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Sample records for turbid-water occurrence possibility

  1. Observation technology for remote operation in contaminated turbid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Manabu; Mitsui, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Remote underwater work in contaminated tanks and pools is one of major decontamination and decommissioning works under high-dose radiation environment. Generally in this kind of work, visual information is limited due to turbid water caused by suspended sludge particles in the water and it makes remote underwater work difficult to be performed safely and efficiently. Therefore, some alternative observation methods to optical cameras have been required. In order to satisfy this requirement, the alternative observation technology which can obtain visual information in contaminated turbid water has been developed since 2014. It is a technology using an acoustic imaging system in a designated airtight container. It provides the visual information in real time regardless of turbidity without significant contamination of any parts of the system. This paper will present development details of this innovative observation technology and its effectiveness to various remote works in contaminated turbid water. (author)

  2. Treatment of Highly Turbid Water by Polyaluminum Ferric Chloride (PAFCL

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    Fazel Fazel Mohammadi-Moghaddam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: In some situation like rainfall seasons raw water become very turbid so it affected the water treatment plant processes and quality of produced water. Treatment of very high turbid water has some concerns like precursors for disinfection by-products and very loading rate of particle on filter's media and consequently increases in water consumption for filter backwash. This paper investigates the performance of a composite inorganic polymer of aluminium and ferric salt, Polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFCl, for the removal of turbidity, color and natural organic matter (NOM from high turbid water. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out by Jar test experiment by synthetic water samples with 250 and 500 NTU turbidity that prepared in laboratory. Results: The results of conventional jar test showed that the optimum pH for coagulation of water sample was 7.5 to 8 and optimum dosage of the coagulant was 10 mg/L. Removal efficiency of turbidity, color and UV adsorbent at 254 nm at optimum dose and pH without filtration was 99.92%, 100% and 80.6% respectively for first sample (250 NTU and 99.95%, 99.49% and 84.77 for second sample (500 NTU respectively. Conclusion: It concluded that polyaluminium ferric chloride has a very good efficiency for the removal of turbidity, color and organic matter in high turbid water. Also it can be select as a coagulant for high turbid water and some waste water from water treatment plant like filter backwash water.

  3. Unusual behaviour of phototrophic picoplankton in turbid waters.

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    Somogyi, Boglárka; Pálffy, Károly; V-Balogh, Katalin; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Vörös, Lajos

    2017-01-01

    Autotrophic picoplankton (APP) abundance and contribution to phytoplankton biomass was studied in Hungarian shallow lakes to test the effect of inorganic turbidity determining the size distribution of the phytoplankton. The studied lakes displayed wide turbidity (TSS: 4-2250 mg l-1) and phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a: 1-460 μg l-1) range, as well as APP abundance (0 and 100 million cells ml-1) and contribution (0-100%) to total phytoplankton biomass. Inorganic turbidity had a significant effect on the abundance and contribution of APP, resulting in higher values compared to other freshwater lakes with the same phytoplankton biomass. Our analysis has provided empirical evidence for a switching point (50 mg l-1 inorganic turbidity), above which turbidity is the key factor causing APP predominance regardless of phytoplankton biomass in shallow turbid lakes. Our results have shown that turbid shallow lakes are unique waters, where the formerly and widely accepted model (decreasing APP contribution with increasing phytoplankton biomass) is not applicable. We hypothesize that this unusual behaviour of APP in turbid waters is a result of either diminished underwater light intensity or a reduced grazing pressure due to high inorganic turbidity.

  4. Unusual behaviour of phototrophic picoplankton in turbid waters.

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    Boglárka Somogyi

    Full Text Available Autotrophic picoplankton (APP abundance and contribution to phytoplankton biomass was studied in Hungarian shallow lakes to test the effect of inorganic turbidity determining the size distribution of the phytoplankton. The studied lakes displayed wide turbidity (TSS: 4-2250 mg l-1 and phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a: 1-460 μg l-1 range, as well as APP abundance (0 and 100 million cells ml-1 and contribution (0-100% to total phytoplankton biomass. Inorganic turbidity had a significant effect on the abundance and contribution of APP, resulting in higher values compared to other freshwater lakes with the same phytoplankton biomass. Our analysis has provided empirical evidence for a switching point (50 mg l-1 inorganic turbidity, above which turbidity is the key factor causing APP predominance regardless of phytoplankton biomass in shallow turbid lakes. Our results have shown that turbid shallow lakes are unique waters, where the formerly and widely accepted model (decreasing APP contribution with increasing phytoplankton biomass is not applicable. We hypothesize that this unusual behaviour of APP in turbid waters is a result of either diminished underwater light intensity or a reduced grazing pressure due to high inorganic turbidity.

  5. Clearing muddied waters: Capture of environmental DNA from turbid waters.

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    Kelly E Williams

    Full Text Available Understanding the differences in efficiencies of various methods to concentrate, extract, and amplify environmental DNA (eDNA is vital for best performance of eDNA detection. Aquatic systems vary in characteristics such as turbidity, eDNA concentration, and inhibitor load, thus affecting eDNA capture efficiency. Application of eDNA techniques to the detection of terrestrial invasive or endangered species may require sampling at intermittent water sources that are used for drinking and cooling; these water bodies may often be stagnant and turbid. We present our best practices technique for the detection of wild pig eDNA in water samples, a protocol that will have wide applicability to the detection of elusive vertebrate species. We determined the best practice for eDNA capture in a turbid water system was to concentrate DNA from a 15 mL water sample via centrifugation, purify DNA with the DNeasy mericon Food kit, and remove inhibitors with Zymo Inhibitor Removal Technology columns. Further, we compared the sensitivity of conventional PCR to quantitative PCR and found that quantitative PCR was more sensitive in detecting lower concentrations of eDNA. We show significant differences in efficiencies among methods in each step of eDNA capture, emphasizing the importance of optimizing best practices for the system of interest.

  6. Rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy

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    M. T. Brunetti

    2010-03-01

    probabilistic thresholds is proposed. The four thresholds separate five fields, each characterized by different rainfall intensity-duration conditions, and corresponding different probability of possible landslide occurrence. The scheme can be implemented in landslide warning systems that operate on rainfall thresholds, and on precipitation measurements or forecasts.

  7. Possible States Theory and the Occurrence of Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.

    2010-01-01

    Possible states theory is an original alternative to the major schools of thought, relativity and quantum mechanics. It begins with the observation that for every object there exists a collection of past, future and possible interactions with other objects. The members of the collection are called the possible states. space-time is excluded as an ordering principle. Cosmologically, the theory suggests that we live in a permanent now, a complex present where everything that can happen, does and it all happens at once. It envisions a sea of interactions, in constant motion, where the arrow of change can point in any direction. The formalism is finite and discrete. The dimensionality of an interaction is a variable and must be a positive integer. A vector space can be defined. Statistics analogous to mass and energy can be developed. The theory produces experimentally verifiable predictions. It is broadly consistent with quantum theory. The phenomena of classical physics can be accounted for as a special case of the propagation of change in low coherence states. The theory offers a basis for technological development. The advantage is the ability to cause change which is nonlocal and unconstrained by conservation laws. Moreover, it allows the creation of technology that has some of the properties we associate with sentience.

  8. Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters

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    Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Erlick, Carynelisa; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Certain terrestrial animals use sky polarization for navigation. Certain aquatic species have also been shown to orient according to a polarization stimulus, but the correlation between underwater polarization and Sun position and hence the ability to use underwater polarization as a compass for navigation is still under debate. To examine this issue, we use theoretical equations for per cent polarization and electric vector (e-vector) orientation that account for the position of the Sun, refraction at the air–water interface and Rayleigh single scattering. The polarization patterns predicted by these theoretical equations are compared with measurements conducted in clear and semi-turbid coastal sea waters at 2 m and 5 m depth over sea floors of 6 m and 28 m depth. We find that the per cent polarization is correlated with the Sun's elevation only in clear waters. We furthermore find that the maximum value of the e-vector orientation angle equals the angle of refraction only in clear waters, in the horizontal viewing direction, over the deeper sea floor. We conclude that navigation by use of underwater polarization is possible under restricted conditions, i.e. in clear waters, primarily near the horizontal viewing direction, and in locations where the sea floor has limited effects on the light's polarization. PMID:21282170

  9. Possible occurrence and origin of massive ice in Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Costard, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    F. M. Costard recently discovered a large field of possible thermokarst depressions near latitude 45 deg N, longitude 270 deg, in western Utopia Planitia. Oval to circular pits are typically 300-1000 m across and approximately 25 m deep; larger depressions, 3-5 km across, are compound and seem to have formed by coalescence of smaller pits. Small domical hills occur on the floors of two pits. These depressions characteristically have steep, scalloped edges and one or more inner benches. Truncation relations of the benches suggest a discontinuous, lenslike stratification of the material in which the pits are developed. Based on a close analogy in form and scale with coalesced thawlake basins (alases) on Earth, the Martian pits may have formed by thermophysical interactions of pooled water with ice-rich permafrost. This interpretation is not unique; sublimation of ice-rich permafrost or possibly even eolian processes acting on ice-free material might have formed the pits. However, the regional setting contains many other indications of massive ice. Some of these features are examined.

  10. Deriving Total Suspended Matter Concentration from the Near-Infrared-Based Inherent Optical Properties over Turbid Waters: A Case Study in Lake Taihu

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    Wei Shi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(λ, particle backscattering coefficients bbp(λ in the near-infrared (NIR wavelengths, and total suspended matter (TSM concentrations over turbid waters are analytically correlated. To demonstrate the use of bbp(λ in the NIR wavelengths in coastal and inland waters, we used in situ optics and TSM data to develop two TSM algorithms from measurements of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP using backscattering coefficients at the two NIR bands bbp(745 and bbp(862 for Lake Taihu. The correlation coefficients between the modeled TSM concentrations from bbp(745 and bbp(862 and the in situ TSM are 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. A different in situ dataset acquired between 2012 and 2016 for Lake Taihu was used to validate the performance of the NIR TSM algorithms for VIIRS-SNPP observations. TSM concentrations derived from VIIRS-SNPP observations with these two NIR bbp(λ-based TSM algorithms matched well with in situ TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu between 2012 and 2016. The normalized root mean square errors (NRMSEs for the two NIR algorithms are 0.234 and 0.226, respectively. The two NIR-based TSM algorithms are used to compute the satellite-derived TSM concentrations to study the seasonal and interannual variability of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu between 2012 and 2016. In fact, the NIR-based TSM algorithms are analytically based with minimal in situ data to tune the coefficients. They are not sensitive to the possible nLw(λ saturation in the visible bands for highly turbid waters, and have the potential to be used for estimation of TSM concentrations in turbid waters with similar NIR nLw(λ spectra as those in Lake Taihu.

  11. Burdigalian turbid water patch reef environment revealed by larger benthic foraminifera

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    Novak, V.; Renema, W.; Throughflow-project

    2012-04-01

    Ancient isolated patch reefs outcropping from siliciclastic sediments are a trademark for the Miocene carbonate deposits occurring in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. They develop in transitional shelf sediments deposited between deltaic and deep marine deposits (Allen and Chambers, 1998). The Batu Putih Limestone (Wilson, 2005) and similar outcrops in adjacent areas have been characterized as shallow water carbonates influenced by high siliciclastic input, showing low relief patch reefs in turbid waters. Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are excellent markers for biochronology and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. This study aims to reveal age and paleoenvironment of a shallow water carbonate patch reef developed in mixed depositional system by using LBF and microfacies analysis. The studied section is located near Bontang, East Kalimantan, and is approximately 80 m long and 12 m high. It is placed within Miocene sediments in the central part of the Kutai Basin. Patch reef and capping sediments were logged through eight transects along section and divided into nine different lithological units from which samples were collected. Thin sections and isolated specimens of larger benthic foraminifera were analyzed and recognized to species level (where possible) providing age and environmental information. Microfacies analysis of thin sections included carbonate classification (textural scheme of Dunham, 1962) and assemblage composition of LBF, algae and corals relative abundance. Three environmentally indicative groups of LBF were separated based on test morphology, habitat or living relatives (Hallock and Glenn, 1986). Analysed foraminifera assemblage suggests Burdigalian age (Tf1). With use of microfacies analysis nine successive lithological units were grouped into five facies types. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of LBF fossil assemblage indicate two cycles of possible deepening recorded in the section. Based on high muddy matrix ratio in analyzed thin-sections we

  12. Assessing the risk posed by high-turbidity water to water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Liao, Chung-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the risk of insufficient water supply posed by high-turbidity water. Several phenomena can pose risks to the sufficiency of a water supply; this study concerns risks to water treatment plants from particular properties of rainfall and raw water turbidity. High-turbidity water can impede water treatment plant operations; rainfall properties can influence the degree of soil erosion. Thus, water turbidity relates to rainfall characteristics. Exceedance probabilities are presented for different rainfall intensities and turbidities of water. When the turbidity of raw water is higher than 5,000 NTU, it can cause operational problems for a water treatment plant. Calculations show that the turbidity of raw water at the Ban-Sin water treatment plant will be higher than 5,000 NTU if the rainfall intensity is larger than 165 mm/day. The exceedance probability of high turbidity (turbidity >5,000 NTU) in the Ban-Sin water treatment plant is larger than 10%. When any water treatment plant cannot work regularly, its ability to supply water to its customers is at risk.

  13. Using Coagulation Process in Optimizing Natural Organic Matter Removal from Low Turbidity Waters

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    Alireza Mesdaghinia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of coagulation process  for efficient removal of Natural Organic Matters (NOM has gained a lot of focus over the last years to meet the requirements of enhanced coagulation. NOM comprises both particulate and soluble components which the latter usually comprises the main portion. Removal of soluble NOM from low turbidity waters by coagulation is not a successful process unless enough attention is paid to stages of formation and development of both micro and macro-flocs. This study, which presents experimental results from pilot scale research studies aimed at optimizing coagulation process applied to synthetic raw waters supplemented by adding commercial humic acid with low turbidity levels, explains how pH and turbidity can be controlled to maximize soluble NOM removal. The removal of NOM at various coagulant doses and coagulation pHs has been assessed through raw and treated (coagulated-settled water measurements of total organic carbon (TOC. For low turbidity waters, essential floc nucleation sites can be provided by creating synthetic turbidities, for example by adding clay. Adjusting the initial pH at 5.5 or adding clay before coagulant addition allows the formation of micro-flocs as well as formation of the insoluble flocs at low coagulant doses.

  14. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  15. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birima, A H; Desa, M N M; Muda, Z C; Hammad, H A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO 3 , KCl, NH 4 Cl and NaNO 3 . Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R 2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  16. Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados

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    Vallès, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is seen as one of the greatest threats to the world’s coral reefs and, with the continued rise in sea surface temperature predicted into the future, there is a great need for further understanding of how to prevent and address the damaging impacts. This is particularly so for countries whose economies depend heavily on healthy reefs, such as those of the eastern Caribbean. Here, we compare the severity of bleaching and mortality for five dominant coral species at six representative reef sites in Barbados during the two most significant warm-water events ever recorded in the eastern Caribbean, i.e., 2005 and 2010, and describe prevailing island-scale sea water conditions during both events. In so doing, we demonstrate that coral bleaching and subsequent mortality were considerably lower in 2010 than in 2005 for all species, irrespective of site, even though the anomalously warm water temperature profiles were very similar between years. We also show that during the 2010 event, Barbados was engulfed by a transient dark green turbid water mass of riverine origin coming from South America. We suggest that reduced exposure to high solar radiation associated with this transient water mass was the primary contributing factor to the lower bleaching and mortality observed in all corals. We conclude that monitoring these episodic mesoscale oceanographic features might improve risk assessments of southeastern Caribbean reefs to warm-water events in the future. PMID:27326377

  17. On the possibility of occurrence of uranium mineralization in some sedimentary formations of the Sudety Mts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miecznik, J.B.; Strzelecki, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Sudety Mts represent a part of the Bohemian Massif which is one of the richest uranium-bearing regions in Europe. The possibilities of occurrence of uranium in most interesting sedimentary formations of the Sudety Mts are analysed. The sedimentary formations which originated during the platform stage of evolution of these Mountains, after formation of Variscan endogenic mineralization, were recognized as perspective here. Sandstone-type uranium deposits and uraniferous black shales were assumed to be the most important in that area. Sandstone-type uranium deposits are related to continental uppermost Carboniferous (Glinik Beds - Westphalian C-D and, possibly, lowermost Stephanian) of the Central Sudety (Intra-Sudetic Depression). They closely resemble uranium deposits known from continental clastic Permo-Carboniferous sections of several parts of Europe. Westphalian D and Stephanian rocks developed in similar lithofacies in the western Sudety Mts (North-Sudetic Depression) may be also characterized by increased content of uranium. Attention is also paid to the possibilities of occurrence of uranium mineralization in shallow-marine sandstones and continental deposits of the Cenomanian as uranium deposits are known from similarly developed Cenomanian in the North Czech Upper Cretaceous Table area, i.e. in the direct neighbourhood of the Sudety Mts. Traces of uranium mineralization were found in black shales of the Lower Silurian section in the Kaczawa Mts (western Sudety Mts) and Bardo Mts (Central Sudety). The recorded concentrations (up to several hundred ppm) may be compared with uranium occurrences known from Lower Silurian sections of the Barrandian (CSSR) and Thuringia (GDR). (author)

  18. OCCURRENCE OF SMALL HOMOLOGOUS AND COMPLEMENTARY FRAGMENTS IN HUMAN VIRUS GENOMES AND THEIR POSSIBLE ROLE

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    E. P. Kharchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With computer analysis occurrence of small homologous and complementary fragments (21 nucleotides in length has been studied in genomes of 14 human viruses causing most dangerous infections. The sample includes viruses with (+ and (– single stranded RNA and DNA-containing hepatitis A virus. Analysis of occurrence of homologous sequences has shown the existence two extreme situations. On the one hand, the same virus contains homologous sequences to almost all other viruses (for example, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and mumps virus, and numerous homologous sequences to the same other virus (especially in severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus to Dengue virus and in Ebola virus to poliovirus. On the other hand, there are rare occurrence and not numerous homologous sequences in genomes of other viruses (rubella virus, hepatitis A virus, and hepatitis B virus. Similar situation exists for occurrence of complementary sequences. Rubella virus, the genome of which has the high content of guanine and cytosine, has no complementary sequences to almost all other viruses. Most viruses have moderate level of occurrence for homologous and complementary sequences. Autocomplementary sequences are numerous in most viruses and one may suggest that the genome of single stranded RNA viruses has branched secondary structure. In addition to possible role in recombination among strains autocomplementary sequences could be regulators of translation rate of virus proteins and determine its optimal proportion in virion assembly with genome and mRNA folding. Occurrence of small homologous and complementary sequences in RNA- and DNA-containing viruses may be the result of multiple recombinations in the past and the present and determine their adaptation and variability. Recombination may take place in coinfection of human and/or common hosts. Inclusion of homologous and complementary sequences into genome could not

  19. Soil iron and aluminium concentrations and feet hygiene as possible predictors of Podoconiosis occurrence in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muli, Jacinta; Kagai, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (mossy foot) is a neglected non-filarial elephantiasis considered to be caused by predisposition to cumulative contact of uncovered feet to irritative red clay soil of volcanic origins in the tropical regions. Data from structured observational studies on occurrence of Podoconiosis and related factors are not available in Kenya. Methodology/Principal findings To establish the occurrence and aspects associated with Podoconiosis, a cross-sectional survey was implemented in an area located within 30 km from the foot of volcanic Mount Longonot in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya. Five villages and 385 households were selected using multistage and systematic random sampling procedures respectively during the survey. Podoconiosis was determined by triangulating (1) the clinical diagnosis, (2) molecular assaying of sputum samples to rule out Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria and (3) determining the concentration of six elements and properties in the soil known to be associated with Podoconiosis. A structured questionnaire was used to identify possible risk factors. Univariable and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were carried out to determine factors associated with Podoconiosis. Thirteen participants were clinically positive for Podoconiosis giving an overall prevalence of 3.4%. The prevalence ranged between 0% and 18.8% across the five villages. Molecular assay for W. bancrofti test turned negative in the 13 samples. The following factors were positively associated with the Podoconiosis prevalence (P<0.1) in the univariable analyses: (i) age, (ii) gender, (iii) education level, (iv) frequency of washing legs, (v) frequency of wearing shoes, (vi) soil pH, and (vii) village. Unexpectedly, the concentration of soil minerals previously thought to be associated with Podoconiosis was found to be negatively associated with the Podoconiosis prevalence (P<0.1). In the multivariable analyses, only frequency of wearing shoes and village turned out

  20. Alkaloids in the human food chain--natural occurrence and possible adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates. Several quinolizidine alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, ergot alkaloids and steroid alkaloids are active without bioactivation and mostly act as neurotoxins. Regulatory agencies are aware of the risks and have taken or are considering appropriate regulatory actions for most alkaloids. These vary from setting limits for the presence of a compound in feed, foods and beverages, trying to define safe upper limits, advising on a strategy aiming at restrictions in use, informing the public to be cautious or taking specific plant varieties from the market. For some alkaloids known to be present in the modern food chain, e.g., piperine, nicotine, theobromine, theophylline and tropane alkaloids risks coming from the human food chain are considered to be low if not negligible. Remarkably, for many alkaloids that are known constituents of the modern food chain and of possible concern, tolerable daily intake values have so far not been defined. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Possible first occurrence of external corrosion on alloy 600TT tubes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccanfuso, M.; Thebault, Y.; Massini, B.; Bigne, L.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, in different countries, several occurrences of external corrosion have been identified on steam generator (SG) tube bundles equipped with thermally treated 600 alloy. In France, this feedback leads EDF to enhance the SG inspection program. Nevertheless, until now, no damage of this type was reported. Recently, during in-service inspection at the Cattenom plant on a SG equipped with alloy 600TT tubes, Eddy current tests have highlighted a signal that could be related to external corrosion. The tube was removed and sent to the EDF hot laboratory for destructive examinations. Various exams were performed at different scales to characterize the causes of this NDT signal, the material properties and the residual stresses. The assessments carried out on the tube conclude that the source of the damage is external intergranular stress corrosion cracking, also called ODSCC (Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking) making it the first occurrence on the tube bundles made of alloy 600TT in the French fleet. This first case of 600 TT ODSCC in France is an unexpected and particular one, because of its altitude in the full mechanical rolling area. This is reinforced by the low number of occurrences noted to date (only one after nearly 30 years of operation of alloy 600TT tube bundles). International (Biblis) OPEX had identified recent IGSCC with cracks initiated and propagated in the tubesheet. For this case, the scenario considered requires highly restrictive conditions (tube in the sludge zone and on the periphery of the tube bundle, including the tube lane) and may explain the singular nature of the Cattenom tube

  2. Subsurface classification of objects under turbid waters by means of regularization techniques applied to real hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpena, Emmanuel; Jiménez, Luis O.; Arzuaga, Emmanuel; Fonseca, Sujeily; Reyes, Ernesto; Figueroa, Juan

    2017-05-01

    Improved benthic habitat mapping is needed to monitor coral reefs around the world and to assist coastal zones management programs. A fundamental challenge to remotely sensed mapping of coastal shallow waters is due to the significant disparity in the optical properties of the water column caused by the interaction between the coast and the sea. The objects to be classified have weak signals that interact with turbid waters that include sediments. In real scenarios, the absorption and backscattering coefficients are unknown with different sources of variability (river discharges and coastal interactions). Under normal circumstances, another unknown variable is the depth of shallow waters. This paper presents the development of algorithms for retrieving information and its application to the classification and mapping of objects under coastal shallow waters with different unknown concentrations of sediments. A mathematical model that simplifies the radiative transfer equation was used to quantify the interaction between the object of interest, the medium and the sensor. The retrieval of information requires the development of mathematical models and processing tools in the area of inversion, image reconstruction and classification of hyperspectral data. The algorithms developed were applied to one set of real hyperspectral imagery taken in a tank filled with water and TiO2 that emulates turbid coastal shallow waters. Tikhonov method of regularization was used in the inversion process to estimate the bottom albedo of the water tank using a priori information in the form of stored spectral signatures, previously measured, of objects of interest.

  3. Innovative GOCI algorithm to derive turbidity in highly turbid waters: a case study in the Zhejiang coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Lufei; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Deyong; Wang, Shengqiang; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-21

    An innovative algorithm is developed and validated to estimate the turbidity in Zhejiang coastal area (highly turbid waters) using data from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). First, satellite-ground synchronous data (n = 850) was collected from 2014 to 2015 using 11 buoys equipped with a Yellow Spring Instrument (YSI) multi-parameter sonde capable of taking hourly turbidity measurements. The GOCI data-derived Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (R(rc)) was used in place of the widely used remote sensing reflectance (R(rs)) to model turbidity. Various band characteristics, including single band, band ratio, band subtraction, and selected band combinations, were analyzed to identify correlations with turbidity. The results indicated that band 6 had the closest relationship to turbidity; however, the combined bands 3 and 6 model simulated turbidity most accurately (R(2) = 0.821, pcoastal waters is feasible. As an example, the developed model was applied to 8 hourly GOCI images on 30 December 2014. Three cross sections were selected to identify the spatiotemporal variation of turbidity in the study area. Turbidity generally decreased from near-shore to offshore and from morning to afternoon. Overall, the findings of this study provide a simple and practical method, based on GOCI data, to estimate turbidity in highly turbid coastal waters at high temporal resolutions.

  4. Photometric investigation of possible binary occurrence in the central stars of seventeen planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.D. III.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive literature search was conducted for all possible bihary central stars in planetary nebulae. The results, which include all known and suspected visual, spectroscopic, and spectrum binaries, as well as all reported variable central stars, are presented in a series of tables. A photoelectric study was conducted in order to determine the status of short period (on the order of hours) variability of the central regions of seventeen planetary nebulae. Only the stellar appearing planetary nebula M1-2 (PK 133-8 0 1) was found to be variable. Its short (4.0002 hours) period suggests that it may be only the second eclipsing binary found among central stars to date. A method of concentric apertures was developed to determine the amount of light contributed by the central star vis-a-vis the nebula through a given aperture and filter. The procedure enabled UBV magnitudes and colors (and the errors) of central stars to be measured, including some in the sample of seventeen for which no previous values have been published. Mean nebular UBV magnitudes, surface brightnesses, and color indices were also found with the technique, and represent the first such published measurements. Various UBV two-parameter were constructed, revealing possible nebular/stellar sequences; a star-plus-nebula two-color diagram identifies three spectral classes of central stars, and two suspected binaries in the seventeen studied

  5. The Influence of a Sandy Substrate, Seagrass, or Highly Turbid Water on Albedo and Surface Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, M. C.; Fewings, M. R.; Paget, A. C.; Dierssen, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    Sea-surface albedo is a combination of surface-reflected and water-leaving irradiance, but water-leaving irradiance typically contributes less than 15% of the total albedo in open-ocean conditions. In coastal systems, however, the bottom substrate or suspended particulate matter can increase the amount of backscattered light, thereby increasing albedo and decreasing net shortwave surface heat flux. Here a sensitivity analysis using observations and models predicts the effect of light scattering on albedo and the net shortwave heat flux for three test cases: a bright sand bottom, a seagrass canopy, and turbid water. After scaling to the full solar shortwave spectrum, daytime average albedo for the test cases is up to 0.20 and exceeds the value of 0.05 predicted using a commonly applied parameterization. Daytime net shortwave heat flux into the water is significantly reduced, particularly for waters with bright sediments, dense horizontal seagrass canopies waters with suspended particulate matter concentration ≥ 50 g m-3. Observations of a more vertical seagrass canopy within 0.2 and 1 m of the surface indicate the increase in albedo compared to the common parameterization is negligible. Therefore, we suggest that the commonly applied albedo lookup table can be used in coastal heat flux estimates in water as shallow as 1 m unless the bottom substrate is highly reflective or the water is highly turbid. Our model results provide guidance to researchers who need to determine albedo in highly reflective or highly turbid conditions but have no direct observations.

  6. Extensive occurrence and genesis of authigenic carbonates from Krishna-Godavari offshore basin (Bay of Bengal): Possible influence of methane hydrates occurrences.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kocherla, M.; Pillai, S.; Patil, D.J.

    We report here the extensive occurrences of authigenic carbonate nodules/concretions from gas hydrate bearing sediments. Bulk mineralogical compositions by X-Ray diffractometry and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrum) analysis revealed...

  7. Hyperspectral sensing for turbid water quality monitoring in freshwater rivers: Empirical relationship between reflectance and turbidity and total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiunn-Lin; Ho, Chung-Ru; Huang, Chia-Ching; Srivastav, Arun Lal; Tzeng, Jing-Hua; Lin, Yao-Tung

    2014-11-28

    Total suspended solid (TSS) is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ) as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L(-1) and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L(-1) and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R(2) = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R(2) = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS). On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R(2) = 0.66) was better than with the MR approach (R

  8. Hyperspectral Sensing for Turbid Water Quality Monitoring in Freshwater Rivers: Empirical Relationship between Reflectance and Turbidity and Total Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Lin Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended solid (TSS is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR and artificial neural network (ANN were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L−1 and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L−1 and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R2 = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R2 = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS. On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R2 = 0.66 was better than with the MR

  9. The Impact of High-Turbidity Water's Seasonal and Decadal Variations on Offshore Phytoplankton and Nutrients Dynamics around The Changjiang Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, J.; Torres, R.; Chen, C.; Bellerby, R. G. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Changjiang Estuary is characterized as strong river discharge into the inner shelf of the East China Sea with abundant sediment load, producing significant high-turbidity water coverage from river mouth to deep region. The growth of offshore phytoplankton is dynamically controlled by river flushed low-salinity and high-turbidity water, and salter water from inner shelf of East China Sea. During last decade, the sediment and nutrients from the Changjiang River has significantly changed, which lead to the variation of offshore phytoplankton dynamics. The variations of sediment, nutrients, and their influenced phytoplankton has been simulated through a comprehensive modeling system, which integrated a multi-scale current-wave-sediment FVCOM model and generic marine biogeochemistry and ecosystem ERSEM model through The Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models (FABM). This model system has successfully revealed the seasonal and decadal variations of sediment, nutrients transport around the inner shelf of the East China Sea. The spring and autumn peaks of phytoplankton growth were correctly captured by simulation. The modeling results, as well as MODIS and GOCI remote sensing, shows a strong sediment decreasing from northern to southern region, which creates different patterns of Chlorophyll-a distribution and seasonal variations. These results indicate the high-turbidity water in northern region strongly influenced the light attenuation in the water column and limits the phytoplankton growth in this relatively higher-nutrient area, especially in the wintertime. The relatively low-turbidity southern region has significant productivity of phytoplankton, even during low-temperature winter. The phytoplankton growth increased in the northern region from 2005 to 2010, with the increase of the nutrient load during this period. Then it became a decreasing trend after 2010.

  10. Investigation about a possible correlation between the loading with environmental aerosols and the occurrence of child's lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagerer, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    In the recent years the increase of respiratory diseases and allergies has been discussed extensively, both by experts and in the media, at the national and the international level. This rise of respiratory diseases and allergies has stimulated the search for potential causes. One of these presumed causes is the occurrence of environmental aerosols in ambient air. Within the framework of the present masters thesis it was attempted to correlate cause and effect for the city and province of Salzburg. For this purpose, aerosol measurements were carried out at a few selected places: Salzburg (Rudolfsplatz) as an urban area and Tamsweg and Hallein Winterstall as rural areas. A comparison of the results of these measurements between the three places indicates an unambiguous decrease of concentration of the particles in the air, from the city to the country side. This gradient in particle concentrations consistent with the frequency of respiratory diseases and allergies. It is therefore possible to suggest a relationship between the concentration of environmental aerosols in ambient air and the health effects considered in this study. However, I would like to point out that the results of the present masters thesis have some informative value, but it would still be necessary to confirm them by a greater number of measurements which were unfortunately not possible within the framework of the present work. (author)

  11. Plasma-initiated polymerization of chitosan-based CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) flocculant for the enhanced flocculation of low-algal-turbidity water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjun; Zhu, Chengyu; Sun, Wenquan; Xu, Yanhua; Xiao, Xuefeng; Zheng, Huaili; Wu, Huifang; Liu, Cuiyun

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a highly efficient and environmentally friendly chitosan-based graft flocculant, namely, acrylamide- and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride-grafted chitosan [CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC)], was prepared successfully through plasma initiation. FTIR results confirmed the successful polymerization of CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) and P(AM-DMDAAC). P(AM-DMDAAC) was the copolymer of acrylamide- and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride. SEM results revealed that a densely cross-linked network structure formed on the surface. XRD results verified that the ordered crystal structure of chitosan in CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) was changed into an amorphous structure after plasma-induced polymerization. The flocculation results of low-algal-turbidity water further showed the optimal flocculation efficiency of turbidity removal rate, COD removal rate, and Chl-a removal rate were 99.02%, 96.11%, and 92.20%, respectively. The flocculation efficiency of CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) were significantly higher than those obtained by cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and Polymeric aluminum and iron (PAFC). This work provided a valuable basis for the design of eco-friendly naturally modified polymeric flocculants to enhance the flocculation of low-algal-turbidity water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Uranium and thorium occurrences in Precambrian rocks, Upper Peninsula of Michigan and northern Wisconsin, with thoughts on other possible settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliokoski, J.

    1976-01-01

    The following areas are covered: Precambrian geology of northern Michigan; mode of occurrence of uranium and thorium in the Precambrian rocks of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; selected stratigraphic relationships, Precambrian rocks of Michigan; mode of occurrence of uranium and thorium in Precambrian rocks of Wisconsin; and background data for geochemical exploration

  13. Possible Protective Effect of Hydroxychloroquine on Retarding the Occurrence of Integument Damage in Lupus: Data from LUMINA, a Multiethnic Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; González, Luis A.; Zhang, Jie; Vilá, Luis M.; Reveille, John D.; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the features predictive of time-to-integument damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) from a multiethnic cohort (LUMINA). Methods SLE LUMINA patients (n=580), age ≥16 years, disease duration ≤5 years at baseline (T0), of African American, Hispanic and Caucasian ethnicity were studied. Integument damage was defined per the SLICC damage index (scarring alopecia, extensive skin scarring and skin ulcers lasting at least six months); factors associated with time-to-its occurrence were examined by Cox proportional univariable and multivariable (main model) hazards regression analyses. Two alternative models were also examined; in model 1 all patients, regardless of when integument damage occurred (n=94), were included; in model 2 a time-varying approach (GEE) was employed. Results Thirty-nine (6.7%) of 580 patients developed integument damage over a mean (SD) total disease duration of 5.9 (3.7) years and were included in the main multivariable regression model. After adjusting for discoid rash, nailfold infarcts, photosensitivity and Raynaud’s phenomenon (significant in the univariable analyses), disease activity over time [Hazard ratio (HR)=1.17; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.26)] was associated with a shorter time-to-integument damage whereas hydroxychloroquine use (HR=0.23, 95% CI 0.12–0.47) and Texan-Hispanic (HR=0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.87) and Caucasian ethnicities (HR=0.37; 95% CI 0.14–0.99) were associated with a longer time. Results of the alternative models were consistent with those of the main model albeit in model 2 the association with hydroxychloroquine was not significant. Conclusions Our data indicate that hydroxychloroquine use is possibly associated with a delay in integument damage development in patients with SLE. PMID:20391486

  14. Abnormal resistance switching behaviours of NiO thin films: possible occurrence of both formation and rupturing of conducting channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chunli; Chae, S C; Chang, S H; Lee, S B; Noh, T W [ReCOE and FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J S; Kahng, B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D-W [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Physics, Ewha Womens University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, C U [Department of Physics, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, S; Ahn, S-E [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 440-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: twnoh@snu.ac.kr

    2009-01-07

    We report a detailed study on the abnormal resistance switching behaviours observed in NiO thin films which show unipolar resistance switching phenomena. During the RESET process, in which the NiO film changed from a low resistance state to a high resistance state, we sometimes observed that the resistance became smaller than the initial value. We simulated the resistance switching by using a random circuit breaker network model. We found that local conducting channels could be formed as well as ruptured during the RESET process, which result in the occurrence of such abnormal switching behaviours.

  15. Hypothesis on a possible role of El Niño in the occurrence of influenza pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Adriano; Giuliacci, Andrea; Pregliasco, Fabrizio

    2011-08-01

    The El Niño phenomenon is the Earth's strongest climatic fluctuation on an interannual timescale and has a quasi-global impact, although originating in the tropical Pacific Ocean. A very strong El Niño is recognized to cause extreme dryness and wetness in different parts of the world. We show that all the eight well-documented influenza pandemics, starting from the first certain one documented in ad 1580, originated in China and in Russia, a few years after the occurrence of a very strong or after a prolonged strong/moderate El Niño event. At present, the next El Niño will probably occur at the beginning of 2013 (Mazzarella et al. Theor Appl Climatol 100:23-27, 2010), and this forecast may suggest to be well prepared to take appropriate precautionary epidemiological measures.

  16. Ecological occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and nitrogen-fixing Acetobacteraceae members: their possible role in plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, V S; Madhaiyan, M; Osborne, Jabez; Thangaraju, M; Sa, T M

    2008-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has a long-standing history of bacterial-plant interrelationship as a symbiotic endophyte capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. In low nitrogen fertilized sugarcane fields it plays a significant role and its occurrence was realised in most of the sugarcane growing countries. In this mini review, the association of G. diazotrophicus with sugarcane, other crop plants and with various hosts is discussed. The factors affecting survival in the rhizosphere and the putative soil mode of transmission are emphasized. In addition, other N(2)-fixing Acetobacteraceae members, including Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans, Gluconacetobacter johannae and Swaminathania salitolerans, occurring in coffee, corn and rice plants are also covered. Lastly, the plant-growth-promoting traits identified in this group of bacteria, including N(2) fixation, phytohormone synthesis, P and Zn solubilization and biocontrol, are analysed.

  17. Carbamazepine as a Possible Anthropogenic Marker in Water: Occurrences, Toxicological Effects, Regulations and Removal by Wastewater Treatment Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal I. Hai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine (CBZ, a pharmaceutical compound, has been proposed as an anthropogenic marker to assess water quality due to its persistence in conventional treatment plants and widespread presence in water bodies. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on sources and occurrences of CBZ in water bodies, as well as toxicological effects and regulations of the drug. Given the documented side effects of CBZ on the human body when taken medicinally, its careful monitoring in water is recommended. CBZ residues in drinking water may provide a pathway to embryos and infants via intrauterine exposure or breast-feeding, which may cause congenital malformations and/or neurodevelopmental problems over long term exposure. An in-depth technical assessment of the conventional and advanced treatment technologies revealed the inadequacy of the standalone technologies. Compared to conventional activated sludge and membrane bioreactor processes, effective removal of CBZ can be achieved by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. However, recent studies have revealed that harsh chemical cleaning, as required to mitigate membrane fouling, can often reduce the long-term removal efficiency. Furthermore, despite the efficient performance of activated carbon adsorption and advanced oxidation processes, a few challenges such as cost of chemicals and regeneration of activated carbon need to be carefully considered. The limitations of the individual technologies point to the advantages of combined and hybrid systems, namely, membrane bioreactor coupled with nanofiltration, adsorption or advanced oxidation process.

  18. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in productive turbid waters using a Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean-the Azov Sea case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Gao Bocai; Li Rongrong; Berdnikov, Sergey; Saprygin, Vladislav

    2011-01-01

    We present here the results of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration estimation using the red and near infrared (NIR) spectral bands of a Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) in productive turbid waters of the Azov Sea, Russia. During the data collection campaign in the summer of 2010 in Taganrog Bay and the Azov Sea, water samples were collected and concentrations of chl-a were measured analytically. The NIR-red models were tuned to optimize the spectral band selections and chl-a concentrations were retrieved from HICO data. The NIR-red three-band model with HICO-retrieved reflectances at wavelengths 684, 700, and 720 nm explained more than 85% of chl-a concentration variation in the range from 19.67 to 93.14 mg m -3 and was able to estimate chl-a with root mean square error below 10 mg m -3 . The results indicate the high potential of HICO data to estimate chl-a concentration in turbid productive (Case II) waters in real-time, which will be of immense value to scientists, natural resource managers, and decision makers involved in managing the inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems.

  19. An extensive permanent snowfield and the possible occurrence of permafrost in till in the Ridnitvsohkka area, Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Hirvas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An area of permanent snow and frozen ground was studied at the end of summer seasons during the years 1990–1993 near the summit of Ridnitvsohkka fell, which at 1317 m a.s.l. is the second highest peak in Finland. The eastern flank of Ridnitvsohkka has the most extensive area of permanent snow (3 km^2 in Finland, while the summit region represents the highest single area of basal till devoid of vegetation cover and displaying patterned ground features.The ground penetrating radar results show that the form of the snowfield does not conform to the topography of the underlying bedrock and reveal the presence of several continuous reflectors dipping down-slope. Observations based on drilling and a single test pit indicate that the snowfield is 6.2 m thick and that it contains discontinuous lenses or layers of ice from 2 to 30 mm in thickness. Plant material from the depth of 4.05 m in the drilling core yielded a radiocarbon age of 35 years, while variations in the size of lichens growing at the edge of the snowfield indicated that the snowfield was of considerably greater extent some 100 to 150 years ago. The results suggest that the snowfield has been stable for a relatively long period but the “residence time” of snow in thesnowfield is rather short, presumably less than 100 years and possibly only a few decades.Percussion drilling on the Ridnitvsohkka summit plateau, situating 1290 m a.s.l., revealed that the till was frozen at the depth of 1.9 m at the end of July 1993. Discovery of frozen till shows that frozen ground can locally survive from one season to the next, while the extent of the permanent snowfield and vegetation-free patterned ground suggest that the conditions favourable for permafrost mighthave existed over wider areas.

  20. Development of a Semi-Analytical Algorithm for the Retrieval of Suspended Particulate Matter from Remote Sensing over Clear to Very Turbid Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of suspended particulate matter, SPM, from space has long been used to assess its spatio-temporal variability in various coastal areas. The associated algorithms were generally site specific or developed over a relatively narrow range of concentration, which make them inappropriate for global applications (or at least over broad SPM range. In the frame of the GlobCoast project, a large in situ data set of SPM and remote sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ, has been built gathering together measurements from various coastal areas around Europe, French Guiana, North Canada, Vietnam, and China. This data set covers various contrasting coastal environments diversely affected by different biogeochemical and physical processes such as sediment resuspension, phytoplankton bloom events, and rivers discharges (Amazon, Mekong, Yellow river, MacKenzie, etc.. The SPM concentration spans about four orders of magnitude, from 0.15 to 2626 g·m−3. Different empirical and semi-analytical approaches developed to assess SPM from Rrs(λ were tested over this in situ data set. As none of them provides satisfactory results over the whole SPM range, a generic semi-analytical approach has been developed. This algorithm is based on two standard semi-analytical equations calibrated for low-to-medium and highly turbid waters, respectively. A mixing law has also been developed for intermediate environments. Sources of uncertainties in SPM retrieval such as the bio-optical variability, atmospheric correction errors, and spectral bandwidth have been evaluated. The coefficients involved in these different algorithms have been calculated for ocean color (SeaWiFS, MODIS-A/T, MERIS/OLCI, VIIRS and high spatial resolution (LandSat8-OLI, and Sentinel2-MSI sensors. The performance of the proposed algorithm varies only slightly from one sensor to another demonstrating the great potential applicability of the proposed approach over global and contrasting coastal waters.

  1. Possible scenarios for occurrence of M ~ 7 interplate earthquakes prior to and following the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake based on numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ryoko; Hori, Takane; Hyodo, Mamoru; Ariyoshi, Keisuke

    2016-05-10

    We show possible scenarios for the occurrence of M ~ 7 interplate earthquakes prior to and following the M ~ 9 earthquake along the Japan Trench, such as the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. One such M ~ 7 earthquake is so-called the Miyagi-ken-Oki earthquake, for which we conducted numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles by using realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the subducting Pacific Plate. In a number of scenarios, the time interval between the M ~ 9 earthquake and the subsequent Miyagi-ken-Oki earthquake was equal to or shorter than the average recurrence interval during the later stage of the M ~ 9 earthquake cycle. The scenarios successfully reproduced important characteristics such as the recurrence of M ~ 7 earthquakes, coseismic slip distribution, afterslip distribution, the largest foreshock, and the largest aftershock of the 2011 earthquake. Thus, these results suggest that we should prepare for future M ~ 7 earthquakes in the Miyagi-ken-Oki segment even though this segment recently experienced large coseismic slip in 2011.

