbines became an ongoing challenge. Extensive R and D work was performed in order to build efficient and reliable LP turbines often exposed to severe corrosion, erosion and dynamic excitation conditions. This task led to the introduction of an advanced disk-type rotor design for 1800 rpm LP turbines and the application of a more efficient, reaction-type blading for all steam turbine sections including the first stages of LP turbines. The most recent developments have resulted in an advanced design of large LP turbine blading, typically used in the last three stages of each LP turbine flow section. Development of such blading required detailed knowledge of the three dimensional, largely transonic, flow conditions of saturated steam. Also the precise assessment of blade stressing from dynamic conditions, such as speed and torsional resonance, as well as stochastic and aerodynamic excitation is of extreme importance

  16. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  17. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  18. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  19. Small Wind Turbine Installation Compatibility Demonstration Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    wind turbine (HAWT) and one 2.9-kW vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), we planned to measure radar, acoustic and seismic, turbulence, bird and...non-issue for small turbines . The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind turbines are for large turbines (BPA 2002; Whittam...et al. 2010). The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind energy facil- ities are for utility-scale turbines (> 1 MW) with

  20. Transient Thunderstorm Downbursts and Their Effects on Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieu H. Nguyen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC Standard 61400-1 for the design of wind turbines does not explicitly address site-specific conditions associated with anomalous atmospheric events or conditions. Examples of off-standard atmospheric conditions include thunderstorm downbursts, hurricanes, tornadoes, low-level jets, etc. The simulation of thunderstorm downbursts and associated loads on a utility-scale wind turbine is the focus of this study. Since the problem has not received sufficient attention, especially in terms of design, we thus focus in this paper on practical aspects. A wind field model that incorporates component non-turbulent and turbulent parts is described and employed in inflow simulations. The non-turbulent part is based on an available analytical model with some modifications, while the turbulent part is simulated as a stochastic process using standard turbulence power spectral density functions and coherence functions whose defining parameters are related to the downburst characteristics such as the storm translation velocity. Available information on recorded downbursts is used to define two storm scenarios that are studied. Rotor loads are generated using stochastic simulation of the aeroelastic response of a model of a utility-scale 5-MW turbine. An illustrative single storm simulation and the associated turbine response are used to discuss load characteristics and to highlight storm-related and environmental parameters of interest. Extensive simulations for two downbursts are then conducted while varying the storm’s location and track relative to the turbine. Results suggest that wind turbine yaw and pitch control systems clearly influence overall system response. Results also highlight the important effects of both the turbulence as well as the downburst mean wind profiles on turbine extreme loads.

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Edward B; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Huso, Manuela M P; Szewczak, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21-51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  4. Control of variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    draIn this paper, a Control method suitable for a variable speed grid connected pitch-controlled wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is developed. The targets of the Control system are: 1) to Control the power drawn from the wind turbine in order to track the wind turbine optimum operation point 2) to limit the power in case of high wind speeds and 3) to Control the reactive power interchanged between the wind turbine generator and the grid. The considered configuration of DFIG is an induction generator with a wound rotor connected to the grid through a back-to-back power converter and a stator directly connected to the grid. The paper presents the overall Control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the Control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical Control level of the wind turbine. There are two Control levels: a DFIG Control level and wind turbine Control level. The DFIG Control level contains a fast Control of the power converter and of the doubly-fed induction generator and it has as goal to Control the active and reactive power of the wind turbine independently. The wind turbine Control level supervises with Control signals both the DFIG Control level and the hydraulic pitch Control system of the wind turbine. The present Control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The variable speed/variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, which makes possible to investigate the dynamic performance of gid-connected wind turbines as a part of realistic electrical grid models. Several significant simulation results are performed With the overall Control-implemented algorithm applied on a variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine model. (au)

  5. A review of bias flow liners for acoustic damping in gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, C.; Bake, F.

    2017-07-01

    The optimized design of bias flow liner is a key element for the development of low emission combustion systems in modern gas turbines and aero-engines. The research of bias flow liners has a fairly long history concerning both the parameter dependencies as well as the methods to model the acoustic behaviour of bias flow liners under the variety of different bias and grazing flow conditions. In order to establish an overview over the state of the art, this paper provides a comprehensive review about the published research on bias flow liners and modelling approaches with an extensive study of the most relevant parameters determining the acoustic behaviour of these liners. The paper starts with a historical description of available investigations aiming on the characterization of the bias flow absorption principle. This chronological compendium is extended by the recent and ongoing developments in this field. In a next step the fundamental acoustic property of bias flow liner in terms of the wall impedance is introduced and the different derivations and formulations of this impedance yielding the different published model descriptions are explained and compared. Finally, a parametric study reveals the most relevant parameters for the acoustic damping behaviour of bias flow liners and how this is reflected by the various model representations. Although the general trend of the investigated acoustic behaviour is captured by the different models fairly well for a certain range of parameters, in the transition region between the resonance dominated and the purely bias flow related regime all models lack the correct damping prediction. This seems to be connected to the proper implementation of the reactance as a function of bias flow Mach number.

  6. Turbine and Structural Seals Team Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Seals Team Facilities conceive, develop, and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. Current projects include...

  7. Economic feasibility of developing wind turbines in Aligoodarz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Mostafaeipour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Three hourly long term measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 for city of Aligoodarz in Iran was analyzed. • Wind power density and wind energy density of the region were estimated using Weibull distribution. • Performance of six different wind turbine models were analyzed. • Economic evaluation was performed and installing of E-3120 (50 kW) model turbine was suggested. - Abstract: This study evaluates the economic feasibility of electricity generation using wind turbines in city of Aligoodarz situated in the west part of Iran. For this purpose, the wind energy potential and its characteristics were assessed in terms of diurnal, monthly and annual analysis using five years measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 at 10 m height. The analysis results specified a nearly stable wind pattern in different hours and months of the year which demonstrated more suitability of the region for wind energy harnessing to meet the electricity demand in all time intervals throughout the year. According to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) wind power classification, the wind resource in Aligoodarz falls in class 3 and the location was recognized as a moderate location for wind energy development. The economic feasibility of six different wind turbines with rated powers ranging from 20 to 150 kW was evaluated. Among all turbines examined, the E-3120 wind turbine was introduced as the most attractive option for installation

  8. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative...... amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (2.3–3.6 MW) than for small turbines (≤ 2 MW), and the difference is statistically significant. The difference can also be expressed as a downward shift of the spectrum of approximately one-third of an octave. A further shift of similar size...... is suggested for future turbines in the 10-MW range. Due to the air absorption, the higher low-frequency content becomes even more pronounced, when sound pressure levels in relevant neighbor distances are considered. Even when A-weighted levels are considered, a substantial part of the noise is at low...

  9. 1000 MW steam turbine for Temelin nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1992-01-01

    Before the end 1991 the delivery was completed of the main parts (3 low-pressure sections and 1 high-pressure section, all of double-flow design) of the first full-speed (3000 r.p.m.) 1000 MW steam turbine for saturated admission steam for the Temelin nuclear power plant. Description of the turbine design and of new technologies and tools used in the manufacture are given. Basic technical parameters of the steam turbine are as follows: maximum output of steam generators 6060 th -1 ; maximum steam flow into turbine 5494.7 th -1 ; output of turbo-set 1024 MW; steam conditions before the turbine inlet: pressure 5.8 MPa, temperature 273.3 degC, steam wetness 0.5%; nominal temperature of cooling water 21 degC; temperature of feed water 220.8 degC; maximum consumption of heat from turbine for heating at 3-stage heating of heating water 60/150 degC. (Z.S.) 7 figs., 2 refs

  10. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  11. High-pressure turbine deposition in land-based gas turbines from various synfuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bons, J.P.; Crosby, J.; Wammack, J.E.; Bentley, B.I.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    Ash deposits from four candidate power turbine synfuels were studied in an accelerated deposition test facility. The facility matches the gas temperature and velocity of modern first-stage high-pressure turbine vanes. A natural gas combustor was seeded with finely ground fuel ash particulate from four different fuels: straw, sawdust, coal, and petroleum coke. The entrained ash particles were accelerated to a combustor exit flow Mach number of 0.31 before impinging on a thermal barrier coating (TBC) target coupon at 1150{sup o}C. Postexposure analyses included surface topography, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray spectroscopy. Due to significant differences in the chemical composition of the various fuel ash samples, deposit thickness and structure vary considerably for fuel. Biomass products (e.g., sawdust and straw) are significantly less prone to deposition than coal and petcoke for the same particle loading conditions. In a test simulating one turbine operating year at a moderate particulate loading of 0.02 parts per million by weight, deposit thickness from coal and petcoke ash exceeded 1 and 2 mm, respectively. These large deposits from coal and petcoke were found to detach readily from the turbine material with thermal cycling and handling. The smaller biomass deposit samples showed greater tenacity, in adhering to the TBC surface. In all cases, corrosive elements (e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, S) were found to penetrate the TBC layer during the accelerated deposition test. Implications for the power generation goal of fuel flexibility are discussed.

