Sample records for tunnels electronic resource

  1. Electron tunnel sensor technology

    Waltman, S. B.; Kaiser, W. J.


    The recent development of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy technology allows the application of electron tunneling to position detectors for the first time. The vacuum tunnel junction is one of the most sensitive position detection mechanisms available. It is also compact, simple, and requires little power. A prototype accelerometer based on electron tunneling, and other sensor applications of this promising new technology are described.

  2. Many-electron tunneling in atoms

    Zon, B A


    A theoretical derivation is given for the formula describing N-electron ionization of atom by a dc field and laser radiation in tunneling regime. Numerical examples are presented for noble gases atoms.

  3. Single electron tunneling based arithmetic computation

    Lageweg, C.R.


    In this dissertation we investigate the implementation of computer arithmetic operations with Single Electron Tunneling (SET) technology based circuits. In our research we focus on the effective utilization of the SET technologys specific characteristic, i.e., the ability to control the transport of

  4. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Weathers, Barbara


    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  5. Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices

    C L Roy


    The purpose of the present paper is to report a study of tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices (SSL); specially, we have analysed diverse features of transmission coefficient of SSL. The SSL we have considered is Ga0.7Al0.3As–GaAs which has been drawing considerable attention during the recent past on account of some typical features of its band structure. We have indicated how our results would help fabrication of ultra high speed devices.

  6. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Mark Ellingsen


    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  7. Wind Tunnel Management and Resource Optimization: A Systems Modeling Approach

    Jacobs, Derya, A.; Aasen, Curtis A.


    Time, money, and, personnel are becoming increasingly scarce resources within government agencies due to a reduction in funding and the desire to demonstrate responsible economic efficiency. The ability of an organization to plan and schedule resources effectively can provide the necessary leverage to improve productivity, provide continuous support to all projects, and insure flexibility in a rapidly changing environment. Without adequate internal controls the organization is forced to rely on external support, waste precious resources, and risk an inefficient response to change. Management systems must be developed and applied that strive to maximize the utility of existing resources in order to achieve the goal of "faster, cheaper, better". An area of concern within NASA Langley Research Center was the scheduling, planning, and resource management of the Wind Tunnel Enterprise operations. Nine wind tunnels make up the Enterprise. Prior to this research, these wind tunnel groups did not employ a rigorous or standardized management planning system. In addition, each wind tunnel unit operated from a position of autonomy, with little coordination of clients, resources, or project control. For operating and planning purposes, each wind tunnel operating unit must balance inputs from a variety of sources. Although each unit is managed by individual Facility Operations groups, other stakeholders influence wind tunnel operations. These groups include, for example, the various researchers and clients who use the facility, the Facility System Engineering Division (FSED) tasked with wind tunnel repair and upgrade, the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Fabrication (FAB) group which fabricates repair parts and provides test model upkeep, the NASA and LARC Strategic Plans, and unscheduled use of the facilities by important clients. Expanding these influences horizontally through nine wind tunnel operations and vertically along the NASA management structure greatly increases the

  8. Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy for Topological Insulators

    She, Jian-Huang; Fransson, Jonas; Bishop, A. R.; Balatsky, Alexander V.


    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a powerful spectroscopy that allows one to investigate the nature of local excitations and energy transfer in the system of interest. We study inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy for topological insulators and investigate the role of inelastic scattering on the Dirac node states on the surface of topological insulators. Local inelastic scattering is shown to significantly modify the Dirac node spectrum. In the weak coupling limit, peaks and steps are induced in second derivative d2I/dV2. In the strong coupling limit, the local negative-U centers are formed at impurity sites, and the Dirac cone structure is fully destroyed locally. At intermediate coupling, resonance peaks emerge. We map out the evolution of the resonance peaks from weak to strong coupling, which interpolate nicely between the two limits. There is a sudden qualitative change of behavior at intermediate coupling, indicating the possible existence of a local quantum phase transition. We also find that, even for a simple local phonon mode, the inherent coupling of spin and orbital degrees in topological insulators leads to the spin-polarized texture in inelastic Friedel oscillations induced by the local mode.

  9. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Abrams, Kimberly R.


    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  10. Giant tunnel-electron injection in nitrogen-doped graphene

    Lagoute, Jerome; Joucken, Frederic; Repain, Vincent


    Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments have been performed to measure the local electron injection in nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(000) and were successfully compared to ab initio calculations. In graphene, a gaplike feature is measured around the Fermi level due to a phonon-mediated tunneling...... and at carbon sites. Nitrogen doping can therefore be proposed as a way to improve tunnel-electron injection in graphene....

  11. Electron tunneling and point contact Andreev reflection studies of superconductors

    Dai, Wenqing

    The energy gap is the most fundamental property of a superconductor. Electron tunneling spectroscopy and point contact spectroscopy (PCS) are powerful techniques for studying the density of states and energy gap features of superconductors. Two different superconducting systems, multiband superconductor MgB2 and proximity induced topological superconductor NbSe2/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures were studied using either quasiparticle tunneling in planar tunnel junctions or PCS in this work. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  12. Quantum tunneling and field electron emission theories

    Liang, Shi-Dong


    Quantum tunneling is an essential issue in quantum physics. Especially, the rapid development of nanotechnology in recent years promises a lot of applications in condensed matter physics, surface science and nanodevices, which are growing interests in fundamental issues, computational techniques and potential applications of quantum tunneling. The book involves two relevant topics. One is quantum tunneling theory in condensed matter physics, including the basic concepts and methods, especially for recent developments in mesoscopic physics and computational formulation. The second part is the f

  13. Thermal electron-tunneling devices as coolers and amplifiers

    Shanhe Su; Yanchao Zhang; Jincan Chen; Tien-Mo Shih


    Nanoscale thermal systems that are associated with a pair of electron reservoirs have been previously studied. In particular, devices that adjust electron tunnels relatively to reservoirs’ chemical potentials enjoy the novelty and the potential. Since only two reservoirs and one tunnel exist, however, designers need external aids to complete a cycle, rendering their models non-spontaneous. Here we design thermal conversion devices that are operated among three electron reservoirs connected by...

  14. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on electron-boson interactions in superconductors

    Schackert, Michael Peter


    This work describes the experimental study of electron-boson interactions in superconductors by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy performed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at temperatures below 1 K. This new approach allows the direct measurement of the Eliashberg function of conventional superconductors as demonstrated on lead (Pb) and niobium (Nb). Preparative experiments on unconventional iron-pnictides are presented in the end.

  15. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    Maksymovych, Petro


    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  16. Electron-beam-assisted Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Of Insulating Surfaces

    Bullock, E T


    Insulating materials are widely used in electronic devices. Bulk insulators and insulating films pose unique challenges for high resolution study since most commonly used charged particle surface analysis techniques are incompatible with insulating surfaces and materials. A, method of performing scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on insulating surfaces has been investigated. The method is referred to as electron-beam assisted scanning tunneling microscopy (e-BASTM). It is proposed that by coupling the STM and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as one integrated device, that insulating materials may be studied, obtaining both high spatial resolution, and topographic and electronic resolution. The premise of the technique is based on two physical consequences of the interaction of an energetic electron beam (PE) with a material. First, when an electron beam is incident upon a material, low level material electrons are excited into conduction band states. For insulators, with very high secondary electron yi...

  17. Thermal electron-tunneling devices as coolers and amplifiers

    Su, Shanhe; Zhang, Yanchao; Chen, Jincan; Shih, Tien-Mo


    Nanoscale thermal systems that are associated with a pair of electron reservoirs have been previously studied. In particular, devices that adjust electron tunnels relatively to reservoirs’ chemical potentials enjoy the novelty and the potential. Since only two reservoirs and one tunnel exist, however, designers need external aids to complete a cycle, rendering their models non-spontaneous. Here we design thermal conversion devices that are operated among three electron reservoirs connected by energy-filtering tunnels and also referred to as thermal electron-tunneling devices. They are driven by one of electron reservoirs rather than the external power input, and are equivalent to those coupling systems consisting of forward and reverse Carnot cycles with energy selective electron functions. These previously-unreported electronic devices can be used as coolers and thermal amplifiers and may be called as thermal transistors. The electron and energy fluxes of devices are capable of being manipulated in the same or oppsite directions at our disposal. The proposed model can open a new field in the application of nano-devices.

  18. Internal switches modulating electron tunneling currents in respiratory complex III.

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A


    In different X-ray crystal structures of bc1 complex, some of the key residues of electron tunneling pathways are observed in different conformations; here we examine their relative importance in modulating electron transfer and propose their possible gating function in the Q-cycle. The study includes inter-monomeric electron transfer; here we provide atomistic details of the reaction, and discuss the possible roles of inter-monomeric electronic communication in bc(1) complex. Binding of natural ligands or inhibitors leads to local conformational changes which propagate through protein and control the conformation of key residues involved in the electron tunneling pathways. Aromatic-aromatic interactions are highly utilized in the communication network since the key residues are aromatic in nature. The calculations show that there is a substantial change of the electron transfer rates between different redox pairs depending on the different conformations acquired by the key residues of the complex.

  19. Probing momentum distributions in magnetic tunnel junctions via hot-electron decay

    Jansen, R.; Banerjee, T.; Park, B.G.; Lodder, J.C.


    The tunnel momentum distribution in a (magnetic) tunnel junction is probed by analyzing the decay of the hot electrons in the Co metal anode after tunneling, using a three-terminal transistor structure in which the hot-electron attenuation is sensitive to the tunnel momentum distribution. Solid stat

  20. Microwave-induced co-tunneling in single electron tunneling transistors

    Ejrnaes, M.; Savolainen, M.; Manscher, M.;


    The influence of microwaves on the co-tunneling in single electron tunneling transistors has been investigated as function of frequency and power in the temperature range from 150 to 500 mK. All 20 low frequency connections and the RF line were filtered, and the whole cryostat was suspended...... fixed at maximum Coulomb blockade. With the microwave signal applied to one side of the transistor, we find that the conductance increases linearly with T-2 and microwave power. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Simulation of single-electron tunnelling circuits using SPICE

    Van de Haar, R.


    Single-electron tunnelling (SET) devices have very promising properties, like their extremely low power consumption, their extremely high switching speeds and their extremely small physical dimensions. Since the field of SET devices is far from being fully exploited, and their device properties seem

  2. Electron tunneling through ultrathin boron nitride crystalline barriers.

    Britnell, Liam; Gorbachev, Roman V; Jalil, Rashid; Belle, Branson D; Schedin, Fred; Katsnelson, Mikhail I; Eaves, Laurence; Morozov, Sergey V; Mayorov, Alexander S; Peres, Nuno M R; Neto, Antonio H Castro; Leist, Jon; Geim, Andre K; Ponomarenko, Leonid A; Novoselov, Kostya S


    We investigate the electronic properties of ultrathin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) crystalline layers with different conducting materials (graphite, graphene, and gold) on either side of the barrier layer. The tunnel current depends exponentially on the number of h-BN atomic layers, down to a monolayer thickness. Conductive atomic force microscopy scans across h-BN terraces of different thickness reveal a high level of uniformity in the tunnel current. Our results demonstrate that atomically thin h-BN acts as a defect-free dielectric with a high breakdown field. It offers great potential for applications in tunnel devices and in field-effect transistors with a high carrier density in the conducting channel.

  3. First Principles Study of Electron Tunneling through Ice

    Cucinotta, Clotilde S.


    With the aim of understanding electrochemical scanning tunnel microscopy experiments in an aqueous environment, we investigate electron transport through ice in the coherent limit. This is done by using the nonequilibrium Greens functions method, implemented within density functional theory, in the self-interaction corrected local density approximation. In particular, we explore different ice structures and different Au electrode surface orientations. By comparing the decay coefficient for different thicknesses to the ice complex band structure, we find that the electron transport occurs via tunneling with almost one-dimensional character. The slow decay of the current with the ice thickness is largely due to the small effective mass of the conduction electrons. Furthermore, we find that the calculated tunneling decay coefficients at the Fermi energy are not sensitive to the structural details of the junctions and are at the upper end of the experimental range for liquid water. This suggests that linear response transport measurements are not capable of distinguishing between different ordered ice structures. However, we also demonstrate that a finite bias measurement may be capable of sorting polar from nonpolar interfaces due to the asymmetry of the current-voltage curves for polar interfaces. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Spin-dependent electron transport through a magnetic resonant tunneling diode

    Havu, P.; Tuomisto, N.; Väänänen, R.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.


    Electron-transport properties in nanostructures can be modeled, for example, by using the semiclassical Wigner formalism or the quantum-mechanical Green’s function formalism. We compare the performance and the results of these methods in the case of magnetic resonant-tunneling diodes. We have implemented the two methods within the self-consistent spin-density-functional theory. Our numerical implementation of the Wigner formalism is based on the finite-difference scheme whereas for the Green’s function formalism the finite-element method is used. As a specific application, we consider the device studied by Slobodskyy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 246601 (2003)] and analyze their experimental results. The Wigner and Green’s function formalisms give similar electron densities and potentials but, surprisingly, the former method requires much more computer resources in order to obtain numerically accurate results for currents. Both of the formalisms can be used to model magnetic resonant tunneling diode structures.

  5. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    Weir, Ryan O


    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  6. Strong Coupling Between Single-Electron Tunneling and Nanomechanical Motion

    Steele, G. A.; Hüttel, A. K.; Witkamp, B.; Poot, M.; Meerwaldt, H. B.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; van der Zant, H. S. J.


    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 105 allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.

  7. Strong coupling between single-electron tunneling and nanomechanical motion.

    Steele, G A; Hüttel, A K; Witkamp, B; Poot, M; Meerwaldt, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P; van der Zant, H S J


    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 10(5) allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.

  8. Electron tunneling in single layer graphene with an energy gap

    Xu Xu-Guang; Zhang Chao; Xu Gong-Jie; Cao Jun-Cheng


    When a single layer graphene is epitaxially grown on silicon carbide, it will exhibit a finite energy gap like a conventional semiconductor, and its energy dispersion is no longer linear in momentum in the low energy regime. In this paper, we have investigated the tunneling characteristics through a two-dimensional barrier in a single layer graphene with an energy gap. It is found that when the electron is at a zero angle of incidence, the transmission probability as a function of incidence energy has a gap. Away from the gap the transmission coefficient oscillates with incidence energy which is analogous to that of a conventional semiconductor. The conductance under zero temperature has a gap. The properties of electron transmission may be useful for developing graphene-based nano-electronics.

  9. Effects of intermolecular interaction on inelastic electron tunneling spectra

    Kula, Mathias; Luo, Yi


    We have examined the effects of intermolecular interactions on the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of model systems: a pair of benzenethiol or a pair of benzenedithiol sandwiched between gold electrodes. The dependence of the IETS on the mutual position of and distance between the paired molecules has been predicted and discussed in detailed. It is shown that, although in most cases, there are clear spectral fingerprints present which allow identification of the actual structures of the molecules inside the junction. Caution must be exercised since some characteristic lines can disappear at certain symmetries. The importance of theoretical simulation is emphasized.

  10. Coherence Time Resolvable Diffraction and New Tunnelling Electronics



    With the help of the perturbation method and the Feynman path integral technique, we analytically demonstrate that, when the electronic spectrum of a mesoscopic box is measured through two connecting leads, there exists a class of new diffraction phenomena in the coherence time domain, based on the new coherent tunnelling model.It is shown that the new diffraction effect determines the minimal resolvable coherence time to the Heisenberg limit. In particular, Fraunhofer optical phenomena, such as missing order and grating effects, can be reproduced in the meso-systems. The predicted periodic oscillations as a function of voltage are in excellent agreement with experimental observations.

  11. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Whitfield, Sharon


    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  12. Tunneling electron induced luminescence from porphyrin molecules on monolayer graphene

    Geng, Feng; Kuang, Yanmin; Yu, Yunjie; Liao, Yuan; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Zhenchao, E-mail:


    Using epitaxially grown graphene on Ru(0001) as a decoupling layer, we investigate the evolution of tunneling electron induced luminescence from different number of layers of porphyrin molecules. Light emission spectra and photon maps, acquired via a combined optical setup with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), indicate that the electronic decoupling effect of a monolayer (ML) graphene alone is still insufficient for generating molecule-specific emission from both the 1st- and 2nd-layer porphyrin molecules. Nevertheless, interestingly, the plasmonic emission is enhanced for the 1st-layer but suppressed for the 2nd-layer in comparison with the plasmonic emission on the monolayer graphene. Intrinsic intramolecular molecular fluorescence occurs at the 3rd-layer porphyrin. Such molecular thickness is about two MLs thinner than previous reports where molecules were adsorbed directly on metals. These observations suggest that the monolayer graphene does weaken the interaction between molecule and metal substrate and contribute to the reduction of nonradiative decay rates. - Highlights: • Showing molecularly resolved photon maps of graphene and porphyrins on it. • Revealing the influence of spacer thickness on molecular electroluminescence. • Graphene does weaken the interaction between molecules and metal substrate.

  13. Experimental realization of single electron tunneling diode based on vertical graphene two-barrier junction

    Xu, Rui; Bai, Ke-Ke; Nie, Jia-Cai; He, Lin


    Usually, graphene is used in its horizontal directions to design novel concept devices. Here, we report a single electron tunneling diode based on quantum tunneling through a vertical graphene two-barrier junction. The junction is formed by positioning a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) tip above a graphene nanoribbon that was deposited on a graphite surface. Because of the asymmetry of the two-barrier junction, the electrons can unidirectional transfer from the tip to the graphene nanori...

  14. Low-frequency noise in single electron tunneling transistor

    Tavkhelidze, A.N.; Mygind, Jesper


    photons emitted by the 4.2 K environment from reaching the sample, allows us to study a given background charge configuration for many hours below [approximate] 100 mK. The noise at relatively high frequencies originates from internal (presumably thermal equilibrium) charge fluctuations. For f >= 10 Hz......The noise in current biased aluminium single electron tunneling (SET) transistors has been investigated in the frequency range of 5 mHz ..., we find the same input charge noise, typically QN = 5 × 10–4 e/Hz1/2 at 10 Hz, with and without the HF shielding. At lower frequencies, the noise is due to charge trapping, and the voltage noise pattern superimposed on the V(Vg) curve (voltage across transistor versus gate voltage) strongly depends...

  15. Electronic transport through EuO spin filter tunnel junctions

    Jutong, Nuttachai; Eckern, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Schwingenschloegl, Udo [KAUST, PSE Division, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia)


    Spin filter tunnel junctions based on europium monoxide (EuO), a ferromagnetic semiconductor, are investigated by means of density functional theory. In particular, the spin transport of Cu/EuO/Cu junctions is investigated by using the self-consistent ab-initio electron transport code SMEAGOL. The dependence of the transmission coefficient on the interface spacing and on the EuO thickness is studied, and explained in terms of the density of states and the complex band structure of EuO. Our calculation indicates that EuO epitaxially grown on Cu can act as a perfect spin filter, with polarization close to 100%, which is related mainly to the Eu-4f states. The transmission coefficient is sensitive to the interface spacing, since this spacing determines the charge transfer between EuO and the Cu leads.

  16. Electronic Single Molecule Identification of Carbohydrate Isomers by Recognition Tunneling

    Im, JongOne; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Yanan; Sen, Suman; Biswas, Sudipta; Ashcroft, Brian; Borges, Chad; Wang, Xu; Lindsay, Stuart; Zhang, Peiming


    Glycans play a central role as mediators in most biological processes, but their structures are complicated by isomerism. Epimers and anomers, regioisomers, and branched sequences contribute to a structural variability that dwarfs those of nucleic acids and proteins, challenging even the most sophisticated analytical tools, such as NMR and mass spectrometry. Here, we introduce an electron tunneling technique that is label-free and can identify carbohydrates at the single-molecule level, offering significant benefits over existing technology. It is capable of analyzing sub-picomole quantities of sample, counting the number of individual molecules in each subset in a population of coexisting isomers, and is quantitative over more than four orders of magnitude of concentration. It resolves epimers not well separated by ion-mobility and can be implemented on a silicon chip. It also provides a readout mechanism for direct single-molecule sequencing of linear oligosaccharides.

  17. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Henry, Dennis C.


    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  18. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy: A route to the identification of the tip-apex structure

    Vitali, Lucia; Borisova, Svetlana D.; Rusina, Galina G.; Chulkov, Evgueni V.; Kern, Klaus


    The vibrational spectrum of a tunneling junction on a clean Cu(111) surface has been characterized by vibrational density of states calculations and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy technique. We demonstrate that the achieved spectrum consists not only of vibrational modes excited by the tunneling electrons on the clean surface but also of modes characteristic of the structure of the tip apex. This allows to identify unequivocally the atomic structure of the tip, which is still the largest unknown parameter in a scanning tunneling microscope. This opens a new perspective in the interpretation of the measurements of vibrational modes with a scanning tunneling microscope. Additionally, it might have implications in the measurements of electron conductance through single atom or molecules contacted by the tip of scanning tunneling microscope.

  19. Coherent electron transparent tunneling through a single barrier within a Fabry-Perot cavity

    Stolle, Jason; Baum, Chaz; Amann, Ryan; Haman, Ryan; Call, Tanner; Li, Wei


    Electromagnetic wave and quantum DeBroglie wave have many parallels between each other. We investigate the quantum mechanical counterpart of electromagnetic resonant tunneling through a non-absorbing metal layer. It is confirmed that an electron also has transparent transmission through a single barrier within a Fabry-Perot like cavity. This tunneling structure is actually a distortion of the Fabry-Perot echelon. We find that for a specific resonant electron energy, the cavity length is related to the electron's DeBroglie wavelength; and the single barrier can be located at a series positions with an interval equal to a half of the DeBroglie wavelength, not just at the center of the cavity. This tunneling phenomenon will have novel applications in quantum devices such as the resonant tunneling diode and scanning tunneling microscope. The results of this paper should also have impact on related electromagnetic research and application.

  20. Electronic Single Molecule Measurements with the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Im, Jong One

    Richard Feynman said "There's plenty of room at the bottom". This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it has been developed in various field and evolved into powerful tools to understand chemical and biological property of molecules. This thesis demonstrates electronic single molecule measurement with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and two of applications of STM; Break Junction (BJ) and Recognition Tunneling (RT). First, the two series of carotenoid molecules with four different substituents were investigated to show how substituents relate to the conductance and molecular structure. The measured conductance by STM-BJ shows that Nitrogen induces molecular twist of phenyl distal substituents and conductivity increasing rather than Carbon. Also, the conductivity is adjustable by replacing the sort of residues at phenyl substituents. Next, amino acids and peptides were identified through STM-RT. The distribution of the intuitive features (such as amplitude or width) are mostly overlapped and gives only a little bit higher separation probability than random separation. By generating some features in frequency and cepstrum domain, the classification accuracy was dramatically increased. Because of large data size and many features, supporting vector machine (machine learning algorithm for big data) was used to identify the analyte from a data pool of all analytes RT data. The STM-RT opens a possibility of molecular sequencing in single molecule level. Similarly, carbohydrates were studied by STM-RT. Carbohydrates are difficult to read the sequence, due to their huge number of possible isomeric configurations. This study shows that STM-RT can identify not only isomers of mono-saccharides and disaccharides, but also various mono-saccharides from a data pool of eleven analytes. In addition, the binding affinity between recognition molecule and analyte was investigated by comparing with

  1. Toward low-power electronics: tunneling phenomena in transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Das, Saptarshi; Prakash, Abhijith; Salazar, Ramon; Appenzeller, Joerg


    In this article, we explore, experimentally, the impact of band-to-band tunneling on the electronic transport of double-gated WSe2 field-effect transistors (FETs) and Schottky barrier tunneling of holes in back-gated MoS2 FETs. We show that by scaling the flake thickness and the thickness of the gate oxide, the tunneling current can be increased by several orders of magnitude. We also perform numerical calculations based on Landauer formalism and WKB approximation to explain our experimental findings. Based on our simple model, we discuss the impact of band gap and effective mass on the band-to-band tunneling current and evaluate the performance limits for a set of dichalcogenides in the context of tunneling transistors for low-power applications. Our findings suggest that WTe2 is an excellent choice for tunneling field-effect transistors.

  2. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Tijerina, Bonnie


    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  3. Few-Electron Lateral Resonant Tunneling Semiconductor Devices


    QPC and spectrometer dc’ teos. rcsi)’ clively . To foni-i electrostatic tunnel harriers for the lateral resonant tunneling transistor, we ctiimo\\cd a 15...the basis for the estab- sions with J. R. Barker , R. T. Bate, C. D. Cantrell, D. K. lished theories of irreversibility and dissipation. The Ferry, K...superoperator in the Wigner-Weyl repre- will be shifted across the heterojunction, and this effect is sentation ( Barker , Lowe, and Murray, 1984). A

  4. Electron tunnelling through single azurin molecules can be on/off switched by voltage pulses

    Baldacchini, Chiara; Kumar, Vivek; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore


    Redox metalloproteins are emerging as promising candidates for future bio-optoelectronic and nano-biomemory devices, and the control of their electron transfer properties through external signals is still a crucial task. Here, we show that a reversible on/off switching of the electron current tunnelling through a single protein can be achieved in azurin protein molecules adsorbed on gold surfaces, by applying appropriate voltage pulses through a scanning tunnelling microscope tip. The observed changes in the hybrid system tunnelling properties are discussed in terms of long-sustained charging of the protein milieu.

  5. Electron tunnelling through single azurin molecules can be on/off switched by voltage pulses

    Baldacchini, Chiara [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology, CNR, I-05010 Porano (Italy); Kumar, Vivek; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore, E-mail: [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)


    Redox metalloproteins are emerging as promising candidates for future bio-optoelectronic and nano-biomemory devices, and the control of their electron transfer properties through external signals is still a crucial task. Here, we show that a reversible on/off switching of the electron current tunnelling through a single protein can be achieved in azurin protein molecules adsorbed on gold surfaces, by applying appropriate voltage pulses through a scanning tunnelling microscope tip. The observed changes in the hybrid system tunnelling properties are discussed in terms of long-sustained charging of the protein milieu.

  6. First-Principles Simulations of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy of Molecular Electronic Devices

    Jiang, Jun; Kula, Mathias; Lu, Wei; Luo, Yi


    A generalized Green's function theory is developed to simulate the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of molecular junctions. It has been applied to a realistic molecular junction with an octanedithiolate embedded between two gold contacts in combination with the hybrid density functional theory calculations. The calculated spectra are in excellent agreement with recent experimental results. Strong temperature dependence of the experimental IETS spectra is also reproduced. It is shown that the IETS is extremely sensitive to the intra-molecular conformation and to the molecule-metal contact geometry.

  7. Estimation of potential radiation damage to electronics units in the CLIC tunnel

    Patapenka, Andrei


    An electronic unit is required for each CLIC “Two Beam Module”. This study aims to estimate the potential damage due to the prompt radiation to the electronics units installed inside the CLIC Main Linac tunnel. Sets of Monte-Carlo simulations have been done to estimate damage to electronics installed at various locations inside the tunnel. Continuous and point beam losses have been considered for CLIC Main and Drive beams. Lead and iron in combination with a polyethylene layer were investigated as a possible shielding. The upper limits of the estimated quantities are presented for stand alone and shielded electronics.

  8. Antiresonance Effect in Electronic Tunnelling through a One-Dimensional Quantum Dot Chain

    SUN Pu-Nan


    @@ Electronic tunnelling through a one-dimensional quantum dot chain is theoretically studied, when two leads couple to the individual component quantum dots of the chain arbitrarily. If there are some dangling quantum dots in the chain outside the leads, the electron tunnelling through the quantum dot chain is wholly forbidden while the energy of the incident electron is just equal to the molecular energy levels of the dangling quantum dots,which is known as the antiresonance effect. In addition, the influence of electron interaction on the antiresonance effect is discussed within the Hartree-Fock approximation.

  9. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E


    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  10. Coherent oscillations of electrons in tunnel-coupled wells under ultrafast intersubband excitation

    Hernandez-Cabrera, A [Departamento de FIsica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38206-Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Aceituno, P [Departamento de FIsica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38206-Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Vasko, F T [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, 252650 (Ukraine)


    Ultrafast intersubband excitation of electrons in tunnel-coupled wells is studied in respect of its dependence on the structure parameters, the duration of the infrared pump and the detuning frequency. The temporal dependences of the photoinduced carrier concentration and dipole moment are obtained for two cases of transitions: from the single ground state to the tunnel-coupled excited states and from the tunnel-coupled states to the single excited state. The peculiarities of dephasing and population relaxation processes are also taken into account. The nonlinear regime of the response is also considered when the splitting energy between the tunnel-coupled levels is renormalized by the photoexcited electron concentration. The dependences of the period and the amplitude of oscillations on the excitation pulse are presented with a description of the damping of the nonlinear oscillations.

  11. Strong-Field Tunneling from a Coherent Superposition of Electronic States

    Fechner, Lutz; Camus, Nicolas; Ullrich, Joachim; Pfeifer, Thomas; Moshammer, Robert


    Laser-induced tunnel ionization from a coherent superposition of electronic states in Ar+ is studied in a kinematically complete experiment. Within a pump-probe scheme a spin-orbit wave packet is launched through the first ionization step from the neutral species. The multielectron coherent wave packet is probed as a function of time by the second pulse which ionizes the system to Ar++. By measuring delay-dependent electron momentum distributions we directly image the evolution of the nonstationary multielectron wave function. Comparing the results with simulations we test common assumptions about electron momentum distributions and the tunneling process itself.

  12. Magnetic-field-induced suppression of tunnelling into a two-dimensional electron system

    Reker, T.; Chung, Y.C.; Im, H.; Klipstein, P.C.; Nicholas, R.J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Shtrikman, Hadas [Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)


    Tunnelling between a three-dimensional emitter contact and a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is studied in magnetic fields aligned perpendicular to the barriers of a double-barrier heterostructure. The differential conductance around the Fermi energy exhibits a magnetic-field-dependent pseudogap. This pseudogap is shown to be thermally activated and to depend on the two-dimensional electron density. We attribute this pseudogap to an extra energy that an electron tunnelling from the emitter into the 2DES has to overcome as a result of the correlated state of the 2DES. (author)

  13. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    Anderson, Elsa K


    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  14. Competing Anisotropy-Tunneling Correlation of the CoFeB/MgO Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junction: An Electronic Approach.

    Yang, Chao-Yao; Chang, Shu-Jui; Lee, Min-Han; Shen, Kuei-Hung; Yang, Shan-Yi; Lin, Horng-Ji; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh


    We intensively investigate the physical principles regulating the tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) by means of angle-resolved x-ray magnetic spectroscopy. The angle-resolved capability was easily achieved, and it provided greater sensitivity to symmetry-related d-band occupation compared to traditional x-ray spectroscopy. This added degree of freedom successfully solved the unclear mechanism of this MTJ system renowned for controllable PMA and excellent TMR. As a surprising discovery, these two physical characteristics interact in a competing manner because of opposite band-filling preference in space-correlated symmetry of the 3d-orbital. An overlooked but harmful superparamagnetic phase resulting from magnetic inhomogeneity was also observed. This important finding reveals that simultaneously achieving fast switching and a high tunneling efficiency at an ultimate level is improbable for this MTJ system owing to its fundamental limit in physics. We suggest that the development of independent TMR and PMA mechanisms is critical towards a complementary relationship between the two physical characteristics, as well as the realization of superior performance, of this perpendicular MTJ. Furthermore, this study provides an easy approach to evaluate the futurity of any emerging spintronic candidates by electronically examining the relationship between their magnetic anisotropy and transport.

  15. A cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy.

    Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Di; Wu, Shiwei


    The design and performance of a cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) housed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) are reported. The cryogen-free design was done by directly integrating a Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocooler to a Besocke-type STM, and the vibration isolation was achieved by using a two-stage rubber bellow between the cryocooler and a UHV-STM interface with helium exchange gas cooling. A base temperature of 15 K at the STM was achieved, with a possibility to further decrease by using a cryocooler with higher cooling power and adding additional low temperature stage under the exchange gas interface. Atomically sharp STM images and high resolution dI/dV spectra on various samples were demonstrated. Furthermore, we reported the inelastic tunneling spectroscopy on a single carbon monoxide molecule adsorbed on Ag(110) surface with a cryogen-free STM for the first time. Being totally cryogen-free, the system not only saves the running cost significantly but also enables uninterrupted data acquisitions and variable temperature measurements with much ease. In addition, the system is capable of coupling light to the STM junction by a pair of lens inside the UHV chamber. We expect that these enhanced capabilities could further broaden our views to the atomic-scale world.

  16. A cryogen-free variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Di; Wu, Shiwei

    While low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has become an indispensable research tool in surface science, its versatility is yet limited by the shortage or high cost of liquid helium. The makeshifts include the use of alternative cryogen (such as liquid nitrogen) at higher temperature or the development of helium liquefier system usually at departmental or campus wide. The ultimate solution would be the direct integration of a cryogen-free cryocooler based on GM or pulse tube closed cycle in the STM itself. However, the nasty mechanical vibration at low frequency intrinsic to cryocoolers has set the biggest obstacle because of the known challenges in vibration isolation required to high performance of STM. In this talk, we will present the design and performance of our home-built cryogen-free variable temperature STM at Fudan University. This system can obtain atomically sharp STM images and high resolution dI/dV spectra comparable to state-of-the-art low temperature STMs, but with no limitation on running hours. Moreover, we demonstrated the inelastic tunneling spectroscopy (STM-IETS) on a single CO molecule with a cryogen-free STM for the first time.

  17. Operation of Ge- and GaAs-tunnel diodes under the influence of electron beams

    El-Basit, W. Abd; Awad, Z. I. M.; Kamh, S. A.; Soliman, F. A. S.