  2. Possible scenarios for occurrence of M ~ 7 interplate earthquakes prior to and following the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake based on numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ryoko; Hori, Takane; Hyodo, Mamoru; Ariyoshi, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    We show possible scenarios for the occurrence of M ~ 7 interplate earthquakes prior to and following the M ~ 9 earthquake along the Japan Trench, such as the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. One such M ~ 7 earthquake is so-called the Miyagi-ken-Oki earthquake, for which we conducted numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles by using realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the subducting Pacific Plate. In a number of scenarios, the time interval between the M ~ 9 earthquake and the subsequent Miyagi-ken-Oki earthquake was equal to or shorter than the average recurrence interval during the later stage of the M ~ 9 earthquake cycle. The scenarios successfully reproduced important characteristics such as the recurrence of M ~ 7 earthquakes, coseismic slip distribution, afterslip distribution, the largest foreshock, and the largest aftershock of the 2011 earthquake. Thus, these results suggest that we should prepare for future M ~ 7 earthquakes in the Miyagi-ken-Oki segment even though this segment recently experienced large coseismic slip in 2011. PMID:27161897

  3. Occurrence and diversity of arthropod-transmitted pathogens in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in western Austria, and possible vertical (transplacental) transmission of Hepatozoon canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Mrowietz, Naike; Cézanne, Rita; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Punz, Sylvia; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Tomsik, Valentina; Lazar, Judit; Duscher, Georg G; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2018-03-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae), Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. and Bartonella rochalimae. Blood was shown to be more suitable for detection of Babesia cf. microti, whilst the spleen tissue was better for detection of H. canis than blood. Moreover, extremely low genetic variability of H. canis and its relatively low prevalence rate observed in this study may suggest that the parasite has only recently been introduced in the sampled area. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrates, for the first time, the possible vertical transmission of H. canis from an infected vixen to the offspring, and this could explain the very high prevalence in areas considered free of its main tick vector(s).

  4. Occurrence of imposex in Thais haemastoma: possible evidence of environmental contamination derived from organotin compounds in Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Marcos Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are indications that the widespread use of organotin compounds (TBT and TPT as antifoulings, as stabilizers in plastic and as pesticides, has severely affected several species of marine organisms. The most striking effect of TBT and TPT as hormonal disruptors is the development of male organs in females of gastropods, currently denominated imposex. This syndrome can lead to the sterilization and death of affected organisms. The present work gives an overview of the present state of knowledge on imposex occurrence and reports results of a survey conducted in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro and in several sites along the coast of Fortaleza, Ceará State. Different stages of imposex development were verified in this survey, however, the most prominent levels appeared associated to known spot sources of TBT and TPT.

  5. Environmental occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section

  6. Environmental occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  7. Evaluation of possible occurrence of mutation in MMR repair system genes in resistant and sensitiveclinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosisby using sequencing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirPoyan Afzali

    2016-07-01

    2. Importance of this is determined by study of encoded proteins by these two genes and position of mut t4thanmut T2 in the MUT HLS spatial structure of protein complex. Results of comparison of drug resistance and occurrence of mutations in hot-spots of mut T2 and mut T4 genes illustrated that these genes are conserved in resistant strains. However, there is no significant relation in susceptible strains.

  8. Assessing the Possibility of Biological Complexity on Other Worlds, with an Estimate of the Occurrence of Complex Life in the Milky Way Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis N. Irwin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rational speculation about biological evolution on other worlds is one of the outstanding challenges in astrobiology. With the growing confirmation that multiplanetary systems abound in the universe, the prospect that life occurs redundantly throughout the cosmos is gaining widespread support. Given the enormous number of possible abodes for life likely to be discovered on an ongoing basis, the prospect that life could have evolved into complex, macro-organismic communities in at least some cases merits consideration. Toward that end, we here propose a Biological Complexity Index (BCI, designed to provide a quantitative estimate of the relative probability that complex, macro-organismic life forms could have emerged on other worlds. The BCI ranks planets and moons by basic, first-order characteristics detectable with available technology. By our calculation only 11 (~1.7% of the extrasolar planets known to date have a BCI above that of Europa; but by extrapolation, the total of such planets could exceed 100 million in our galaxy alone. This is the first quantitative assessment of the plausibility of complex life throughout the universe based on empirical data. It supports the view that the evolution of complex life on other worlds is rare in frequency but large in absolute number.

  9. Development of a Rapid and Sensitive Method Combining a Cellulose Ester Microfilter and a Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay To Detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in 20 Liters of Drinking Water or Low-Turbidity Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissier, Adeline; Denis, Martine; Hartemann, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in samples of drinking water suspected of being at the origin of an outbreak very often lead to negative results. One of the reasons for this failure is the small volume of water typically used for detecting these pathogens (10 to 1,000 ml). The efficiencies of three microfilters and different elution procedures were determined using real-time quantitative PCR to propose a procedure allowing detection of Campylobacter in 20 liters of drinking water or low-turbidity water samples. The results showed that more than 80% of the bacteria inoculated in 1 liter of drinking water were retained on each microfilter. An elution with a solution containing 3% beef extract, 0.05 M glycine at pH 9, combined with direct extraction of the bacterial genomes retained on the cellulose ester microfilter, allowed recovery of 87.3% (±22% [standard deviation]) of Campylobacter per 1 liter of tap water. Recoveries obtained from 20-liter volumes of tap water spiked with a C. coli strain were 69.5% (±10.3%) and 78.5% (±15.1%) for 91 CFU and 36 CFU, respectively. Finally, tests performed on eight samples of 20 liters of groundwater collected from an alluvial well used for the production of drinking water revealed the presence of C. jejuni and C. coli genomes, whereas no bacteria were detected with the normative culture method in volumes ranging from 10 to 1,000 ml. In the absence of available epidemiological data and information on bacterial viability, these last results indicate only that the water resource is not protected from contamination by Campylobacter. PMID:22138985

  10. Sequential survey of the occurrence and the possible effects of a 226Ra surplus in harbour slurry polder grounds: Definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, P.; Lembrechts, J.

    1993-11-01

    Sediments in the harbors of Rotterdam contain relatively large amounts of naturally occurring radionuclides resulting from emissions of the ore-processing industries (88Be, 92Be). Using harbour sludge as a landfill for polders has locally caused the 226 Ra contents of the soil to be a factor of 4 higher than the expected 226 Ra background. In polders where 226 Ra was measured, the 226 Ra surplus was found to be proportional to the cadmium contents (92Mo). Data on cadmium contents are available for many polders and therefore, cadmium may be useful as a tracer for enhanced levels of 226 Ra. Enhanced levels of 226 Ra may cause higher radon concentrations in dwellings that are built on these soils. Therefore, an extensive research programme is started to study the relation between the 226 Ra contents of the soil and radon concentrations in dwellings. The Laboratory of Radiation Research of RIVM has proposed to set up a sub-programme, focusing on the sites where harbour sludges have been dumped, with the following goals: 1) to investigate if there are dwellings with enhanced radon concentrations as a result of a 226 Ra surplus and 2) to investigate if the relation between the 226 Ra-surplus and the cadmium contents found is generally valid and useful. In this report we describe how this sub-programme may be set up and we give specific advice on the answers to various choices. We propose a.o. to use soil samples from 30 polders to investigate the relation between the 226 Ra surplus and the cadmium contents and to study in eight polders the possible consequences of enhanced 226 Ra levels for the radon concentrations in dwellings. Because the radon measurements take one year (four measurements averaged over three month) we propose that simple diagnostic measurements are made simultaneously with the radon measurements. These additional measurements include measurements of the groundwater table and of the effective ventilation pattern in the dwelling. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 16

  11. Investigation of the possible connection of rock and soil geochemistry to the occurrence of high rates of neurodegenerative diseases on Guam and a hypothesis for the cause of the diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R.; Sanzolone, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    High incidences of neurodegenerative diseases, mainly dementia, parkinsonism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, occur on the island of Guam (Koerner, 1952; Kurland and Mulder, 1954). The occurrence and description of the diseases and a summary of the investigations can be found in Perl (1997). The diseases have been more prevalent along the southern coast, particularly the small villages of Umatac, Merizo, and Inarajan (Reed and Brody, 1975; Roman, 1996; and Perl, 1997) (fig. 1), and referred to as the southern villages in this report. Tertiary volcanic rocks underlie most of the southern part of the island, including these villages. The northern part of Guam, with lower incidences of the diseases, consists of carbonate rocks. Epidemiological studies beginning in the early 1950’s failed to show the cause to be genetic etiology (Plato and others, 1986; Zhang and others, 1990). In recent studies, the search for pathogenic mechanisms has shifted to environmental factors. Excesses or deficiencies of various elements from dietary sources including drinking water can have an effect on human health. These deficiencies or excesses can usually be attributed to the geochemical composition of the rocks and derived soils that underlie the area. An example is the high concentration of Se in soil associated with the occurrence of selenosis in adults (Mills, 1996). Yase (1972) suggested that the neurodegenerative diseases on Guam may be related to accumulation of trace elements such as manganese and aluminum, both of which may cause neurodegeneration. It has been suggested that a deficiency in calcium and magnesium in the soil and water along with readily available aluminum could be connected to the occurrence of the diseases (Gajdusek, 1982; Yanagihara and others, 1984; Garruto and others, 1989). Some of the studies investigated metal exposure, particularly aluminum and manganese, and deficiencies in calcium and magnesium (Garruto and others, 1984). Aluminum has been shown to

  12. Unusual occurrence report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The final report provides information on an occurrence which took place in the HEDL Radioactive Liquid Waste System (RLWS), during which radioactive waste water entered the Retention Process Waste System. The RLWS has been cleared of the obstruction and is in full operation. Investigation of the occurrence and testing of the equipment involved is completed

  13. The concentration of the coolant 7Li in Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant operating with potassium hydroxide as an alkalizing reagent (possible impact on the occurrence of axial offset anomaly)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrevski, I.D.; Minkova, K.F.; Ivanova, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of axial offset anomaly (AOA) has occurred in a number of PWRs operating with extended fuel cycles and high boiling duty cores. Up to now AOA has been observed in PWRs operating with lithium hydroxide and the alkalizing reagent used for pH adjustment in boric acid water solutions. Since AOA is connected with the LiBO 2 precipitation in porous corrosion product deposits on the fuel cladding surfaces, we could presume that the replacement of lithium hydroxide with potassium hydroxide will avoid AOA. Nowadays there is a lack of observed AOA in VVER, i.e., a lack of formation of lithium metaborate (LiBO 2 ) deposits on the fuel element surfaces by coolant alkalization with potassium hydroxide. Nevertheless, the concentrations of 7 Li appear in the coolant, as a product of the neutron reaction with boron: 10 B (n,α) → 7 Li (n, α). As a consequence the possibility it is not excluded of LiBO 2 formation in VVERs with potassium hydroxide water chemistry. The aim of this study is to inform the reader about the development of the concentration of the coolant lithium concentration during the fuel cycles of VVERs and to discuss the possibility of LiBO 2 formation under VVER operation conditions. (orig.)

  14. Packaging and transportation occurrence reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needels, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1 calls for the maintenance of a database for all unclassified occurrence reports (ORs). ORS provide DOE with notice of incidents and accidents that endanger the public, workers, or DOE facility operations. To fulfill this policy, the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) was established to require DOE facilities to report and process information concerning such events. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides DOE with data and analysis of occurrence related to packaging and transportation (P and T) safety. This program produces annual reports, lessons learned bulletins, and information for the packaging and transportation home page on the Internet. The analysis and reports provided can be used as a tool for oversight and a means for DOE sites to be proactive and anticipate problems through shared knowledge and lessons learned. To illustrate, some observable trends based on 3 years of the program are given. In summary, this program shows potential problem areas that need correcting, and possible breakdowns of safety

  15. A Reflectance Model for Relatively Clear and Turbid Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tiwari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs is of great interest for ocean colour studies in highly turbid and relatively clear waters. In this work a semianalytical model that simulates the spectral curves of remote sensing reflectance of these waters is developed based on the inherent optical properties (IOPs and f and Q factors. For accommodating differences in the optical properties of the water and accounting for their directional variations, IOPs and f and Q factors are derived as a function of phytoplankton pigments, suspended sediments and solar zenith angle. Results of this model are compared with in-situ bio-optical data collected at 83 stations encompassing highly turbid/relatively cleared waters of the South Sea of Korea. Measured and modeled remote sensing reflectances agree favorably in both magnitude and spectral shape, with considerably low errors (mean relative error MRE -0.0327; root mean square error RMSE 0.205, bias -0.0727 and slope 1.15 and correlation coefficient R2 0.74. These results suggest that the new model has the ability to reproduce measured reflectance values and has potentially profound implications for remote sensing of complex waters in this region.

  16. Melatonin in higher plants: occurrence and possible functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Jan; Macháčková, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2005), s. 333-341 ISSN 0742-3098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Melatonin * Lingulodinium * auxin-like effects Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.025, year: 2005

  17. The 'time of occurrence' in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, M.D.; Vijayalakshmi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from serving as a parameter in describing the evolution of a system, time appears also as an observable property of a system in experiments where one measures 'the time of occurrence' of an event associated with the system. However, while the observables normally encountered in quantum theory (and characterized by self-adjoint operators or projection-valued measures) correspond to instantaneous measurements, a time of occurrence measurement involves continuous observations being performed on the system to monitor when the event occurs. It is argued that a time of occurrence observable should be represented by a positive-operator-valued measure on the interval over which the experiment is carried out. It is shown that while the requirement of time-translation invariance and the spectral condition rule out the possibility of a self-adjoint time operator (Pauli's theorem), they do allow for time of occurrence observables to be represented by suitable positive-operator-valued measures. It is also shown that the uncertainty in the time of occurrence of an event satisfies the time-energy uncertainty relation as a consequence of the time-translation invariance, only if the time of occurrence experiment is performed on the entire time axis. (author)

  18. A mathematical model for predicting earthquake occurrence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We consider the continental crust under damage. We use the observed results of microseism in many seismic stations of the world which was established to study the time series of the activities of the continental crust with a view to predicting possible time of occurrence of earthquake. We consider microseism time series ...

  19. Co-occurrence of chancroid and gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaf, Al-Mutairi; Joshi, Arun; Tayeh, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Gonorrhea and chancroid are common sexually transmitted infections in many parts of the world. Still, co-occurrence of these two conditions is uncommonly reported. We present here a patient who presented with painful genital ulcers and urethral discharge simultaneously acquired from a single exposure, which turned out to be chancroid and gonorrhea, respectively. Both conditions responded well to a single intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone 250 mg. This report describes the uncommon occurrence of gonorrhea and chancroid in a patient. Clinical features, relevant investigations, treatment options of these two sexually transmitted infections, and possible implications in view of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic are briefly discussed.

  20. Some aspects of geology and metallogenesis of uraniferous occurrences in Colombia. Regional context and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premoli, C.; Lozano, H.

    1984-01-01

    The main Colombian geostructural units are discussed in relation to their uranium possibilities. The characteristics of the more representative models of Colombian uranium occurrences are described and the possibility that some of them could be developed into workable uranium deposits is studied. Where possible, genetic interpretations are provided or suggested for some uranium occurrences. (author)

  1. Classifying Sluice Occurrences in Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Austin; Hamza, Anissa; Hardt, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    perform manual annotation with acceptable inter-coder agreement. We build classifier models with Decision Trees and Naive Bayes, with accuracy of 67%. We deploy a classifier to automatically classify sluice occurrences in OpenSubtitles, resulting in a corpus with 1.7 million occurrences. This will support....... Despite this, the corpus can be of great use in research on sluicing and development of systems, and we are making the corpus freely available on request. Furthermore, we are in the process of improving the accuracy of sluice identification and annotation for the purpose of created a subsequent version...

  2. First natural occurrence of coesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Madsen, B.M.

    1960-01-01

    Coesite, the high-pressure polymorph of SiO2, hitherto known only as a synthetic compound, is identified as an abundant mineral in sheared Coconino sandstone at Meteor Crater, Arizona. This natural occurrence has important bearing on the recognition of meteorite impact craters in quartz-bearing geologic formations.

  3. Human plague occurrences in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Bertherat, Eric; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, but particularly in Africa. Despite the long-standing history of human plague, it is difficult to get a historical and recent overview of the general situation. We searched and screened available information sources on human plague occurrences in ...

  4. Have grass carp driven declines in macrophyte occurrence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Vaal River, South Africa, historically had a rich diversity of native submerged macrophytes with at least 13 species from 5 families recorded. Over the past 10 years there has been a noticeable reduction in the occurrence and diversity of submerged macrophytes in the river. It is possible that this is linked to the recent ...

  5. [Congenital talipes equinovarus--family occurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołecka, Ewa; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard; Cukras, Zbigniew; Piotrowicz, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Although congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is one of the most frequently occurring congenital defects of locomotor organs, its ethiopathogenesis is still not fully known. Amongst the others, the inheritance patterns of that defect are not fully known, and that restricts genetic therapeutics and development of new treatment technologies. The aim of this study was analysis of family lineages of 205 children with CTEV (298 feet) treated at our centre in the years 1998-2008. The family occurrence of CTEV was found in 16 cases (8% of analysed group). 6 lineages, in which CTEV occurred in successive generations, were analysed in detail. Particularly interesting is the lineage of the family 1, in which the defect occurred in three successive generations. In case of that family, an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern is possible. Previously that pattern of CTEV inheritance was described only for isolated populations of Polynesians. In own material the family occurrence of CTEV was found to be less frequent than in bibliographic references. The defect occurred twice as often in boys, while the severe form was more frequently observed in girls, and that is consisted with data in the available bibliography. The analysis of presented lineages of families with CTEV did not allow unambiguous defining of the inheritance pattern for that defect. To confirm the autosomal dominant pattern of CTEV inheritance in the family in which the defect occurred in three successive generations, genetic tests would be necessary.

  6. Colorado quartz: occurrence and discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kile, D.E.; Modreski, P.J.; Kile, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The many varieties and associations of quartz found throughout the state rank it as one of the premier worldwide localities for that species. This paper briefly outlines the historical importance of the mineral, the mining history and the geological setting before discussing the varieties of quartz present, its crystallography and the geological enviroments in which it is found. The latter include volcanic rocks and near surface igneous rocks; pegmatites; metamorphic and plutonic rocks; hydrothermal veins; skarns and sedimentary deposits. Details of the localities and mode of occurrence of smoky quartz, amethyst, milky quartz, rock crystal, rose quartz, citrine, agate and jasper are then given. -S.J.Stone

  7. Occurrence reporting and processing of operations information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-21

    DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (``Reportable Occurrences``); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department`s performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations.

  8. Occurrence reporting and processing of operations information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (''Reportable Occurrences''); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department's performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations

  9. Occurrence of imposex in Thais haemastoma: possible evidence of environmental contamination derived from organotin compounds in Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza, Brazil Ocorrência de imposex em Thais haemastoma: possíveis evidências de contaminação ambiental por compostos organotínicos no Rio de Janeiro e em Fortaleza, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Fernandez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available There are indications that the widespread use of organotin compounds (TBT and TPT as antifoulings, as stabilizers in plastic and as pesticides, has severely affected several species of marine organisms. The most striking effect of TBT and TPT as hormonal disruptors is the development of male organs in females of gastropods, currently denominated imposex. This syndrome can lead to the sterilization and death of affected organisms. The present work gives an overview of the present state of knowledge on imposex occurrence and reports results of a survey conducted in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro and in several sites along the coast of Fortaleza, Ceará State. Different stages of imposex development were verified in this survey, however, the most prominent levels appeared associated to known spot sources of TBT and TPT.Existem evidências de que a utilização amplamente disseminada de compostos organoestânicos (TBT e TPT como antiincrustantes, estabilizadores em plásticos e como pesticidas tenha afetado severamente diversas espécies de organismos marinhos. O mais característico efeito do TBT e do TPT como desreguladores endócrinos é o desenvolvimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos em fêmeas de gastrópodos, conhecido como imposex. Esta síndrome pode levar à esterelização e morte dos organismos afetados. O presente trabalho apresenta uma vista geral ao estado atual do conhecimento sobre a ocorrência do imposex, e reporta os resultados de um estudo conduzido na Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, e ao longo da costa de Fortaleza, no Ceará. Diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento do imposex foram verificados neste estudo, os mais proeminentes parecendo associados às fontes pontuais locais conhecidas de TBT e TPT.

  10. Uranium occurrences of the Thunder Bay-Nipigon-Marathon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the 1981, 1982 and 1983 field seasons an inventory of all known uranium occurrences in the North Central Region of Ontario was undertaken. Three major categories of uranium occurrences were identified: uranium associated with the rocks of the Quetico Subprovince; uranium associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity; and uranium associated with alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age. Occurrences associated with the Quetico Belt are in white, albite-quartz-muscovite pegmatites. Occurrences associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity are usually of high gradee (up to 12% U 3 O 8 ), nearly always hematized and are related to fault or shear zones proximal to the unconformity. Although of high grade, many of the unconformity related occurrences are very narrow (<1 m). Alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age are an important source of uranium but possible metallurgical problems might downgrade their potential. The Quetico Subprovince is anomalously high in background uranium, and therefore contains important source rocks for uranium. Areas that have the highest potential for uranium deposits in the North Central Region are the Nipigon Basin area, and the areas underlain by the Gunflint and Rove Formations. All the high grade vein-type uranium deposits related to the unconformity are found within the Nipigon Basin. 126 refs

  11. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  12. Crossing seas and occurrence of rogue waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The study is addressing crossing wave systems which may lead to formation of rogue waves. Onorato et al. (2006, 2010) have shown using the Nonlinear Schr?dringer (NLS) equations that the modulational instability and rogue waves can be triggered by a peculiar form of directional sea state, where two identical, crossing, narrow-banded random wave systems interact with each other. Such results have been underpinned by numerical simulations of the Euler equations solved with a Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and experimental observations (Toffoli et al., 2011). They substantiate a dependence of the angle between the mean directions of propagation of the two crossing wave systems, with a maximum rogue wave probability for angles of approximately 40 degrees. Such an unusual sea state of two almost identical wave systems (approximately the same significant wave height and mean frequency) with high steepness and different directions was observed during the accident to the cruise ship Louis Majesty (Cavaleri et al. 2012). Occurrence of wind sea and swell having almost the same spectral period and significant wave height and crossing at the angle 40o low and intermediate wave conditions. They have not been found in a location off coast of Australia and Nigeria. There are some indications that in the future climate we may expect an increase number of occurrence of rogue-prone crossing sea states in some ocean regions An adopted partitioning procedure of a wave spectrum will impact the results. References Bitner-Gregersen, E.M. and Toffoli, A., 2014. Probability of occurrence of rogue sea states and consequences for design of marine structures. Special Issue of Ocean Dynamics, ISSN 1616-7341, 64(10), DOI 10.1007/s10236-014-0753-2. Cavaleri, L., Bertotti, L., Torrisi, L. Bitner-Gregersen, E., Serio, M. and Onorato, M., 2012. Rogue Waves in Crossing Seas: The Louis Majesty accident. J. Geophysical Research, 117, C00J10, doi:10.1029/2012JC007923 Onorato, M., A. Osborne, A

  13. Uranium and thorium occurrences in New Mexico: distribution, geology, production, and resources. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1983-09-01

    The following compilation of uranium and thorium occurrences, prospects, deposits, and mines and their descriptions is the most comprehensive tabulation of natural-occurring radioactive occurrences in New Mexico to date. It is possible that many additional occurrences will be discovered in the future. For the purposes of this compilation any locality where uranium or thorium mineralization is reported or produced, or where uranium or thorium concentration exceeds 0.001%, or where the radioactivity is twice background radioactivity or greater is considered an occurrence

  14. Foreshock occurrence before large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured in two worldwide catalogs over ???20-year intervals. The overall rates observed are similar to ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California. The aftershock model was extended to the case of moderate foreshocks preceding large mainshocks. Overall, the observed worldwide foreshock rates exceed the extended California generic model by a factor of ???2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events, a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, had a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, had a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have found low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggests the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich. If this is so, then the California generic model may significantly underestimate the conditional probability for a very large (M ??? 8) earthquake following a potential (M ??? 7) foreshock in Cascadia. The magnitude differences among the identified foreshock-mainshock pairs in the Harvard catalog are consistent with a uniform

  15. Simultaneous Occurrence of Dens Invaginatus and Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mhapuskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Dens invaginatus and fusion are well-known and well established dental anomalies, they are rarely seen in supernumerary teeth. In this article, simultaneous occurrence of Dens invaginatus and fusion between maxillary lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth is described. Dens invaginatus is clinically significant due to the possibility of the pulpal involvement; pulpitis, necrotic pulps and chronic periapical lesions are often associated with this anomaly without clinical symptoms. Fusion has a negative impact on the aesthetics, especially when it occurs in maxillary anterior teeth. It is difficult to clinically make differential diagnosis between fused teeth and geminated teeth, especially when these anomalies take place together with hypodontia or supernumerary tooth. It has been found that sequel of such teeth may result in delayed eruption, ectopic eruption or even impaction of permanent teeth; hence proper diagnosis by clinical and radiographic methods and intervention at appropriate time is of paramount importance. The accurate knowledge of variations in morphology of tooth and pulp cavity greatly assists the dentist in planning successful treatment options.

  16. A hierarchical community occurrence model for North Carolina stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, S.R.; Wagner, Tyler; Tracy, B.H.

    2016-01-01

    The southeastern USA is home to one of the richest—and most imperiled and threatened—freshwater fish assemblages in North America. For many of these rare and threatened species, conservation efforts are often limited by a lack of data. Drawing on a unique and extensive data set spanning over 20 years, we modeled occurrence probabilities of 126 stream fish species sampled throughout North Carolina, many of which occur more broadly in the southeastern USA. Specifically, we developed species-specific occurrence probabilities from hierarchical Bayesian multispecies models that were based on common land use and land cover covariates. We also used index of biotic integrity tolerance classifications as a second level in the model hierarchy; we identify this level as informative for our work, but it is flexible for future model applications. Based on the partial-pooling property of the models, we were able to generate occurrence probabilities for many imperiled and data-poor species in addition to highlighting a considerable amount of occurrence heterogeneity that supports species-specific investigations whenever possible. Our results provide critical species-level information on many threatened and imperiled species as well as information that may assist with re-evaluation of existing management strategies, such as the use of surrogate species. Finally, we highlight the use of a relatively simple hierarchical model that can easily be generalized for similar situations in which conventional models fail to provide reliable estimates for data-poor groups.

  17. UMTRA project list of reportable occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This UMTRA Project List of Reportable occurrences is provided to facilitate efficient categorization of reportable occurrences. These guidelines have been established in compliance with DOE minimum reporting requirements under DOE Order 5000.3B. Occurrences are arranged into nine groups relating to US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project operations for active sites. These nine groupings are provided for reference to determined whether an occurrence meets reporting requirement criteria in accordance with the minimum reporting requirements. Event groups and significance categories that cannot or will not occur, and that do not apply to UMTRA Project operations, are omitted. Occurrence categorization shall be as follows: Group 1. Facility Condition; Group 2. Environmental; Group 3. Personnel Safety; Group 4. Personnel Radiation Protection; Group 5. Safeguards and Security; Group 6. Transportation; Group 7. Value Basis Reporting; Group 8. Facility Status; and Group 9. Cross-Category Items.

  18. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  19. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  20. UMTRA project list of reportable occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This UMTRA Project List of Reportable occurrences is provided to facilitate efficient categorization of reportable occurrences. These guidelines have been established in compliance with DOE minimum reporting requirements under DOE Order 5000.3B. Occurrences are arranged into nine groups relating to US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project operations for active sites. These nine groupings are provided for reference to determined whether an occurrence meets reporting requirement criteria in accordance with the minimum reporting requirements. Event groups and significance categories that cannot or will not occur, and that do not apply to UMTRA Project operations, are omitted. Occurrence categorization shall be as follows: Group 1. Facility Condition; Group 2. Environmental; Group 3. Personnel Safety; Group 4. Personnel Radiation Protection; Group 5. Safeguards and Security; Group 6. Transportation; Group 7. Value Basis Reporting; Group 8. Facility Status; and Group 9. Cross-Category Items

  1. RadCon Occurrence Reporting Simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    This narrative and accompanying diagrams provide a simplified summary of the RadCon Occurrence Reporting criteria to allow Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) staff to efficiently recognize occurrences and to effectively initiate the implementation of the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and of the ERC criteria defined in BHI-MA-02, ERC Project Procedures, Procedure 2.6, ''Occurrence Investigation and Reporting.'' These directives promote timely identification, categorization, notification, and reporting to DOE and ERC management of reportable occurrences at DOE-owned or -operated facilities that could (1) affect health and safety of the public, (2) seriously impact the intended purpose of DOE facilities, (3) adversely affect the credibility of DOE, or (4) have a noticeable adverse effect on the environment

  2. ETGAR - Information system for abnormal occurrences in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baram, J.; Nagar, M.; Pultorak, G.

    1975-01-01

    The need for extensive information on systems and components arises early in the planning stage of a nuclear power plant. This information is equally necessary during the building of the plant and during the licensing process. Another type of information helps preventive maintenance during the operating life of the plant. In the case of abnormal occurrences additional information on their possible consequences and on possible ways of handling them, is essential. To cover these four needs, the ETGAR system, which at present covers mostly PWR and BWR type nuclear power plants, collects and evaluates information on abnormal occurrences in nuclear power plants. The information is coded, using a three-level coding scheme for systems and components, and put on magnetic tape. A search program enables the retrieval of any pertinent information from the data base. The sources for the ETGAR data base are reports on abnormal occurrences in nuclear power plants. Most of them are USAEC dockets, originated at U.S.A. power plants. The relevant documents are accessible through a standard query run for ETGAR in the INIS data base which is maintained by the INIS centre in Israel. This query retrieves every two weeks all the documents which come under the ETGAR scope and these are handed as microfiches to the ETGAR evaluators after each INIS run. The evaluation and coding of the documents, the ETGAR coding scheme and the computer programs are described. (B.G.)

  3. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Narwade

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven provinces of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS. The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula.

  4. Occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servaes, K.; Vanermen, G.; Seuntjens, P.

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Pharmaceuticals are classified as so-called ‘emerging pollutants'. ‘Emerging pollutants' are not necessarily new chemical compounds. Often these compounds are already present in the environment for a long time. But, their occurrence and especially their impact on the environment has only recently become clear. Consequently, data on their occurrence are rather scarce. In this study, we focus on the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water in Flanders. We have only considered active substances administered to cattle, pigs and poultry. Based on the literature and information concerning the use in Belgium, a selection of 25 veterinary pharmaceuticals has been made. This selection consists of the most important antibiotics and antiparasitic substances applied in veterinary medicine in Belgium. We develop an analytical methodology based on UPLC-MS/MS for the detection of these veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water. Therefore, the mass characteristics as well as the optimum LC conditions will be determined. To obtain limits of detection as low as possible, the samples are concentrated prior to analysis using solid phase extraction (SPE). Different SPE cartridges will be tested during the method development. At first, this SPE sample pre-treatment is performed off-line. In a next step, online SPE is optimized for this purpose. The analytical procedure will be subject to an in-house validation study, thereby determining recovery, repeatability (% RSD), limits of detection and limits of quantification. Finally, the developed methodology will be applied for monitoring the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water and groundwater in Flanders. These water samples will be taken in areas characterized by intensive cattle breeding. Moreover, the samples will be collected during springtime. In this season, farmers apply manure, stored during winter

  5. Influence of peptides and proteins produced by cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa on the coagulation of turbid waters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafaříková, Jana; Barešová, Magdalena; Pivokonský, Martin; Kopecká, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, October (2013), s. 49-57 ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/11/0247 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : Cellular organic matter (COM) * Coagulation * Microcystis aeruginosa * Peptides/proteins * Turbidity removal Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383586613004152

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF CHITOSAN AS NATURAL COAGULANT AID IN TREATING TURBID WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bina ، M. H. Mehdinejad ، M. Nikaeen ، H. Movahedian Attar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer disease, and more interest has been considered on the development of natural coagulants such as chitosan. Chitosan, a natural linear biopolyaminosaccharide, is obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitosan as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The optimum pH was observed between 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. The optimum doses of alum and chitosan when used in conjunction, were 10mg/L and 1mg/L, 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L, and 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L in low, medium and high turbidities, respectively. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between %74.3 to %98.2 by alum in conjunction with chitosan. Residual Al+3 in treated water was less than 0.2 mg/L, meeting the international guidelines. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 2-4 log units within the first 1 to 2 hr of treatment. Hardness removal efficiency decreased when the total hardness increased from 102 to 476mg/L as CaCO3. At low initial turbidity, chitosan showed marginally better performance on hardness, especially at the ranges of 100 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3. In conclusion, coagulant aid showed a useful method for coagulation process. By using natural coagulants, considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.

  7. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  8. Photonic crystal light collectors in fish retina improve vision in turbid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysing, Moritz; Pusch, Roland; Haverkate, Dorothee; Landsberger, Meik; Engelmann, Jacob; Ruiter, Janina; Mora-Ferrer, Carlos; Ulbricht, Elke; Grosche, Jens; Franze, Kristian; Streif, Stefan; Schumacher, Sarah; Makarov, Felix; Kacza, Johannes; Guck, Jochen; Wolburg, Hartwig; Bowmaker, James K; von der Emde, Gerhard; Schuster, Stefan; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Reichenbach, Andreas; Francke, Mike

    2012-06-29

    Despite their diversity, vertebrate retinae are specialized to maximize either photon catch or visual acuity. Here, we describe a functional type that is optimized for neither purpose. In the retina of the elephantnose fish (Gnathonemus petersii), cone photoreceptors are grouped together within reflecting, photonic crystal-lined cups acting as macroreceptors, but rod photoreceptors are positioned behind these reflectors. This unusual arrangement matches rod and cone sensitivity for detecting color-mixed stimuli, whereas the photoreceptor grouping renders the fish insensitive to spatial noise; together, this enables more reliable flight reactions in the fish's dim and turbid habitat as compared with fish lacking this retinal specialization.

  9. Separate treatment of turbid water from sludge treatment; Separate Behandlung von Truebwaessern aus der Schlammbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B.; Arnold, E.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    In semi-technical investigations, discontinuous activated sludge processes and biofilm processes for the nitrification of sludge water were compared. Both processes were found to be equally suited for this application. (orig.) [German] In halbtechnischen Untersuchungen wurden diskontinuierlich betriebene Belebtschlamm- und Biofilmverfahren zur Nitrifikation von Schlammwaessern gegenuebergestellt. Es zeigte sich, dass beide Verfahren gleichermassen fuer diese Anwendung geeignet sind. (orig.)

  10. Optimum LED wavelength for underwater optical wireless communication at turbid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Arnon, Shlomi

    2014-10-01

    Underwater optical wireless communication is an emerging technology, which can provide high data rate. High data rate communication is required for applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles. These applications pursue an affordable light source, which can be obtained by light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes. In this paper we present our recent theoretical and experimental results in this field.

  11. Known uraniferous occurrences in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, H.; Aluja, J.A.; Pfeiffer, J.; Cortes, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of an internal report entitled 'Possibilities of Uranium in Colombia' compiled by the author in 1973, and as a result of work done by the foreign companies TOTAL-MINATOME (France) and ENUSA (Spain) using carborne radiometric techniques, ground surveys (plus occasional aerial prospecting) and geochemical methods (sediments and waters), approximately 260 uranium anomalies (in 1973 the figure was 106) have been discovered after covering 30% of the areas considered under priorities I, II and III (321,000 km 2 ), together with 16,000 km of the national road network (+-44,000 km). In addition to supporting the original selection, these results indicate considerable variation in the geological conditions and metallogenic associations, which IAN, MINATOME and ENUSA have now begun to evaluate in the hope of obtaining specific data by the end of 1980. (author)

  12. Prediction of the occurrence of related strong earthquakes in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieva, I.A.; Panza, G.F.

    1993-06-01

    In the seismic flow it is often observed that a Strong Earthquake (SE), is followed by Related Strong Earthquakes (RSEs), which occur near the epicentre of the SE with origin time rather close to the origin time of the SE. The algorithm for the prediction of the occurrence of a RSE has been developed and applied for the first time to the seismicity data of the California-Nevada region and has been successfully tested in several regions of the World, the statistical significance of the result being 97%. So far, it has been possible to make five successful forward predictions, with no false alarms or failures to predict. The algorithm is applied here to the Italian territory, where the occurrence of RSEs is a particularly rare phenomenon. Our results show that the standard algorithm is successfully directly applicable without any adjustment of the parameters. Eleven SEs are considered. Of them, three are followed by a RSE, as predicted by the algorithm, eight SEs are not followed by a RSE, and the algorithm predicts this behaviour for seven of them, giving rise to only one false alarm. Since, in Italy, quite often the series of strong earthquakes are relatively short, the algorithm has been extended to handle such situation. The result of this experiment indicates that it is possible to attempt to test a SE, for the occurrence of a RSE, soon after the occurrence of the SE itself, performing timely ''preliminary'' recognition on reduced data sets. This fact, the high confidence level of the retrospective analysis, and the first successful forward predictions, made in different parts of the World, indicates that, even if additional tests are desirable, the algorithm can already be considered for routine application to Civil Defence. (author). Refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  14. Postpartum consultation: Occurrence, requirements and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlgren Ingrid

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a matter of routine, midwives in Sweden have spoken with women about their experiences of labour in a so-called 'postpartum consultation'. However, the possibility of offering women this kind of consultation today is reduced due to shortage of both time and resources. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence, women's requirements of, and experiences of a postpartum consultation, and to identify expectations from women who wanted but did not have a consultation with the midwife assisting during labour. Methods All Swedish speaking women who gave birth to a live born child at a University Hospital in western Sweden were consecutively included for a phone interview over a three-week period. An additional phone interview was conducted with the women who did not have a postpartum consultation, but who wanted to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Of the 150 interviewed women, 56% (n = 84 had a postpartum consultation of which 61.9% (n = 52 had this with the midwife assisting during labour. Twenty of the 28 women who did not have a consultation with anyone still desired to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Of these, 19 were interviewed. The content the women wanted to talk about was summarized in four categories: to understand the course of events during labour; to put into words, feelings about undignified management; to describe own behaviour and feelings, and to describe own fear. Conclusion The survey shows that the frequency of postpartum consultation is decreasing, that the majority of women who give birth today still require it, but only about half of them receive it. It is crucial to develop a plan for these consultations that meets both the women's needs and the organization within current maternity care.

  15. Soya protein antibodies in man: their occurrence and possible relevance in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeney, M R; Goodwin, B J; Barratt, M E; Mike, N; Asquith, P

    1982-01-01

    Circulating antibodies to soya-derived protein antigens have been measured in patients with duodenitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and coeliac disease. Significantly raised antibody titres were found frequently in the coeliac group, particularly those patients showing a suboptimal response to a gluten-free diet, but rarely in subjects with other gastrointestinal diseases. Antisoya activity was not necessarily accompanied by antibodies to other common dietary antigens. We suggest that some coeliacs may have an associated dietary soya sensitivity which could adversely influence their response to gluten withdrawal. PMID:7040491

  16. O2-insensitive photosynthesis in C3 plants: its occurrence and a possible explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Leaves of C 3 plants which exhibit a normal O 2 inhibition of CO 2 fixation at less than saturating light intensity were found to exhibit O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis at high light. This behavior was observed in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Xanthium strumarium L., and Scrophularia desertorum (Shaw.) Munz. O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis has been reported in nine other C 3 species and usually occurred when the intercellular CO 2 pressure was about double the normal pressure. A lack of O 2 inhibition of photosynthesis was always accompanied by a failure of increased CO 2 pressure to stimulate photosynthesis to the expected degree. O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis also occurred after plants had been water stressed. Under such conditions, however, photosynthesis became O 2 and CO 2 insensitive at physiological CO 2 pressures. Postillumination CO 2 exchange kinetics showed that O 2 and CO 2 insensitivity was not the result of elimination of photorespiration. It is proposed that O 2 and CO 2 insensitivity occurs when the concentration of phosphate in the chloroplast stroma cannot be both high enough to allow photophosphorylation and low enough to allow starch and sucrose synthesis at the rates required by the rest of the photosynthetic component processes. Under these conditions, the energy diverted to photorespiration does not adversely affect the potential for CO 2 assimilation

  17. Occurrence of myofascial pain in patients with possible carpal tunnel syndrome - a single-blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    There exits some similarity between symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and myofascial pain related to trigger points (TPs) in the infraspinatus muscle.......There exits some similarity between symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and myofascial pain related to trigger points (TPs) in the infraspinatus muscle....

  18. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.

    1988-01-01

    Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6 .times. .times. H. procerum, 6 .times.) .times. H. vulgare, 2 .times.]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1-7), but were...

  19. Occurrence of pneumomediastinum due to dental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; Kasap, Gül Nihal; Demir, Cihat; Akkaş, Meltem; Aksu, Nalan M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema due to dental procedures is quite rare. We present a case of pneumomediastinum and massive subcutaneous emphysema that occurred during third molar tooth extraction with air-turbine handpiece.

  20. The Occurrence of Heamoproteuscolumbae in Pigeons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Occurrence of Heamoproteuscolumbae in Pigeons ( Columbidaelivia ) Based on Microscopy and PCR Based Method Analysis and Identification of New Lineage in the MalAvi Data Base in Kano State, Nigeria.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of Indian primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Global and regional species conservation efforts are hindered by poor distribution data and range maps. Many Indian primates face extinction, but assessments of population status are hindered by lack of reliable distribution data. We estimated the current occurrence and distribution of 15 Indian primates by applying occupancy models to field data from a country-wide survey of local experts. We modeled species occurrence in relation to ecological and social covariates (protected areas, landscape characteristics, and human influences), which we believe are critical to determining species occurrence in India. We found evidence that protected areas positively influence occurrence of seven species and for some species are their only refuge. We found evergreen forests to be more critical for some primates along with temperate and deciduous forests. Elevation negatively influenced occurrence of three species. Lower human population density was positively associated with occurrence of five species, and higher cultural tolerance was positively associated with occurrence of three species. We find that 11 primates occupy less than 15% of the total land area of India. Vulnerable primates with restricted ranges are Golden langur, Arunachal macaque, Pig-tailed macaque, stump-tailed macaque, Phayre's leaf monkey, Nilgiri langur and Lion-tailed macaque. Only Hanuman langur and rhesus macaque are widely distributed. We find occupancy modeling to be useful in determining species ranges, and in agreement with current species ranking and IUCN status. In landscapes where monitoring efforts require optimizing cost, effort and time, we used ecological and social covariates to reliably estimate species occurrence and focus species conservation efforts. ?? Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Permafrost: occurrence and physiochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-10-01

    Bedrock of the Northern Hemisphere areas to the north of about the 60th latitude are nowadays dominated by permafrost conditions. Fennoscandia is a major exception being characterised by temperate climate. In studying deep geological disposal of long-living nuclear waste, long-term climatic changes have to be taken into account. One of the scenarios to be studied is the extension of the deep permafrost conditions to the disposal site. Quaternary climatic fluctuations and their possible reasons are discussed shortly. The author's conclusion is that future climatic changes cannot be undoubtedly derived from the past variations, mainly because of the current anthropogenic involvement and of the poorly known dynamics of the major climate-affecting factors like ocean currents, which cannot be treated in a deterministic way. In low-porosity crystalline rocks permafrost may propagate to the depth of about 500 metres in some thousands to ten thousands of years. On the other hand, the major effects of permafrost are related to the freezing of water in the pores. Water expands about 9 percent in freezing, and the increasing stress may lead to pressure melting of ice. Dissolved salts in water do not accommodate into the solid ice, but they form saline water or brine segregations having freezing point of even less than minus ten degrees. A front of saline water may develop beneath the frozen bedrock. Pockets of saline water may also occur in ice, and unfrozen adsorption water may occur on the grain boundaries. With respect to the radionuclide transport processes, permafrost as such is a barrier, while the unfrozen domains (taliks) beneath major lake and river systems are potential flow paths. (orig.)

  3. Permafrost: occurrence and physiochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.

    2001-10-01

    Bedrock of the Northern Hemisphere areas to the north of about the 60th latitude are nowadays dominated by permafrost conditions. Fennoscandia is a major exception being characterised by temperate climate. In studying deep geological disposal of long-living nuclear waste, long-term climatic changes have to be taken into account. One of the scenarios to be studied is the extension of the deep permafrost conditions to the disposal site. Quaternary climatic fluctuations and their possible reasons are discussed shortly. The author's conclusion is that future climatic changes cannot be undoubtedly derived from the past variations, mainly because of the current anthropogenic involvement and of the poorly known dynamics of the major climate-affecting factors like ocean currents, which cannot be treated in a deterministic way. In low-porosity crystalline rocks permafrost may propagate to the depth of about 500 metres in some thousands to ten thousands of years. On the other hand, the major effects of permafrost are related to the freezing of water in the pores. Water expands about 9 percent in freezing, and the increasing stress may lead to pressure melting of ice. Dissolved salts in water do not accommodate into the solid ice, but they form saline water or brine segregations having freezing point of even less than minus ten degrees. A front of saline water may develop beneath the frozen bedrock. Pockets of saline water may also occur in ice, and unfrozen adsorption water may occur on the grain boundaries. With respect to the radionuclide transport processes, permafrost as such is a barrier, while the unfrozen domains (taliks) beneath major lake and river systems are potential flow paths. (orig.)