  12. Modular structure of wind turbine models in IEC 61400-27-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Andresen, Bjørn; Fortmann, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the modular structure of wind turbine models to be published in a new standard IEC 61400-27 for “Electrical simulation models for wind power generation”. The purpose of this standardization work is to define generic simulation models for wind turbines (Part 1) and wind power...... plants (Part 2), which are intended for short-term power system stability analyses. Part 1 has passed the first committee draft stage, whereas Part 2 is in an early stage of development. Initially, the paper describes the interfaces between wind turbine, wind power plant and grid models, and then gives...... a more detailed description of the modular structure of the types of wind turbines that are included in Part 1....

  13. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  14. Wind Turbine Acoustic Day 2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Søndergaard, Bo; Hünerbein, Sabine Von

    The bi-annual event entitled Wind Turbine Acoustic Day dealing with wind turbine noise issues organized by DTU Wind Energy took place on May, 17th 2018 as its third edition. The abstracts and slides for the presentations are reported....

  15. Technical diagnostics of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, B.; Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with practical experience in application of technical diagnostics methods to steam turbines, in particular using pedestal and shaft vibration measurements as well as estimation of bearing metal temperature and ultrasound emission signals. An estimation of effectiveness of the diagnostics methods used is given on the basis of experimental investigations made on a 30-MW turbine. (author)

  16. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  17. Wind turbine supply in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodin, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reported on wind turbine supplies to the Canadian market. The report was written to address concerns for Canada's supply outlook in the near future due to the booming wind energy market. Turbine shortages have arisen as a result of continued growth in both European and North American markets. Long lead-times on turbine orders are now increasing the pressure to lock in turbine supply during the initial phases of the development process. Future growth of the wind energy industry will be impacted if turbine supply difficulties continue to contribute to uncertainties in the development process. The report provided an overview of the North American and global wind energy markets, as well as a summary of telephone interviews conducted with turbine suppliers. The implications for the future of turbine supply to the Canadian market were also analyzed. It was concluded that policy-makers should focus on supporting the expansion of manufacturing facilities for small wind turbines and control infrastructure in Canada 7 refs., 3 figs

  18. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the

  19. Aeroservoelasticity of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovmose Kallesoee, B.

    2007-12-14

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand and address. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of an aeroelastic blade model which on the one hand includes the important effects of steady state blade deformation, gravity and pitch action, and on the other it is transparent, suitable for analytical analysis and parameter studies, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual terms in these equations are discussed and given physical interpretations; 2) Steady state blade deformation and induced velocities are computed by combining the PDEs with a steady state aerodynamic model; 3) Aeroelastic modes of motion are computed by combining the linearized PDEs with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model; this model is used to analyze how blade deformation effects the modes of motion; and 4) the linear aeroelastic blade model is derived by a modal expansion of the linearized PDEs combined with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model. The aeroelastic blade model has many similarities to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model is used to develop a state estimator for estimating the wind speed and wind shear, and to suggest a load reducing controller. The state estimator estimates the wind shear very

  20. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so...

  1. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  2. Megawatt wind turbines gaining momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, K.; Madsen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    Through the short history of the modern wind turbine, electric utilities have made it amply clear that they have held a preference for large scale wind turbines over smaller ones, which is why wind turbine builders through the years have made numerous attempts develop such machines - machines that would meet the technical, aesthetic and economic demands that a customer would require. Considerable effort was put into developing such wind turbines in the early 1980s. There was the U.S. Department of Energy's MOD 1-5 program, which ranged up to 3.2 MW, Denmark's Nibe A and B, 630 kW turbine and the 2 MW Tjaereborg machine, Sweden's Naesudden, 3 MW, and Germany's Growian, 3 MW. Most of these were dismal failures, though some did show the potential of MW technology. (au)

  3. Safety and Function Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

    2013-10-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Several turbines were selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include duration, power performance, acoustic noise, and power quality. Viryd Technologies, Inc. of Austin, Texas, was the recipient of the DOE grant and provided the turbine for testing.

  4. Genetic Algorithms in Wind Turbine Airfoil Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Bizzarrini, N.; Coiro, D.P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    One key element in the aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and thereby to reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of a wind turbine airfoil by using numerical optimization. Firstly, the optimization approach is presented; a genetic algorithm is used, coupled with RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints; in order to formalize in the most complete and effective way the design requirements, the effects of activating specific constraints are discussed. A numerical example regarding the design of a high efficiency airfoil for the outer part of a blade by using genetic algorithms is illustrated and the results are compared with existing wind turbine airfoils. Finally a new hybrid design strategy is illustrated and discussed, in which the genetic algorithms are used at the beginning of the design process to explore a wide domain. Then, the gradient based algorithms are used in order to improve the first stage optimum.

  5. Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, C; Fuglsang, P; Soerensen, N N; Aagaard Madsen, H [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Shen, Wen Zhong; Noerkaer Soerensen, J [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are based on four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotor with LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall at the tip is low and that it is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. The use of these characteristics in aeroelastic calculations shows a good agreement in power and flap moments with measurements. Furthermore, a fatigue analysis shows a reduction in the loads of up to 15 % compared to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFD computations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived that can be used to calculate mean values of power and loads. The lift in stall at the tip is low and at the root it is high compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. In particular the power curves were well calculated by use of the optimised airfoil characteristics. In the quasi-3D CFD computations, the airfoil characteristics are derived directly. This Navier-Stokes model takes into account rotational and 3D effects. The model enables the study of the rotational effect of a rotor blade at computing costs similar to what is typical for 2D airfoil calculations. The depicted results show that the model is capable of determining the correct qualitative behaviour for airfoils subject to rotation. The method shows that lift is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil

  6. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  7. 1000 MW steam turbine for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    Skoda Works started the manufacture of the 1000 MW steam turbine for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine will use saturated steam at 3,000 r.p.m. It will allow steam supply to heat water for district heating, this of an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at a temperature of 150/60 degC or of 570 MW for a two-stage heating at a temperature of 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized as concerns the thermal efficiency of the cycle and the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum flow rate of the steam entering the turbine. This is 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. It is expected that throughout the life of the turbine, there will be 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts following shutdown for 55 to 88 hours, and 600 starts following shutdown for 8 hours. (Z.M.). 8 figs., 1 ref

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1989. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Portable regenerative two-shaft radial turbine for electric power generation); 1989 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kahanshiki hatsuden'yo saisei nijikushiki radial turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    Research and development has been advanced on a ceramic gas turbine with an output of 300-kW class, and having thermal efficiency of 42% or higher. Activities were performed in the following three fields: 1) research of heat resistant ceramic members, 2) research of elementary technologies, and 3) studies on design, prototype fabrication, and operation. In Item 1, forming and sintering were performed on a scroll of large size difficult for forming, an output turbine nozzle, a gas generator turbine nozzle, a shroud and back-shroud for same to extract technological problems. In addition, discussions were given on a method to bond the rotor of the gas generator turbine with the shaft. In Item 2, elementary tests were given on the rotary heat-storage type heat exchanger which has high relative technological difficulty and requires a great amount of time for development, wherein the thermal efficiency was improved by improving the flow velocity distribution. Furthermore, a combustor for the metal gas turbine was developed. Specifications were established for a test device required for hot spin tests of the gas generator turbine and output turbine, and part of the device was fabricated. In Item 3, detailed design was made for the metallic basic-type gas turbine to become the master form of the turbine to be developed. (NEDO)

  9. ORCENT-2, Full Load Steam Turbine Cycle Thermodynamics for LWR Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ORCENT-2 performs heat and mass balance calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam, characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. The program handles both condensing and back-pressure turbine exhaust arrangements. Turbine performance calculations are based on the General Electric Company method for 1800-rpm large steam turbine- generators operating with light-water-cooled nuclear reactors. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. 2 - Method of solution: The turbine performance calculations follow the procedures outlined in General Electric report GET-6020. ORCENT-2 utilizes the 1967 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) formulations and procedures for calculating the properties of steam, adapted for ORNL use by D.W. Altom. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 12 feed-water heaters, 5 moisture removal stages in the low-pressure turbine section. ORCENT-2 is limited to 1800-rpm tandem-compound turbine-generators with single- or double-flow high pressure sections and one, two, or three double-flow low-pressure turbine sections. Steam supply for LWR cycles should be between 900 and 1100 psia and slightly wet to 100 degrees F of initial superheat. Generator rating should be greater than 100 MVA

  10. Consequences of variations in spatial turbulence characteristics for fatigue life time of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.