    Nuclear radiation plays a very negative role in the semiconductor devices functionality, mainly when particular semiconductor devices are exposed to an extreme type of radiation. Tunneling is an important aspect of charge transport in semiconductor and molecular devices. So, the effect of electron irradiation on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Germanium (Ge) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) tunneling diodes are reported at room temperature before and after irradiation. Electrons exposure, up to 3.73 My, of the tunnel diodes leads to a pronounced change in their electrical characteristics where the rate of change of the peak- and valley-currents, for Ge and GaAs tunnel diodes, due to electron exposure are shown to be about +53.6, +142 µA/MGy and +29.4, +53.6 µA/MGy, respectively. On the other hand, for the same irradiation doses, the rate of change of the valley- and forward-voltages and output power are shown to be about -44.9, -15.9 and -6.7 mW/MGy, for Ge tunnel diodes, respectively. While, GaAs samples, reported values of -81, -83 mV/MGy and -11.6 mW/MGy are observed. Besides, the peak to valley current ratio of both Ge- and GaAs TDs are proved to decrease due to electrons exposure, with damping ratios of about 78 and 81%, respectively.

  18. Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: combined ab initio and model study

    Petreska, Irina; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco


    Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that confirmation dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previ...

  19. Dynamic tunneling force microscopy for characterizing electronic trap states in non-conductive surfaces

    Wang, R.; Williams, C. C., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)


    Dynamic tunneling force microscopy (DTFM) is a scanning probe technique for real space mapping and characterization of individual electronic trap states in non-conductive films with atomic scale spatial resolution. The method is based upon the quantum mechanical tunneling of a single electron back and forth between a metallic atomic force microscopy tip and individual trap states in completely non-conducting surface. This single electron shuttling is measured by detecting the electrostatic force induced on the probe tip at the shuttling frequency. In this paper, the physical basis for the DTFM method is unfolded through a physical model and a derivation of the dynamic tunneling signal as a function of several experimental parameters is shown. Experimental data are compared with the theoretical simulations, showing quantitative consistency and verifying the physical model used. The experimental system is described and representative imaging results are shown.

  20. Probing the longitudinal momentum spread of the electron wave packet at the tunnel exit

    N. Pfeiffer, Adrian; Cirelli, Claudio; S. Landsman, Alexandra;


    We present an ellipticity resolved study of momentum distributions arising from strong-field ionization of Helium at constant intensity. The influence of the ion potential on the departing electron is considered within a semi-classical model consisting of an initial tunneling step and subsequent...... classical propagation. We find that the momentum distribution can be explained by the presence of a longitudinal momentum spread of the electron at the exit from the tunnel. Our combined experimental and theoretical study provides an estimate of this momentum spread....

  1. Probing the longitudinal momentum spread of the electron wave packet at the tunnel exit

    Pfeiffer, Adrian N; Landsman, Alexandra S; Smolarski, Mathias; Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars B; Keller, Ursula


    We present an ellipticity resolved study of momentum distributions arising from strong-field ionization of Helium at constant intensity. The influence of the ion potential on the departing electron is considered within a semi-classical model consisting of an initial tunneling step and subsequent classical propagation. We find that the momentum distribution can be explained by the presence of a longitudinal momentum spread of the electron at the exit from the tunnel. Our combined experimental and theoretical study provides an estimate of this momentum spread.

  2. Band electron spectrum and thermodynamic properties of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels



    Full Text Available The pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels is considered. Generalization of dynamic mean-field method for systems with correlated hopping was applied to the investigation of the model. Electron spectra, electron concentrations, average values of pseudospins and grand canonical potential were calculated within the alloy-analogy approximation. Electron spectrum and dependencies of the electron concentrations on chemical potential were obtained. It was shown that in the alloy-analogy approximation, the model possesses the first order phase transition to ferromagnetic state with the change of chemical potential and the second order phase transition with the change of temperature.

  3. Tunable few-electron double quantum dots and Klein tunnelling in ultraclean carbon nanotubes.

    Steele, G A; Gotz, G; Kouwenhoven, L P


    Quantum dots defined in carbon nanotubes are a platform for both basic scientific studies and research into new device applications. In particular, they have unique properties that make them attractive for studying the coherent properties of single-electron spins. To perform such experiments it is necessary to confine a single electron in a quantum dot with highly tunable barriers, but disorder has prevented tunable nanotube-based quantum-dot devices from reaching the single-electron regime. Here, we use local gate voltages applied to an ultraclean suspended nanotube to confine a single electron in both a single quantum dot and, for the first time, in a tunable double quantum dot. This tunability is limited by a novel type of tunnelling that is analogous to the tunnelling in the Klein paradox of relativistic quantum mechanics.

  4. Single electron tunneling in large scale nanojunction arrays with bisferrocene-nanoparticle hybrids

    Karmakar, Shilpi; Kumar, Susmit; Marzo, Pasquale; Primiceri, Elisabetta; di Corato, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Ross; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Maruccio, Giuseppe


    We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods.We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods. Electronic supplementary

  5. Shifts and Dips in Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectra Due to the Tunnel Junction Environment.


    biochemistry,7𔄂 9 10 1water polution , electron beam irradiation, UV irradiation 12and lubrication 2 . Particularly promising applications have...partially oxidized the strip in air at 200 0C to form the alumina insulating barrier. Prior to the catalyst metal evaporation we cleaned the slide in

  6. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Michaela Selbach


    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  7. The Wigner time delay for laser induced tunnel-ionization via the electron propagator

    Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z


    Recent attoclock experiments using the attsecond angular streaking technique enabled the measurement of the tunneling time delay during laser induced strong field ionization. Theoretically the tunneling time delay is commonly modelled by the Wigner time delay concept which is derived from the derivative of the electron wave function phase with respect to energy. Here, we present an alternative method for the calculation of the Wigner time delay by using the fixed energy propagator. The developed formalism is applied to the nonrelativistic as well as to the relativistic regime of the tunnel-ionization process from a zero-range potential, where in the latter regime the propagator can be given by means of the proper-time method.

  8. State-specific tunneling lifetimes from classical trajectories: H-atom dissociation in electronically excited pyrrole

    Xie, Weiwei; Domcke, Wolfgang; Farantos, Stavros C.; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.


    A trajectory method of calculating tunneling probabilities from phase integrals along straight line tunneling paths, originally suggested by Makri and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 4026 (1989)] and recently implemented by Truhlar and co-workers [Chem. Sci. 5, 2091 (2014)], is tested for one- and two-dimensional ab initio based potentials describing hydrogen dissociation in the 1B1 excited electronic state of pyrrole. The primary observables are the tunneling rates in a progression of bending vibrational states lying below the dissociation barrier and their isotope dependences. Several initial ensembles of classical trajectories have been considered, corresponding to the quasiclassical and the quantum mechanical samplings of the initial conditions. It is found that the sampling based on the fixed energy Wigner density gives the best agreement with the quantum mechanical dissociation rates.

  9. Strong Asymmetric Charge Carrier Dependence in Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy of Graphene Phonons.

    Natterer, Fabian D; Zhao, Yue; Wyrick, Jonathan; Chan, Yang-Hao; Ruan, Wen-Ying; Chou, Mei-Yin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Zhitenev, Nikolai B; Stroscio, Joseph A


    The observation of phonons in graphene by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy has been met with limited success in previous measurements arising from weak signals and other spectral features which inhibit a clear distinction between phonons and miscellaneous excitations. Utilizing a back-gated graphene device that allows adjusting the global charge carrier density, we introduce an averaging method where individual tunneling spectra at varying charge carrier density are combined into one representative spectrum. This method improves the signal for inelastic transitions while it suppresses dispersive spectral features. We thereby map the total graphene phonon density of states, in good agreement with density functional calculations. Unexpectedly, an abrupt change in the phonon intensity is observed when the graphene charge carrier type is switched through a variation of the back-gate electrode potential. This sudden variation in phonon intensity is asymmetric in the carrier type, depending on the sign of the tunneling bias.

  10. Probing Nanoscale Electronic and Magnetic Interaction with Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Bork, Jakob

    This thesis is concerned with fundamental research into electronic and magnetic interaction on the nanoscale. From small metallic and magnetic islands and layers to single atoms. The research revolves around magnetic interaction probed through the spectroscopic capabilities of the scanning....... This is related to research in correlated electron materials such as studies of phase transitions in heavy fermion compounds and magnetic interaction in spintronic research. The capping of cobalt islands on Cu(111) with silver is investigated with STM and photoemission spectroscopy. It is shown that at low...... coverage the silver preferably nucleates on top of the bilayer high cobalt islands compared to directly on the Cu(111) substrate. Furthermore, the silver forms a combination of a reconstruction and a Moire pattern which is investigated with low-energy electron diraction and spectroscopic STM mapping at 6...

  11. Electron Holography of Barrier Structures in Co/ZrAlOx/Co Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHU Tao; SHEN Feng; SHENG Wen-Ting; WANG Wei-Gang; XIAO John Q; ZHANG Ze


    @@ We investigate the potential profiles and elemental distribution of barriers in Co/ZrAlOx/Co magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using electron holography (EH) and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The MTJ barriers are introduced by oxidizing a bilayer consisting with a uniform 0.45-nm Al layer and a wedge-shaped Zr layer (0-2 nm). From the scanning transmission electron microscopy, AlOx and ZrOx layers are mixed together,indicating that compact AlOx layer cannot be formed in such a bilayer structure of barriers. The EH results reveal that there are no sharp interfaces between the barrier and magnetic electrodes, which may be responsible for a smaller tunnelling magnetoresistance compared with the MTJs of Co/AlOx/Co.

  12. Klein tunnelling and electron trapping in nanometre-scale graphene quantum dots

    Gutiérrez, Christopher; Brown, Lola; Kim, Cheol-Joo; Park, Jiwoong; Pasupathy, Abhay N.


    Relativistic fermions that are incident on a high potential barrier can pass through unimpeded, a striking phenomenon termed the `Klein paradox’ in quantum electrodynamics. Electrostatic potential barriers in graphene provide a solid-state analogue to realize this phenomenon. Here, we use scanning tunnelling microscopy to directly probe the transmission of electrons through sharp circular potential wells in graphene created by substrate engineering. We find that electrons in this geometry display quasi-bound states where the electron is trapped for a finite time before escaping via Klein tunnelling. We show that the continuum Dirac equation can be successfully used to model the energies and wavefunctions of these quasi-bound states down to atomic dimensions. We demonstrate that by tuning the geometry of the barrier it is possible to trap particular energies and angular momentum states with increased efficiency, showing that atomic-scale electrostatic potentials can be used to engineer quantum transport through graphene.

  13. Qualification of electronic components and systems in a LHC Tunnel Radiation Environment

    Rausch, R; Wijnands, Thijs


    Around 10.200 electronic crates will be installed in the LHC underground areas of which some 4.200 will be connected to the machine control network. Some of the electronic equipment will be housed under the cryostats of the main dipoles inside the tunnel. Other equipment will be placed alongside the tunnel, in the alcoves or in galleries parallel to the machine. In the regular arcs and in the dispersion suppressors areas the expected annual dose is low, i.e. only a few Gy/y. However, preliminary radiation tests showed that electronic equipment fails even at such low dose rates. Since radiation qualification of all tunnel electronics is essential in order to guarantee its reliable operation over the lifetime of the machine, a LHC radiation test facility was commissioned in the North Experimental Area of the SPS accelerator. This paper presents the simulation study concerning the radiation environment of the LHC Radiation Test Facility and gives an overview of the various underground electronic systems as they ...

  14. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University


    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  15. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Chung-Yen Yu; Jiann-Cherng Shieh


    With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics ...

  16. Electronic coolers based on superconducting tunnel junctions: fundamentals and applications


    International audience; Thermo-electric transport at the nano-scale is a rapidly developing topic, in particular in superconductor-based hybrid devices. In this review paper, we first discuss the fundamental principles of electronic cooling in mesoscopic superconducting hybrid structures, the related limitations and applications. We review recent work performed in Grenoble on the effects of Andreev reflection, photonic heat transport, phonon cooling, as well as on an innovative fabrication te...

  17. Electronic tunneling through a potential barrier on the surface of a topological insulator

    Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Guanghui


    We investigate the tunneling transport for electrons on the surface of a topological insulator (TI) through an electrostatic potential barrier. By using the Dirac equation with the continuity conditions for all segments of wave functions at the interfaces between regions inside and outside the barrier, we calculate analytically the transmission probability and conductance for the system. It is demonstrated that, the Klein paradox can also been observed in the system same as in graphene system. Interestingly, the conductance reaches the minimum value when the incident electron energy is equal to the barrier strength. Moreover, with increasing barrier width, the conductance turns up some tunneling oscillation peaks, and larger barrier strength can cause lower conductance, shorter period but larger oscillation amplitude. The oscillation amplitude decreases as the barrier width increases, which is similar as that of the system consisting of the compressive uniaxial strain applied on a TI, but somewhat different from that of graphene system where the oscillation amplitude is a constant. The findings here imply that an electrostatic barrier can greatly influence the electron tunneling transport of the system, and may provide a new way to realize directional filtering of electrons.

  18. Ultralarge area MOS tunnel devices for electron emission

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm;


    A comparative analysis of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been employed to characterize the thickness variations of the oxide on different length scales. Ultralarge area (1 cm(2)) ultrathin (similar to 5 nm oxide......) MOS capacitors have been fabricated to investigate their functionality and the variations in oxide thickness, with the use as future electron emission devices as the goal. I-V characteristics show very low leakage current and excellent agreement to the Fowler-Nordheim expression for the current...

  19. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.


    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  20. Electronic structure of EuO spin filter tunnel contacts directly on silicon

    Caspers, C.; Mueller, M. [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Gray, A.X.; Fadley, C.S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Kaiser, A.M. [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Gloskovskii, A. [Institut fuer Analytische und Anorganische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Drube, W. [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, C.M. [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Fakultaet fuer Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), 47048 Duisburg (Germany)


    We present an electronic structure study of a magnetic oxide/ semiconductor model system, EuO on silicon, which is dedicated for efficient spin injection and spin detection in silicon-based spintronics devices. A combined electronic structure analysis of Eu core levels and valence bands using hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was performed to quantify the nearly ideal stoichiometry of EuO ''spin filter'' tunnel barriers directly on silicon, and the absence of silicon oxide at the EuO/Si interface. These results provide evidence for the successful integration of a magnetic oxide tunnel barrier with silicon, paving the way for the future integration of magnetic oxides into functional spintronics devices. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of an Al/EuO/Si heterostructure probing the buried EuO and EuO/Si interface. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Effects of temperature and electron effective mass on bias-dependent tunnelling magnetoresistance

    Li Fei-Fei; Li Zheng-Zhong; Xiao Ming-Wen


    In this paper, we study the effects of temperature and electron effective mass within the barrier on the bias dependence and sign-change behaviour of the tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) in ferromagnetic junctions. A significant decrease of the tunnelling magnetoresistance with increasing temperature is obtained, in accordance with the experiments. In addition to the height of barrier potential (φ) discussed in our previous papers, the electron effective mass (mB) within the barrier region is found to be another important factor that physically controls the sign-change behaviour of the TMR. The critical voltage (Vc) at which TMR changes sign will increase with φ and decrease with mB. Furthermore, both the zero-bias TMR and Vc will decrease if the temperature rises. These results would be of practical use for experimental investigations.

  2. Scanning tunneling microscopy characterization of the geometric and electronic structure of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces

    Kaiser, W. J.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Grunthaner, F. J.


    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) methods are used to characterize hydrogen-terminated Si surfaces prepared by a novel method. The surface preparation method is used to expose the Si-SiO2 interface. STM images directly reveal the topographic structure of the Si-SiO2 interface. The dependence of interface topography on oxide preparation conditions observed by STM is compared to the results of conventional surface characterization methods. Also, the electronic structure of the hydrogen-terminated surface is studied by STM spectroscopy. The near-ideal electronic structure of this surface enables direct tunnel spectroscopy measurements of Schottky barrier phenomena. In addition, this method enables probing of semiconductor subsurface properties by STM.

  3. Electron tunneling using STM/STS on iron-based oxypnictides

    Kawashima, Yuuki; Ichimura, Koichi; Kurosawa, Toru; Oda, Migaku; Tanda, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Okada, Hironari; Kamihara, Yoichi; Hosono, Hideo


    We report the electron tunneling study on SmFeAsO1-xFx (x = 0, 0.045, 0.046, 0.069) by using low temperature UHV-STM/STS. The superconducting gap and pseudogap structures are observed on x = 0.045, 0.046, 0.069. We also found similar structures on non-superconducting sample of x = 0. The value of 2Δ/kT decreases as T increases.

  4. Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: Combined ab initio and model study

    Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupčo; Kocarev, Ljupčo


    Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that conformation-dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previous work where we investigated the coherent transport via strongly coupled delocalized orbital by application of Non-equilibrium Green's Function Formalism.

  5. Confined State and Electronic Transport in an Artificial Graphene-Based Tunnel Junction

    袁建辉; 张建军; 曾奇军; 张俊佩; 成泽


    Artificial graphene structures embedded in semiconductors could open novel routes for studies of electron interactions in 1ow-dimensional systems. We propose a way to manipulate the transport properties of massless Dirac fermions in an artificial graphene-based tunnel junction. Velocity-modulation control of electron wave propagation in the different regions can be regarded as velocity barriers. Transmission probability of electron is affected profoundly by this velocity barrier. We find that there is no confinement for Dirac electron as the velocity ratio ζ is less than 1, but when the velocity ratio is larger than 1 the confined state appears in the continuum band. These localized Dirac electrons may lead to the decreasing of transmission probability.

  6. Conceptual design for an electron-beam heated hypersonic wind tunnel

    Lipinski, R.J.; Kensek, R.P.


    There is a need for hypersonic wind-tunnel testing at about mach 10 and above using natural air and simulating temperatures and pressures which are prototypic of flight at 50 km altitude or below. With traditional wind-tunnel techniques, gas cooling during expansion results in exit temperatures which are too low. Miles, et al., have proposed overcoming this difficulty by heating the air with a laser beam as it expands in the wind-tunnel nozzle. This report discusses an alternative option of using a high-power electron beam to heat the air as it expands. In the e-beam heating concept, the electron beam is injected into the wind-tunnel nozzle near the exit and then is guided upstream toward the nozzle throat by a strong axial magnetic field. The beam deposits most of its power in the dense air near the throat where the expansion rate is greatest. A conceptual design is presented for a large-scale system which achieves Mach 14 for 0.1 seconds with an exit diameter of 2.8 meters. It requires 450 MW of electron beam power (5 MeV at 90 A). The guiding field is 500 G for most of the transport length and increases to 100 kG near the throat to converge the beam to a 1.0-cm diameter. The beam generator is a DC accelerator using a Marx bank (of capacitors) and a diode stack with a hot cathode. 14 refs. 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Probing flexible conformations in molecular junctions by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    Mingsen Deng


    Full Text Available The probe of flexible molecular conformation is crucial for the electric application of molecular systems. We have developed a theoretical procedure to analyze the couplings of molecular local vibrations with the electron transportation process, which enables us to evaluate the structural fingerprints of some vibrational modes in the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS. Based on a model molecule of Bis-(4-mercaptophenyl-ether with a flexible center angle, we have revealed and validated a simple mathematical relationship between IETS signals and molecular angles. Our results might open a route to quantitatively measure key geometrical parameters of molecular junctions, which helps to achieve precise control of molecular devices.

  8. Effect of interface geometry on electron tunnelling in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions

    Koberidze, M.; Feshchenko, A. V.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Pekola, J. P.


    We investigate how different interface geometries of an Al/Al2O3 junction, a common component of modern tunnel devices, affect electron transport through the tunnel barrier. We study six distinct Al/Al2O3 interfaces which differ in stacking sequences of the metal and the oxide surface atoms and the oxide termination. To construct model potential barrier profiles for each examined geometry, we rely on first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for the barrier heights and the shapes of the interface regions as well as on experimental data for the barrier widths. We show that even tiny variations in the atomic arrangement at the interface cause significant changes in the tunnel barrier parameters and, consequently, in electron transport properties. Especially, we find that variations in the crucial barrier heights and widths can be as large as 2 eV and 5 Å, respectively. Finally, to gain information about the average properties of the measured junction, we fit the conductance calculated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to the experimental data and interpret the fit parameters with the help of the DFT results.

  9. Revisiting the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of single hydrogen atom adsorbed on the Cu(100) surface.

    Jiang, Zhuoling; Wang, Hao; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin


    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of a single hydrogen atom on the Cu(100) surface in a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) configuration has been investigated by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. The electron-vibration interaction is treated at the level of lowest order expansion. Our calculations show that the single peak observed in the previous STM-IETS experiments is dominated by the perpendicular mode of the adsorbed H atom, while the parallel one only makes a negligible contribution even when the STM tip is laterally displaced from the top position of the H atom. This propensity of the IETS is deeply rooted in the symmetry of the vibrational modes and the characteristics of the conduction channel of the Cu-H-Cu tunneling junction, which is mainly composed of the 4s and 4pz atomic orbitals of the Cu apex atom and the 1s orbital of the adsorbed H atom. These findings are helpful for deepening our understanding of the propensity rules for IETS and promoting IETS as a more popular spectroscopic tool for molecular devices.

  10. Revisiting the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of single hydrogen atom adsorbed on the Cu(100) surface

    Jiang, Zhuoling; Wang, Hao [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sanvito, Stefano [School of Physics, AMBER and CRANN Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Hou, Shimin, E-mail: [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Beida Information Research (BIR), Tianjin 300457 (China)


    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of a single hydrogen atom on the Cu(100) surface in a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) configuration has been investigated by employing the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with density functional theory. The electron-vibration interaction is treated at the level of lowest order expansion. Our calculations show that the single peak observed in the previous STM-IETS experiments is dominated by the perpendicular mode of the adsorbed H atom, while the parallel one only makes a negligible contribution even when the STM tip is laterally displaced from the top position of the H atom. This propensity of the IETS is deeply rooted in the symmetry of the vibrational modes and the characteristics of the conduction channel of the Cu-H-Cu tunneling junction, which is mainly composed of the 4s and 4p{sub z} atomic orbitals of the Cu apex atom and the 1s orbital of the adsorbed H atom. These findings are helpful for deepening our understanding of the propensity rules for IETS and promoting IETS as a more popular spectroscopic tool for molecular devices.

  11. Tunneling electron induced molecular electroluminescence from individual porphyrin J-aggregates

    Meng, Qiushi; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yang, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zhang, Yao; Liao, Yuan; Dong, Zhenchao, E-mail:, E-mail: [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)


    We investigate molecular electroluminescence from individual tubular porphyrin J-aggregates on Au(111) by tunneling electron excitations in an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM). High-resolution STM images suggest a spiral tubular structure for the porphyrin J-aggregate with highly ordered “brickwork”-like arrangements. Such aggregated nanotube is found to behave like a self-decoupled molecular architecture and shows red-shifted electroluminescence characteristics of J-aggregates originated from the delocalized excitons. The positions of the emission peaks are found to shift slightly depending on the excitation sites, which, together with the changes in the observed spectral profiles with vibronic progressions, suggest a limited exciton coherence number within several molecules. The J-aggregate electroluminescence is also found unipolar, occurring only at negative sample voltages, which is presumably related to the junction asymmetry in the context of molecular excitations via the carrier injection mechanism.

  12. A density-functional theory study of tip electronic structures in scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Choi, Heesung; Longo, Roberto C; Huang, Min; Randall, John N; Wallace, Robert M; Cho, Kyeongjae


    In this work, we report a detailed analysis of the atomic and electronic structures of transition metal scanning tunneling microscopy tips: Rh, Pd, W, Ir, and Pt pyramidal models, and transition metal (TM) atom tips supported on the W surface, by means of ab initio density-functional theory methods. The d electrons of the apex atoms of the TM tips (Rh, Pd, W, Ir, and Pt tetrahedral structures) show different behaviors near the Fermi level and, especially for the W tip, dz(2) states are shown to be predominant near the Fermi level. The electronic structures of larger pyramidal TM tip structures with a single apex atom are also reported. Their obtained density of states are thoroughly discussed in terms of the different d-electron occupations of the TM tips.

  13. Fabrication of metallic single electron transistors featuring plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of tunnel barriers

    Karbasian, Golnaz

    The continuing increase of the device density in integrated circuits (ICs) gives rise to the high level of power that is dissipated per unit area and consequently a high temperature in the circuits. Since temperature affects the performance and reliability of the circuits, minimization of the energy consumption in logic devices is now the center of attention. According to the International Technology Roadmaps for Semiconductors (ITRS), single electron transistors (SETs) hold the promise of achieving the lowest power of any known logic device, as low as 1x10-18 J per switching event. Moreover, SETs are the most sensitive electrometers to date, and are capable of detecting a fraction of an electron charge. Despite their low power consumption and high sensitivity for charge detection, room temperature operation of these devices is quite challenging mainly due to lithographical constraints in fabricating structures with the required dimensions of less than 10 nm. Silicon based SETs have been reported to operate at room temperature. However, they all suffer from significant variation in batch-to-batch performance, low fabrication yield, and temperature-dependent tunnel barrier height. In this project, we explored the fabrication of SETs featuring metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions. While Si-based SETs suffer from undesirable effect of dopants that result in irregularities in the device behavior, in metal-based SETs the device components (tunnel barrier, island, and the leads) are well-defined. Therefore, metal SETs are potentially more predictable in behavior, making them easier to incorporate into circuits, and easier to check against theoretical models. Here, the proposed fabrication method takes advantage of unique properties of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Chemical mechanical polishing provides a path for tuning the dimensions of the tunnel junctions, surpassing the limits imposed by electron beam

  14. High-Efficiency Selective Electron Tunnelling in a Heterostructure Photovoltaic Diode.

    Jia, Chuancheng; Ma, Wei; Gu, Chunhui; Chen, Hongliang; Yu, Haomiao; Li, Xinxi; Zhang, Fan; Gu, Lin; Xia, Andong; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Meng, Sheng; Guo, Xuefeng


    A heterostructure photovoltaic diode featuring an all-solid-state TiO2/graphene/dye ternary interface with high-efficiency photogenerated charge separation/transport is described here. Light absorption is accomplished by dye molecules deposited on the outside surface of graphene as photoreceptors to produce photoexcited electron-hole pairs. Unlike conventional photovoltaic conversion, in this heterostructure both photoexcited electrons and holes tunnel along the same direction into graphene, but only electrons display efficient ballistic transport toward the TiO2 transport layer, thus leading to effective photon-to-electricity conversion. On the basis of this ipsilateral selective electron tunnelling (ISET) mechanism, a model monolayer photovoltaic device (PVD) possessing a TiO2/graphene/acridine orange ternary interface showed ∼86.8% interfacial separation/collection efficiency, which guaranteed an ultrahigh absorbed photon-to-current efficiency (APCE, ∼80%). Such an ISET-based PVD may become a fundamental device architecture for photovoltaic solar cells, photoelectric detectors, and other novel optoelectronic applications with obvious advantages, such as high efficiency, easy fabrication, scalability, and universal availability of cost-effective materials.

  15. Single-electron tunneling by using a two-dimensional Corbino nano-scale disk

    Taira, H., E-mail: [Faculty of Education, Hokkaido University of Education, Kita-ku, Sapporo 002-8502 (Japan); Suzuki, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)


    We investigate a single-electron tunneling effect of two-dimensional electron systems formed in the Corbino nano-scale disk. By controlling bias and gate voltages, the transistor using this effect is able to control electrons one by one. The present study focuses on the electronic transmission probability affected by the charging energy in the Corbino-type single-electron transistor. We reformulated the Schrödinger equation for an electron in the Corbino disk in order to consider the effect of the curvature of the disk, taking into account the charging effect on the performance of the Corbino-type single-electron transistor. We formulated the transmission probability of the electron by applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method. The electron’s energy in the formula of the transmission probability is then associated to the energy eigenvalue of the Schrödinger equation for an electron in an effective confining potential. We numerically solved the Schrödinger equation to evaluate the transmission probability. Our results show that the transmission probability strongly depends on the charging energy stored in the Corbino disk depending on its size.

  16. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  17. Single-molecule electron tunnelling through multiple redox levels with environmental relaxation

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens


    to environmental nuclear motion. Cryogenic temperatures are considered. This implies that thermal activation is disregarded but vibrational relaxation in the molecular charge states is central. The electrochemical potentials of the electrodes are controlled relative to a reference electrode. The electrodes...... represent the substrate and tip in electrochemical in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. An equivalent three-electrode configuration represents a molecular single-electron transistor in which the enclosing electrodes constitute source and drain, and the reference electrode the gate. Current-bias voltage...... level(s) subsequent to electron transfer. Several physical mechanisms can be distinguished and distinctive current-overpotential/gate voltage or current-bias voltage relations obtained. These reflect electronic level separation, environmental nuclear reorganisation, and coherent or incoherent multi...

  18. Submolecular Electronic Mapping of Single Cysteine Molecules by in Situ Scanning Tunneling Imaging

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Nazmutdinov, R. R.;


    We have used L-Cysteine (Cys) as a model system to study the surface electronic structures of single molecules at the submolecular level in aqueous buffer solution by a combination of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (in situ STM), electrochemistry including voltammetry and chronocou......We have used L-Cysteine (Cys) as a model system to study the surface electronic structures of single molecules at the submolecular level in aqueous buffer solution by a combination of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (in situ STM), electrochemistry including voltammetry...... and tip. The computational images recast as constant-current-height profiles show that the most favorable molecular orientation is the adsorption of cysteine as a radical in zwitterionic form located on the bridge between the Au(I 10) atomic rows and with the amine and carboxyl group toward the solution...... bulk. The correlation between physical location and electronic contrast of the adsorbed molecules was also revealed by the computational data. The present study shows that cysteine packing in the adlayer on Au(110) from the liquid environment is in contrast to that from the ultrahigh-vacuum environment...

  19. Time and Space Resolved High Harmonic Imaging of Electron Tunnelling from Molecules

    Smirnova, O.


    High harmonic generation in intense laser fields carries the promise of combining sub-Angstrom spatial and attosecond temporal resolution of electronic structures and dynamics in molecules, see e.g. [1-3]. High harmonic emission occurs when an electron detached from a molecule by an intense laser field recombines with the parent ion [4]. Similar to Young's double-slit experiment, recombination to several ``lobes'' of the same molecular orbital can produce interference minima and maxima in harmonic intensities [1]. These minima (maxima) carry structural information -- they occur when the de-Broglie wavelength of the recombining electron matches distances between the centers. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that amplitude minima (maxima) in the harmonic spectra can also have dynamical origin, reflecting multi-electron dynamics in the molecule. We use high harmonic spectra to record this dynamics and reconstruct the position of the hole left in the molecule after ionization. Experimental data are consistent with the hole starting in different places as the ionization dynamics changes from tunnelling to the multi-photon regime. Importantly, hole localization and subsequent attosecond dynamics are induced even in the tunnelling limit. Thus, even ``static'' tunnelling induced by a tip of a tunnelling microscope will generate similar attosecond dynamics in a sample. We anticipate that our approach will become standard in disentangling spatial and temporal information from high harmonic spectra of molecules.[4pt] In collaboration with Serguei Patchkovskii, National Research Council, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada; Yann Mairesse, NRC Canada and CELIA, Universit'e Bordeaux I, UMR 5107 (CNRS, Bordeaux 1, CEA), 351 Cours de la Lib'eration, 33405 Talence Cedex, France; Nirit Dudovich, NRC Canada and Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel; David Villeneuve, Paul Corkum, NRC Canada

  20. Consecutive Charging of a Molecule-on-Insulator Ensemble Using Single Electron Tunnelling Methods.

    Rahe, Philipp; Steele, Ryan P; Williams, Clayton C


    We present the local charge state modification at room temperature of small insulator-supported molecular ensembles formed by 1,1'-ferrocenedicarboxylic acid on calcite. Single electron tunnelling between the conducting tip of a noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) and the molecular islands is observed. By joining NC-AFM with Kelvin probe force microscopy, successive charge build-up in the sample is observed from consecutive experiments. Charge transfer within the islands and structural relaxation of the adsorbate/surface system is suggested by the experimental data.

  1. In situ scanning tunnelling microscopy of redox molecules. Coherent electron transfer at large bias voltages

    Zhang, Jingdong; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens


    Theories of in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) of molecules with redox levels near the substrate and tip Fermi levels point to 'spectroscopic' current-overpotential features. Prominent features require a narrow 'probing tip', i.e. a small bias voltage, eV(bias), compared...... and tip Fermi levels. STM here involves coherent two-step interfacial electron transfer between the redox level and the enclosing substrate and tip. We have also extended previous experimental in situ STM studies of the blue copper protein Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin, adsorbed on Au(111), to cover...

  2. Electron tunneling using STM/STS on iron-based oxypnictides

    Kawashima, Yuuki, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ichimura, Koichi [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Kurosawa, Toru; Oda, Migaku [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tanda, Satoshi [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroki; Okada, Hironari [Department of Physics, Nihon University, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Kamihara, Yoichi [TriP, JST, Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)


    We report the electron tunneling study on SmFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (x = 0, 0.045, 0.046, 0.069) by using low temperature UHV-STM/STS. The superconducting gap and pseudogap structures are observed on x = 0.045, 0.046, 0.069. We also found similar structures on non-superconducting sample of x = 0. The value of 2{Delta}{sub sc}/kT{sub c} decreases as T{sub c} increases.