  4. Arsenic in the groundwater: Occurrence, toxicological activities, and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Mishra, V K; Damodaran, T; Sharma, D K; Kumar, Parveen

    2017-04-03

    Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater has become a geo-environmental as well as a toxicological problem across the globe affecting more than 100-million people in nearly 21 countries with its associated disease "arsenicosis." Arsenic poisoning may lead to fatal skin and internal cancers. In present review, an attempt has been made to generate awareness among the readers about various sources of occurrence of arsenic, its geochemistry and speciation, mobilization, metabolism, genotoxicity, and toxicological exposure on humans. The article also emphasizes the possible remedies for combating the problem. The knowledge of these facts may help to work on some workable remedial measure.

  5. Changing lifestyles and oral clefts occurrence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    ; furthermore, smoking among pregnant women decreased considerably. Design and settings There are few places in which ecological studies of oral clefts are possible. Denmark provides a particularly good setting for this kind of study, due to a high ascertainment and a centralized registration of cleft cases...... through the last 65 years. Participants Cleft occurrence in Denmark 1936 to 1987 has previously been reported. Here we extend the study to include all live-born children with oral clefts born in Denmark in 1988 throguh 2001. Among a total of 992,727 live births 1332 children with CL(P) were born during...

  6. Microplastics in sediments: A review of techniques, occurrence and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Devriese, Lisa; Galgani, François; Robbens, Johan; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are omnipresent in the marine environment and sediments are hypothesized to be major sinks of these plastics. Here, over 100 articles spanning the last 50 year are reviewed with following objectives: (i) to evaluate current microplastic extraction techniques, (ii) to discuss the occurrence and worldwide distribution of microplastics in sediments, and (iii) to make a comprehensive assessment of the possible adverse effects of this type of pollution to marine organisms. Based on this review we propose future research needs and conclude that there is a clear need for a standardized techniques, unified reporting units and more realistic effect assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.

  8. Diurnal and seasonal occurrence of polar patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the diurnal and seasonal variation of polar patches, as identified in two years of HF-radar data from Halley, Antarctica during a period near sunspot maximum, shows that there is a broad maximum in occurrence centred about magnetic noon, not local noon. There are minima in occurrence near midsummer and midwinter, with maxima in occurrence between equinox and winter. There are no significant correlations between the occurrence of polar patches and the corresponding hourly averages of the solar wind and IMF parameters, except that patches usually occur when the interplanetary magnetic field has a southward component. The results can be understood in terms of UT and seasonal differences in the plasma concentration being convected from the dayside ionosphere into the polar cap. In summer and winter the electron concentrations in the polar cap are high and low, respectively, but relatively unstructured. About equinox, a tongue of enhanced ionisation is convected into the polar cap; this tongue is then structured by the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field, but these Halley data cannot be used to separate the various competing mechanisms for patch formation. The observed diurnal and seasonal variation in the occurrence of polar patches are largely consistent with predictions of Sojka et al. (1994 when their results are translated into the southern hemisphere. However, the ionospheric effects of flux transfer events are still considered essential in their formation, a feature not yet included in the Sojka et al. model.

  9. The Occurrence Rate of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampalli, Rayna; Catanzarite, Joseph; Batalha, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    As the first kind of exoplanet to be discovered, hot Jupiters have always been objects of interest. Despite being prevalent in radial velocity and ground-based surveys, they were found to be much rarer based on Kepler observations. These data show a pile-up at radii of 9-22 Rearth and orbital periods of 1-10 days. Computing accurate occurrence rates can lend insight into planet-formation and migration-theories. To get a more accurate look, the idea of reliability was introduced. Each hot Jupiter candidate was assigned a reliability based on its location in the galactic plane and likelihood of being a false positive. Numbers were updated if ground-based follow-up indicated a candidate was indeed a false positive. These reliabilities were introduced into an occurrence rate calculation and yielded about a 12% decrease in occurrence rate for each period bin examined and a 25% decrease across all the bins. To get a better idea of the cause behind the pileup, occurrence rates based on parent stellar metallicity were calculated. As expected from previous work, higher metallicity stars yield higher occurrence rates. Future work includes examining period distributions in both the high metallicity and low metallicity sample for a better understanding and confirmation of the pile-up effect.

  10. Nonstationarities in the occurrence rates of flood events in Portuguese watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory analysis on the variability of flood occurrence rates in 10 Portuguese watersheds is made, to ascertain if that variability is concurrent with the principle of stationarity. A peaks-over-threshold (POT sampling technique is applied to 10 long series of mean daily streamflows and to 4 long series of daily rainfall in order to sample the times of occurrence (POT time data of the peak values of those series. The kernel occurrence rate estimator, coupled with a bootstrap approach, was applied to the POT time data to obtain the time dependent estimated occurrence rate curves, λˆ(t, of floods and extreme rainfall events. The results of the analysis show that the occurrence of those events constitutes an inhomogeneous Poisson process, hence the occurrence rates are nonstationary. An attempt was made to assess whether the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO casted any influence on the occurrence rate of floods in the study area. Although further research is warranted, it was found that years with a less-than-average occurrence of floods tend to occur when the winter NAO is in the positive phase, and years with a higher occurrence of floods (more than twice the average tend to occur when the winter NAO is in the negative phase. Although the number of analyzed watersheds and their uneven spatial distribution hinders the generalization of the findings to the country scale, the authors conclude that the mathematical formulation of the flood frequency models relying on stationarity commonly employed in Portugal should be revised in order to account for possible nonstationarities in the occurrence rates of such events.

  11. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2017-08-23

    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  12. Limitations in global information on species occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Meyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on species distributions is crucial for answering central questions in biogeography, ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation. Millions of species occurrence records have been mobilized via international data-sharing networks, but inherent biases, gaps and uncertainties hamper broader application. In my PhD thesis, I presented the first comprehensive analyses of global patterns and drivers of these limitations across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. Integrating 300 million occurrence records for terrestrial vertebrates and plants with comprehensive taxonomic databases, expert range maps and regional checklists, I demonstrated extensive taxonomic, geographical and temporal biases, gaps and uncertainties. I identified key socio-economic drivers of data bias across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. The results of my dissertation provide an empirical baseline for effectively accounting for data limitations in distribution models, as well as for prioritizing and monitoring efforts to collate additional occurrence information.

  13. Report on Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Section 208 of the energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1991. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Five of the events occurred at NRC-licensed facilities: one involved a significant degradation of plant safety at a nuclear fuel cycle facility, one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration, and three involved medical therapy misadministrations. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported one abnormal occurrence that involved medical therapy misadministrations

  14. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    OpenAIRE

    Borini, Paulo; Guimarães, Romeu Cardoso; Borini, Sabrina Bicalho

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Braz...

  15. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, N.; Kiss, T. S.; Erdélyi, R.; Singh, T.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  16. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyenge, N.; Kiss, T. S.; Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasmas Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Singh, T.; Srivastava, A. K., E-mail: n.g.gyenge@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi (India)

    2017-03-20

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  17. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Singh, T.; Kiss, T. S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Erdélyi, R.

    2017-03-01

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  18. Familial occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Munkholm, P; Langholz, E

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We assessed the familial occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease in Copenhagen County, where there has been a long-term interest in the epidemiology of such disorders. In 1987 we interviewed 662 patients in whom inflammatory bowel disease had been diagnosed before 1979, a...

  19. Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis ) rhizosphere in Cameroon. ... While the use of soluble mineral phosphate fertilizers is the obvious best means to combat phosphate ... in order to improve agricultural production, using low inputs technology. Isolates ...

  20. Phenotypic occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the occurrence of MRSA among camels in Kano abattoir, a total of 300 nasal swabs were collected from camels at the lairage in Kano abattoir, Kano state, Nigeria to isolate and biochemically characterize Staphylococcus aureus and confirm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among isolates using ...

  1. Occurrence of Wounds in Nigerian Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agina, Onyinyechukwu A; Ihedioha, John I

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of wounds in Nigerian horses. The study population was 1,621 horses sold at the Obollo Afor horse lairage in Enugu State, Nigeria, during a 6-month period: 3 months of dry season and 3 months of rainy season (February-April and June-August 2012). A total of 207 horses were systematically sampled and subjected to a comprehensive physical examination. Those with wounds were marked, recorded, and clinically examined. Of the 207 horses sampled, 21 (10.1%) had wounds. The body distribution of the wounds was 9.5% head, 9.5% forelimbs, 19.1% hind limbs, 4.8% tail, 14.3% flank, 9.5% loin, 19.1% hip, 9.5% barrel, and 4.8% croup. The occurrence of the wounds was not significantly associated with sex or season, but the occurrence in adults was significantly (p horses. It was concluded that the occurrence of wounds is relatively high (10.1%), and mainly the hind limbs, hip, and flank of adult horses are affected. It was recommended that horse guardians and handlers should be properly educated on the care of horses.

  2. Occurrence of Domatia as a systematic character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1967-01-01

    In our Bulletin no 20, pp. 1272-1273, Dr. M. Jacobs made some notes on the nature and occurrence of domatia. His full paper has now appeared (Proc. Kon. Akad. Wet. A’dam C 69, 1966, 275-316, repr. 1-44) and this means to be a great step forward in the study of these peculiar structures, which are

  3. Occurrence and properties of Petunia peroxidase a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, T.

    1989-01-01

    Peroxidases are probably the most extensively studied enzymes in higher plants. Various isoenzymes occur as soluble proteins in the apoplast and in the vacuole, or are bound to membranes and cell walls. Their occurrence is often organ-specific and developmentally controlled, and there is

  4. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  5. CO-OCCURRENCE OF DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cardiovascular disease (CVD), and when they co-exist ... and hypertension among patients with co-occurrence ... are any clinical and metabolic differences between those ... The last 3 readings of their fasting blood .... as insulin resistance, aging, obesity, use of thiazide ... therapy as risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: occurrence, biology, and chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jeremy; Stevens, Kiri

    2017-01-04

    Covering: 2013 up to the end of 2015This review covers the isolation and structure of new pyrrolizidines; pyrrolizidine biosynthesis; biological activity, including the occurrence of pyrrolizidines as toxic components or contaminants in foods and beverages; and formal and total syntheses of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids and closely related non-natural analogues.

  7. Predicting the Occurrence of Oxygenation Impairment in Patients with Type-B Acute Aortic Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Kazunori; Hata, Noritake; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Shinada, Takuro; Shirakabe, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Complicated respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in patients with type-B acute aortic dissection (AAD) has been previously reported, and inflammatory reactions have been found to be associated with the occurrence of oxygenation impairment (OI). However, the possibility of predicting the occurrence of OI in patients with type-B AAD has not yet been evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the possibility of predicting the occurrence of OI in type-B AAD. In this study, 79 type-B AAD patients were enrolled to investigate the possibility of predicting the occurrence of OI. OI was defined as Po 2/Fio 2 ≤ 200. Patient characteristics, type of AAD, vital signs on admission, and the presence of inflammatory reactions obtained on admission day were evaluated. OI occurred in 39 patients (49%) on hospital day 2.5 ± 1.4 on average. Younger age, male gender, nonslender frame (body mass index ≥ 22 kg/m2), a relatively high maximum body temperature on the admission day (≥ 36.5°C), DeBakey IIIb type, patent false lumen, and lower Po 2/Fio 2 on admission were found to be associated with the occurrence of OI. Multivariate analysis revealed that nonslender frame, relatively high body temperature on the admission day, and lower Po 2/Fio 2 on admission were reliable for predicting the occurrence of oxygen impairment. The occurrence of OI in type-B AAD can be predicted in the clinical setting. PMID:24627618

  8. Another Theory is Possible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2016-01-01

    The article argues that dissident voices which attempt to theorise Europe differently and advocate another European trajectory have been largely excluded and left unheard in mainstream discussions over the past decade of scholarship and analysis. Dissident voices in European Union studies are tho...... theory, is possible – indeed, probable....

  9. Possibilities of roentgenological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivash, Eh.S.; Sal'man, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Literary and experimental data on estimating possibilities of roentgenologic investigations using an electron optical amplifier, X-ray television and roentgen cinematography are generalized. Different methods of studying gastro-intestinal tract are compared. The advantage of the roentgenologic method over the endoscopic method after stomach resection is shown [ru

  10. Basedow paraplegia: A possible misnomer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyrotoxic myopathy frequently occurs in clinical practice; however, the ... The occurrence of hyperthyroidism with a flaccid, areflexic paraplegia appears ... It is important to consider and treat other causes, such as acute idiopathic polyneuritis.

  11. Occurrence of chloromethane in tropical terrestrial and marine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturnus, F.; Kolusu, S.; Grawe, D.; Mehlig, U.; Asp, N.; Schlünzen, K. H.; Seifert, R.

    2011-12-01

    The discussion of a possible global climate change induced by human activities brought sources into focus not yet considered to be important in global climate changes. One source is the natural emission of chloromethane, a compound which is known to participate in atmospheric processes affecting the global climate, such as stratospheric ozone destruction and warming of the troposphere. Especially natural emissions of chloromethane have been under scrutiny recently as the part of the natural contribution is still unknown and may be influenced by human activities. A comparison between global atmospheric occurrence of chloromethane and their input from so far known industrial and natural sources revealed a gap of 40-50% in missing input. Recently, it has been suggested that tropical areas may be the missing link in filling the gap of the atmospheric input of chloromethane. In our studies, we investigated tropical oceanic areas and mangrove forests regarding their occurrence and emission of chloromethane. For the oceanic areas, ambient air concentrations and stable carbon rations were taken. Together with backward air mass trajectory analysis the results revealed a coastal influence on the occurrence of chloromethane in the tropical ocean. For the mangrove forest areas, ambient air concentrations and stable carbon rations were taken at upwind and downwind position at the coast of Brazil. The results showed a considerable natural emission of chloromethane suggesting mangroves as an important source for the atmospheric input of chloromethane. With the help of a mesoscale atmospheric model meteorological conditions were simulated and the fluxes of chloromethane from mangrove forest were estimated.

  12. Predicting occurrence of juvenile shark habitat to improve conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Beverly Z L; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2017-06-01

    Fishing and habitat degradation have increased the extinction risk of sharks, and conservation strategies recognize that survival of juveniles is critical for the effective management of shark populations. Despite the rapid expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs) globally, the paucity of shark-monitoring data on large scales (100s-1000s km) means that the effectiveness of MPAs in halting shark declines remains unclear. Using data collected by baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) in northwestern Australia, we developed generalized linear models to elucidate the ecological drivers of habitat suitability for juvenile sharks. We assessed occurrence patterns at the order and species levels. We included all juvenile sharks sampled and the 3 most abundant species sampled separately (grey reef [Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos], sandbar [Carcharhinus plumbeus], and whitetip reef sharks [Triaenodon obesus]). We predicted the occurrence of juvenile sharks across 490,515 km 2 of coastal waters and quantified the representation of highly suitable habitats within MPAs. Our species-level models had higher accuracy (ĸ ≥ 0.69) and deviance explained (≥48%) than our order-level model (ĸ = 0.36 and deviance explained of 10%). Maps of predicted occurrence revealed different species-specific patterns of highly suitable habitat. These differences likely reflect different physiological or resource requirements between individual species and validate concerns over the utility of conservation targets based on aggregate species groups as opposed to a species-focused approach. Highly suitable habitats were poorly represented in MPAs with the most restrictions on extractive activities. This spatial mismatch possibly indicates a lack of explicit conservation targets and information on species distribution during the planning process. Non-extractive BRUVS provided a useful platform for building the suitability models across large scales to assist conservation planning across

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  14. Familial occurrence of cerebral gigantism, Sotos' syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F J; Friis, B

    1976-05-01

    Since the original description of cerebral gigantism, about 85 cases have been reported. Four papers comment on familial occurrence but never in parents and their children. This paper describes the syndrome in a mother and her child, which, together with facts pointing towards prenatal etiology, such as excessive birthweight, striking mutual resemblance and abnormal dermatoglyphics, points to a genetic defect. Previous endocrine studies are enlarged by the findings of normal serum somatomedin and serum prolactin.

  15. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mevius, Dik J.; Schroeter, Andreas; Teale, Christopher; Jouy, Eric; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Utinane, Andra; Amado, Alice; Moreno, Miguel; Greko, Christina; Stärk, Katharina D.C.; Berghold, Christian; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Hoszowski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003–05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic and indicator bacteria from food animals using validated and harmonised methodologies. In this report the first data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria cau...

  16. Active Longitude and Solar Flare Occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Ludmány, A.; Baranyi, T.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to specify the spatio-temporal characteristics of flare activity observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) in connection with the behavior of the longitudinal domain of enhanced sunspot activity known as active longitude (AL). By using our method developed for this purpose, we identified the AL in every Carrington Rotation provided by the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data. The spatial probability of flare occurrence has been estimated depending on the longitudinal distance from AL in the northern and southern hemispheres separately. We have found that more than 60% of the RHESSI and GOES flares is located within +/- 36^\\circ from the AL. Hence, the most flare-productive active regions tend to be located in or close to the active longitudinal belt. This observed feature may allow for the prediction of the geo-effective position of the domain of enhanced flaring probability. Furthermore, we studied the temporal properties of flare occurrence near the AL and several significant fluctuations were found. More precisely, the results of the method are the following fluctuations: 0.8, 1.3, and 1.8 years. These temporal and spatial properties of the solar flare occurrence within the active longitudinal belts could provide us with an enhanced solar flare forecasting opportunity.

  17. Some mean atmospheric characteristics for snowfall occurrences in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegui, Jéssica Melo; Puhales, Franciano Scremin; Boiaski, Nathalie Tissot; Nascimento, Ernani de Lima; Anabor, Vagner

    2018-01-01

    Snowfall is considered a natural disaster in southern Brazil, where a little infrastructure exists up to prevent against the damage it induces, making snowfall forecast a matter of great interest in this region. The present article aims to describe the mean behavior of low, mid, and high atmospheric levels during snowfall occurrences in southern Brazil. Sea-level pressure (SLP), 1000-500 hPa atmospheric thickness, geopotential height at 500 hPa, and wind speed at 200 hPa have been analyzed. One hundred and ninety-six snowfall records from the conventional surface meteorological stations have been selected for the period from 1979 to 2015. The surface synoptic pattern associated with snowfall occurrences has been obtained from ERA-Interim reanalysis data with horizontal spatial resolution of 0.75° × 0.75° and temporal resolution of 12 h. SLP fields show a high-pressure transient system displacement from the Pacific Ocean to northeastern Argentina. In addition, it is possible to relate snowfall with displacement of a low-pressure system on the coast of southern Brazil. Thickness fields indicate shallow cold air mass intrusions one day before snowfall. Such a cold air continues moving towards low latitudes during consecutive snowfall days and it may be responsible for frost events in climatologically warm regions. Finally, mid and high atmospheric levels show an eastward propagating wave amplified by the Andes.

  18. The occurrence and distribution of erionite at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1989-09-01

    We have conducted an investigation to determine the occurrence and distribution of erionite, a potential carcinogen, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Using x-ray powder diffraction techniques yielding detection limits to below 0.05 wt %, we positively identified erionite in only 3 out of 76 bulk and 12 fracture samples investigated. The three erionite-bearing samples (J12-620/630, UE-25aNo.1-1296.2, and USW G4-1314) all occur above the static water level in clay/zeolite-rich horizons near the top of vitrophyres. Erionite occurs as trace amounts of less than 1 wt % in the whole rock, although it may occur locally in significant amounts as fracture fillings (e.g., UE-25aNo.1-1296.2 where it comprises approximately 45 wt % of the fracture filling material). All three occurrences appear to be extremely isolated cases since erionite was not detected in neighboring samples. Erionite at Yucca Mountain apparently formed only in localized microenvironments, possibly restricted to fractures. Since erionite occurs in trace amounts only in extremely isolated instances, it should pose little or no health hazard to workers in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain or to the public. The amounts of erionite liberated to the biosphere should be negligible, particularly when compared with the amounts of erionite occurring naturally at the surface in Nevada and surrounding states. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Occurrence of mastitis pathogens in relation to somatic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vyletělová Klimešová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There were examined 161 cows from 4 farms in total. The suspect animals were selected according to viscosity test results, clinical symptoms and somatic cell count (SCC. Milk samples were examined for the presence of pathogens and for SCC. 55 mastitis pathogens were identified. The most frequently isolated species was Enterococcus faecalis (n = 20, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (n = 6 and Streptococcus uberis (n = 5. The SCC ranged from 9 to 24 204 ths.ml−1. There was positive occurrence of bacteria genus Staphylococcus and Enterococcus at lower SCC (50 ths.ml−1 and at higher SCC numbers (> 300 ths. ml−1 bacteria genus Streptococcus, Enterobacter and Escherichia coli. Differences in SCC were significant (P < 0.001 in negative samples xg 131 SCC versus 491 for positive, 611 for staphylococci and 464 ths.ml−1 for other positive. SCC discrimination limit for practical likelihood of pathogen occurrence estimation in infectious sample groups was calculated. This limit for suspicion of infection is 159 for positive group, 113 for staphylococci and 174 ths.ml−1 for other positive. This could be possible to recommend the value 174 ths.ml−1 for practical use with target to apply preventive or curative measures.

  20. Occurrence of human respiratory syncytial virus in summer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobugawa, Y; Takeuchi, T; Hibino, A; Hassan, M R; Yagami, R; Kondo, H; Odagiri, T; Saito, R

    2017-01-01

    In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007-2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.

  1. Towards the Possible Film

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood, S.

    2014-01-01

    Towards the Possible Film is a study in parallel universes – and the sparks that fly when worlds collide. As much of a projection into a far-off future as a flashback to a long-forgotten past, Dawood’s vivid 20-minute tableau combines the resonance of a mythic fable with the hallucinatory haziness of a waking dream. Emerging from the waves, as if transported from another dimension, two blue-skinned astronauts materialise on a red-rocked shoreline (Sidi Ifni in Southern Morocco). Blinking into...

  2. Future possibilities at ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of the ISOLDE facility at CERN is summarized and recently achieved target/ion-source and separator improvements are presented. New ion source principles being tested include multistep laser ionization, bunched surface ionization, and ECR ion source. The prospects for the high-resolution separator ISOLDE-3 are described. The possibilities of a new ISOLDE installation at the PS Booster at CERN are presented together with the planned features of the new facility. Add-on devices to improve the performance that are presently being discussed are an electrostatic sector field, an electron beam ion stripper, and a high voltage platform for energy boosting. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  3. Occurrence of mammary tumors in beagls given radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.; Huth, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    A total of 128 primary mammary tumors (66 of them malignant) occurred in 35 female beagles injected with 226 Ra at eight dose levels ranging from 0.2 to 440 kBq/kg body mass as young adults, while a total of 156 mammary tumors (57 of them malignant) were seen in 46 female control beagles not given any radioactivity. Sixty-three of 65 control dogs and 59 of 61 dogs given 226 Ra survived the minimum age for diagnosis of mammary tumors of 3.75 years. Based on the observed age-dependent tumor incidence rates in the controls and on the corresponding number of dog-years at risk, the total number of observed malignant tumors in the radium group was statistically greater than the number of expected malignant tumors (66 observed vs 34 expected, P < 0.005). There was no such difference for the benign tumors. Cox regression analysis indicated no increased risk for the first tumor occurrence in irradiated dogs. Cox regression analysis of the multivariate risk sets showed no significantly increased risk for the occurrence of benign tumors but a statistically higher risk of 1.66 with a confidence interval of 1.15-2.40 for the occurrence of malignant tumors. The increased risk was dependent on dose, but a dependence on the frequency of previous occurrence of mammary tumors could not be confirmed. Censoring ovariectomized dogs at time of surgery decreased the relative risks slightly but did not alter the significance. Exposure to diagnostic X rays with cumulative exposures below 0.2 Gy had no effect on tumor formation. It is unknown whether the increased risk for malignant mammary tumors was due to some initial deposition of radium in sensitive tissue, a possible irradiation of fatty mammary tissue from transient radon → polonium deposition, or a general effect of the overall radium deposition on the immune system of the dogs that lowered their resistance to formation of mammary tumors. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Possible future HERA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  5. A Garden of Possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Renowned landscape architect and designer Charles Jencks recently visited CERN along with the architect of the Globe, Hervé Dessimoz, to investigate the possibility of creating a cosmic-inspired garden at the entrance to the Laboratory.   Left to right: Charles Jencks, Peter Higgs, Rolf Heuer in the garden of cosmic speculation. Photo credit: University of Edinburgh/Maverick photo agency Charles Jencks is a master at designing whimsical, intriguing outdoor spaces that hold a much deeper meaning than just an interesting view. His Garden of Cosmic Speculation at his home in Scotland uses designs recalling cosmic forces, DNA, organic cells, spirals of time, black holes and the Universe, made with landform, plants, sculpture and water to re-shape the natural landscape. One of the possible symbols for CERN that came to his mind was the cosmic uroborus, an ancient Egyptian symbol of a snake eating its own tail dating back to 1600 BC. “Many scientists have discussed this as a poss...

  6. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  7. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dolah, Frances M.

    2000-01-01

    Certain marine algae produce potent toxins that impact human health through the consumption of contaminated shellfish and finfish and through water or aerosol exposure. Over the past three decades, the frequency and global distribution of toxic algal incidents appear to have increased, and human intoxications from novel algal sources have occurred. This increase is of particular concern, since it parallels recent evidence of large-scale ecologic disturbances that coincide with trends in global warming. The extent to which human activities have contributed to their increase therefore comes into question. This review summarizes the origins and health effects of marine algal toxins, as well as changes in their current global distribution, and examines possible causes for the recent increase in their occurrence. (Author)

  8. Understanding the low occurrence of Symbiosis Industrial in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Tonissi Moroni Cutovoi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the understanding of the low occurrence of Industrial Symbiosis in Brazil. The importance of public policies in Brazil, the development of public policies is confirmed by the institution of the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS by Law No. 12,305 / 10. Note that companies seek symbiosis in response to regulatory pressure or to increase the efficiency of resource use, emissions reduction, or wastes. Further the importance of including social, cultural and business approaches in planning synergies between companies. Identifies environmental and cooperation regarding the responsibilities and capabilities of each aspect environmental management. Methodologically the study can be regarded as descriptive and exploratory purposes and in relation to the literature regarding methods. Finally, it will be possible barriers are raised on the relationship to the Industrial Symbiosis practices

  9. Occurrence of antibiotics as emerging contaminant substances in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Nataša; Milanović, Maja; Letić, Nevena Grujić; Sekulić, Maja Turk; Radonić, Jelena; Mihajlović, Ivana; Miloradov, Mirjana Vojinović

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in the environment has become a subject of growing concern. Due to the constant input of the emerging contaminants in the surface water via wastewater which leads to the long-term adverse effects on the aquatic and terrestrial organisms, special attention is being paid to their presence in the aquatic environment. Most of the emerging substances, especially pharmaceuticals, could not be completely removed using the wastewater treatment. Pharmaceuticals are usually water soluble and poorly degradable. They can pass through all natural filtrations and then reach the groundwater and, finally, the drinking water. The trace levels of antibiotics could have a negative impact on the environment and public health because of their inherent bioactivity. This article is an overview of the presence of the antibiotic residual concentrations, methods and levels of detection and possible risks to both health and environment.

  10. Renewable resources - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Martin H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy and Related Greenhouse Gas Abatement Technologies (ACRE), its technologies, commercial relationships and markets. The relevance of ACRE to developing country communities which lack reliable, adequate power supplies, is discussed. The opportunities for mutual collaboration between Australia and the developing countries in the application of renewable energy have never been stronger. Renewable energy promises real advantages to those who deploy it wisely, as well as significant job creation. Education at all level together with operational training, public awareness of what is possible and increased system reliability, are also vital ingredients for acceptance of these new technologies. They underpin successful commercialisation. The author concludes with the hope for a united international cooperative approach to the development of the renewable energy industry. (author)

  11. Uranium occurrences in the Gordonia and Kuruman districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1978-11-01

    This report highlights uranium occurrences discovered by the author in the Kuruman and Gordonia Districts. These discoveries are the result of follow-up work of the regional geological, hydrological and hydrochemical studies of the area, undertaken by the Geology Division of the Atomic Energy Board since 1974. A surficial uranium deposit was discovered on the farm Rus en Vrede in the Kuruman District, at the junction of a palaeo-river with the Kuruman River. Uranium occurs in carbonaceous diatomaceous earth, with surface samples assaying up to 308 ppm U 3 O 8 . As uranium is also present in calcrete 18 km south of this deposit, there is a distinct possibility that significant surficial deposits may occur under the Kalahari sand cover in this area. In the Gordonia District an interesting discovery was made on the farm Tsongnapan where four boreholes, drilled for water, intersected radioactive bands in the Dwyka Tillite Formation. These rocks, which outcrop in the northeast corner of the Tsongnapan, also proved to be radioactive. Some 35 km to the east of this occurrence, borehole logging indicated the existence of an anomalous zone near the base of the Dwyka. In some of these boreholes uranium anomalies were also found in the calcrete and gravel of the Kalahari Formation. It is evident, therefore, that the Gordonia District has the potential of becoming an economically important uranium province. A radiometric ground survey of one of the pans indicated that wind and water action is possibly responsible for the local dispersion and segregation of radioactive minerals [af

  12. The Occurrence of Erionite at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2004-01-01

    The naturally-occurring zeolite mineral erionite has a fibrous morphology and is a known human carcinogen (inhalation hazard). Erionite has been found typically in very small quantities and restricted occurrences in the course of mineralogic characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for a high-level nuclear waste repository. The first identification of erionite was made in 1984 on the basis of morphology and chemical composition and later confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found in the lower vitrophyre (Tptpv3) of the Topopah Spring Tuff in a borehole sidewall sample. Most erionite occurrences identified at Yucca Mountain are in the Topopah Spring Tuff, within an irregular zone of transition between the lower boundary of devitrified tuff and underlying glassy tuff. This zone is fractured and contains intermingled devitrified and vitric tuff. In 1997, a second host of erionite mineralization was identified in the Exploratory Studies Facility within and adjacent to a high-angle fracture/breccia zone transgressing the boundary between the lowermost devitrified tuff (Tpcplnc) and underlying moderately welded vitric tuff (Tpcpv2) of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The devitrified-vitric transition zones where erionite is found tend to have complex secondary-mineral assemblages, some of very localized occurrence. Secondary minerals in addition to erionite may include smectite, heulandite-clinoptilolite, chabazite, opal-A, opal-CT, cristobalite, quartz, kenyaite, and moganite. Incipient devitrification within the Topopah Spring Tuff transition zone includes patches that are highly enriched in potassium feldspar relative to the precursor volcanic glass. Geochemical conditions during glass alteration may have led to local evolution of potassium-rich fluids. Thermodynamic modeling of zeolite stability shows that erionite and chabazite stability fields occur only at aqueous K concentrations much higher than in present Yucca Mountain waters. The association of erionite

  13. Uranium - the element: its occurrence and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, I. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Uranium metal and its compounds have been of great interest to physicists and chemists due to its use for both civil and military applications, e.g. production of electricity, use in the medical field and for making nuclear weapons. This review paper describes the occurrence, chemistry and metallurgy of the element 'uranium', its conversion to stable compounds such as yellow cake, uranium tetrafluoride and uranium hexafluoride and the enrichment technologies and uses for both civil and military purposes. The paper is meant for ready reference for students and teachers in connection with the recent spate of interest shown in nuclear power generation in Pakistan and abroad. (author)

  14. Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, D; Dierckx, S; Dewettinck, K

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the industrially most relevant exudate gums: gum arabic, gum karya, and gum tragacanth. Exudate gums are obtained as the natural exudates of different tree species and exhibit unique properties in a wide variety of applications. This review covers the chemical structure, occurrence and production of the different gums. It also deals with the size and relative importance of the various players on the world market. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the main application fields of the different gums, both food and non-food.

  15. Malaria and pneumonia occurrence in Lagos, Nigeria: Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    profound influence on both malaria and pneumonia occurrence and are responsible directly for ... Key words: Malaria occurrence, change points, climate- disease, pneumonia. ..... formation of tall clouds and onset of rainy season, we observe ...

  16. Epithermal gold occurrences in the lakes district of the Main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MER). Epithermal gold occurrences related to Quaternary volcanics are at present being closely studied for their precious metal potential. Low sulphidation (Adularia-sericite-type) occurrences have been found. Analyses of 579 core and cutting ...

  17. Uranium occurrences and exploration experience in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    As per the Indian Government laws, minerals containing uranium are classified as strategic and uranium exploration and mining is an exclusive subject of the Central Government. Exploration for atomic minerals began in India in the year 1949 and, over a period of sixty years, India has created a large pool of uranium scientists and, at present, more than 500 scientists are employed by the Government of India for exploration of atomic minerals in India. In line with other countries, India's efforts in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were focused in the exploration for vein-type mineralization and succeeded in the discovery in three provinces, viz. Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), Jharkhand; Umra, Rajasthan and Lesser Himalayas of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. Of these, the SSZ has emerged as a major uranium province with 17 low-grade, low- to medium-tonnage deposits. Presently, the only uranium producing mines are situated in this province. Simultaneously, many uranium occurrences and deposits of QPC, vein and metasomatite types, essentially of low grade, low tonnage, were located all over the country. In the early eighties, the Cretaceous Mahadek basin in the northeastern state of Meghalaya was recognized as a potential province for sandstone-type uranium mineralization and, within a span of fifteen years, five low- to medium-grade, low-tonnage deposits were established. The 180-km long belt of Cretaceous fluviatile felspathic sandstones along the southern fringe of Shillong plateau below a moderate cover of tertiary sediments holds potential for more resources. Ground and airborne geophysical techniques are being looked at to provide vital clues on depositional controls for future sub-surface exploration. In the mean time, a major uranium province in the southern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin was discovered, where uranium mineralization is hosted in dolomitic limestone. The mineralization is stratabound and occurs intermittently over a strike length of nearly 160 km

  18. ep possibility for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE is discussed in terms of cost, physics goals, count rate estimates, the detector requirements, and the possibility of producing intermediate bosons. The purpose of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE must be considered to be the study of e + p → e + x, e - p → νx, and e + p → anti νx. Other processes, such as W production, are less interesting for an ep ring than for a pp ring. However, there may be other new particles--such as leptonic quarks--that only turn up here. These processes are, however, exciting. In a 30 day run at L = 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 300 neutrino events are expected at q 2 > 5000 GeV 2 where the propagator is expected to be less than 1 / 4 . Thus the value of the mass in the propagator can be measured to 5%. The ep cross section would be measured over the momentum transfer range 1 2 2 ). This range is large enough that a logarithmic deviation from scaling can be distinguished easily from a power law approach to scaling

  19. 46 CFR 326.4 - Reports of accidents and occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of accidents and occurrences. 326.4 Section 326... MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.4 Reports of accidents and occurrences. The Agent shall report every accident or occurrence of a P&I nature promptly to both the Director...

  20. Formulating accident occurrence as a survival process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H L; Jovanis, P P

    1990-10-01

    A conceptual framework for accident occurrence is developed based on the principle of the driver as an information processor. The framework underlies the development of a modeling approach that is consistent with the definition of exposure to risk as a repeated trial. Survival theory is proposed as a statistical technique that is consistent with the conceptual structure and allows the exploration of a wide range of factors that contribute to highway operating risk. This survival model of accident occurrence is developed at a disaggregate level, allowing safety researchers to broaden the scope of studies which may be limited by the use of traditional aggregate approaches. An application of the approach to motor carrier safety is discussed as are potential applications to a variety of transportation industries. Lastly, a typology of highway safety research methodologies is developed to compare the properties of four safety methodologies: laboratory experiments, on-the-road studies, multidisciplinary accident investigations, and correlational studies. The survival theory formulation has a mathematical structure that is compatible with each safety methodology, so it may facilitate the integration of findings across methodologies.

  1. Endodontic flare up: incidence and association of possible risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadebo, S O; Sulaiman, A O; Anifowose, O O

    2016-06-01

    Endodontic emergency during root canal treatment (flare up) is a common occurrence in multivisit root canal treatment (RCT) and it may be associated with many factors. The occurrence however can affect the prognosis of the tooth and the patient -clinician relationship. To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with occurrence of flare up in a multi visit RCT. Patients planned for multi-visit (RCT) were recruited for the research. Standard protocol was followed in all cases. After the first visit, the patients were followed up for possible development of flare up. Patients' demographics, presence or absence of preoperative pain, status of the pulp and occurrence of flare up were among the data collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 with level of significance set at P flare up was 8.5%. Prior to treatment, 47% of the cases had pain, 61.3% had apical radioluscency and 83% had pulpal necrosis. Majority (7, 77.8%) of the flare up occurred after the first visit (p=0.000). Only pre- treatment pain had a statistical significant ielationship with occurrence of flare up (p=0.009). Incidence of flare up was 8.5% and the major risk factor was preoperative pain. First visit in a multi visit RCT is an important stage which if well handled, can reduce the incidence of flare up.

  2. On the occurrence of ‘bead lightning’ phenomena in long laboratory sparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayanganie, S.P.A., E-mail: amilavayanganie@gmail.com [Atmospheric Physics and Lightning Research Group, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka); Cooray, V.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Hettiarachchi, Pasan; Diaz, Oscar [Lightning Research Group, The Ångström Laboratory Division of Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Fernando, M. [Atmospheric Physics and Lightning Research Group, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka)

    2016-02-22

    The formation of bead lightning, where the lightning channel appears to break up into luminous fragments, is still an object of speculation. Here we report similar observations in laboratory discharges. Analysis of time resolved photographs shows that the discharge channel exhibits a ‘bead pattern’ in the decaying stage of the discharge and the occurrence of loops in the channel sections where the bead pattern is observed. This result presents the first evidence that the rapid cooling of non-uniform channel sections could lead to the formation of beads. It is suggested that periodically occurring non-uniform channel sections could explain the bead pattern of lightning discharges. - Highlights: • For the first time, the occurrence of bead patterns in the channel of laboratory sparks was reported. • Depending on the geometry some regions of the channel decays faster than the other sections. • A possible mechanism for the occurrence of beads in decaying states of lightning flashes is proposed.

  3. Using species co-occurrence networks to assess the impacts of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Rozenfeld, Alejandro; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Viable populations of species occur in a given place if three conditions are met: the environment at the place is suitable; the species is able to colonize it; co-occurrence is possible despite or because of interactions with other species. Studies investigating the effects of climate change...... on species have mainly focused on measuring changes in climate suitability. Complex interactions among species have rarely been explored in such studies. We extend network theory to the analysis of complex patterns of co-occurrence among species. The framework is used to explore the robustness of networks...... under climate change. With our data, we show that networks describing the geographic pattern of co-occurrence among species display properties shared by other complex networks, namely that most species are poorly connected to other species in the network and only a few are highly connected. In our...

  4. [Prediction model of human-caused fire occurrence in the boreal forest of northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fu-tao; Su, Zhang-wen; Wang, Guang-yu; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Long; Yang, Ting-ting

    2015-07-01

    The Chinese boreal forest is an important forest resource in China. However, it has been suffering serious disturbances of forest fires, which were caused equally by natural disasters (e.g., lightning) and human activities. The literature on human-caused fires indicates that climate, topography, vegetation, and human infrastructure are significant factors that impact the occurrence and spread of human-caused fires. But the studies on human-caused fires in the boreal forest of northern China are limited and less comprehensive. This paper applied the spatial analysis tools in ArcGIS 10.0 and Logistic regression model to investigate the driving factors of human-caused fires. Our data included the geographic coordinates of human-caused fires, climate factors during year 1974-2009, topographic information, and forest map. The results indicated that distance to railway (x1) and average relative humidity (x2) significantly impacted the occurrence of human-caused fire in the study area. The logistic model for predicting the fire occurrence probability was formulated as P= 1/[11+e-(3.026-0.00011x1-0.047x2)] with an accuracy rate of 80%. The above model was used to predict the monthly fire occurrence during the fire season of 2015 based on the HADCM2 future weather data. The prediction results showed that the high risk of human-caused fire occurrence concentrated in the months of April, May, June and August, while April and May had higher risk of fire occurrence than other months. According to the spatial distribution of possibility of fire occurrence, the high fire risk zones were mainly in the west and southwest of Tahe, where the major railways were located.

  5. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1992. There are two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants and six abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministration (all therapeutic) at NRC-licensed facilities discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating three previously reported abnormal occurrences

  6. Report to congress on abnormal occurrences: January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1992. The abnormal occurrences involving medical therapy misadministrations at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. There were no abnormal occurrences at a nuclear power plant, and none were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  7. A probabilistic model for snow avalanche occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, P.; Miescher, A.; Porporato, A.

    2009-04-01

    Avalanche hazard forecasting is an important issue in relation to the protection of urbanized environments, ski resorts and of ski-touring alpinists. A critical point is to predict the conditions that trigger the snow mass instability determining the onset and the size of avalanches. On steep terrains the risk of avalanches is known to be related to preceding consistent snowfall events and to subsequent changes in the local climatic conditions. Regression analysis has shown that avalanche occurrence indeed correlates to the amount of snow fallen in consecutive three snowing days and to the state of the settled snow at the ground. Moreover, since different type of avalanches may occur as a result of the interactions of different factors, the process of snow avalanche formation is inherently complex and with some degree of unpredictability. For this reason, although several models assess the risk of avalanche by accounting for all the involved processes with a great detail, a high margin of uncertainty invariably remains. In this work, we explicitly describe such an unpredictable behaviour with an intrinsic noise affecting the processes leading snow instability. Eventually, this sets the basis for a minimalist stochastic model, which allows us to investigate the avalanche dynamics and its statistical properties. We employ a continuous time process with stochastic jumps (snowfalls), deterministic decay (snowmelt and compaction) and state dependent avalanche occurrence (renewals) as a minimalist model for the determination of avalanche size and related intertime occurrence. The physics leading to avalanches is simplified to the extent where only meteorological data and terrain data are necessary to estimate avalanche danger. We explore the analytical formulation of the process and the properties of the probability density function of the avalanche process variables. We also discuss what is the probabilistic link between avalanche size and preceding snowfall event and

  8. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food - A review of EU occurrence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    A brief review on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food on the European market (meat and meat products, cereal and cereal products, spices, beer, cocoa and derived products, coffee, wine, dried vine fruits, grape juice) is given in an historical perspective based on two...

  9. Risk Assessment of Defect Occurrences in Engine Piston Castings by FMEA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piątkowski J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis method consists in analysis of failure modes and evaluation of their effects based on determination of cause-effect relationships for formation of possible product or process defects. Identified irregularities which occur during the production process of piston castings for internal combustion engines were ordered according to their failure rates, and using Pareto-Lorenz analysis, their per cent and cumulated shares were determined. The assessments of risk of defects occurrence and their causes were carried out in ten-point scale of integers, while taking three following criteria into account: significance of effects of the defect occurrence (LPZ, defect occurrence probability (LPW and detectability of the defect found (LPO. A product of these quantities constituted the risk score index connected with a failure occurrence (a so-called “priority number,” LPR. Based on the observations of the piston casting process and on the knowledge of production supervisors, a set of corrective actions was developed and the FMEA was carried out again. It was shown that the proposed improvements reduce the risk of occurrence of process failures significantly, translating into a decrease in defects and irregularities during the production of piston castings for internal combustion engines.

  10. Sinkhole occurrence in consequence of heavy rainstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Mario; Pisano, Luca; Vennari, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    Sinkholes, the most typical geological hazard in karst, are widespread in Apulia (south-eastern Italy), due to the presence in about the whole region of soluble rocks. Sinkholes can cause damage to private property and civil infrastructures such as buildings and roads. Detailed mapping of sinkholes is critical in understanding the hydrological processes, beside being extremely useful to mitigate the related geological risk. Sinkholes typically function as a major connection between the water flowing at the surface and the groundwaters, by collecting rainfall and rapidly draining it within the bedrock. In Apulia, the main risk to the humans is generally linked to anthropogenic sinkholes, with the possibility of collapses related to man-made caves (quarries, mines, civil settlements, etc.; see Parise, 2012, 2015a). Natural sinkholes are less frequent, or appears at least to be less reported, since they generally occur in rural areas, and often are rapidly canceled by landowners. During the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (northern Apulia) was affected by an intense storm, characterized by rainfall cumulates well above the seasonal mean values. The total amount of measured rainfall for the whole event (covering the period from September 1, to September 6, 2014) reached a peak of over 500 mm (Martinotti et al., 2015). As a response to the storm, and due to peculiarity of the Gargano karst setting, several geo-hazards (different types of slope failures, floods and sinkholes) were recorded over an area of 2300 km2. As regards sinkholes, during the September 2014 storm, at least a dozen of phenomena, mostly of small size, were documented. These are prevailingly concentrated in two areas in the surroundings of the towns of San Marco in Lamis and Monte Sant'Angelo. In particular, at San Marco in Lamis, four sinkholes (the deepest about 6 m-deep and 5 m-wide, showing at the bottom the upper portion of the epikarst, with pinnacles of limestone rocks

  11. Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....