    1998-09-01

    The fatigue loading of turbines situated in complex terrain is investigated in order to determine the crucial parameters in the spatial structure of the turbulence in such situations. The parameter study is performed by means of numerical calculations, and it embraces three different wind turbine types, representing a pitch controlled concept, a stall controlled concept, and a stall controlled concept with an extremely flexible tower. For each of the turbine concepts, the fatigue load sensibility to the selected turbulence characteristics are investigated for three different mean wind speeds at hub height. The selected mean wind speeds represent the linear-, the stall-, and the post stall aerodynamic region for the stall controlled turbines and analogously the unregulated-, the partly regulated-, and the fully regulated regime for the pitch controlled turbine. Denoting the turbulence component in the mean wind direction by u, the lateral turbulence component by v, and the vertical turbulence component by w, the selected turbulence characteristics comprise the u-turbulence length scale, the ratio between the v- and w-turbulence intensities and the u-turbulence intensity, the uu-coherence decay factor, and finally the u-v and u-w cross-correlations. The turbulence length scale in the mean wind direction gives rise to significant modification of the fatigue loading on all the investigated wind turbine concepts, but for the other selected parameter variations, large individual differences exists between the turbines. With respect to sensitivity to the performed parameter variations, the Vestas V39 wind turbine is the most robust of the investigated turbines. The Nordtank 500/37 turbine, equipped with the (artificial) soft tower, is by far the most sensitive of the investigated turbine concepts - also much more sensitive than the conventional Nordtank 500/37 turbine equipped with a traditional tower. (au) 2 tabs., 43 ills., 7 refs.

  11. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  12. Wind turbine aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

  13. Wind turbine power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-11-01

    The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW's) policy on wind turbine power stations needs to be read in the context of CCW's document Energy:Policy and perspectives for the Welsh countryside. This identifies four levels of action aimed at reducing emission of gases which contribute towards the risk of global warming and gases which cause acid deposition. These are: the need for investment in energy efficiency; the need for investment in conventional power generation in order to meet the highest environmental standards; the need for investment in renewable energy; and the need to use land use transportation policies and decisions to ensure energy efficiency and energy conservation. CCW views wind turbine power stations, along with other renewable energy systems, within this framework. CCW's policy is to welcome the exploitation of renewable energy sources as an element in a complete and environmentally sensitive energy policy, subject to the Environmental Assessment of individual schemes and monitoring of the long-term impact of the various technologies involved. (Author)

  14. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  15. GAPHAT-II, program for outlined analysis of wind turbines. Part 1: model description and verification. GAPHAT-II, programma voor globale analyses van windturbines. Deel 1: Modelbeschrijving en verificatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, J.G.

    1988-05-01

    The second version of the program GAPHAT (Outlined Analysis Program Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines) is discussed. The program can be used for investigated analysis and gives the following results: 1. aerodynamical coefficients as functions of high-speed, blade angle and rotor azimuth angle; 2. loads in the heart of the blade and on the rotor axis as function of the time; 3. dynamic behavior at different adjustments. The aerodynamic loads follow a combination of linear momentum theory and blade element theory. The resulting equations are calculated with a quadratic equation with the inflow angle as an unknown. Summation of aerodynamic, innate weight and centrifugal loads gives the total loads. For the blade angle control a few general models were developed: an active on/off control for power and a PID control for linear speed (PID is proportional, integral and differential control). Calculations of aerodynamic coefficients and of loads in the heart of the blade were compared to calculations with the program PHATAS-I. The differences are less than 10% in most cases. 16 figs., 7 refs., 1 tab

  16. Progress Toward a Microfabricated Gas Turbine Generator for Soldier Portable Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, S. A; Das, S; Savoulides, N; Steyn, J. L; Lang, J; Li, H. Q; Livermore, C; Schmidt, M. A; Teo, C. J; Umans, S. D; Epstein, A. H; Arnold, D. P; Park, J-W; Zana, I; Allen, M. G

    2004-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) turbocharger and electric generator devices have been fabricated and tested as part of a program at MIT to develop a microfabricated gas turbine generator for portable power applications...

  17. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  18. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  19. The Problem of Ensuring Reliability of Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozhnitsky, Yu A.

    2018-01-01

    Requirements to advanced engines for civil aviation are discussing. Some significant problems of ensuring reliability of advanced gas turbine engines are mentioned. Special attention is paid to successful utilization of new materials and critical technologies. Also the problem of excluding failure of engine part due to low cycle or high cycle fatigue is discussing.

  20. Simulations of wind turbine rotor with vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents simulations of the DTU 10MW wind turbine rotor equipped with vortex generators (VGs) on the inner part of the blades. The objective is to study the influence of different VG configurations on rotor performance and in particular to investigate the radial dependence of VGs, i...

  1. Biomimetic Wind Turbine Design with Lift Enhancing Periodic Stall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, Eize Jan

    2017-01-01

    A wind turbine includes a rotor; a blade; and a periodic stall system. The periodic stall system selectively moves at least part of the blade in an oscillating motion whereby an angle of incidence continuously varies to invoke periodic stall. The periodic stall system can move the entire blade or

  2. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.; Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, P.

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. The report...

  3. Composite ceramic blade for a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossmann, A; Hoffmueller, W; Krueger, W

    1980-06-26

    The gas turbine blade consists of a supporting metal core which has at its lower end a modelled root and a profile blade made of ceramics enclosing it at some distance. The invention deals with a reliable connection between these two parts of the rotor blade: from the top end of the blade core a head protrudes supporting the thin-walled profile blade from below with a projection each pointing into the interior. The design of the projections and supporting surfaces is described and illustrated by drawings.

  4. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  5. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravec Prokop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  6. Steam turbines for PWR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscroft, J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements and mechanical design features applying to modern GEC 3000 rev/min steam turbines for pressurised water reactor power stations are reviewed. The most recent developments include machines of 630 MW and 985 MW output which are currently under construction. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines associated with a variety of types of water cooled reactor and its relevance to the design of modern 3000 rev/min turbines for pressurised water reactor applications is emphasised. (author)

  7. Calculation of wind turbine mechanical noise transmitted through the wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinther, S.; Kristensen, E.; Johansen, S.; Dam Madsen, K.

    2001-10-01

    A method for calculation of transmission noise radiated from the wind turbine blades has been established. The method is based on a numerical model describing the transmission of vibrations from the gear through the main shaft to the blades. In this project 1 MW and 2 MW wind turbines from BONUS Energy A/S are used as test cases. The numerical model offers the possibility of optimising the transmission system to avoid coincidence between gear excitation frequencies and natural frequencies of the blades. The optimisation can be reached by altering stiffness, mass and damping values for the different elements of the model. The numerical model needs experimental validation and supplementary determination of sound radiation factors for the blades. Therefore, a series of test methods have been developed and tried out. In a test rig for wind turbine, blades dynamic characteristicts and sound radiation factors for the blades were determined. On a 2 MW turbine tests were carried out during normal operation of the turbine. The shaft between the generator and the gearbox was excited in torsion by a hydraulic torsion exciter, and simultaneous response measurements of vibrations on one of the blades were made to estimate frequency response functions between gear and discrete points on the blade. The individual parts of the method have been tested, and the method showed out to supply valuable information about the different means for minimising radiation of transmission noise from the wind turbine blades. In future optimisation of the method, emphasis will be concentrated on the experimental validation provided by measurements on the operating wind turbine to provide a more certain validation of the numerical model. (au)

  8. Detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerlemans, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines using phased microphone arrays. First, the reliability of the array technique is assessed using airframe noise measurements in open and closed wind tunnels. It is demonstrated that quantitative acoustic measurements are possible in both wind tunnels. Then, the array technique is applied to characterize the noise sources on two modern large wind turbines. It is shown that practically all noise emitted to the ground is produced by the outer part of the blades during their downward movement. This asymmetric source pattern, which causes the typical swishing noise during the passage of the blades, can be explained by trailing edge noise directivity and convective amplification. Next, a semi-empirical prediction method is developed for the noise from large wind turbines. The prediction code is successfully validated against the experimental results, not only with regard to sound levels, spectra, and directivity, but also with regard to the noise source distribution in the rotor plane and the temporal variation in sound level (swish). The validated prediction method is then applied to calculate wind turbine noise footprints, which show that large swish amplitudes can occur even at large distance. The influence of airfoil shape on blade noise is investigated through acoustic wind tunnel tests on a series of wind turbine airfoils. Measurements are carried out at various wind speeds and angles of attack, with and without upstream turbulence and boundary layer tripping. The speed dependence, directivity, and tonal behaviour are determined for both trailing edge noise and inflow turbulence noise. Finally, two noise reduction concepts are tested on a large wind turbine: acoustically optimized airfoils and trailing edge serrations. Both blade modifications yield a significant trailing edge noise reduction at low frequencies, but also cause increased tip noise at high frequencies

  9. Gas turbines with complete continuous combustion of the fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C

    1976-10-21

    The invention concerns a gas turbine plant with complete continuous combustion of the fuel. The fuel is taken to a gas generator in which the preheated fuel is catalytically converted at high temperature in a fuel mixture using an oxygen carrier. Heating of the fuel takes place in a heat exchanger which is situated in the outlet pipe of the turbine. The efficiency is increased and the emission of noxious gas is kept as low as possible using the heat exchanger as a fuel evaporator and by using part of the waste formed in the combustion chamber to carry oxygen to the gas generator via an outlet pipe.