  3. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    Lee, Stuart D


    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  4. Feasibility study for electron beam and laser Raman non-intrusive diagnostic measurements in hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels

    Powell, Homer M.; Ventrice, Carl A.; Yanta, William; Hedlund, Eric; Moyers, Richard L.

    Calculations based upon density measurements are presented for assessing the feasibility of electron beam and laser Raman flow diagnostic techniques for hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels of the Naval-Surface-Weapons-Center class. It is concluded that the electron beam technique is applicable only for flow visualization purposes, even at the low end of the test envelope.

  5. Resonant tunneling assisted propagation and amplification of plasmons in high electron mobility transistors

    Bhardwaj, Shubhendu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Xing, Huili Grace [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Rajan, Siddharth [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and Materials Science Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Volakis, John L.


    A rigorous theoretical and computational model is developed for the plasma-wave propagation in high electron mobility transistor structures with electron injection from a resonant tunneling diode at the gate. We discuss the conditions in which low-loss and sustainable plasmon modes can be supported in such structures. The developed analytical model is used to derive the dispersion relation for these plasmon-modes. A non-linear full-wave-hydrodynamic numerical solver is also developed using a finite difference time domain algorithm. The developed analytical solutions are validated via the numerical solution. We also verify previous observations that were based on a simplified transmission line model. It is shown that at high levels of negative differential conductance, plasmon amplification is indeed possible. The proposed rigorous models can enable accurate design and optimization of practical resonant tunnel diode-based plasma-wave devices for terahertz sources, mixers, and detectors, by allowing a precise representation of their coupling when integrated with other electromagnetic structures.

  6. Superluminescence from an optically pumped molecular tunneling junction by injection of plasmon induced hot electrons

    Kai Braun


    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate a bias-driven superluminescent point light-source based on an optically pumped molecular junction (gold substrate/self-assembled molecular monolayer/gold tip of a scanning tunneling microscope, operating at ambient conditions and providing almost three orders of magnitude higher electron-to-photon conversion efficiency than electroluminescence induced by inelastic tunneling without optical pumping. A positive, steadily increasing bias voltage induces a step-like rise of the Stokes shifted optical signal emitted from the junction. This emission is strongly attenuated by reversing the applied bias voltage. At high bias voltage, the emission intensity depends non-linearly on the optical pump power. The enhanced emission can be modelled by rate equations taking into account hole injection from the tip (anode into the highest occupied orbital of the closest substrate-bound molecule (lower level and radiative recombination with an electron from above the Fermi level (upper level, hence feeding photons back by stimulated emission resonant with the gap mode. The system reflects many essential features of a superluminescent light emitting diode.

  7. Time-dependent tunneling of spin-polarized electrons in coupled quantum wells

    Cruz, H; Luis, D [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38204 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail:


    We have solved the in-plane momentum-dependent effective-mass nonlinear Schroedinger equation for a spin-polarized electron wave packet in a InAs double quantum well system with an interlayer voltage. Considering a time-dependent Hartree potential, we have calculated the spin-polarized nonlinear electron dynamics between both quantum wells at different in-plane momentum values and applied bias. The spin-splitting caused by the Rashba effect is combined with the level matching between the spin dependent resonant tunneling levels making possible the observed local spin density oscillations which depend on the applied bias value. The filtering efficiency has been studied using time-dependent calculations.

  8. Single electron tunnelling through high-Q single-wall carbon nanotube NEMS resonators

    Hüttel, A. K.; Meerwaldt, H. B.; Steele, G. A.; Poot, M.; Witkamp, B.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; van der Zant, H. S. J.


    By first lithographically fabricating contact electrodes and then as last step growing carbon nanotubes with chemical vapour deposition across the ready-made chip, many potential contamination mechanisms for nanotube devices can be avoided. Combining this with pre-defined trenches on the chip, such that the nanotubes are freely suspended above the substrate, enables the formation of highly regular electronic systems. We show that, in addition, such suspended ultra-clean nanotubes provide excellent high-frequency and low-dissipation mechanical resonators. The motion detection mechanism of our experiment is discussed, and we measure the effect of Coulomb blockade and the back-action of single electron tunneling on the mechanical motion. In addition data on the mechanical higher modes is presented.

  9. Inelastic electron tunneling through degenerate and nondegenerate ground state polymeric junctions

    Golsanamlou, Z.; Bagheri Tagani, M., E-mail:; Rahimpour Soleimani, H.


    Highlights: • Current–voltage characteristics of two polymeric junctions are studied. • Current is reduced in phonon assistant tunneling regime. • Behavior of current is independent of temperature. • Elastic energy changes current drastically. - Abstract: The inelastic electron transport properties through two polymeric (trans-polyacetylene and polythiophene) molecular junctions are studied using Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function formalism. The Hamiltonian of the polymers is described via Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model and the metallic electrodes are modeled by the wide-band approximation. Results show that the step-like behavior of the current–voltage characteristics is deformed in presence of strong electron–phonon interaction. Also, the magnitude of current is slightly decreased in the phonon assistant electron transport regime. In addition, it is observed that the I–V curves are independent of temperature.

  10. Modification of a Scanning Tunneling Microscope for Measurement of Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy

    Hsieh, Satcher; Hong, Jeongmin; Bokor, Jeffrey


    Magnetic memory and logic devices show great promise for integration with, and even replacement of, conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) architectures. In order to characterize materials and deposition techniques for these devices, ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) is used. BEEM is a spatially resolved metrological tool most commonly used for subsurface interface structures at the nanometer scale. We modify a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to perform BEEM measurement via design and fabrication of a novel sample stage. Furthermore, we design and fabricate an external magnetic field source that encapsulates the sample stage, setting the foundation for future measurement of ballistic electron magnetic microscopy (BEMM). Instrumentation of the device and characterization of a sample with an ohmic interface, Ni-Si, are implemented and discussed. With support from National Science Foundation Award ECCS-0939514.

  11. Single-molecule electronics: Cooling individual vibrational modes by the tunneling current

    Lykkebo, Jacob; Romano, Giuseppe; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C.


    Electronic devices composed of single molecules constitute the ultimate limit in the continued downscaling of electronic components. A key challenge for single-molecule electronics is to control the temperature of these junctions. Controlling heating and cooling effects in individual vibrational modes can, in principle, be utilized to increase stability of single-molecule junctions under bias, to pump energy into particular vibrational modes to perform current-induced reactions, or to increase the resolution in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy by controlling the life-times of phonons in a molecule by suppressing absorption and external dissipation processes. Under bias the current and the molecule exchange energy, which typically results in heating of the molecule. However, the opposite process is also possible, where energy is extracted from the molecule by the tunneling current. Designing a molecular "heat sink" where a particular vibrational mode funnels heat out of the molecule and into the leads would be very desirable. It is even possible to imagine how the vibrational energy of the other vibrational modes could be funneled into the "cooling mode," given the right molecular design. Previous efforts to understand heating and cooling mechanisms in single molecule junctions have primarily been concerned with small models, where it is unclear which molecular systems they correspond to. In this paper, our focus is on suppressing heating and obtaining current-induced cooling in certain vibrational modes. Strategies for cooling vibrational modes in single-molecule junctions are presented, together with atomistic calculations based on those strategies. Cooling and reduced heating are observed for two different cooling schemes in calculations of atomistic single-molecule junctions.

  12. Resonant Tunnelling and Storage of Electrons in Si Nanocrystals within a-SiNx/nc-Si/a-SiNx Structures

    WANG Xiang; HUANG Jian; ZHANG Xian-Gao; DING Hong-Lin; YU Lin-Wei; HUANG Xin-Fan; LI Wei; XU Jun; CHEN Kun-Ji


    @@ The a-SiNx/nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si)/a-SiNx sandwiched structures with asymmetric double-barrier are fabricated in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system on p-type Si substrates. The nc-Si layer in thickness 5nm is fabricated from a hydrogen-diluted silane gas by the layer-by-layer deposition technique. The thicknesses of tunnel and control SiNx layers are 3nm and 20nm,respectively. Frequency-dependent capacitance spectroscopy is used to study the electron tunnelling and the storage in the sandwiched structures.Distinct frequency-dependent capacitance peaks due to electrons tunnelling into the nc-Si dots and capacitance-voltage (C- V) hysteresis characteristic due to electrons storage in the nc-Si dots are observed with the same sample.

  13. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Jean Bernon


    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  14. A study of inelastic electron-phonon interactions on tunneling magnetoresistance of a nano-scale device

    Modarresi, M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roknabadi, M.R.; Shahtahmasbi, N.; Vahedi Fakhrabad, D.; Arabshahi, H. [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this research, we have studied the effect of inelastic electron-phonon interactions on current-voltage characteristic and tunneling magnetoresistance of a polythiophene molecule that is sandwiched between two cobalt electrodes using modified Green's function method as proposed by Walczak. The molecule is described with a modified Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian. The ground state of the molecule is obtained by Hellman-Feynman theorem. Electrodes are described in the wide-band approximation and spin-flip is neglected during conduction. Our calculation results show that with increase in voltage the currents increase and tunneling magnetoresistance decreases. Change in tunneling magnetoresistance due to inelastic interactions is limited in a small bias voltage interval and can be neglected in the other bias voltages. -- Research Highlights: {yields}We investigate the effect of inelastic interaction on transport properties. {yields}Due to inelastic interactions tunneling magnetoresistance decreases. {yields}Decrease in TMR is restricted in a small voltage interval.

  15. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Jenny Craven


    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  16. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Chung-Yen Yu


    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  17. New Definition of Electronic Tunneling Effectiveness%电子隧道效应新释



    用经典物理的办法解释了电子隧道效应,认为电子隧道效应是导体中的自由电子扩散到绝缘层中,使得绝缘层中的价电子能态升高,由束缚态(局域态)转变成自由态(公有化态),从而参与裁流的现象:导体中的自由电子扩散到绝缘层中,由于库仑斥力的作用,使得绝缘层中的价电子在晶格势场中的能态升高,降低了势垒高度,同时,由于载流子定向运动产生的霍尔电场对价电子做功及电流产生的焦耳热也使得价电子能态升高。在三个因素的影响之下,绝缘层中价电子能态升高,由局域态转变成自由状态,从而参与载流。根据绝缘层厚度和隧道效应的尺寸,可以判定金属中价电子对绝缘层中价电子的作用范围大约是十几A的限度.%Electronic tunneling effect have been defined by using classical physics method, we considers the electronic tunneling effect as a phenomenon that conductor's free electrons diffusing into insulated layer elevate the energy state of valence electrons from bond state(local state) to free state (public state), enable them to participate into the course of electric currency carrying. Under the effect of Coulomb repulsion, the free electrons of conductor which diffuse into insulated layer elevate the energy state of valence electrons in the lattice power field and then lower down the barrier height. However, the Hall field generated by the carriers' orientation movement and Joule heat generated by the electric currency can also elevate the energy state of valence electrons. Under the cooperative effect of the factors above, the energy state of valence electrons of insulated layer is elevated from bond state to free state to participate into the course of electric currency carrying. According to the thickness of insulated layer and the size of tunneling effect, the scope of the effect that medal valence electrons have on

  18. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    Dubnjakovic, Ana


    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  19. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Sanna Torma


    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  20. An atomic switch of electron propagation on Ge (001) by tunneling carrier injection

    Komori, Fumio


    Reversible switching of electronic conduction through atom manipulation is one of the important subjects of nanoscience. However, different conducting pathways were not clearly observed with atomic resolution. We have demonstrated the correlation between the change of surface atomic position by tunneling carrier injection and that of the reflection of one-dimensional (1D) surface-state electrons on the Ge (001) surface with a low density of heterogeneous Sn-Ge dimers. [1] On the clean Ge(001) surface, two adjacent atoms form a buckled dimer, and the buckling orientation of the Ge dimer can be locally and reversibly controlled by carrier injection to the surface from the STM tip. [2] The unoccupied surface &*circ;-electron behaves like a 1D free electron along the Ge dimer row. When Sn atoms are deposited on the clean Ge(001) surface at room temperature, buckled dimers originating from the Sn atoms are formed at the Ge dimer position in the surface. [3] An atomic switch is realized for the &*circ; electrons in the Ge dimer- row direction by injection carriers to reversibly flip the buckling orientation of a single Sn-Ge dimer in the dimer row. When the Sn atom of the heterogeneous dimer is at the lower position, the 1D electrons are reflected and a standing wave of this state is observed. Whereas, when it is at the upper position, the 1D electrons pass through the heterogeneous dimer, and no standing wave is observed. In this state, the lower atom of the dimer is Ge, and the &*circ; state at the dimer is little different from that of the Ge-Ge dimers. [1] K. Tomatsu, K. Nakatsuji, T. Iimori, Y. Takagi, H. Kusuhara, A. Ishii, F. Komori; Science 315, 1696, 2007. [2] Y. Takagi, Y. Yoshimoto, K. Nakatsuji, F. Komori; Surf. Sci. 559, 1, 2004. [3] K. Tomatsu, K. Nakatsuji, T. Iimori, F. Komori; Surf. Sci. 601, 1736, 2007.

  1. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat


    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  2. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer


    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…


    Olena Yu. Balalaieva


    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  4. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Hulseberg, Anna


    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  5. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.


    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  6. Excitation of bond-alternating spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains by tunnelling electrons.

    Gauyacq, J-P; Lorente, N


    Inelastic electron tunneling spectra (IETS) are evaluated for spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains showing different phases of their spin ordering. The spin ordering is controlled by the value of the two different Heisenberg couplings on the two sides of each of the chain's atoms (bond-alternating chains). The perfect anti-ferromagnetic phase, i.e. a unique exchange coupling, marks a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) of the bond-alternating chain. Our calculations show that the TQPT is recognizable in the excited states of the chain and hence that IETS is in principle capable of discriminating the phases. We show that perfectly symmetric chains, such as closed rings mimicking infinite chains, yield the same spectra on both sides of the TQPT and IETS cannot reveal the nature of the spin phase. However, for finite size open chains, both sides of the TQPT are associated with different IETS spectra, especially on the edge atoms, thus outlining the transition.

  7. Influence of permanent dipole and dynamic core-electron polarization on tunneling ionization of polar molecules

    Hoang, Van-Hung; Zhao, Song-Feng; Le, Van-Hoang; Le, Anh-Thu


    We present a detailed theoretical investigation on strong-field ionization of polar (CO and NO) as well as nonpolar molecules (N2, O2, and CO2). Our results indicate that accounting for the Stark correction in the molecular tunneling ionization theory leads to overall fairly good agreements with numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, we show that the effect of dynamic core-electron polarization, in general, has a weak influence on the angle-dependent ionization probability. However, in the case of CO we confirm the recent finding by B. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhao [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 163001 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.163001] that accounting for dynamic core-polarization is crucial to achieving an overall good agreement with experiments.

  8. Charge transport in molecular electronic junctions: compression of the molecular tunnel barrier in the strong coupling regime.

    Sayed, Sayed Y; Fereiro, Jerry A; Yan, Haijun; McCreery, Richard L; Bergren, Adam Johan


    Molecular junctions are essentially modified electrodes familiar to electrochemists where the electrolyte is replaced by a conducting "contact." It is generally hypothesized that changing molecular structure will alter system energy levels leading to a change in the transport barrier. Here, we show the conductance of seven different aromatic molecules covalently bonded to carbon implies a modest range ( 2 eV range). These results are explained by considering the effect of bonding the molecule to the substrate. Upon bonding, electronic inductive effects modulate the energy levels of the system resulting in compression of the tunneling barrier. Modification of the molecule with donating or withdrawing groups modulate the molecular orbital energies and the contact energy level resulting in a leveling effect that compresses the tunneling barrier into a range much smaller than expected. Whereas the value of the tunneling barrier can be varied by using a different class of molecules (alkanes), using only aromatic structures results in a similar equilibrium value for the tunnel barrier for different structures resulting from partial charge transfer between the molecular layer and the substrate. Thus, the system does not obey the Schottky-Mott limit, and the interaction between the molecular layer and the substrate acts to influence the energy level alignment. These results indicate that the entire system must be considered to determine the impact of a variety of electronic factors that act to determine the tunnel barrier.

  9. Room-Temperature Single-Electron Tunneling in Dendrimer-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles Anchored at a Molecular Printboard

    Nijhuis, Christian A.; Oncel, Nuri; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Poelsema, Bene; Reinhoudt, David N.


    Particle in a box: A gold nanoparticle is encapsulated in a fifth-generation guest dendrimer, which binds to a host self-assembled monolayer surface (see figure). The nanoparticle encapsulated in the “molecular box” is a supramolecular junction that exhibits single-electron tunneling at room tempera

  10. Giant tunneling piezoresistance of composite elastomers with interlocked microdome arrays for ultrasensitive and multimodal electronic skins.

    Park, Jonghwa; Lee, Youngoh; Hong, Jaehyung; Ha, Minjeong; Jung, Young-Do; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Sung Youb; Ko, Hyunhyub


    The development of flexible electronic skins with high sensitivities and multimodal sensing capabilities is of great interest for applications ranging from human healthcare monitoring to robotic skins to prosthetic limbs. Although piezoresistive composite elastomers have shown great promise in this area of research, typically poor sensitivities and low response times, as well as signal drifts with temperature, have prevented further development of these materials in electronic skin applications. Here, we introduce and demonstrate a design of flexible electronic skins based on composite elastomer films that contain interlocked microdome arrays and display giant tunneling piezoresistance. Our design substantially increases the change in contact area upon loading and enables an extreme resistance-switching behavior (ROFF/RON of ∼10(5)). This translates into high sensitivity to pressure (-15.1 kPa(-1), ∼0.2 Pa minimum detection) and rapid response/relaxation times (∼0.04 s), with a minimal dependence on temperature variation. We show that our sensors can sensitively monitor human breathing flows and voice vibrations, highlighting their potential use in wearable human-health monitoring systems.

  11. Understanding the inelastic electron-tunneling spectra of alkanedithiols on gold.

    Solomon, Gemma C; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Frauenheim, Thomas; Di Carlo, Aldo; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Hush, Noel S


    We present results for a simulated inelastic electron-tunneling spectra (IETS) from calculations using the "gDFTB" code. The geometric and electronic structure is obtained from calculations using a local-basis density-functional scheme, and a nonequilibrium Green's function formalism is employed to deal with the transport aspects of the problem. The calculated spectrum of octanedithiol on gold(111) shows good agreement with experimental results and suggests further details in the assignment of such spectra. We show that some low-energy peaks, unassigned in the experimental spectrum, occur in a region where a number of molecular modes are predicted to be active, suggesting that these modes are the cause of the peaks rather than a matrix signal, as previously postulated. The simulations also reveal the qualitative nature of the processes dominating IETS. It is highly sensitive only to the vibrational motions that occur in the regions of the molecule where there is electron density in the low-voltage conduction channel. This result is illustrated with an examination of the predicted variation of IETS with binding site and alkane chain length.

  12. Photo-catalytic Activities of Plant Hormones on Semiconductor Nanoparticles by Laser-Activated Electron Tunneling and Emitting

    Tang, Xuemei; Huang, Lulu; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying


    Understanding of the dynamic process of laser-induced ultrafast electron tunneling is still very limited. It has been thought that the photo-catalytic reaction of adsorbents on the surface is either dependent on the number of resultant electron-hole pairs where excess energy is lost to the lattice through coupling with phonon modes, or dependent on irradiation photon wavelength. We used UV (355 nm) laser pulses to excite electrons from the valence band to the conduction band of titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and bismuth cobalt zinc oxide (Bi2O3)0.07(CoO)0.03(ZnO)0.9 semiconductor nanoparticles with different photo catalytic properties. Photoelectrons are extracted, accelerated in a static electric field and eventually captured by charge deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to detect negative molecules and fragment ions generated by un-paired electron directed bond cleavages. We show that the probability of electron tunneling is determined by the strength of the static electric field and intrinsic electron mobility of semiconductors. Photo-catalytic dissociation or polymerization reactions of adsorbents are highly dependent on the kinetic energy of tunneling electrons as well as the strength of laser influx. By using this approach, photo-activities of phytohormones have been investigated.

  13. Photo-catalytic activities of plant hormones on semiconductor nanoparticles by laser-activated electron tunneling and emitting.

    Tang, Xuemei; Huang, Lulu; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying


    Understanding of the dynamic process of laser-induced ultrafast electron tunneling is still very limited. It has been thought that the photo-catalytic reaction of adsorbents on the surface is either dependent on the number of resultant electron-hole pairs where excess energy is lost to the lattice through coupling with phonon modes, or dependent on irradiation photon wavelength. We used UV (355 nm) laser pulses to excite electrons from the valence band to the conduction band of titanium dioxide (TiO₂), zinc oxide (ZnO) and bismuth cobalt zinc oxide (Bi₂O₃)₀.₀₇(CoO)₀.₀₃(ZnO)₀.₉ semiconductor nanoparticles with different photo catalytic properties. Photoelectrons are extracted, accelerated in a static electric field and eventually captured by charge deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to detect negative molecules and fragment ions generated by un-paired electron directed bond cleavages. We show that the probability of electron tunneling is determined by the strength of the static electric field and intrinsic electron mobility of semiconductors. Photo-catalytic dissociation or polymerization reactions of adsorbents are highly dependent on the kinetic energy of tunneling electrons as well as the strength of laser influx. By using this approach, photo-activities of phytohormones have been investigated.

  14. Antenna-Coupled Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with Single-Electron Transistor Readout for Detection of Sub-mm Radiation

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Wollack, E. J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Teufel, J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)


    Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junction detectors have the potential for photon-counting sensitivity at sub-mm wavelengths. The device consists of an antenna structure to couple radiation into a small superconducting volume and cause quasiparticle excitations, and a single-electron transistor to measure currents through tunnel junction contacts to the absorber volume. We will describe optimization of device parameters, and recent results on fabrication techniques for producing devices with high yield for detector arrays. We will also present modeling of expected saturation power levels, antenna coupling, and rf multiplexing schemes.

  15. The dependence of the tunneling characteristic on the electronic energy bands and the carrier’s states of Graphene superlattice

    Yang, C. H.; Shen, G. Z.; Ao, Z. M.; Xu, Y. W.


    Using the transfer matrix method, the carrier tunneling properties in graphene superlattice generated by the Thue-Morse sequence and Kolakoski sequence are investigated. The positions and strength of the transmission can be modulated by the barrier structures, the incident energy and angle, the height and width of the potential. These carriers tunneling characteristic can be understood from the energy band structures in the corresponding superlattice systems and the carrier’s states in well/barriers. The transmission peaks above the critical incident angle rely on the carrier’s resonance in the well regions. The structural diversity can modulate the electronic and transport properties, thus expanding its applications.

  16. An Approach to Long-Range Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Metalloproteins: In situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy with Submolecular Resolution

    Friis, Esben P.; Andersen, Jens E. T.; Kharkats, Yu. I.; Kuznetsov, A. M.; Nichols, R. J.; Zhang, J.-D.; Ulstrup, Jens


    In situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of redox molecules, in aqueous solution, shows interesting analogies and differences compared with interfacial electrochemical electron transfer (ET) and ET in homogeneous solution. This is because the redox level represents a deep indentation in the tunnel barrier, with possible temporary electronic population. Particular perspectives are that both the bias voltage and the overvoltage relative to a reference electrode can be controlled, reflected in spectroscopic features when the potential variation brings the redox level to cross the Fermi levels of the substrate and tip. The blue copper protein azurin adsorbs on gold(111) via a surface disulfide group. Well resolved in situ STM images show arrays of molecules on the triangular gold(111) terraces. This points to the feasibility of in situ STM of redox metalloproteins directly in their natural aqueous medium. Each structure also shows a central brighter contrast in the constant current mode, indicative of 2- to 4-fold current enhancement compared with the peripheral parts. This supports the notion of tunneling via the redox level of the copper atom and of in situ STM as a new approach to long-range electron tunneling in metalloproteins.

  17. Monolithic Integration of GaAs-Based Resonant Tunneling Diode and High Electron Mobility Transistor


    The resonant tunneling diode (RTD) is a kind of novel ultra-high speed and ultra-high frequency negative differential resistance nanoelectronic device. Integration of RTD and other three-terminal compound semiconductor devices is one important direction of high speed integrated circuit development. In this paper, monolithic integration technology of RTD and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on GaAs substrate was discussed. A top-RTD and bottom-HEMT material structure was proposed and epitaxyed. Based on wet chemical etching, electron beam lithography,metal lift-off and air bridge technology, RTD and HEMT were fabricated on the same wafer. The peak-to-valley current ratio of RTD is 4 and the peak voltage is 0.5 V. The maximal transconductance is 120 mS/mm for a 0.25 μm gate length depletion mode HEMT. Current levels of two devices are basically suited. The results validate the feasibility of the designed integration process.

  18. Electronic, vibrational, Raman, and scanning tunneling microscopy signatures of two-dimensional boron nanomaterials

    Massote, Daniel V. P.; Liang, Liangbo; Kharche, Neerav; Meunier, Vincent


    Compared to graphene, the synthesis of large area atomically thin boron materials is particularly challenging, owing to the electronic shell structure of B, which does not lend itself to the straightforward assembly of pure B materials. This difficulty is evidenced by the fact that the first synthesis of a pure two-dimensional boron was only very recently reported, using silver as a growing substrate. In addition to experimentally observed 2D boron allotropes, a number of other stable and metastable 2D boron materials are predicted to exist, depending on growth conditions and the use of a substrate during growth. This first-principles study based on density functional theory aims at providing guidelines for the identification of these materials. To this end, this report presents a comparative description of a number of possible 2D B allotropes. Electronic band structures, phonon dispersion curves, Raman scattering spectra, and scanning tunneling microscopy images are simulated to highlight the differences between five distinct realizations of these B systems. The study demonstrates the existence of clear experimental signatures that constitute a solid basis for the unambiguous experimental identification of layered B materials.

  19. Online Electronic Resources and Slovenian Bibliography: a Case Study

    Daniela Škerget


    Full Text Available AbstractConsidering the fact that the number of publications available online only is growing, the question whether to include online electronic resources into the Slovenian bibliography, and if so, in which way, and what are the requirements for the inclusion, is raised. To answer these questions, the research on the growth of the Slovenian online scientific production in comparison with production in printed form was conducted in the case of original scientific articles. Results showed a rapid growth of the number of original scientific articles available online only, which indicates the necessity to form a separate Slovenian bibliography of online resources. The selection criteria for the Slovenian bibliography of online resources are also presented. This kind of bibliography would, along with the informational value, add to the historical value of intellectual production in a given time frame, enriched with a link to the resource preserved in another location (archive, repository, in case of unavailability of the resource on its original location.

  20. The weak π − π interaction originated resonant tunneling and fast switching in the carbon based electronic devices

    Jun He


    Full Text Available By means of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic transport properties of C60 based electronic device with different intermolecular interactions. It is found that the electronic transport properties vary with the types of the interaction between two C60 molecules. A fast electrical switching behavior based on negative differential resistance has been found when two molecules are coupled by the weak π − π interaction. Compared to the solid bonding, the weak interaction is found to induce resonant tunneling, which is responsible for the fast response to the applied electric field and hence the velocity of switching.

  1. Discretization of Electronic States in Large InAsP/InP Multilevel Quantum Dots Probed by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Fain, B.; Robert-Philip, I.; Beveratos, A.; David, C.; Wang, Z. Z.; Sagnes, I.; Girard, J. C.


    The topography and the electronic structure of InAsP/InP quantum dots are probed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The study of the local density of states in such large quantum dots confirms the discrete nature of the electronic levels whose wave functions are measured by differential conductivity mapping. Because of their large dimensions, the energy separation between the discrete electronic levels is low, allowing for quantization in both the lateral and growth directions as well as the observation of the harmonicity of the dot lateral potential.

  2. Integrated Electron-tunneling Refrigerator and TES Bolometer for Millimeter Wave Astronomy

    Silverberg, R. F.; Benford, D. J.; Chen, T. C.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Moseley, S. H.; Duncan, W.; Miller, N.; Schmidt, D.; Ullom, J.


    We describe progress in the development of a close-packed array of bolometers intended for use in photometric applications at millimeter wavelengths from ground- based telescopes. Each bolometer in the may uses a proximity-effect Transition Edge Sensor (TES) sensing element and each will have integrated Normal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS) refrigerators to cool the bolometer below the ambient bath temperature. The NIS refrigerators and acoustic-phonon-mode-isolated bolometers are fabricated on silicon. The radiation-absorbing element is mechanically suspended by four legs, whose dimensions are used to control and optimize the thermal conductance of the bolometer. Using the technology developed at NIST, we fabricate NIS refrigerators at the base of each of the suspension legs. The NIS refrigerators remove hot electrons by quantum-mechanical tunneling and are expected to cool the biased (approx.10 pW) bolometers to <170 mK while the bolometers are inside a pumped 3He-cooled cryostat operating at approx.280 mK. This significantly lower temperature at the bolometer allows the detectors to approach background-limited performance despite the simple cryogenic system.

  3. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Boyce, P.


    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  4. High density processing electronics for superconducting tunnel junction x-ray detector arrays

    Warburton, W.K., E-mail: [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Harris, J.T. [XIA LLC, 31057 Genstar Road, Hayward, CA 94544 (United States); Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are excellent soft x-ray (100–2000 eV) detectors, particularly for synchrotron applications, because of their ability to obtain energy resolutions below 10 eV at count rates approaching 10 kcps. In order to achieve useful solid detection angles with these very small detectors, they are typically deployed in large arrays – currently with 100+ elements, but with 1000 elements being contemplated. In this paper we review a 5-year effort to develop compact, computer controlled low-noise processing electronics for STJ detector arrays, focusing on the major issues encountered and our solutions to them. Of particular interest are our preamplifier design, which can set the STJ operating points under computer control and achieve 2.7 eV energy resolution; our low noise power supply, which produces only 2 nV/√Hz noise at the preamplifier's critical cascode node; our digital processing card that digitizes and digitally processes 32 channels; and an STJ I–V curve scanning algorithm that computes noise as a function of offset voltage, allowing an optimum operating point to be easily selected. With 32 preamplifiers laid out on a custom 3U EuroCard, and the 32 channel digital card in a 3U PXI card format, electronics for a 128 channel array occupy only two small chassis, each the size of a National Instruments 5-slot PXI crate, and allow full array control with simple extensions of existing beam line data collection packages.

  5. Liquid-induced damping of mechanical feedback effects in single electron tunneling through a suspended carbon nanotube

    Schmid, D. R.; Stiller, P. L.; Strunk, Ch.; Hüttel, A. K., E-mail: [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)


    In single electron tunneling through clean, suspended carbon nanotube devices at low temperature, distinct switching phenomena have regularly been observed. These can be explained via strong interaction of single electron tunneling and vibrational motion of the nanotube. We present measurements on a highly stable nanotube device, subsequently recorded in the vacuum chamber of a dilution refrigerator and immersed in the {sup 3}He/ {sup 4}He mixture of a second dilution refrigerator. The switching phenomena are absent when the sample is kept in the viscous liquid, additionally supporting the interpretation of dc-driven vibration. Transport measurements in liquid helium can thus be used for finite bias spectroscopy where otherwise the mechanical effects would dominate the current.

  6. 2-dimensional hyperbolic medium for electrons and photons based on the array of tunnel-coupled graphene nanoribbons

    Iorsh, Ivan


    We study the electronic band structure and optical conductivity of an array of tunnel-coupled array of graphene nanoribbons. We show that due to the coupling of electronic edge states for the zigzag nanoribbon structure, the Fermi surface can become a hyperbola similarly to the case of the layered metal-dielectric structures, where the hyperbolic isofrequency contours originate from the coupling of localized surface plasmon polaritons. Moreover, we show that for both types of the ribbon edge, the optical response of the structure can be characterized by a uniaxial conductivity tensor, having principal components of the different signs. Therefore, the tunnel-coupled nanoribbon array can be regarded as a tunable hyperbolic metasurface.

  7. Design and simulation of cellular nonlinear networks using single-electron tunneling transistor technology

    Gerousis, Costa P.

    It is currently predicted that semiconductor device scaling will end at the 22-nm device feature size (7 nm physical channel length) according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. The main challenge is then to develop innovative technologies that will extend the scaling beyond roadmap projection. Any new technology must be well matched with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and scaleable beyond CMOS scaling projections and must provide low-power high-speed signal processing. Nanotechnology will become an appealing option for developing devices for integrated circuits with dimensions and performances well beyond roadmap predictions. Such devices, based on the controllable transfer of charge between dots or 'islands', can take advantage of the quantum mechanical effects, such as tunneling and energy quantization, which would normally occur at the nanometer scale. An outstanding challenge is in arranging such nanodevices in new architectures that can be integrated on a single chip. In particular, locally interconnected architectures are believed to be necessary to alleviate the problems associated with increasing interconnect length and complexity in ultra-dense circuits. The goal of this work is to investigate the use of nanoelectronic structures in cellular non-linear network (CNN) architectures for potential application in future high-density and low-power CMOS-nanodevice hybrid circuits. The operation of the single-electron tunneling (SET) transistor is first reviewed, followed by a discussion of simple CNN linear architectures using a SET inverter topology as the basis for the non-linear transfer characteristics for individual cells to be used in analog processing arrays for image-processing applications. The basic SET CNN cell acts as a summing node that is capacitively coupled to the inputs and outputs of nearest neighbor cells. Monte Carlo simulation results are used to show CNN-like behavior in attempting to

  8. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  9. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti


    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic…

  10. Vibration-induced Kondo tunneling through metal-organic complexes with even electron occupation number.

    Kikoin, K; Kiselev, M N; Wegewijs, M R


    We investigate transport through a mononuclear transition-metal complex with strong tunnel coupling to two electrodes. The ground state of this molecule is a singlet, while the first excited state is a triplet. We show that a modulation of the tunnel-barrier due to a molecular distortion which couples to the tunneling induces a Kondo-effect, provided the discrete vibrational energy compensates the singlet-triplet gap. We discuss the single-phonon and two-phonon-assisted cotunneling and possible experimental realization of the theory.