  12. Geospatial Analysis Application to Forecast Wildfire Occurrences in South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Sperry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire occurrence and intensity have increased over the last few decades and, at times, have been national news. Wildfire occurrence is somewhat predictable based on physical factors like meteorological conditions, fuel loads, and vegetation dynamics. Socioeconomic factors have been not been widely used in wildfire occurrence models. We used a geospatial (or geographical information system analysis approach to identify socioeconomic variables that contribute to wildfire occurrence. Key variables considered were population change, population density, poverty rate, educational level, geographic mobility, and road density (transportation network. Hot spot analysis was the primary research tool. Wildfire occurrence seemed to be positively related to low population densities, low levels of population change, high poverty rate, low educational attainment level, and low road density. Obviously, some of these variables are correlated and this is a complex problem. However, socioeconomic variables appeared to contribute to wildfire occurrence and should be considered in development of wildfire occurrence forecasting models.

  13. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  14. Radioactive mineral occurrences in the Bancroft area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterly, J

    1958-12-31

    The report summarizes three years of field work conducted in the Bancroft area investigating occurrences of radioactive minerals, and also includes accounts of properties in the area for which drill logs and survey reports have been filed. It begins with a history of exploration and development of radioactive mineral deposits in the area, a review of the area`s general geology (Grenville metasediments, plutonic rocks), and general descriptions of the types of radioactive mineral deposits found in the area (deposits in granitic and syenitic bodies, metasomatic deposits in limy rocks, hydrothermal deposits). It also describes the mineralogy of radioactive minerals found in the area and the Geiger counter technique used in the investigation. The bulk of the report consists of descriptions of radioactive mineral properties and mine workings, containing (where available) information on exploration history, general and economic geology, and production.

  15. Lichen explants and natural occurrence of lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschbaum, A; Klee, R

    1971-01-01

    Studies with lichen explants and with naturally occurring lichens, conducted in the Lower Main region in West Germany within the framework of an air hydgienic and meteorologic model study of that region, are described. Parmelia physodes explants from oak trees growing in nonpolluted areas were exposed in polluted areas, such as in an industrial area, an airport, a petroleum refinery, and near a large chemical plant. The degree of air pollution in the exposure site was evaluated by the degree of the lichen damage in seven grades. The large-scale average distribution of air pollution in the survey area was studied by surveying the natural occurrence of lichen species on 10 apple trees in area units of 6.25 sq km each. The lichen explant and lichen survey methods compared by the study of naturally occurring lichens were near the exposure site of lichen explants.

  16. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  17. Occurrence of Endoparasites in Indigenous Zambian Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce-Miller M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the country of Zambia, Southern Africa, to investigate the occurrence of endo-parasites in indigenous Zambian dogs. Faecal samples were collected from 41 indigenous Zambian dogs from different areas of the Mbabala region in the Southern province of Zambia during the “hot wet” season, although at the time that the samples were collected, the country was experiencing a drought. Faecal samples were analysed using the concentration flotation method with zinc sulphate for the determination of the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were species from the family Ancylostomatidae (65.0 % infection rate which followed by: Isospora canis (9.8 %, Dipylidium caninum (4.8 %, and Toxascaris leonina (2.4 %. There were in addition, two cases of co-infections with the family Ancylostomatidae and D. caninum, as well as the family Ancylostomatidae and I. canis.

  18. Occurrence of Surface Water Contaminations: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabudin, M. M.; Musa, S.

    2018-04-01

    Water is a part of our life and needed by all organisms. As time goes by, the needs by human increased transforming water quality into bad conditions. Surface water contaminated in various ways which is pointed sources and non-pointed sources. Pointed sources means the source are distinguished from the source such from drains or factory but the non-pointed always occurred in mixed of elements of pollutants. This paper is reviewing the occurrence of the contaminations with effects that occurred around us. Pollutant factors from natural or anthropology factors such nutrients, pathogens, and chemical elements contributed to contaminations. Most of the effects from contaminated surface water contributed to the public health effects also to the environments.

  19. Occurrence of Parthenogenesis in Potato Tuber Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ya; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zong-Kai; Xiao, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Parthenogenesis, a natural form of asexual reproduction produced from unfertilized eggs, occurs in many insects in Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, but very rarely in Lepidoptera. The current study aimed to test the larval density dependent occurrence of parthenogenesis in potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. More than 10% of females out of 25 tested females that developed from the high larval density treatment at 45 larvae per tuber were capable to reproduce asexually. Both male and female offspring were produced parthenogenetically. The sexually reproductive offspring of a laboratory parthenogenetic population had a lower egg hatch rate, shorter larval stage, and shorter male life span when compared with the non-parthenogenetic population. This suggests that the sexually reproductive offspring of parthenogenetic population have a decreased overall fitness compared to the sexually reproductive offspring of non-parthenogenetic population.

  20. Occurrence and biosynthesis of carotenoids in phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jim Junhui; Lin, Shaoling; Xu, Wenwen; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung

    2017-09-01

    Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition. The carotenoids that accumulate in particular phytoplankton phyla are synthesized by specific enzymes and play unique physiological roles. This review focuses on studies related to the occurrence of carotenoids in different phytoplankton phyla and the molecular aspects of their biosynthesis. Recent biotechnological advances in the isolation and characterization of some representative carotenoid synthases in phytoplankton are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M; Asplund, K

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals was studied in 1989-1992. Samples were collected from flight kitchens in 29 countries. The material consisted of 400 cold dishes and 1,288 hot dishes as well as salads, cheese plates and deserts. Total number of samples was 2211. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 samples; 1 contaminated sample was a cold dish prepared in Bangkok, 1 was a hot dish prepared in Mombasa and the remaining 4 contaminated samples were hot dishes prepared within one week in Beijing. The isolated serotypes were S. ohio, S. manchester and S. braenderup. The contaminated cold dish prepared by a flight kitchen in Bangkok was found to be connected with a Salmonella outbreak which occurred in Finland in 1990. Cold airline dishes containing food of animal origin seems to be more risky as a source of Salmonella infections among airline passengers.

  2. Occurrence of transformation products in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Battaglin, William A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Meyer, Michael T.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, most environmental occurrence research has focused on the parent compounds of organic contaminants. Research, however, has documented that the environmental transport of chemicals, such as pesticides and emerging contaminants, are substantially underestimated if transformation products are not considered. Although most examples described herein were drawn from research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, such results are generally reflective of those found in other parts of the world. Results from a study of 51 streams in the Midwestern United States found that transformation products were seven of the ten most frequently detected pesticide compounds in late spring runoff (after application of pre-emergent herbicides), and nine of the ten most frequently detected compounds in fall season runoff (during and after harvest). In fact, 70% of the total herbicide concentration in water from the Mississippi River Basin was from transformation products. Results from a study of 86 municipal wells in Iowa found the frequency of detection increased from 17%, when pesticide parent compounds were considered, to 53%, when both parents and transformation products were considered. Transformation products were 12 of the 15 most frequently detected compounds for this groundwater study. Although studies on transformation products of synthetic organic compounds other than pesticides are not as common, wastewater treatment plant discharges have repeatedly been shown to contribute such transformation products to streams. In addition, select detergent transformation products have been commonly found in solid waste in the 1000's mg/kg. These findings and many others document that transformation products must be considered to fully assess the potential environmental occurrence of chemical contaminants and their transport and fate in various compartments of the hydrologic system. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  4. Occurrence and average behavior of pulsating aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partamies, N.; Whiter, D.; Kadokura, A.; Kauristie, K.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Massetti, S.; Stauning, P.; Raita, T.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by recent event studies and modeling efforts on pulsating aurora, which conclude that the precipitation energy during these events is high enough to cause significant chemical changes in the mesosphere, this study looks for the bulk behavior of auroral pulsations. Based on about 400 pulsating aurora events, we outline the typical duration, geomagnetic conditions, and change in the peak emission height for the events. We show that the auroral peak emission height for both green and blue emission decreases by about 8 km at the start of the pulsating aurora interval. This brings the hardest 10% of the electrons down to about 90 km altitude. The median duration of pulsating aurora is about 1.4 h. This value is a conservative estimate since in many cases the end of event is limited by the end of auroral imaging for the night or the aurora drifting out of the camera field of view. The longest durations of auroral pulsations are observed during events which start within the substorm recovery phases. As a result, the geomagnetic indices are not able to describe pulsating aurora. Simultaneous Antarctic auroral images were found for 10 pulsating aurora events. In eight cases auroral pulsations were seen in the southern hemispheric data as well, suggesting an equatorial precipitation source and a frequent interhemispheric occurrence. The long lifetimes of pulsating aurora, their interhemispheric occurrence, and the relatively high-precipitation energies make this type of aurora an effective energy deposition process which is easy to identify from the ground-based image data.

  5. Unusual occurrences during the whole operation of BN-250 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andropenkov, S.

    2000-01-01

    Unusual occurrences during the whole operation BN-350 NPP. 1. Oil ingress in high pressure receiver for the not reveled reason, 12.05.1994. 2. lncrease of water radioactivity of circulating water supply system due to heat exchanger leak of spent fuel assembly washing out system, 17.09.1993. 3. Lack of passableness of sodium drain header of primary circuit reveled during inspection on scheduled preventative maintenance, 28.11.1996. 4. Destruction of the blow-off line of MCP-6 due to corrosion damage of the pipeline while unit was being operated at rated power, 23.04.1993. 5. Lack of passableness of blow-down pipeline connecting reactor gas cover with gas-type pressurizer while unit was being operated at rated power, 17.11.1994. 6. Sodium ingress in blow-down pipeline of loop-5 intermediate heat exchanger while loop-5 was being fed of sodium during scheduled preventative maintenance, 27.06.1994. 7. Resistance deterioration of electro heating zones of loop-4 due to heat exchanger leak and water ingress in air-pipeline of primary circuit boxes recirculating air system, 02.05.1997. 8. Resistance deterioration of electro heating zones of sodium drain header of secondary circuit was sopped in the water for the extinguishing the fire of blowing ventilation oil-strainer, 23.12.1994. 9. Sodium ingress in gas-type pressurizer through pipeline of primary sodium cleanup system and blow-down pipeline of failed MCP-2 while primary sodium cleanup system was being connected to the primary circuit, 17.08.1976. As a rule, the main reactor systems are scrutinized more carefully than the auxiliary reactor systems and the order actions are existed for eliminating and mitigating of consequences of main reactor system fails. Therefore the auxiliary reactor system fails may impact on the main reactor systems through places of its contact in significant measure. The influence of auxiliary reactor system fails on main reactor systems and its possible consequences for behavior of the main

  6. Phyloproteomic Analysis of 11780 Six-Residue-Long Motifs Occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Galzitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How is it possible to find good traits for phylogenetic reconstructions? Here, we present a new phyloproteomic criterion that is an occurrence of simple motifs which can be imprints of evolution history. We studied the occurrences of 11780 six-residue-long motifs consisting of two randomly located amino acids in 97 eukaryotic and 25 bacterial proteomes. For all eukaryotic proteomes, with the exception of the Amoebozoa, Stramenopiles, and Diplomonadida kingdoms, the number of proteins containing the motifs from the first group (one of the two amino acids occurs once at the terminal position made about 20%; in the case of motifs from the second (one of two amino acids occurs one time within the pattern and third (the two amino acids occur randomly groups, 30% and 50%, respectively. For bacterial proteomes, this relationship was 10%, 27%, and 63%, respectively. The matrices of correlation coefficients between numbers of proteins where a motif from the set of 11780 motifs appears at least once in 9 kingdoms and 5 phyla of bacteria were calculated. Among the correlation coefficients for eukaryotic proteomes, the correlation between the animal and fungi kingdoms (0.62 is higher than between fungi and plants (0.54. Our study provides support that animals and fungi are sibling kingdoms. Comparison of the frequencies of six-residue-long motifs in different proteomes allows obtaining phylogenetic relationships based on similarities between these frequencies: the Diplomonadida kingdoms are more close to Bacteria than to Eukaryota; Stramenopiles and Amoebozoa are more close to each other than to other kingdoms of Eukaryota.

  7. Mechanisms of realization of THz-waves of nitrogen oxide occurrence physiological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav F. Kirichuk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, there is generalized material of many experimental researches in interaction of THz-waves molecular emission and absorption spectrum (MEAS of nitrogen oxide occurrence with bioobjects. Thrombocytes and experimental animals were used as bioobjects. The experiments let indicate changes caused by THz-waves: at the cellular, tissular, system, organismic levels. There are all data of changes in physiological mechanisms of reglations at all levels: autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and nervous. There is a complex overview of experimental material firstly performed in the article. There had been shown that the effect of THz-waves of the given occurrence is realized by the changed activity of nitroxidergic system. It had been proved that THz-waves of nitrogen oxide occurrence can stimulate nitrogen oxide producing in organs and tissues in condition of its low concentration. Possible mechanisms of antiaggregative effect of the given waves had been described. There had been shown the possibility of regulating of vascular tone and system hemodynamics with the help of the studying these frequencies. The represented data of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic components of organism system under the influence of THz-waves of nitrogen oxide occurrence in stress conditions. Besides, there were shown changes of stress-regulating system activity and in concentration of important mediators - catecholamines and glucocorticosteroids. These data let characterize mechanism of realization of THz-waves basic effects. The research had shown the possibility of THz-waves of nitrogen oxide occurrence usage as a method of natural physiological noninvasive regulation of significant organism functions.

  8. Unusual occurrences in fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R.P.; Srinivasan, G.; Ellappan, T.R.; Ramalingam, P.V.; Vasudevan, A.T.; Iyer, M.A.K.; Lee, S.M.; Bhoje, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt/13.2 MWe sodium cooled mixed carbide fuelled reactor. Its main aim is to generate experience in the design, construction and operation of fast reactors including sodium systems and to serve as an irradiation facility for the development of fuel and structural materials for future fast reactors. It achieved first criticality in Oct 85 with Mark I core (70% PuC - 30% UC). Steam generator was put in service in Jan 93 and power was raised to 10.5 MWt in Dec 93. Turbine generator was synchronised to the grid in Jul 97. The indigenously developed mixed carbide fuel has achieved a burnup of 44,000 MW-d/t max at a linear heat rating of 320 W/cm max without any fuel clad failure. The commissioning and operation of sodium systems and components have been smooth and performance of major components, viz., sodium pumps, intermediate heat exchangers and once through sodium heated steam generators (SG) have been excellent. There have been three minor incidents of Na/NaK leaks during the past 14 years, which are described in the paper. There have been no incident of a tube leak in SG. However, three incidents of water leaks from water / steam headers have been detailed. The plant has encountered some unusual occurrences, which were critically analysed and remedial measures, in terms of system and procedural modifications, incorporated to prevent recurrence. This paper describes unusual occurrences of fuel handling incident of May 1987, main boiler feed pump seizure in Apr 1992, reactivity transients in Nov 1994 and Apr 1995, and malfunctioning of the core cover plate mechanism in Jul 1995. These incidents have resulted in long plant shutdowns. During the course of investigation, various theoretical and experimental studies were carried out for better understanding of the phenomena and several inspection techniques and tools were developed resulting in enriching the technology of sodium cooled reactors. FBTR has 36 neutronic and process

  9. Beachrock occurrence, characteristics, formation mechanisms and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdoukas, M. I.; Velegrakis, A. F.; Plomaritis, T. A.

    2007-11-01

    Beachrocks are hard coastal sedimentary formations consisting of various beach sediments, lithified through the precipitation of carbonate cements. The objectives of this contribution are to (a) collate and review information on the reported occurrences, characteristics and formation mechanisms of beachrocks and (b) consider their impacts on the coastal zone. The analysis of the available information has shown that (a) beachrock formation is a global and diachronic phenomenon and (b) the great majority of beachrocks are found in tropical/subtropical and low temperate latitude, microtidal coasts. The cementing agents of beachrocks are composed predominantly of the metastable carbonate phases High Magnesian Calcite (HMC) and Aragonite (Ar), appearing in a diverse crystalline morphology. It has been suggested that cement precipitation in the coastal environment is controlled by: (i) the physicochemical conditions; (ii) the presence of organic compounds and microbes; (iii) the magnitude and distribution of the wave energy along the coast; and (iv) the textural characteristics of the constituent sediments. Various theories have been proposed to explain beachrock formation itself, linking the phenomenon to either physicochemical or biological processes. These theories, however, do not seem to be of universal validity and acceptance, as each is able to explain only some of the reported occurrences. The presence of beachrocks appears to affect beach morphodynamics by: (i) 'locking' the beach profile; (ii) modifying the nearshore hydrodynamics; (iii) changing the porous character of the beach and, thus, its response to wave forcing; and (iv) differential bed erosion at the margins of the beachrock outcrops that can alter significantly the long- and, particularly, the cross-shore sediment transport. Therefore, although relict submerged beachrock outcrops may provide some coastal protection by reducing the wave energy impinging onto the coastline, modern beachrocks may

  10. Some reasoning on the improvement of the ETAS modeling at the occurrence of the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Lombardi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an application of the ETAS model to the first 20 days of the 2016 central Italy sequence. Despite of the provisional nature of data, the model is able to describe the occurrence rate, but for the first hours after the mainshock occurrence. A sensitivity analysis of the model to two uncertainty sources, the model parameters and the occurrence history, shows that the second has a main role in controlling the performance of the ETAS model, more than the uncertainty on parameters. Previous results, together with the clear inability of ETAS to forecast the occurrence of a sequence before its starting time, give important suggestions about possible improvements. Here, a very preliminary attempt in this sense is presented.

  11. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  12. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David I; Liu, Kyle T; Reid, Bryan J; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W; Ouellette, Pierre H R; Ballantyne, James S

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics.

  13. Geology and occurrence of radon precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery that radioactive radon gas may occur as a significant indoor contaminant in houses and in the workplace has had far-reaching consequences in public health, real estate marketing, the construction industry, health and liability insurance underwriting, and in legislation at the federal and state levels. Many factors are known to affect radon level inside a building - its location, construction, ventilation, and substructure; the climate of the region in which it is located and the life styles of it occupants, for example. Despite the importance of assessing the hazard radon contamination may represent, the economic cost and the time required to screen hundreds of millions of individual buildings make such an effort impracticable. The effectiveness of large-scale regional screening to evaluate radon potential depends on an understanding of the chemical and physical properties of the gas, and of the geological and geochemical factors which control the distribution of its radioactive progenitors, radium, uranium and thorium. It is the purpose of this paper to review and summarize our present knowledge of these large-scale controls on radon occurrence

  14. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Fraser

    Full Text Available Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans, fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM, intestine of lobster (138 μM gills of the surf clam (100 μM had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics.

  15. Evaluating complementary networks of restoration plantings for landscape-scale occurrence of temporally dynamic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, Karen; Tulloch, Ayesha; Gibbons, Philip; Ansell, Dean; Seddon, Julian; Lindenmayer, David

    2016-10-01

    Multibillion dollar investments in land restoration make it critical that conservation goals are achieved cost-effectively. Approaches developed for systematic conservation planning offer opportunities to evaluate landscape-scale, temporally dynamic biodiversity outcomes from restoration and improve on traditional approaches that focus on the most species-rich plantings. We investigated whether it is possible to apply a complementarity-based approach to evaluate the extent to which an existing network of restoration plantings meets representation targets. Using a case study of woodland birds of conservation concern in southeastern Australia, we compared complementarity-based selections of plantings based on temporally dynamic species occurrences with selections based on static species occurrences and selections based on ranking plantings by species richness. The dynamic complementarity approach, which incorporated species occurrences over 5 years, resulted in higher species occurrences and proportion of targets met compared with the static complementarity approach, in which species occurrences were taken at a single point in time. For equivalent cost, the dynamic complementarity approach also always resulted in higher average minimum percent occurrence of species maintained through time and a higher proportion of the bird community meeting representation targets compared with the species-richness approach. Plantings selected under the complementarity approaches represented the full range of planting attributes, whereas those selected under the species-richness approach were larger in size. Our results suggest that future restoration policy should not attempt to achieve all conservation goals within individual plantings, but should instead capitalize on restoration opportunities as they arise to achieve collective value of multiple plantings across the landscape. Networks of restoration plantings with complementary attributes of age, size, vegetation structure, and

  16. INTERRELATION OF RHOMBICITY AND OCCURRENCE OF INTERNAL CRACKS AT CONTINUOUS CASTING OF SORTED SLUG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. A. Samojlovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of deformations and stresses in cross section of sorted uninterruptedly-casted slugs at their solidification and cooling within limits of crystallizer with the aim of determination of possibilities for occurrence of internal cracks of diagonal type is carried out on basis of mathematical modeling, the peculiarities of the slug skin cooling at its shrinkage and separation from crystallizer wall are revealed.

  17. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    OpenAIRE

    Fonville, Susanne; Hertog, Heleen; Zandbergen, Adrienne; Koudstaal, Peter Jan; Lingsma, Hester

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing undiagnosed impaired glucose metabolism possibly requiring treatment. We aimed to assess the occurrence of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after a stroke or TIA and to develop a prediction model to...

  18. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. For this reporting period, there was one abnormal occurrence at nuclear power plants licensed to operate involving significant deficiencies in management controls at Slurry Nuclear Power Station. There was one abnormal occurrence under other NRC-issued licenses; the event involved a medical therapy misadministration. One other abnormal occurrence, involving industrial radiography overexposures, was reported by an Agreement State (Texas). 40 refs

  19. Multivariate Hawkes process models of the occurrence of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, L; Sandelin, A; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    distribution of the occurrences of these TREs along the genome. RESULTS: We present a model of TRE occurrences known as the Hawkes process. We illustrate the use of this model by analyzing two different publically available data sets. We are able to model, in detail, how the occurrence of one TRE is affected....... For each of the two data sets we provide two results: first, a qualitative description of the dependencies among the occurrences of the TREs, and second, quantitative results on the favored or avoided distances between the different TREs. CONCLUSIONS: The Hawkes process is a novel way of modeling the joint...

  20. The occurrence and frequency of genomic mutations that mediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence and frequency of genomic mutations that mediate Isoniazid and Rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from untreated pulmonary Tuberculosis cases in urban Blantyre, Malawi.

  1. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Accidental Radiation Occurrence Reports (HFZ-240), Office of Communication, Education, and Radiation Programs, 9200 Corporate Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850, and the reports and their envelopes shall be distinctly...

  2. Intestinal Ileus as a Possible Cause of Hypobicarbonatemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Serrano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible occurrence of metabolic acidosis in patients with intestinal ileus is not well recognized. We describe a patient with acute alcohol-induced pancreatitis and a large transverse colon ileus in which plasma bicarbonate dropped rapidly in the absence of an increase in the plasma anion gap. The urinary anion gap and ammonium excretion were consistent with an appropriate renal response to metabolic acidosis and against the possibility of respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the falling plasma bicarbonate was ascribed to intestinal bicarbonate sequestration owing to the enhancement of chloride-bicarbonate exchange in a dilated paralyzed colon.

  3. Review of worldwide occurrence of tornadoes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available of about 3]10~5/yr/km2. Tornado events were also reported in Holland, Spain, Switzerland and Malta. 6. Africa Tornado events have been recorded in several Southern African countries (Bot- swana, Swaziland and Namibia) and possibly over Liberia, Ivory Coast...

  4. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovell, A M; Damji, K F; Dohadwala, A A; Hodge, W G; Allingham, R R

    2001-02-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome affects up to 4% of the white population. It is characterized by the presence of transillumination defects, Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Open-angle glaucoma will develop in as many as 50% of affected patients. In this study we describe the familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome in six North American pedigrees and the phenotypic characteristics with respect to pigment dispersion syndrome and glaucoma. Probands with pigment dispersion syndrome were identified in glaucoma clinics at university eye centres in Ottawa and Durham, NC. Families with two or more affected members were evaluated. All willing members in each family underwent a thorough clinical examination and were classified as affected with pigment dispersion syndrome, suspect or unaffected. The previous medical records were reviewed to obtain the past medical and ocular history, including risk factors for glaucoma. All six families are white. Three families show at least two generations of affected members. Of the 43 subjects examined 58% were women. All 14 affected members showed moderate to heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation and either Krukenberg's spindle or transillumination defects. The affected members were also considerably more myopic (mean spherical equivalent for the right eye -4.72 dioptres) than the suspect group or the unaffected group (mean spherical equivalent -0.79 D and +1.19 D respectively) (p pigment dispersion syndrome. Our ultimate goal is to identify the gene(s) that causes this disorder in order to clarify its molecular etiology and pathophysiology. This may give rise to a molecular classification of the disease as well as provide the foundation for genetic testing and new treatment approaches.

  6. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  7. On the Occurrence of Thermal Nonequilibrium in Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froment, C.; Auchère, F.; Mikić, Z.; Aulanier, G.; Bocchialini, K.; Buchlin, E.; Solomon, J.; Soubrié, E.

    2018-03-01

    Long-period EUV pulsations, recently discovered to be common in active regions, are understood to be the coronal manifestation of thermal nonequilibrium (TNE). The active regions previously studied with EIT/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and AIA/SDO indicated that long-period intensity pulsations are localized in only one or two loop bundles. The basic idea of this study is to understand why. For this purpose, we tested the response of different loop systems, using different magnetic configurations, to different stratifications and strengths of the heating. We present an extensive parameter-space study using 1D hydrodynamic simulations (1020 in total) and conclude that the occurrence of TNE requires specific combinations of parameters. Our study shows that the TNE cycles are confined to specific ranges in parameter space. This naturally explains why only some loops undergo constant periodic pulsations over several days: since the loop geometry and the heating properties generally vary from one loop to another in an active region, only the ones in which these parameters are compatible exhibit TNE cycles. Furthermore, these parameters (heating and geometry) are likely to vary significantly over the duration of a cycle, which potentially limits the possibilities of periodic behavior. This study also confirms that long-period intensity pulsations and coronal rain are two aspects of the same phenomenon: both phenomena can occur for similar heating conditions and can appear simultaneously in the simulations.

  8. OCCURRENCE OF EARLY KNEE ARTHROSIS FOLLOWING TOTAL MENISCECTOMIES IN YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Milenkovic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of early knee arthrosis following early total meniscectomy is a significant orthopedic, social and economical problem. Arthroscopic surgery shows the role and significance of the menisci for normal knee functioning. The outcome of 19 knee arthroscopies are presented; patients are of male sex, average age 39 (from 34 to 45. All patients underwent knee arthrotomy and total medial and lateral meniscectomy before the age of 25. All patients were active sportsmen. 12 arthroscopies of the right knee and 7 arthroscopies of the left one were done. In 13 patients, medial knee arthrosis following medial meniscectomy was found. One patient had lateral knee arthrosis and degeneration of the medial meniscus following lateral meniscectomy . The same patient had the total rupture of LCA. The remaining 5 patients had lateral knee arthrosis following lateral meniscectomy. One or more loose bodies of cartilaginous origin were found in 8 patients. All the operated patients had evident early signs of initial or progressive knee arthrosis confirmed or diagnosed arthroscopically. Knee arthroscopy in early arthroses following knee meniscectomies in youth can relieve the pain and slow down disease progression. A permanent solution to the problem is possible only with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

  9. Occurrence of Chiral Bioactive Compounds in the Aquatic Environment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the presence of micropollutants in the environment has been extensively studied due to their high frequency of occurrence, persistence and possible adverse effects to exposed organisms. Concerning chiral micropollutants in the environment, enantiomers are frequently ignored and enantiomeric composition often neglected. However, enantioselective toxicity is well recognized, highlighting the need to include enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment. Additionally, the information about enantiomeric fraction (EF is crucial since it gives insights about: (i environmental fate (i.e., occurrence, distribution, removal processes and (biodegradation; (ii illicit discharges; (iii consumption pattern (e.g., illicit drugs, pharmaceuticals used as recreational drugs, illicit use of pesticides; and (iv enantioselective toxicological effects. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review about the enantioselective occurrence of chiral bioactive compounds in aquatic environmental matrices. These include pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polycyclic musks (PCMs. Most frequently analytical methods used for separation of enantiomers were liquid chromatography and gas chromatography methodologies using both indirect (enantiomerically pure derivatizing reagents and direct methods (chiral stationary phases. The occurrence of these chiral micropollutants in the environment is reviewed and future challenges are outlined.

  10. Occurrence of CPPopt Values in Uncorrelated ICP and ABP Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeleira, M; Czosnyka, M; Liu, X; Donnelly, J; Smielewski, P

    2018-01-01

    Optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) is a concept that uses the pressure reactivity (PRx)-CPP relationship over a given period to find a value of CPP at which PRx shows best autoregulation. It has been proposed that this relationship be modelled by a U-shaped curve, where the minimum is interpreted as being the CPP value that corresponds to the strongest autoregulation. Owing to the nature of the calculation and the signals involved in it, the occurrence of CPPopt curves generated by non-physiological variations of intracranial pressure (ICP) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), termed here "false positives", is possible. Such random occurrences would artificially increase the yield of CPPopt values and decrease the reliability of the methodology.In this work, we studied the probability of the random occurrence of false-positives and we compared the effect of the parameters used for CPPopt calculation on this probability. To simulate the occurrence of false-positives, uncorrelated ICP and ABP time series were generated by destroying the relationship between the waves in real recordings. The CPPopt algorithm was then applied to these new series and the number of false-positives was counted for different values of the algorithm's parameters. The percentage of CPPopt curves generated from uncorrelated data was demonstrated to be 11.5%. This value can be minimised by tuning some of the calculation parameters, such as increasing the calculation window and increasing the minimum PRx span accepted on the curve.

  11. Driving factors for torrential mass-movements occurrence in the Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eTiranti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand the behaviour of torrential processes in the alpine environment, the conditions mainly responsiblefor the occurrence of these phenomena have to be identified and distinguished(classified aspredisposing and triggering factors. In this regard, this study is aimed to understanding which factors lead to the occurrence of a given torrential processes in alpine catchments in the Western Alps, where information on past events are exhaustive and characterized by a long historical series. More than 769 documented torrential eventsoccurred from 1728 to 2015 within 78 catchments. Datasets concerning climate, geology and morphology, land use and the presence of historical landslide activity have been elaborated as input for multivariate statistical analysis to characterize the behaviour of the catchments. The results pinpoint the factors that mainly drive the type of torrential dominant process occurring in a given catchment, its occurrence probability, and its frequency. This study has demonstrated that catchments characterized by a significant percentage of outcropping rocks show a greater occurrence of torrential processes, especially hyperconcentrated flows and debris flows; on the contrary highly vegetated catchments are typically subject to water flows. This result can be a useful tool for the evaluation of hazards related to this specific phenomenon, making it possible to predict the most likely torrential processes that can be generated in a specific basin, given the characteristics of outcropping rock and vegetation cover.

  12. Methane emission through ebullition from an estuarine mudflat: 2. Field observations and modeling of occurrence probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Slater, Lee

    2017-08-01

    Ebullition can transport methane (CH4) at a much faster rate than other pathways, albeit over limited time and area, in wetland soils and sediments. However, field observations present large uncertainties in ebullition occurrences and statistic models are needed to describe the function relationship between probability of ebullition occurrence and water level changes. A flow-through chamber was designed and installed in a mudflat of an estuarine temperate marsh. Episodic increases in CH4 concentration signaling ebullition events were observed during ebbing tides (15 events over 456 ebbing tides) and occasionally during flooding tides (4 events over 455 flooding tides). Ebullition occurrence functions were defined using logistic regression as the relative initial and end water levels, as well as tidal amplitudes were found to be the key functional variables related to ebullition events. Ebullition of methane was restricted by a surface frozen layer during winter; melting of this layer during spring thaw caused increases in CH4 concentration, with ebullition fluxes similar to those associated with large fluctuations in water level around spring tides. Our findings suggest that initial and end relative water levels, in addition to tidal amplitude, partly regulate ebullition events in tidal wetlands, modulated by the lunar cycle, storage of gas bubbles at different depths and seasonal changes in the surface frozen layer. Maximum tidal strength over a few days, rather than hourly water level, may be more closely associated with the possibility of ebullition occurrence as it represents a trade-off time scale in between hourly and lunar periods.

  13. Occurrence of 3-chloro-propane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and related compounds in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, C G; Sadd, P A; Crews, C; Velísek, J; Baxter, D E

    2002-07-01

    A critical review of the occurrence of 3-chloro-propane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in foods not known to contain hydrolysed vegetable proteins is presented. The review covers the properties and chemistry of 3-MCPD and the current methods of analysis in foodstuffs. The results of UK surveys of 3-MCPD occurrence in both retail foods and commercial food ingredients are discussed with particular reference to cereal, meat and dairy products. The possible mechanisms for the formation and decay of 3-MCPD in foods are suggested. The review does not cover the detailed toxicology of 3-MCPD and its occurrence in hydrolysed vegetable proteins, which have been considered elsewhere, nor possible issues such as in-vivo formation.

  14. Bilateral synchronous benign ovarian neoplasm: A rare occurrence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral synchronous ovarian tumours are defined as the occurrence of two or more histologically distinct tumours in the ovaries. Synchronous tumours of the female genital tract are rare and the association of mature cystic teratoma with contralateral serous cystadenoma is uncommon. We report the rare occurrence of a ...

  15. Seasonal Variation in the Occurrence of Pregnancy-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH) is one of the leading causes of maternal, neonatal and infant mortality. Several studies have suggested that the occurrence of PIH may be dependent on environmental factors. Although, several countries have documented the prevalence of PIH, little is known about the occurrence ...

  16. Word and phoneme frequency of occurrence in conversational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency of occurrence of Setswana consonant phonemes in a conversational sample of 49 358 Setswana-words was deter- mined. The percentage of occurrence of each consonant in each of the three positions of words was found to be 53.9% in the initial, 41.8% in the medial and 4.1% in the final positions. In addition ...

  17. Forest Fire Occurrence in Southern Counties, 1966-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle

    1977-01-01

    Forest fire occurrence data for individual protection units generally are unavailable outside particular state organization. Number of fires, area protected and fire occurrence rate (fires per 1,000,000 acres) from 1966 to 1975, are presented in tables for the 993 counties under protection in 13 southern states. These data are compared with data for the preceeding...

  18. Recombinant protein expression of Moringa oleifera lectin in methylotrophic yeast as active coagulant for sustainable high turbid water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Wahid, Muhamad Azhar; Megat Mohd Noor, Megat Johari; Goto, Masafumi; Sugiura, Norio; Othman, Nor'azizi; Zakaria, Zuriati; Ahmad Mohammed, Thamer; Jusoh, Ahmad; Hara, Hirofumi

    2017-08-01

    The natural coagulant Moringa oleifera lectin (MoL) as cationic protein is a promising candidate in coagulation process of water treatment plant. Introducing the gene encoding MoL into a host, Pichia pastoris, to secrete soluble recombinant protein is assessed in this study. Initial screening using PCR confirmed the insertion of MoL gene, and SDS-PAGE analysis detected the MoL protein at 8 kDa. Cultured optimization showed the highest MoL protein at 520 mg/L was observed at 28 °C for 144 h of culturing by induction in 1% methanol. Approximately, 0.40 mg/mL of recombinant MoL protein showed 95 ± 2% turbidity removal of 1% kaolin suspension. In 0.1% kaolin suspension, the concentration of MoL at 10 μg/mL exhibits the highest turbidity reduction at 68 ± 1%. Thus, recombinant MoL protein from P. pastoris is an effective coagulant for water treatment.

  19. Estimating the marine signal in the near infrared for atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery over turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdet, Alice; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    The classic atmospheric correction algorithm, routinely applied to second-generation ocean-color sensors such as SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS, consists of (i) estimating the aerosol reflectance in the red and near infrared (NIR) where the ocean is considered black (i.e., totally absorbing), and (ii) extrapolating the estimated aerosol reflectance to shorter wavelengths. The marine reflectance is then retrieved by subtraction. Variants and improvements have been made over the years to deal with non-null reflectance in the red and near infrared, a general situation in estuaries and the coastal zone, but the solutions proposed so far still suffer some limitations, due to uncertainties in marine reflectance modeling in the near infrared or difficulty to extrapolate the aerosol signal to the blue when using observations in the shortwave infrared (SWIR), a spectral range far from the ocean-color wavelengths. To estimate the marine signal (i.e., the product of marine reflectance and atmospheric transmittance) in the near infrared, the proposed approach is to decompose the aerosol reflectance in the near infrared to shortwave infrared into principal components. Since aerosol scattering is smooth spectrally, a few components are generally sufficient to represent the perturbing signal, i.e., the aerosol reflectance in the near infrared can be determined from measurements in the shortwave infrared where the ocean is black. This gives access to the marine signal in the near infrared, which can then be used in the classic atmospheric correction algorithm. The methodology is evaluated theoretically from simulations of the top-of-atmosphere reflectance for a wide range of geophysical conditions and angular geometries and applied to actual MODIS imagery acquired over the Gulf of Mexico. The number of discarded pixels is reduced by over 80% using the PC modeling to determine the marine signal in the near infrared prior to applying the classic atmospheric correction algorithm.

  20. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 through September 30, 1992. There were no abnormal occurrences at a nuclear power plant. Two abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministrations (both therapeutic) and one involving overexposure of a radiographer at NRC-licensed facilities were discussed in this report. In addition, another abnormal occurrence was reported by an NRC Agreement State. The report also contains information updating a previously reported abnormal occurrence

  1. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report, the ninth in the series, covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1977. The NRC has determined that during this period: there were two abnormal occurrences at the 64 nuclear power plants licensed to operate, one involved a breach of a plant's physical security system and the other involved degraded fuel rods; there were no abnormal occurrences at fuel cycle facilities (other than nuclear power plants); and there were two abnormal occurrences at other licensee facilities, one involved improper radioactive source handling procedures and the other involved overexposure of two radiographers. Information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences is also included

  2. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report, the eighth in the series, covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1977. The NRC has determined that during this period: there were no abnormal occurrences at the 63 nuclear power plants licensed to operate; there were no abnormal occurrences at fuel cycle facilities (other than nuclear power plants); and there was one abnormal occurrence at other licensee facilities. The event involved an inadvertent radiation exposure to two painters while working in an area where industrial radiography was being performed. This report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  3. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a Quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January 1 to March 31, 1989. For this reporting period, there were two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The first had generic implications and involved a plug failure resulting in a steam generator tube leak at North Anna Unit 1. The second involved a steam generator tube rupture at McGuire Unit 1. There were three abnormal occurrences under other NRC-issued licenses. Two involved medical therapy misadministrations and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. There were no abnormal occurrences reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  4. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence of an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period October through December 1991. Five abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. None of these occurrences involved a nuclear power plant. Four involved medical therapy misadministrations and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. The NRC's Agreement States reported three abnormal occurrences. Two involved exposures of non-radiation workers and one involved a medical therapy misadministration. The report also contains information that updates some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  5. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1988. For this reporting period, there were no abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. There were two abnormal occurrences at other NRC licensees: a significant breakdown in management and procedural controls at a medical facility and a medical diagnostic misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving radioactive material released during a transportation accident. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  6. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1988. For this reporting period, there were no abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. There were two abnormal occurrences under other NRC-issued licenses: multiple medical therapy misadministrations at a single hospital and a medical diagnostic misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  7. Archway for Radiation and Micrometeorite Occurrence Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Louis R.

    2012-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the Moon require mitigation if a long-term human presence is to be achieved for extended periods of time. Radiation, micrometeoroid impacts, high-velocity debris, and thermal cycling represent threats to crew, equipment, and facilities. For decades, local regolith has been suggested as a candidate material to use in the construction of protective barriers. A thickness of roughly 3m is sufficient protection from both direct and secondary radiation from cosmic rays and solar protons; this thickness is sufficient to reduce radiation exposure even during solar flares. NASA has previously identified a need for innovations that will support lunar habitats using lightweight structures because the reduction of structural mass translates directly into additional up and down mass capability that would facilitate additional logistics capacity and increased science return for all mission phases. The development of non-pressurized primary structures that have synergy with the development of pressurized structures is also of interest. The use of indigenous or in situ materials is also a well-known and active area of research that could drastically improve the practicality of human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. The Archway for Radiation and Micrometeorite Occurrence Resistance (ARMOR) concept is a new, multifunctional structure that acts as radiation shielding and micrometeorite impact shielding for long-duration lunar surface protection of humans and equipment. ARMOR uses a combination of native regolith and a deployed membrane jacket to yield a multifunctional structure. ARMOR is a robust and modular system that can be autonomously assembled on-site prior to the first human surface arrival. The system provides protection by holding a sufficiently thick (3 m) archshaped shell of local regolith around a central cavity. The regolith is held in shape by an arch-shaped jacket made of strong but deployable material. No regolith processing is

  8. Possible variations on the calcrete-gypcrete uranium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.

    1980-01-01

    Genetic models and favorability criteria for calcrete and gypcrete uranium deposits based upon Yeelirrie and other occurrences in Western Australia and upon Langer Henirich and others in Namibia-South West Africa are summarized. Viable analogues of these world-class deposits have not yet been found in USA even though several of the favorable conditions occur in the southwest. A principal deterrent to economic concentration has been tectonic instability. But even in the most favorable areas it is not clear that climates have ever been sufficiently similar to that of the valley-calcrete region of Western Australia. Extensive, thick valley (nonpedogenic) calcretes such as those which host the carnotite in Australia and in Namibia have not been documented here. Nevertheless, submarginal occurrances of carnotite have been found in southwestern United States in small bodies of nonpedogenic and mixed pedogenic-nonpedogenic calcrete. Much of the study is based upon occurrences of carnotite-bearing calcrete and calcrete-gypcrete in the Republic of South Africa. Several of these are described briefly. Some reference is also made to new occurrences and to new data on previously described occurrences on the Namib Desert. Possible variations on the Western Australian and Namibia-South West Africa models which are considered are capillary rise of U in solution, addition of new uraniferous sediment over a calcrete, lateral access of U into a pedogenic calcrete, reworking of U from a weekly mineralized pedogenic calcrete or gypcrete into a new or reconstituted calcrete, or into an unrelated environment for fixation of U

  9. Possible variations on the calcrete-gypcrete uranium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, D.

    1980-01-01

    Genetic models and favorability criteria for calcrete and gypcrete uranium deposits based upon Yeelirrie and other occurrences in Western Australia and upon Langer Henirich and others in Namibia-South West Africa are summarized. Viable analogues of these world-class deposits have not yet been found in USA even though several of the favorable conditions occur in the southwest. A principal deterrent to economic concentration has been tectonic instability. But even in the most favorable areas it is not clear that climates have ever been sufficiently similar to that of the valley-calcrete region of Western Australia. Extensive, thick valley (nonpedogenic) calcretes such as those which host the carnotite in Australia and in Namibia have not been documented here. Nevertheless, submarginal occurrances of carnotite have been found in southwestern United States in small bodies of nonpedogenic and mixed pedogenic-nonpedogenic calcrete. Much of the study is based upon occurrences of carnotite-bearing calcrete and calcrete-gypcrete in the Republic of South Africa. Several of these are described briefly. Some reference is also made to new occurrences and to new data on previously described occurrences on the Namib Desert. Possible variations on the Western Australian and Namibia-South West Africa models which are considered are capillary rise of U in solution, addition of new uraniferous sediment over a calcrete, lateral access of U into a pedogenic calcrete, reworking of U from a weekly mineralized pedogenic calcrete or gypcrete into a new or reconstituted calcrete, or into an unrelated environment for fixation of U.

  10. Stability, occurrence and step morphology of polymorphs and polytypes of stearic acid. I. Stability and occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiyotaka; Kobayashi, Masamichi; Morishita, Hirofumi

    1988-02-01

    The thermodynamical stability and occurrence of three different structural modifications: monoclinic and pseudo-orthorhombic polytypes of the B polymorph, called B(mon) and B(orth II) respectively, and monoclinic C polymorph, C(mon), of stearic acid have been examined. The solubility measurements, overgrowth and isothermal crystallization proved that B(orth II) and C(mon) are most stable below and above 32°C, respectively, whereas B(mon) is always metastable, turning to be more stable than C(mon) below between 23 and 24°C. It was confirmed by micro-probe Raman spectroscopy that the polytypic structure of the newly-overgrown crystal on the (001) faces of the seed crystal of B(mon) changed from the original monoclinic to pseudo-orthorhombic, B(orth II), at very small supersaturations above 23°C. This conversion was caused by the solubility difference. The occurrence experiment indicated a slight tendency that B(mon) crystallized more than B(orth II) at lower temperatures.