  10. Effects of finite aspect ratio on wind turbine airfoil measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiefer, Janik; Miller, Mark A.; Hultmark, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines partly operate in stalled conditions within their operational cycle. To simulate these conditions, it is also necessary to obtain 2-D airfoil data in terms of lift and drag coefficients at high angles of attack. Such data has been obtained previously, but often at low aspect ratios...... and only barely past the stall point, where strong wall boundary layer influence is expected. In this study, the influence of the wall boundary layer on 2D airfoil data, especially in the post stall domain, is investigated. Here, a wind turbine airfoil is tested at different angles of attack and with two...

  11. Optimization and Reliability Problems in Structural Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    are discussed. Limit state equations are presented for fatigue limit states and for ultimate limit states with extreme wind load, and illustrated by bending failure. Illustrative examples are presented, and as a part of the results optimal reliability levels are obtained which corresponds to an annual...... reliability index equal to 3. An example with fatigue failure indicates that the reliability level is almost the same for single wind turbines and for wind turbines in wind farms if the wake effects are modeled equivalently in the design equation and the limit state equation....

  12. Bird casualties and wind turbines near the Kreekrak sluices of Zeeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musters, C.J.M.; Noordervliet, M.A.W.; Ter Keurs, W.J.

    1995-03-01

    The impact of wind turbines on birds was investigated for an estuary, situated near the North Sea coast in the Dutch province of Zeeland, with large amount of bird migration. Five 250 kW, three-bladed 25m, 40 rpm turbines were installed on the western side of a dike. The distance between the turbines is 125 m. Since 1 April 1990 the turbines have been in action almost continuously. The study on the title subject was set up to investigate the number of bird casualties caused by the five wind turbines near the sluices of Kreekrak and the number that may be expected to be caused by a total of 20 turbines. The study also focused on the number of casualties among rare birds in relation to those among the common birds as a result of the wind turbines in the Kreekrak area. An area of 125 x 125 m around each wind turbine, consisting partly of land and partly of water, was searched for dead birds every other day during a period of one year (28 April 1990 - 29 April 1991). During this one-year period, the bodies of 26 birds of 17 different species were found; six birds were certainly or almost certainly killed by the turbines. In three other cases, the birds may have died because of the turbines, while in the case of eight birds, it was not possible to determine the cause of death. The remaining nine birds were not killed by the wind turbines. The annual number of bird victims expected following the installation of 20 wind turbines was estimated at a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 142. For each species a correlation was found between the number of victims and the estimated number of visitors to the area. This suggests that the rare species among the birds were not excessively endangered by the turbines. The number of bird casualties per turbine was low in comparison with the results of other Dutch investigations. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that there is no reason to advise against increasing the number of wind turbines near the sluices of Kreekrak to 20. 3

  13. Remote condition-based monitoring of turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' Turbines are one of the most expensive and critical pieces of equipment at a power generation facility. With high pressure stages that operate at up to 3500 psi and turn at speeds of up to 3600 rpm, minimal shaft misalignment, bearing wear, or other part breakdown can have catastrophic results. The results can include significant consequential damage to the turbine and other nearby equipment, extensive downtime for repair and purchase of replacement power, and potentially injury or death. Due to these enormous risks, virtually all turbines have built-in protection systems (e.g., Bentley Neveda, Vibro-Meter, etc.). These systems typically monitor peak-to-peak displacement of the shaft with proximity probes. Proximity probes monitor the relative motion between the shaft and the bearings. When the peak-to-peak motion exceeds a predetermined value (e.g., max peak of 7-10 mils) the protection device immediately sends a signal to shutdown the turbine. This may happen without warning, but more often there is an impending failure that develops over time from a degrading part or component. The part or component will almost invariably create abnormal movement in the system, resulting in a noticeable and detectable change in the equipment signatures (e.g., vibration, shaft 'orbit,' DC gap voltage). The protection devices usually provide information on the overall vibration trend of the turbine. While knowing the overall vibration within the system is a valuable metric, it has limited value as a diagnostic tool. It is the equivalent of a cardiologist having access only to a patient's pulse rate. The pulse rate may be significantly above normal, but - without more data - the cardiologist knows little more than that there is an impending problem. To better diagnose impending problems with a turbine, the following parameters are key: Vibration Trend: The vibration experienced by the shaft as a function of time; Spectrum: Displacement as a function of frequency at a

  14. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  15. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel...... method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. Theairfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental...... data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible forthe poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads...

  16. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  17. Simulation of gas turbines operating in off-design condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Arnaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: walter@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In many countries thermal power plants based on gas turbines have been the main option for new investment into the electric system due to their relatively high efficiency and low capital cost. Cogeneration systems based on gas turbines have also been an important option for the electric industry. Feasibility studies of power plants based on gas turbine should consider the effect of atmospheric conditions and part-load operation on the machine performance. Doing this, an off-design procedure is required. A G T off-design simulation procedure is described in this paper. Ruston R M was used to validate the simulation procedure that, general sense, presents deviations lower than 2.5% in comparison to manufacturer's data. (author)

  18. Power-generation method using combined gas and steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C; Radtke, K; Keller, H J

    1997-03-20

    The invention concerns a method of power generation using a so-called COGAS (combined gas and steam) turbine installation, the aim being to improve the method with regard to the initial costs and energy consumption so that power can be generated as cheaply as possible. This is achieved by virtue of the fact that air taken from the surrounding atmosphere is splint into an essentially oxygen-containing stream and an essentially nitrogen-containing stream and the two streams fed further at approximately atmospheric pressure. The essentially nitrogen-containing stream is mixed with an air stream to form a mixed nitrogen/air stream and the mixed-gas stream thus produced is brought to combustion chamber pressure in the compressor of the gas turbine, the combustion of the combustion gases in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine being carried out with the greater part of this compressed mixed-gas stream. (author) figs.

  19. Prediction of dynamic blade loading of the Francis-99 turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolle, J; Cupillard, S

    2015-01-01

    CFD simulations focusing on capturing dynamic fluctuations of the flow for three operating points were performed for a scale model of a high head Francis turbine. A mesh sensitivity study showed an influence of the near wall resolution, consequently a low Reynolds mesh with a SST turbulence model was used. Rotor/stator fluctuations are well reproduced with the full turbine simulation at all operating points. Velocity contours and average velocity profiles from LDV measurements in the draft tube confirm that the flow physics is generally well reproduced. Simplified approaches such as profile transform and Fourier transform underestimated the measured fluctuations. As full turbine simulations were time-consuming, a simulation with only the draft tube was performed at part load to predict the fluctuations in the draft tube cone. The SAS-SST turbulence model was able to capture the vortex rope behavior

  20. Usage of Numerical Optimization in Wind Turbine Airfoil Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    One important key element in the aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and thereby to reduce the cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of a wind turbine airfoil by using numerical optimization. First, the requirements for this class of airfoils are illustrated and discussed in order to have an exhaustive outline of the complexity of the problem. Then the optimization approach is presented; a gradient-based algorithm is used, coupled with RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints; to formalize the design requirements in the most complete and effective way, the effects of activating specific constraints are discussed. Finally, a numerical example regarding the design of a high-efficiency airfoil for the outer part of a blade is illustrated, and the results are compared with existing wind turbine airfoils.

  1. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  2. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  3. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Toft, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic design of wind turbines requires definition of the structural elements to be included in the probabilistic basis: e.g., blades, tower, foundation; identification of important failure modes; careful stochastic modeling of the uncertain parameters; recommendations for target reliability....... It is described how uncertainties in wind turbine design related to computational models, statistical data from test specimens, results from a few full-scale tests and from prototype wind turbines can be accounted for using the Maximum Likelihood Method and a Bayesian approach. Assessment of the optimal...... reliability level by cost-benefit optimization is illustrated by an offshore wind turbine example. Uncertainty modeling is illustrated by an example where physical, statistical and model uncertainties are estimated....

  4. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  5. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  6. Guidelines on the environmental risk of wind turbines in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, H.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.

    2004-02-01

    A structural failure of a wind turbine might lead to loss of blade (or parts of it) and thus cause a risk to nearby people and property. In the Netherlands, more densely populated areas are considered to achieve the target set by the Dutch government of implementing 1,500 MW wind power onshore. Because of the public opinion locations close to highways, railways, canals or existing industrial zones are preferred. This development brings about that the risk of wind turbines for the environment becomes more significant as more people might be present near a wind turbine for a longer period. To deal with risks of wind turbine in a rational manner, a handbook with procedures for the risk assessment of wind turbines has been drawn up by order of Novem (the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment). This paper discusses the contents of the handbook and the status of the handbook in the legal framework

  7. Advanced modelling of doubly fed induction generator wind turbine under network disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seman, S.; Iov, Florin; Niiranen, J.

    This paper presents a variable speed wind turbine simulator. The simulator is used for a 2 MW wind turbine transient behavior study during a short-term symmetrical network disturbance. The mechanical part of wind turbine model consists of the rotor aerodynamic model, the wind turbine control...... converter, the model of the main transformer and a simple model of the grid. The simulation results obtained by means of the detailed wind turbine model are compared with the results obtained from a simplified simulator with an analytical model and FEM model of DFIG. The comparison of the results shows...... and the drive train model. The Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is represented by an analytical two-axis model with constant lumped parameters and by Finite Element Method (FEM) based model. The model of the DFIG is coupled with the model of the passive crowbar protected and DTC controlled frequency...