  11. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian


    of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial......Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  12. Is spin transport through molecules really occurring in organic spin valves? A combined magnetoresistance and inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy study

    Galbiati, Marta; Tatay, Sergio; Delprat, Sophie; Khanh, Hung Le; Deranlot, Cyrile; Collin, Sophie; Seneor, Pierre, E-mail:; Mattana, Richard, E-mail:; Petroff, Frédéric [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau, France and Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Servet, Bernard [Thales Research and Technology, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France)


    Molecular and organic spintronics is an emerging research field which combines the versatility of chemistry with the non-volatility of spintronics. Organic materials have already proved their potential as tunnel barriers (TBs) or spacers in spintronics devices showing sizable spin valve like magnetoresistance effects. In the last years, a large effort has been focused on the optimization of these organic spintronics devices. Insertion of a thin inorganic tunnel barrier (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or MgO) at the bottom ferromagnetic metal (FM)/organic interface seems to improve the spin transport efficiency. However, during the top FM electrode deposition, metal atoms are prone to diffuse through the organic layer and potentially short-circuit it. This may lead to the formation of a working but undesired FM/TB/FM magnetic tunnel junction where the organic plays no role. Indeed, establishing a protocol to demonstrate the effective spin dependent transport through the organic layer remains a key issue. Here, we focus on Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Alq{sub 3}/Co junctions and show that combining magnetoresistance and inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy measurements one can sort out working “organic” and short-circuited junctions fabricated on the same wafer.

  13. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas


    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  14. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Stachokas, George


    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  15. Search for Spin Filtering By Electron Tunneling Through Ferromagnetic EuS Barriers in Pbs

    Figielski, T.; Morawski, A.; Wosinski, T.; Wrotek, S.; Makosa, A.; Lusakowska, E.; Story, T.; Sipatov, A. Yu.; Szczerbakow, A.; Grasza, K.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)


    Perpendicular transport through single- and double-barrier heterostructures consisting of ferromagnetic EuS layers embedded into PbS matrix was investigated. Manifestations of both resonant tunneling and spin filtering through EuS barrier have been observed.

  16. Tunnel vision for US X-ray free-electron laser

    Banks, Michael


    Construction can begin on a major upgrade to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the US after the tunnel that will house the facility was cleared of equipment.

  17. Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy-efficient electronic switches.

    Ionescu, Adrian M; Riel, Heike


    Power dissipation is a fundamental problem for nanoelectronic circuits. Scaling the supply voltage reduces the energy needed for switching, but the field-effect transistors (FETs) in today's integrated circuits require at least 60 mV of gate voltage to increase the current by one order of magnitude at room temperature. Tunnel FETs avoid this limit by using quantum-mechanical band-to-band tunnelling, rather than thermal injection, to inject charge carriers into the device channel. Tunnel FETs based on ultrathin semiconducting films or nanowires could achieve a 100-fold power reduction over complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, so integrating tunnel FETs with CMOS technology could improve low-power integrated circuits.

  18. Electronic structures of one-dimensional metal-molecule hybrid chains studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory.

    Chung, Kyung-Hoon; Koo, Bon-Gil; Kim, Howon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Kahng, Se-Jong


    The electronic structures of self-assembled hybrid chains comprising Ag atoms and organic molecules were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) in parallel with density functional theory (DFT). Hybrid chains were prepared by catalytic breaking of Br-C bonds in 4,4″-dibromo-p-terphenyl molecules, followed by spontaneous formation of Ag-C bonds on Ag(111). An atomic model was proposed for the observed hybrid chain structures. Four electronic states were resolved using STS measurements, and strong energy dependence was observed in STM images. These results were explained using first-principles calculations based on DFT.

  19. First-order correction terms in the weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization in many-electron systems

    Trinh, Vinh H.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru


    The many-electron weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization including the first-order correction terms in the asymptotic expansion of the ionization rate in field strength was highlighted in our recent fast track communication (Trinh et al 2015 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48 061003) by demonstrating its performance for two-electron atoms. Here we present a thorough derivation of the first-order terms omitted in the previous publication and provide additional numerical illustrations of the theory.

  20. Energy-Filtered Tunnel Transistor: A New Device Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics


    contribution by the elastic tunneling ye\\asuc(£), for which the lifetime broadening with the ,3,12.13 Lorentzian distribution ’ ’ is assumed and...rates /Tfy’wX ^b±(«w), /W±(’D) and /VO’D) are related to the tunneling probabilities y(£ɘ, T) and y(£>0, T) and the occupation probabilities AvO’w

  1. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Thomas Groenewald


    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  2. Electronic properties of conductive pili of the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens probed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Veazey, Joshua P.; Reguera, Gemma; Tessmer, Stuart H.


    The metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces conductive protein appendages known as “pilus nanowires” to transfer electrons to metal oxides and to other cells. These processes can be harnessed for the bioremediation of toxic metals and the generation of electricity in bioelectrochemical cells. Key to these applications is a detailed understanding of how these nanostructures conduct electrons. However, to the best of our knowledge, their mechanism of electron transport is not known. We used the capability of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to probe conductive materials with higher spatial resolution than other scanning probe methods to gain insights into the transversal electronic behavior of native, cell-anchored pili. Despite the presence of insulating cellular components, the STM topography resolved electronic molecular substructures with periodicities similar to those reported for the pilus shaft. STM spectroscopy revealed electronic states near the Fermi level, consistent with a conducting material, but did not reveal electronic states expected for cytochromes. Furthermore, the transversal conductance was asymmetric, as previously reported for assemblies of helical peptides. Our results thus indicate that the Geobacter pilus shaft has an intrinsic electronic structure that could play a role in charge transport.

  3. Electron tunneling through alkanedithiol self-assembled monolayers in large-area molecular junctions

    Akkerman, Hylke B.; Naber, Ronald C. G.; Jongbloed, Bert; van Hal, Paul A.; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; de Boer, Bert


    The electrical transport through self-assembled monolayers of alkanedithiols was studied in large-area molecular junctions and described by the Simmons model [Simmons JIG (1963) J Appi Phys 34:1793-1803 and 2581-2590] for tunneling through a practical barrier, i.e., a rectangular barrier with the im

  4. Investigation of inelastic electron tunneling spectra of metal-molecule-metal junctions fabricated using direct metal transfer method

    Jeong, Hyunhak; Hwang, Wang-Taek; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Dongku; Jang, Yeonsik; Min, Misook; Park, Yun Daniel; Lee, Takhee, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Xiang, Dong [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Song, Hyunwook [Department of Applied Physics, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446–701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Heejun, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    We measured the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) characteristics of metal-molecule-metal junctions made with alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers. The molecular junctions were fabricated using a direct metal transfer method, which we previously reported for high-yield metal-molecule-metal junctions. The measured IETS data could be assigned to molecular vibration modes that were determined by the chemical structure of the molecules. We also observed discrepancies and device-to-device variations in the IETS data that possibly originate from defects in the molecular junctions and insulating walls introduced during the fabrication process and from the junction structure.

  5. Coulomb Repulsion Effect in Two-electron Non-adiabatic Tunneling through a One-level redox Molecule

    Medvedev, Igor M.; Kuznetsov, Alexander M.; Ulstrup, Jens


    is representative of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy or a pair of electrochemical nanoscale electrodes. The two-electron transfer molecular system also represents redox molecules with three electrochemically accessible oxidation states, rather than only two states such as comprehensively studied...... conductance/bias voltage correlation can have up to four peaks even for a single-level redox molecule. The peak position, height, and width are determined by the oxidized and reduced states of both the ionization and affinity levels of the molecule and depend crucially on the Debye screening of the electric...

  6. Electronic band alignment and electron transport in Cr/BaTiO{sub 3}/Pt ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Zenkevich, A. [NRNU ' Moscow Engineering Physics Institute,' 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Minnekaev, M.; Matveyev, Yu.; Lebedinskii, Yu. [NRNU ' Moscow Engineering Physics Institute,' 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bulakh, K.; Chouprik, A.; Baturin, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Maksimova, K. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Thiess, S.; Drube, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)


    Electroresistance in ferroelectric tunnel junctions is controlled by changes in the electrostatic potential profile across the junction upon polarization reversal of the ultrathin ferroelectric barrier layer. Here, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy is used to reconstruct the electric potential barrier profile in as-grown Cr/BaTiO{sub 3}(001)/Pt(001) heterostructures. Transport properties of Cr/BaTiO{sub 3}/Pt junctions with a sub-{mu}m Cr top electrode are interpreted in terms of tunneling electroresistance with resistance changes of a factor of {approx}30 upon polarization reversal. By fitting the I-V characteristics with the model employing an experimentally determined electric potential barrier we derive the step height changes at the BaTiO{sub 3}/Pt (Cr/BaTiO{sub 3}) interface +0.42(-0.03) eV following downward to upward polarization reversal.

  7. Electronic picture of spin-polarized tunneling with a Cr tip

    Czerner, Michael, E-mail: michael.czerner@physik.uni-halle.d [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Rodary, Guillemin; Wedekind, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Fedorov, Dmitry V. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Sander, Dirk [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Mertig, Ingrid [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Kirschner, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, D-06120 Halle (Germany)


    We use spin-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy with a Cr-covered W-tip to investigate the magnetic switching of single Co islands on Cu(111) in polar magnetic fields. The observed hysteretic curve resembles a shape which is well known from so-called butterfly curves of tunneling magnetoresistance measurements. This indicates that not only the Co-island but also the Cr-tip changes its spin orientation in response to the applied magnetic field. For the interpretation of the experimental observations, we perform ab initio calculations by means of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method. The calculations demonstrate that the Cr-tip is not a perfect antiferromagnet and has an uncompensated magnetic moment which changes its spin orientation continuously due to the applied magnetic field.

  8. Electronic single-molecule identification of carbohydrate isomers by recognition tunnelling

    Im, Jongone; Biswas, Sovan; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Yanan; Sen, Suman; Biswas, Sudipta; Ashcroft, Brian; Borges, Chad; Wang, Xu; Lindsay, Stuart; Zhang, Peiming


    Carbohydrates are one of the four main building blocks of life, and are categorized as monosaccharides (sugars), oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Each sugar can exist in two alternative anomers (in which a hydroxy group at C-1 takes different orientations) and each pair of sugars can form different epimers (isomers around the stereocentres connecting the sugars). This leads to a vast combinatorial complexity, intractable to mass spectrometry and requiring large amounts of sample for NMR characterization. Combining measurements of collision cross section with mass spectrometry (IM-MS) helps, but many isomers are still difficult to separate. Here, we show that recognition tunnelling (RT) can classify many anomers and epimers via the current fluctuations they produce when captured in a tunnel junction functionalized with recognition molecules. Most importantly, RT is a nanoscale technique utilizing sub-picomole quantities of analyte. If integrated into a nanopore, RT would provide a unique approach to sequencing linear polysaccharides.

  9. Non-equilibrium quantum transport of spin-polarized electrons and back action on molecular magnet tunnel-junction

    Zhang, Chao; Yao, Hui; Nie, Yi-Hang; Liang, J.-Q.


    We investigate the non-equilibrium quantum transport through a single-molecule magnet embedded in a tunnel junction with ferromagnetic electrodes, which generate spin-polarized electrons. The lead magnetization direction is non-collinear with the uniaxial anisotropy easy-axis of molecule-magnet. Based on the Pauli rate-equation approach we demonstrate the magnetization reversion of molecule-magnet induced by the back action of spin-polarized current in the sequential tunnel regime. The asymptotic magnetization of molecular magnet and spin-polarization of transport current are obtained as functions of time by means of time-dependent solution of the rate equation. It is found that the antiparallel configuration of the ferromagnetic electrodes and molecular anisotropy easy-axis is an effective structure to reverse both the magnetization of molecule-magnet and spin-polarization of the transport current. Particularly the non-collinear angle dependence provides useful knowledge for the quantum manipulation of molecule-magnet and spin polarized electron-transport.

  10. Non-equilibrium quantum transport of spin-polarized electrons and back action on molecular magnet tunnel-junction

    Chao Zhang


    Full Text Available We investigate the non-equilibrium quantum transport through a single-molecule magnet embedded in a tunnel junction with ferromagnetic electrodes, which generate spin-polarized electrons. The lead magnetization direction is non-collinear with the uniaxial anisotropy easy-axis of molecule-magnet. Based on the Pauli rate-equation approach we demonstrate the magnetization reversion of molecule-magnet induced by the back action of spin-polarized current in the sequential tunnel regime. The asymptotic magnetization of molecular magnet and spin-polarization of transport current are obtained as functions of time by means of time-dependent solution of the rate equation. It is found that the antiparallel configuration of the ferromagnetic electrodes and molecular anisotropy easy-axis is an effective structure to reverse both the magnetization of molecule-magnet and spin-polarization of the transport current. Particularly the non-collinear angle dependence provides useful knowledge for the quantum manipulation of molecule-magnet and spin polarized electron-transport.

  11. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Barilo, Nick F.


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Smith, Fred Hewitt


    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  13. Proton tunneling in solids

    Kondo, J.


    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  14. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica


    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  15. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    Elguindi, Anne


    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  16. Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods

    DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.


    The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

  17. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.


    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  18. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah


    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  19. Hot-Electron Tunneling sensors for high-resolution x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Mears, C.A.; Labov, S.E.; Frank, M.; Netel, H.


    Over the past 2 years, we have been studying the use of Hot Electron Tunneling sensors for use in high-energy-resolution x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. These sensors promise several advantages over existing cryogenic sensors, including simultaneous high count rate and high resolution capability, and relative ease of use. Using simple shadow mask lithography, we verified the basic principles of operation of these devices and discovered new physics in their thermal behavior as a function applied voltage bias. We also began to develop ways to use this new sensor in practical x-ray and gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting absorbers. This requires the use of quasiparticle trapping to concentrate the signal in the sensing elements.

  20. Superconducting Tunnel Junction Refrigerators for Sub-Kelvin Cooling of Electrons, Phonons, and Arbitrary, User-Supplied Payloads

    Lowell, Peter Joseph

    Modern science often requires measurements at sub-Kelvin temperatures. Temperatures of 300 mK can be reached by using liquid 3He, but reaching lower temperatures requires the use of adiabatic demagnetization and dilution refrigerators which are complex, large, and costly. Normal-metalInsulatorSuperconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions provide an alternative refrigeration method that is simple to use, compact, and provides continuous cooling power that has the potential to expand the accessibility of these sub-Kelvin temperatures. When properly biased, the electron system in the normal metal of an NIS junction is cooled since the hottest electrons preferentially tunnel from the normal metal to the superconductor, transferring heat in the process. When the normal metal is extended onto a thermally isolated membrane, the cold electrons cool the phonons in the membrane through electron-phonon coupling. In previous work, NIS junctions have been used to cool detectors and bulk objects that were integrated with the membrane, but could not be considered a general-purpose refrigerator since they could not cool arbitrary objects. The goal of this work has been to demonstrate a general-purpose NIS refrigerator to which a user can attach arbitrary bulk objects. First, we discuss NIS refrigeration and then develop a model to predict phonon cooling. We fabricated and tested NIS refrigerators capable of cooling bulk objects and used the model to explain the results. The devices were able to cool phonons from 300 mK to 154 mK with 100 pW of cooling power at 200 mK. With these devices, we were able to cool a 2 cm3 piece of copper from 290 mK to 256 mK with 700 pW of cooling power at 290 mK. This demonstration marks the emergence of NIS refrigerators as a true, general-purpose refrigerator since users can attach arbitrary objects. Measurements of Andreev reflections in the devices and next-generation refrigerators that cool electrons from 100 mK to below 50 mK are also presented.

  1. Resistivity of thin gold films on mica induced by electron-surface scattering: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy

    Robles, Marcelo E. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Construccion, FCCyOT, Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Dieciocho 390, Santiago 8330526 (Chile); Gonzalez-Fuentes, Claudio A.; Henriquez, Ricardo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile); Kremer, German [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago 7800024 (Chile); Moraga, Luis; Oyarzun, Simon; Suarez, Marco Antonio; Flores, Marcos [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile); Munoz, Raul C., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile)


    We report a comparison between the resistivity measured on thin gold films deposited on mica, with predictions based upon classical theories of size effects (Drude's, Sondheimer's and Calecki's), as well as predictions based upon quantum theories of electron-surface scattering (the modified theory of Sheng, Xing and Wang, the theory of Tesanovic, Jaric and Maekawa, and that of Trivedi and Aschroft). From topographic images of the surface recorded with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope, we determined the rms roughness amplitude, {delta} and the lateral correlation length, {xi} corresponding to a Gaussian representation of the average height-height autocorrelation function, describing the roughness of each sample in the scale of length set by the Fermi wave length. Using ({delta}, {xi}) as input data, we present a rigorous comparison between resistivity data and predictions based upon the theory of Calecki as well as quantum theoretical predictions without adjustable parameters. The resistivity was measured on gold films of different thickness evaporated onto mica substrates, between 4 K and 300 K. The resistivity data covers the range 0.1 < x(T) < 6.8, for 4 K < T < 300 K, where x(T) is the ratio between film thickness and electron mean free path in the bulk at temperature T. We experimentally identify electron-surface and electron-phonon scattering as the microscopic electron scattering mechanisms giving rise to the macroscopic resistivity. The different theories are all capable of estimating the thin film resistivity to an accuracy better than 10%; however the mean free path and the resistivity characterizing the bulk turn out to depend on film thickness. Surprisingly, only the Sondheimer theory and its quantum version, the modified theory of Sheng, Xing and Wang, predict and increase in resistivity induced by size effects that seems consistent with published galvanomagnetic phenomena also arising from electron-surface scattering measured at low

  2. Experimental demonstration of single electron transistors featuring SiO{sub 2} plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition in Ni-SiO{sub 2}-Ni tunnel junctions

    Karbasian, Golnaz, E-mail:; McConnell, Michael S.; Orlov, Alexei O.; Rouvimov, Sergei; Snider, Gregory L. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)


    The authors report the use of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) to fabricate single-electron transistors (SETs) featuring ultrathin (≈1 nm) tunnel-transparent SiO{sub 2} in Ni-SiO{sub 2}-Ni tunnel junctions. They show that, as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma steps in PEALD of SiO{sub 2}, the top surface of the underlying Ni electrode is oxidized. Additionally, the bottom surface of the upper Ni layer is also oxidized where it is in contact with the deposited SiO{sub 2}, most likely as a result of oxygen-containing species on the surface of the SiO{sub 2}. Due to the presence of these surface parasitic layers of NiO, which exhibit features typical of thermally activated transport, the resistance of Ni-SiO{sub 2}-Ni tunnel junctions is drastically increased. Moreover, the transport mechanism is changed from quantum tunneling through the dielectric barrier to one consistent with thermally activated resistors in series with tunnel junctions. The reduction of NiO to Ni is therefore required to restore the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure of the junctions. Rapid thermal annealing in a forming gas ambient at elevated temperatures is presented as a technique to reduce both parasitic oxide layers. This method is of great interest for devices that rely on MIM tunnel junctions with ultrathin barriers. Using this technique, the authors successfully fabricated MIM SETs with minimal trace of parasitic NiO component. They demonstrate that the properties of the tunnel barrier in nanoscale tunnel junctions (with <10{sup −15} m{sup 2} in area) can be evaluated by electrical characterization of SETs.

  3. Topographic and electronic contrast of the graphene moir´e on Ir(111) probed by scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy

    Sun, Z.; Hämäläinen, K.; Sainio, K.; Lahtinen, J.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.; Liljeroth, P.


    Epitaxial graphene grown on transition-metal surfaces typically exhibits a moir´e pattern due to the lattice mismatch between graphene and the underlying metal surface. We use both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to probe the electronic and topographic contrast

  4. Theory and experiments of electron-hole recombination at silicon/silicon dioxide interface traps and tunneling in thin oxide MOS transistors

    Cai, Jin


    Surface recombination and channel have dominated the electrical characteristics, performance and reliability of p/n junction diodes and transistors. This dissertation uses a sensitive direct-current current voltage (DCIV) method to measure base terminal currents (IB) modulated by the gate bias (VGB) and forward p/n junction bias (VPN) in a MOS transistor (MOST). Base terminal currents originate from electron-hole recombination at Si/SiO2 interface traps. Fundamental theories which relate DCIV characteristics to device and material parameters are presented. Three theory-based applications are demonstrated on both the unstressed as well as hot-carrier-stressed MOSTs: (1) determination of interface trap density and energy levels, (2) spatial profile of interface traps in the drain/base junction-space-charge region and in the channel region, and (3) determination of gate oxide thickness and impurity doping concentrations. The results show that interface trap energy levels are discrete, which is consistent with those from silicon dangling bonds; in unstressed MOS transistors interface trap density in the channel region rises sharply toward source and drain, and after channel-hot-carrier stress, interface trap density increases mostly in the junction space-charge region. As the gate oxide thins below 3 nm, the gate oxide leakage current via quantum mechanical tunneling becomes significant. A gate oxide tunneling theory which refined the traditional WKB tunneling probability is developed for modeling tunneling currents at low electric fields through a trapezoidal SiO2 barrier. Correlation with experimental data on thin oxide MOSTs reveals two new results: (1) hole tunneling dominates over electron tunneling in p+gate p-channel MOSTs, and (2) the small gate/drain overlap region passes higher tunneling currents than the channel region under depletion to flatband gate voltages. The good theory-experimental correlation enables the extraction of impurity doping concentrations

  5. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  6. Non-Equilibrium Green's Function Calculation for Electron Transport through Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    Sara Nobakht


    Full Text Available In this paper non-equilibrium Green's function method –dependent electron transport through non magnetic layer (insulator has been studied in one dimension .electron transport in multi-layer (magnetic/non magnetic/ magneticlayers is studied as quantum .the result show increasing the binding strength of the electrical insulator transition probability density case , the electron density , broad levels of disruption increases. Broad band connection increases the levels of disruption to electrical insulation and show non- conductive insulating state to semiconductor stat and even conductor

  7. Electronic transport through EuO spin-filter tunnel junctions

    Jutong, Nuttachai


    Epitaxial spin-filter tunnel junctions based on the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) are investigated by means of density functional theory. In particular, we focus on the spin transport properties of Cu(100)/EuO(100)/Cu(100) junctions. The dependence of the transmission coefficient and the current-voltage curves on the interface spacing and EuO thickness is explained in terms of the EuO density of states and the complex band structure. Furthermore, we also discuss the relation between the spin transport properties and the Cu-EuO interface geometry. The level alignment of the junction is sensitively affected by the interface spacing, since this determines the charge transfer between EuO and the Cu electrodes. Our calculations indicate that EuO epitaxially grown on Cu can act as a perfect spin filter, with a spin polarization of the current close to 100%, and with both the Eu-5d conduction-band and the Eu-4f valence-band states contributing to the coherent transport. For epitaxial EuO on Cu, a symmetry filtering is observed, with the Δ1 states dominating the transmission. This leads to a transport gap larger than the fundamental EuO band gap. Importantly, the high spin polarization of the current is preserved up to large bias voltages.

  8. Electronic phase diagram of NaFe1-xCoxAs investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Zhou Xiao-Dong; Cai Peng; Wang Ya-Yu


    Our recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of the NaFe1-xCoxAs phase diagram over a wide range of dopings and temperatures are reviewed.Similar to the high-Tc cuprates,the iron-based superconductors lie in close proximity to a magnetically ordered phase.Therefore,it is widely believed that magnetic interactions or fluctuations play an important role in triggering their Cooper pairings.Among the key issues regarding the electronic phase diagram are the properties of the parent spin density wave (SDW) phase and the superconducting (SC) phase,as well as the interplay between them.The NaFe1-xCoxAs is an ideal system for resolving these issues due to its rich electronic phases and the charge-neutral cleaved surface.In our recent work,we directly observed the SDW gap in the parent state,and it exhibits unconventional features that are incompatible with the simple Fermi surface nesting picture.The optimally doped sample has a single SC gap,but in the underdoped regime we directly viewed the microscopic coexistence of the SDW and SC orders,which compete with each other.In the overdoped regime we observed a novel pseudogap-like feature that coexists with superconductivity in the ground state,persists well into the normal state,and shows great spatial variations.The rich electronic structures across the phase diagram of NaFel-xCoxAs revealed here shed important new light for defining microscopic models of the iron-based superconductors.In particular,we argue that both the itinerant electrons and local moments should be considered on an equal footing in a realistic model.

  9. Electronic properties of MoS2/MoOx interfaces: Implications in Tunnel Field Effect Transistors and Hole Contacts

    K. C., Santosh; Longo, Roberto C.; Addou, Rafik; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae


    In an electronic device based on two dimensional (2D) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), finding a low resistance metal contact is critical in order to achieve the desired performance. However, due to the unusual Fermi level pinning in metal/2D TMD interface, the performance is limited. Here, we investigate the electronic properties of TMDs and transition metal oxide (TMO) interfaces (MoS2/MoO3) using density functional theory (DFT). Our results demonstrate that, due to the large work function of MoO3 and the relative band alignment with MoS2, together with small energy gap, the MoS2/MoO3 interface is a good candidate for a tunnel field effect (TFET)-type device. Moreover, if the interface is not stoichiometric because of the presence of oxygen vacancies in MoO3, the heterostructure is more suitable for p-type (hole) contacts, exhibiting an Ohmic electrical behavior as experimentally demonstrated for different TMO/TMD interfaces. Our results reveal that the defect state induced by an oxygen vacancy in the MoO3 aligns with the valance band of MoS2, showing an insignificant impact on the band gap of the TMD. This result highlights the role of oxygen vacancies in oxides on facilitating appropriate contacts at the MoS2 and MoOx (x < 3) interface, which consistently explains the available experimental observations. PMID:27666523

  10. The determination of the electron-phonon interaction from tunneling data in the two-band superconductor MgB2

    Daghero, D; Ummarino, G A; Dolgov, O V; Kortus, J; Golubov, A A; Shulga, S V


    We calculate the tunneling density of states (DOS) of MgB2 for different tunneling directions, by directly solving the real-axis, two-band Eliashberg equations (EE). Then we show that the numeric inversion of the standard single-band EE, if applied to the DOS of the two-band superconductor MgB2, may lead to wrong estimates of the strength of certain phonon branches (e.g. the E_2g) in the extracted electron-phonon spectral function alpha^(2)F(omega). The fine structures produced by the two-band interaction turn out to be clearly observable only for tunneling along the ab planes in high-quality single crystals. The results are compared to recent experimental data.

  11. Revisiting the tunnelling site of electrons in strong field enhanced ionization of molecules

    Huang, Cheng; Zhou, Yueming; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Kunlong; Lu, Peixiang


    We investigated electron emissions in strong field enhanced ionization of asymmetric diatomic molecules by quantum calculations. It is demonstrated that the widely-used intuitive physical pic- ture, i.e., electron wave packet direct ionization from the up-field site (DIU), is incomplete. Besides DIU, we find another two new ionization channels, the field-induced excitation with subsequent ionization from the down-field site (ESID), and the up-field site (ESIU). The contributions from these channels depend on the molecular asymmetry and internuclear distance. Our work provides a more comprehensive physical picture for the long-standing issue about enhanced ionization of diatomic molecules.

  12. Tunneling site of electrons in strong-field-enhanced ionization of molecules

    Huang, Cheng; Lan, Pengfei; Zhou, Yueming; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Kunlong; Lu, Peixiang


    We investigated electron emissions in strong-field-enhanced ionization of asymmetric diatomic molecules by quantum calculations. It is demonstrated that the widely used intuitive physical picture, i.e., electron wave-packet direct ionization from the up-field site (DIU), is incomplete. Besides DIU, we find another two ionization channels: the field-induced excitation with subsequent ionization from the down-field site and that from the up-field site. The contributions from these channels depend on the molecular asymmetry and internuclear distance. Our work provides a more comprehensive physical picture for the long-standing issue about enhanced ionization of diatomic molecules.

  13. Electronic coupling in self-assembled nanocrystal arrays, a scanning tunneling microscopy study

    Overgaag, K.


    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are one the most actively studied components of modern nanoscience. The high degree of control over their size and shape makes it possible to accurately tune their opto-electronic properties through quantum confinement. Colloidal nanocrystals can serve as b

  14. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Downey, Kay


    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  15. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Noh, Younghee


    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  16. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli


    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  17. Compact device for cleaning scanner-mounted scanning tunneling microscope tips using electron bombardment

    Hellmann, D.; Worbes, L.; Kittel, A.


    Most scanning probe techniques rely on the assumption that both sample and tip are free from adsorbates, residues, and oxide not deposited intentionally. Getting a clean sample surface can be readily accomplished by applying ion sputtering and subsequent annealing, whereas finding an adequate treatment for tips is much more complicated. The method of choice would effectively desorb undesired compounds without reducing the sharpness or the general geometry of the tip. Several devices which employ accelerated electrons to achieve this are described in the literature. To minimize both the effort to implement this technique in a UHV chamber and the overall duration of the cleaning procedure, we constructed a compact electron source fitted into a sample holder, which can be operated in a standard Omicron variable-temperature (VT)-STM while the tip stays in place. This way a maximum of compatibility with existing systems is achieved and short turnaround times are possible for tip cleaning.

  18. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Barbier, Patricia


    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  19. 电子自旋共振扫描隧道显微镜%Electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope

    郭阳; 李健梅; 陆兴华


    It is highly expected that the future informatics will be based on the spins of in-dividual electrons. The development of elementary information unit will eventually leads to novel single-molecule or single-atom devices based on electron spins;the quantum computer in the fu-ture can be constructed with single electron spins as the basic quantum bits. However, it is still a great challenge in detection and manipulation of a single electron spin, as well as its coherence and entanglement. As an ideal experimental tool for such tasks, the development of electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope (ESR-STM) has attracted great attention for decades. This paper briefly introduces the basic concept of ESR-STM. The development history of this in-strument and recent progresses are reviewed. The underlying mechanism is explored and summa-rized. The challenges and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, the prospect of future direction and applications are presented.%单电子自旋极有可能发展成为未来信息学的基础。以电子自旋为核心的新型单分子或单原子器件将最终成为基本信息单元,基于单电子的自旋态将有可能构筑未来量子计算机的量子比特。但是,如何实现对单个电子自旋及其相干态和纠缠态的测量和控制,目前仍然是一个很大的挑战。作为调控单个电子自旋的重要实验手段,电子自旋共振扫描隧道显微镜的发展一直备受关注。文章简要介绍了电子自旋共振扫描隧道显微镜的基本概念,阐述了其发展历史和最新进展,归纳了机理探索的研究成果,论述了该设备研发面临的挑战与对策,并对未来的发展和应用做了展望。

  20. Acoustic analogue of electronic BLOCH oscillations and resonant Zener tunneling in ultrasonic superlattices.

    Sanchis-Alepuz, Helios; Kosevich, Yuriy A; Sánchez-Dehesa, José


    We demonstrate the existence of Bloch oscillations of acoustic fields in sound propagation through a superlattice of water cavities and layers of methyl methacrylate. To obtain the acoustic equivalent of a Wannier-Stark ladder, we employ a set of cavities with different thicknesses. Bloch oscillations are observed as time-resolved oscillations of transmission in a direct analogy to electronic Bloch oscillations in biased semiconductor superlattices. Moreover, for a particular gradient of cavity thicknesses, an overlap of two acoustic minibands occurs, which results in resonant Zener-like transmission enhancement.

  1. Adsorption geometry of glycine on Cu(001) determined with low—energy electron diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy

    葛四平; 赵学应; 等


    Using low-energy electron diffraction(LEED)and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) it has been found that glycine molecules adsorbed on Cu(001) can form but only the (2×4) superstructures.On the basis of the missing LEED spots of the surface,it has been concluded that.each(2×4) unit cell consists of two molecules,one being the mirror image of the other,the C-C axis of both molecules lies in the mirror plane of the Cu substrate without a significant shift and twish from the plane;and the two O atoms of the carboxylate group of both molecules locate at the same height level without significant buckling.According to these conclusions,a structural model has been propsed for the (2×4) superstructure (a model for the c(2×4) supersturcture already exists).We argue that the (2×4) and c(2×4) superstructures must have similar specific surface free energy,that their hydrogen bonds must be of N-H-OII type,and that their local adsorption geometry must be similar or even the same.The advantage of combining STM with LEED to determine surface sturctures is clearly demonstrated.

  2. Adsorption geometry of glycine on Cu(001) determined with low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy

    葛四平; 赵学应; 盖峥; 赵汝光; 杨威生


    Using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) it has been found thatglycine molecules adsorbed on Cu(001) can form but only the (2×4) and c(2×4) superstructures. On the basis of themissing LEED spots of the surface, it has been concluded that: each (2 ×4) unit cell consists of two molecules, one beingthe mirror image of the other; the C-C axis of both molecules lies in the mirror plane of the Cu substrate without asignificant shift and twist from the plane; and the two O atoms of the carboxylate group of both molecules locate at thesame height level without significant buckling. According to these conclusions, a structural model has been proposed forthe (2×4) superstructure (a model for the c(2×4) superstructure already exists). We argue that the (2×4) and c(2×4)superstructures must have similar specific surface free energy, that their hydrogen bonds must be of N-H-OⅡ type, andthat their local adsorption geometry must be similar or even the same. The advantage of combining STM with LEEDto determine surface structures is clearly demonstrated.