  11. Sub-kilometre (intra-crater) mounds in Utopia Planitia, Mars: character, occurrence and possible formation hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Richard J.; Conway, Susan J.; Pearce, Geoffrey D.; Costard, François; Séjourné, Antoine

    2013-08-01

    At the middle latitudes of Utopia Planitia (˜35-45°N; ˜65-101°E) hundreds of small-sized mounds located in sub-kilometre impact craters dot the landscape. Their shape varies from circular to crescentic and their height ranges from ˜10 to 50 m. Often, metre to decametre pitting is observed, as is metres-thick banding or stratification. Mound albedo is relatively high, i.e. ˜0.16. The plain's terrain in the region, previously linked to the latitude-dependent mantle (LDM) of ice-dust, displays pitting and albedo similar to the small intra-crater mounds. Some workers have suggested that the mounds and the plain's terrain share a common ice-dust origin. If so, then scrutinising the mounds could provide analogical insight on the key geological characteristics and spatial distribution of the LDM itself. Other workers have hypothesised that the mounds are eroded sedimentary landforms or periglacial mounds underlain by a perennial ice-core (closed-system pingos). In this article we develop and then discuss each of the three mound-hypotheses in a much more substantial manner than has been done hitherto. Towards this end we use high-resolution images, present a detailed regional-map of mound distribution and establish a regional platform of topographical analysis using MOLA data superposed on a large-scale CTX mosaic. Although the ice-dust hypothesis is consistent with some observations and measurements, we find that a (loess-based) sedimentary hypothesis shows greater plausibility. Of the three hypotheses evaluated, the pingo or periglacial one is the weakest.

  12. Thermophilic methanogenic Archaea in compost material: occurrence, persistence and possible mechanisms for their distribution to other environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummes, Kathrin; Schäfer, Jenny; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo

    2007-12-01

    Since compost is widely used as soil amendment and the fact that during the processing of compost material high amounts of microorganisms are released into the air, we investigated whether compost may act as a carrier for thermophilic methanogens to temperate soils. All eight investigated compost materials showed a clear methane production potential between 0.01 and 0.98 micromol CH(4) g dw(-1)h(-1) at 50 degrees C. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and cloning analysis indicated the presence of Methanosarcina thermophila, Methanoculleus thermophilus, and Methanobacterium formicicum. Bioaerosols collected during the turning of a compost pile showed both a highly similar SSCP profile compared to the corresponding compost material and clear methane production during anoxic incubation in selective medium at 50 degrees C. Both observations indicated a considerable release of thermophilic methanogens into the air. To analyse the persistence of compost-borne thermophilic methanogens in temperate oxic soils, we therefore studied their potential activity in compost and compost/soil mixtures, which was brought to a meadow soil, as well as in an agricultural soil fertilised with compost. After 24h anoxic incubation at 50 degrees C, all samples containing compost showed a clear methanogenic activity, even 1 year after application. In combination with the in vitro observed resilience of the compost-borne methanogens against desiccation and UV radiation we assume that compost material acts as an effective carrier for the distribution of thermophilic methanogens by fertilisation and wind.

  13. The possible occurrence of multi-phase behavior in the high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.A.; Soderholm, L.; Capone, D.W. II

    1989-01-01

    We report here the results obtained for powder diffraction studies on four YBa 2 Cu 3 O x samples in which a model with two orthorhombic phases was used to obtain an improved agreement. The implications of this structural model on the systematic variation of T c with oxygen content will be discussed. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Evidence for the possible occurrence of Grave's disease in a blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintard, Benoît; Giorgiadis, Marine; Feirrera, Xavier; Lefaux, Brice; Schohn, Christophe; Lemberger, Karin

    2018-03-01

    The blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons) is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as critically endangered. A 23-year-old male housed at Mulhouse Zoo presented with lethargy, polyphagia, alopecia, and chronic weight loss. Clinical examination suggested an endocrine pathology such as hyperthyroidism. Secondary examinations included cervical ultrasound, thyroid biopsy, and scintigraphy. The latter revealed elevated thyroid activity. Blood analysis was performed to measure the level of anti-receptor thyroid-stimulating hormone antibodies, which allowed us to test the autoimmune hypothesis. The high level of antibodies together with levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and the scintigraphy images led to the diagnosis of Grave's disease. Carbimazole treatment followed by thyroidectomy resulted in a quick weight gain and general improvement in health status. The following breeding season, the treated individual sired an offspring. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of likely Grave's disease in a non-human primate.

  15. Mass occurrences of large sponges (Porifera) in Faroe Island (NE Atlantic) Shelf and slope areas: Characteristics, distribution and possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Anne B.; Tendal, Ole Secher; Westerberg, Håkan

    1997-01-01

    Zoologi, dyriske svampe(Porifera), masseforekomster, Nordatlanten, Færøerne, interne tidevandsbølger, udbredelser......Zoologi, dyriske svampe(Porifera), masseforekomster, Nordatlanten, Færøerne, interne tidevandsbølger, udbredelser...

  16. Observations from Space: A Unique Vantage Point for the Study of the Environment and Possible Associations with Disease Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, S.; Haynes, J.; Hamdan, M. Al; Estes, M.; Sprigg, W.

    2009-01-01

    Health providers/researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. The field of geospatial health remains in its infancy, and this program will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential. NASA will discuss the Public Health Projects developed to work with Grantees and the CDC while providing them with information on opportunities for future collaborations with NASA for future research.

  17. THE OCCURRENCE OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS OF HEALTH CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER: RESULTS OF A NATIONWIDE DBP OCCURRENCE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The motivation for this Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study was two-fold: First, more than 500 DBPs have been reported in the literature, yet there is almost no quantitative occurrence information for most. As a result, there is significant uncertainty ove...

  18. A study on the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using a co-occurrence matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Shimada, Tetsuo; Kaeriyama, Tomoharu; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    We studied the possibility of making an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. An image of the cerebral parenchyma was created from original MR images, and the brain, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the amount of the features from the co-occurrence matrix were measured. When the brain-intracranial ratio, hippocampus-intracranial ratio, and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio were computed, a significant difference was not detected. Discriminant analysis using the hippocampus-intracranial ratio and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio showed an overall accuracy of 63.8%. These are not sufficient results to use clinically. Therefore it is possible to make an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using the co-occurrence matrix. A statistically significant difference was found in 8 of the 13 features obtained from the co-occurrence matrix. Moreover, discriminant analysis using the eight features showed an overall accuracy of 85.1%. These results indicate that they can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Occurrence and Foraging Activity of Coastal Dolphins in Menai Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Temple

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns in distribution, occurrence and behaviour is vital for the effective conservation of cetaceans. This study used cetacean click detectors (C-PODs to investigate spatial and temporal variation in occurrence and foraging activity of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus and Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea dolphins resident in the Menai Bay Conservation Area (MBCA, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Occurrence was measured using detection positive minutes. Inter-click intervals were used to identify terminal buzz vocalisations, allowing for analysis of foraging activity. Data were analysed in relation to spatial (location and temporal (monsoon season, diel phase and tidal phase variables. Results showed significantly increased occurrence and foraging activity of dolphins in southern areas and during hours of darkness. Higher occurrence at night was not explained by diel variation in echolocation rate and so were considered representative of occurrence patterns. Both tidal phase and monsoon season influenced occurrence but results varied among sites, with no general patterns found. Foraging activity was greatest during hours of darkness, High water and Flood tidal phases. Comparisons of echolocation data among sites suggested differences in the broadband click spectra of MBCA dolphins, possibly indicative of species differences. These dolphin populations are threatened by unsustainable fisheries bycatch and tourism activities. The spatial and temporal patterns identified in this study have implications for future conservation and management actions with regards to these two threats. Further, the results indicate future potential for using passive acoustics to identify and monitor the occurrence of these two species in areas where they co-exist.

  20. A Time Series Model of the Occurrence of Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus in a Population of Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Michael; Moore, George E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening condition of mammals, with increased risk in large breed dogs. The study of its etiological factors is difficult due to the variety of possible living conditions. The association between meteorological events and the occurrence of GDV has been postulated but remains unclear. This study introduces the binary time series approach to the investigation of the possible meteorological risk factors for GDV. The data collecte...

  1. Risk factors and the occurrence of cerebral palsy in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Handryastuti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of cerebral palsy (CP has increased due to better survival rates of high-risk babies. Early detection and time to the occurrence of CP in the first year of life is important in order to provide early intervention. Objectives To determine the proportion of CP in high-risk babies, the time to the occurrence of CP in the first year, and assess possible associations between risk factors of CP and time to the occurrence of CP. Methods A prospective cohort study was done on 150 high-risk babies up to the age of 12 months. We obtained history of motor ability and assessed primitive reflexes and postural reactions of subjects at the ages of 4 and 6 months. The diagnosis of CP was established at 6 and 12 months of age. Results The proportion of CP was 26% at 6 months and 24% at 12 months of age. Significant risk factors associated with CP at 6 and 12 months of age were cerebral ultrasound abnormalities, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and intracranial hemorrhage. In 88.7% of subjects with CP, CP was detected in the first 6 months. Mean age at the occurrence of CP was 9.99 months (95%CI 9.46 to 10.53. Risk factors that significantly affected the time to the occurrence of CP by survival analysis were ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusions Cerebral palsy can be detected as early as the first 6 months of life. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are the risk factors associated with CP.

  2. Technical assistance contractor occurrence reporting and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Members of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) are responsible to notify management of TAC occurrence reporting and processing system (ORPS) classified occurrences .An ORPS occurrence is an unexpected or unplanned event on DOE property which causes bodily harm, death, damage to government property, exposure to toxic or hazardous substances above acceptable limits to workers, the environment, or general public. Examples of potential reportable occurrences include, but not limited to, site personnel exposures to airborne contaminants, incidents which could expose the general public to high levels of radiation or other contaminants, a vehicle accident resulting in property damage or personnel injuries. Listed TAC manager/staff contacts, with the assistance of TAC ORPS Program Coordinators, will determine if the occurrence is reportable under Department of Energy (DOE) Order M 232.1-2. The reportable occurrences will be classified as emergency, unusual, or off-normal. If determined to be reportable, listed TAC manager/staff will verbally report the details of the occurrence to the DOE Duty Officer within 2 hours of initial notification, and provide a written report of the event by noon the following work day

  3. The Probability of Uranium Deposit Occurrences at Hatapang and Its Surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Ngadenin

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out based on a geological condition of Hatapang and is surroundings areas that are favourable for uranium accumulation, which are indicated by the existence of granite high uranium content, having mobilizations process and uranium trapping rocks. Referring to the plate tectonic and geochemical situation of Hatapang, those condition will give a significant indications for the possible occurrence of deposit of uranium in the area. The goal of this study is to know the probability occurrences of uranium deposit based on the regional tectonic, geology, mineralogy, geochemical, and radioactivity characters. It is concluded that Hatapang granite is potential for U source granite, and U deposit of black shale type is probably accurate in this area. (author)

  4. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...... depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow’s milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published...... studies aiming at estimating the occurrence of MAP in on-farm BTM and IM by meta-analysis. A total of 692 articles were identified through electronic databases and initially screened using title and abstract. The quality of the 61 potentially relevant articles was assessed using full text and 31 articles...

  5. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings.

  6. On the probability of occurrence of rogue waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bitner-Gregersen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of extreme and rogue wave studies have been conducted theoretically, numerically, experimentally and based on field data in the last years, which have significantly advanced our knowledge of ocean waves. So far, however, consensus on the probability of occurrence of rogue waves has not been achieved. The present investigation is addressing this topic from the perspective of design needs. Probability of occurrence of extreme and rogue wave crests in deep water is here discussed based on higher order time simulations, experiments and hindcast data. Focus is given to occurrence of rogue waves in high sea states.

  7. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil PARTICIPANTS: The study was made among 123 patients interned in the Hospital Espírita de Marília from October 1996 to December 1998, divided into 3 groups: 26 (21% using only marijuana, 83 (67.5% using marijuana and crack, and 14 (11.4% consuming marijuana and alcohol. PROCEDURES AND MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Patients were examined clinically with special emphasis on types of drugs used, drug intake route, age when consumption began, length and pattern of usage, presence of tattooing, jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Serum determinations of total proteins, albumin, globulin, total and fractions of bilirubin, aspartate (AST and alanine (ALT aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma-glutamyltransferase and prothrombin activity were performed. RESULTS: Among users of only marijuana, hepatomegaly was observed in 57.7% and splenomegaly in 73.1%, and slightly elevated AST (42.3%, ALT (34.6% and AP (53.8%. The three groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly. The group using both marijuana and alcohol showed the highest prevalence of alterations and highest levels of aminotransferases. Mean AP levels were above normal in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic marijuana usage, on its own or in association with other drugs, was associated with hepatic morphologic and enzymatic alterations. This indicates that cannabinoids are possible hepatotoxic substances.

  8. Non-random co-occurrence of native and exotic plant species in Mediterranean grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, José M.; Martín-Forés, Irene; Acosta-Gallo, Belén; del Pozo, Alejandro; Ovalle, Carlos; Sánchez-Jardón, Laura; Castro, Isabel; Casado, Miguel A.

    2016-11-01

    Invasion by exotic species in Mediterranean grasslands has determined assembly patterns of native and introduced species, knowledge of which provides information on the ecological processes underlying these novel communities. We considered grasslands from Spain and Chile. For each country we considered the whole grassland community and we split species into two subsets: in Chile, species were classified as natives or colonizers (i.e. exotics); in Spain, species were classified as exclusives (present in Spain but not in Chile) or colonizers (Spanish natives and exotics into Chile). We used null models and co-occurrence indices calculated in each country for each one of 15 sites distributed along a precipitation gradient and subjected to similar silvopastoral exploitation. We compared values of species co-occurrence between countries and between species subsets (natives/colonizers in Chile; exclusives/colonizers in Spain) within each country and we characterised them according to climatic variables. We hypothesized that: a) the different coexistence time of the species in both regions should give rise to communities presenting a spatial pattern further from random in Spain than in Chile, b) the co-occurrence patterns in the grasslands are affected by mesoclimatic factors in both regions. The patterns of co-occurrence are similar in Spain and Chile, mostly showing a spatial pattern more segregated than expected by random. The colonizer species are more segregated in Spain than in Chile, possibly determined by the longer residence time of the species in the source area than in the invaded one. The segregation of species in Chile is related to water availability, being species less segregated in habitat with greater water deficit; in Spain no relationship with climatic variables was found. After an invasion process, our results suggest that the possible process of alteration of the original Chilean communities has not prevented the assembly between the native and

  9. Occurrence, metabolism, metabolic role, and industrial uses of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A J; Dawes, E A

    1990-12-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), of which polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most abundant, are bacterial carbon and energy reserve materials of widespread occurrence. They are composed of 3-hydroxyacid monomer units and exist as a small number of cytoplasmic granules per cell. The properties of the C4 homopolymer PHB as a biodegradable thermoplastic first attracted industrial attention more than 20 years ago. Copolymers of C4 (3-hydroxybutyrate [3HB]) and C5 (3-hydroxyvalerate [3HV]) monomer units have modified physical properties; e.g., the plastic is less brittle than PHB, whereas PHAs containing C8 to C12 monomers behave as elastomers. This family of materials is the centre of considerable commercial interest, and 3HB-co-3HV copolymers have been marketed by ICI plc as Biopol. The known polymers exist as 2(1) helices with the fiber repeat decreasing from 0.596 nm for PHB to about 0.45 nm for C8 to C10 polymers. Novel copolymers with a backbone of 3HB and 4HB have been obtained. The native granules contain noncrystalline polymer, and water may possibly act as a plasticizer. Although the biosynthesis and regulation of PHB are generally well understood, the corresponding information for the synthesis of long-side-chain PHAs from alkanes, alcohols, and organic acids is still incomplete. The precise mechanisms of action of the polymerizing and depolymerizing enzymes also remain to be established. The structural genes for the three key enzymes of PHB synthesis from acetyl coenzyme A in Alcaligenes eutrophus have been cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Polymer molecular weights appear to be species specific. The factors influencing the commercial choice of organism, substrate, and isolation process are discussed. The physiological functions of PHB as a reserve material and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and its presence in bacterial plasma membranes and putative role in transformability and calcium signaling are also considered.

  10. Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of fine particles of coal dust contributes significantly to the occurrence of the disease, pneumoconiosis, prevailing in coal mining community. It is not presently known whether only the coal dust or specific chemical compounds or synergistic effects of several compounds associated with respirable coal dust is responsible for the disease, pneumoconiosis. The present paper describes the quantitative determination of ten minor and trace elements in respirable coal dust particles by atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The respirable coal dust samples are collected at the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal scams by using Messrs. Casella's Hexlet apparatus specially designed and fitted with horizontal elutriator to collect the respirable coal dust fraction simulating as near as possible to the lung's retention of the coal miners. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off clay and silica, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures. The results show that the trace metals are more acute in lower range of size spectrum. Correlation coefficient, enrichment factor and linear regression values and their inverse relationship between the slope and EF values suggest that, in general, the trace metals in respirable particulates are likely to be from coal derived source if their concentrations are likewise high in the coal. The trace metal analytical data of respirable particulates fitted well to the linear regressive equation. The results of the studies are of importance as it may throw some light on the respirable lung disease 'pneumoconiosis' which are predominant in coal mining community. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, Regulatory Limits and Reference Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina Visciano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms are natural phenomena caused by the massive growth of phytoplankton that may contain highly toxic chemicals, the so-called marine biotoxins causing illness and even death to both aquatic organisms and humans. Their occurrence has been increased in frequency and severity, suggesting a worldwide public health risk. Marine biotoxins can accumulate in bivalve molluscs and regulatory limits have been set for some classes according to European Union legislation. These compounds can be distinguished in water- and fat-soluble molecules. The first group involves those of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, whereas the toxins soluble in fat can cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning. Due to the lack of long-term toxicity studies, establishing tolerable daily intakes for any of these marine biotoxins was not possible, but an acute reference dose can be considered more appropriate, because these molecules show an acute toxicity. Dietary exposure assessment is linked both to the levels of marine biotoxins present in bivalve molluscs and the portion that could be eaten by consumers. Symptoms may vary from a severe gastrointestinal intoxication with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps to neurological disorders such as ataxia, dizziness, partial paralysis, and respiratory distress. The official method for the detection of marine biotoxins is the mouse bioassay (MBA showing some limits due to ethical restrictions and insufficient specificity. For this reason, the liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method has replaced MBA as the reference technique. However, the monitoring of algal blooms producing marine biotoxins should be regularly assessed in order to obtain more reliable, accurate estimates of bloom toxicity and their potential impacts.

  12. Occurrence and distribution of the Ceratiomyxales (Myxomycetes in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Order Ceratiomyxales, which belongs to subclass Ceratiomyxomycetidae, includes the exospore bearing Myxomycetes, solely comprising family Ceratiomyxaceae and genus Ceratiomyxa, with four species. Based on the literature, on herbarium collections, and on recent surveys carried out by the authors in different states and ecosystems, it was possible to determine the occurrence and distribution of C. fruticulosa (cosmopolitan,C. morchella and C. sphaerosperma (predominantly tropical or subtropical in northeastern Brazil. Species descriptions and illustrations are presented, as well as a map of their geographical distribution in eight of the nine states of Northeast Brazil. This order is being recorded for the first time for the state of Sergipe. Ceratiomyxa morchella and C. sphaerosperma are being cited for the first time for the state of Paraíba.A ordem Ceratiomyxales, pertencente à subclasse Ceratiomyxomycetidae, reúne os representantes exosporados dos Myxomycetes, compreendendo apenas a família Ceratiomyxaceae e o gênero Ceratiomyxa, com quatro espécies. Com base na literatura, coleções de herbário e coletas recentes realizadas pelos autores em diferentes estados e ecossistemas, foi possível estabelecer a ocorrência e distribuição na região Nordeste do Brasil de C. fruticulosa, cosmopolita, C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma, predominantemente tropicais ou subtropicais. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações das espécies, bem como mapa de distribuição geográfica em oito dos nove estados situados no Nordeste do país. A ordem está sendo referida pela primeira vez para o estado de Sergipe. C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma constituem primeira referência para o estado da Paraíba.

  13. Occurrence, bionomics and harmfulness of Crepidodera aurea (Geoffr. (Coleoptera, Alticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurrence, bionomics and harmfulness of a flea-beetle Crepidodera aurea (Geoffr. (Alticidae. The pest was studied at the Bílovice nad Svitavou Forest District (Training Forest Enterprise Masaryk Forest in Křtiny in the period 2007 to 2010 and in a laboratory. The main host species Populus tremula was about five times more damaged there than Salix caprea. Last year’s beetles occurred on the trees from the beginning of May to the beginning of November (most abundantly at the beginning of June. This year’s (young beetles occurred from the end of July to the 10th of November (most abundantly in September. Before hibernation, about 1/6 beetles abandoned their earth pupal chambers. The beetles damaged 6.7 cm2 leaves of P. tremula before hibernation (and 14.3 cm2 after hibernation. Females lay on average 194 eggs, namely on the average in 11 clutches at 18 eggs. In the period of the most intensive reproduction (in the second half of May and at the beginning of June, females laid one clutch on average for two days. With the increasing size of females the average number of eggs in ovaries increased as well as their average size. The development was obligatorily univoltine. With respect to the relatively low consumption of food it is not necessary to control the pest. In case of mass outbreak it is possible to control the beetles from the 5th to the 10th of May.

  14. Occurrence of genus Monostroma (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from Ratnagiri (Maharashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A; Agadi, V.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The occurrence of a genus Monostroma has been recorded from the Shirgaon creek at Ratnagiri along the central west coast of India. The Monostroma sp. was found in the brackish water environment with low salinity, high nutrients and thick mangrove...

  15. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  16. Scandium: its occurrence, chemistry, physics, metallurgy, biology, and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    This book describes the following aspects of scandium: discovery and history, occurrence in nature, geochemistry and mineralogy, chemical, physical and technological properties, fabrication and metallurgy, its biological significance and toxicology, and its uses. (Extensive references for each chapter)

  17. Heavy mineral occurrence off Hazira, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.

    The occurrence of heavy mineral placers on the west coast of India are well known from Konkan and Malabar Coast. However, a geological and geophysical investigation (including echosounding and side scan sonar profiles and 7 samples) off Hazira...

  18. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1992. Five abnormal occurrences are discussed in this report. One involved an extended loss of high-head safety injection capability at the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant. The other four involved medical misadministrations (three therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating a previously reported abnormal occurrence

  19. Occurrence of helically coiled microfossil Obruchevella in the Owk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the Owk Shale, four species of Obruchevella, viz., O. delicata, O. parva, O. minor and O. .... Asterisk indicate the level of the occurrence of carbonaceous fossils. (c) Locality ...... A B (Moscow: Nauka), English translation published in. 1990 ...

  20. Method Development, Monitoring, and Occurrence of Microcystins in Ambient Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence and intensity of cyanobacterial harmful blooms have become increasingly common over the last few decades. Cyanobacteria are a worldwide concern in areas with eutrophic water conditions. Cyanotoxins generated from cyanobacteria are harmful ecologically, cause econom...

  1. Occurrence of Porphyra vietnamensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Agadi, V.V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The occurrence of a red alga, Porphyra vietnamensis has been studied along the Goa Coast (west coast of India). The growth period was observed during the monsoon (July-October) and optimum growth was recorded during August, when temperature...

  2. Some attributes of snow occurrence and snowmelt/sublimation rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some attributes of snow occurrence and snowmelt/sublimation rates in the Lesotho ... and trimmed MODIS SNOMAP image using the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst tool. ... and hydrology, earth surface processes, and rural livelihoods in the Lesotho ...

  3. General characterization of the uranium occurrence in the formation Esperanza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera, J.; Sanchez, J.; Alcalde, J.; Pena, B.; Geler, T.

    1995-01-01

    The main geological, geophysical (Radiometric survey, gamma spectrometric survey, measurement of Rn 222), geochemical and mineralogical characteristics in uranium occurrences, located in the Esperanza formation in Pinar del Rio, Cuba are showed

  4. Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals and coral mucus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Balasubramanian

    Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals, fresh coral mucus and floating and attached mucus detritus from the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea was studied. Corallochytrium limacisporum Raghukumar, Thraustochytrium motivum Goldstein...

  5. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

  6. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October-December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 to December 31, 1987. The report states that for this reporting period, these was one abnormal occurrence at the NRC licensees; the item involved the suspension of license of an oil and gas well tracer company for noncompliance with NRC regulatory requirements. There were no abnormal occurrences report by the Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  7. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Section 108 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period July through September 1991. The report discusses two abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities, neither involving a nuclear power plant. One involved radiation exposures to members of the public from a lost radioactive source and the other involved a medical diagnostic midadministration. The Agreement States reported no abnormal occurrences. The report also contains information that updates some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  8. Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in body composition and occurrence of postural deviations in boys from two ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... procedures of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK).

  9. Nitrification in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems - Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses available information on nitrification occurrence in drinking water chloraminated distribution systems. Chapter 4 provides an introduction to causes and controls for nitrification in chloraminated drinking water systems. Both chapters are intended to serve ...

  10. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1983. The report states that for this report period, there were three abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed by the NRC to operate. The first involved a main feedwater line break due to water hammer. The second involved management and procedural control deficiencies. The third involved failure of the automatic reactor trip system. There were no abnormal occurrences for the other NRC licensees. There were six abnormal occurrences at Agreement State licensees. One involved an individual who ingested and was contaminated by radioactive material. Four involved lost or stolen radioactive sources. One involved radioactive contamination of a metals production facility

  11. the occurrence of post partum anoestrus in bonsmara cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duration of post partum anoestrus than gain in body mass. Post pactum ... and Bos Taurus cattle to improve fertility and milk pro- duction in high .... The occurrence of post partum anoestrus in beef cows under ranching conditions. Proc.

  12. Occurrence and recalcitrance of polyethylene bag waste in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Occurrence and ... by this product as microbial degradation proved ineffective. ... chemically synthesized organic compounds, most of ... have strong ability to resist toxic substances, including.

  13. Instruction system upon occurrence of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Masakatsu; Morikawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Fukushi, Naomi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid re-starting of a nuclear reactor after earthquakes by informing various properties of encountered earthquake to operators and properly displaying the state of damages in comparison with designed standard values of facilities. Constitution: Even in a case where the maximum accelerations due to the movements of earthquakes encountered exceed designed standard values, it may be considered such a case that equipments still remain intact depending on the wave components of the seismic movements and the vibration properties inherent to the equipments. Taking notice of the fact, the instruction device comprises a system that indicates the relationship between the seismic waveforms of earthquakes being encountered and the scram setting values, a system for indicating the comparison between the floor response spectrum of the seismic waveforms of the encountered earthquakes and the designed floor response spectrum used for the design of the equipments and a system for indicating those equipments requiring inspection after the earthquakes. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the operationability upon scram of a nuclear power plant undergoing earthquakes and improve the power saving and safety by clearly defining the inspection portion after the earthquakes. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Germana P.; Souza, Neyliane C. de; Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Santos, André B. dos

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L −1 , respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L −1 , respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens

  15. Predicted occurrence rate of severe transportation accidents involving large casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the results of an investigation of the severities of highway and railroad accidents as they relate to the shipment of large radioactive materials casks is discussed. The accident environments considered are fire, impact, crash, immersion, and puncture. For each of these environments, the accident severities and their predicted frequencies of occurrence are presented. These accident environments are presented in tabular and graphic form to allow the reader to evaluate the probabilities of occurrence of the accident parameter severities he selects

  16. Problems involved in calculating the probability of rare occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittes, E.

    1986-01-01

    Also with regard to the characteristics such as occurrence probability or occurrence rate, there are limits which have to be observed, or else probability data and thus the concept of determinable risk itself will lose its practical value. The mathematical models applied for probability assessment are based on data supplied by the insurance companies, reliability experts in the automobile industry, or by planning experts in the field of traffic or information supply. (DG) [de

  17. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Germana P. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Souza, Neyliane C. de [Department Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, State University of Paraíba, Rua Juvêncio Arruda, S/N, Campus Universitário, Bodocongó, CEP: 58109-790, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Nascimento, Ronaldo F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 940, CEP: 60451-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Santos, André B. dos, E-mail: andre23@ufc.br [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L{sup −1}, respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L{sup −1}, respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens.

  18. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. The report, the twelfth in the series, covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1978. The following incidents or events in that time period were determined by the Commission to be significant and reportable: (1) There was one abnormal occurrence at the 68 nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The event involved insulation failures in containment electrical penetrations. (2) There were no abnormal occurrences at fuel cycle facilities (other than nuclear power plants). (3) There were no abnormal occurrences at other license facilities. (4) There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State Licensee. The event involved an overexposure of a radiographer. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  19. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1989. For this reporting period, there were five abnormal occurrences. One abnormal occurrence took place at a licensed nuclear power plant and involved significant deficiencies associated with the containment recirculation sump at the Trojan facility. The other four abnormal occurrences took place under other NRC-issued licenses: the first involved a medical diagnostic misadministration; the second involved a medical therapy misadministration; the third involved a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; and the fourth involved a significant breakdown and careless disregard of the radiation safety program at three of a licensee's manufacturing facilities. The Agreement States reported no abnormal occurrences during the reporting period. The report also contains information that updates some previously reported abnormal occurrences. 17 refs

  20. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report, the thirteenth in the series, covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1978. The following incidents or events in that period were determined by the Commission to be significant and reportable: (1) There were two abnormal occurrences at the 69 nuclear power plants licensed to operate. One involved a generic concern pertaining to fuel assembly control rod guide tube integrity. The second involved an overexposure of two radiation protection technicians. (2) There were no abnormal occurrences at fuel cycle facilities (other than nuclear power plants). (3) There were no abnormal occurrences at other licensee facilities. (4) There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an agreement state. The event involved willful violations of regulations and subsequent termination of a license. This report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  1. Electric jets following the occurrence of sprites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.; Chou, J.; Huang, S.; Chang, S.; Wu, Y.; Lee, Y.; Kuo, C.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L.

    2010-12-01

    Sprites are discharges occurring at the altitudes ~40 to 90 km, which are usually associated with positive cloud-to-ground lightning (+CGs). Electric jets, which include blue jets (BJs) with the terminal altitude of ~40km and gigantic jets (GJs) emanating to the lower ionosphere, are upward discharges from the cloud tops toward the upper atmosphere. From previous ground observations, it has been reported that the secondary discharges (“palm-tree” [Heavner, 2000] or “sprite-initiated secondary TLEs” [Marshall and Inan, 2007]) following sprites occurred in altitudes between the cloud top and the bottom of the sprite. From July 2004 to June 2010, ISUAL has recorded dozens of events which resemble the secondary TLEs. From image and photometric data recorded by ISUAL, all these secondary TLEs have the characteristics of jets, so we call these events “secondary jets”. These secondary jets are categorized into two groups according to their emanating horizontal positions in relative to the sprites. Group-I secondary jets occurred in the cloud top region which is directly below the sprites. The terminal altitude is ~ 40-50km for most of group-I secondary jets. Several group-I secondary jets appear to originate from the cloud top region below the symmetric center of the clustering sprites and then propagate toward the lower ionosphere. While the group-II secondary jets originate from region outside the shielding area of the clustering sprites. In this paper, the image and the photometric characteristics of the secondary jets will be presented and the possible generating mechanisms will be discussed.

  2. On the occurrence of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennet, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae) in coastal Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    R. Janardhanan; S. Mukherjee; P.V. Karunakaran; R. Athreya

    2014-01-01

    The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List and yet its distribution range within India is not resolved. In spite of its potential habitat being present in coastal Kerala, there are only a few, unsubstantiated records of the cat. Moreover, its occurrence in Sri Lanka strengthens the possibility of its presence (historical or current population) in southern India, including Kerala. This survey was conducted to assess the occurrence of the Fishing Ca...

  3. Accuracy of determining the elements for occurrence of beds and curvature of well according to measurement data by the apparatus of a bed tiltmeter NID-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonosov, R.I.; Karabel' nikova, G.N.; Khatuntsev, V.G.; Salov, Ye.A.

    1979-01-01

    Questions are examined of the accuracy of determining elements for occurrence of beds and curvature of wells using data of measurement by apparatus of a bed tiltmeter NID-1. Calculated formulas and graphs are presented for different conditions of occurrence of a bed, angle of inclination of the well and its diameter. The presented data make it possible to have a differentiated approach to evaluating the results of incline measurement.

  4. On the occurrence of Common Baron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae: Euthalia aconthea Cramer, 1777 in the Delhi area and analysis of abiotic factors affecting its distribution in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajv K. Singh Bais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives details of the occurrence of Euthalia aconthea from Delhi area situated in the Indo-Gangetic plains.  Occurrence records of this species suggest that it is most frequent in five zones of India, despite the fact that its main larval food plant Mango Mangifera indica is abundantly available almost throughout India.  Possible abiotic factors are hypothesized for this distribution. 

  5. Occurrence of Bifidobacteriaceae in human hypochlorhydria stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mattarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human stomach, when healthy, is not a suitable host for microorganisms, but in pathological conditions such as gastritis, when gastric acid secretion is impaired, microbial overgrowth can be observed. Apart from Helicobacter pylori, the composition of microbiota, resident or exogenously introduced during neutral/high pH conditions, has not been investigated thoroughly. Thus, it is possible that Bifidobacteriaceae, important autochthonous and beneficial bacteria of human gastrointestinal microbiota, could over-colonize the stomach of hypochlorhydria patients suffering from autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG or omeprazole-treated (OME gastritis. This prompted us to characterize the Bifidobacteriaceae in such patients’ gastric microbiota and to study its abnormal colonization. Methods: Samples of gastric juices, and antrum and corpus mucosa from 23 hypochlorhydria patients (13 AAG and 10 OME and from 10 control volunteers with base-line normochlorhydria, were cultivated in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI and selective Bifidobacterium-Tryptone-Phytone-Yeast extract (Bif-TPY media. The isolates were characterized by the fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK test, electrophoresis of cellular proteins, the fermentation test, guanine-cytosine% DNA content, and DNA–DNA hybridization. Negative F6PPK isolates were characterized by order-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: A total of 125 isolates, assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their morphology, were obtained from AAG and OME patients, but not from normal subjects. Of these isolates, 55 were assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their fructose-6-phosphoketolase (PPK activity, PPK being the key taxonomic enzyme of this family. The remaining 70 isolates, which were PPK-negative, were attributed to the Actinomycetales order following specific primer PCR analysis. We observed a significantly higher abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae

  6. Co-occurrence perspective of arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of Diphu, Assam, Northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Das, Aparna; Das, Nilotpal; Goswami, Ritusmita; Singh, Umesh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Considerable lacunae exists in As and F(-) co-contamination investigation in the Brahmaputra and Gangetic floodplains. Therefore we selected Diphu a township in the Karbi Plateau rising from the Brahmaputra floodplains for evaluation of As and F co-occurrence, correlation with coexisting ions of the aquifer system and elucidation of potential processes for releasing As and F(-) in the groundwater. Our initial appraisal used generic plots for identification of hydro geochemical processes and major water types. Subsequently, As and F(-) co-occurrence with pH, depth, HCO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+) and Fe were probed for possible correlation followed by hierarchical cluster analyses to identify key processes for co-occurrence. Finally, saturation indices of groundwater minerals were calculated using MINTEQA2 to elucidate prospective As and F(-) release into groundwater. Results indicate F(-) and As presence in Ca-HCO3 rich water along with positive correlation between Ca(2+) and F(-) possibly due to limestone reserves in adjoining areas. Multivariate analyses suggest the presence of high concentrations of PO4(3-), and H4SiO4 either individually or in combination can enhance the mobility of both As and F(-) and possibly abet conditions conducive for co-contamination of aquifers. Initial release of As and F(-) from the parent rock seems driven by the anthropogenic activities while mobilization depends on chemical interactions and individual affinities of the elements. The results of speciation highlight further mobilization of As and F(-) into the groundwater which in turn require regular attention for sustainable management of scarce water resource present in the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Current puzzles and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1982-02-01

    Four current puzzles and several future experimental possibilities in high-energy nuclear collision research are discussed. These puzzles are (1) entropy, (2) hydrodynamic flow, (3) anomalon, and (4) particle emission at backward angles in proton-nucleus collisions. The last one seems not to be directly related to the subject of the present school. But it is, because particle emission into the region far beyond the nucleon-nucleon kinematical limit is an interesting subject common for both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, and the basic mechanism involved is strongly related in these two cases. Future experimental possibilities are described which include: (1) possibilities of studying multibaryonic excited states, (2) applications of neutron-rich isotopes, and (3) other needed experimental tasks. 72 references

  8. Triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hügle, Th.; Mocko, M.; Hartl, M.A.; Daemen, L.L.; Muhrer, G.

    2014-01-01

    New challenges in neutron scattering result in an increased demand in novel moderator concepts. The most direct way to address the problem would be to change the moderator material itself. However the range of available neutron moderator materials is small. In this paper, we discuss triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material especially promising for cold neutron moderator applications. Our investigations include a parallel experimental and theoretical approach ranging from cross-section measurements and inelastic neutron spectroscopy to molecular modeling. -- Highlights: • Triphenylmethane as a potential moderator material is discussed. • Parallel theoretical and experimental approach. • Possibly very useful for cold neutrons

  9. Neutrino geophysics - a future possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Dezsoe

    1988-01-01

    The history and basic properties of the neutrinos are reviewed. A new idea: neutrino tomography of the Earth interior is discussed in detail. The main contradiction: the high pervasivity of neutrinos, which makes possible the transillumination of the Earth, and the gigantic technical problems of detection caused by the small cross section is pointed out. The proposed possibilities of detection (radiowaves, sound, muons and Cherenkov light emitted by neutrinos) are described. Proposed futuristic technical ideas (mobile muon detectors aboard trucks, floating proton accelerators of 100 km circumference, moving in the ocean) and supposed geological aims (Earth's core, internal density anomalies, quarries of minerals and crude oil) are discussed. (D.Gy.) 5 figs

  10. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Xavier E

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15)

  11. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Cenzi, Camila Maria; dos Santos, Heloisa Ehmke Cardoso; Trovó, Marli Elisa Mendes

    2013-01-01

    to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. a retrospective, analytical study, carried out in two stages in a hospital that was part of the Network for the Prevention of Work Accidents. The first stage involved the analysis of the characteristics of the work accidents involving exposure to biological materials as recorded over a seven-year period by the nursing staff in the hospital studied, and registered in the Network databank. The second stage involved the analysis of 122 nursing staff members' perception of the institutional culture, who were allocated to the control group (workers who had not had an accident) and the case group (workers who had had an accident). 386 accidents had been recorded: percutaneous lesions occurred in 79% of the cases, needles were the materials involved in 69.7% of the accidents, and in 81.9% of the accident there was contact with blood. Regarding the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of accidents, the results obtained through the analysis of the two groups did not demonstrate significant differences between the average scores attributed by the workers in each organizational value or practice category. It is concluded that accidents involving exposure to biological material need to be avoided, however, it was not possible to confirm the influence of organizational values or practices on workers' behavior concerning the occurrence of these accidents.

  12. Effect of needle tract bleeding on occurrence of pneumothorax after transthoracic needle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topal, U.; Berkman, Yahya M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Occasionally bleeding along the needle trajectory is observed at post-biopsy computed tomographic sections. This study was designed to evaluate the possible effect of needle tract bleeding on the occurrence of pneumothorax and on requirement of chest tube insertion. Materials and methods: Two hundred eighty-four needle biopsies performed in 275 patients in whom the needle traversed the aerated lung parenchyma were retrospectively reviewed. Bleeding along the needle tract, occurrence of pneumothorax and need for chest tube insertion, type and size of the needle, size of the lesion, length of the lung traversed by the needle, presence or absence of emphysema were noted. Effect of these factors on the rate of pneumothorax and needle-tract bleeding was evaluated. The data were analyzed by χ 2 test. Results: Pneumothorax developed in 100 (35%) out of 284 procedures requiring chest tube placement in 16 (16%). Variables that were significantly associated with an increased risk of pneumothorax were depth of the lesion (P 0.05). However, analysis of the relation between length of lung traversed by the needle, tract-bleeding and pneumothorax rate indicated that tract-bleeding had a preventive effect on development of pneumothorax (P 0.05). Conclusion: Bleeding in the needle tract has a preventive effect on the occurrence of the pneumothorax in deep-seated lesions and in the presence of emphysema, although it does not affect the overall rate of pneumothorax

  13. Mechanism of occurrence of self-exciting sloshing in rectangular vessel by plane jet flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, Masashi; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki

    1996-01-01

    FBRs have free liquid surfaces in reactor vessels and others, and it is expected that the flow velocity of liquid sodium coolant heightens accompanying the reduction of the reactor size. In the field where free liquid surface and high velocity flow exist, there is the possibility that various unstable phenomena occur on the liquid surface by the interference of the free liquid surface and flow. One example is the self-exciting sloshing by flow. In order to elucidate the mechanism of occurrence of the phenomena in a simple system, the experimental and analytical examinations were carried out on the self-exciting sloshing of free liquid surface in a rectangular vessel by plane jet flow. The basic oscillation characteristics of self-exciting sloshing were examined, and the physical quantities that control the occurrence of self-exciting sloshing were investigated by examining the effect in the case of changing the shapes of vessels. The experiments on the self-exciting sloshing in the case of vertical, horizontal and oblique plane jet flows are reported. The model for the occurrence of oscillation, in which the interaction of sloshing and jet variation was simplified, is proposed, and the verification of the model is reported. (K.I.)

  14. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of caridean shrimp larvae at Helgoland, German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    1989-03-01

    Plankton samples were collected from January 1985 to January 1986 three times per week at Helgoland to study seasonal occurrence and abundance of caridean shrimp larvae. A total of eleven species were obtained. Ninety-one % of all larvae collected during the sample period belonged to Crangon crangon L. and Crangon allmanni Kinahan, 6% to Philocheras trispinosus Hailstone and 3% to the remaining eight species. Collections were generally dominated by C. crangon larvae. However, C. allmanni larvae were most abundant in June coinciding with hatching activities of the population near Helgoland. C. allmanni was observed to have the highest density of all species with approximately 8 larvae per m3. Larvae of Eualus occultus (Lebour), Eualus pusiolus (Kroyer), Hippolyte varians Leach and Athanas nitescens Leach were most likely released by populations inhabiting the rocky intertidal zone around Helgoland. The presence of Processa modica Williamson & Rochanaburanon and Processa nouveli holthuisi Al-Adhub & Williamson in the German Bight was verified by observations of a series of different developmental stages. Larvae of the rare species Caridion steveni Lebour were also recorded. The observed shrimp species were placed into three different groups with respect to their seasonal occurrence. Possible advantages of the timing of larval dispersal relative to predation and food availability are given. The results on seasonal occurrence and relative abundance are discussed in relation to environmental factors (temperature, salinity) as well as to the geographical distribution of the species.

  15. Modeling Geometric-Temporal Context With Directional Pyramid Co-Occurrence for Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chunfeng; Li, Xi; Hu, Weiming; Ling, Haibin; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new geometric-temporal representation for visual action recognition based on local spatio-temporal features. First, we propose a modified covariance descriptor under the log-Euclidean Riemannian metric to represent the spatio-temporal cuboids detected in the video sequences. Compared with previously proposed covariance descriptors, our descriptor can be measured and clustered in Euclidian space. Second, to capture the geometric-temporal contextual information, we construct a directional pyramid co-occurrence matrix (DPCM) to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of the vector-quantized local feature descriptors extracted from a video. DPCM characterizes the co-occurrence statistics of local features as well as the spatio-temporal positional relationships among the concurrent features. These statistics provide strong descriptive power for action recognition. To use DPCM for action recognition, we propose a directional pyramid co-occurrence matching kernel to measure the similarity of videos. The proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance and improves on the recognition performance of the bag-of-visual-words (BOVWs) models by a large margin on six public data sets. For example, on the KTH data set, it achieves 98.78% accuracy while the BOVW approach only achieves 88.06%. On both Weizmann and UCF CIL data sets, the highest possible accuracy of 100% is achieved.