  8. The effect of OK-432 (Picibanil) injection on the histopathology of nasal turbinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, S; Kaygusuz, I; Akin, M M; Yalcin, Ş; Karlidag, T; Keles, E; Arslan, I

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the histopathological effect of OK-432 (Picibanil) on rabbit nasal turbinates. A total of 21 rabbits were divided into 3 treatment groups and various parts of both nasal turbinates were injected with 0.5 ml OK-432, 0.2 ml OK-432 or 0.6 ml saline (control). Bilateral nasal turbinates were later excised and studied under light microscopy to assess any histopathological changes. Animals in the 0.2 ml and 0.5 ml OK-432 groups exhibited mild ciliary loss, goblet cell loss and epithelial damage, and a marked increase in inflammatory cell infiltration, submucosal vascularisation and fibrosis. There was a significant difference in histopathological changes between the two OK-432 treated groups. In addition, each OK-432 treated group had significantly more inflammatory cell infiltration, increased submucosal vascularisation and fibrosis compared with controls. The marked fibrosis observed in OK-432-injected turbinates may be responsible for a reduction in turbinate size.

  9. A new generation of wind turbines; Une nouvelle generation d'eoliennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nica, H. [Tesnic, Laval, PQ (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Although homeowners have expressed a desire to use wind energy to supply their electricity needs, many technical barriers have stood in the way of installing wind turbines in urban settings. This was due in part to three-bladed vertical axis turbines, high technical costs, limited performances in urban settings and questionable aesthetics. Tesnic has considered these issues and proposed a completely different turbine that uses a different method for extracting energy from the wind. The first approved 3.6 kW model should appear by the end of 2009. This new turbine is based on the same principal of the steam turbine patented in 1913 by Nikola Tesla. Instead of having blades, the Tesla turbine used closely spaced parallel disks and was recognized as being very robust with a high efficiency rating. Tesnic's new wind powered turbine is a vertical axis turbine with a series of valves that directs the wind on a rotor assembly of disk space. A series of blades on its circumference redirects the wind through the assembly of discs and accelerates the rotation of the rotor. The turbine extracts the wind energy in several ways, including conventional drag and lift, adherence and the vortex effect. This gives a 50 per cent added value of efficiency compared to other wind powered turbines. The global market for small wind powered energy is in full expansion. It has been projected that small turbines with 1 kW capacity will be abundant by 2020. It was noted that for household wind powered energy, the market must consider issues of cost, low maintenance, noise pollution, visual aesthetics, durability and safety. Wind energy can also be used in several industries, including plastics, composites, light metals, textiles and electronics. 2 figs.

  10. Design and aero-acoustic analysis of a counter-rotating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vineesh V.

    Wind turbines have become an integral part of the energy business because they are one of the most economical and reliable sources of renewable energy. Conventional wind turbines are capable of capturing less than half of the energy present in the wind. Hence, to make the wind turbines more efficient, it is important to increase their performance. A horizontal axis wind turbine with multiple rotors is one concept that can achieve a higher power conversion rate. Also, a concern for wind energy is the noise generated by wind turbines. Hence, an investigation into the acoustic behavior of a multi-rotor horizontal axis wind turbine is required. In response to the need of a wind turbine design with higher power coefficient, a unique design of a counter-rotating horizontal axis wind turbine (CR-HAWT) is proposed. The Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory is used to aerodynamically design the blades of the two rotors. Modifications are made to the BEM theory to accommodate the interaction of the two rotors. The tower effect on the noise generation of the downwind rotor is investigated. Predictions are made for the total noise generated by the wind turbine at its design operating conditions. A total power coefficient of 65.2% is predicted for the proposed CR-HAWT design. A low tip speed ratio is chosen to minimize the noise generation. The aeroacoustic analysis of the CR-HAWT shows that the noise generated at its design operating conditions is within an acceptable range. Thus, the CR-HAWT is predicted to be a quiet wind turbine with a high power coefficient, making it highly desirable for small wind turbine applications.

  11. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C.; Jauch, C.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2003-12-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1. Active stall wind turbine with induction generator 2. Variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations. (au)

  12. CFD analysis of a Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Pricop, M. V.; Pepelea, D.; Dumitrache, A.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    The Darrieus wind turbine has some advantages over the horizontal-axis wind turbine. Firstly, its tip speed ratio is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine and, therefore, its noise is smaller, privileging their placement near populated areas. Secondly, the Darrieus wind turbine does needs no orientation mechanism with respect to wind direction in contrast to the horizontal-axis wind turbine. However, the efficiency of the Darrieus wind turbine is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine since its aerodynamics is much more complex. With the advances in computational fluids and computers, it is possible to simulate the Darrieus wind turbine more accurately to understand better its aerodynamics. For these reasons, the present papers deals with the computational aerodynamics of a Darrieus wind turbine applying the state of the art of CFD methods (anisotropic turbulence models, transition from laminar to turbulent, scale adaptive simulation) to better understand its unsteady behavior.

  13. Variable Pitch Darrieus Water Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirke, Brian; Lazauskas, Leo

    In recent years the Darrieus wind turbine concept has been adapted for use in water, either as a hydrokinetic turbine converting the kinetic energy of a moving fluid in open flow like an underwater wind turbine, or in a low head or ducted arrangement where flow is confined, streamtube expansion is controlled and efficiency is not subject to the Betz limit. Conventional fixed pitch Darrieus turbines suffer from two drawbacks, (i) low starting torque and (ii) shaking due to cyclical variations in blade angle of attack. Ventilation and cavitation can also cause problems in water turbines when blade velocities are high. Shaking can be largely overcome by the use of helical blades, but these do not produce large starting torque. Variable pitch can produce high starting torque and high efficiency, and by suitable choice of pitch regime, shaking can be minimized but not entirely eliminated. Ventilation can be prevented by avoiding operation close to a free surface, and cavitation can be prevented by limiting blade velocities. This paper summarizes recent developments in Darrieus water turbines, some problems and some possible solutions.

  14. Noise immission from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The project has dealt with practical ways to reduce the influence of background noise caused by wind acting on the measuring microphones. The uncertainty of measured noise emission (source strength) has been investigated. The main activity was a Round Robin Test involving measurements by five laboratories at the same wind turbine. Each laboratory brought its own instrumentation and performed the measurements and analyses according to their interpretation. The tonality of wind turbine noise is an essential component of the noise impact on the environment. In the present project the uncertainty in the newest existing methods for assessing tonality was investigated. The project included noise propagation measurements in different weather conditions around wind turbines situated in different types of terrain. The results were used to validate a noise propagation model developed in the project. Finally, the project also included a study with listeners evaluating recordings of wind turbine noise. The results are intended as guidance for wind turbine manufacturers in identifying the aspects of wind turbine noise most important to annoyance. (author)

  15. Improving fish survival through turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs

  16. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, T; Brask, M H [DEFU (Denmark); Jensen, F V; Raben, N [SEAS (Denmark); Saxov, J [Nordjyllandsvaerket (Denmark); Nielsen, L [Vestkraft (Denmark); Soerensen, P E [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Lightning damage to wind turbines is a serious problem for Danish power companies, who have experienced some cases with very costly lightning damage and a large number of cases with minor damage. The most costly cases include one catastrophic damage to an entire wind turbine, and several cases of destruction of blades, main bearings, generators and control systems. Over the years there have been several hundreds of cases with minor damage - typically damage and interruptions of the control and communication systems, or the power systems. The Danish power companies anticipate that the lightning threat will be even bigger for the large off-shore wind turbine installations that are currently being planned in Denmark. Furthermore, it is known from the off-shore wind turbines at Vindeby in Denmark that the costs of inspection and particularly repair work must be expected to be much higher off-shore as compared to wind turbines on land. These considerations was the background for a two year project concerned with investigation of lighting damages and with the formulation of a DEFU Recommendation for lightning protection of wind turbines, which was published in January 1999. The project was funded by the Danish power companies Elsam, Eltra, Elkraft and by DEFU. (au)

  17. Collecting Currents with Water Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Allen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Our science poster is inspired by Florida Atlantic University's recent program to develop three types of renewable energy. They are using water turbines and the Gulf Stream Current to produce a renewable energy source. Wave, tidal and current driven energy. Our poster is called "Collecting Currents with Water Turbines". In our science poster, the purpose was to see which turbine design could produce the most power. We tested three different variables, the number of blades (four, six, and eight), the material of the blades and the shape of the blades. To test which number of blades produced the most power we cut slits into a cork. We used plastic from a soda bottle to make the blades and then we put the blades in the cork to make the turbines. We observed each blade and how much time it took for the water turbines to pull up 5 pennies. Currently water turbines are used in dams to make hydroelectric energy. But with FAU we could understand how to harness the Gulf Stream current off Florida's coast we could soon have new forms of renewable energy.