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Electronics for Large Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detector Arrays for Synchrotron Soft X-ray Research

    Warburton, William K


    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors offer a an approach to detecting soft x-rays with energy resolutions 4-5 times better and at rates 10 faster than traditions semiconductor detectors. To make such detectors feasible, however, then need to be deployed in large arrays of order 1000 detectors, which in turn implies that their processing electronics must be compact, fully computer controlled, and low cost per channel while still delivering ultra-low noise performance so as to not degrade the STJ's performance. We report on our progress in designing a compact, low cost preamplifier intended for this application. In particular, we were able to produce a prototype preamplifier of 2 sq-cm area and a parts cost of less than $30 that matched the energy resolution of the best conventional system to date and demonstrated its ability to acquire an STJ I-V curve under computer control, the critical step for determining and setting the detectors' operating points under software control.

  4. Electron tunneling transport across heterojunctions between europium sulfide and indium arsenide

    Kallaher, Raymond L.

    This dissertation presents research done on utilizing the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium sulfide (EuS) to inject spin polarized electrons into the non-magnetic semiconductor indium arsenide (InAs). There is great interest in expanding the functionality of modern day electronic circuits by creating devices that depend not only on the flow of charge in the device, but also on the transport of spin through the device. Within this mindset, there is a concerted effort to establish an efficient means of injecting and detecting spin polarized electrons in a two dimensional electron system (2DES) as the first step in developing a spin based field effect transistor. Thus, the research presented in this thesis has focused on the feasibility of using EuS, in direct electrical contact with InAs, as a spin injecting electrode into an InAs 2DES. Doped EuS is a concentrated ferromagnetic semiconductor, whose conduction band undergoes a giant Zeeman splitting when the material becomes ferromagnetic. The concomitant difference in energy between the spin-up and spin-down energy bands makes the itinerant electrons in EuS highly spin polarized. Thus, in principle, EuS is a good candidate to be used as an injector of spin polarized electrons into non-magnetic materials. In addition, the ability to adjust the conductivity of EuS by varying the doping level in the material makes EuS particularly suited for injecting spins into non-magnetic semiconductors and 2DES. For this research, thin films of EuS have been grown via e-beam evaporation of EuS powder. This growth technique produces EuS films that are sulfur deficient; these sulfur vacancies act as intrinsic electron donors and the resulting EuS films behave like heavily doped ferromagnetic semiconductors. The growth parameters and deposition procedures were varied and optimized in order to fabricate films that have minimal crystalline defects. Various properties and characteristics of these EuS films were measured and compared to

  5. Electronic Non-Resonant Tunneling through Diaminoacenes: A First-Principles Investigation

    ZHENG Ji-Ming; HUANG Yao-Qing; REN Zhao-Yu; YANG Hui-Jing; CAO Mao-Sheng


    The electron transport through diaminoacenes sandwiched between two Au electrodes is simulated by using a first-principles analysis. The nonlinear current-voltage characteristic is observed. Effects of the ring number and positions of amine groups on equilibrium transport properties are found. For 1,4 series, the greater the number of the rings, the stronger the transmission spectrum near the Fermi energy. For 2,6 series, the larger the number of the rings, the weaker the transmission spectrum near the Fermi energy. This is helpful for understanding the recently reported results on conductance measurements using amines.%@@ The electron transport through diaminoacenes sandwiched between two Au electrodes is simulated by using a first-principles analysis.The nonlinear current-voltage characteristic is observed.Effects of the ring number and positions of amine groups on equilibrium transport properties are found.For 1,4 series, the greater the number of the rings, the stronger the transmission spectrum near the Fermi energy.For 2,6 series, the larger the number of the rings, the weaker the transmission spectrum near the Fermi energy.This is helpful for understanding the recently reported results on conductance measurements using amines.

  6. Field emission spectroscopy evidence for dual-barrier electron tunnelling in nanographite

    Bandurin, D. A.; Kleshch, V. I. [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Mingels, S.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, G. [FB C Physics Department, University of Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Obraztsov, A. N., E-mail: [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu 80101 (Finland)


    Nanocarbon films with upstanding flake-like graphite crystallites of nanometre thickness were fabricated by carbon condensation from a methane–hydrogen gas mixture activated by a direct-current discharge. The nanographite (NG) crystallites are composed of a few graphene layers. The adjacent atomic layers are connected partially at the edges of the crystallites to form strongly curved graphene structures. The extraordinary field emission (FE) properties were revealed for the NG films with an average current density of a few mA/cm{sup 2}, reproducibly obtained at a macroscopic applied field of about 1 V/μm. The integral FE current–voltage curves and electron spectra (FEES) of NG cathodes with multiple emitters were measured in a triode configuration. Most remarkably, above a threshold field, two peaks were revealed in FEES with different field-dependent shifts to lower energies. This behaviour evidences electron emission through a dual potential barrier, corresponding to carbon–carbon heterostructure formed as a result of the graphene bending.

  7. Nanoscale probing of electronic band gap and topography of VO2 thin film surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Yin, W.; Wolf, S.; Ko, C.; Ramanathan, S.; Reinke, P.


    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide in the vicinity of room temperature makes it one of the most interesting materials for novel switching device applications. It is therefore essential to have a fundamental understanding of the VO2 surface when it is incorporated into multilayer structures or nanodevices. This study focuses on the surface modification of VO2 in response to the thermal treatment during phase transition. Vacuum annealing at temperatures in the vicinity of the MIT triggers a partial reduction in the surface, and thus initiates a chemical phase transition. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used to investigate the electronic properties and surface structure of the VO2 thin film on (0001) sapphire substrates. Band gap maps with a high spatial resolution and single point spectroscopy I-V curves are measured as the sample is cycled through the MIT, and thus provide a direct observation of the surface phase transition at the nanoscale. The VO2 surface exhibits a homogeneous insulating behavior with a typical band gap of ˜0.5 eV at room temperature, and the surface becomes more metallic and spatially inhomogeneous in conductivity during MIT, and wide range of surface oxides can be identified. The surface still remains partially metallic after cooling down from a long period anneal, and such irreversible surface electrical change is attributed to the loss of oxygen. The location of metallic islands after thermal cycling is strongly coupled to the topography of the film, and relaxation processes and continued modification of the spatial distribution of the metallic regions are recognized on a longer timescale. The impact of film morphology, strain, surface chemistry, and structural phase transition on the electronic characteristics of VO2 surfaces are discussed.

  8. Current gain in sub-10 nm base GaN tunneling hot electron transistors with AlN emitter barrier

    Yang, Zhichao, E-mail:; Zhang, Yuewei; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Khurgin, Jacob B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)


    We report on Gallium Nitride-based tunneling hot electron transistor amplifier with common-emitter current gain greater than 1. Small signal current gain up to 5 and dc current gain of 1.3 were attained in common-emitter configuration with collector current density in excess of 50 kA/cm{sup 2}. The use of a combination of 1 nm GaN/3 nm AlN layers as an emitter tunneling barrier was found to improve the energy collimation of the injected electrons. These results represent demonstration of unipolar vertical transistors in the III-nitride system that can potentially lead to higher frequency and power microwave devices.

  9. Effects of uniaxial strain on electron effective mass and tunneling capability of direct gap Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys

    Liu, Lei; Liang, Renrong, E-mail:; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Direct gap Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys under [100] and [110] uniaxial strain are comprehensively investigated by theoretical calculations using the nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method (EPM). It is shown that [100] uniaxial tensile strain aids indirect-to-direct gap transition in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys. The Γ electron effective mass along the optimal direction under [110] uniaxial strain is smaller than those under [100] uniaxial strain and (001) biaxial strain. Additionally, the direct tunneling gap is smallest along the strain-perpendicular direction under [110] uniaxial tensile strain, resulting in a maximum direct band-to-band tunneling generation rate. An optimal [110] uniaxial tensile strain is favorable for high-performance direct gap Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} electronic devices.

  10. Resonant tunnelling of electrons in multi-step single-barrier heterostructures

    Wang Chang; Zhang Yong-Hua


    We have studied the quantum transport of electrons in a three-step single-barrier A1GaAs heterostructure under electric field. Using the quantum transmitting boundary method and Tsu-Esaki approach, we have calculated the transmission coefficient and current-voltage characteristic. The difference of the effective mass among the three barriers is taken into account. Effects of the barrier width on transmission coefficient and peak-to-valley current ratios are examined. The largest peak-to-valley current ratio is obtained when the ratio of widths of the left, middle, and right barrier is fixed at 4:2:1. The calculated results may be helpful for designing devices based on three-step barrier heterostructures.

  11. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Aaron August Lupton


    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  12. 21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - Deputy Minister for Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works T. Xanthopulos welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar, visiting the ATLAS cavern and LHC tunnel and signing the electronic guest book with E. Tsesmelis.

    CERN Photo Service


    21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - Deputy Minister for Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works T. Xanthopulos welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar, visiting the ATLAS cavern and LHC tunnel and signing the electronic guest book with E. Tsesmelis.

  13. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Xiaohua Zhu


    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  14. The strain effect on the Dirac electrons tunneling through the time-periodic scalar and vector barriers

    Yan, Weixian


    The tunneling of the massless and massive Dirac particle through the strained barriers driven by the time-periodic scalar potentials and the static vector potentials is investigated, where the interrelationships among the strain, the incidence angle, the dynamic scalar potential, the magnetic field and the transmission of the Dirac particle have been discussed. In either massless or massive case, the intersection angle between the obliquely incident Dirac particle and strain determines the extent of deviation of the tunneling profiles from the strainless case. The time-periodic scalar potentials can enhance the capability of the Dirac particle to surmount the energy gap induced by the mass, reflecting quantum nature of the photon-assisted tunneling. When the magnetic field is switched on, the transmission overall presents a remarkably different profile, and decreases with the increase of the magnetic fields due to the conservation of the transverse momentum, which reduces the number of the side-band channels for tunneling.

  15. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Sunil Tyagi


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  16. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M


    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  17. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen


    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  18. Role of valence states of adsorbates in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy: A study of nitric oxide on Cu(110) and Cu(001)

    Shiotari, Akitoshi; Okuyama, Hiroshi; Hatta, Shinichiro; Aruga, Tetsuya; Alducin, Maite; Frederiksen, Thomas


    We studied nitric oxide (NO) molecules on Cu(110) and Cu(001) surfaces with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT). NO monomers on the surfaces are characterized by STM images reflecting 2 π* resonance states located at the Fermi level. NO is bonded vertically to the twofold short-bridge site on Cu(110) and to the fourfold hollow site on Cu(001). When NO molecules form dimers on the surfaces, the valence orbitals are modified due to the covalent bonding. We measured inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) for both NO monomers and dimers on the two surfaces, and detected characteristic structures assigned to frustrated rotation and translation modes by density functional theory simulations. Considering symmetries of valence orbitals and vibrational modes, we explain the intensity of the observed IETS signals in a qualitative manner.

  19. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Pınar Al


    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  20. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman


    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  1. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.


    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens, analysin

  2. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman


    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  3. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    Abouelenein, Yousri


    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  4. 电子资源的编目策略%Cataloging Strategies of Electronic Resources



    Compared with traditional paper resources, electronic resources have following characteristics which determine different cataloging strategies from paper resources. These characteristics are huge quantity, updating rapidly, coexistence of a variety of manifestations. The source data of electronic resources is usually provided by the database agent. The cataloging of electronic resources is based on the Chapter IX of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations and rules of Cooperative Online Serials. There are two major cataloging methods for electronic resources abroad, they are single record approach and separate record approach. Peking University Library chooses the latter method and batches cataloging automatically using the source data.%电子资源吲传统纸质资源相比,具有数量大、更新快、多种载体表现并行等特点,且大部分出版机构能够提供数据源数据。这些特点决定了.电子资源应采取与纸质文献不同的编目策略。电子资源编日的主要依据是《英美编日条例》的第9章、美国《国会图书馆条例解释》及全美期刊合作编目计划的规定。对于电子资源的编目,国外有单一记录编目法和分散记录编目法。北京大学图书馆采用后者,同时利用数据源数据批舒自动编目。

  5. Short tunnels.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    Before dealing with the question of lighting short tunnels, it is necessary define what is meant by a tunnel and when it should be called 'short'. Confined to motorized road traffic the following is the most apt definition of a tunnel: every form of roofing-over a road section, irrespective of it le

  6. A virtual detector approach to tunnel ionization and tunneling times

    Teeny, Nicolas; Bauke, Heiko


    Tunneling times in atomic ionization is studied theoretically by a virtual detector approach. A virtual detector is a hypothetical device that allows to monitor the wave-function's density with spatial and temporal resolution during the ionization process. With this theoretical approach, it becomes possible to define unique moments when the electron enters and leaves with highest probability the classically forbidden region from first principles and a tunneling time can be specified unambiguously. It is shown that neither the moment when the electron enters the tunneling barrier nor when it leaves the tunneling barrier coincide with the moment when the external electric field reaches its maximum. Under the tunneling barrier as well as at the exit the electron has a nonzero velocity in electric field direction. This nonzero exit velocity has to be incorporated when the free motion of the electron is modeled by classical equations of motion.

  7. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong


    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources.

  8. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.


    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  9. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Wenxian Zhang


    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  10. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo


    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  11. Integrated ZnO Nano-Electron-Emitter with Self-Modulated Parasitic Tunneling Field Effect Transistor at the Surface of the p-Si/ZnO Junction.

    Cao, Tao; Luo, Laitang; Huang, Yifeng; Ye, Bing; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Jun; Xu, Ningsheng


    The development of high performance nano-electron-emitter arrays with well reliability still proves challenging. Here, we report a featured integrated nano-electron-emitter. The vertically aligned nano-emitter consists of two segments. The top segment is an intrinsically lightly n-type doped ZnO nano-tip, while the bottom segment is a heavily p-type doped Si nano-pillar (denoted as p-Si/ZnO nano-emitter). The anode voltage not only extracted the electron emission from the emitter apex but also induced the inter-band electron tunneling at the surface of the p-Si/ZnO nano-junction. The designed p-Si/ZnO emitter is equivalent to a ZnO nano-tip individually ballasted by a p-Si/ZnO diode and a parasitic tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) at the surface of the p-Si/ZnO junction. The parasitic TFET provides a channel for the supply of emitting electron, while the p-Si/ZnO diode is benefit for impeding the current overloading and prevent the emitters from a catastrophic breakdown. Well repeatable and stable field emission current were obtained from the p-Si/ZnO nano-emitters. High performance nano-emitters was developed using diamond-like-carbon coated p-Si/ZnO tip array (500 × 500), i.e., 178 μA (4.48 mA/cm(2)) at 75.7 MV/m.

  12. Integrated ZnO Nano-Electron-Emitter with Self-Modulated Parasitic Tunneling Field Effect Transistor at the Surface of the p-Si/ZnO Junction

    Cao, Tao; Luo, Laitang; Huang, Yifeng; Ye, Bing; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Jun; Xu, Ningsheng


    The development of high performance nano-electron-emitter arrays with well reliability still proves challenging. Here, we report a featured integrated nano-electron-emitter. The vertically aligned nano-emitter consists of two segments. The top segment is an intrinsically lightly n-type doped ZnO nano-tip, while the bottom segment is a heavily p-type doped Si nano-pillar (denoted as p-Si/ZnO nano-emitter). The anode voltage not only extracted the electron emission from the emitter apex but also induced the inter-band electron tunneling at the surface of the p-Si/ZnO nano-junction. The designed p-Si/ZnO emitter is equivalent to a ZnO nano-tip individually ballasted by a p-Si/ZnO diode and a parasitic tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) at the surface of the p-Si/ZnO junction. The parasitic TFET provides a channel for the supply of emitting electron, while the p-Si/ZnO diode is benefit for impeding the current overloading and prevent the emitters from a catastrophic breakdown. Well repeatable and stable field emission current were obtained from the p-Si/ZnO nano-emitters. High performance nano-emitters was developed using diamond-like-carbon coated p-Si/ZnO tip array (500 × 500), i.e., 178 μA (4.48 mA/cm2) at 75.7 MV/m. PMID:27654068

  13. Integrated ZnO Nano-Electron-Emitter with Self-Modulated Parasitic Tunneling Field Effect Transistor at the Surface of the p-Si/ZnO Junction

    Cao, Tao; Luo, Laitang; Huang, Yifeng; Ye, Bing; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Jun; Xu, Ningsheng


    The development of high performance nano-electron-emitter arrays with well reliability still proves challenging. Here, we report a featured integrated nano-electron-emitter. The vertically aligned nano-emitter consists of two segments. The top segment is an intrinsically lightly n-type doped ZnO nano-tip, while the bottom segment is a heavily p-type doped Si nano-pillar (denoted as p-Si/ZnO nano-emitter). The anode voltage not only extracted the electron emission from the emitter apex but also induced the inter-band electron tunneling at the surface of the p-Si/ZnO nano-junction. The designed p-Si/ZnO emitter is equivalent to a ZnO nano-tip individually ballasted by a p-Si/ZnO diode and a parasitic tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) at the surface of the p-Si/ZnO junction. The parasitic TFET provides a channel for the supply of emitting electron, while the p-Si/ZnO diode is benefit for impeding the current overloading and prevent the emitters from a catastrophic breakdown. Well repeatable and stable field emission current were obtained from the p-Si/ZnO nano-emitters. High performance nano-emitters was developed using diamond-like-carbon coated p-Si/ZnO tip array (500 × 500), i.e., 178 μA (4.48 mA/cm2) at 75.7 MV/m.

  14. Progress Towards High-Sensitivity Arrays of Detectors of Sub-mm Radiation using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistors

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Wollack, E. J.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)


    The science drivers for the SPIRIT/SPECS missions demand sensitive, fast, compact, low-power, large-format detector arrays for high resolution imaging and spectroscopy in the far infrared and submillimeter. Detector arrays with 10,000 pixels and sensitivity less than 10(exp 20)-20 W/Hz(exp 20)0.5 are needed. Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junction detectors with integrated rf single-electron transistor readout amplifiers have the potential for achieving this high level of sensitivity, and can take advantage of an rf multiplexing technique when forming arrays. The device consists of an antenna structure to couple radiation into a small superconducting volume and cause quasiparticle excitations, and a single-electron transistor to measure currents through tunnel junction contacts to the absorber volume. We will describe optimization of device parameters, and recent results on fabrication techniques for producing devices with high yield for detector arrays. We will also present modeling of expected saturation power levels, antenna coupling, and rf multiplexing schemes.

  15. Progress Towards High-Sensitivity Arrays of Detectors of Sub-mm Radiation Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with Integrated Radio Frequency Single-Electron Transistors

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Prober, D. E.; Rhee, K. W.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Teufel, J.; Wollack, E. J.


    For high resolution imaging and spectroscopy in the FIR and submillimeter, space observatories will demand sensitive, fast, compact, low-power detector arrays with 104 pixels and sensitivity less than 10(exp -20) W/Hz(sup 0.5). Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions with integrated rf single-electron transistor readout amplifiers have the potential for achieving this high level of sensitivity, and can take advantage of an rf multiplexing technique. The device consists of an antenna to couple radiation into a small superconducting volume and cause quasiparticle excitations, and a single-electron transistor to measure current through junctions contacting the absorber. We describe optimization of device parameters, and results on fabrication techniques for producing devices with high yield for detector arrays. We also present modeling of expected saturation power levels, antenna coupling, and rf multiplexing schemes.

  16. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin


    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  17. Exploring the Tilt-Angle Dependence of electron tunneling across Molecular junction of Self-Assembled Alkanethiols

    Frederiksen, Thomas; Munuera, C.; Ocal, C.;


    by contacting the molecular layers with the tip of a conductive force microscope. Measurements done under low-load conditions permit us to obtain reliable tilt-angle and molecular length dependencies of the low-bias conductance through the alkanethiol layers. The observed dependence on tilt-angle is stronger...... for the longer molecular chains. Our calculations confirm the observed trends and explain them as a result of two mechanisms, namely, a previously proposed intermolecular tunneling enhancement as well as a hitherto overlooked tilt-dependent molecular gate effect....

  18. Design and Analysis of CMOS-Compatible III-V Compound Electron-Hole Bilayer Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor for Ultra-Low-Power Applications.

    Kim, Sung Yoon; Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Seong Min; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man


    In this work, we design and analyze complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible III-V compound electron-hole bilayer (EHB) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) by using two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. A recently proposed EHB TFET exploits a bias-induced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the electron-hole bilayer by an electric field from the top and bottom gates. This is in contrast to conventional planar p(+)-p(-)-n TFETs, which utilize BTBT across the source-to-channel junction. We applied III-V compound semiconductor materials to the EHB TFETs in order to enhance the current drivability and switching performance. Devices based on various compound semiconductor materials have been designed and analyzed in terms of their primary DC characteristics. In addition, the operational principles were validated by close examination of the electron concentrations and energy-band diagrams under various operation conditions. The simulation results of the optimally designed In0.533Ga0.47As EHB TFET show outstanding performance, with an on-state current (Ion) of 249.5 μA/μm, subthreshold swing (S) of 11.4 mV/dec, and threshold voltage (Vth) of 50 mV at VDS = 0.5 V. Based on the DC-optimized InGaAs EHB TFET, the CMOS inverter circuit was simulated in views of static and dynamic behaviors of the p-channel device with exchanges between top and bottom gates or between source and drain electrodes maintaining the device structure.

  19. Change of Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties with MgO and Fe Thicknesses in Fe/MgO/Fe Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    YANG Fan; BI Xiao-fang


    The effects of the thickness of MgO and Fe on the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junction was studied using the first principle method. Two series of models with MgO of different thicknesses: Fe(3)MgO(t)Fe(3) (t=1,3,5,7) and with Fe of varied thicknesses: Fe(t)MgO(3)Fe(t) (t=3,4,5,6,7) were established. Calculated results show that in all the models the magnetic moment of Fe increases at the Fe/MgO interface and surface as compared with that of the inner layers. The magnetic moment of each Fe layer was found to be independent of MgO thicknesses, while the spin-polarization of Fe layer at the interface shows a slight change in function of the MgO thicknesses. The tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio estimated by the Julliere model has the same change tendency as the spin-polarization has, and the largest value is obtained at the MgO thickness of 5 atomic layers. When the Fe thickness increases, the spin-polarization of interface Fe layer follows up an increase with a decrease. The highest TMR value is achieved when the Fe thickness is of 4 atomic layers.

  20. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Friege, Henning


    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  1. Tunnel electroresistance through organic ferroelectrics

    Tian, B. B.; Wang, J. L.; Fusil, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, X. L.; Sun, S.; Shen, H.; Lin, T.; Sun, J. L.; Duan, C. G.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Dkhil, B.; Garcia, V.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.


    Organic electronics is emerging for large-area applications such as photovoltaic cells, rollable displays or electronic paper. Its future development and integration will require a simple, low-power organic memory, that can be written, erased and readout electrically. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile memory in which the ferroelectric polarisation state of an organic tunnel barrier encodes the stored information and sets the readout tunnel current. We use high-sensitivity piezoresponse force microscopy to show that films as thin as one or two layers of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) remain switchable with low voltages. Submicron junctions based on these films display tunnel electroresistance reaching 1,000% at room temperature that is driven by ferroelectric switching and explained by electrostatic effects in a direct tunnelling regime. Our findings provide a path to develop low-cost, large-scale arrays of organic ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon or flexible substrates.

  2. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Tobias Pohlmann


    The university library of Kassel therefore uses SemperTool’s web-based electronic resource management system RMS. This paper presents the functionality of this system and makes an estimate of the expenditure of work necessary to enter all relevant information about licensed databases, e-book and e-journal packages with the corresponding individual resources. It also describes existing and projected tools for analysis and evaluation, which are decisive for the usefulness of such a system, and concludes with the satisfaction reached at the university library of Kassel. These experiences may help other libraries to decide whether or not to introduce RMS or a comparable system.

  3. Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and conduction-band discontinuity in GaAs/GaAsAl high electron mobility transistor structures

    Smoliner, J.; Christanell, R.; Hauser, M.; Gornik, E.; Weimann, G.


    Oscillatory structure is observed in the dI/dV characteristics of conventional GaAs/GaAlAs high electron mobility transistor samples at liquid-helium temperature, which can be explained using a Fowler-Nordheim tunneling theory. The position of the oscillations allows a determination of the conduction-band discontinuity, and the depth of the deep donor levels in the GaAlAs for high aluminum concentrations. The fit of the data gives a value of Delta Ec/Delta Eg = 0.61 + or - 0.04 for aluminum concentration 30, 36, and 40 percent. The deep donor level in the GaAlAs was determined to be 130 meV below the conduction band.


    K. K. Sossoe


    Full Text Available The influence of the annealing temperature to desorb a protective Te capping layer of the zinc telluride (ZnTe (100 surface was investigated. The surface reconstruction of the ZnTe (100 upon the removal of a Te capping layer grown by the molecular beam epitaxy was characterized by different methods. Auger spectroscopy brought out the chemical composition of the surface before and after annealing; the Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED gave information about the crystallographic structure. The surface crystallographic configurations of tellurium Te (c (2x2 and Te (c (2x1 are confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM. Such a study reveals a phase transition from a rich-Te to a poor-Te surface as the annealing temperature increases. 

  5. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.


    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  6. Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence

    Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn


    High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

  7. Contrasting 1D tunnel-structured and 2D layered polymorphs of V2O5: relating crystal structure and bonding to band gaps and electronic structure.

    Tolhurst, Thomas M; Leedahl, Brett; Andrews, Justin L; Marley, Peter M; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Moewes, Alexander


    New V2O5 polymorphs have risen to prominence as a result of their open framework structures, cation intercalation properties, tunable electronic structures, and wide range of applications. The application of these materials and the design of new, useful polymorphs requires understanding their defining structure-property relationships. We present a characterization of the band gap and electronic structure of nanowires of the novel ζ-phase and the orthorhombic α-phase of V2O5 using X-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The band gap is found to decrease from 1.90 ± 0.20 eV in the α-phase to 1.50 ± 0.20 eV in the ζ-phase, accompanied by the loss of the α-phase's characteristic split-off dxy band in the ζ-phase. States of dxy origin continue to dominate the conduction band edge in the new polymorph but the inequivalence of the vanadium atoms and the increased local symmetry of [VO6] octahedra results in these states overlapping with the rest of the V 3d conduction band. ζ-V2O5 exhibits anisotropic conductivity along the b direction, defining a 1D tunnel, in contrast to α-V2O5 where the anisotropic conductivity is along the ab layers. We explain the structural origins of the differences in electronic properties that exist between the α- and ζ-phase.

  8. Spin-polarized electron tunneling across a Si delta-doped GaMnAs/n-GaAs interface

    Andresen, S.E.; Sørensen, B.S.; Lindelof, P.E.;


    Spin-polarized electron coupling across a Si delta-doped GaMnAs/n-GaAs interface was investigated. The injection of spin-polarized electrons was detected as circular polarized emission from a GaInAs/GaAs quantum well light emitting diode. The angular momentum selection rules were simplified...

  9. Tunneling Through Black Rings

    ZHAO Liu


    Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. To get the correct tunneling amplitude and emission rate, we adopt and develop the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitutes a unified approach to the tunneling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agrees exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasi-local formalism.

  10. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi


    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  11. Mn Doping Effects on the Electronic Band Structure of PbS Quantum Dot Thin Films: A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Analysis

    Yost, Andrew J.; Rimal, Gaurab; Tang, Jinke; Chien, Teyu

    A thorough understanding of the phenomena associated with doping of transition metals in semiconductors is important for the development of semiconducting electronic technologies such as semiconducting quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC). Manganese doping is of particular interest in a PbS QD as it is potentially capable of increasing overall QDSSC performance. Here we present scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies about the effects of Manganese doping on the energy band structures of PbS semiconducting QD thin films, grown using pulsed laser deposition. As a result of Manganese doping in the PbS QD thin films, a widening of the electronic band gap was observed, which is responsible for the observed increase in resistivity. Furthermore, a loss of long range periodicity observed by XRD, upon incorporation of Manganese, indicates that the Manganese dopants also induce a large amount of grain boundaries. This work was supported by the following: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, DEFG02-10ER46728 and the National Science Foundation Grant #0948027.

  12. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis


    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.


    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O


    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  14. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Kitimaporn Choochote


    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  15. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Electronic Transport in Single Molecule Junctions: Control of the Molecule-Electrode Coupling Through Intramolecular Tunneling Barriers

    Danilov, Andrey; Kubatkin, Sergey; Kafanov, Sergey


    We report on single molecule electron transport measurements of two oligophenylenevinylene (OPV3) derivatives placed in a nanogap between gold (Au) or lead (Pb) electrodes in a field effect transistor device. Both derivatives contain thiol end groups that allow chemical binding to the electrodes...

  17. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Andy eQuindeau


    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  18. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  19. Structural investigation of 1,1'-biphenyl-4-thiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) by scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction.

    Matei, D G; Muzik, H; Gölzhäuser, A; Turchanin, A


    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 1,1'-biphenyl-4-thiol (H-(C(6)H(4))(2)-SH) on Au(111) were prepared from solution or via vapor deposition in ultrahigh vacuum and characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In contrast to the typically observed for densely packed alkane-thiol SAMs on Au(111) (√3 × √3)R30° structure, the densely packed aromatic biphenylthiol SAMs prepared by both methods exhibit an unusual hexagonal (2 × 2) structure. Upon annealing at 100 °C, this structure evolves into the (2 × 7√3) structure resulting in the formation of highly ordered pinstripes oriented along the [1 -1 0] directions. Lower density SAMs, prepared by vapor deposition in vacuum, show mixed structures comprising the hexagonal (2 × 2) structure and two rectangular arrangements with the unit cells of (3√3 × 9) and (2√3 × 8). An extinction of the (3√3 × 9) structure in the favor of the (2√3 × 8) structure is observed upon annealing at temperatures of ~100 °C.

  20. Lateral ordering of PTCDA on the clean and the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction.

    Gärtner, Stefan; Fiedler, Benjamin; Bauer, Oliver; Marele, Antonela; Sokolowski, Moritz M


    We have investigated the adsorption of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) on the clean and on the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface [referred to as (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100)] by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Our results confirm the (4√2 × 5√2)R45° superstructure of PTCDA/Cu(100) reported by A. Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99,11770-11779]. However, contrary to Schmidt et al., we have no indication for a dissociation of the PTCDA upon adsorption, and we propose a detailed structure model with two intact PTCDA molecules within the unit cell. Domains of high lateral order are obtained, if the deposition is performed at 400 K. For deposition at room temperature, a significant density of nucleation defects is found pointing to a strong interaction of PTCDA with Cu(100). Quite differently, after preadsorption of oxygen and formation of the (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100) superstructure on Cu(100), PTCDA forms an incommensurate monolayer with a structure that corresponds well to that of PTCDA bulk lattice planes.

  1. Lateral ordering of PTCDA on the clean and the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100 surface investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction

    Stefan Gärtner


    Full Text Available We have investigated the adsorption of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA on the clean and on the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100 surface [referred to as (√2 × 2√2R45° – 2O/Cu(100] by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and low energy electron diffraction (LEED. Our results confirm the (4√2 × 5√2R45° superstructure of PTCDA/Cu(100 reported by A. Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99,11770–11779]. However, contrary to Schmidt et al., we have no indication for a dissociation of the PTCDA upon adsorption, and we propose a detailed structure model with two intact PTCDA molecules within the unit cell. Domains of high lateral order are obtained, if the deposition is performed at 400 K. For deposition at room temperature, a significant density of nucleation defects is found pointing to a strong interaction of PTCDA with Cu(100. Quite differently, after preadsorption of oxygen and formation of the (√2 × 2√2R45° – 2O/Cu(100 superstructure on Cu(100, PTCDA forms an incommensurate monolayer with a structure that corresponds well to that of PTCDA bulk lattice planes.

  2. The structures and dynamics of atomic and molecular adsorbates on metal surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction

    Yoon, Hyungsuk Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Studies of surface structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces are presented. My research has focused on understanding the nature of adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions through surface studies of coverage dependency and coadsorption using both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The effect of adsorbate coverage on the surface structures of sulfur on Pt(111) and Rh(111) was examined. On Pt(111), sulfur forms p(2x2) at 0.25 ML of sulfur, which transforms into a more compressed (√3x√3)R30° at 0.33 ML. On both structures, it was found that sulfur adsorbs only in fcc sites. When the coverage of sulfur exceeds 0.33 ML, it formed more complex c(√3x7)rect structure with 3 sulfur atoms per unit cell. In this structure, two different adsorption sites for sulfur atoms were observed - two on fcc sites and one on hcp site within the unit cell.