  16. Packaging- and transportation-related occurrence reports: 1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.; Dickerson, L.S.; Jennings, S.D.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) is an interactive computer system designed to support DOE-owned or -operated facilities in reporting and processing of information concerning occurrences related to facility operations. The requirements for reporting and the extent of the occurrences to be reported are defined in DOE Order 5000.3B, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (hereafter referred to as DOE 5000.3B). The centralized data base, which is managed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), provides computerized support for the collection, distribution, updating, analysis, and sign-off of information in the occurrence reports (ORs). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Packaging and Transportation Safety (PATS) Program has been made responsible for retrieving reports and information pertaining to transportation and packaging incidents/accidents from the centralized ORPS data base. This annual report details the methodology that PATS uses to conduct searches of the ORPS for pertinent information, the form of the reporting to EH-332, review and examination of trends observed in ORs related to transportation and packaging safety, a presentation and discussion of the root-cause codes of ORPS and the nature of occurrence codes of PATS, timely processing of notification reports to final stage, and analysis of 10% of the reported ORs that were finalized to determine whether the actions taken to close out the occurrences were sufficient to ensure remediation of the incident and to prevent a recurrence. Data in the report are presented by calendar years

  17. Does probability of occurrence relate to population dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Schiffers, Katja H; Georges, Damien; Dullinger, Stefan; Eckhart, Vincent M; Edwards, Thomas C; Gravel, Dominique; Kunstler, Georges; Merow, Cory; Moore, Kara; Piedallu, Christian; Vissault, Steve; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Zurell, Damaris; Schurr, Frank M

    2014-12-01

    Hutchinson defined species' realized niche as the set of environmental conditions in which populations can persist in the presence of competitors. In terms of demography, the realized niche corresponds to the environments where the intrinsic growth rate ( r ) of populations is positive. Observed species occurrences should reflect the realized niche when additional processes like dispersal and local extinction lags do not have overwhelming effects. Despite the foundational nature of these ideas, quantitative assessments of the relationship between range-wide demographic performance and occurrence probability have not been made. This assessment is needed both to improve our conceptual understanding of species' niches and ranges and to develop reliable mechanistic models of species geographic distributions that incorporate demography and species interactions. The objective of this study is to analyse how demographic parameters (intrinsic growth rate r and carrying capacity K ) and population density ( N ) relate to occurrence probability ( P occ ). We hypothesized that these relationships vary with species' competitive ability. Demographic parameters, density, and occurrence probability were estimated for 108 tree species from four temperate forest inventory surveys (Québec, Western US, France and Switzerland). We used published information of shade tolerance as indicators of light competition strategy, assuming that high tolerance denotes high competitive capacity in stable forest environments. Interestingly, relationships between demographic parameters and occurrence probability did not vary substantially across degrees of shade tolerance and regions. Although they were influenced by the uncertainty in the estimation of the demographic parameters, we found that r was generally negatively correlated with P occ , while N, and for most regions K, was generally positively correlated with P occ . Thus, in temperate forest trees the regions of highest occurrence

  18. Does probability of occurrence relate to population dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Schiffers, Katja H.; Georges, Damien; Dullinger, Stefan; Eckhart, Vincent M.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Gravel, Dominique; Kunstler, Georges; Merow, Cory; Moore, Kara; Piedallu, Christian; Vissault, Steve; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Zurell, Damaris; Schurr, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson defined species' realized niche as the set of environmental conditions in which populations can persist in the presence of competitors. In terms of demography, the realized niche corresponds to the environments where the intrinsic growth rate (r) of populations is positive. Observed species occurrences should reflect the realized niche when additional processes like dispersal and local extinction lags do not have overwhelming effects. Despite the foundational nature of these ideas, quantitative assessments of the relationship between range-wide demographic performance and occurrence probability have not been made. This assessment is needed both to improve our conceptual understanding of species' niches and ranges and to develop reliable mechanistic models of species geographic distributions that incorporate demography and species interactions.The objective of this study is to analyse how demographic parameters (intrinsic growth rate r and carrying capacity K ) and population density (N ) relate to occurrence probability (Pocc ). We hypothesized that these relationships vary with species' competitive ability. Demographic parameters, density, and occurrence probability were estimated for 108 tree species from four temperate forest inventory surveys (Québec, western USA, France and Switzerland). We used published information of shade tolerance as indicators of light competition strategy, assuming that high tolerance denotes high competitive capacity in stable forest environments.Interestingly, relationships between demographic parameters and occurrence probability did not vary substantially across degrees of shade tolerance and regions. Although they were influenced by the uncertainty in the estimation of the demographic parameters, we found that r was generally negatively correlated with Pocc, while N, and for most regions K, was generally positively correlated with Pocc. Thus, in temperate forest trees the regions of highest occurrence

  19. Primary Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's Disease) Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Rare Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godswill, Okwuonu Chimezie; Odigie, Ojeh-Oziegbe

    2014-10-01

    Coexistence of Addison's disease and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare occurrence with only few reported cases in the literature. We describe a 29-year-old woman who presented to us with clinical features of acute Addisonian crisis and SLE. Laboratory investigations were confirmatory of Addison's disease in a background of SLE. The patient made remarkable improvement on administration of steroids as replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and treatment of SLE. Clinicians need to have a high-index of suspicion of this possible coexistence in order to avoid the associated deleterious hemodynamic and metabolic consequences.

  20. Scanning an individual monitoring database for multiple occurrences using bi-gram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, J. W. E.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of the databases is one of the important aspects of quality assurance at individual monitoring services and national dose registers. This paper presents a method for finding and preventing the occurrence of duplicate entries in the databases that can occur, e.g. because of a variable spelling or misspelling of the name. The method is based on bi-gram text analysis techniques. The methods can also be used for retrieving dose data in historical databases in the framework of dose reconstruction efforts of persons of whom the spelling of the name as originally entered, possibly decades ago, is uncertain. (authors)

  1. Co-occurrence of Marfan syndrome and bipolar disorder: A fifteen year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vijendra Nath; Kumar, Manoj; Tarwani, Jatin

    2016-12-01

    Marfan syndrome, a chromosomal disorder, has been commonly associated with schizophrenia but no association with Bipolar affective disorder has been reported in the scientific literature. This case depicts the occurrence of Bipolar affective disorder in a previously undiagnosed case of Marfan syndrome. In this case patient had all manic episodes without any depressive or schizophrenia-like episodes, suggesting a diagnostic stability over a long period of over fifteen years. Studies and research are needed in this regard to look for any possible potential association between the two illnesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of two different intragenic deletions in two male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Miorin, M.; Vitiello, L.; Rampazzo, A.; Fanin, M.; Angelini, C.; Danieli, G.A. [Univ. of Padua (Italy)

    1994-03-01

    The occurrence of 2 different intragenic deletions (exons 10-44 and exon 45, respectively) is reported in 2 male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, both showing the same haplotype for DNA markers not included in the deleted segment. The 2 different deletions seem to have occurred independently in the same X chromosome. This finding, together with other reports, suggests possibly an increased predisposition to mutations within the DMD locus in some families. Therefore, when dealing with prenatal diagnosis, the investigation on fetal DNA cannot be restricted only to the region in which a mutation was previously identified in the family. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Statistical inference of the nuclear accidents occurrence number for the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felizia, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper aims to give a response using the classical statistical and bayesian inference techniques regarding the common characteristic in the Harrisburg and Chernobyl nuclear accidents: in both reactors, core fusion occurred. In relation to the last mentioned techniques, the most recent developments were applied, based on the decision theory of uncertainty; among others, the principle of maximum entropy. Besides, as a preliminar information on the accidents occurrence frequency with core fusion, the German risk analysis results were used. The estimations predicted for the next decade an average between one or two accidents with core fusion and low possibilities for the 'no accident' event in the same period. (Author)

  4. Probabilistic generation of random networks taking into account information on motifs occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic Y; Gayraud, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    Because of the huge number of graphs possible even with a small number of nodes, inference on network structure is known to be a challenging problem. Generating large random directed graphs with prescribed probabilities of occurrences of some meaningful patterns (motifs) is also difficult. We show how to generate such random graphs according to a formal probabilistic representation, using fast Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to sample them. As an illustration, we generate realistic graphs with several hundred nodes mimicking a gene transcription interaction network in Escherichia coli.

  5. Performance Analysis of Occurrences January 1, 2011-December 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, M

    2012-03-16

    This report documents the analysis of the occurrences during the period January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011. The report compares LLNL occurrences by reporting criteria and significance category to see if LLNL is reporting occurrences along similar percentages as other DOE sites. The three-year trends are analyzed. It does not include the analysis of the causes or the lessons learned from the occurrences, as they are analyzed separately. The number and types of occurrences that LLNL reports to DOE varies over time. This variation can be attributed to normally occurring changes in frequency; DOE's or LLNL's heightened interest in a particular subject area; changes in LLNL processes; or emerging problems. Since all of the DOE sites use the same reporting criteria, it is helpful to understand if LLNL is consistent with or diverging from reporting at other sites. This section compares the normalized number of occurrences reported by LLNL and other DOE sites. In order to compare LLNL occurrence reports to occurrence reports from other DOE sites, we normalized (or standardized) the data from the sites. DOE sites vary widely in their budgets, populations, and scope of work and these variations may affect reporting frequency. In addition, reports are required for a wide range of occurrence types, some of which may not be applicable to all DOE sites. For example, one occurrence reporting group is Group 3, Nuclear Safety Basis, and not all sites have nuclear operations. Because limited information is available for all sites, the sites were normalized based on best available information. Site effort hours were extracted from the DOE Computerized Accident Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) and used to normalize (or standardize) the number of occurrences by site. Effort hours are those hours that employees normally work and do not include vacation, holiday hours etc. Sites are responsible for calculating their effort hours and ensuring entry into CAIRS. Out of the

  6. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session,. 'Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity', and cognisant of the primary audience,. I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address ...

  7. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the ... The conundrum of fee-free higher education is not an abstract concept floating ... You can choose to engage with the issue by expressing yourself in many ways. .... Africa today, such as Recognition of Prior Learning (SAQA, 2004), we very ...

  8. Machiavelli’s Possibility Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Holler, Manfred J.; Marciano, Alain

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the thesis that in Arrow’s Possibility Theorem the dictator (merely) serves as a solution to the logical problem of aggregating preference while Machiavelli’s dictator, the Prince, has the historical function to bring order into a world of chaos and thus make society ready for the implementation of a republican structure.

  9. Possible nonvanishing mass of photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi; Namiki, Mikio; Yamanaka, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Kan-ichi.

    1985-05-01

    From phenomenological and field-theoretical considerations on photon mass, we first show that photon is not limitted to being massless at the present stage. Next we illustrate a possibility of formulating a local field theory for massive photons coupled with nonconserved currents, while we cannot do for massless photons. (author)

  10. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Willy

    2016-01-01

    In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session, "Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity", and cognisant of the primary audience, I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address have however…

  11. On probability-possibility transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klir, George J.; Parviz, Behzad

    1992-01-01

    Several probability-possibility transformations are compared in terms of the closeness of preserving second-order properties. The comparison is based on experimental results obtained by computer simulation. Two second-order properties are involved in this study: noninteraction of two distributions and projections of a joint distribution.

  12. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report, the seventh in the series, covers the period from October 1 to December 31, 1976. The NRC has determined that during this period: (1) There were two abnormal occurrences at the 63 nuclear power plants licensed to operate. One event involved improper control rod withdrawals resulting in an unplanned reactor criticality. The second is a generic event pertaining to feedwater nozzle cracking in Boiling Water Reactors. The incidents had no actual impact on public health or safety. (2) There were five abnormal occurrences at other licensee facilities. The occurrences involved overexposures to radiography personnel; one event also involved high radiation levels in unrestricted areas. This report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences. This report does not contain information on activities in those states which have entered into agreements with the NRC for the assumption of certain regulatory authority pursuant to Section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act, as amended. Future reports will include Agreement State licensee activities as soon as procedures can be implemented

  13. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety, and a quarterly report on such events is to be made to Congress. The second such report to Congress on abnormal occurrences is presented. The first report identified abnormal occurrences at licensed nuclear power plants during the first six months of 1975. The current report includes the results of a review of events at nuclear power plants for the third quarter of 1975 and the results of a review for overexposure to radiation at all licensed facilities for a nine-month period. The NRC has determined that there were no abnormal occurrences at licensed nuclear power plants during the period and there were no abnormal occurrences involving overexposure to radiation at NRC-licensed facilities from January 1 to September 30, 1975. Therefore, the current report comprises an updating of information concerning events reported to the Congress in the first report dated October 1975. Status is reported as of November 25, 1975

  14. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1988. For this reporting period, there were three abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate: a potential for common mode failure of safety-related components due to a degraded instrument air system at Fort Calhoun; common mode failures of main steam isolation valves at Perry Unit 1; and a cracked pipe weld in a safety injection system at Farley Unit 2. There were six abnormal occurrences at other NRC licensees: a diagnostic medical misadministration; a breakdown in management controls at the Georgia Institute of Technology reactor facility; release of polonium-210 from static elimination devices manufactured by the 3M Company; two therapeutic medical misadministrationS; and a significant widespread breakdown in the radiation safety program at Case Western Reserve University research laboratories. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving radiation injury to two radiographers. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences. 43 refs

  15. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April-June 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1986. The report states that for this reporting period, there were two abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. One involved an out of sequence control rod withdrawal and the other involved a boiling water reactor emergency core cooling system design deficiency. There were five abnormal occurrences at the other NRC licensees. Two involved willful failure to report diagnostic medical misadministrations to the NRC; one involved a therapeutic medical misadministration; and two involved diagnostic medical misadministrations. There were two abnormal occurrences reported by the Agreement States. One involved an uncontrolled release of krypton-85 to an unrestricted area; the other involved a contaminated radiopharmaceutical used in diagnostic administrations. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  16. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1987. The report states that for this reporting period, there were two abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The first involved a significant degradation of plant safety at Oyster Creek; and the second involved a steam generator tube rupture at North Anna Unit 1. There were four abnormal occurrences at the other NRC licensees. The first involved a therapeutic medical misadministration; the second involved a failure to report diagnostic medical misadministrations; the third involved the suspension of a well logging company's license; and the fourth involved the suspension of an industrial radiography company's license. There were two abnormal occurrences reported by an Agreement State (New York). The first involved a hospital contamination incident and the second involved therapeutic medical misadministrations. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  17. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1990. for this reporting period, there were 10 abnormal occurrences. One involved the loss of vital ac power with a subsequent reactor coolant system heat-up at the Vogtle Unit 1 nuclear power plant during shutdown. The event was investigated by an NRC Incident Investigation Team (IIT). The other nine abnormal occurrences involved nuclear material licensees and are described in detail under other NRC-issued licenses: eight of these involved medical therapy misadministrations; the other involved the receipt of an unshielded radioactive source at Amersham Corporation in Burlington, Massachusetts. The latter event was also investigated by an NRC IIT. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence

  18. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July-September 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1986. The report states that for this reporting period, there were four abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The events were (1) a differential pressure switch problem in safety systems at LaSalle facility, (2) abnormal cooldown and depressurization transient at Catawba Unit 2, (3) significant safeguards deficiencies at Wolf Creek and Fort St. Vrain, and (4) significant deficiencies in access controls at River Bend Station. There was one abnormal occurrence at the other NRC licensees; it involved a therapeutic medical misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State; it involved a therapeutic medical misadministration. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  19. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 to December 31, 1986. The report states that for this reporting period, there were three abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The events were (1) loss of low pressure service water systems at Oconee, (2) degraded safety systems due to incorrect torque switch settings on Rotors motor operators at Catawba and McGuire Nuclear Stations, and (3) a secondary system pipe break resulting in the death of four persons at Surry Unit 2. There were six abnormal occurrences at the other NRC licensees. One involved release of americium-241 inside a waste storage building at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; three involved medical misadministrations, one therapeutic and two diagnostic; one involved a suspension of license for servicing teletherapy and radiography units; and one involved an immediately effective order modifying license and order to show cause issued to an industrial radiography company. There were no abnormal occurrences reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  20. Precipitation increases the occurrence of sporadic legionnaires' disease in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Tzu Chen

    Full Text Available Legionnaires' disease (LD is an acute form of pneumonia, and changing weather is considered a plausible risk factor. Yet, the relationship between weather and LD has rarely been investigated, especially using long-term daily data. In this study, daily data was used to evaluate the impacts of precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity on LD occurrence in Taiwan from 1995-2011. A time-stratified 2:1 matched-period case-crossover design was used to compare each case with self-controlled data using a conditional logistic regression analysis, and odds ratios (ORs for LD occurrence was estimated. The city, gender and age were defined as a stratum for each matched set to modify the effects. For lag day- 0 to 15, the precipitation at lag day-11 significantly affected LD occurrence (p0.05. In conclusion, in warm, humid regions, an increase of daily precipitation is likely to be a critical weather factor triggering LD occurrence where the risk is found particularly significant at an 11-day lag. Additionally, precipitation at 21-40 and 61-80 mm might make LD occurrence more likely.

  1. Possible increased risk of rhabdomyolysis during concomitant use of simvastatin and gemfibrozil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanPuijenbroek, EP; DuBufVereijken, PWG; Spooren, PFMJ; VanDoormaal, JJ

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of rhabdomyolysis is one of the rare side-effects of the cholesterol-lowering agent simvastatin. During the use of lovastatin, an agent related to simvastatin, the risk of this side-effect might be increased when cyclosporin or gemfibrozil are used concomitantly. It is possible that

  2. [Occurrence of associated tumours in chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Varju, Lóránt

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is one of the most common hematologic malignancy. The aim of the authors was to investigate the characteristics of malignancies associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients diagnozed between 2000 and 2015. Data of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had other associated tumours were analysed using the Leukemia/Lymphoma Registry of the Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Hungary and patient records. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015, 526 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were diagnosed. 95 patients of the 526 patients (18.06%) were diagnosed as having associated other tumours. In 48/95 patients (50.5%) the first diagnosed tumour was chronic lymphocytic leukemia, in 23/95 patients (24.2%) the first recognized malignancy was the associated tumour, whereas in 24/95 patients (25.3%) synchron tumours were diagnosed. The number of patients with more than one associated tumour was 10/95 (10.5%). The total number of tumours was 107. The incidence of chronic lymphoid leukemia increased in the period between 2000 and 2015 as compared to the period between 1983 and 1999 (3.19 vs 5.65/100 000 person/year). The occurrence of associated malignancies increased as well (8.06% vs 18.06%). In addition to the most common tumours (colorectal, breast, lung, prostate), skin squamous cell carcinoma (17/95 patients; 17.9%) and melanoma (6/95 patients; 6.3%) also frequently occurred. The second malignancies were most frequently discovered after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and synchron tumours accounting for 78.5% (84/107) of all associated tumours. The incidence of second malignancies decreased 10 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The possible reasons for the high frequency of other tumours associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are elderly age of patients, immunsuppressed state and, presumably, chemotherapy of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. During the follow up

  3. Development of Genetic Occurrence Models for Geothermal Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Sabin, A.; Unruh, J.; Monastero, F. C.; Combs, J.

    2007-12-01

    Exploration for utility-grade geothermal resources has mostly relied on identifying obvious surface manifestations of possible geothermal activity, e.g., locating and working near steaming ground or hot springs. This approach has lead to the development of over 130 resources worldwide, but geothermal exploration done in this manner is akin to locating hydrocarbon plays by searching for oil seeps. Confining exploration to areas with such features will clearly not discover a blind resource, that is, one that does not have surface expression. Blind resources, however, constitute the vast majority of hydrocarbon plays; this may be the case for geothermal resources as well. We propose a geothermal exploration strategy for finding blind systems that is based on an understanding of the geologic processes that transfer heat from the mantle to the upper crust and foster the conditions for hydrothermal circulation or enhanced geothermal exploration. The strategy employs a genetically based screening protocol to assess potential geothermal sites. The approach starts at the plate boundary scale and progressively focuses in on the scale of a producing electrical-grade field. Any active margin or hot spot is a potential location for geothermal resources. Although Quaternary igneous activity provides a clear indication of active advection of hot material into the upper crust, it is not sufficient to guarantee a potential utility-grade resource. Active faulting and/or evidence of high strain rates appear to be the critical features associated with areas of utility-grade geothermal potential. This is because deformation on its own can advect sufficient heat into the upper crust to create conditions favorable for geothermal exploitation. In addition, active deformation is required to demonstrate that open pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids are present and/or can be maintained. The last step in the screening protocol is to identify any evidence of geothermal activity

  4. Possible State Approaches to Cryptocurrencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lansky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrencies are a type of digital currencies that are relying on cryptographic proofs for confirmation of transactions. Cryptocurrencies usually achieve a unique combination of three features: ensuring limited anonymity, independence from central authority and double spending attack protection. No other group of currencies, including fiat currencies, has this combination of features. We will define cryptocurrency ownership and account anonymity. We will define cryptocurrency ownership and account anonymity. We will introduce a classification of the types of approaches to regulation of cryptocurrencies by various individual countries. We will present the risks that the use of cryptocurrencies involves and the possibilities of prevention of those risks. We will present the possible use of cryptocurrencies for the benefit of the state. The conclusion addresses the implications of adoption of a cryptocurrency as a national currency.

  5. MOBILE LEARING - possibilities and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes that SMS (Short Message Service) or text-messaging on mobile devices can serve as an extension or possible create another way of learning traditional scholastic content normally associated with the school system. The potential of the SMS is still very much untapped and largely...... unexplored as a pedagogical tool within teaching and learning domains. This paper is inspired by locative arts and ongoing experiments regarding not only SMS based pervasive systems, but also the more complex usage of mobile devices in investigating urban living conditions and experiences both existentially...... and as an exploring mechanism of the cityscape. This paper aims at discussing the potentials and outlining the possibilities for mobile learning in the traditional school setting. The complexity of these issues derives not only from the traditions of the school system, but also from diverging perspectives...

  6. Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus lineages among zoo animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Chrobak, Dorota; Moodley, Arshnee

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in animals is largely biased in favour MRSA and domestic animals. In order to generate novel information on the ecology and population structure of this bacterial species in the animal kingdom, we investigated...... the occurrence and genotypic diversity of S. aureus in a range of animal species kept at the Copenhagen Zoo. We sampled 146 animals belonging to 25 mammalian species and 21 reptiles belonging to six species. A total of 59 S. aureus isolates were found in 10 of the 25 mammalian species tested. All isolates were...... MSSA belonging to fourteen spa types, including three novel spa types. MLST revealed the occurrence of seven STs. The study of the ecology of commensal S. aureus in captive wild animals revealed that ST133 has a broader host range than previously thought....

  7. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana J. Ehret

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world’s oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon. Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  8. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period April through June 1993, and discusses four abnormal occurrences at NRC-licensed facilities, three involving medical brachytherapy misadministrations and one involving a research reactor that operated without a safety system. One pool irradiation facility contamination event, two medical misadministrations (one ''sodium iodide'' and one brachytherapy), and one industrial radiographer overexposure event that were reported by NRC Agreement States are also discussed. The report also contains information updating one previously reported abnormal occurrence and information on three other events of interest

  9. Another possible energy landscape; Un autre paysage energetique possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    This analysis presents the national energy balances from the national energy accounting. The first part presents the accounting analysis on the electric power consumption and production in France. The second part deals with the global energy accounting, for the energy sources and utilization, together. From these analysis the authors show how the global energy efficiency of production and utilization is possible. Solutions allowing the reduction of the non renewable energies consumption and solution for the nuclear power phaseout are also proposed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Bioplastics: Development, Possibilities and Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Varžinskas, Visvaldas

    2014-01-01

    New possible ways of plastics manufacture and waste treatment are being searched when trying to tackle the problems related to the growth of waste quantities and decline in non-renewable resources. Presently, the most promising and effective way to solve the mentioned problems is production of bioplastics, but its way to recognition is very slow. One of the barriers is the absence of clear and united opinion throughout the EU Arising new discussions about biodegradable and biobased plastics w...

  12. new possibilities in diagnostic radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Scheel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) allows a non-invasive diffusion-based tissue characterization and thus offers completely new possibilities in the field of diagnostic radiology. On the one hand, this method allows an improved detection of pathological changes at the microstructural level, which are frequently not detectable in conventional MRI methods. On the other hand new strategies for therapy monitoring are feasible by quantification of diffusion parameters (e.g., Parallel, Radial and Mean ...

  13. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  14. The Possibilities of Network Sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Michele

    Technologically networked social forms are broad, extensive and in demand. The rapid development and growth of web 2.0, or the social web, is evidence of the need and indeed hunger for social connectivity: people are searching for many and varied ways of enacting being-together. However, the ways in which we think of, research and write about network(ed) sociality are relatively recent and arguably restricted, warranting further critique and development. This article attempts to do several things: it raises questions about the types of sociality enacted in contemporary techno-society; critically explores the notion of the networked individual and the focus on the individual evident in much of the technology and sociality literature and asks questions about the place of the social in these discussions. It argues for a more well-balanced and multilevelled approach to questions of sociality in networked societies. The article starts from the position that possibilities enabled/afforded by the technologies we have in place have an effect upon the ways in which we understand being in the world together and our possible actions and futures. These possibilities are more than simply supplementary; in many ways they are transformative. The ways in which we grapple with these questions reveals as much about our understandings of sociality as it does about the technologies themselves.

  15. Possible Estrogen Dependency in the Pathogenesis of Branchial Cleft Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D. Raguse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Even though branchial cleft cysts are currently accepted as a congenital anomaly, there is often a long delay until clinical presentation; branchial cleft cysts classically appear in the second to fourth decade of life. Our observation of their occurrence in three pregnant women encouraged us to contemplate a possible hormonal influence. Methods. Immunohistological analysis was performed for the evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 16 patients with a diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst, with three of them being pregnant. Results. Expression of ERα was detected within epithelial cells only in branchial cleft cysts in pregnant females; moreover, higher growth fractions (Ki-67/Mib1 were found. Conclusion. The fact that the estrogen receptor was expressed only in pregnant women, in contrast to 13 investigated cases, may suggest that the high level of estrogen in pregnancy is a possible explanation for the spontaneous growth of branchial cleft cysts.

  16. Possible Estrogen Dependency in the Pathogenesis of Branchial Cleft Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguse, Jan D; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Doll, Christian; Heiland, Max; Jöhrens, Korinna

    2017-01-01

    Even though branchial cleft cysts are currently accepted as a congenital anomaly, there is often a long delay until clinical presentation; branchial cleft cysts classically appear in the second to fourth decade of life. Our observation of their occurrence in three pregnant women encouraged us to contemplate a possible hormonal influence. Immunohistological analysis was performed for the evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER α ) in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 16 patients with a diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst, with three of them being pregnant. Expression of ER α was detected within epithelial cells only in branchial cleft cysts in pregnant females; moreover, higher growth fractions (Ki-67/Mib1) were found. The fact that the estrogen receptor was expressed only in pregnant women, in contrast to 13 investigated cases, may suggest that the high level of estrogen in pregnancy is a possible explanation for the spontaneous growth of branchial cleft cysts.

  17. Possibility of the Nonenzymatic Browning (Maillard) Reaction in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Shipar, M. Abul Haider

    2008-04-01

    The possibility of the occurrence of the nonenzymatic browning reaction in the gaseous phase in the interstellar medium has been investigated by using Density Functional Theory computations. Mechanisms for the reactions between formaldehyde ( Fald) + glycine ( Gly), Fald + NH 3 and Fald + methylamine ( MeAm) have been proposed, and the possibility of the formation of different compounds in the proposed mechanisms has been evaluated through calculating the Gibb's free energy changes for different steps of the reaction, by following the total mass balance. The Fald + Gly reaction under basic conditions is found as the most favorable for producing 1-methyl-amino methene or 1-methyl-amino methelene ( MAM). The reaction under acidic conditions is found to be the least favorable for producing MAM. The Fald + NH 3 reaction is found to be plausible for the production of MeAm, which can participate by reaction with Fald, resulting in the formation of MAM.

  18. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents

  19. Detection, Occurrence and Fate of Emerging Contaminants in Agricultural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassada, David A.; Bartelt–Hunt, Shannon L.; Li, Xu; D’Alessio, Matteo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J. Brett

    2018-01-01

    A total of 59 papers published in 2015 were reviewed ranging from detailed descriptions of analytical methods, to fate and occurrence studies, to ecological effects and sampling techniques for a wide variety of emerging contaminants likely to occur in agricultural environments. New methods and studies on veterinary pharmaceuticals, steroids, antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural environments continue to expand our knowledge base on the occurrence and potential impacts of these compounds. This review is divided into the following sections: Introduction, Analytical Methods, Steroid Hormones, Pharmaceutical Contaminants, Transformation Products, and “Antibiotic Resistance, Drugs, Bugs and Genes”. PMID:27620078

  20. Modeling fire occurrence as a function of landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, T. V.; Carroll, M.; DiMiceli, C.

    2011-12-01

    Wildland fire is a prominent component of ecosystem functioning worldwide. Nearly all ecosystems experience the impact of naturally occurring or anthropogenically driven fire. Here, we present a spatially explicit and regionally parameterized Fire Occurrence Model (FOM) aimed at developing fire occurrence estimates at landscape and regional scales. The model provides spatially explicit scenarios of fire occurrence based on the available records from fire management agencies, satellite observations, and auxiliary geospatial data sets. Fire occurrence is modeled as a function of the risk of ignition, potential fire behavior, and fire weather using internal regression tree-driven algorithms and empirically established, regionally derived relationships between fire occurrence, fire behavior, and fire weather. The FOM presents a flexible modeling structure with a set of internal globally available default geospatial independent and dependent variables. However, the flexible modeling environment adapts to ingest a variable number, resolution, and content of inputs provided by the user to supplement or replace the default parameters to improve the model's predictive capability. A Southern California FOM instance (SC FOM) was developed using satellite assessments of fire activity from a suite of Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity fire perimeters, and auxiliary geospatial information including land use and ownership, utilities, transportation routes, and the Remote Automated Weather Station data records. The model was parameterized based on satellite data acquired between 2001 and 2009 and fire management fire perimeters available prior to 2009. SC FOM predictive capabilities were assessed using observed fire occurrence available from the MODIS active fire product during 2010. The results show that SC FOM provides a realistic estimate of fire occurrence at the landscape level: the fraction of

  1. Occurrence and fluctuations of Acidithiobacillus ssp. in uranium mine effluents, Caldas, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Michelle Burato de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    Sulphide ores that are present in mining areas can cause serious environmental problems because of the action of chemolithotrophic bacteria of the Acidithiobacillus genera, mainly A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans. These microorganisms are capable of oxidizing sulphide minerals, elemental sulphur and ferrous ion, possibly mobilizing radionuclides such as uranium into the environment. In this context, the present study was undertaken in order to determine the occurrence and fluctuations of populations of A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans in effluents from an uranium mine, part of the Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) in Caldas, MG - Brazil, analyzing samples from 9 sampling points (CM, BS, D3, 25, 27, 32, 41, 75, and 76). The results showed that the population of A. thiooxidans occurs more often (44.4%) than the population of A. ferroxidans (31.5%). In the sample points within the UTM-environment interface, points 25 and 76 were considered the most susceptible to acid mine drainage and activity of bacteria involved in metal bioleaching. The seasonal behavior of some of the variables observed at points CM, D3, and BS, when evaluated simultaneously, such as high Eh values, low pH values, the detection of greater percentages of incidence and higher counts of A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans, showed that these points are the main locations for the occurrence of acid mine drainage and bacterial bioleaching in the UTM and should be considered as critical points for a possible decommissioning action. (author)

  2. Occurrence and fluctuations of Acidithiobacillus ssp. in uranium mine effluents, Caldas, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Michelle Burato de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: michelle_borato@hotmail.com; cvroque@cnen.gov.br; hgomes@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Sulphide ores that are present in mining areas can cause serious environmental problems because of the action of chemolithotrophic bacteria of the Acidithiobacillus genera, mainly A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans. These microorganisms are capable of oxidizing sulphide minerals, elemental sulphur and ferrous ion, possibly mobilizing radionuclides such as uranium into the environment. In this context, the present study was undertaken in order to determine the occurrence and fluctuations of populations of A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans in effluents from an uranium mine, part of the Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) in Caldas, MG - Brazil, analyzing samples from 9 sampling points (CM, BS, D3, 25, 27, 32, 41, 75, and 76). The results showed that the population of A. thiooxidans occurs more often (44.4%) than the population of A. ferroxidans (31.5%). In the sample points within the UTM-environment interface, points 25 and 76 were considered the most susceptible to acid mine drainage and activity of bacteria involved in metal bioleaching. The seasonal behavior of some of the variables observed at points CM, D3, and BS, when evaluated simultaneously, such as high Eh values, low pH values, the detection of greater percentages of incidence and higher counts of A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans, showed that these points are the main locations for the occurrence of acid mine drainage and bacterial bioleaching in the UTM and should be considered as critical points for a possible decommissioning action. (author)

  3. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some...... cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis...

  4. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  5. Is self-regulation possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's increasingly prescriptive regulation of the nuclear industry can have deleterious effects, perhaps the most serious being the shift in responsibility for safety from the utility to the NRC. Several factors account for this type of regulation including the nature and structure of the nuclear industry, public opinion and bureaucratic incentives, and the nature of the technology itself. The opportunities to create heightened industry self-regulation (performance-based regulation) deserve further examination. The key to self-regulation is to structure incentives so that it is clearly within the nuclear utilities' interests to build and operate nuclear power facilities in the safest manner possible. 27 references

  6. Satellite communications: possibilities and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, M.

    1986-01-01

    Communication links via satellites are becoming available in Europe, both as part of the development of the telephone system and as special services aimed at data traffic. They offer the possibility of speeds between 50 kb/s and 2 Mb/s, without the problems and long term commitments of long distance land lines. Such links are provided by the PTT's as circuits which can be booked for variable periods, and have error rates which can be very low and well controlled. Problems in networking can arise from the satellite delay, particularly if errors occur in the local connections, and from the leased circuit and tariff philosophies of the PTT's. (Auth.)

  7. Future possibilities: summary of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pondrom, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    In ISABELLE, the basic machine will consist of two superconducting rings capable of storing and accelerating high currents of protons to energies up to 400 GeV, and colliding the two beams in six interactions. In order to broaden the experimental capability beyond p--p collisions, two possibilities have traditionally been considered in the past: (1) anti pp collisions, in which antiprotons are somehow stored and accelerated in one of the rings; and (2) ep collisions, in which a third ring is constructed to accelerate electrons. In the 1977 workshop, these two possibilities were reconsidered, the implications of the 400 GeV design were discussed, and some new conclusions were reached. The necessity for high luminosity in anti pp is emphasized, but a definitive best scheme for obtaining this luminosity has not been found. In ep a 20 GeV x 400 GeV combination is appealing, with electrons in a low field conventional ring in the ISABELLE tunnel. It is probably smoother to do ep and pp physics in separate running periods. Vertical crossing is preferred if the electrons are polarized. Synchrotron radiation in the intersecting region remains a problem for detailed design. Extrapolated rate estimates for interesting electromagnetic and weak processes look promising

  8. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  9. Possible phthalates transport into plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils can be contaminated by high concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAE resulting from industrial and intensive agricultural activities. A plant receives water and substances (including pollutants from soil by means of rootage. Water solution received by the roots is distributed in particular by means of xylem. Reception by means of floem is not very considerable. Pollutants (including phthalates can be absorbed by roots either by diffusion by means of soil gas phase or soil liquid phase. Another possible way of pollutant entering into the plant is diffusion from atmosphere. Way of substance entering into the plant is decided by so called Henry constant as well as octanol-water partition coefficient. In case of phthalates, big differences between di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP reception and dioctyl phthalate reception were detected. For example, DBP can enter into the plant by means of gas as well as liquid phase while dioctyl phthalate only by gas phase.This publication summarizes fundamental knowledge on possible phthalates transport into plants.

  10. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Vale do Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, M C; Pile, E

    2001-12-01

    The first occurrence of the Achatina fulica, an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the etiological agent of meningoencephalic angiostrongiliasis, is reported in Resende municipality, Brazil. In the five visited localities, snails were found living freely, and the larvae of this parasite was not seen in any of them. The finding of A. fulica in the area may be related to its commercialization as a food item and embodies the possibility of new focus.

  11. Explicitation and Implicitation as Translation Universals and Their Occurrences in the Slovene Translations of Anglo-American Literary Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Uroš Mozetič

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines explicitation/implicitation as one of the most prevailing occurrences in Slovene literary translation practice. Drawing on the received typology of explicitation – obligatory, optional, pragmatic and translation-inherent − the paper seeks to identify the reasons for, and consequences of, certain (in)adequate translation processes, suggesting more adequate solutions where possible. An analysis of the examples selected from the corpus of Slovene translations is introduced by ...

  12. Explicitation and Implicitation as Translation Universals and Their Occurrences in the Slovene Translations of Anglo-American Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Mozetič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines explicitation/implicitation as one of the most prevailing occurrences in Slovene literary translation practice. Drawing on the received typology of explicitation – obligatory, optional, pragmatic and translation-inherent − the paper seeks to identify the reasons for, and consequences of, certain (inadequate translation processes, suggesting more adequate solutions where possible. An analysis of the examples selected from the corpus of Slovene translations is introduced by a detailed discussion of the explicitation and implicitation phenomena.

  13. Occurrence of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Breinegaard, Nina; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops according to consensus criteria within the first 1-6 months after a horrifying traumatic event, but it is alleged that PTSD may develop later. The objective was to review the evidence addressing occurrence of PTSD with onset >6 months after a traumatic...

  14. Anca associated vasculitis : occurrence, prediction, prevention, and outcome of relapses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Maarten Michiel

    2001-01-01

    During follow-up, relapses of disease activity occur in the majority of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis. The general objective brought together in this thesis was to further elucidate the characteristics and consequences of these relapses. Investigated items are the occurrence, the

  15. Review: Occurrence of the pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Kelly R.; Gerba, Charles P.

    2017-06-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic free-living amoeba found worldwide in soils and warm freshwater. It is the causative agent of primary amebic meningoencephalitis, a nearly always fatal disease afflicting mainly children and young adults. Humans are exposed to the organism via swimming, bathing, or other recreational activity during which water is forcefully inhaled into the upper nasal passages. Although many studies have looked at the occurrence of N. fowleri in surface waters, limited information is available regarding its occurrence in groundwater and geothermally heated natural waters such as hot springs. This paper reviews the current literature related to the occurrence of N. fowleri in these waters and the methods employed for its detection. Case reports of potential groundwater exposures are also included. Despite increased interest in N. fowleri in recent years due to well-publicized cases linked to drinking water, many questions still remain unanswered. For instance, why the organism persists in some water sources and not in others is not well understood. The role of biofilms in groundwater wells and plumbing in individual buildings, and the potential for warming due to climate change to expand the occurrence of the organism into new regions, are still unclear. Additional research is needed to address these questions in order to better understand the ecology of N. fowleri and the conditions that result in greater risks to bathers.

  16. Hyponatremia independent of osteoporosis is associated with fracture occurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead

    2010-02-01

    Mild hyponatremia has traditionally been considered benign, but it may be associated with gait and attention deficits and an increased risk of falls that may result in fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to quantify the association of hyponatremia with fracture occurrence and to examine whether this relationship is independent of osteoporosis.

  17. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in bread in Nigeria | Efuntoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Nigeria on samples of brown bread for growth of moulds and natural occurrence of aflatoxins. Mycological analysis showed the presence of six genera of filamentous fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor, Penicillium, Alternaria and Geotrichum. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of bread ...

  18. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  19. Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the Schlumberger configuration.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in indoor settled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed widespread heavy metals contamination especially Fe and Zn, which were present as the highest concentration while Cd was the lowest in the settled particles (dust). The order of occurrence of heavy metals in settled particles (dust) collected indoor in 2007 and 2008 respectively were as follows, ...

  1. An empirical model of global spread-f occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, D.G.

    1974-09-01

    A method of combining models of ionospheric F-layer peak electron density and irregularity incremental electron density into a model of the occurrence probability of the frequency spreading component of spread-F is presented. The predictions of the model are compared with spread-F occurrence data obtained under sunspot maximum conditions. Good agreement is obtained for latitudes less than 70 0 geomagnetic. At higher latitudes, the inclusion of a 'blackout factor' in the model allows it to accurately represent the data and, in so doing, resolves an apparent discrepancy in the occurrence statistics at high latitudes. The blackout factor is ascribed to the effect of polar blackout on the spread-F statistics and/or the lack of a definitve incremental electron density model for irregularities at polar latitudes. Ways of isolating these effects and assessing their relative importance in the blackout factor are discussed. The model, besides providing estimates of spread-F occurrence on a worldwide basis, which will be of value in the engineering of HF and VHF communications, also furnishes a means of further checking the irregularity incremental electron density model on which it is based. (author)

  2. Chondrichthyan occurrence and abundance trends in False Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fishing in False Bay, South Africa, began in the 1600s. Today chondrichthyans are regularly taken in fisheries throughout the bay. Using a combination of catch, survey and life history data, the occurrence and long-term changes in populations of chondrichthyans in False Bay are described. Analyses of time ...

  3. Occurrence and bioremediation of anthracene in the environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of PAH in the environment has been a concern of many environmentalist for its obstinac, toxicity and harm that it may impose. Anthracene is a common low molecular weight PAH that is often used as a model PAH in bioremediation study due to its structure that is also found in high molecular weight PAH.

  4. Relationship of Occlusal Schemes with the Occurrence of Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina H. Sugiaman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Masticatory system is a complex functional unit of the body responsible for mastication, speech, and deglutition process. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD is used to describe all functional disturbances of the masticatory system. The etiology of TMD is multifactorial, such as occlusal disharmony and emotional stress. The relationship between occlusion and TMD has been highly debated in dentistry, one of the occlusal factors is the occlusal scheme. Occlusal schemes are defined as bilateral canine guidance, unilateral canine guidance, group function and balanced occlusion. However, studies about the relationship of occlusal schemes and the occurrence of the TMD are still limited and remained controversial. Objective: To investigate the relationship of occlusal schemes witht he occurrence of TMD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, Uniiversitas Indonesia. A total of 127 students were included in this study. Subjects were examined based on Clinical Helkimo Index and divided into TMD and non-TMD groups. Subjects were categorized as non-TMD groups if the value of the clinical Helkimo index was 0 and as TMD group when the value ranged between 1-25. Results: Balanced occlusion schemes has a greater risk of TMD occurrence with odds ratio value 5.6 and 95% confidence interval 1.188 to 26.331 (p=0.021. Conclusion: Balanced occlusion has a significant relationship with the occurrence of TMD.

  5. Cyanobacteria Occurrence and Nitrogen Fixation Rates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence and biological nitrogen fixation rates of epiphytic and benthic diazotrophs were studied in seagrass meadows at sites with seaweed farms and at a control site without seaweed farms from two locations, Chwaka Bay and Jambiani, along the east coast of. Zanzibar. Ten species of cyanobacteria were ...

  6. Occurrence of cyanobacteria genera in the Vaal Dam: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of cyanobacteria genera in the Vaal Dam was analysed and the factors that influence its dominance in the particular reservoir were also investigated. The study was motivated by the effects of the secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria genera on potable water production. Cyanobacteria genera have been ...

  7. Brominated flame retardants: occurrence, dietary intake and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-Sorkina R de; Bakker MI; Wolterink G; Zeijlmaker MJ; SIR

    2006-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants have entered the human food chain. For the time being the occurrence of these chemicals in Dutch food does not pose a human health risk. However, this might easily change at increasing contents of flame retardants in Dutch food. The monitoring of brominated flame

  8. Rainfall characteristics and occurrence of floods in Gombe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gombe metropolis has been experiencing urban flooding particular in the last two decades. The flood disasters of 2004, 2012 and 2014 in the metropolis were alarming. This paper is aimed at analyzing the rainfall characteristics of Gombe metropolis in order to examine the implications on the occurrence of flooding in the ...

  9. Occurrence of bovine hydatidosis and evaluation of its risk to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the occurrence, localization and fertility/sterility rates of hydatid cyst in cattle, to determine the prevalence of adult E. granulosus in dogs and asses the risk for human infection in traditional communities. Methods: Postmortem examination, hydatid cyst characterization, questionnaire survey and dog ...

  10. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  11. The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi-Temboni pond, Dar es Salaam. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila. Abstract. The abundance of digenean larvae in snails at a pond in Mbezi-Temboni, Dar es Salaam, was investigated from July 1996 to June 1997. A total of 2,112 snails belonging to three species, ...

  12. Occurrence and survival of synchronous pulmonary metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    Cancer Group's (DCCG's) database between May 2001 and December 2011. The recorded data were merged with data from the Danish Pathology Registry and the National Patient Registry. Multivariable logistic- and extended Cox regression analyses were used to adjust for confounding variables. RESULTS: In total...... this association (adjusted OR=1.81 (95% CI: 1.46-2.25, Pmodalities were combined. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence...