  18. Future development of large steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevance, A.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to forecast the future of the large steam turbines till 1985. Three parameters affect the development of large turbines: 1) unit output; and a 2000 to 2500MW output may be scheduled; 2) steam quality: and two steam qualities may be considered: medium pressure saturated or slightly overheated steam (light water, heavy water); light enthalpie drop, high pressure steam, high temperature; high enthalpic drop; and 3) the quality of cooling supply. The largest range to be considered might be: open system cooling for sea-sites; humid tower cooling and dry tower cooling. Bi-fluid cooling cycles should be also mentioned. From the study of these influencing factors, it appears that the constructor, for an output of about 2500MW should have at his disposal the followings: two construction technologies for inlet parts and for high and intermediate pressure parts corresponding to both steam qualities; exhaust sections suitable for the different qualities of cooling supply. The two construction technologies with the two steam qualities already exist and involve no major developments. But, the exhaust section sets the question of rotational speed [fr

  19. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines – additional data and assessment of new Danish regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    turbines in Denmark. In this study, the data material has been increased to include more data on noise from modern production turbines up to 5 MW. In addition, the new Danish regulations are assessed. The previous result that the relative amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (> 2 MW...... frequencies, and for several of the investigated large turbines, the one-third-octave band with the highest level is at or below 250 Hz. It is thus beyond any doubt that the low-frequency part of the spectrum plays an important role in the noise at the neighbors. The new Danish regulation is based...

  20. WINDFARMperception. Visual and acoustic impact of wind turbine farms on residents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Frits van den (Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)); Pedersen, Eja (Dept. of Public Health and Community Medicine, Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bouma, Jelte; Bakker, Roel (Northern Centre for Health Care Research, Univ. Medical Centre, Groningen (Netherlands))

    2008-06-15

    This report gives the results of the EU financed study WINDFARMperception on how residents perceive a wind farm in their living environment as far as sound and sight are concerned. The study includes a postal survey among Dutch residents (n = 725, response rate: 37%) and an assessment of their aural and visual exposure due to wind farms in their vicinity. The study group was selected from all residents in the Netherlands within 2.5 km from a wind turbine. As the study aimed to study modern wind farms, wind turbines were selected with an electric capacity of 500 kW or more and one or more turbines within 500 m from the first. Excluded were wind turbines that were erected or replaced in the year preceding the survey. Respondents were exposed to levels of wind turbine sound between 24 and 54 dBA and wind turbines at distances from 17 m to 2.1 km. The (angular) height of the biggest wind turbine ranged from 2 degrees to 79 degrees, with an average value of 10 degrees (the height of a CD box, looking at the front at arm's length). The wind turbines occupied on average 2% of the space above the horizon. The percentage of respondents that were annoyed by the sound also increased with sound level up to 40 to 45 dBA and then decreased. Respondents with economic benefits reported almost no annoyance. This in part explains the decrease in annoyance at high sound levels: above 45 dBA, i.e. close to wind turbines, the majority of respondents have economical benefits. There is no indication that the sound from wind turbines had an effect on respondents' health, except for the interruption of sleep. At high levels of wind turbine sound (more than 45 dBA) interruption of sleep was more likely than at low levels. Higher levels of background sound from road traffic also increased the odds for interrupted sleep. Annoyance from wind turbine sound was related to difficulties with falling asleep and to higher stress scores. From this study it cannot be concluded whether these

  1. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    Wind turbines play a major role in the transformation from a fossil fuel based energy production to a more sustainable production of energy. Total-cost-of-ownership is an important parameter when investors decide in which energy technology they should place their capital. Modern wind turbines...... the need for maintenance of the wind turbine. Either way, better total-cost-of-ownership for wind turbine operators can be achieved by improved control of the wind turbines. Wind turbine control can be improved in two ways, by improving the model on which the controller bases its design or by improving...

  2. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  3. Dynamic performance of a combined gas turbine and air bottoming cycle plant for off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, Alberto; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    and a combined gas turbine coupled with an air bottoming cycle plant. The case study is the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform, located in the North Sea, Norway. The normal electricity demand is 19 MW, currently covered by two gas turbines generating each 50% of the power demand, while the third turbine......When the Norwegian government introduced the CO2 tax for hydrocarbon fuels, the challenge became to improve the performance of off-shore power systems. An oil and gas platform typically operates on an island (stand-alone system) and the power demand is covered by two or more gas turbines. In order...... to improve the plant performance, a bottoming cycle unit can be added to the gas turbine topping module, thus constituting a combined cycle plant. This paper aims at developing and testing the numerical model simulating the part-load and dynamic behavior of a novel power system, composed of two gas turbines...

  4. The beat is getting stronger : The effect of atmospheric stability on low frequency modulated sound of wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G P

    2005-01-01

    Sound from wind turbines involves a number of sound production mechanisms related to different interactions between the turbine blades and the air. An important contribution to the low frequency part of the sound spectrum is due to the sudden variation in air flow which the blade encounters when it

  5. Thermo-acoustic characterization of the burner-turbine interface in a can-annular combustor using CFD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farisco, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Thermo-acoustic instabilities in high power density gas turbine engines need to be understood to avoid unexpected shutdown events. This dissertation is focused on the combustor-turbine interaction for acoustic waves. The first part of the study is based on the acoustic reflection coefficient

  6. Axial Turbine Aerodynamic Design of Small Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Seok; Lee, Wu Sang; Ryu, Je Wook

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the aerodynamic design procedure for the axial turbines of a small heavy-duty gas turbine engine being developed by Docosan Heavy Industries. The design procedure mainly consists of three parts: namely, flow path design, airfoil design, and 3a performance calculation. To design the optimized flow path, through flow calculations as well as the loss estimation are widely used to evaluate the effect of geometric variables, for example, shape of meridional plane, mean radius, blades axial gap, and had angle. During the airfoil design procedure, the optimum number of blades is calculated by empirical correlations based on the in/outlet flow angles, and then 2a airfoil planar sections are designed carefully, followed by 2a B2 NS calculations. The designed planar sections are stacked along the span wise direction, leading to a 3a surfaced airfoil shape. To consider the 3a effect on turbine performance, 3a multistage Euler calculation, single row, and multistage NS calculations are performed

  7. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  8. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  9. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  10. High temperature turbine engine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, W.D.; Boyd, G.L.

    1993-07-20

    A hybrid ceramic/metallic gas turbine is described comprising; a housing defining an inlet, an outlet, and a flow path communicating the inlet with the outlet for conveying a flow of fluid through the housing, a rotor member journaled by the housing in the flow path, the rotor member including a compressor rotor portion rotatively inducting ambient air via the inlet and delivering this air pressurized to the flow path downstream of the compressor rotor, a combustor disposed in the flow path downstream of the compressor receiving the pressurized air along with a supply of fuel to maintain combustion providing a flow of high temperature pressurized combustion products in the flow path downstream thereof, the rotor member including a turbine rotor portion disposed in the flow path downstream of the combustor and rotatively expanding the combustion products toward ambient for flow from the turbine engine via the outlet, the turbine rotor portion providing shaft power driving the compressor rotor portion and an output shaft portion of the rotor member, a disk-like metallic housing portion journaling the rotor member to define a rotational axis therefore, and a disk-like annular ceramic turbine shroud member bounding the flow path downstream of the combustor and circumscribing the turbine rotor portion to define a running clearance therewith, the disk-like ceramic turbine shroud member having a reference axis coaxial with the rotational axis and being spaced axially from the metallic housing portion in mutually parallel concentric relation therewith and a plurality of spacers disposed between ceramic disk-like shroud member and the metallic disk-like housing portion and circumferentially spaced apart, each of the spacers having a first and second end portion having an end surface adjacent the shroud member and the housing portion respectively, the end surfaces having a cylindrical curvature extending transversely relative to the shroud member and the housing portion.

  11. Optimal design of marine steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengyang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The marine steam turbine is one of the key equipment in marine power plant, and it tends to using high power steam turbine, which makes the steam turbine to be heavier and larger, it causes difficulties to the design and arrangement of the steam turbine, and the marine maneuverability is seriously influenced. Therefore, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques to the design of the steam turbine in order to achieve the minimum weight or volume by means of finding the optimum combination of design parameters. The math model of the marine steam turbine design calculation was established. The sensitivities of condenser pressure, power ratio of HP turbine with LP turbine, and the ratio of diameter with height at the end stage of LP turbine, which influence the weight of the marine steam turbine, were analyzed. The optimal design of the marine steam turbine, aiming at the weight minimization while satisfying the structure and performance constraints, was carried out with the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that, steam turbine weight is reduced by 3.13% with the optimization scheme. Finally, the optimization results were analyzed, and the steam turbine optimization design direction was indicated. (authors)

  12. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2013-09-17

    A serpentine coolant flow path (54A-54G) formed by inner walls (50, 52) in a cavity (49) between pressure and suction side walls (22, 24) of a turbine airfoil (20A). A coolant flow (58) enters (56) an end of the airfoil, flows into a span-wise channel (54A), then flows forward (54B) over the inner surface of the pressure side wall, then turns behind the leading edge (26), and flows back along a forward part of the suction side wall, then follows a loop (54E) forward and back around an inner wall (52), then flows along an intermediate part of the suction side wall, then flows into an aft channel (54G) between the pressure and suction side walls, then exits the trailing edge (28). This provides cooling matched to the heating topography of the airfoil, minimizes differential thermal expansion, revives the coolant, and minimizes the flow volume needed.