  3. Electron Tunneling Studies of MOLYBDENUM(1-X) Rhenium(x): Enhancement of Superconductivity by a Resonance Mode.

    Shum, Danny Pak-Chum

    It is well-known that a heavy impurity atom in a lattice of light atoms induces a lower frequency in-band resonance mode in the vibrational spectrum. The exact effect of such a mode on the lat- tice spectrum has not previously been reported and effects of such modes on superconductivity have not previously been described. Sputtered thin films of bcc Mo(,1-x)Re(,x), 0.2 0. (delta) increases with (lamda)(,R), the Re contribution to the electron-phonon coupling con- stant (lamda). The dependences of the anomalous softening and width of the resonance mode on (lamda)(,R) fit the Yu-Anderson theory of local pho- non screening by a Fermi gas of electrons treated as Tomonago. bosons. These results explain the low N(0), high T(,c) behavior of Mo(,.6)Re(,.4). *DOE Report IS-T-1246. This work was performed under contract No. W-7405-Eng-82 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo


    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  5. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary


    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  6. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Comparison of electron transmittances and tunneling currents in an anisotropic TiNx/HfO2/SiO2/p-Si(100) metal—oxide—semiconductor (MOS) capacitor calculated using exponential- and Airy-wavefunction approaches and a transfer matrix method

    Noor, Fatimah A.; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Sukirno; Khairurrijal


    Analytical expressions of electron transmittance and tunneling current in an anisotropic TiNx/HfO2/SiO2/p-Si(100) metal—oxide—semiconductor (MOS) capacitor were derived by considering the coupling of transverse and longitudinal energies of an electron. Exponential and Airy wavefunctions were utilized to obtain the electron transmittance and the electron tunneling current. A transfer matrix method, as a numerical approach, was used as a benchmark to assess the analytical approaches. It was found that there is a similarity in the transmittances calculated among exponential- and Airy-wavefunction approaches and the TMM at low electron energies. However, for high energies, only the transmittance calculated by using the Airy-wavefunction approach is the same as that evaluated by the TMM. It was also found that only the tunneling currents calculated by using the Airy-wavefunction approach are the same as those obtained under the TMM for all range of oxide voltages. Therefore, a better analytical description for the tunneling phenomenon in the MOS capacitor is given by the Airy-wavefunction approach. Moreover, the tunneling current density decreases as the titanium concentration of the TiNx metal gate increases because the electron effective mass of TiNx decreases with increasing nitrogen concentration. In addition, the mass anisotropy cannot be neglected because the tunneling currents obtained under the isotropic and anisotropic masses are very different.

  7. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Hoa Nguyen B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  8. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  9. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    ... arm. Just a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ligament and ... difficult. Often, the cause is having a smaller carpal tunnel than other people do. Other causes include ...

  10. Investigation into scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopy

    Manson-Smith, S K


    This work reports on the development of a scanning tunnelling luminescence (STL) microscope and its application to the study of Ill-nitride semiconductor materials used in the production of light emitting devices. STL microscopy is a technique which uses the high resolution topographic imaging capabilities of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to generate high resolution luminescence images. The STM tunnelling current acts as a highly localised source of electrons (or holes) which generates luminescence in certain materials. Light generated at the STM tunnelling junction is collected concurrently with the height variation of the tunnelling probe as it is scanned across a sample surface, producing simultaneous topographic and luminescence images. Due to the very localised excitation source, high resolution luminescence images can be obtained. Spectroscopic resolution can be obtained by using filters. Additionally, the variation of luminescence intensity with tunnel current and with bias voltage can provi...

  11. Electronic characterization of LaAlO{sub 3}-SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces by scanning tunneling spectroscopy; Elektronische Charakterisierung von LaAlO{sub 3}-SrTiO{sub 3}-Grenzflaechen mittels Rastertunnelspektroskopie

    Breitschaft, Martin


    When LaAlO{sub 3} is epitaxially grown on TiO{sub 2}-terminated SrTiO{sub 3}, an electrically conducting interface is generated. In this respect, the physical properties of the interface differ substantially from those of both LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}, which are electrically insulating in bulk form. This dissertation looks into the question of the microscopic structure of the conducting two-dimensional interface electron system. Comparing the electronic density of states of LaAlO{sub 3}-SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy with results of density functional theory, the interface electron system is found to be substantially coined by the hosting transition metal lattices. The comparison yields a detailed picture of the microscopic structure of the interface electron system. (orig.)

  12. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Velmurugan Chandran


    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  13. Tunnelling Hot Electron Transfer Amplifiers


    high- The RHEED intensity time evolution clearly shows that Vc quality inverted interfaces is especially important for achiev- the smoothness recovery...can be rk 2. A typical time evoluion lRE ispecula beam intemty akem dearly seen, alter each interruption. One of the GaAs stop layers is indicat- hU

  14. How Human Resource Professionals Use Electronic Channels to Communicate CSR : A case study focused on Solvay's French industrial sites

    Fournet, Clara; Pauly, Marissa


    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a large concern for many companies with the rise of globalization. Oftentimes, companies are encouraged to communicate CSR externally, but not internally. This research focuses upon the internal communication of CSR, specifically how Human Resource (HR) professionals use electronic channels to communicate to employees. The scope of this research is focused solely upon HR professionals within Solvay’s French industrial sites, which produce chemi...

  15. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Soto Giselle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  16. Experimental evidence for Wigner's tunneling time

    Camus, Nicolas; Fechner, Lutz; Klaiber, Michael; Laux, Martin; Mi, Yonghao; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Pfeifer, Thomas; Keitel, Christoph H; Moshammer, Robert


    Tunneling of a particle through a potential barrier remains one of the most remarkable quantum phenomena. Owing to advances in laser technology, electric fields comparable to those electrons experience in atoms are readily generated and open opportunities to dynamically investigate the process of electron tunneling through the potential barrier formed by the superposition of both laser and atomic fields. Attosecond-time and angstrom-space resolution of the strong laser-field technique allow to address fundamental questions related to tunneling, which are still open and debated: Which time is spent under the barrier and what momentum is picked up by the particle in the meantime? In this combined experimental and theoretical study we demonstrate that for strong-field ionization the leading quantum mechanical Wigner treatment for the time resolved description of tunneling is valid. We achieve a high sensitivity on the tunneling barrier and unambiguously isolate its effects by performing a differential study of t...

  17. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.


    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc bias...

  18. Inelastic scattering in resonant tunneling

    Wingreen, Ned S.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Wilkins, John W.


    The exact resonant-tunneling transmission probability for an electron interacting with phonons is presented in the limit that the elastic coupling to the leads is independent of energy. The phonons produce transmission sidebands but do not affect the integrated transmission probability or the esc...

  19. Construction of a four tip scanning tunneling microscope/scanning electron microscope combination and conductivity measurements of silicide nanowires; Aufbau einer Vierspitzen-Rastertunnelmikroskop/Rasterelektronenmikroskop-Kombination und Leitfaehigkeitsmessungen an Silizid Nanodraehten

    Zubkov, Evgeniy


    In this work the combination of a four-tip scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning electron microscope is presented. By means of this apparatus it is possible to perform the conductivity measurements on the in-situ prepared nanostructures in ultra-high vacuum. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it becomes possible to position the tunneling tips of the four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM), so that an arrangement for a four-point probe measurement on nanostructures can be obtained. The STM head was built according to the novel coaxial Beetle concept. This concept allows on the one hand, a very compact arrangement of the components of the STM and on the other hand, the new-built STM head has a good mechanical stability, in order to achieve atomic resolution with all four STM units. The atomic resolution of the STM units was confirmed by scanning a Si(111)-7 x 7 surface. The thermal drift during the STM operation, as well as the resonant frequencies of the mechanical structure of the STM head, were determined. The scanning electron microscope allows the precise and safe navigation of the tunneling tips on the sample surface. Multi tip spectroscopy with up to four STM units can be performed synchronously. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new-built apparatus the conductivity measurements were carried out on metallic yttrium silicide nanowires. The nanowires were prepared by the in-situ deposition of yttrium on a heated Si(110) sample surface. Current-voltage curves were recorded on the nanowires and on the wetting layer in-between. The curves indicate an existence of the Schottky barrier between the yttrium silicide nanowires and the silicon bulk. By means of the two-tip measurements with a gate, the insulating property of the Schottky barrier has been confirmed. Using this Schottky barrier, it is possible to limit the current to the nanowire and to prevent it from flowing through the silicon bulk. A four-tip resistance measurement

  20. Tunneling spectroscopy on grain boundary junctions in electron-doped high-temperature superconductors; Tunnelspektroskopie an Korngrenzenkontakten aus elektronendotierten Hochtemperatur-Supraleitern

    Welter, B.


    Some methods are developed anf presented, by means of which from experimental tunnel spectra, especially on symmetric SIS contacts, informations about the properties of electrodes and tunnel barriers can be obtained. Especially a procedure for the numerical unfolding of symmetric SIS spectra is proposed. Furthermore a series of models is summarized, which can explain the linear background conductivity observed in many spectra on high-temperature superconductors. The results of resistance measurements on film bridges are presented. Especially different methods for the determination of H{sub c2}(T) respectively H{sub c2}(0) are presented and applied to the experimental data. Finally the results of the tunnel-spectroscopy measurements are shown.

  1. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik


    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  2. Inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy in conventional and unconventional superconductors

    Hlobil, Patrik; Schmalian, Joerg; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Jandke, Jasmin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie (Germany)


    Electron tunneling spectroscopy has been used extremely successful in order to verify the microscopic phonon pairing mechanism in conventional BCS superconductors using the Eliashberg theory. Nevertheless, earlier theories and experiments focused mainly on elastic tunneling processes. We present, motivated by recent experiments, a theoretical description of inelastic tunneling in STM in which an electrons tunnels from the tip into a BCS superconductor and coherently excites a phonon during the tunneling process. This additional channel enhances the measured conductivity and we show that if the superconductor is in the normal state, within some limitations, the derivative dσ/dV will be proportional to the Eliashberg function α2F. Additionally, the influence of the inelastic contributions on the tunneling spectrum in the superconducting state will be discussed. Finally, we generalize the theory to other bosonic excitations and focus on the question if inelastic tunneling could be used to unveil the electronic pairing mechanism in the iron pnictides.

  3. Superpoissonian shot noise in organic magnetic tunnel junctions

    Cascales, Juan Pedro; Martinez, Isidoro; Aliev, Farkhad G., E-mail: [Dpto. Fisica Materia Condensada C3, Instituto Nicolas Cabrera (INC), Condensed Matter Physics Institute (IFIMAC), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Hong, Jhen-Yong; Lin, Minn-Tsong, E-mail: [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Szczepański, Tomasz; Dugaev, Vitalii K. [Department of Physics, Rzeszów University of Technology, al. Powstańców Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Barnaś, Józef [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań, Poland and Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)


    Organic molecules have recently revolutionized ways to create new spintronic devices. Despite intense studies, the statistics of tunneling electrons through organic barriers remains unclear. Here, we investigate conductance and shot noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) barriers a few nm thick. For junctions in the electron tunneling regime, with magnetoresistance ratios between 10% and 40%, we observe superpoissonian shot noise. The Fano factor exceeds in 1.5–2 times the maximum values reported for magnetic tunnel junctions with inorganic barriers, indicating spin dependent bunching in tunneling. We explain our main findings in terms of a model which includes tunneling through a two level (or multilevel) system, originated from interfacial bonds of the PTCDA molecules. Our results suggest that interfaces play an important role in the control of shot noise when electrons tunnel through organic barriers.

  4. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Tao, Donghua


    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  5. Verification of Fowler-Nordheim electron tunneling mechanism in Ni/SiO2/n-4H SiC and n+ poly-Si/SiO2/n-4H SiC MOS devices by different models

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah


    This article emphasizes verification of Fowler-Nordheim electron tunneling mechanism in the Ni/SiO2/n-4H SiC MOS devices by developing three different kinds of models. The standard semiconductor equations are categorically solved to obtain the change in Fermi energy level of semiconductor with effect of temperature and field that extend support to determine sustainable and accurate tunneling current through the oxide layer. The forward and reverse bias currents with variation of electric field are simulated with help of different models developed by us for MOS devices by applying adequate conditions. The latter is quite different from former in terms of tunneling mechanism in the MOS devices. The variation of barrier height with effect of quantum mechanical, temperature, and fields is considered as effective barrier height for the generation of current-field (J-F) curves under forward and reverse biases but quantum mechanical effect is void in the latter. In addition, the J-F curves are also simulated with variation of carrier concentration in the n-type 4H SiC semiconductor of MOS devices and the relation between them is established.

  6. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.


    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  7. Development of the tunneling junction simulation environment for scanning tunneling microscope evaluation

    Gajewski, Krzysztof; Piasecki, Tomasz; Kopiec, Daniel; Gotszalk, Teodor


    Proper configuration of scanning tunneling microscope electronics plays an important role in the atomic scale resolution surface imaging. Device evaluation in the tunneling contact between scanning tip and sample may be prone to the surface quality or mechanical disturbances. Thus the use of tunneling junction simulator makes electronics testing more reliable and increases its repeatability. Here, we present the theoretical background enabling the proper selection of electronic components circuitry used as a tunneling junction simulator. We also show how to simulate mechanics related to the piezoelectric scanner, which is applied in real experiments. Practical use of the proposed simulator and its application in metrological characterization of the developed scanning tunneling microscope is also shown.

  8. Long-range protein electron transfer observed at the single-molecule level: In situ mapping of redox-gated tunneling resonance

    Chi, Qijin; Farver, O; Ulstrup, Jens


    on the redox potential. Maximum resonance appears around the equilibrium redox potential of azurin with an on/off current ratio of approximate to 9. Simulation analyses, based on a two-step interfacial ET model for the scanning tunneling microscopy redox process, were performed and provide quantitative...

  9. Cysteine adsorption on the Au(111) surface and the electron transfer in configuration of a scanning tunneling microscope: A quantum-chemical approach

    Nazmutdinov, R.R.; Manyurov, I.R.; Zinkicheva, T.T.


    to the size of a fragment observed experimentally. Adsorption calculations are used to build three-dimensional isosurfaces (STM images), where the tungsten needle of the scanning tunneling microscope is simulated by a tungsten atom or by small clusters. The calculated images are sensitive to both the Cys...

  10. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Kapoor, Kanta


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  11. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    Tao, Donghua


    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  12. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff


    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  13. Drill and blast tunnelling; Konvensjonell drift av tunneler

    Roenn, Paal-Egil


    This thesis treats drill and blast tunnelling. The rapid technological advance necessitates revised and updated design criteria, quality requirements and quality control. In situ blast experiments were carried out in order to test new methods and improve the basis for calculation and design. The main topics of the experiments were (1) longer rounds and increased drillhole diameter, (2) emulsion slurry as explosives in tunnelling, and (3) electronic detonators in contour blasting. The experiments show that it is technically feasible to blast rounds of up to 8.6 m length. Using current technology, the economical optimum round length is substantially shorter. Dust, low visibility, noise and toxic fumes are occupational environmental strains for the tunnel workers. Several of the environmental factors are strongly influenced by the type of explosives used. For example, emulsion slurry resulted in 4 to 5 times better visibility than Anolit and the concentration of respirable dust and total dust was reduced by 30-50 %. Electronic detonators were tested and found to give a higher percentage of remaining drillholes in the contour than Nonel detonators. The thesis includes a chapter on economic design of hydropower tunnels. 42 refs., 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  14. Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.

    Boumarafi, Behdja


    Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study.

  15. 图书馆电子信息资源利用效果评价研究%Study on Utilization Effect Evaluation of Library Electronic Information Resources

    晋晓强; 贺培风; 何忠印


    This paper discusses utilization effect of electronic information resources combining with the characteristics of electronic information resources, makes evaluation system of library electronic information resource utilization effect from three aspects : the library, the users and the data providers, hoping for providing valuable reference for the efficient use of library electronic resources.%本文结合电子信息资源的特性对电子信息资源的利用进行初步探讨,从图书馆、用户和数据服务商三个角度构建图书馆电子信息资源利用效果的评价体系,希望能为图书馆电子信息资源的高效利用提供参考。

  16. Coupling quantum tunneling with cavity photons.

    Cristofolini, Peter; Christmann, Gabriel; Tsintzos, Simeon I; Deligeorgis, George; Konstantinidis, George; Hatzopoulos, Zacharias; Savvidis, Pavlos G; Baumberg, Jeremy J


    Tunneling of electrons through a potential barrier is fundamental to chemical reactions, electronic transport in semiconductors and superconductors, magnetism, and devices such as terahertz oscillators. Whereas tunneling is typically controlled by electric fields, a completely different approach is to bind electrons into bosonic quasiparticles with a photonic component. Quasiparticles made of such light-matter microcavity polaritons have recently been demonstrated to Bose-condense into superfluids, whereas spatially separated Coulomb-bound electrons and holes possess strong dipole interactions. We use tunneling polaritons to connect these two realms, producing bosonic quasiparticles with static dipole moments. Our resulting three-state system yields dark polaritons analogous to those in atomic systems or optical waveguides, thereby offering new possibilities for electromagnetically induced transparency, room-temperature condensation, and adiabatic photon-to-electron transfer.

  17. Growth and structure of thin platinum films deposited on Co(0001) studied by low-energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Cabeza, G. F.; Légaré, P.; Sadki, A.; Castellani, N. J.


    The growth of platinum deposited on Co(0001) at room temperature in the range of submonolayer coverage is described. The evolution of very thin Pt films has been studied using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The LEED patterns suggested a coherent epitaxial growth mode for Pt on Co(0001). Evidence for an island growth mode has been confirmed by STM together with step decoration. However, the second and third monolayers start growing before the completion of the first Pt layer. The electronic structure of the Pt deposits exhibited original properties with low Fermi level density of states and valence-band broadening. This is in agreement with theoretical calculations presented in this work.

  18. Dynamical image-charge effect in molecular tunnel junctions

    Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer


    When an electron tunnels between two metal contacts it temporarily induces an image charge (IC) in the electrodes which acts back on the tunneling electron. It is usually assumed that the IC forms instantaneously such that a static model for the image potential applies. Here we investigate how...

  19. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar


    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  20. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Shadle, Steve


    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  1. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Shailendra Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  2. Attoclock reveals natural coordinates of the laser-induced tunnelling current flow in atoms

    Pfeiffer, Adrian N.; Cirelli, Claudio; Smolarski, Mathias;


    the attoclock technique4 to obtain experimental information about the electron tunnelling geometry (the natural coordinates of the tunnelling current flow) and exit point. We confirm vanishing tunnelling delay time, show the importance of the inclusion of Stark shifts5, 6 and report on multi-electron effects...

  3. Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study

    Kidd, T


    This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

  4. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I


    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material.

  5. Quantum theory of tunneling

    Razavy, Mohsen


    In this revised and expanded edition, in addition to a comprehensible introduction to the theoretical foundations of quantum tunneling based on different methods of formulating and solving tunneling problems, different semiclassical approximations for multidimensional systems are presented. Particular attention is given to the tunneling of composite systems, with examples taken from molecular tunneling and also from nuclear reactions. The interesting and puzzling features of tunneling times are given extensive coverage, and the possibility of measurement of these times with quantum clocks are critically examined. In addition by considering the analogy between evanescent waves in waveguides and in quantum tunneling, the times related to electromagnetic wave propagation have been used to explain certain aspects of quantum tunneling times. These topics are treated in both non-relativistic as well as relativistic regimes. Finally, a large number of examples of tunneling in atomic, molecular, condensed matter and ...

  6. Road and Railroad Tunnels

    Department of Homeland Security — Tunnels in the United States According to the HSIP Tiger Team Report, a tunnel is defined as a linear underground passageway open at both ends. This dataset is based...

  7. Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is a continuous flow wind-tunnel facility capable of speeds up to Mach 1.2 at stagnation pressures up to one atmosphere. The TDT...

  8. Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...

  9. Tunneling into quantum wires: Regularization of the tunneling Hamiltonian and consistency between free and bosonized fermions

    Filippone, Michele; Brouwer, Piet W.


    Tunneling between a point contact and a one-dimensional wire is usually described with the help of a tunneling Hamiltonian that contains a δ function in position space. Whereas the leading-order contribution to the tunneling current is independent of the way this δ function is regularized, higher-order corrections with respect to the tunneling amplitude are known to depend on the regularization. Instead of regularizing the δ function in the tunneling Hamiltonian, one may also obtain a finite tunneling current by invoking the ultraviolet cutoffs in a field-theoretic description of the electrons in the one-dimensional conductor, a procedure that is often used in the literature. For the latter case, we show that standard ultraviolet cutoffs lead to different results for the tunneling current in fermionic and bosonized formulations of the theory, when going beyond leading order in the tunneling amplitude. We show how to recover the standard fermionic result using the formalism of functional bosonization and revisit the tunneling current to leading order in the interacting case.

  10. The Tunnels of Samos

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)


    This 'Project Mathematics' series video from CalTech presents the tunnel of Samos, a famous underground aquaduct tunnel located near the capital of Pithagorion (named after the famed Greek mathematician, Pythagoras, who lived there), on one of the Greek islands. This tunnel was constructed around 600 BC by King Samos and was built under a nearby mountain. Through film footage and computer animation, the mathematical principles and concepts of why and how this aquaduct tunnel was built are explained.

  11. Magneto-transport characteristics of electron-doped Ca{sub 0.85}Sm{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} manganite: Hopping and tunneling

    Hossain Khan, Momin; Pal, Sudipta, E-mail:


    In this work we have reported the temperature and magnetic field dependence of resistivity and magnetoresistance in electron-doped polycrystalline Ca{sub 0.85}Sm{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} (CSMO). It shows a robust semiconducting behavior down to the lowest temperature (5 K) of investigation. High-T resistivity of the present sample follows small polaron hopping (SPH) conduction mechanism. The variable range hopping (VRH) model has been found to fit low-T resistivity data. Intermediate-temperature ρ(T) data has been explained using a parallel combination of SPH and 3D-VRH model. The resistivity shows strong dependence on the magnetic field–temperature history. Magnetoresistance (MR) of the sample shows strong irreversibility with respect to sweeping of the field between the highest positive and negative values. Low-ρ state of the envelope curve in MR indicates a manifestation of kinetic arrest of the electronic phase on application of magnetic field. We demonstrates that the sizable MR at low fields dominated by spin-polarized tunneling between the adjacent grains. - Highlights: • Temperature and magnetic field dependent resistivity of Ca{sub 0.85}SM{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} was studied. • Small polaron hopping dominates at high-T region. • ρ(T) exhibited a variable range hopping model at low-T region. • Low-ρ state has been explained by the kinetic arrest of electronic phase. • Magnetoresistance is governed by spin-polarized tunneling between the adjacent grains.

  12. Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs)


    We review the giant tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in ferromagnetic-insulator-ferromagnetic junctions discovered in recent years, which is the magnetoresistance (MR) associated with the spin-dependent tunneling between two ferromagnetic metal films separated by an insulating thin tunnel barrier. The theoretical and experimental results including junction conductance, magnetoresistance and their temperature and bias dependences are described.


    孟小伟; 黄明利; 谭忠盛; 阮清林


    在建筑物密集且部分建筑物抗震性能差的城镇地区地下,进行浅埋隧道爆破开挖施工,只有采用减振控制爆破技术才能使地表建(构)筑物免受爆破振动的危害.以重庆在建的渝利铁路长洪岭隧道下穿江池镇区间为工程背景,针对地表民房密集、房屋抗振等级低,爆破控制标准要求严格,通过数码电子雷管和非电毫秒雷管爆破对比试验,形成数码电子雷管减振爆破技术,保证隧道安全快速通过江池镇.试验表明:数码电子雷管引起的爆破振动降低50%~60%,炮孔利用率达到98%.全断面爆破进尺控制在3m左右,不仅降低了振速,而且改善了爆破块度,还保证了施工进度.%Blasting shock absorption technology is only adopted to make surface buildings avoiding dam-age caused by blasting vibration, when blasting excavation of shallow-buried tunnel is constructed in the town with crowded buildings. In the blasting excavation of Changhongling tunnel under-traversing Jiangchi town at Chongqing city, according to the dense residences, the building with low resistance seismic level, and the strict blasting control standard, the blasting shock absorption technology of the digital electron detonator was form by the comparative tests between ordinary detonator and digital electron detonator, which guaranteed Chang-Hongling tunnel to pass through Jiangchi town safely. The test indicated that blasting vibration could be reduced 50%~60%, utilization ratio of the bore-hole reached 98%, and full-face blasting footage was about 3m by using the digital electron detonator. So the blasting shock absorp-tion technology not only reduced vibration velocity but also improve blasting fragment and guaranteed the speed of construction.

  14. 一种新型的微机械电子隧穿加速度计%A Novel Micromachined Electron Tunneling Accelerometer

    杨拥军; 李立杰; 徐永青; 赵彦军; 梁春广; 魏同立


    A novel micromachined tunneling acceleroneter is described. Using the bulk-silicon fabrica tion technology and the silicon/glass electrostatic bonding process, a sandwich structure tunneling ac celerometer was fabricated and tested. In order to reduce the low frequency noise, the feedback circuit was improved by adding oscillator and demodulator. The first prototype has a resolution of approximately 10-6g/√Hz, and can survive with at least 50g shocking.%介绍了一种新型的微机械电子隧穿加速度计.利用体硅微机械加工工艺和 硅/玻璃静电键合技术成功研制出了一种三明治结构的隧穿加速度计.为了有效减小 低频噪声,在反馈回路里加入了振荡器和解调器.测试结果表明,目前样品的分辨率 约为10-6g/√Hz,抗冲击能力达到50g.

  15. Tunneling Time in Ultrafast Science is Real and Probabilistic

    Landsman, Alexandra; Maurer, Jochen; Boge, Robert; Ludwig, André; Heuser, Sebastian; Cirelli, Claudio; Gallmann, Lukas; Keller, Ursula


    We compare the main competing theories of tunneling time against experimental measurements using the attoclock in strong laser field ionization of helium atoms. Refined attoclock measurements reveal a real and not instantaneous tunneling delay time over a large intensity regime, using two different experimental apparatus. Only two of the theoretical predictions are compatible within our experimental error: the Larmor time, and the probability distribution of tunneling times constructed using a Feynman Path Integral (FPI) formulation. The latter better matches the observed qualitative change in tunneling time over a wide intensity range, and predicts a broad tunneling time distribution with a long tail. The implication of such a probability distribution of tunneling times, as opposed to a distinct tunneling time, challenges how valence electron dynamics are currently reconstructed in attosecond science. It means that one must account for a significant uncertainty as to when the hole dynamics begin to evolve.

  16. Tunneling and propping : A justification for pyramidal ownership

    Riyanto, Y.E.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda


    This paper links existence of the pyramidal ownership structure to tunneling and propping. Tunneling refers to a transfer of resources from a lower-level firm to a higher-level firm in the pyramidal chain, whereas propping concerns a transfer in the opposite direction intended to bail out the receiv

  17. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Kaminski Stanislaw


    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  18. 试论图书馆电子资源与纸本资源的协调发展%The coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources



      纸本资源和电子资源属于公共图书馆文献资源中两个非常重要的资源类型,纸本资源和电子资源的协调发展在图书馆的可持续发展过程中起着非常重要的作用。本文对如何实现图书馆电子资源和纸本资源之间的协调发展进行了探讨,希望能够为图书馆文献资源的管理提供一些参考。%  The paper and electronic resources are two very important types of literature resources of public libraries, the coordinated development of the paper and electronic resources play a very important role in the sustainable development process of the library. This article discusses how to realize the coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources, hope to provide some reference for library literature resource management.

  19. On the Development of Electronic Resources and Paper Resources%关于电子资源与纸本资源协调发展的思考和建议



    In recent years, a large number of electronic resources was introduced to the libraries, which has become an im- portant component of library resource system. However, there are also a lot of hot debates about the following issues, such as how to build a traditional paper resources, how to deal with the relationship between paper resources and electronic resources, how to build a library resources development system, etc. These problems also confused many librarians who are building resources in the library. With the combination with the opinions from some experts, research scholars, the paper proposed some guiding principles to deal with the relationship between electronic resources and paper resources. Taking all the aspects into consideration, such as the concepts of the library, the funding of the resources, the policies and structure of the library, cooperative development, the paper also proposes some measures for the development of electronic resources and paper resources.%在复合图书馆环境下,如何协调发展电子资源与纸本资源是图书馆界专家、学者研究和探讨的热点问题,也是许多图书馆工作者在文献资源建设实践中十分困惑的问题。文章结合有关专家、学者的研究成果及图书馆的相关案例,概述了电子资源与纸本资源协调发展应遵循的指导性原则,并从馆藏理念、经费投入、馆藏政策、馆藏结构、合作发展、服务利用等几个方面提出了协调发展电子资源与纸本资源的若干举措。

  20. An Observation of Benzotriazole (BTA) Adsorption on Cu(110) by the Ultra High Vacuum (UHV)-Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) and Low Energy Electron Difiraction (LEED)

    Cho, Kyehyun; Kishimoto, Jiro; Hashizume, Tomihiro; Sakurai, Toshio


    We have investigated Benzotriazole (BTA) adsorption structures and kinetics on the clean Cu(110) and oxygen reconstructed Cu(110)-2×1 surfaces. The first atomicaly resolved scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images showed that BTA adsorbed on the clean Cu(110)-1×1 surface to form the c(4×2) commensurate structure, agreeing the c(4×2) LEED pattern. On the other hand, STM images of BTA adsorbed on the oxygen induced Cu(110)-2×1 surface were a fully disordered structure. In kinetic point of view, BTA molecules should adsorb preferentially on the oxygen induced Cu(110)-2×1 missing row compared to the clean Cu(110) surface.

  1. Electron microscope observation of Salmonella Pullorum transmembrane tunnel mediated by the bacteriophage lysis protein E%噬菌体裂解E蛋白介导鸡白痢沙门菌跨膜孔道的电镜观察

    郭荣显; 耿士忠; 焦红梅; 焦新安; 潘志明; 陈义芳; 安树敏


    Bacteriophage lysis protein E can lead to a fusion of the inner and outer membranes to form a specific transmembrane tunnel in Salmonella cytoderm. In this study, scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) and transmission electron microscopy ( TEM) were used to observe the characteristic of the transmembrane tunnel. Bacterial ghosts were prepared by inducing expression of the bacteriophage lysis gene E in Salmonella Pullorum S06004 harboring plasmid pBBR1MCS2-E. The pre-treatment of samples were observed by SEM and TEM. After induced in 42 ℃, the vast majority of Salmonella Pullorum recombinants could form a transmembrane tunnel at the polar sites of bacteria with a diameter varying in the range of 200~400 nm. Bacterial ghosts show the loss of cytoplasmic material and maintain the integrity of the outer membrane structure. The cell surface wrinkled obviously. This research provides an efficient morphological evidence for Salmonella ghosts as vaccine candidate, which is mediated by the bacteriophage lysis protein E.%应用电镜对噬菌体裂解 E蛋白介导沙门菌内外膜融合而形成的特异性跨膜孔道进行超微结构观察。42℃诱导携带温控表达质粒的重组鸡白痢沙门菌S06004(pBBR1MCS2-E)表达E基因以制备鸡白痢沙门菌菌影;样品经前处理,扫描电镜和透射电镜观察其形态结构变化。重组鸡白痢沙门菌经温度诱导后,绝大多数发生裂解,在两极形成直径介于200~400 nm之间的跨膜孔道,细菌整体呈空泡状,并保持完整的外膜结构,但细胞表面发生明显的褶皱。本研究为噬菌体E蛋白裂解沙门菌制备新型灭活疫苗的研究提供了形态学依据。

  2. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu


    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  3. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Masters ET


    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  4. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    Montes, E.; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.


    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance of small diameter semiconducting Si nanowires attached to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes, using first principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s functions method for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we systematically study the spin transport properties for neutral nanowires and both n and p doping conditions. We find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance for the neutral case, which halves for an applied voltage of about 0.35 V and persists up to 1 V. Doping in general decreases the magnetoresistance, as soon as the conductance is no longer dominated by tunneling.

  5. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique


    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance of small diameter semiconducting Si nanowires attached to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes, using first principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green\\'s functions method for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we systematically study the spin transport properties for neutral nanowires and both n and p doping conditions. We find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance for the neutral case, which halves for an applied voltage of about 0.35 V and persists up to 1 V. Doping in general decreases the magnetoresistance, as soon as the conductance is no longer dominated by tunneling.

  6. Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in double-barrier planar magnetic tunnel junctions

    Useinov, A. N.


    We present a theoretical approach to calculate the spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DMTJ), in which the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer can be aligned parallel or antiparallel in relation to the fixed magnetizations of the left and right ferromagnetic electrodes. The electron transport through the DMTJ is considered as a three-dimensional problem, taking into account all transmitting electron trajectories as well as the spin-dependent momentum conservation law. The dependence of the transmission coefficient and spin-polarized currents on the applied voltage is derived as an exact solution to the quantum-mechanical problem for the spin-polarized transport. In the range of the developed physical model, the resonant tunneling, nonresonant tunneling, and enhanced spin filtering can be explained; the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Survey on User Satisfaction of Electronic Resources in University Libraries%高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度调查

    陈姚竹; 马东


    通过分析影响用户对图书馆电子资源利用的因素,以美国顾客满意度指数模型为基础,提出关于各个因素的测量指标,对高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度进行测量。%Through analyzing the influencing factors on utilizing library electronic resources, based on the model of American customer satisfaction index, the paper puts forward corresponding measurement indexes, and then measures the user satisfaction on electronic resources of university library

  8. Resonance Enhanced Tunneling

    Matsumoto, S; Matsumoto, Sh.


    Time evolution of tunneling in thermal medium is examined using the real-time semiclassical formalism previously developed. Effect of anharmonic terms in the potential well is shown to give a new mechanism of resonance enhanced tunneling. If the friction from environment is small enough, this mechanism may give a very large enhancement for the tunneling rate. The case of the asymmetric wine bottle potential is worked out in detail.

  9. Ulnar tunnel syndrome.

    Bachoura, Abdo; Jacoby, Sidney M


    Ulnar tunnel syndrome could be broadly defined as a compressive neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the level of the wrist. The ulnar tunnel, or Guyon's canal, has a complex and variable anatomy. Various factors may precipitate the onset of ulnar tunnel syndrome. Patient presentation depends on the anatomic zone of ulnar nerve compression: zone I compression, motor and sensory signs and symptoms; zone II compression, isolated motor deficits; and zone III compression; purely sensory deficits. Conservative treatment such as activity modification may be helpful, but often, surgical exploration of the ulnar tunnel with subsequent ulnar nerve decompression is indicated.