  13. Early Pleistocene occurrence of Acheulian technology in North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xingwen; Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Shan; Huang, Weiwen; Hou, Yamei; Zhang, Weihua; An, Zhisheng

    2017-01-01

    Acheulian tools with their associated level of cognizance heralded a major threshold in the evolution of hominin technology, culture and behavior. Thus, unraveling occurrence ages of Acheulian technology across different regions worldwide constitutes a key aspect of understanding the archeology of

  14. Occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in dogs presented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otitis is one of the most common infections in dogs. This has been associated with misuse of antibiotics thereby promoting the emergence of multi-resistant micro-organisms. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial pathogens associated with otitis in dogs ...

  15. Occurrence and activity budget of the leopard tortoise, Geochelone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and activity budget of the leopard tortoise, Geochelone pardalis were studied in northern Tanzania between October 1993 and June 1996. Tortoises occurred most frequently in short grass (51.5%) and along roads and track verges (33.9%), but only occasionally in the bush undergrowth (6.7%) and shambas ...

  16. Assessing arthropod pests and disease occurrence in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-station trials were conducted at CSIR-Crops Research Institute's research farms at Kwadaso and Ejura, Ashanti Region, Ghana, during 2010/2011 cropping season, to assess the pests and disease occurrence in cassava-cowpea intercrop farming systems and their effect on yield of produce. Three improved cassava ...

  17. Unusual occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism in a set of same ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common endocrinological disorder in children. Genetic and intrauterine factors have been implicated in its aetiology. The aim of this study was to describe an unusual occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism in a set of same sex triplets and challenges associated with the diagnosis.

  18. Occurrence of bovine mastitis and isolation of Staphyloccocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of bovine mastitis and isolation of Staphyloccocus species from ... the samples that were positive for CMT were found to be culture positive and out of ... S. aureus and 12.3% (12/97) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS).

  19. Occurrence of mycotoxins and associated mycoflora in peanut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria isolated from peanut cake product were Eschericha coli, Klebsiella spp. and Clostridium spp. The fungal isolates include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. being the dominant microflora in decreasing frequency of occurrence. High concentrations of ...

  20. Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Freshwater Epipelic Algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence and composition of the freshwater algae in the epipelon were determined at three sites, namely Machigeni, Manhean and Weija, located in the coastal savanna thicket and grassland vegetation zone of the River Densu basin in southern Ghana. Samples of sediments from the water-substratum interface ...

  1. Pattern Of Occurrence, Management And Prevention Of Trauma In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to review the occurrence, management and prevention of trauma in industry in Nigeria with particular reference to the oil industry. The type of injuries, their causes and relative frequency in the Nigerian oil industry has been discussed. First aid facilities, evacuation procedures and ...

  2. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106 samples including Chinese ...

  3. Familial occurrence of isolated non-compaction cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorsheyd, Anouk; Cramer, Maarten-Jan M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Vonken, Evert-Jan P.; van der Smagt, Jasper; van Tintelen, Peter; Hauer, Richard N. W.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: Isolated left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) may have an autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive inheritance. We focus on the familial occurrence of LVNC after misdiagnosing this disorder in symptomatic patients in two families. After identification of the

  4. Environmental occurrence of arsenic in Colombia: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, David L.; Latorre, Sergio; Castillo, Elianna; Brandão, Pedro F.B.

    2014-01-01

    The international literature on the presence of arsenic (As) in Latin America does not disclose the true magnitude of the presence of As in Colombia. In this paper, we summarize the literature on As occurrence in Colombia. The data reveal that As is present in matrices such as soil, sediments and water and in the food chain. Some of the As concentrations exceed the limits specified by national and international regulations. Arsenic higher concentrations are associated with mining regions (e.g., soils, up to 148 mg/kg; sediments, up to 1400 mg/kg) and agricultural areas (e.g., vegetables, up to 5.40 mg/kg; irrigation water, up to 255 μg/L), and underscore the potential human and environmental risks associated with the presence of As in the country. This review highlights the importance of focusing research on understanding the occurrence, origin and distribution of As in Colombia to better understand its environmental and public health impact. -- Highlights: • Information about arsenic (As) studies in Colombia is provided. • Occurrence of As in Colombia. • Compilation help to increase knowledge of As presence in Latin America. • Need for more research on the occurrence, origin, distribution, speciation and remediation of As in Colombia. -- This review communicates the untold story of arsenic in Colombia and draws attention to the need for more rigorous research on the metalloid. It also contributes to the information available on As in Latin America

  5. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  6. Harsh Corporal Punishment of Yemeni Children: Occurrence, Type and Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahri, Abdullah; Goodman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence, type and associations of harsh corporal punishment in Yemen. Methods: Caregiver and teacher reports were obtained on 1,196 Yemeni 7-10-year olds obtained by systematic random sampling of children in the 1st to 4th grades of urban and rural schools. Caregivers (86% mothers) reported on disciplinary practices,…

  7. Occurrence and geochemistry of Nafada Gypsum, north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum deposits occur in numerous locations within the Senonian Fika Shale at Nafada, northeastern Nigeria. Geologic investigations at Baro Winde and Wuro Dabo mines indicate the occurrence of three varieties of gypsum namely, Balatino laminated, Alabaster and Satin Spar. These are interlayered within shale and ...

  8. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  9. Short Communication: Occurrence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on wild annual and perennial leguminous plants was studied at two locations (Adet and Wondata) in West Gojam, Ethiopia in 1999/2000 seasons. Annual and perennial leguminous wild or volunteer plants encountered in the study areas ...

  10. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  11. Occurrence of rift valley fever (RVF) in Dodoma region, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a peracute or acute febrile zoonotic ... results the patients were treated for malaria and/or meningitis based on visual/ clinical signs. ... RVF occurrence to humans by using case study definitions for RVF suspect's, and ...

  12. Occurrence, aetiology and challenges in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, the aetiology and the management of congestive heart failure in the cardiac centre of the St. Elizabeth catholic general hospital Shisong in Cameroon. Methods: Between November 2002 and November 2008, a population of 8121 patients was consulted in ...

  13. Short Communication Occurrence of pathogenic yersinia species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three (3) samples of Yersinia species were isolated indicating a 1% occurrence rate. Only Yersinia enterocolitica was implicated in this study. Serotyping revealed that all strains were of serotype 0:9 which is one of the two most common serotypes representing the most virulent worldwide causes of yersiniosis. The results of ...

  14. Hand washing practices and the occurrence of enteropathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... levels of compliance to hand washing and related this to the occurrence of infectious bacteria in the test population. A questionnaire which contained information on bio-demographic characteristics and hand hygiene practices was applied to 100 individuals in the study population. Microbiological samples were obtained, ...

  15. Occurrence of brucellosis in small ruminants slaughtered in Lafia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella species is a disease of economic and public health importance worldwide. Although present in Nigeria, there is a paucity of information regarding the occurrence of the disease in small ruminants in Nasarawa State. A cross-sectional study was therefore carried out to determine the ...

  16. Occurrence of Phlebitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen P; Peng, Yu X

    Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are commonly used in clinical practice. However, varying degrees of phlebitis often occur in patients receiving intravenous injections. The relevant literature suggests that phlebitis occurrence is highly associated with the catheter gauge, insertion site, and catheterization duration. Nevertheless, no meta-analysis has been performed on the influence of these three factors on the occurrence of phlebitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether any significant differences exist in the occurrence of phlebitis between catheters of 20 gauge or smaller and those larger than 20 gauge, between catheters inserted in the antecubital fossa and those inserted in other locations on the upper limbs, or between catheters inserted for more than 96 hours and those inserted for 96 hours or less. Using a systematic approach, we searched for literature published between 2006 and 2017 in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, ProQuest, and Cochrane Library databases. We used Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2 to perform our meta-analysis. After the screening and review processes, we identified 17 studies that met our selection conditions. Among these studies, 14 contained complete data for meta-analysis. These studies involved 4,343 patients and 5,846 PVCs. Regarding the overall effect size in the meta-analysis, the results of the forest plot comparing catheters of 20 gauge or smaller and those larger than 20 gauge presented a risk ratio (RR) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [0.67, 1.17], p = .380), indicating no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of phlebitis between catheters of the aforementioned gauges. The results of the forest plot comparing catheters inserted in the antecubital fossa and those inserted in other locations on the upper limbs presented an RR of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [0.82, 1.34], p = .696), indicating no statistically significant difference in

  17. Geologic characteristics of sediment- and volcanic-hosted disseminated gold deposits - Search for an occurrence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E.; Fournier, Robert O.; Rytuba, James J.; Rye, Robert O.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Berger, Byron R.; Silberman, Miles L.; Bonham, Harold F.; Strachan, Donald G.; Birak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Robert J.; Tooker, Edwin W.; Tooker, Edwin W.

    1985-01-01

    The current expansion of resource information, particularly on "disseminated" gold, and the improved technologies now available for resource investigations should place us in an enhanced position for developing a better predictive methodology for meeting one of the important responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey-to examine and assess the mineral resources of the geologic terranes composing the public (and privately owned) lands of the United States. The first step is systematic organization of these data. Geologic-occurrence models are an effective systematic method by which to organize large amounts of resource information into a logical sequence facilitating its use more effectively in meeting several industry and Survey objectives, which include the exploration for resources and the assessment of resource potential for land-use decisions. Such models also provide a scientific basis for metallogenesis research, which considers the observable features or attributes of ore occurrence and their "fit" into the Earth's resource puzzle. The use of models in making resource assessments/appraisals was addressed by Shawe (1981), who reported the results of a workshop on methods for resource appraisal of Wilderness and Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program (CUSMAP; 1:250,000-scale quadrangles) areas. The Survey's main objective in the 1982 workshop was to evaluate the status of knowledge about disseminated or very fine grained gold deposits and, if possible, to develop an occurrence model(s).This report on the workshop proceedings has three main objectives: (1) Education through the publication of a summary review and presentation of new thinking and observations about the scientific bases for those geologic processes and environments that foster disseminated gold-ore formation; (2) systematic organization of available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical information for a range of typical disseminated gold deposits (including recognition of gaps

  18. THE OCCURRENCE RATE OF SMALL PLANETS AROUND SMALL STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Charbonneau, David

    2013-01-01

    We use the optical and near-infrared photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog to provide improved estimates of the stellar characteristics of the smallest stars in the Kepler target list. We find 3897 dwarfs with temperatures below 4000 K, including 64 planet candidate host stars orbited by 95 transiting planet candidates. We refit the transit events in the Kepler light curves for these planet candidates and combine the revised planet/star radius ratios with our improved stellar radii to revise the radii of the planet candidates orbiting the cool target stars. We then compare the number of observed planet candidates to the number of stars around which such planets could have been detected in order to estimate the planet occurrence rate around cool stars. We find that the occurrence rate of 0.5-4 R ⊕ planets with orbital periods shorter than 50 days is 0.90 +0.04 -0.03 planets per star. The occurrence rate of Earth-size (0.5-1.4 R ⊕ ) planets is constant across the temperature range of our sample at 0.51 -0.05 +0.06 Earth-size planets per star, but the occurrence of 1.4-4 R ⊕ planets decreases significantly at cooler temperatures. Our sample includes two Earth-size planet candidates in the habitable zone, allowing us to estimate that the mean number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone is 0.15 +0.13 -0.06 planets per cool star. Our 95% confidence lower limit on the occurrence rate of Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of cool stars is 0.04 planets per star. With 95% confidence, the nearest transiting Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a cool star is within 21 pc. Moreover, the nearest non-transiting planet in the habitable zone is within 5 pc with 95% confidence.

  19. ECDIS Possibilities for BWE Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan ŽuŁkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS development and implementation have been linked primarily to the safety of navigation. Further development allows the implementation from other aspects of navigation. This primarily pertains to the Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens (HAOP from Ballast Water Exchange (BWE and the use of ECDIS system for improving environmental protection. The paper contains an overview of important legal aspects of sea environment protection related to the Ballast Water Management (BWM Convention on global as well as on local scale. Apart from enhancing the safety of navigation, integration of the proposed tool for sea environment protection in the ECDIS with onboard ballast water system can significantly contribute to sea and sea environment protection from harmful substances. In this paper, the architecture of such system is suggested. This approach also ensures a reduction of possible consequences on ecological incidents and human errors.

  20. Possible consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war

  1. Analysis of possible fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.; Kessler, G.; Engelmann, P.; Maerkl, H.; Stoll, W.

    1978-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of the most important fuel cycles. A rough analysis of fuel cycles is attempted under the aspects of proliferation, status of technical feasibility, resource conservation and waste management and the most important criteria for such an analysis are discussed. Among the multitude of potential combinations of fuel cycles and types of reactors only a few have reached a level of technical feasibility which would make them eligible for commercial implementation within the next decade. However, if, for instance, the higher proliferation resistance of a specific fuel cycle is to be utilized to diminish the worldwide proliferation hazard, that cycle would first of all have to be introduced on an industrial scale as quickly as possible. The analysis shows that the reduction of the bazard of worldwide proliferation will continue to be the objective primarily of international agreements and measures taken in the political realm. (orig.) [de

  2. Future possibilities in migraine genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Olesen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Migraine with and without aura (MA and MO, respectively) have a strong genetic basis. Different approaches using linkage-, candidate gene- and genome-wide association studies have been explored, yielding limited results. This may indicate that the genetic component in migraine is due to rare...... variants; capturing these will require more detailed sequencing in order to be discovered. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques such as whole exome and whole genome sequencing have been successful in finding genes in especially monogenic disorders. As the molecular genetics research progresses......, the technology will follow, rendering these approaches more applicable in the search for causative migraine genes in MO and MA. To date, no studies using NGS in migraine genetics have been published. In order to gain insight into the future possibilities of migraine genetics, we have looked at NGS studies...

  3. Are baryonic galactic halos possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Hegyi, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    There is little doubt from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies that galactic halos must contain large amounts of dark matter. In this contribution, the authors review arguments which indicate that it is very unlikely that galactic halos contain substantial amounts of baryonic matter. While the authors would like to be able to present a single argument which would rule out baryonic matter, at the present time they are only able to present a collection of arguments each of which argues against one form of baryonic matter. These include: 1) snowballs; 2) gas; 3) low mass stars and Jupiters; 4) high mass stars; and 5) high metalicity objects such as rooks or dust. Black holes, which do not have a well defined baryon number, are also a possible candidate for halo matter. They briefly discuss black holes

  4. POSSIBLE ROLES OF EPIPLOIC APPENDAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Di Noto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, only the energy storage function had been attributed to adipose tissue. However, recent studies have shown that it is also able to secrete several substances which act in a paracrine or endocrine manner, contributing to the maintenance of organism’s homeostasis. It has been reported that the visceral fat has distinctive secreting characteristics. Based on previous scientific observations, here we shall describe the possible functional role of epiploic appendages. The epiploic appendages may play an important role in the metabolic regulation and/or in immune defense through the secretion of specific factors, such as leptin and some inflammatory cytokines. Leptin has been seen to be involved both in the regulation of hunger signals, in coordination with the hypothalamus, and in complex immune defense processes. The exact understanding of the behavior of this hormone could play a key role in understanding the functions ascribed to the epiploic appendages.

  5. Moving from objects to possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Jared; Gunn, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    and controls that determine indoor climate. A central issue in relating perceptions and experiences of indoor climate to wider structures and systems is finding ways of supporting company, university partners and users to imagine possibilities instead of certainties in terms of innovation potential. Whereas....... This involves opening up pathways within wider structures and systems for improvisation, at the same time finding ways of negotiating openness and closure with materials. How then do design materials support partial understandings of indoor climate between researchers, users and company partners in situated......, researchers and industry partners working in the field of indoor climate emphasize identifiable, measurable, parameters of comfort and focus their efforts on engineering products and systems based upon behavioural models, as researchers interested in the notion of participatory innovation, we engage...

  6. [Possibilities of psychoprophylaxis in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1976-01-01

    The psychiatrist should be given also their share in the prevetion of epilepsy by means of raising the psychiatric culture of the society and teaching the population the principles of mental hygiene and psychoprophylaxia. The possibilities of psychiatry in prophylactic management of patients with developed epilepsy include: 1. Energetic measures for controlling attacks which has many psychoprophylactic aspects. 2. Prevention of psychotraumatizing situations leading to secondary neurotic, psychotic and other reactions and behaviour disorders of the type of homilopathy and sociopathy, 3. Counteracting the development of mental and social disability in epileptics. Treatment of epilepsy should be conducted from its very beginning in cooperation with psychiatrists and therapeutic psychologists. The probems of prophylaxis cannot be separated from prophylactic treatment, psychotherapy sociotherapy and rehabilitation.

  7. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  8. T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in grain and grain-based commodities in Europe: occurrence, factors affecting occurrence, co-occurence and toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Stratakou, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the occurrence of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in cereals in Europe and derived food products, factors influencing the occurrence, co-occurrence with other trichothecenes, and toxicological effects of T-2 and HT-2 in human. Of all cereals, oats showed to be most

  9. Developing Predictive Models for Algal Bloom Occurrence and Identifying Factors Controlling their Occurrence in the Charlotte County and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S.; Sultan, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Chouinard, K.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous occurrences of harmful algal blooms (Karenia Brevis) were reported from Southwest Florida along the coast of Charlotte County, Florida. We are developing data-driven (remote sensing, field, and meteorological data) models to accomplish the following: (1) identify the factors controlling bloom development, (2) forecast bloom occurrences, and (3) make recommendations for monitoring variables that are found to be most indicative of algal bloom occurrences and for identifying optimum locations for monitoring stations. To accomplish these three tasks we completed/are working on the following steps. Firstly, we developed an automatic system for downloading and processing of ocean color data acquired through MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua products using SeaDAS ocean color processing software. Examples of extracted variables include: chlorophyll a (OC3M), chlorophyll a Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP), chlorophyll a Garver-Siegel- Maritorena (GSM), sea surface temperature (SST), Secchi disk depth, euphotic depth, turbidity index, wind direction and speed, colored dissolved organic material (CDOM). Secondly we are developing a GIS database and a web-based GIS to host the generated remote sensing-based products in addition to relevant meteorological and field data. Examples of the meteorological and field inputs include: precipitation amount and rates, concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, fecal coliform and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). Thirdly, we are constructing and validating a multivariate regression model and an artificial neural network model to simulate past algal bloom occurrences using the compiled archival remote sensing, meteorological, and field data. The validated model will then be used to predict the timing and location of algal bloom occurrences. The developed system, upon completion, could enhance the decision making process, improve the citizen's quality of life, and strengthen the local economy.

  10. Diagnostics of enterprise bankruptcy occurrence probability in an anti-crisis management: modern approaches and classification of models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zhalinska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of enterprise bankruptcy occurrence probability is defined as an important tool ensuring the viability of an organization under conditions of unpredictable dynamic environment. The paper aims to define the basic features of diagnostics of bankruptcy occurrence probability models and their classification. The article grounds the objective increasing of crisis probability in modern enterprises where such increasing leads to the need to improve the efficiency of anti-crisis enterprise activities. The system of anti-crisis management is based on the subsystem of diagnostics of bankruptcy occurrence probability. Such a subsystem is the main one for further measures to prevent and overcome the crisis. The classification of existing models of enterprise bankruptcy occurrence probability has been suggested. The classification is based on methodical and methodological principles of models. The following main groups of models are determined: the models using financial ratios, aggregates and scores, the models of discriminated analysis, the methods of strategic analysis, informal models, artificial intelligence systems and the combination of the models. The classification made it possible to identify the analytical capabilities of each of the groups of models suggested.

  11. The co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes: shared aetiologic features and clinical implication for MS aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettey, Prudence; Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce V; van der Mei, Ingrid A F

    2015-01-15

    We reviewed the evidence for the co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS), and assessed the clinical significance of this association and the shared aetiological features of the two diseases. T1D and MS contribute considerably to the burden of autoimmune diseases in young adults. The co-occurrence of MS and T1D has been reported by a number of studies, suggesting that the two conditions share one or more aetiological components. Both conditions have been associated with distinct human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes but share a number of similarities in clinical, epidemiological and immunological features, leading to suggestions of possible common mechanisms of development. While underlying genetic factors may be important for the co-occurrence of both conditions, some evidence suggests that environmental factors such as vitamin D deficiency may also modulate an individual's risk for the development of both conditions. Evidence on whether the co-occurrence of the two autoimmune conditions will affect the disease course and severity of MS is merely absent. Further studies need to be conducted to ascertain whether the neuropathology associated with T1D might influence the disease course and contribute to the severity of MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Uncertainty Relations and Possible Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg Jaeger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle can be understood as a condition of joint indeterminacy of classes of properties in quantum theory. The mathematical expressions most closely associated with this principle have been the uncertainty relations, various inequalities exemplified by the well known expression regarding position and momentum introduced by Heisenberg. Here, recent work involving a new sort of “logical” indeterminacy principle and associated relations introduced by Pitowsky, expressable directly in terms of probabilities of outcomes of measurements of sharp quantum observables, is reviewed and its quantum nature is discussed. These novel relations are derivable from Boolean “conditions of possible experience” of the quantum realm and have been considered both as fundamentally logical and as fundamentally geometrical. This work focuses on the relationship of indeterminacy to the propositions regarding the values of discrete, sharp observables of quantum systems. Here, reasons for favoring each of these two positions are considered. Finally, with an eye toward future research related to indeterminacy relations, further novel approaches grounded in category theory and intended to capture and reconceptualize the complementarity characteristics of quantum propositions are discussed in relation to the former.

  13. Gene doping: possibilities and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dominic J

    2009-01-01

    Our ever-increasing understanding of the genetic control of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function together with recent technical improvements in genetic manipulation generates mounting concern over the possibility of such technology being abused by athletes in their quest for improved performance. Genetic manipulation in the context of athletic performance is commonly referred to as gene doping. A review of the literature was performed to identify the genes and methodologies most likely to be used for gene doping and the technologies that might be used to identify such doping. A large number of candidate performance-enhancing genes have been identified from animal studies, many of them using transgenic mice. Only a limited number have been shown to be effective following gene transfer into adults. Those that seem most likely to be abused are genes that exert their effects locally and leave little, if any, trace in blood or urine. There is currently no evidence that gene doping has yet been undertaken in competitive athletes but the anti-doping authorities will need to remain vigilant in reviewing this rapidly emerging technology. The detection of gene doping involves some different challenges from other agents and a number of promising approaches are currently being explored. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. One Antimatter— Two Possible Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Klimenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional thermodynamics, which is formulated for our world populated by radiation and matter, can be extended to describe physical properties of antimatter in two mutually exclusive ways: CP-invariant or CPT-invariant. Here we refer to invariance of physical laws under charge (C, parity (P and time reversal (T transformations. While in quantum field theory CPT invariance is a theorem confirmed by experiments, the symmetry principles applied to macroscopic phenomena or to the whole of the Universe represent only hypotheses. Since both versions of thermodynamics are different only in their treatment of antimatter, but are the same in describing our world dominated by matter, making a clear experimentally justified choice between CP invariance and CPT invariance in context of thermodynamics is not possible at present. This work investigates the comparative properties of the CP- and CPT-invariant extensions of thermodynamics (focusing on the latter, which is less conventional than the former and examines conditions under which these extensions can be experimentally tested.

  15. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  16. Co-occurrence patterns in aquatic bacterial communities across changing permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, J.; Lovejoy, C.; Crevecoeur, S.; Vincent, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost thaw ponds and lakes are widespread across the northern landscape and may play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles, yet knowledge about their microbial ecology is limited. We sampled a set of thaw ponds and lakes as well as shallow rock-basin lakes that are located in distinct valleys along a north-south permafrost degradation gradient. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine co-occurrence patterns among bacterial taxa (operational taxonomic units, OTUs), and then analyzed these results relative to environmental variables to identify variables controlling bacterial community structure. Network analysis was applied to identify possible ecological linkages among the bacterial taxa and with abiotic and biotic variables. The results showed an overall high level of shared taxa among bacterial communities within each valley; however, the bacterial co-occurrence patterns were non-random, with evidence of habitat preferences. There were taxonomic differences in bacterial assemblages among the different valleys that were statistically related to dissolved organic carbon concentration, conductivity and phytoplankton biomass. Co-occurrence networks revealed complex interdependencies within the bacterioplankton communities and showed contrasting linkages to environmental conditions among the main bacterial phyla. The thaw pond networks were composed of a limited number of highly connected taxa. This "small world network" property would render the communities more robust to environmental change but vulnerable to the loss of microbial "keystone species". These highly connected nodes (OTUs) in the network were not merely the numerically dominant taxa, and their loss would alter the organization of microbial consortia and ultimately the food web structure and functioning of these aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Increased variability of tornado occurrence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Harold E; Carbin, Gregory W; Marsh, Patrick T

    2014-10-17

    Whether or not climate change has had an impact on the occurrence of tornadoes in the United States has become a question of high public and scientific interest, but changes in how tornadoes are reported have made it difficult to answer it convincingly. We show that, excluding the weakest tornadoes, the mean annual number of tornadoes has remained relatively constant, but their variability of occurrence has increased since the 1970s. This is due to a decrease in the number of days per year with tornadoes combined with an increase in days with many tornadoes, leading to greater variability on annual and monthly time scales and changes in the timing of the start of the tornado season. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products....... The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of the effect of physiological factors affecting fumonisin production. Major findings in this context have...... been the ocumentation of the production of fumonisins in raisins and peanuts, and occurrence of A. niger derived fumonisins in retail wine and raisins. Physiological investigations have demonstrated that fumonisin production in A. niger occurs at temperatures between 20-37 °C. Three water activity...

  19. On the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event, R F; Davis, J D; Tucker, C M; Alfieri, F J

    1970-12-01

    The secondary phloem of 3 species of the Taxodiaceae and 13 species of woody dicotyledons was examined for the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements. Nuclei were found in all mature sieve cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Sequoia sempervirens and Taxodium distichum, and in some mature sieve-tube members in 12 of the 13 species of woody dicotyledons. Except for nuclei of sieve cells undergoing cessation of function, the nuclei in mature sieve cells of M. glyptostroboides, S. sempervirens and T. distichum were normal in appearance. The occurrence and morphology of nuclei in mature sieve-tube members of the woody dicotyledons were quite variable. Only 3 species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus americana and Vitis riparia, contained some mature sieve elements with apparently normal nuclei.

  20. Postpartum infections: occurrence, healtcare contacts and association with breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Peder; Petersen, Line Kirkeby; Kragstrup, J.

    2012-01-01

    % of all women had experienced one or more self-reported episode of infection. Breast infections (12%) were most frequent, followed by wound (3%), airway (3%), vaginal (3%) and urinary tract infections (3%), endometritis (2%) and "other infections" (2%). Of the women with an infection, 66% (265 of 395......Objective. To investigate the following: (i) the occurrence of postpartum infections; (ii) the frequency of contact with either a general practitioner or a hospital due to postpartum infections; and (iii) the association of postpartum infections with continuation of breastfeeding. Design. Cross...... from general practitioner and hospital records. Main outcome measures. The distribution of different infections, as well as the overall occurrence of any infection, was evaluated according to mode of delivery and breastfeeding status (stopped/continued). Results. Within four weeks after delivery, 24...

  1. Occurrence of nepoviruses in Rubus species in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, J; Kubelková, D; Honetslegrová-Fránová, J

    1997-06-01

    The occurrence of arabis mosaic virus (AMV), raspberry ringspot virus (RRV), tomato black ring virus (TBRV), strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV) and cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) in cultivated and wild plants of raspberry and blackberry has been studied in the Czech Republic in 1993-1996. Five hundred and seventy samples were collected at 51 localities and assayed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The results represent the first evidence on the occurrence of AMV, RRV, TBRV and SLRV in cultivated Rubus species in the Czech Republic. Isolates AMV M20 and TBRV ML15 which were successfully transmitted by mechanical inoculation and characterized by reactions of differential host plants and by electron microscopy are the first isolates from Rubus from this territory. CLRV was not detected in either cultivated or wild Rubus species.

  2. Towards a new paleotemperature proxy from reef coral occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchstedt, Andreas; Pandolfi, John M; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2017-09-05

    Global mean temperature is thought to have exceeded that of today during the last interglacial episode (LIG, ~ 125,000 yrs b.p.) but robust paleoclimate data are still rare in low latitudes. Occurrence data of tropical reef corals may provide new proxies of low latitude sea-surface temperatures. Using modern reef coral distributions we developed a geographically explicit model of sea surface temperatures. Applying this model to coral occurrence data of the LIG provides a latitudinal U-shaped pattern of temperature anomalies with cooler than modern temperatures around the equator and warmer subtropical climes. Our results agree with previously published estimates of LIG temperatures and suggest a poleward broadening of the habitable zone for reef corals during the LIG.

  3. Novel Occurrence of Uncommon Polyamines in Higher Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Glenn D.; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Bagga, Suman; Phillips, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Diamines and polyamines are ubiquitous components of living cells, and apparently are involved in numerous cellular and physiological processes. Certain “uncommon” polyamines have limited distribution in nature and have been associated primarily with organisms adapted to extreme environments, although the precise function of these polyamines in such organisms is unknown. This article summarizes current knowledge regarding the occurrence in higher plants of the uncommon polyamines related to and including norspermidine and norspermine. A putative biosynthetic pathway to account for the occurrences of these uncommon polyamines in higher plants is presented, with a summary of the supporting evidence indicating the existence of the requisite enzymatic activities in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. PMID:16667862

  4. Waiting Time Distributions for Pattern Occurrence in a Constrained Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Stefanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A binary sequence of zeros and ones is called a (d,k-sequence if it does not contain runs of zeros of length either less than d or greater than k, where d and k are arbitrary, but fixed, non-negative integers and d < k. Such sequences find an abundance of applications in communications, in particular for magnetic and optical recording. Occasionally, one requires that (d,k-sequences do not contain a specific pattern w. Therefore, distribution results concerning pattern occurrence in (d,k-sequences are of interest. In this paper we study the distribution of the waiting time until the r th occurrence of a pattern w in a random (d,k-sequence generated by a Markov source. Numerical examples are also provided.

  5. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  6. Occurrence, metabolism, metabolic role, and industrial uses of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, A J; Dawes, E A

    1990-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), of which polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most abundant, are bacterial carbon and energy reserve materials of widespread occurrence. They are composed of 3-hydroxyacid monomer units and exist as a small number of cytoplasmic granules per cell. The properties of the C4 homopolymer PHB as a biodegradable thermoplastic first attracted industrial attention more than 20 years ago. Copolymers of C4 (3-hydroxybutyrate [3HB]) and C5 (3-hydroxyvalerate [3HV]) monomer unit...

  7. Occurrences of uranium at Clinton, Hunterdon County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, F.A.; Klemic, H.; Choquette, P.W.

    1954-01-01

    An occurrence of uranium at Clinton, Hunterdon County, N. J. was first brought to the attention of the U.S. Geological Survey when Mr. Thomas L. Eak of Avenel, N. J. submitted to the Survey a sample containing 0.068 percent uranium. Subsequent examinations of the area around Clinton indicated that detailed mapping and study were warranted. The uranium occurrences at Clinton are in or associated with fault zones in the Kittatinny limestone of Cambro-Ordovician age. The limestone generally light gray, thick bedded, and dolomitic; chert is common but not abundant. Regionally and locally, faults are the most significant structural features. The local faults at Clinton are the loci for most of the uranium. The largest fault can be traced for about 700 feet and is radioactive everywhere it crops out. Samples from this fault contain as much as 0.038 percent uranium; the average content is about 0.010 percent uranium. Uranium also occurs disseminated in two 4-inch layers of black feldspathic dolomite and in several zones of residual soil derived from the Kittatinny limestone. The black layers contain as much as 0.046 percent uranium and can be traced only about 20 feet along strike. They are cut by a small fault that is also radioactive. The radioactive soil zones are roughly elongated parallel to bedding. Soil from them contains up to 0.008 percent uranium. The uranium occurrences are best explained by a supergene origin. The sampling, mapping, and radioactivity testing of uranium occurrences at Clinton indicate they are too low grade to be of current economic interest.

  8. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens and Molds in Turkish Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Sebnem Ozturkogu-Budak

    2016-01-01

    A survey of the occurrence of food pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia, Clostridium, Bacillus and Staphylococcus analyses were performed on 301 food samples from 8 different food categories such as dry legumes, milk products, meat products, fish, frozen foods, deserts, nuts and vegetables and fruits. Yeast and mold analyses were also performed on 364 food products from 9 main food categories such as dry legumes, milk products, meat products, seasonings, deserts, nuts, bee product...

  9. Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Stem Borers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the occurrence of stem-borers and the incidence of stalk rot under varying population densities (64,000, 32,000, and 21,333 plants/ha) of two common cultivars (TZSR-Y and DMRZ-Y) of maize. Whereas the percentage of plants with stem borers infestation and those with stem ...

  10. The gemstone deposits of Brazil: occurrences, production and economic impact

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito Barreto, Sandra; Bretas Bittar, Sheila Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article gathers together data on the occurrence, production and economic importance of gem deposits in Brazil, including specific information on the major deposits. Of the 100 or so different types of gemstones found in the country, the most important in terms of production and/or originality are tourmalines, topaz, opals, varieties of quartz (agate, amethyst and citrine) and emeralds. Brazil is also one of the only producers in the world of imperial topaz and Paraíba tourmaline. The cou...

  11. A STELLAR-MASS-DEPENDENT DROP IN PLANET OCCURRENCE RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft has discovered a large number of planets with up to one-year periods and down to terrestrial sizes. While the majority of the target stars are main-sequence dwarfs of spectral type F, G, and K, Kepler covers stars with effective temperatures as low as 2500 K, which corresponds to M stars. These cooler stars allow characterization of small planets near the habitable zone, yet it is not clear if this population is representative of that around FGK stars. In this paper, we calculate the occurrence of planets around stars of different spectral types as a function of planet radius and distance from the star and show that they are significantly different from each other. We further identify two trends. First, the occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets (1-4 R ⊕ ) is successively higher toward later spectral types at all orbital periods probed by Kepler; planets around M stars occur twice as frequently as around G stars, and thrice as frequently as around F stars. Second, a drop in planet occurrence is evident at all spectral types inward of a ∼10 day orbital period, with a plateau further out. By assigning to each spectral type a median stellar mass, we show that the distance from the star where this drop occurs is stellar mass dependent, and scales with semi-major axis as the cube root of stellar mass. By comparing different mechanisms of planet formation, trapping, and destruction, we find that this scaling best matches the location of the pre-main-sequence co-rotation radius, indicating efficient trapping of migrating planets or planetary building blocks close to the star. These results demonstrate the stellar-mass dependence of the planet population, both in terms of occurrence rate and of orbital distribution. The prominent stellar-mass dependence of the inner boundary of the planet population shows that the formation or migration of planets is sensitive to the stellar parameters

  12. Occurrence and removal of emerging contaminants in wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Janna, Hussein

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Over the past decade, the occurrence and removal of emerging contaminants in the environment has received much attention. Both natural and synthetic progestogens, which are hormones, and also benzotriazoles are two examples of such emerging contaminants. Sewage treatment works are recognised as one of the main routes of these compounds to the environment. Low concentrations (nanograms per lit...

  13. Statistical physics approach to earthquake occurrence and forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Godano, Cataldo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Grasso, Jean Robert [ISTerre, IRD-CNRS-OSUG, University of Grenoble, Saint Martin d’Héres (France); Lippiello, Eugenio, E-mail: eugenio.lippiello@unina2.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy)

    2016-04-25

    There is striking evidence that the dynamics of the Earth crust is controlled by a wide variety of mutually dependent mechanisms acting at different spatial and temporal scales. The interplay of these mechanisms produces instabilities in the stress field, leading to abrupt energy releases, i.e., earthquakes. As a consequence, the evolution towards instability before a single event is very difficult to monitor. On the other hand, collective behavior in stress transfer and relaxation within the Earth crust leads to emergent properties described by stable phenomenological laws for a population of many earthquakes in size, time and space domains. This observation has stimulated a statistical mechanics approach to earthquake occurrence, applying ideas and methods as scaling laws, universality, fractal dimension, renormalization group, to characterize the physics of earthquakes. In this review we first present a description of the phenomenological laws of earthquake occurrence which represent the frame of reference for a variety of statistical mechanical models, ranging from the spring-block to more complex fault models. Next, we discuss the problem of seismic forecasting in the general framework of stochastic processes, where seismic occurrence can be described as a branching process implementing space–time-energy correlations between earthquakes. In this context we show how correlations originate from dynamical scaling relations between time and energy, able to account for universality and provide a unifying description for the phenomenological power laws. Then we discuss how branching models can be implemented to forecast the temporal evolution of the earthquake occurrence probability and allow to discriminate among different physical mechanisms responsible for earthquake triggering. In particular, the forecasting problem will be presented in a rigorous mathematical framework, discussing the relevance of the processes acting at different temporal scales for

  14. Earthquake occurrence as stochastic event: (1) theoretical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basili, A.; Basili, M.; Cagnetti, V.; Colombino, A.; Jorio, V.M.; Mosiello, R.; Norelli, F.; Pacilio, N.; Polinari, D.

    1977-01-01

    The present article intends liaisoning the stochastic approach in the description of earthquake processes suggested by Lomnitz with the experimental evidence reached by Schenkova that the time distribution of some earthquake occurrence is better described by a Negative Bionomial distribution than by a Poisson distribution. The final purpose of the stochastic approach might be a kind of new way for labeling a given area in terms of seismic risk.

  15. Nonculturability Might Underestimate the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Issmat I; Helmy, Yosra A; Kathayat, Dipak; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario A; Kumar, Anand; Deblais, Loic; Huang, Huang-Chi; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the contribution of litter to the occurrence of Campylobacter on three broiler farms, which were known to have low (LO) and high (HI-A and HI-B) Campylobacter prevalence. For this purpose, we collected litter samples (n = 288) during and after two rearing cycles from each farm. We evaluated the occurrence of Campylobacter (using selective enrichment and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [q-PCR] analysis) in the litter samples as well as the litter's pH and moisture content. Ceca from each flock (n = 144) were harvested at slaughter age and used to quantify Campylobacter colony-forming units (CFUs). Campylobacter was only retrieved from 7 litter samples that were collected from HI-A and HI-B during the growing period, but no Campylobacter was isolated from LO farms. The q-PCR analysis detected Campylobacter in pooled litter samples from all three farms. However, in litter collected during the same rotation, Campylobacter levels were significantly higher (p litter samples in comparison to those in LO. Cecal samples from HI-A and HI-B yielded relatively high numbers of Campylobacter CFUs, which were undetectable in LO samples. Litter's pH and moisture did not affect the overall occurrence of Campylobacter in litter and ceca on any of the farms. Our data suggest that Campylobacter was generally more abundant in litter that was collected from farms with highly colonized flocks. Therefore, better approaches for assessing the occurrence of Campylobacter in litter might be warranted in order to reduce the dissemination of these pathogens on and off poultry farms.

  16. Longitudinal Variations in the Variability of Spread F Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, K. M.; Bridgwood, C.; Carrano, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The complex dynamics of the equatorial ionosphere have attracted the interest and attention of researchers for many decades. The relatively local processes that give rise to large meridional gradients have been well documented and the associated terminology has entered the common lexicon of ionospheric research (e.g., fountain effect, equatorial anomaly, bubbles, Spread F). Zonal variations have also been noted, principally at the level of determining longitudinal differences in seasonal activity patterns. Due to a historical lack of high resolution ground-based observations at low latitudes, the primary source of data for such analyses has been space-based observations from satellites such as ROCSAT, DMSP, C/NOFS that measure in situ electron density variations. An important longitudinal variation in electron density structure associated with non-migrating diurnal tides was discovered by Immel et al. in 2006 using data from the FUV sensor aboard the NASA IMAGE satellite. These satellite observations have been very helpful in identifying the structural characteristics of the equatorial ionosphere and the occurrence of Spread F, but they provide little insight into variations in scintillation features and potential differences in bubble development characteristics. Moreover space-based studies tend towards the statistics of occurrence frequency over periods of weeks to months. A recent analysis of daily spread F occurrence as determined by low latitude VHF scintillation activity shows that statistical results that are consistent with previous space-based observations, but the level of variability in the occurrence data show marked variations with longitude. For example, the American sector shows very low in-season variability while the African and Asian sectors exhibit true day-to-day variability regardless of seasonal variations. The results have significant implications for space weather as they suggest that long-term forecasts of equatorial scintillation may be

  17. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    CABRINE-SANTOS, Marlene; CINTRA, Eduardo do Nascimento; CARMO, Rafaela Andrade do; NASCENTES, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; PEDROSA, André Luiz; CORREIA, Dalmo; OLIVEIRA-SILVA, Márcia Benedita de

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG) through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from...

  18. Occurrence, fate and effects of azoxystrobin in aquatic ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biociências, na especialidade de Toxicologia, apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra After a literature review to find relevant research on the occurrence, fate and effects of azoxystrobin, the world’s leading agricultural fungicide, in aquatic ecosystems, strengths and gaps were identified in the database. Data revealed that validated analytical methods for complex matrices are very limited a...

  19. Occurrence and Characterization Microstructure of Iron Impurities in Halloysite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Yan, Chunjie; Wang, Hongquan; Xiao, Guoqi; Tu, Dong

    2015-09-01

    The quality of the clays and over all halloysite are mostly associated with minor amounts of ferruginous impurities content, since this element gives an undesirable reddish color to the halloysite mineral. Hence, finding out the modes of occurrence of iron in halloysite is of prime importance in the value addition and optimum utilization of halloysite. In order to analyze the occurrence of iron impurities in halloysite, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were combined with wet chemical analysis methods to study the low-grade halloysite. The results indicated that the mineral phases of iron impurities in the concentrates are mainly composed of amounts of magnetite, goethite and hematite. Two types of occurrences for iron impurities have been found. One is single crystalline mineral consist in the halloysite, which contains three different phases of Goethite FeO(OH) (44.75%), Magnetite Fe3O4 (27.43%) and Hematite Fe2O3 (31.96%). The other is amorphous Fe-Al-Si glial materials. This study is of significance in the theoretical research on the halloysite mineralogy and in the developmental practice of halloysite in coal measures.

  20. Change in Occurrence of Rice stripe virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Choon Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the occurrence of Rice stripe virus (RSV disease in 672 fields from 29 rice representative area inJuly 2012 as nationwide survey for RSV occurrence since 2008. We confirmed occurrence of virus disease in18 areas, in west coast region including Secheon, Taean, Buwan and Cheorwon. RSV incidence rates of plantin Sacheon and Buan were less than 0.01% and 0.15%, respectively, showing similar rate with the nationwidesurvey carried out in 2008, whereas incidence rate of field declined from 19.9% in 2008 to 4.9% in 2012.Earlier, RSV occurred largely across the southern region of Korea. In 2001, RSV disease was found inGangwha and Gyeonggi-do, the northern region of Korea. In 2007, RSV appeared in west coast; Buan inJeollabuk-do and Seocheon in Choongnam-do. After migration of the vector, small brown plant hopper, fromChina in 2009, RSV is becoming a pandemic.

  1. Occurrence of monoethylmercury in the Florida Everglades: Identification and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yuxiang; Yin Yongguang; Li Yanbin; Liu Guangliang; Feng Xinbin; Jiang Guibin; Cai Yong

    2010-01-01

    A few studies have reported the occurrence of monoethylmercury (CH 3 CH 2 Hg + ) in the natural environment, but further verification is needed due to the lack of direct evidence and/or uncertainty in analytical procedures. Various analytical techniques were employed to verify the occurrence of CH 3 CH 2 Hg + in soil of the Florida Everglades. The identity of CH 3 CH 2 Hg + in Everglades soil was clarified, for the first time, by GC/MS. The employment of the recently developed aqueous phenylation-purge-and-trap-GC coupled with ICPMS confirmed that the detected CH 3 CH 2 Hg + was not a misidentification of CH 3 SHg + . Stable isotope-tracer experiments further indicated that the detected CH 3 CH 2 Hg + indeed originated from Everglades soil and was not an analytical artifact. All these evidence clearly confirmed the occurrence of CH 3 CH 2 Hg + in Everglades soil, presumably as a consequence of ethylation occurring in this wetland. The prevalence of CH 3 CH 2 Hg + in Everglades soil suggests that ethylation could play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. - A combination of various analytical techniques and stable isotope tracer experiments confirms monoethylmercury is present in Everglades soil.