  13. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  14. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.

  15. Turbines in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-10-01

    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  16. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, N.; Johansen, J.; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which air-foils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. The airfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible for the poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads to these discrepancies is identified. Some advices are given for elaborating future airfoil design processes that would involve the numerical code EllipSys2D in particular, and transition modelling in general. (au)

  17. Real-Time Closed Loop Modulated Turbine Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Culley, Dennis E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Jones, Scott; Woike, Mark; Cuy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted by industry that in addition to dramatic variations of temperature over a given blade surface, blade-to-blade variations also exist despite identical design. These variations result from manufacturing variations, uneven wear and deposition over the life of the part as well as limitations in the uniformity of coolant distribution in the baseline cooling design. It is proposed to combine recent advances in optical sensing, actuation, and film cooling concepts to develop a workable active, closed-loop modulated turbine cooling system to improve by 10 to 20 the turbine thermal state over the flight mission, to improve engine life and to dramatically reduce turbine cooling air usage and aircraft fuel burn. A reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can also be achieved by using the excess coolant to improve mixing in the combustor especially for rotorcraft engines. Recent patents filed by industry and universities relate to modulating endwall cooling using valves. These schemes are complex, add weight and are limited to the endwalls. The novelty of the proposed approach is twofold 1) Fluidic diverters that have no moving parts are used to modulate cooling and can operate under a wide range of conditions and environments. 2) Real-time optical sensing to map the thermal state of the turbine has never been attempted in realistic engine conditions.

  18. Hydraulic Darrieus turbines efficiency for free fluid flow conditions versus power farms conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antheaume, Sylvain [Electricite de France, Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et Environnement, 6 Quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Maitre, Thierry; Achard, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2008-10-15

    The present study deals with the efficiency of cross flow water current turbine for free stream conditions versus power farm conditions. In the first part, a single turbine for free fluid flow conditions is considered. The simulations are carried out with a new in house code which couples a Navier-Stokes computation of the outer flow field with a description of the inner flow field around the turbine. The latter is based on experimental results of a Darrieus wind turbine in an unbounded domain. This code is applied for the description of a hydraulic turbine. In the second part, the interest of piling up several turbines on the same axis of rotation to make a tower is investigated. Not only is it profitable because only one alternator is needed but the simulations demonstrate the advantage of the tower configuration for the efficiency. The tower is then inserted into a cluster of several lined up towers which makes a barge. Simulations show that the average barge efficiency rises as the distance between towers is decreased and as the number of towers is increased within the row. Thereby, the efficiency of a single isolated turbine is greatly increased when set both into a tower and into a cluster of several towers corresponding to possible power farm arrangements. (author)

  19. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  20. Micro turbine development with brazilian technology; Desenvolvimento de microturbina com tecnologia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.C.; Sanches, M.S. [Multivacuo Industria e Comercio de Filtros Ltda., Campinas, SP (Brazil); Maciel, H.S. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica; Moura, N.R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Campos, M.F.; Furini, R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most strategical factor in the field of the generation of electric energy, especially for power levels of 500 kW or higher, is the domain of the gas turbine technology and, in this aspect, few countries in the world withhold it. The objectives of the present work are: to project, to calculate, and to construct a gas turbine, based in the use of the natural gas as combustible. To accomplish these objectives the project was planned to be developed in two phases; in the first one, we envisage the set up of a concept test unit, for evidencing the capability of the involved team and of the national suppliers for manufacturing and providing the gas turbine parts. The second stage was planned to project and to construct a prototype unit for certification of the Brazilian gas turbine, aiming finally at the industrial production and commercialization, to attend the marked demand for gas turbines of power levels within the range of 500 kW to 2000 kW, using natural gas as fuel. In this work we show that the results obtained up to now - when we are in the final of the first phase - prove the existence of national technological strength for producing and supplying key parts of gas turbines, as well as qualified human resources to develop and dominate the complete gas turbine technology, in a sufficiently short period. (author)

  1. Transient LES of an offshore wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vollmer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the cost of energy of offshore wind farms has a high uncertainty, which is partly due to the lacking accuracy of information on wind conditions and wake losses inside of the farm. Wake models that aim to reduce the uncertainty by modeling the wake interaction of turbines for various wind conditions need to be validated with measurement data before they can be considered as a reliable estimator. In this paper a methodology that enables a direct comparison of modeled with measured flow data is evaluated. To create the simulation data, a model chain including a mesoscale model, a large-eddy-simulation (LES model and a wind turbine model is used. Different setups are compared to assess the capability of the method to reproduce the wind conditions at the hub height of current offshore wind turbines. The 2-day-long simulation of the ambient wind conditions and the wake simulation generally show good agreements with data from a met mast and lidar measurements, respectively. Wind fluctuations due to boundary layer turbulence and synoptic-scale motions are resolved with a lower representation of mesoscale fluctuations. Advanced metrics to describe the wake shape and development are derived from simulations and measurements but a quantitative comparison proves to be difficult due to the scarcity and the low sampling rate of the available measurement data. Due to the implementation of changing synoptic wind conditions in the LES, the methodology could also be beneficial for case studies of wind farm performance or wind farm control.

  2. Characteristics of flow in turbine-condenser connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasugahira, Norio; Sato, Takeshi; Mukai, Yasuteru; Otake, Katsumoto; Miyai, Masahiko

    1981-01-01

    It is important to save energy in thermal and nuclear power plants, and Hitachi Ltd. has exerted efforts on this subject. The performance of condensers depends largely on the condition of steam flow into the tube nests, and is affected by the state of steam flow in the connecting parts between LP turbines and the condensers. It is desirable to give turbines low exhaust pressure by minimizing the resistance of the obstacles in the diffuser paths and increasing the restoration of static pressure. But in the connecting parts, feed water heaters, bleeding pipes and stiffeners are placed, and if these re arranged inadequately, the performance of condensers and the efficiency of turbines are lowered by pressure loss. In this study, the flow in the connecting parts was reproduced with models, and the detailed state of internal flow was grasped. Also the influence of the form of the connecting parts, feed water heaters and bleeding pipes on pressure loss was examined, and the measures to reduce the pressure loss were sought. The cases of the connecting parts containing one feed water heater and four feed water heaters were examined. The experimental setup, the structure of the tested models, and the test results are reported. The velocity distribution and flow pattern of the internal flow were obtained, and the arrangement of feed water heaters which reduces pressure loss was clarified. (Kako, I.)

  3. LES investigation of infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    The layouts of turbines affect the turbine wake interactions and thus the wind farm performance. The wake interactions in infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays are investigated and compared with infinite aligned turbine arrays in this paper. From the numerical results we identify three types of wake behaviours, which are significantly different from wakes in aligned wind-turbine arrays. For the first type, each turbine wake interferes with the pair of staggered downstream turbine wakes and the aligned downstream turbine. For the second type, each turbine wake interacts with the first two downstream turbine wakes but does not show significant interference with the second aligned downstream turbine. For the third type, each turbine wake recovers immediately after passing through the gap of the first two downstream turbines and has little interaction with the second downstream turbine wakes The extracted power density and power efficiency are also studied and compared with aligned wind-turbine arrays

  4. Turbine and its turbine control system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongwei; Zhu Jinping

    1996-01-01

    The simulation for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit turbine and turbine control system is briefly introduced. The simulation system includes lube oil system, jacking oil pump system, turning gear system, turbine supervisor system and turbine control system. It not only correctly simulates the process of turbine normal start up, operation, and shut down, but also the response of turbine under the malfunction conditions

  5. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface...

  6. Advanced Turbine Blade Cooling Techniques, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can...

  7. Simulating Collisions for Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Rakowski, Cynthia L.

    2013-10-01

    Evaluations of blade-strike on an axial-flow Marine Hydrokinetic turbine were conducted using a conventional methodology as well as an alternative modeling approach proposed in the present document. The proposed methodology integrates the following components into a Computa- tional Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model: (i) advanced eddy-resolving flow simulations, (ii) ambient turbulence based on field data, (iii) moving turbine blades in highly transient flows, and (iv) Lagrangian particles to mimic the potential fish pathways. The sensitivity of blade-strike prob- ability to the following conditions was also evaluated: (i) to the turbulent environment, (ii) to fish size and (iii) to mean stream flow velocity. The proposed methodology provided fraction of collisions and offered the capability of analyzing the causal relationships between the flow envi- ronment and resulting strikes on rotating blades. Overall, the conventional methodology largely overestimates the probability of strike, and lacks the ability to produce potential fish and aquatic biota trajectories as they interact with the rotating turbine. By using a set of experimental corre- lations of exposure-response of living fish colliding on moving blades, the occurrence, frequency and intensity of the particle collisions was next used to calculate the survival rate of fish crossing the MHK turbine. This step indicated survival rates always greater than 98%. Although the proposed CFD framework is computationally more expensive, it provides the advantage of evaluating multiple mechanisms of stress and injury of hydrokinetic turbine devices on fish.