  10. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  11. Electronic and geometric properties of Au nanoparticles on Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM).

    Lopez-Salido, Ignacio; Lim, Dong Chan; Dietsche, Rainer; Bertram, Nils; Kim, Young Dok


    Au nanoparticles grown on mildly sputtered Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) surfaces were studied using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results were compared with those of Ag nanoparticles on the same substrate. By varying the defect densities of HOPG and the Au coverages, one can create Au nanoparticles in various sizes. At high Au coverages, the structures of the Au films significantly deviate from the ideal truncated octahedral form: the existence of many steps between different Au atomic layers can be observed, most likely due to a high activation barrier of the diffusion of Au atoms across the step edges. This implies that the particle growth at room temperature is strongly limited by kinetic factors. Hexagonal shapes of Au structures could be identified, indicating preferential growth of Au nanostructures along the (111) direction normal to the surface. In the case of Au, XPS studies reveal a weaker core level shift with decreasing particle size compared to the 3d level in similarly sized Ag particles. Also taking into account the Auger analysis of the Ag particles, the core level shifts of the metal nanoparticles on HOPG can be understood in terms of the metal/substrate charge transfer. Ag is (partially) positively charged, whereas Au negatively charged on HOPG. It is demonstrated that XPS can be a useful tool to study metal-support interactions, which plays an important role for heterogeneous catalysis, for example.

  12. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. METHODS: Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  13. The excitation energy spectrum for a system with electron pairs tunneling in a two-leg ladder has a doping depended gap

    Voroshilov, Valentin


    A new model with a new Hamiltonian and a new canonical transformation is offered as the means for studying properties of a system of strongly correlated electrons. Consideration of the simplest possible situation, namely a system on non-interacting electrons in a two-leg ladder, leads to an expression for the excitation energy spectrum with no energy gap at the half-filling and with an energy gap away from the half filling.

  14. An innovative band-to-band tunneling analytical model and implications in compact modeling of tunneling-based devices

    De Michielis, L.; Daǧtekin, N.; Biswas, A.; Lattanzio, L.; Selmi, L.; Luisier, M.; Riel, H.; Ionescu, A. M.


    In this paper, an analytical band-to-band tunneling model is proposed, validated by means of drift-diffusion simulation and comparison with experimental data, implemented in Verilog-A, and finally proven with SPICE simulator through simulation of circuits featuring tunneling diodes. The p-n junction current calculation starts from a non-local Band-to-Band tunneling theory including the electron-phonon interaction and therefore it is particularly suited for indirect semiconductor materials such as silicon- or germanium-based interband tunneling devices.

  15. Effect of tunnel structure on the specific capacitance of etched aluminum foil

    Ning Peng; Li-Bo Liang; Ye-Dong He; Hong-Zhou Song; Xiao-Fei Yang; Xiao-Yu Cai


    The morphology of etched aluminum foil was observed using scanning electron microscopy, which led to the establishment of a cylindrical model and two merged models, considering the fixed weight loss of etching. The maximum of specific capacitance and the cor-responding optimum values for tunnel sizes at various anodization voltages were predicted. The increased size distribution and taper of tun-nels were demonstrated to decrease the specific capacitance, whereas the addition of polymeric additive into the tunnel widening solution was demonstrated to increase the capacitance. The formation of merged tunnels on the etched aluminum surface, irrespective of the presence of row-merged tunnels or cluster-merged tunnels, resulted in a dramatic decrease in the specific capacitance. It is concluded that, enhancing the uniformity of tunnel size and distribution and avoiding the formation of merged tunnels are the effective approach to achieving the higher capacitance for the tunnel etched and formed aluminum foil.

  16. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.


    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  17. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Izuagbe, Roland


    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  18. Salecker-Wigner-Peres quantum clock applied to strong-field tunnel ionization

    Teeny, Nicolas; Bauke, Heiko


    The Salecker-Wigner-Peres quantum-clock approach is applied in order to determine the tunneling time of an electron in strong-field tunnel ionization via a time-dependent electric field. Our results show that the ionization of the electron takes a nonvanishing period of time. This tunneling time is of the order of the Keldysh time but strictly larger than the Keldysh time. Comparing the quantum-clock tunneling time to the mean tunneling time as obtained by the virtual-detector approach, one finds that these two complementary methods give very similar results. Due to the asymmetric distribution of the tunneling time, there is a nonnegligible discrepancy between the mean tunneling time and the most probable tunneling time.

  19. Tunneling magnetoresistance phenomenon utilizing graphene magnet electrode

    Hashimoto, T.; Kamikawa, S.; Haruyama, J., E-mail: [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Soriano, D. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus de la UAB, Edifici ICN2, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Pedersen, J. G. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus de la UAB, Edifici ICN2, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Micro-and Nanotechnology, DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Roche, S. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus de la UAB, Edifici ICN2, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ICREA - Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)


    Using magnetic rare-metals for spintronic devices is facing serious problems for the environmental contamination and the limited material-resource. In contrast, by fabricating ferromagnetic graphene nanopore arrays (FGNPAs) consisting of honeycomb-like array of hexagonal nanopores with hydrogen-terminated zigzag-type atomic structure edges, we reported observation of polarized electron spins spontaneously driven from the pore edge states, resulting in rare-metal-free flat-energy-band ferromagnetism. Here, we demonstrate observation of tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) behaviors on the junction of cobalt/SiO{sub 2}/FGNPA electrode, serving as a prototype structure for future rare-metal free TMR devices using magnetic graphene electrodes. Gradual change in TMR ratios is observed across zero-magnetic field, arising from specified alignment between pore-edge- and cobalt-spins. The TMR ratios can be controlled by applying back-gate voltage and by modulating interpore distance. Annealing the SiO{sub 2}/FGNPA junction also drastically enhances TMR ratios up to ∼100%.

  20. Theory of dissociative tunneling ionization

    Svensmark, Jens; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    We present a theoretical study of the dissociative tunneling ionization process. Analytic expressions for the nuclear kinetic energy distribution of the ionization rates are derived. A particularly simple expression for the spectrum is found by using the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation in conjunction with the reflection principle. These spectra are compared to exact non-BO ab initio spectra obtained through model calculations with a quantum mechanical treatment of both the electronic and nuclear degrees freedom. In the regime where the BO approximation is applicable imaging of the BO nuclear wave function is demonstrated to be possible through reverse use of the reflection principle, when accounting appropriately for the electronic ionization rate. A qualitative difference between the exact and BO wave functions in the asymptotic region of large electronic distances is shown. Additionally the behavior of the wave function across the turning line is seen to be reminiscent of light refraction. For weak fiel...

  1. Tunnel fire dynamics

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders


    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  2. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Ekkens, Tom


    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  3. Cooling of suspended nanostructures with tunnel junctions

    Koppinen, P. J.; Maasilta, I. J.


    We have investigated electronic cooling of suspended nanowires with SINIS tunnel junction coolers. The suspended samples consist of a free standing nanowire suspended by four narrow ($\\sim$ 200 nm) bridges. We have compared two different cooler designs for cooling the suspended nanowire. We demonstrate that cooling of the nanowire is possible with a proper SINIS cooler design.

  4. Millikelvin cooling by heavy-fermion-based tunnel junctions

    Prest, Martin; Min, Gao, E-mail: [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Whall, Terry [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    This paper addresses a high-performance electron-tunneling cooler based on a novel heavy-fermion/insulator/superconductor junction for millikelvin cooling applications. We show that the cooling performance of an electronic tunneling refrigerator could be significantly improved using a heavy-fermion metal to replace the normal metal in a conventional normal metal/insulator/superconductor junction. The calculation, based on typical parameters, indicates that, for a bath temperature of 300 mK, the minimum cooling temperature of an electron tunneling refrigerator is reduced from around 170 mK to below 50 mK if a heavy-fermion metal is employed in place of the normal metal. The improved cooling is attributed to an enhancement in electron tunneling due to the existence of a resonant density of states at the Fermi level.

  5. Band-to-Band Tunnel Transistor Design and Modeling for Low Power Applications


    tunneling phenomenon which was first observed over 50 years ago in narrow bandgap germanium p-n junction diodes by Esaki [2.1], operates by having electrons...Tunneling devices utilizing the band-to-band tunneling mechanism have been known to overcome this fundamental limit. In this thesis , the gap Ge devices and Strained Si/Ge hetero-structure devices utilizing a lower effective bandgap are also explored to improve the performance of the

  6. Design of a Three-Dimensional Electronic Compass Based on Tunneling Magneto Resistance Sensor%基于隧道磁阻传感器的三维电子罗盘设计∗

    王琪; 李孟委; 王增跃; 蒋孝勇; 李锡广


    Existing electronic compass is vulnerable to be distracted by the Magnetic Field in external environment, which leads to low accuracy. To solve this problem,a three-dimensional electronic compass is designed based on Tunneling Magneto Resistance sensor and a prototype is made. The error characteristics of compass in a real envi-ronment is studied,and ellipse hypothesis are carried out to compensate the azimuth error after ellipsoid-fitting cor-rection. Through experimental tests,the compensation effect of the ellipse hypothesis method,which compensated az-imuth accuracy of up to 0.85° and effectively reducing 94.81% of the azimuth error. Experimental results show that applying TMR sensor to electronic compass is feasible.%针对现有电子罗盘在地磁场检测时易受到外界磁场干扰而导致测量精度不高的问题,设计了基于隧道磁阻传感器( TMR)的三维电子罗盘并完成样机制作。研究了实际环境中电子罗盘的误差特性,经椭球拟合校正后,采用基于椭圆假设的椭圆拟合方法对误差进行补偿,补偿后其方位角精度可达0.85°,有效降低94.81%的方位角误差。实验结果验证了TMR传感器在电子罗盘应用的可行性。

  7. Anomalous Tunnel Magnetoresistance and Spin Transfer Torque in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with Embedded Nanoparticles

    Useinov, Arthur; Ye, Lin-Xiu; Useinov, Niazbeck; Wu, Te-Ho; Lai, Chih-Huang


    The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with embedded nanoparticles (NPs) was calculated in range of the quantum-ballistic model. The simulation was performed for electron tunneling through the insulating layer with embedded magnetic and non-magnetic NPs within the approach of the double barrier subsystem connected in parallel to the single barrier one. This model can be applied for both MTJs with in-plane magnetization and perpendicular one. We also calculated the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque (STT) versus the applied voltage in MTJs with magnetic NPs and determined that its value can be much larger than in single barrier system (SBS) for the same tunneling thickness. The reported simulation reproduces experimental data of the TMR suppression and peak-like TMR anomalies at low voltages available in leterature.

  8. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  9. Resonant tunneling in graphene pseudomagnetic quantum dots.

    Qi, Zenan; Bahamon, D A; Pereira, Vitor M; Park, Harold S; Campbell, D K; Neto, A H Castro


    Realistic relaxed configurations of triaxially strained graphene quantum dots are obtained from unbiased atomistic mechanical simulations. The local electronic structure and quantum transport characteristics of y-junctions based on such dots are studied, revealing that the quasi-uniform pseudomagnetic field induced by strain restricts transport to Landau level- and edge state-assisted resonant tunneling. Valley degeneracy is broken in the presence of an external field, allowing the selective filtering of the valley and chirality of the states assisting in the resonant tunneling. Asymmetric strain conditions can be explored to select the exit channel of the y-junction.

  10. Polaronic Tunnelling in Organic Triblock Copolymers

    LIU De-Sheng; ZHANG Da-Cheng; XIE Shi-Jie; MEI Liang-Mo


    @@ Polaron tunnelling is studied in xPA/nPPP/xPA (PA for polyacetylene and PPP poly (p-phenylene)) triblock copolymer, which has a well-barrier-well structure. An extended tight-binding Hamiltonian including external electric field is adopted. Without electric field, the injected electrons would not extend over the whole copolymer chain but instead be confined in the segments of PA. This is different from the behaviour of the traditional semiconductors. It is found that the polaron can transfer to the potential barrier-PPP segment when the applied electric field reaches a certain value. The critical polaron tunnelling electric fields depend upon the lengths of PPP segments.

  11. Quantum Tunnelling to the Origin and Evolution of Life.

    Trixler, Frank


    Quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon which becomes relevant at the nanoscale and below. It is a paradox from the classical point of view as it enables elementary particles and atoms to permeate an energetic barrier without the need for sufficient energy to overcome it. Tunnelling might seem to be an exotic process only important for special physical effects and applications such as the Tunnel Diode, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (electron tunnelling) or Near-field Optical Microscopy operating in photon tunnelling mode. However, this review demonstrates that tunnelling can do far more, being of vital importance for life: physical and chemical processes which are crucial in theories about the origin and evolution of life can be traced directly back to the effects of quantum tunnelling. These processes include the chemical evolution in stellar interiors and within the cold interstellar medium, prebiotic chemistry in the atmosphere and subsurface of planetary bodies, planetary habitability via insolation and geothermal heat as well as the function of biomolecular nanomachines. This review shows that quantum tunnelling has many highly important implications to the field of molecular and biological evolution, prebiotic chemistry and astrobiology.

  12. Oxygen-vacancy driven tunnelling spintronics across MgO

    Halisdemir, U.; Schleicher, F.; Kim, D. J.; Taudul, B.; Lacour, D.; Choi, W. S.; Gallart, M.; Boukari, S.; Schmerber, G.; Davesne, V.; Panissod, P.; Halley, D.; Majjad, H.; Henry, Y.; Leconte, B.; Boulard, A.; Spor, D.; Beyer, N.; Kieber, C.; Sternitzky, E.; Cregut, O.; Ziegler, M.; Montaigne, F.; Arabski, J.; Beaurepaire, E.; Jo, W.; Alouani, M.; Gilliot, P.; Hehn, M.; Bowen, M.


    The conservation of an electron's spin and symmetry as it undergoes solid-state tunnelling within magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is thought to be best understood using MgO-based MTJs1. Yet the very large experimental values of tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) that justify this perception are often associated with tunnelling barrier heights well below those suggested by the MgO optical band gap. This combination of high TMR and low RA-product, while spawning spin-transfer/spin-orbit torque experiments and considerable industrial interest, cannot be explained by standard theory. Noting the impact of a tunnel barrier's altered stoichiometry on TMR2, we reconcile this 10+year-old contradiction between theory and experiment by considering the impact of the MgO barrier's structural defects3-5. We find that the ground and excited states of oxygen vacancies can promote localized states within the band gap with differing electronic character. By setting symmetry- and temperature-dependent tunnelling barrier heights, they alter symmetry-polarized tunnelling and thus TMR. We will examine how annealing, depending on MgO growth conditions, can alter the nature of these localized states. This oxygen vacancy paradigm of inorganic tunnelling spintronics opens interesting perspectives into endowing the MTJ with additional functionalities, such as optically manipulating the MTJ's spintronic response.

  13. A Study on the Model for Resources Matching of Electronic Bartering%电子易货资源匹配模型研究

    吴剑云; 张嵩


    By exchanging idle goods and services, electronic bartering can help enterprises solve dull sale problems, shortage of funds, overstocks and other problems without sufficient cash. Relying on the Internet and the e-commerce platform, electronic bartering removes the traditional bartering limitations, greatly expands the trading object and range, improves the transaction efficiency, and provides additional channels for economic development. How to promote more successful barters among multiple barterers? A key factor is the matching of barter resources. Focusing on the automatic matching of resources in the electronic barter, this paper proposes a network model to help maximize resources matching and provide recommendation information for barter participants, thereby raising the transaction rate and making the barter market prosperous.According to the type and quantity of barter resources, barter market can be divided into two types. In the first type, the supply and demand of the barter market is related to the same type of resources and each barterer owns only one type of resource. In the second type, the supply and demand of the barter market is linked to many types of resources and each barterer owns multiple resources to be exchanged. The first case has been resolved in the relevant document by using the graph theory to solve digraph circuits. This paper is interested in studying the second type of barter. Suppose the barter market has m barterers and n resources. Each barterer owns diverse types of barter resources, and is interested in other types of resources. The barterer a will provide other barterers his own resources only if he gets the resources he needs from the barterer b. Note that each of the bartered resource is regarded as having equal value to any other resources. The main objective is to maximize the number of resources that are bartered.Next, this paper proposes a math model of automatic resources matching by systematically analyzing resource

  14. Tunnel Engineering Construction Schedule Analysis and Management Based on Visual Simulation

    SONG Yang; ZHONG Wei


    The methodology of visual simulation for a tunnel engineering construction schedule is presented. Visualization of simulation model, calculation and result of construction schedule simulation is realized, and the construction simulation and the resource optimization of tunnel engineering are made. A risk analysis and a decision-making method of tunnel engineering construction schedule based on visual simulation are presented. Furthermore, using S curve theory and schedule management method, the real-time management and control method of tunnel engineering construction based on visual simulation is presented. The application to the tunnel engineering construction schedule analysis and management shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the method presented in this paper.

  15. Multidimensional Quantum Tunneling in the Schwinger Effect

    Dumlu, Cesim K


    We study the Schwinger effect, in which the external field having a spatio-temporal profile creates electron-positron pairs via multidimensional quantum tunneling. Our treatment is based on Gutzwiller's trace formula for the QED effective action, whose imaginary part is represented by a sum over complex wordlines. The worldlines are multi-periodic, and the periods of motion collectively depend on the strength of spatial and temporal inhomogeneity. We argue that Hamilton's characteristic function that leads to the correct tunneling amplitude must explicitly depend on both periods, and is represented by an average over the internal cycles of motion. We use this averaging method to calculate the pair production rate in an exponentially damped sinusoidal field, where we find that the initial conditions for each family of periodic trajectories lie on a curve in the momentum plane. The ratio of the periods, which may also be referred as the topological index, stays uniform on each curve. Calculation of tunneling am...

  16. Virtual photons in macroscopic tunneling

    Aichmann, Horst; Nimtz, Guenter; Bruney, Paul


    Tunnelling processes are thought to proceed via virtual waves due to observed superluminal (faster than light) signal speeds. Some assume such speeds must violate causality. These assumptions contradict, for instance, superluminally tunnelled music and optical tunnelling couplers applied in fiber communication. Recently tunnelling barriers were conjectured to be cavities, wherein the tunnelled output signal is not causally related with the input. The tests described here resolve that tunnelli...

  17. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  18. Wind Tunnel Testing Facilities

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NASA Ames Research Center is pleased to offer the services of our premier wind tunnel facilities that have a broad range of proven testing capabilities to customers...

  19. Water Tunnel Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility in Pittsburgh, PA, re-creates the conditions found 3,000 meters beneath the ocean’s surface, allowing scientists to study...


    Florin MUNTEANU


    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  1. Counter Tunnel Project


    the point clouds . This counter-tunnel effort was funded by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE) from fiscal year 2010 through 2013, run...slide images against an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm initialized using the centroids of the point clouds . The slide image algorithm performed...unnecessary for most of the time in the tunnels. However, the 3D point clouds made it possible to measure the height of objects lying in the path, detect

  2. Pair Tunneling through Single Molecules

    Raikh, Mikhail


    Coupling to molecular vibrations induces a polaronic shift, and can lead to a negative charging energy, U. For negative U, the occupation of the ground state of the molecule is even. In this situation, virtual pair transitions between the molecule and the leads can dominate electron transport. At low temperature, T, these transitions give rise to the charge-Kondo effect [1]. We developed the electron transport theory through the negative-U molecule [2] at relatively high T, when the Kondo correlations are suppressed. Two physical ingredients distinguish our theory from the transport through a superconducting grain coupled to the normal leads [3]: (i) in parallel with sequential pair-tunneling processes, single-particle cotunneling processes take place; (ii) the electron pair on the molecule can be created (or annihilated) by two electrons tunneling in from (or out to) opposite leads. We found that, even within the rate-equation description, the behavior of differential conductance through the negative-U molecule as function of the gate voltage is quite peculiar: the height of the peak near the degeneracy point is independent of temperature, while its width is proportional to T. This is in contrast to the ordinary Coulomb-blockade conductance peak, whose integral strength is T-independent. At finite source-drain bias, V>>T, the width of the conductance peak is ˜V, whereas the conventional Coulomb-blockade peak at finite V splits into two sharp peaks at detunings V/2, and -V/2. Possible applications to the gate-controlled current rectification and switching will be discussed. [1] A. Taraphder and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2814 (1991). [2] J. Koch, M. E. Raikh, and F. von Oppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 056803 (2006). [3] F. W. J. Hekking, L. I. Glazman, K. A. Matveev, and R. I. Shekhter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 4138 (1993).

  3. Gravity Tunnel Drag

    Concannon, Thomas


    The time it takes to fall down a tunnel through the center of the Earth to the other side takes approximately 42 minutes, but only when given several simplifying assumptions: a uniform density Earth; a gravitational field that varies linearly with radial position; a non-rotating Earth; a tunnel evacuated of air; and zero friction along the sides of the tunnel. Though several papers have singularly relaxed the first three assumptions, in this paper we relax the final two assumptions and analyze the motion of a body experiencing these types of drag forces in the tunnel. Under such drag forces, we calculate the motion of a transport vehicle through a tunnel of the Earth under uniform density, under constant gravitational acceleration, and finally under the more realistic Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) density data. We find the density profile corresponding to a constant gravitational acceleration better models the motion through the tunnel compared to the PREM density profile, and the uniform density m...

  4. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique


    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  5. Tunneling wave packets of atoms from intense elliptically polarized fields in natural geometry

    Han, Meng; Li, Min; Liu, Ming-Ming; Liu, Yunquan


    We study strong-field tunneling of atoms in intense elliptically polarized laser fields in natural tunneling geometry. We obtain the temporal- and spatial-dependent tunneling ionization rates, the transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions, and the position distributions of the tunnel exit in parabolic coordinates. The tunneling electron wave packets at the tunnel exit are three dimensionally characterized for both momentum and spatial distributions. The conjunction between the tunneling point and the classical propagation of the widely used semiclassical model are naturally connected. We further calculate the ellipticity-dependent photoelectron momentum distributions on the detector, which are validated by comparison with the exact results through numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The theory clarifies crucial questions about strong-field tunneling ionization, which has important implications for the attoclock with elliptical or circular fields, photoelectron holography, molecular orbital imaging, etc.

  6. The influence of large cations on the electrochemical properties of tunnel-structured metal oxides

    Yuan, Yifei; Zhan, Chun; He, Kun; Chen, Hungru; Yao, Wentao; Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh; Song, Boao; Yang, Zhenzhen; Nie, Anmin; Luo, Xiangyi; Wang, Hao; Wood, Stephen M.; Amine, Khalil; Islam, M. Saiful; Lu, Jun; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza


    Metal oxides with a tunnelled structure are attractive as charge storage materials for rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors, since the tunnels enable fast reversible insertion/extraction of charge carriers (for example, lithium ions). Common synthesis methods can introduce large cations such as potassium, barium and ammonium ions into the tunnels, but how these cations affect charge storage performance is not fully understood. Here, we report the role of tunnel cations in governing the electrochemical properties of electrode materials by focusing on potassium ions in α-MnO2. We show that the presence of cations inside 2 × 2 tunnels of manganese dioxide increases the electronic conductivity, and improves lithium ion diffusivity. In addition, transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that the tunnels remain intact whether cations are present in the tunnels or not. Our systematic study shows that cation addition to α-MnO2 has a strong beneficial effect on the electrochemical performance of this material.

  7. Output voltage calculations in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with asymmetric voltage behavior

    Useinov, Arthur


    In this paper we study the asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for single and double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in range of a quasi-classical free electron model. Numerical calculations of the TMR-V curves, output voltages and I-V characteristics for negative and positive values of applied voltages were carried out using MTJs with CoFeB/MgO interfaces as an example. Asymmetry of the experimental TMR-V curves is explained by different values of the minority and majority Fermi wave vectors for the left and right sides of the tunnel barrier, which arises due to different annealing regimes. Electron tunneling in DMTJs was simulated in two ways: (i) Coherent tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled as one tunnel system and (ii) consecutive tunneling, where the DMTJ is modeled by two single barrier junctions connected in series. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Use and Maintenance of University Library Electronic Resources%浅议大学图书馆电子资源的利用与维护

    马鹏飞; 熊豫玲


    随着科学技术的飞速发展,高新信息技术的广泛应用,大学图书馆的工作内容和方法也面临新的挑战,为了使用户更好的利用大学图书馆的电子资源,提高电子资源利用率,实现大学图书馆数字化,本文主要从电子资源的利用和维护方面进行探讨。%With the rapid development of science and technology,the extensive application of high-tech information technology, University of content and methods of library work is also facing new challenges in order to make better use of university library users to electronic resources,improve the utilization of electronic resources to achieve the University Library digital,paper, from the use of electronic resources and maintenance were discussed.

  9. Planar Tunneling Spectroscopy of Graphene Nanodevices

    Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Bretheau, Landry; Pisoni, Riccardo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2-D Van-der-Waals mesoscopic physics have seen a rapid development in the last 10 years, with new materials each year added to the toolbox. Stacking them like Lego enables the combination of their individual electronic properties. In particular, hexagonal boron nitride, which is an insulator, gives the possibility to perform planar (2-D to 2-D) tunneling spectroscopy within this type of heterostructures. Unlike standard transport measurements, tunneling spectroscopy enables to probe the electronic properties in the energy domain. Moreover, since planar tunneling probes a large area of the system, global quantum features such as quantum Hall effect, superconducting proximity effect or quantum confinement can be investigated. In this talk, we will present implementation of heterostructures consisting of graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and graphite, fabricated for planar tunneling spectroscopy. In order to reveal the intrinsic properties of materials, the fabrication scheme aims at preserving the pristine nature of the 2-DEGS as well as minimizing the doping introduced by external probes. As a demonstration, measurements of these devices in normal states, high magnetic field environment, and induced superconducting state will be presented.

  10. Dissipative tunneling of deuterons in Palladium Deuterides

    Sinha, K. P.; Hagelstein, Peter


    Decisive experimental evidence exists(B.N.Ganguly,Phys.Rev. B14), 3848(1976). for optical phonons being involved in charged particle-phonon interaction in PdD. We consider the tunneling of charged defects (D^+ or D^-) in a two-state system(K.P.Sinha,Mod.Phys.Lett. B1), 805 (1998)^, (P.L.Hagelstein,To be published.)^,(U.Weiss, \\underline Quantum) \\underline Dissipative \\underline Systems (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999).. The two minima of the potential energy are taken to be asymetrical to reflect the real situation occurring in the solid matrix with defects. A pseudospin formalism is used in which the charged particle interacts with conduction electrons as well as optical phonons. The renormalization effects of the tunneling matrix elements due to interaction with electrons and optical phonons are taken into account. The tunneling rate is derived for both coherent and incoherent situations at finite temperatures. The expressions contain factors which show the emission(absorption) of phonons depending on the direction of the tunneling process. Thus the moving deuteron flux stimulates the generation of optical phonons.

  11. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    Rajendiran, P


    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  12. Suppression of tunneling rate fluctuations in tunnel field-effect transistors by enhancing tunneling probability

    Mori, Takahiro; Migita, Shinji; Fukuda, Koichi; Asai, Hidehiro; Morita, Yukinori; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Liu, Yongxun; O’uchi, Shin-ichi; Fuketa, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Shintaro; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Masahara, Meishoku; Ota, Hiroyuki; Matsukawa, Takashi


    This paper discusses the impact of the tunneling probability on the variability of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). Isoelectronic trap (IET) technology, which enhances the tunneling current in TFETs, is used to suppress the variability of the ON current and threshold voltage. The simulation results show that suppressing the tunneling rate fluctuations results in suppression of the variability. In addition, a formula describing the relationship between the tunneling rate fluctuations and the electric field strength is derived based on Kane’s band-to-band tunneling model. This formula indicates that the magnitude of the tunneling rate fluctuations is proportional to the magnitude of the fluctuations in the electric field strength and a higher tunneling probability results in a lower variability. The derived relationship is universally valid for any technologies that exploit enhancement of the tunneling probability, including IET technology, channel material engineering, heterojunctions, strain engineering, etc.

  13. Investigations on the electronic surface properties of the stoichiometric superconductor LiFeAs using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy; Untersuchung der elektronischen Oberflaecheneigenschaften des stoechiometrischen Supraleiters LiFeAs mittels Rastertunnelmikroskopie und -spektroskopie

    Schlegel, Ronny


    This work presents scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy investigations on the stoichiometric superconductor lithium iron arsenide (LiFeAs). To reveal the electronic properties, measurements on defect-free surfaces as well as near defects have been performed. The former shows a shift of atomic position with respect to the applied bias voltage. Furthermore, temperature dependent spectroscopic measurements indicate the coupling of quasiparticles in the vicinity of the superconducting coherence peaks. LiFeAs surfaces influenced by atomic defects show a spacial variation of the superconducting gap. The defects can be characterized by their symmetry and thus can be assigned to a position in the atomic lattice. Detailed spectroscopic investigations of defects reveal their influence on the quasiparticle density of states. In particular, Fe-defects show a small effect on the superconductivity while As-defects strongly disturb the superconducting gap. Measurements in magnetic field have been performed for the determination of the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length ξ{sub GL}. For this purpose, a suitable fit-function has been developed in this work. This function allows to fit the differential conductance of a magnetic vortex at E{sub F}. The fit results in a coherence length of ξ{sub GL} = 3,9 nm which corresponds to an upper critical field of 21 Tesla. Besides measurements on a single vortex, investigation on the vortex lattice have been performed. The vortex lattice constant follows thereby the predicted behavior of a trigonal vortex lattice. However, for magnetic fields larger than 6 Tesla an increasing lattice disorder sets in, presumably due to vortex-vortex-interactions.

  14. 电子资源许可使用的发展与创新%The Development and Innovation of the Use of the Electronic Resource License



      电子资源许可使用在我国发展时间较短,在其建立过程中还存在许可定价、购买模式、馆际互借以及电子资源的长期保存许可方式等难题。电子资源许可使用的发展与创新,需要根据用户需求制定发展战略,建立图书馆的读者监督管理制度和数字化资源服务制度,规范文献编目制度等,以提高电子信息资源与图书馆信息资源的使用效果和广泛的使用需求%  It's been a short time since the use of electronic resource licenses has developed in China; in addition, many problems ap-pear in the establishment process in terms of license pricing, purchase pattern, inter-library loan and long-term preservation ways of electronic resources. In order to develop and innovate the use of the license, libraries should develop strategies in accordance with the users' needs, establish a reader supervision system and a digital resource service system, and normalize the document cataloging sys-tem to enhance the utilization effect and meet the extensive demand for electronic and library information resources.

  15. Grain boundary tunnel spectroscopy of the electron-doped cuprate superconductor La{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}; Korngrenzen-Tunnelspektroskopie am elektronendotierten Kupratsupraleiter La{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}

    Wagenknecht, Michael


    The electron doped superconductor La{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LCCO) has been investigated by electric transport measurements at low temperatures T down to 5 K and high magnetic fields up to 16 T. For this purpose LCCO thin film tunnel junctions have been prepared on bicrystal substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and micro structuring. The samples were characterised by measuring the thin film resistivity and the tunnel conductance of quasi particles across the grain boundary. By these measurements an unconventional symmetry of the order parameter could be revealed for La{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. Furthermore it was shown, that the tunnel conductance can be used as a probe for the upper critical field B{sub c2}(T). By using this method a value of B{sub c2}{proportional_to}24 T has been found for La{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, a value roughly three times bigger than previously known. By this observation it was shown that the superconducting phase covers a larger region in the B-T-phase diagram. In addition it was concluded, that the pseudogap phase in La{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} is either not existent at all or covers only a small temperature region. Besides quasiparticle tunneling also the tunneling of Cooper pairs in small magnetic fields has been investigated. It was shown that the critical current across the grain boundary depends on the supplier of the bicrystal substrate. (orig.)

  16. Interpreting tunneling time in circularly polarized strong-laser ionization

    Yuan, MingHu; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing


    We propose a method to study the tunneling process by analyzing the time-dependent ionization yield in circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs. the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious delay phase shift is observed, showing the tunneling time is in order of tens of attoseconds. Further study shows the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation of a single-active-electron in a three dimensional spherical coordinate system.

  17. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  18. Early times in tunneling

    García-Calderón, G; Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge


    Exact analytical solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation with the initial condition of an incident cutoff wave are used to investigate the traversal time for tunneling. The probability density starts from a vanishing value along the tunneling and transmitted regions of the potential. At the barrier width it exhibits, at early times, a distribution of traversal times that typically has a peak $\\tau_p$ and a width $\\Delta \\tau$. Numerical results for other tunneling times, as the phase-delay time, fall within $\\Delta \\tau$. The B\\"uttiker traversal time is the closest to $\\tau_p$. Our results resemble calculations based on Feynman paths if its noisy behaviour is ignored.

  19. Multiorbital tunneling ionization of the CO molecule

    Wu, J; Kunitski, M; Meckel, M; Voss, S; Sann, H; Kim, H; Jahnke, T; Czasch, A; Dörner, R


    We coincidently measure the molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution and the ion sum-momentum distribution of single and double ionization of CO molecules by using circularly and elliptically polarized femtosecond laser pulses, respectively. The orientation dependent ionization rates for various kinetic energy releases allow us to individually identify the ionizations of multiple orbitals, ranging from the highest occupied to the next two lower-lying molecular orbitals for various channels observed in our experiments. Not only the emission of a single electron, but also the sequential tunneling dynamics of two electrons from multiple orbitals are traced step by step. Our results confirm that the shape of the ionizing orbitals determine the strong laser field tunneling ionization in the CO molecule, whereas the linear Stark effect plays a minor role.