  2. Strong Sporadic E Occurrence Detected by Ground-Based GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Ning, Baiqi; Yue, Xinan; Li, Guozhu; Hu, Lianhuan; Chang, Shoumin; Lan, Jiaping; Zhu, Zhengping; Zhao, Biqiang; Lin, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The ionospheric sporadic E (Es) layer has significant impact on radio wave propagation. The traditional techniques employed for Es layer observation, for example, ionosondes, are not dense enough to resolve the morphology and dynamics of Es layer in spatial distribution. The ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technique is expected to shed light on the understanding of regional strong Es occurrence, owing to the facts that the critical frequency (foEs) of strong Es structure is usually high enough to cause pulse-like disturbances in GNSS total electron content (TEC), and a large number of GNSS receivers have been deployed all over the world. Based on the Chinese ground-based GNSS networks, including the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and the Beidou Ionospheric Observation Network, a large-scale strong Es event was observed in the middle latitude of China. The strong Es shown as a band-like structure in the southwest-northeast direction extended more than 1,000 km. By making a comparative analysis of Es occurrences identified from the simultaneous observations by ionosondes and GNSS TEC receivers over China middle latitude statistically, we found that GNSS TEC can be well employed to observe strong Es occurrence with a threshold value of foEs, 14 MHz.

  3. The effect of evaluation on co-occurrence memory judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Amzaleg-David, Efrat

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effect of an attitude towards an object on the memory judgement of whether this object co-occurred with positive versus negative stimuli. We induced positive or negative attitudes towards novel male stimuli, and paired each man with an equal number of positive and negative animals. In a memory test, participants reported more co-occurrences of same-valence man/animal pairs than opposite-valence pairs. This valence-compatibility effect occurred even when attitudes were induced after the pairing (Experiment 1), when participants knew that each man occurred with an equal number of positive and negative animals (Experiment 2), and in reports of clear memory of pairs that did not co-occur (Experiment 3). The present findings suggest that evaluation causes illusory correlation even when the co-occurring stimuli are not traits or behaviours attributed to the attitude object. The results question the validity of co-occurrence memory judgements as measures of co-occurrence awareness in evaluative conditioning (EC) research.

  4. Improving SysSim's Planetary Occurrence Rate Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Keir; Ragozzine, Darin; Hsu, Danley; Ford, Eric B.

    2017-10-01

    Kepler's catalog of thousands of transiting planet candidates enables statistical characterization of the underlying planet occurrence rates as a function of period and radius. Due to geometric factors and general noise in measurements, we know that many planets--especially those with a small-radius and/or long-period--were not observed by Kepler.To account for Kepler's detection criteria, Hsu et al. 2017 expanded on work in Lissuaer et al. 2011 to develop the Planetary System Simulator or "SysSim". SysSim uses a forward model to generate simulated catalogs of exoplanet systems, determine which of those simulated planets would have been seen by Kepler in the presence of uncertainties, and then compares those “observed planets” to those actually seen by Kepler. It then uses Approximate Bayesian Computation to infer the posterior probability distributions of the input parameters used to generate the forward model. In Hsu et al. 2017, we focused on matching the observed frequency of planets by solving for the underlying occurrence rate for each bin in a 2-dimensional grid of radius and period. After summarizing the results of Hsu et al. 2017, we show new results that investigate the effect on occurrence rates from including more accurate completeness products (from the Kepler DR25 analysis) into SysSim.

  5. Predicting Seagrass Occurrence in a Changing Climate Using Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, O.; Butler, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Seagrasses are marine plants that can quickly sequester vast amounts of carbon (up to 100 times more and 12 times faster than tropical forests). In this work, we present an integrated GIS and machine learning approach to build a data-driven model of seagrass presence-absence. We outline a random forest approach that avoids the prevalence bias in many ecological presence-absence models. One of our goals is to predict global seagrass occurrence from a spatially limited training sample. In addition, we conduct a sensitivity study which investigates the vulnerability of seagrass to changing climate conditions. We integrate multiple data sources including fine-scale seagrass data from MarineCadastre.gov and the recently available globally extensive publicly available Ecological Marine Units (EMU) dataset. These data are used to train a model for seagrass occurrence along the U.S. coast. In situ oceans data are interpolated using Empirical Bayesian Kriging (EBK) to produce globally extensive prediction variables. A neural network is used to estimate probable future values of prediction variables such as ocean temperature to assess the impact of a warming climate on seagrass occurrence. The proposed workflow can be generalized to many presence-absence models.

  6. Occurrence and abundance of ants, reptiles, and mammals: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)- associated wildlife are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation and by impacts associated with anthropogenic disturbances, including energy development. Understanding how species of concern as well as other wildlife including insects, reptiles, and mammals respond to type and spatial scale of disturbance is critical to managing future land uses and identifying sites that are important for conservation. We developed statistical models to describe species occurrence or abundance, based on area searches in 7.29-ha survey blocks, across the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) area for six shrub steppe-associated species: harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex spp.), thatch ant (Formica spp.), short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma hernandesi), white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii), cottontail (Sylvilagus spp.) and least chipmunk (Tamius minimus). We modeled patterns in occupancy or abundance relative to multi-scale measures of vegetation type and pattern, abiotic site characteristics, and anthropogenic disturbance factors. Sagebrush habitat was a strong predictor of occurrence for shorthorned lizards and white-tailed jackrabbits, but weak for the other four species. Vegetation and abiotic characteristics were strong determinants of species occurrence, although the scale of response was not consistent among species. All species, with the exception of the short-horned lizard, responded to anthropogenic disturbance, although responses again varied as a function of scale and direction (negative and positive influences). Our results improve our understanding of how environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species distributions across the WBEA area and facilitate a multi-species approach to management of this sagebrush ecosystem.

  7. [Vulvovaginitis. Occurrence and importance of mixed and unclassifiable pictures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Líbalová, Z; Cepický, P; Malina, J; Stanslický, K; Kuzelová, M; Medalová, Z; Sosnová, K

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of mixed and unclassifiable vulvovaginitis (i.e. those, which fulfill the diagnostic criteria of several diagnostic units or no diagnostic unit) in symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Prospective study. In 412 women (115 of them asymptomatic) the authors established the diagnosis of vulvovaginitis on the basis of gynecological examination, pH, the amine test and microscopic examination according to Giemsa and Gram. Mycosis was diagnosed in 15.5% women (in 9,6% of asymptomatic ones), lactobacillosis in u 5.6% (in 7.0% of asymptomatic), anaerobic vaginosis in 10.7% (8.7% of asymptomatic), aerobic vaginitis in 7.7% women (4.3% of asymptomatic). U 15.0% mixed infections were diagnosed (in 61% asymptomatic). U 29.4% symptomatic women the diagnostic criteria were not fulfilled for any nosological unit. Vulvovaginal mycosis, lactobacillosis, anaerobic vaginosis, aerobic vaginosis were considered as dysmicrobia conditions. The authors demonstrated a high occurrence of more units ("clear" diagnoses to "mixed" diagnoses being in the ratio of 1.62:1). The authors also demonstrated a high occurrence of mixed infections in asymptomatic women (36.0%). On the contrary, in 29.4% of symptomatic women the diagnosis could not be established, the findings being "normal" or "unclassifiable".

  8. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yun-Hui; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-15

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 microg kg(-1) dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 microg kg(-1) d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers.

  9. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Cehui; Cai Quanying; Li Yunhui; Zeng Qiaoyun

    2008-01-01

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 μg kg -1 dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 μg kg -1 d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; -1 d.w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons ( -1 d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations. There are large variations in concentrations of various compounds in different fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers

  10. Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in sediments from Norderney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekiff, Jens H.; Remy, Dominique; Klasmeier, Jörg; Fries, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of small potential microplastics (SPM) ( 1 mm) was also examined. Small microparticles were extracted from 36 one kg sediment samples and analysed by visual microscopic inspection and partly by thermal desorption pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The smallest particle size that could be analysed with this method was estimated to be 100 μm. The mean number of SPM at the three sampling sites (n = 12) was 1.7, 1.3 and 2.3 particles per kg dry sediment, respectively. SPM were identified as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and polyamide. The organic plastic additives found were benzophenone, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Particles were distributed rather homogenously and the occurrence of SPM did not correlate with that of VPD. -- Highlights: • The small-scale variability of small potential microplastics (<1 mm) occurrence in beach sediments was studied. • Within 500 m, small potential microplastics (<1 mm) were distributed rather homogeneously in investigated beach sediments. • The occurrence of small potential microplastics (<1 mm) did not correlate with that of visible plastic debris. • Procedural contamination of sediments by fibres (blank) constitutes an analytical problem. • These findings must be considered when setting up standardized monitoring protocols. -- On a small scale within 500 m, small microplastics are distributed rather homogeneously in sediments from the North Sea island of Norderney

  11. Occurrence and persistence of magnetic elements in the quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannattasio, F.; Berrilli, F.; Consolini, G.; Del Moro, D.; Gošić, M.; Bellot Rubio, L.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Turbulent convection efficiently transports energy up to the solar photosphere, but its multi-scale nature and dynamic properties are still not fully understood. Several works in the literature have investigated the emergence of patterns of convective and magnetic nature in the quiet Sun at spatial and temporal scales from granular to global. Aims: To shed light on the scales of organisation at which turbulent convection operates, and its relationship with the magnetic flux therein, we studied characteristic spatial and temporal scales of magnetic features in the quiet Sun. Methods: Thanks to an unprecedented data set entirely enclosing a supergranule, occurrence and persistence analysis of magnetogram time series were used to detect spatial and long-lived temporal correlations in the quiet Sun and to investigate their nature. Results: A relation between occurrence and persistence representative for the quiet Sun was found. In particular, highly recurrent and persistent patterns were detected especially in the boundary of the supergranular cell. These are due to moving magnetic elements undergoing motion that behaves like a random walk together with longer decorrelations ( 2 h) with respect to regions inside the supergranule. In the vertices of the supegranular cell the maximum observed occurrence is not associated with the maximum persistence, suggesting that there are different dynamic regimes affecting the magnetic elements.

  12. PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR – POSSIBLE GENETIC BASIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-occurrence of Pityriasis versicolor (PV) in spouses of individuals with this superficial fungal infection despite several years of cohabitation suggests that heredity might play an important role in those affected. Forty subjects who were married were studied in two phases. The first phase involved using a detailed ...

  13. Association of genetic variants of the incretin-related genes with quantitative traits and occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Enya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Rare variants of GIPR may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, possibly through insulin secretory defects. Furthermore, the genetic variant of PCSK1 might influence glucose homeostasis by altered insulin resistance independently of BMI, incretin level or proinsulin conversion, and may be associated with the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese.

  14. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  15. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  16. On the possibility of superconducting phase coherence through time barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, A.; Kulik, I.O.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of the occurrence of weak coupling between the superconducting order parameters in a single superconductor before and after an ultrashot quenching of superconductivity, is analyzed. The time barrier corresponding to such a quenching of the order parameter has to be shorter than, or comparable with, the characteristic 'coherence time' τ ∼ = Δ. Such an effect is somewhat analogous to a Josephson effect in which phase difference is now considered in the time domain rather than in space. A qualitative derivation of the constitutive relation for such a weak time correlation is obtained which gives, by the duality condition, a dependence of the supercharge on the time phase difference. The role of high-T c superconductors in the detection of this coherent transient response appears to be quite relevant. 21 refs., 4 figs

  17. From Localized Scleroderma to Systemic Sclerosis: Coexistence or Possible Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilia, Giuggioli; Michele, Colaci; Emanuele, Cocchiara; Amelia, Spinella; Federica, Lumetti; Clodoveo, Ferri

    2018-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LoS) are two different diseases that may share some features. We evaluated the relationship between SSc and LoS in our case series of SSc patients. We analysed the clinical records of 330 SSc patients, in order to find the eventual occurrence of both the two diseases. Eight (2.4%) female patients presented both the two diagnoses in their clinical histories. Six developed LoS prior to SSc; in 4/6 cases, the presence of autoantibodies was observed before SSc diagnosis. Overall, the median time interval between LoS and SSc diagnosis was 18 (range 0-156) months. LoS and SSc are two distinct clinical entities that may coexist. Moreover, as anecdotally reported in pediatric populations, we suggested the possible development of SSc in adult patients with LoS, particularly in presence of Raynaud's phenomenon or antinuclear antibodies before the SSc onset.

  18. H2 as a Possible Carrier of the DIBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubachs, W.

    2014-02-01

    In the 1990s the hydrogen molecule, by far the most abundant molecular species in the interstellar medium, has been proposed as a possible carrier of the diffuse interstellar bands. While some remarkable coincidences were found in the rich spectrum of inter-Rydberg transitions of this molecule with DIB-features, both in frequency position as in linewidth, some open issues remained on a required non-linear optical pumping scheme that should explain the population of certain intermediate levels and act as a selection mechanism. Recently a similar scheme has been proposed relating the occurrence of the UV-bump (the ubiquitous 2170 Å extinction feature) to the spectrum of H2, therewith reviving the H2 hypothesis.

  19. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.

  20. Possible contribution of IGF-1 to depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęsny, Ewa; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Głombik, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Depression is an illness of unknown origin and involves the dysregulation of many physiological processes disturbed in this disease. It has been postulated that the pathomechanism of depression is complex, and apart from changes in neurotransmitters, a dysregulation of the immune and endocrine systems also plays an important role in the development of this disorder. Recent studies indicate that an impairment of synaptic plasticity in specific areas of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the hippocampus, may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of depression. The abnormal neural plasticity may be related to alterations in the levels of neurotrophic factors. On this basis, a theory connecting the occurrence of depression with disturbances in neurotrophic factors has gained great attention. This review summarizes data suggesting a role for the neurotrophic factors - especially insulin-like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) - as possible targets for therapy in depression in the context of depressive behavior modulation, anti-inflammatory action and neuroprotection.

  1. On the Occurrence of Liquation During Linear Friction Welding of Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, F.; Shahriari, D.; Jahazi, M.; Cormier, J.; Flipo, B. C. D.

    2017-06-01

    A combination of experimental and analytical methods was used to study the possible occurrence of liquation during LFW of the newly developed AD730TM Ni-based superalloy. LFWed joints were produced using a semi-industrial size facility and the interfaces of the joints as well as the ejected flash were examined using optical and Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM). Physical simulation of the LFW thermal cycle, using thermomechanical simulator Gleeble™ 3800, showed that incipient melting started from 1473 K (1200 °C). The analytical model, calibrated by experiments, predicted that the highest temperature of the interface was about 1523 K (1250 °C). The constitutive equations based on lattice and pipe diffusion models were developed to quantify the self-diffusivity of the elements and control the extent of liquation by considering the effect of LFW process parameters. Analytical results show that the application of compressive stresses during LFW results in 25 times increase in the diffusion of Ni atoms at the weld interface. Therefore, no presence of re-solidified phases, i.e., occurrence of liquation, was observed in the microstructure of the weld zone or the flash in the present study. Based on the obtained results, a methodology was developed for designing the optimum pressure above which no liquation, and hence cracking, will be observable.

  2. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  3. Long-term temporal changes in the occurrence of a high forest fire danger in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mäkelä

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate variation and change influence several ecosystem components including forest fires. To examine long-term temporal variations of forest fire danger, a fire danger day (FDD model was developed. Using mean temperature and total precipitation of the Finnish wildfire season (June–August, the model describes the climatological preconditions of fire occurrence and gives the number of fire danger days during the same time period. The performance of the model varied between different regions in Finland being best in south and west. In the study period 1908–2011, the year-to-year variation of FDD was large and no significant increasing or decreasing tendencies could be found. Negative slopes of linear regression lines for FDD could be explained by the simultaneous, mostly not significant increases in precipitation. Years with the largest wildfires did not stand out from the FDD time series. This indicates that intra-seasonal variations of FDD enable occurrence of large-scale fires, despite the whole season's fire danger is on an average level. Based on available monthly climate data, it is possible to estimate the general fire conditions of a summer. However, more detailed input data about weather conditions, land use, prevailing forestry conventions and socio-economical factors would be needed to gain more specific information about a season's fire risk.

  4. Estimating rate of occurrence of rare events with empirical bayes: A railway application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, John; Bedford, Tim; Walls, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Classical approaches to estimating the rate of occurrence of events perform poorly when data are few. Maximum likelihood estimators result in overly optimistic point estimates of zero for situations where there have been no events. Alternative empirical-based approaches have been proposed based on median estimators or non-informative prior distributions. While these alternatives offer an improvement over point estimates of zero, they can be overly conservative. Empirical Bayes procedures offer an unbiased approach through pooling data across different hazards to support stronger statistical inference. This paper considers the application of Empirical Bayes to high consequence low-frequency events, where estimates are required for risk mitigation decision support such as as low as reasonably possible. A summary of empirical Bayes methods is given and the choices of estimation procedures to obtain interval estimates are discussed. The approaches illustrated within the case study are based on the estimation of the rate of occurrence of train derailments within the UK. The usefulness of empirical Bayes within this context is discussed

  5. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in lowland tapirs maintained ex situ in Brazil and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Naegeli Gondim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lowland Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris is the second largest South American land mammal. It is strictly herbivorous and its exposure to Toxoplasma gondii should be indicative of environmental contamination by oocysts.In the present study antibodies to T. gondii in 47 Brazilian tapirs maintained ex situ in 10 Brazilian and in one Paraguayan institution were sought in serum samples by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥25. None of the animals presented clinical signs during the study. From 47 animals 35 (74.5% were positive with titers of 25 in 8, 50 in 6, 100 in 12, 200 in 5, 400 in 1 and 800 in 3. One animal had samples collected on twice, and 19 were born in captivity. There was no association between occurrence of T. gondii antibodies and gender, and positive animals were reported in all institutions. The high occurrence of seropositive tapirs born ininstitutions (54.3% confirmed the high exposure of these mammals to T. gondii in captivity. Only two cases ofabortion were reported, but it was not possible to correlate these abortions to T. gondii infection.

  6. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the aquatic environment: a review of their occurrence and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. PFCs comprise a diverse group of chemicals that are widely used as processing additives during fluoropolymer production and as surfactants in consumer applications for over 50 years. PFCs are known to be persistent, bioaccumulative and have possible adverse effects on humans and wildlife. As a result, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been added to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) list of the Stockholm Convention in May 2009. However, their homologues, neutral precursor compounds and new PFCs classes continue to be produced. In general, several PFCs from different classes have been detected ubiquitously in the aqueous environment while the concentrations usually range between pg and ng per litre for individual compounds. Sources of PFCs into the aqueous environment are both point sources (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents) and nonpoint sources (e.g., surface runoff). The detected congener composition in environmental samples depends on their physicochemical characteristics and may provide information to their sources and transport pathways. However, the dominant transport pathways of individual PFCs to remote regions have not been conclusively characterised to date. The objective of this article is to give an overview on existing knowledge of the occurrence, fate and processes of PFCs in the aquatic environment. Finally, this article identifies knowledge gaps, presents conclusions and recommendations for future work.

  7. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in the Cuyahoga River in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Amie M.G.; Plona, Meg B.

    2010-01-01

    There are several measures of the 'cleanliness' of a natural body of water, including concentrations of indicator bacteria, anthropogenic chemicals (chemicals derived from human activities), and nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium that lives in the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, such as humans, deer, cows, and dogs. Most strains of E. coli are not harmful and are in fact beneficial to humans by aiding in the digestive process. A few strains, such as the O157 strain, produce toxins that can cause gastrointestinal illness, but occurrence of toxic strains in the environment is not common. E. coli is considered a good indicator bacterium because its occurrence in the environment indicates the presence of fecal contamination and therefore the possible presence of pathogenic organisms associated with feces. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommends using measurements of E. coli to monitor freshwaters and set criteria for the concentration of bacteria that can be present in the water with minimal adverse human-health effects. Typically, a State's waters are assigned a recreational-use designation, such as bathing, primary-contact, or secondary contact waters, which is used to set the State's water-quality standards based on the USEPA criteria. The Cuyahoga River in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park is designated for primary-contact recreation; therefore, when concentrations of E. coli exceed 298 CFU/100mL, the river would be considered potentially unsafe for recreation.

  8. On the occurrence of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennet, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae in coastal Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Janardhanan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus is classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List and yet its distribution range within India is not resolved. In spite of its potential habitat being present in coastal Kerala, there are only a few, unsubstantiated records of the cat. Moreover, its occurrence in Sri Lanka strengthens the possibility of its presence (historical or current population in southern India, including Kerala. This survey was conducted to assess the occurrence of the Fishing Cat in coastal Kerala through personal informal interviews with local people and molecular analysis of scats. The study failed to find any evidence of the occurrence of Fishing Cat in the coastal areas of Kerala. We discuss two possibilities - one, of the species existing earlier but driven to extinction in recent decades, due to high levels of land conversion through anthropogenic activities in these areas and the other of the Fishing Cat having never occurred in coastal Kerala. A speculative reasoning for its absence from the region could be related to the difference in salinity levels between the eastern and western coasts of India which has already been documented. Moreover, fewer freshwater sources merge into the sea in coastal areas of Kerala as compared to the eastern coast of India. This could limit the distribution of the Fishing Cat. The argument was also supported by the lack of any authentic report till date or of local names for the Fishing Cat in the region.

  9. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  10. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    ranges. The parsimonious models developed here allowed us to explore niche requirements for each species and to predict the occurrence of macrophytes and of individual species in any particular lake by using only few, easily measured environmental variables. This is of interest to forecast possible changes related to global change and to assist managers in making conservation, management and restoration decisions. 

  11. Possible Application of Virtual Reality in Geography Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stojšić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality represents simulated three-dimensional environment created by hardware and software, which providing realistic experience and possibility of interaction to the end-user. Benefits provided by immersive virtual reality in educational setting were recognised in the past decades, however mass application was left out due to the lack of development and high price. Intensive development of new platforms and virtual reality devices in the last few years started up with Oculus Rift, and subsequently accelerated in the year 2014 by occurrence of Google Cardboard. Nowadays, for the first time in history, immersive virtual reality is available to millions of people. In the mid 2015 Google commenced developing Expeditions Pioneer Program aiming to massively utilise the Google Cardboard platform in education. Expeditions and other VR apps can enhance geography teaching and learning. Realistic experience acquired by utilisation of virtual reality in teaching process significantly overcome possibilities provided by images and illustrations in the textbook. Besides literature review on usage of virtual reality in education this paper presents suggestion of VR mobile apps that can be used together with the Google Cardboard head mounted displays (HMDs in geography classes, thereby emphasising advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles which may occur in introducing the immersive virtual reality in the educational process.

  12. Another Possibility for Boyajian's Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852, also known as Tabbys star or Boyajians star, has puzzled us since its discovery last year. A new study now explores whether the stars missing flux is due to internal blockage rather than something outside of the star.Mysterious DipsMost explanations for the flux dips of Boyajians star rely on external factors, like this illustrated swarm of comets. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Boyajians star shows unusual episodes of dimming in its light curve by as much as 20%, each lasting a few to tens of days and separated by periods of typically hundreds of days. In addition, archival observations show that it has gradually faded by roughly 15% over the span of the last hundred years. What could be causing both the sporadic flux dips and the long-term fading of this odd star?Explanations thus far have varied from mundane to extreme. Alien megastructures, pieces of smashed planets or comets orbiting the star, and intervening interstellar medium have all been proposed as possible explanations but these require some object external to the star. A new study by researcher Peter Foukal proposes an alternative: what if the source of the flux obstruction is the star itself?Analogy to the SunDecades ago, researchers discovered that our own stars total flux isnt as constant as we thought. When magnetic dark spots on the Suns surface block the heat transport, the Suns luminosity dips slightly. The diverted heat is redistributed in the Suns interior, becoming stored as a very small global heating and expansion of the convective envelope. When the blocking starspot is removed, the Sun appears slightly brighter than it did originally. Its luminosity then gradually relaxes, decaying back to its original value.Model of a stars flux after a 1,000-km starspot is inserted at time t = 0 and removed at time t = ts at a depth of 10,000 km in the convective zone. The stars luminosity dips, then becomes brighter than originally, and then gradually decays. [Foukal

  13. The Co- Occurrence of Autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children-what do we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eLeitner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD often co-occur. The DSM IV had specified that an ASD diagnosis is an exclusion criterion for ADHD, thereby limiting research of this common clinical co-occurrence. As neurodevelopmental disorders, both ASD and ADHD share some phenotypic similarities, but are characterized by distinct diagnostic criteria. The present review will examine the frequency and implications of this clinical co-occurrence in children, with an emphasis on the available data regarding preschool age. The review will highlight possible etiologies explaining it, and suggest future research directions necessary to enhance our understanding of both etiology and therapeutic interventions, in light of the new DSM V criteria , allowing for a dual diagnosis.

  14. Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Vanderley Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine. However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance.

  15. Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Sui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in the aquatic environment may pose potential threat to the ecosystem and human health, hence PPCPs have aroused much concern over the world. The contamination of PPCPs in the groundwater, the main source of drinking water supply in many countries and regions, has been extensively studied in the last decade. This paper reviews the occurrence of frequently detected PPCPs, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, lipid-regulators, carbamazepine, caffeine, and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in groundwater, with special concern to the progress made over the past three years. Possible emission sources for PPCPs in groundwater, such as wastewater and contaminated surface water, landfills, septic systems, livestock breeding and sewer leakage, are summarized. Besides, adsorption, migration and degradation, the dominant mechanisms in the subsurface transport and fate of PPCPs, are discussed, and the insights into the future study of PPCPs in the groundwater are provided.

  16. Occurrence of quinolone- and beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli in danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Guardabassi, Luca; Bisgaard, Magne

    An increased concern for the possible transfer of resistant bacteria or mobile resistance elements from food animals to humans has resulted in rigorous legislation preventing i.e. practical use of fluoroquinolones in the Danish broiler industry (Olesen et al., 2004; Petersen et al., 2006...... and nalidixic acid resistances were detected in all flocks. The numbers of E. coli resistant to these drugs were higher in plates from parent flocks than in those from offspring flocks. A broiler parent flock without any history of quinolone usage tested positive for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, although...... and mutations responsible for these types of resistance. References DANMAP 2005. 2006. Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, foods and humans in Denmark. Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen, Denmark, ISSN 1600-2032. Olesen, I., H. Hasman...

  17. Phyllostomid bat occurrence in successional stages of neotropical dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests (TDFs are highly endangered tropical ecosystems being replaced by a complex mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasturelands. In this context, it is urgent to understand how taxa playing critical ecosystem roles respond to habitat modification. Because Phyllostomid bats provide important ecosystem services (e.g. facilitate gene flow among plant populations and promote forest regeneration, in this study we aimed to identify potential patterns on their response to TDF transformation in sites representing four different successional stages (initial, early, intermediate and late in three Neotropical regions: México, Venezuela and Brazil. We evaluated bat occurrence at the species, ensemble (abundance and assemblage level (species richness and composition, guild composition. We also evaluated how bat occurrence was modulated by the marked seasonality of TDFs. In general, we found high seasonal and regional specificities in phyllostomid occurrence, driven by specificities at species and guild levels. For example, highest frugivore abundance occurred in the early stage of the moistest TDF, while highest nectarivore abundance occurred in the same stage of the driest TDF. The high regional specificity of phyllostomid responses could arise from: (1 the distinctive environmental conditions of each region, (2 the specific behavior and ecological requirements of the regional bat species, (3 the composition, structure and phenological patterns of plant assemblages in the different stages, and (4 the regional landscape composition and configuration. We conclude that, in tropical seasonal environments, it is imperative to perform long-term studies considering seasonal variations in environmental conditions and plant phenology, as well as the role of landscape attributes. This approach will allow us to identify potential patterns in bat responses to habitat modification, which constitute an invaluable

  18. Phyllostomid Bat Occurrence in Successional Stages of Neotropical Dry Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Stoner, Kathryn Elizabeth; Nassar, Jafet M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Aranguren, Carla I.; Henry, Mickael; González-Carcacía, José A.; Dolabela Falcão, Luiz A.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are highly endangered tropical ecosystems being replaced by a complex mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasturelands. In this context, it is urgent to understand how taxa playing critical ecosystem roles respond to habitat modification. Because Phyllostomid bats provide important ecosystem services (e.g. facilitate gene flow among plant populations and promote forest regeneration), in this study we aimed to identify potential patterns on their response to TDF transformation in sites representing four different successional stages (initial, early, intermediate and late) in three Neotropical regions: México, Venezuela and Brazil. We evaluated bat occurrence at the species, ensemble (abundance) and assemblage level (species richness and composition, guild composition). We also evaluated how bat occurrence was modulated by the marked seasonality of TDFs. In general, we found high seasonal and regional specificities in phyllostomid occurrence, driven by specificities at species and guild levels. For example, highest frugivore abundance occurred in the early stage of the moistest TDF, while highest nectarivore abundance occurred in the same stage of the driest TDF. The high regional specificity of phyllostomid responses could arise from: (1) the distinctive environmental conditions of each region, (2) the specific behavior and ecological requirements of the regional bat species, (3) the composition, structure and phenological patterns of plant assemblages in the different stages, and (4) the regional landscape composition and configuration. We conclude that, in tropical seasonal environments, it is imperative to perform long-term studies considering seasonal variations in environmental conditions and plant phenology, as well as the role of landscape attributes. This approach will allow us to identify potential patterns in bat responses to habitat modification, which constitute an invaluable tool for

  19. Occurrence and knowledge about needle stick injury in nursing students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasuna, J.; Sharma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Needle stick injury (NSI) became a major issue and most of the research focuses on Nurses, Doctors and other health care workers, but at the same time nursing students in clinical duties are at high risk. Studies are available which examined NSI only in Medical students and health care workers. The present study is aimed to measure the occurrence of needle stick injury along with post exposure measures and evaluation of the knowledge regarding needle stick injury among nursing student. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in North-East India in 2013. The study participants comprised of 83 nursing students studying in 4th year B.Sc. (N) and 3rd year General Nursing and Midwifery (GNM). Students were questioned regarding their occurrence to Needle Stick Injury throughout their clinical training and measures taken following the exposure. They were also asked to complete the Knowledge questionnaire on NSI. Results: The study among 83 nursing students included 43 (51.81%) GNM 3rd year and 40 (48.19%) B.Sc. Nursing Students. Out of a total 83 students, 75 (90.36%) were females. The occurrence of NSI during their course was reported by 33 (39.76%) participants. The maximum NSI occurred during first year of course (57.57%). It was found that 18 (54.54%) of NSIs were not reported. Among those exposed, only 5 (15.15%) students had undergone blood investigation and very few students took post exposure measures. It was found that, only 23 (69.69%) students were immunized against Hepatitis B before NSI. Conclusion: The present study indicated a high incidence of needle stick injuries among nursing students with more under-reported cases and subjects were not aware of post exposure measures. It is essential to deal above problems by regular training on real-life procedure at the entry level and reporting system should be more user-friendly platform. (author)

  20. Occurrence of the hermit beetle (Osmoderma eremita), in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsson, Kjell; Hedin, Jonas; Jansson, Niklas; Nilsson, Sven; Ranius, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have compiled data on the occurrence of a threatened beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Sweden. The species inhabits tree hollows with wood mould. The data were compiled from field surveys conducted in 1993-2003, using pitfall traps at 401 localities and using wood mould sampling at 104 localities. We have also gone through published data and all larger Swedish museums and registered old records. O. eremita was recorded at about 30% of the field surveys. In Sweden, oak is by far the most import...

  1. Plutonium, its occurrence in environment and methods of detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petr, I [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Fakulta Jaderna a Fysikalne Inzenyrska

    1977-12-01

    A brief survey is given of the physical properties of plutonium nuclides, their toxicity, values of maximum permissible annual intake, and their occurrence in the environment, and of their determination in water, soil, air and biological objects. The principles are stated of the individual methods of plutonium determination, i.e., the method of radiochemical analysis with subsequent detection or alpha spectrometry, the method of filter sampling of air with subsequent alpha spectrometry, coincidence alpha-beta spectrometry or radiochemical analysis, and the use of X and gamma spectrometry. A comparison of the different methods is presented.

  2. Cracklike defects detection and sizing from co-occurrence matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, J.; Benoist, P.; Magnin, I.

    1991-01-01

    The inspection of austenitic welds used in nuclear field with ultrasounds poses problems in interpretation: strong grain noise makes difficult the detection of the crack top and the crack bottom. Since corresponding echoes enable the defect sizing, defect sizing also becomes difficult. The formation of 2D images (BSCAN), and their processing enable an increase in the effectiveness of testing. We present a segmentation method, based on co-occurrence matrix, which separates defects zones and noise zones. Examples of segmentation improvement applied to artificial defects are presented

  3. On the occurrence and toxicity of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzymski Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii which belongs to the order of Nostocales has continuously been at the centre of interest of various research groups owing to its great ecological plasticity, wide distribution and potential to produce different metabolites known to be harmful for humans and animals. Over recent decades, Polish strains of C. raciborskii have also been studied with regard to these issues. The present paper is a brief review of the present state of knowledge respecting the occurrence and toxicity of this species with emphasis on Polish strains, and indicates potential directions for future research.

  4. Simultaneous Occurrence of Duane Retraction Syndrome with Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue, while Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD which can be transmitted as autosomal dominant disorder in 5–10% of patients. In this paper, we present an 8-year-old girl who presented with left eye DRS and bilateral subluxation of the lens associated with MFS in absence of familial involvement. To our knowledge this is the first case report of DRS with MFS. The occurrence of these syndromes together is very rare and appears to be coincidental.

  5. Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Johnson, William; Bukhari, Zia; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Candidate Contaminant list (CCL) as an important pathogen. It is commonly encountered in recycled water and is typically associated with amoeba, notably Naegleria fowleri (also on the CCL) and Acanthamoeba sp. No legionellosis outbreak has been linked to recycled water and it is important for the industry to proactively keep things that way. A review was conducted examine the occurrence of Legionella and its protozoa symbionts in recycled water with the aim of developing a risk management strategy. The review considered the intricate ecological relationships between Legionella and protozoa, methods for detecting both symbionts, and the efficacy of various disinfectants. PMID:26140674

  6. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Habiba

    2016-12-01

    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  7. Familial occurrence of lip pits: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motesaddi Zaranadi M

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lip pits are among the rarest congenital deformities recorded. Initially reported in 1845, it’s familial occurrence has been reported just once. These developmental anomalies occur either as an isolated defect or in association with other developmental deformities including cleft lip, cleft palate or both. It may be located at the commisures of the lips or in the midline of the lower lip. It is often inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance.Our report of a family in which all of the three children (two girls and a boy and their father wre involved in concert with the latter statement.

  8. Occurrence of Streptomyces aurantiacus in Mangroves of Bhitarkanika

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    Gupta, N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen strains of Streptomyces were isolated from phyllosphere of nine mangrove tree species found in Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem of Orissa. According to physiological, biochemical data, all 13 of the isolates were taxonomically identified to the genus Streptomyces as aurantiacus species. All strains are grayish, spirals and forming amorphous colony. Almost all utilized araginose, produced H2S, resistant towards rifampicin and penicillin, urea except few strains. However, they exhibited different extracellular activity like phosphate solubilization, lipase and L asparaginase production. This is a unique report from this mangrove ecosystem as far as Streptomyces occurrence is concerned.

  9. Co-occurrence Models in Music Genre Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Music genre classification has been investigated using many different methods, but most of them build on probabilistic models of feature vectors x\\_r which only represent the short time segment with index r of the song. Here, three different co-occurrence models are proposed which instead consider...... genre data set with a variety of modern music. The basis was a so-called AR feature representation of the music. Besides the benefit of having proper probabilistic models of the whole song, the lowest classification test errors were found using one of the proposed models....

  10. Structure, Biosynthesis, and Occurrence of Bacterial Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimming, Olivia; Challinor, Victoria L; Tobias, Nicholas J; Adihou, Hélène; Grün, Peter; Pöschel, Laura; Richter, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald; Bode, Helge B

    2015-10-19

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread plant natural products with potent toxicity and bioactivity. Herein, the identification of bacterial PAs from entomopathogenic bacteria using differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS) and mass spectrometry is described. Their biosynthesis was elucidated to involve a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. The occurrence of these biosynthesis gene clusters in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria indicates an important biological function in bacteria. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Third abrasive wear mode: is it possible?

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    Ronaldo Câmara Cozza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose an initial discussion on the characterization of a third abrasive wear mode. The results obtained in a previous work [1] under different test conditions revealed the occurrence of the superposition of the “rolling” and “grooving” abrasive wear modes. This phenomenon was denoted “micro-rolling abrasion” due to the observation that “rolling abrasion” was found to act on “grooving abrasion”.

  12. Linear discriminant analysis of character sequences using occurrences of words

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Subhajit; Chaudhuri, Probal; Ghosh, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Classification of character sequences, where the characters come from a finite set, arises in disciplines such as molecular biology and computer science. For discriminant analysis of such character sequences, the Bayes classifier based on Markov models turns out to have class boundaries defined by linear functions of occurrences of words in the sequences. It is shown that for such classifiers based on Markov models with unknown orders, if the orders are estimated from the data using cross-validation, the resulting classifier has Bayes risk consistency under suitable conditions. Even when Markov models are not valid for the data, we develop methods for constructing classifiers based on linear functions of occurrences of words, where the word length is chosen by cross-validation. Such linear classifiers are constructed using ideas of support vector machines, regression depth, and distance weighted discrimination. We show that classifiers with linear class boundaries have certain optimal properties in terms of their asymptotic misclassification probabilities. The performance of these classifiers is demonstrated in various simulated and benchmark data sets.

  13. Occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in coastal recreational waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezzi, Lara Feital; Campana, Eloiza Helena; Corrêa, Laís Lisboa; Justo, Livia Helena; Paschoal, Raphael Paiva; da Silva, Isabel Lemos Vieira Dias; Souza, Maria do Carmo Maciel; Drolshagen, Marcia; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2015-02-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative rods is an emerging global problem. Although most infections due to carbapenemase producers are limited to healthcare institutions, reports of the occurrence of clinically relevant carbapenemase producers in sewage and polluted rivers are increasingly frequent. Polluted rivers flowing to oceans may contaminate coastal waters with multidrug-resistant bacteria, potentially threatening the safety of recreational activities in these locations. Here we assessed the occurrence of carbapenemase producers in water from touristic beaches located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing distinct pollution patterns. The presence of enterobacteria was noted, including the predominantly environmental genus Kluyvera spp., producing either Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) or Guyana extended-spectrum (GES)-type carbapenemases and often associated with quinolone resistance determinants. An Aeromonas sp. harbouring blaKPC and qnrS was also observed. These findings strengthen the role of aquatic matrices as reservoirs and vectors of clinically relevant antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, with potential to favour the spread of these resistance threats throughout the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on geochemical occurrences of REE in Wangqing oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Liu, Tong; Wei, Yan-zhen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Sequential chemical extraction experiment (SCEE) and Float- sink experiment (FSE) have been employed on oil shale research from Wangqing, Jilin province China, in order to determine the binding forms of rare earth elements (REE) in oil shale. The REE contents were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Wangqing oil shale was screened into specific gravity density level: <1.5g/cm{sup 3}, 1.5-1.6g/cm{sup 3}, 1.6-2.0g/cm{sup 3}, 2.0-2.4g/cm{sup 3}, >2.4g/cm{sup 3}. The mode of occurrences of rare earth elements in Wangqing oil shale was studied by six-step SCEE. FSE results show that REEs in Wangqing oil shale exist mainly in inorganic minerals and more in excluded mineral, while SCEE results show that REEs of Wangqing oil shale is primarily occurred in minerals, including carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, sulfide, and Si-minerals. FSE and SCEE results fully illustrate excluded mineral is mainly mode of occurrence of REEs in Wangqing oil shale, whereas inorganic minerals and organic matter is not that. The REE distribution pattern curves of FSE density and SCEE fraction products are similar with that of raw oil shale. The REE in different densities products has a close connection with terrigenous clastic rock, and the supply of terrestrial material is stable.

  15. Environmental occurrence of arsenic in Colombia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David L; Latorre, Sergio; Castillo, Elianna; Brandão, Pedro F B

    2014-03-01

    The international literature on the presence of arsenic (As) in Latin America does not disclose the true magnitude of the presence of As in Colombia. In this paper, we summarize the literature on As occurrence in Colombia. The data reveal that As is present in matrices such as soil, sediments and water and in the food chain. Some of the As concentrations exceed the limits specified by national and international regulations. Arsenic higher concentrations are associated with mining regions (e.g., soils, up to 148 mg/kg; sediments, up to 1400 mg/kg) and agricultural areas (e.g., vegetables, up to 5.40 mg/kg; irrigation water, up to 255 μg/L), and underscore the potential human and environmental risks associated with the presence of As in the country. This review highlights the importance of focusing research on understanding the occurrence, origin and distribution of As in Colombia to better understand its environmental and public health impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens and Molds in Turkish Foods

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    Sebnem Ozturkogu-Budak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the occurrence of food pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia, Clostridium, Bacillus and Staphylococcus analyses were performed on 301 food samples from 8 different food categories such as dry legumes, milk products, meat products, fish, frozen foods, deserts, nuts and vegetables and fruits. Yeast and mold analyses were also performed on 364 food products from 9 main food categories such as dry legumes, milk products, meat products, seasonings, deserts, nuts, bee products, bakery products and dried fruits produced in Turkey. S. aureus and Salmonella were the most prevalent (1.33% of the six isolated pathogens. The species Cl. perfringens, L. monocytogenes and B. cereus were detected with the ratios of 1.00%, 0.66% and 0.66%, respectively. Total yeast and molds occurrence were 1.65% and 9.06%, respectively. Pathogens were detected in cream cheese, spinach, strawberry and cod fish most prevalently, whereas dried fig, chilli pepper, hazelnut and bakery products were determined as foods prone to the growth of molds. The results of this study suggest that faecal contamination of water needs to be prevented, and the production and storage conditions of food materials should be improved. These findings have implications for the use of these surveillance data in developing evidence-based food policy.

  18. Codon based co-occurrence network motifs in human mitochondria

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    Pramod Shinde

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The nucleotide polymorphism in human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA tolled by codon position bias plays an indispensable role in human population dispersion and expansion. Herein, we constructed genome-wide nucleotide co-occurrence networks using a massive data consisting of five different geographical regions and around 3000 samples for each region. We developed a powerful network model to describe complex mitochondrial evolutionary patterns between codon and non-codon positions. It was interesting to report a different evolution of Asian genomes than those of the rest which is divulged by network motifs. We found evidence that mtDNA undergoes substantial amounts of adaptive evolution, a finding which was supported by a number of previous studies. The dominance of higher order motifs indicated the importance of long-range nucleotide co-occurrence in genomic diversity. Most notably, codon motifs apparently underpinned the preferences among codon positions for co-evolution which is probably highly biased during the origin of the genetic code. Our analyses manifested that codon position co-evolution is very well conserved across human sub-populations and independently maintained within human sub-populations implying the selective role of evolutionary processes on codon position co-evolution. Ergo, this study provided a framework to investigate cooperative genomic interactions which are critical in underlying complex mitochondrial evolution.

  19. Occurrence of clinical mastitis and environmental factors favoring its incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Junqueira Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical mastitis (CM, in high production Holstein cows, as well as the environmental factors that favoring its incidence. The average milk production of 305 days, according to the class of mastitis was estimated by the method of least squares. The frequencies of clinical mastitis (CM events were analyzed according to the calving sequences (1-6, year of calving, season and stage of lactation, and infected quarter (right anterior, left anterior, right posterior, left posterior. The frequency of CM ranged from 11.39% in the first calving to 21.18% in the third. 58.56% of mastitis cases occurred in the wet season, and 41.44% occurred in the dry season. The final lactation stage (200 to 300 days was the period with the highest occurrence of CM (45.33%. The quarter posterior had a higher frequency CM (54.25%. Animals with higher levels of milk production of 305 days showed highest occurrence of CM. We must find a balance between milk production and mastitis in order to increase profitability. The study of the periods of greatest frequency clinical mastitis events is essential for dairy farming, to direct a program to control this disease.

  20. Co-occurrence of carbohydrate malabsorption and primary epiploic appendagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Kalmar, Peter; Mangge, Harald; Krause, Robert; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    Unspecific abdominal complaints including bloating and irregular bowel movements may be caused by carbohydrate malabsorption syndromes, e.g., lactose and fructose malabsorption. These symptoms were investigated with hydrogen (H2) breath tests and correlated to carbohydrate malabsorption. During performing these H2-breath tests the patient presented with an acute, localized, non-migratory pain in the left lower abdominal quadrant. Primary epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of abdominal acute or subacute complaints and diagnosis of primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA) is made when computed tomography reveals a characteristic lesion. We report on a patient with co-occurrence of lactose and fructose malabsorption, which was treated successfully with a diet free of culprit carbohydrates, with PEA recovering without medication or surgical treatment within few days. Since the abdominal unspecific symptoms had been present for months, they appeared not to be correlated to the acute localized abdominal pain, therefore we speculate on a random co-occurrence of combined carbohydrate malabsorption and PEA. PMID:26401090