  8. A reference Pelton turbine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solemslie, B W; Dahlhaug, O G

    2012-01-01

    The designs of hydraulic turbines are usually close kept corporation secrets. Therefore, the possibility of innovation and co-operation between different academic institutions regarding a specific turbine geometry is difficult. A Ph.D.-project at the Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, aim to design several model Pelton turbines where all measurements, simulations, the design strategy, design software in addition to the physical model will be available to the public. In the following paper a short description of the methods and the test rig that are to be utilized in the project are described. The design will be based on empirical data and NURBS will be used as the descriptive method for the turbine geometry. In addition CFX and SPH simulations will be included in the design process. Each turbine designed and produced in connection to this project will be based on the experience and knowledge gained from the previous designs. The first design will be based on the philosophy to keep a near constant relative velocity through the bucket.

  9. A reference Pelton turbine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solemslie, B. W.; Dahlhaug, O. G.

    2012-09-01

    The designs of hydraulic turbines are usually close kept corporation secrets. Therefore, the possibility of innovation and co-operation between different academic institutions regarding a specific turbine geometry is difficult. A Ph.D.-project at the Waterpower Laboratory, NTNU, aim to design several model Pelton turbines where all measurements, simulations, the design strategy, design software in addition to the physical model will be available to the public. In the following paper a short description of the methods and the test rig that are to be utilized in the project are described. The design will be based on empirical data and NURBS will be used as the descriptive method for the turbine geometry. In addition CFX and SPH simulations will be included in the design process. Each turbine designed and produced in connection to this project will be based on the experience and knowledge gained from the previous designs. The first design will be based on the philosophy to keep a near constant relative velocity through the bucket.

  10. Does noise from wind turbines change due to age?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1995-06-01

    It has been discussed whether the noise from a wind turbine increases due to wear of the mechanical parts or to pollution of the rotor blades. If this is so it should be taken into consideration at the design stage. The noise from wind turbines that had been measured several years before was measured again, and results were compared. A number of modifications of the same wind turbine was made throughout a period of two years during which noise was measured several times. No evidence that noise increases in accordance with the age of the windmill was found. A 75 kW wind turbine seems to have an unchanged A-weighted source strength L WA after a period of 6 years. The level of the tones in the noise from the large generator engaged had increased slightly. The noise from operation of the small generator showed a pronounced increase of one tone (approximately 10 dB), while two other tones were largely unchanged. In the case of periodic measurements of the noise from a 300 kW wind turbine, the gearbox tone noise was found to change markedly, without any obvious pattern. The large, apparently random, fluctuations mask any tendency towards changes of the tone level with time. Repeated measurements of four identical 100 kW wind turbines, show a general tendency towards an increase of the A-weighted source strength (L WA ). The increase of L WA between 1 and 2.7 dB, was found mainly in the frequency range 800 Hz to 3 kHz. The level of the third octave band, which includes a weak gearbox tone (315 Hz), seemed unchanged. Other measurements indicate a constant level of noise during the first three years of operation. (AB)

  11. Design improvements to the ESI-80 wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T.; Kleeman, A.; Manwell, J.; McGowan, J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes two investigations related to improvements to an ESI-80 wind turbine. One of them involved modeling the tip flaps during braking. The other was a study of the turbine behavior with various delta-3 angles. These topics are of interest since the turbine is a two-bladed, teetered, free-yaw machine with tip flaps and an adjustable delta-3 angle. Tip flaps are used for slowing the turbine during shutdown and as an emergency system to insure that the rotor does not go into an overspeed condition in the event of failure of other parts of the system. Upon deployment, the tip flaps are exposed to a number of varying forces including aerodynamic, damper, spring, centripetal, and gravitational forces and forces at the hinged connection to the blades. For maximum braking the angle of tip flap deployment needs to be as large as possible without striking the blades in overspeed conditions and when covered with ice. To investigate tip flap design tradeoffs, a dynamic model of the tip flaps on the modified ESI-80 turbine was developed. Results include a determination of the effect of the addition of weight to the flap, overspeed conditions, and changes in damping coefficient. Changes in the delta-3 angle can be used to couple pitching and flapping motions, affecting both teeter and yaw behavior. These effects have been investigated using a modified version of YawDyn. The effects of changes in the delta-3 angle on the teeter and yaw behavior of the modified ESI-80 wind turbine were investigated. Results show that increased teeter excursions in steady high winds can be reduced by increasing the delta-3 angle. Increasing the delta-3 angle may also increase yaw motion in low wind speeds. Results suggest that the optimum delta-3 angle for improved performance may be substantially greater than the presently used angle of zero degrees. 8 refs., 16 figs.

  12. Monitoring of large steam turbines, as seen by the constructor and the operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, J.M.; Bourcier, P.B.; Malherbe, C.

    1986-01-01

    The electricity in France is produced by large steam turbines in the range of 125 000 kW to 1 300 000 kW in nuclear power plants. Some operation problems are encountered on these large machines. The aim of this study is to justify and to describe the monitoring process implemented on the large steam turbines. This short study is divided into three parts: the monitoring justification during the start-up period, one example of a monitoring system, the turbine monitoring during the operation period [fr

  13. Risk assessment of wind turbines sited close to highways; Risikovurdering i forbindelse med vindmoeller og motorveje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalsgaard Soerensen, J.; Lemming, J. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Noerkaer Soerensen, J. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., DTU Mekanik, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-06-15

    This report treats risk assessment of siting wind turbines close to highways in Denmark. The assessment only deals with the risk of total or partly failure of the turbines and the risk of ice throw from the blades. The report describes the fundamental methods, risk assessments as well as the assumptions and limitations the results are based on. The results is based on an example with a number of turbines sited alone the highway and presented as the risk per driven km on the highway. (Author)

  14. Grid Faults Impact on the Mechanical Loads of Active Stall Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Cutululis, Nicolaos A.; Hansen, Anca D.

    2008-01-01

    Emphasis in this paper is on the fault ride-through operation impact on the wind turbines structural loads. Grid faults are typically simulated in power system simulation tools using simplified drive train mechanical model, approach which doesn't allow a thorough investigation of structural loads...... as the electrical design of the wind turbine response during grid faults. The two-step simulation procedure is assessed by means of a simulation example. The effect of a grid fault on the structural part of a typical fixed speed wind turbine, equipped with an induction generator, is assessed....

  15. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  16. Noise emission from wind turbines in wake. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam Madsen, K.; Plovsing, B. (DELTA, Hoersholm (Denmark)); Soerensen, Thomas (EMD International A/S, Aalborg (Denmark)); Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bertagnolio, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    When installing wind turbines in clusters or wind farms the inflow conditions to the wind turbines can be disturbed due to wake effects from other wind turbines. The effect of wake on noise generation from wind turbines are described in this report. The work is based on measurements carried out on a M80 2 MW wind turbine. To investigate the relationship between the far field noise levels and the surface pressure and inflow angles measured by sensors on an instrumented wind turbine blade, a parabolic measurement system (PMMS) was designed and tested as part of this project. Based on the measurement results obtained with surface pressure sensors and results from the far field measurements using the PMMS it is concluded that: The variance of surface pressure at the trailing edge (TE) agrees with the theory with regard to variation of pressure spectra with varying inflow angle (AoA) to the blade. Low frequency TE surface pressure increases with increased AoA and high frequency surface pressure decreases with increased AoA. It seems that the TE surface pressure remains almost unaltered during wake operation. Results from the surface transducers at the leading edge (LE) and the inflow angles determined from the pitot tube indicates that the inflow at LE is more turbulent in wake for the same AoA and with a low frequency characteristic, thereby giving rise to more low frequency noise generated during wake operation. The far field measurements supports that on one hand there will be produced relative more low frequency noise due to a turbulent inflow to the blade and on the other hand there will be produced less noise in the broader frequency range/high frequency range due to a lower inflow angle caused by the wind deficit in the wake. The net effect of wake on the total noise level is unresolved. As a secondary result it is seen that noise observed from a position on the ground is related to directional effects of the noise radiated from the wind turbine blade. For an

  17. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural...... composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed....

  18. Simulation model of nuclear power plant turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-04-01

    A computer code TURDYN has been developed for prediction of HP and LP turbine torque under thermodynamic transient conditions. The model is based on the conservation laws of mass and energy. All the important components of turbine systems e.g. high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, feed heaters, reheater, moisture separator have been considered. The details of the mathematical formulation of the model and open loop responses for specific disturbances are presented. (author)

  19. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Beauson, Justine; McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F

    2017-11-09

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed.

  20. Smart Wind Turbine: Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure, thereby driving the loads and the design of turbines in general and blades in particular. In response to this, several control mechanisms have been applied to wind turbines since the generation of s...