  20. Dissipative tunneling in structures with quantum dots and quantum molecules

    Dahnovsky, Yu. I.; Krevchik, V. D.; Semenov, M. B.; Yamamoto, K.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.; Aringazin, A. K.; Kudryashov, E. I.; Mayorov, V. G.


    The problem of tunneling control in systems "quantum dot - quantum well" (as well as "quantum dot - quantum dot" or quantum molecule) and "quantum dot - bulk contact" is studied as a quantum tunneling with dissipation process in the semiclassical (instanton) approximation. For these systems temperature and correlation between a quantum dot radius and a quantum well width (or another quantum dot radius) are considered to be control parameters. The condition for a single electron blockade is fo...

  1. Long distance tunneling

    Ivlev, B I


    Quantum tunneling between two potential wells in a magnetic field can be strongly increased when the potential barrier varies in the direction perpendicular to the line connecting the two wells and remains constant along this line. A periodic structure of the wave function is formed in the direction joining the wells. The resulting motion can be coherent like motion in a conventional narrow band periodic structure. A particle penetrates the barrier over a long distance which strongly contrasts to WKB-like tunneling. The whole problem is stationary. The coherent process can be influenced by dissipation.

  2. Tunneling in axion monodromy

    Brown, Jon; Cottrell, William; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo


    The Coleman formula for vacuum decay and bubble nucleation has been used to estimate the tunneling rate in models of axion monodromy in recent literature. However, several of Coleman's original assumptions do not hold for such models. Here we derive a new estimate with this in mind using a similar Euclidean procedure. We find that there are significant regions of parameter space for which the tunneling rate in axion monodromy is not well approximated by the Coleman formula. However, there is also a regime relevant to large field inflation in which both estimates parametrically agree. We also briefly comment on the applications of our results to the relaxion scenario.

  3. Tunneling in Axion Monodromy

    Brown, Jon; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo


    The Coleman formula for vacuum decay and bubble nucleation has been used to estimate the tunneling rate in models of axion monodromy in recent literature. However, several of Coleman's original assumptions do not hold for such models. Here we derive a new estimate with this in mind using a similar Euclidean procedure. We find that there are significant regions of parameter space for which the tunneling rate in axion monodromy is not well approximated by the Coleman formula. However, there is also a regime relevant to large field inflation in which both estimates parametrically agree. We also briefly comment on the applications of our results to the relaxion scenario.

  4. Band-to-band tunneling distance analysis in the heterogate electron–hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    Padilla, J. L., E-mail: [Nanoelectronic Devices Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Palomares, A. [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M. [Nanoelectronic Devices Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Gámiz, F. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)


    In this work, we analyze the behavior of the band-to-band tunneling distance between electron and hole subbands resulting from field-induced quantum confinement in the heterogate electron–hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor. We show that, analogously to the explicit formula for the tunneling distance that can be easily obtained in the semiclassical framework where the conduction and valence band edges are allowed states, an equivalent analytical expression can be derived in the presence of field-induced quantum confinement for describing the dependence of the tunneling distance on the body thickness and material properties of the channel. This explicit expression accounting for quantum confinement holds valid provided that the potential wells for electrons and holes at the top and bottom of the channel can be approximated by triangular profiles. Analytical predictions are compared to simulation results showing very accurate agreement.

  5. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    Laurent Guiraud


    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  6. Andreev Tunneling Through a Ferromagnet/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor System

    RAO Hong-Hu; ZHU Yu; LIN Tsung-Han


    We study Andreev tunneling through a ferromagnet/quantum-dot (QD)/superconductor system. By usingnonequilibrum Green function method, the averaged occupation of electrons in QD and the Andreev tunneling currentare studied. Comparing to the norma-metal/quantum-dot/superconductor, the system shows significant changes: (i)The averaged occupations of spin-up and spin-down electrons are not equal. (ii) With the increase of the polarizationof ferromagnetic lead, the Andreev reflection current decreases. (iii) However, even the ferromagnetic lead reaches fullpolarization, the averaged occupation of spin-down electrons is not zero. The physics of these changes is discussed.

  7. Brownian refrigeration by hybrid tunnel junctions

    Peltonen, J. T.; Helle, M.; Timofeev, A. V.; Solinas, P.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Pekola, Jukka P.


    Voltage fluctuations generated in a hot resistor can cause extraction of heat from a colder normal metal electrode of a hybrid tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor. We extend the analysis presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 210604 (2007) of this heat rectifying system, bearing resemblance to a Maxwell’s demon. Explicit analytic calculations show that the entropy of the total system is always increasing. We then consider a single-electron transistor configuration with two ...

  8. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Martha Ingrid Preddie


    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of


    Corneliu STOICA


    Full Text Available The INCAS Subsonic Wind Tunnel is a closed circuit, continuous, atmospheric pressure facility with a maximum speed of 110 m/s. The test section is octagonal ,of 2.5 m wide, 2.0 m high and 4 m long. The tunnel is powered by a 1200 kW, air cooled variable speed DC motor which drives a 12 blade, 3.5 m diameter fan and is equipped with a six component pyramidal type external mechanical balance with a 700 Kgf maximum lift capacity.The angle of attack range is between -45º and +45º while the yaw angle range is between -140º and +216º .The data acquisition system has been modified recently to allow the recording of all test data on a PC - type computer using LABVIEW and a PXI – type chassis containing specialized data acquisition modules.The tunnel is equipped with a variable frequency electrical supply system for powered models and a 10 bar compressed air supply for pneumatic flow control applications.In the recent years the subsonic wind tunnel has been intensively used for tests within several European projects (AVERT, CESAR and others.

  10. Conceived on the City Electronic Waste Resource Mana oement Model%城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式构想

    熊贵琍; 余涛


    Investigated e- waste collection system the investigation, the whereabouts and electronic waste disposal in Httizhou city, the paper analyzed the Huizhou city e- waste collection and disposal of a series of problems, combined with the actual, conceived urban electronic waste resources management mode.%通过对惠州市电子废弃物收集体系组成、去向以及电子废弃物处置方式的调查,分析惠州市电子废弃物收集和处置存在的一系列问题,结合实际提出了城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式的初步构想。

  11. Classical trajectories and quantum tunneling

    Ivlev, B I


    The problem of inter-band tunneling in a semiconductor (Zener breakdown) in a nonstationary and homogeneous electric field is solved exactly. Using the exact analytical solution, the approximation based on classical trajectories is studied. A new mechanism of enhanced tunneling through static non-one-dimensional barriers is proposed in addition to well known normal tunneling solely described by a trajectory in imaginary time. Under certain conditions on the barrier shape and the particle energy, the probability of enhanced tunneling is not exponentially small even for non-transparent barriers, in contrast to the case of normal tunneling.

  12. Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria

    Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun


    Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

  13. Transport dépendant du spin dans des doubles jonctions tunnel magnétiques

    Rodary, Guillemin


    The purpose of this work is the detection of magnetocurrent in the magnetic tunnel transistor based on a double tunnel junction. This magnetocurrent come from the emission of a spin polarized hot electrons current. Samples have been made by sputtering. A new technique of lithography and etching allowed us to take an electrical contact on each three electrode. We showed the influence of etching on magnetic tunnel junction transport properties. Thanks to these three contacts, we compared the in...

  14. Resonant tunneling quantum waveguides of variable cross-section, asymptotics, numerics, and applications

    Baskin, Lev; Plamenevskii, Boris; Sarafanov, Oleg


    This volume studies electron resonant tunneling in two- and three-dimensional quantum waveguides of variable cross-sections in the time-independent approach. Mathematical models are suggested for the resonant tunneling and develop asymptotic and numerical approaches for investigating the models. Also, schemes are presented for several electronics devices based on the phenomenon of resonant tunneling.   Devices based on the phenomenon of electron resonant tunneling are widely used in electronics. Efforts are directed towards refining properties of resonance structures. There are prospects for building new nanosize electronics elements based on quantum dot systems.   However, the role of resonance structure can also be given to a quantum wire of variable cross-section. Instead of an "electrode - quantum dot - electrode" system, one can use a quantum wire with two narrows. A waveguide narrow is an effective potential barrier for longitudinal electron motion along a waveguide. The part of the waveguide between ...

  15. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Lorna M. Campbell


    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme ( This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  16. Maximum tunneling velocities in symmetric double well potentials

    Manz, Jörn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schild, Axel [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard, E-mail: [Institut für Mathematik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Yang, Yonggang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China)


    Highlights: • Coherent tunneling in one-dimensional symmetric double well potentials. • Potentials for analytical estimates in the deep tunneling regime. • Maximum velocities scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass. • In chemical physics maximum tunneling velocities are in the order of a few km/s. - Abstract: We consider coherent tunneling of one-dimensional model systems in non-cyclic or cyclic symmetric double well potentials. Generic potentials are constructed which allow for analytical estimates of the quantum dynamics in the non-relativistic deep tunneling regime, in terms of the tunneling distance, barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia). For cyclic systems, the results may be scaled to agree well with periodic potentials for which semi-analytical results in terms of Mathieu functions exist. Starting from a wavepacket which is initially localized in one of the potential wells, the subsequent periodic tunneling is associated with tunneling velocities. These velocities (or angular velocities) are evaluated as the ratio of the flux densities versus the probability densities. The maximum velocities are found under the top of the barrier where they scale as the square root of the ratio of barrier height and mass (or moment of inertia), independent of the tunneling distance. They are applied exemplarily to several prototypical molecular models of non-cyclic and cyclic tunneling, including ammonia inversion, Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, torsions of molecular fragments, and rotational tunneling in strong laser fields. Typical maximum velocities and angular velocities are in the order of a few km/s and from 10 to 100 THz for our non-cyclic and cyclic systems, respectively, much faster than time-averaged velocities. Even for the more extreme case of an electron tunneling through a barrier of height of one Hartree, the velocity is only about one percent of the speed of light. Estimates of the corresponding time scales for

  17. A versatile high resolution scanning tunneling potentiometry implementation.

    Druga, T; Wenderoth, M; Homoth, J; Schneider, M A; Ulbrich, R G


    We have developed a new scanning tunneling potentiometry technique which can-with only minor changes of the electronic setup-be easily added to any standard scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This extension can be combined with common STM techniques such as constant current imaging or scanning tunneling spectroscopy. It is capable of performing measurements of the electrochemical potential with microvolt resolution. Two examples demonstrate the versatile application. First of all, we have determined local variations of the electrochemical potential due to charge transport of biased samples down to angstrom length scales. Second, with tip and sample at different temperatures we investigated the locally varying thermovoltage occurring at the tunneling junction. Aside from its use in determining the chemical identity of substances at the sample surface our method provides a controlled way to eliminate the influence of laterally varying thermovoltages on low-bias constant current topographies.

  18. Visualization of pool boiling from complex surfaces with internal tunnels

    Pastuszko Robert


    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental investigations of boiling heat transfer for a system of connected narrow horizontal and vertical tunnels. These extended surfaces, named narrow tunnel structure (NTS, can be applied to electronic element cooling. The experiments were carried out with ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The tunnel external covers were manufactured out of 0.1 mm thick perforated copper foil (hole diameters 0.5 mm, sintered with the mini-fins, formed on the vertical side of the 10 mm high rectangular fins and horizontal inter-fin surface. Visualization studies were conducted with a transparent structured model of joined narrow tunnels limited with the perforated foil. The visualization investigations aimed to formulate assumptions for the boiling model through distinguishing boiling types and defining all phases of bubble growth.

  19. Highly functional tunnelling devices integrated in 3D

    Wernersson, Lars-Erik; Lind, Erik; Lindström, Peter;


    We present a new technology for integrating tunnelling devices in three dimensions. These devices are fabricated by the combination of the growth of semiconductor heterostructures with the controlled introduction of metallic elements into an epitaxial layer by an overgrowth technique. First, we use...... circuit in order to optimize the performance of the device. In addition to the tunnelling structure below the grating, these transistors may be integrated in 3D by the introduction of another tunnelling structure directly over the metal grating. In the integrated device structure, the gate acts...... to adjust the peak voltage of certain peaks in a controlled fashion, which creates a highly functional tunnelling device. These results show the need for a strong interaction between the development of circuit models and processing technology to develop new nano-electronic devices and circuits. Copyright...

  20. Charge Transport in Resonant Tunneling Double - Diodes

    Diff, Karim

    With the advent of semiconductor devices with typical lengths of the order of a few nanometers and response times of a few picoseconds, the conventional methods used in device modeling have reached their limits of validity. Modern devices based on heterostructures fabricated by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) require more fundamental approaches based entirely on quantum mechanics. These generally necessitate numerical solutions and are computationally intensive. This dissertation focuses on Resonant Tunneling Double-Barrier (RTDB) diodes as the prototype of "quantum devices". A one-electron model and the effective mass approximation are used. By solving numerically the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for Gaussian wavepackets, the various time characteristics of resonant tunneling are probed. These characteristics are usually overlooked in other treatments based on the time-independent Schrodinger equation. The transit time, the build-up time and the exponential decay time are studied. The difference between these various time scales and their relative importance are discussed. A new method that takes into account the finite extent of the electron wavefunction, is proposed to compute the I-V characteristics of such devices. Results indicate a possible explanation for the discrepancy observed between experimental results and previous analyses. The effect of high frequency fields on resonant tunneling is also studied, and a method to determine the intrinsic cut-off frequency is suggested. The role of the effective mass in the determination of the characteristics of RTDB diodes is emphasized throughout this work.

  1. Educational Wind Tunnel

    Juozas Bielskus


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes an educational wind tunnel produced by the Department of Building Energetics (DBE of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The equipment could be used for performing laboratory works and simple research. The article presents the projection of inflow and outlet velocity in the working chamber of DBE wind tunnel and carries out actual noise level measurement. The received data are compared with information on the level of noise generated by the fan considering instructions provided by the manufacturer. In order to assess the reliability of the computer program, simulation applying PHOENICS software has been conducted. The aim of modeling is to simulate a pilot model and to compare the obtained results with those of an analogous test presented in scientific articles.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Carpal tunnel syndrome treatment

    Emilio Filippucci


    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome, the most common peripheral neuropathy, results from compression of the median nerve at the wrist, and is a cause of pain, numbness and tingling in the upper extremities and an increasingly recognized cause of work disability. If carpal tunnel syndrome seems likely, conservative management with splinting should be initiated. Moreover, it has suggested that patients reduce activities at home and work that exacerbate symptoms. Pyridoxine and diuretics, since are largely utilised, are no more effective than placebo in relieving the symptoms. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and orally administered corticosteroids can be effective for short-term management (two to four weeks, but local corticosteroid injection may improve symptoms for a longer period. Injection is especially effective if there is no loss of sensibility or thenar-muscle atrophy and weakness, and if symptoms are intermittent rather than constant. If symptoms are refractory to conservative measures, the option of surgical therapy may be considered.

  3. [Carpal tunnel syndrome treatment].

    De Angelis, Rossella; Salaffi, Fausto; Filippucci, Emilio; Grassi, Walter


    Carpal tunnel syndrome, the most common peripheral neuropathy, results from compression of the median nerve at the wrist, and is a cause of pain, numbness and tingling in the upper extremities and an increasingly recognized cause of work disability. If carpal tunnel syndrome seems likely, conservative management with splinting should be initiated. Moreover, it has suggested that patients reduce activities at home and work that exacerbate symptoms. Pyridoxine and diuretics, since are largely utilised, are no more effective than placebo in relieving the symptoms. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and orally administered corticosteroids can be effective for short-term management (two to four weeks), but local corticosteroid injection may improve symptoms for a longer period. Injection is especially effective if there is no loss of sensibility or thenar-muscle atrophy and weakness, and if symptoms are intermittent rather than constant. If symptoms are refractory to conservative measures, the option of surgical therapy may be considered.

  4. The beam dump tunnels

    Patrice Loïez


    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  5. Carpal tunnel release

    Larsen, Morten Bo; Sørensen, A I; Crone, K L;


    A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was done to compare the results of carpal tunnel release using classic incision, short incision, or endoscopic technique. In total, 90 consecutive cases were included. Follow-up was 24 weeks. We found a significantly shorter sick leave in the endoscopi...... incision could be found. There were no serious complications in either group. The results indicate that the endoscopic procedure is safe and has the benefit of faster rehabilitation and return to work....

  6. 重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设现状及对策%The Present Situation and Countermeasure of Electronic Literature Resources Construction about Chongqing University Library

    刘子辉; 彭渝; 陈强; 吴晓英


    In the information society, Electronic document resources are very important for library development and the school's teaching and research. The university library should pay more at ention to the construction of electronic document resources. Through the survey of the electronic document resources in Chongqing, We have mastered the distribution of electronic document resources, analyzed the existing problems in resource construction, and proposed the related countermeasure. We hope to provide reference for the electronic document resources construction.%在信息社会,电子文献资源对高校图书馆建设、学校的教学与科研都起到非常重要的作用,各高校图书馆应该更加重视电子文献资源的建设。通过对重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设情况进行调查,掌握了本地区电子文献资源的分布情况,分析了资源建设中存在的问题,并提出了相关对策,希望为本地区高校图书馆电子文献资源建设提供参考。

  7. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    Goldman, Allen M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  8. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    Goldman, Allen M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  9. High-Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;


    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 2.......6 at liquid helium temperature. These sub-100-nm-diameter structures are promising components for solar cells as well as electronic applications.......We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27...

  10. Tunnelling matrix elements with Gutzwiller wave functions

    Di Ciolo, Andrea; Tocchio, Luca F.; Gros, Claudius [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt Am Main (Germany)


    We use a generalized Gutzwiller approach, in order to study projected particle (hole) excitations for superconducting systems and systems with antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. As in the standard Gutzwiller scheme the effects of the strong electronic correlations are given via the suppression of the site double occupancy; for our computations it is helpful to consider a lattice with a reservoir site unaffected by this suppression of the double occupancy. In this approach we obtain the probabilities for the tunnelling of a particle (hole) into the projected state. Our results are due only to the physical properties of the trial state and not to the choice of a specifical Hamiltonian: in this sense, they are model-independent but not universal, because they rely on the features of the chosen Gutzwiller wave function (projected Fermi Sea, BCS superconductor, AFM..) The accuracy and the reliability of our analytical approximation is tested using the Variational Monte Carlo. Possible comparisons with tunnelling experiments are discussed.

  11. Observation of negative differential transconductance in tunneling emitter bipolar transistors

    van Veenhuizen, Marc J.; Locatelli, Nicolas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Chang, Joonyeon


    We report on measurement of negative differential transconductance (NDTC) of iron (Fe)/magnesium-oxide (MgO)/silicon tunneling emitter NPN bipolar transistors. Device simulations reveal that the NDTC is a consequence of an inversion layer at the tunneling-oxide/P-silicon interface for low base voltages. Electrons travel laterally through the inversion layer into the base and give rise to an increase in collector current. The NDTC results from the recombination of those electrons at the interface between emitter and base contact which is dependent on the base voltage. For larger base voltages, the inversion layer disappears marking the onset of normal bipolar transistor behavior.

  12. Confinement orientation effects in S/D tunneling

    Medina-Bailon, C.; Sampedro, C.; Gámiz, F.; Godoy, A.; Donetti, L.


    The most extensive research of scaled electronic devices involves the inclusion of quantum effects in the transport direction as transistor dimensions approach nanometer scales. Moreover, it is necessary to study how these mechanisms affect different transistor architectures to determine which one can be the best candidate to implement future nodes. This work implements Source-to-Drain Tunneling mechanism (S/D tunneling) in a Multi-Subband Ensemble Monte Carlo (MS-EMC) simulator showing the modification in the distribution of the electrons in the subbands, and, consequently, in the potential profile due to different confinement direction between DGSOIs and FinFETs.

  13. Coulomb drag and tunneling studies in quantum Hall bilayers

    Nandi, Debaleena

    The bilayer quantum Hall state at total filling factor νT=1, where the total electron density matches the degeneracy of the lowest Landau level, is a prominent example of Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons. A macroscopically ordered state is realized where an electron in one layer is tightly bound to a "hole" in the other layer. If exciton transport were the only bulk transportmechanism, a current driven in one layer would spontaneously generate a current of equal magnitude and opposite sign in the other layer. The Corbino Coulomb drag measurements presented in this thesis demonstrate precisely this phenomenon. Excitonic superfluidity has been long sought in the νT=1 state. The tunneling between the two electron gas layers exihibit a dc Josephson-like effect. A simple model of an over-damped voltage biased Josephson junction is in reasonable agreement with the observed tunneling I -- V. At small tunneling biases, it exhibits a tunneling "supercurrent". The dissipation is carefully studied in this tunneling "supercurrent" and found to remain small but finite.

  14. Inelastic tunneling in superconducting junctions

    Hlobil, Patrik Christian


    In this dissertation a theoretical formalism of elastic and inelastic tunneling spectroscopy is developed for superconductors. The underlying physical processes behind the different two tunneling channels and their implications for the interpretation of experimental tunneling data are investigated in detail, which can explain the background conductance seen in the cuprate and iron-based superconductors. Further, the properties of the emitted light from a superconducting LED are investigated.

  15. Controlled tunnel-coupled ferromagnetic electrodes for spin injection in organic single-crystal transistors

    Naber, W. J. M.; Craciun, M. F.; Lemmens, J. H. J.; Arkenbout, A. H.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Morpurgo, A. F.; van der Wiel, W. G.


    We report on single-crystal rubrene. eld-effect transistors (FETs) with ferromagnetic Co electrodes, tunnel-coupled to the conduction channel via an Al(2)O(3) tunnel barrier. Magnetic and electronic characterization shows that the Al(2)O(3) film not only protects the Co from undesired oxidation, but

  16. Controlled tunnel-coupled ferromagnetic electrodes for spin injection in organic single-crystal transistors

    Naber, W.J.M.; Craciun, M.F.; Lemmens, J.H.J.; Arkenbout, A.H.; Palstra, T.T.M.; Morpurgo, A.F.; Wiel, van der W.G.


    We report on single-crystal rubrene field-effect transistors (FETs) with ferromagnetic Co electrodes, tunnel-coupled to the conduction channel via an Al2O3 tunnel barrier. Magnetic and electronic characterization shows that the Al2O3 film not only protects the Co from undesired oxidation, but also p

  17. Interaction-Induced Oscillations of the Tunneling Density of States in a Nonquantizing Magnetic Field

    Rudin, A.; Aleiner, I.; Glazman, L. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)


    We study tunneling into an interacting disordered two-dimensional electron gas in a nonquantizing magnetic field, which does not cause the standard de Haasvan Alphen oscillations. Interaction induces a new type of oscillation in the tunneling density of states with the characteristic period of cyclotron quantum {h_bar}{omega}{sub c}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Tunneling of quasiparticles in the normal-insulator-superconductor-insulator-normal geometry

    Hidaka, Mutsuo; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Sone, Jun'ichi


    The probability of quasiparticle transmission going through a normal-insulator- superconductor-insulator-normal (NISIN) geometry is theoretically calculated using Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to investigate the feasibility of electron devices utilizing this geometry. This new calculation is able to include a current carried by Cooper pairs by employing hole injections from the outlet which destroy Cooper pairs at the outlet super- conductor-insulator boundary. Resonant tunneling phenomena occur even if the electron kinetic energy is less than the superconducting energy gap and electron tunneling probabilities are greatly modified by the resonance. When the unevenness of the superconductor (S) width thickness is large compared with the electron wavelength in the S layer, the resonance is smeared out in averaged tunneling probabilities. Then the tunneling probabilities can be controlled by the electron kinetic energy. Applications of the NISIN geometry for superconducting transistors are also discussed.

  19. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Doğan Atılgan


    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  20. Theoretical Calculation for the Dip Feature in Tunnelling Experiment on Bi2212

    谢刚; 韩汝珊


    We generalize a model, which was presented by Norman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 3506], to calculate the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Os+δ (Bi2212) single-electron tunnelling conductance. In our calculation result, the dip feature appears which has been widely observed in tunnelling experiments. It is found that this dip feature in tunnelling experiments and the dip/hump feature in angle-resolved photoemission experiments have a common physics. Moreover, it is shown from our numerical calculation method that if the spectral function A(κ, ω) is known, the tunnelling conductance can be obtained.

  1. Engineers win award for Swiss tunnel


    A Derby engineering consultancy has won the Tunnelling Industry Award 2003 for Excellence in Tunnel Design, offered by the British Tunnelling Society, for its work on the LHC in Geneva, Switzerland (1/2 page).

  2. Tunneling processes and charge accumulation in triple barrier resonant tunneling structures

    Macks, L.D.; Brown, S.A.; Clark, R.G.; Starrett, R.P. [University of NSW, Sydney, NSW (Australia). National Pulsed Magnet Laboratory, School of Physics; Reed, M.A; Deshpande, M. R. [Yale University, New Haven, Conneticutt (United States). Departments of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics; Frensley, W.R. [University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas (United States). Eric Jonsson School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science


    Tunneling processes in semiconductor double barrier (single quantum well) resonant tunneling structures have been studied in great detail since the pioneering experiments of Chang, Esaki and Tsu. We present a study of tunneling processes in GaAs/AlAs triple barrier (double quantum well) structures, which demonstrates the critical role played by the second well. In sample I, when the emitter and first well are on resonance, the lowest level in the second well is at lower energy and electrons tunnel freely through the structure. At the same resonance condition in sample II, the level in the second well is at higher energy, thus the second well appears as part of a thick collector barrier and charge accumulates in the first well. As the bias voltage is further increased, a `double resonance` condition (simultaneous alignment of both well levels with occupied emitter states) is achieved and the accumulated charge flows freely through the structure to the collector. The double resonance condition is then lost due to the resulting potential redistribution. As a mechanism for limiting the amount of charge accumulation, a multiple resonance is unique to multiple quantum well structures, and we believe it to be identified for the first time in the experiments reported here Truncated abstract. 2 refs.

  3. Tunnel face stability and ground settlement in pressurized shield tunnelling

    苏艺; 汪国锋; 周庆宏


    An analysis of the stability of large-diameter circular tunnels and ground settlement during tunnelling by a pressurized shield was presented. An innovative three-dimensional translational multi-block failure mechanism was proposed to determine the face support pressure of large-shield tunnelling. Compared with the currently available mechanisms, the proposed mechanism has two unique features: (1) the supporting pressure applied to the tunnel face is assumed to have a non-uniform rather than uniform distribution, and (2) the method takes into account the entire circular excavation face instead of merely an inscribed ellipse. Based on the discrete element method, a numerical simulation of the Shanghai Yangtze River Tunnel was carried out using the Particle Flow Code in two dimensions. The immediate ground movement during excavation, as well as the behaviour of the excavation face, the shield movement, and the excavated area, was considered before modelling the excavation process.

  4. Tunneling spectroscopy of carbon nanostructures: A romance in many dimensions

    Dirks, Travis Lee

    In this dissertation we present results from various methods of tunneling spectroscopy in carbon nanotubes, which shed light on electron -- electron interaction in carbon nanotubes and low dimensional systems in general. We also apply those methods to two dimensional graphene sheets. We first review the fabrication techniques used to make the devices studied here. Some of the techniques are standard in nanofabrication, and some were developed in-house to make the particular device geometries studied here possible. In particular, we developed recipes for the growth and contact of clean, ultra-long carbon nanotubes as well as for the fabrication of non-invasive top tunnel probes. We then present results on normal metal tunneling spectroscopy of carbon nanotube devices of varying length. We measure the exponent of the conductance power law in the density of states as a function of device length over two orders of magnitude and find unexpected evidence of finite size effects in long devices. Next, we present results from the first measurement of the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function in carbon nanotubes measured via non-equilibrium superconducting tunneling spectroscopy and find little evidence of scattering at low temperatures, which is consistent with a clean, strongly interacting Luttinger liquid. In addition, we discuss two ways we are working to extend this powerful technique. We also present results of superconducting tunneling spectroscopy of a clean carbon nanotube quantum dot. We are able to characterize the energy spectrum of the quantum dot and distinguish between spin singlet and spin triplet shell filling. We observe elastic and inelastic co-tunneling features which are not visible when the probe is made normal by a magnetic field. These co-tunneling rates have important technological implications for carbon nanotubes as single electron transistors. We also observe an energetically forbidden conductance inside the superconducting gap

  5. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    Gustafson, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geology; Laaksoharju, M. [ed.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetics, Microbiology and Molecular Biology; Rhen, I. [VBB Viak (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Wallin, B. [Geokema AB (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)


    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl{sup -} concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs.

  6. Tunneling spectra of graphene on copper unraveled.

    Zhang, Xin; Stradi, Daniele; Liu, Lei; Luo, Hong; Brandbyge, Mads; Gu, Gong


    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy is often employed to study two-dimensional (2D) materials on conductive growth substrates, in order to gain information on the electronic structures of the 2D material-substrate systems, which can lead to insight into 2D material-substrate interactions, growth mechanisms, etc. The interpretation of the spectra can be complicated, however. Specifically for graphene grown on copper, there have been conflicting reports of tunneling spectra. A clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the variability is desired. In this work, we have revealed that the root cause of the variability in tunneling spectra is the variation in graphene-substrate coupling under various experimental conditions, providing a salutary perspective on the important role of 2D material-substrate interactions. The conclusions are drawn from measured data and theoretical calculations for monolayer, AB-stacked bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene coexisting on the same substrates in areas with and without intercalated oxygen, demonstrating a high degree of consistency. The Van Hove singularities of the twisted graphene unambiguously indicate the Dirac energy between them, lending strong evidence to our assignment of the spectral features. In addition, we have discovered an O-Cu superstructure that has never been observed before.

  7. Tunneling Ionization of Diatomic Molecules

    Svensmark, Jens Søren Sieg


    barriers, an ability classical particles do not possess. Tunnelling is a fundamental quantum mechanical process, a process that is distinctly non-classical, so solving this tunnelling problem is not only relevant for molecular physics, but also for quantum theory in general. In this dissertation the theory...

  8. Tunneling magnetic force microscopy

    Burke, Edward R.; Gomez, Romel D.; Adly, Amr A.; Mayergoyz, Isaak D.


    We have developed a powerful new tool for studying the magnetic patterns on magnetic recording media. This was accomplished by modifying a conventional scanning tunneling microscope. The fine-wire probe that is used to image surface topography was replaced with a flexible magnetic probe. Images obtained with these probes reveal both the surface topography and the magnetic structure. We have made a thorough theoretical analysis of the interaction between the probe and the magnetic fields emanating from a typical recorded surface. Quantitative data about the constituent magnetic fields can then be obtained. We have employed these techniques in studies of two of the most important issues of magnetic record: data overwrite and maximizing data-density. These studies have shown: (1) overwritten data can be retrieved under certain conditions; and (2) improvements in data-density will require new magnetic materials. In the course of these studies we have developed new techniques to analyze magnetic fields of recorded media. These studies are both theoretical and experimental and combined with the use of our magnetic force scanning tunneling microscope should lead to further breakthroughs in the field of magnetic recording.

  9. Electrical properties of graphene tunnel junctions with high-κ metal-oxide barriers

    Feng, Ying; Trainer, Daniel J.; Chen, Ke


    An insulating barrier is one of the key components in electronic devices that makes use of quantum tunneling principles. Many metal-oxides have been used as a good barrier material in a tunnel junction for their large band gap, stable chemical properties and superb properties for forming a thin and pin-hole-free insulating layer. The reduced dimensions of transistors have led to the need for alternative, high dielectric constant (high-κ) oxides to replace conventional silicon-based dielectrics to reduce the leaking current induced by electron tunneling. On the other hand, a tunnel junction with one or both electrodes made of graphene may lead to novel applications due to the massless Dirac fermions from the graphene. Here we have fabricated sandwich-type graphene tunnel junctions with high-κ metal-oxides as barriers, including Al2O3, HfO2, ZrO2, and TiO2. Tunneling properties are investigated by observing the temperature and time dependences of the tunneling spectra. Our results show the potential for applications of high-κ oxides in graphene tunnel junctions and bringing new opportunities for memory and logic electronic devices.

  10. Carpal tunnel syndrome and acromegaly.

    Baum, H; Lüdecke, D K; Herrmann, H D


    50 patients with acromegaly and carpal tunnel syndrome have been examined electrophysiologically before and after transnasal operation of the pituitary adenoma. 32 of the 50 patients (64%) had symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. 13 of them had neurological deficits. 28 of the examined patients had pathological neurographical findings only. About 1 week post-operatively DL was decreased in 43%; in 10 out of 13 patients with neurological deficits DL decreased. GH was normalized in 80% and reduced to 5-10 micrograms/l in a further 10%. The investigation did not show whether the carpal tunnel syndrome only depended on a GH increase or on other factors also such as e.g., on the duration of symptoms or tissue changes. None of the patients had the transversal carpal ligament operated on. The coincidence between acromegaly and carpal tunnel syndrome was 64%. In 3 cases the carpal tunnel syndrome was the leading sign to the diagnosis of acromegaly.

  11. Tunneling in quantum superlattices with variable lacunarity

    Villatoro, Francisco R. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Monsoriu, Juan A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail:


    Fractal superlattices are composite, aperiodic structures comprised of alternating layers of two semiconductors following the rules of a fractal set. The scattering properties of polyadic Cantor fractal superlattices with variable lacunarity are determined. The reflection coefficient as a function of the particle energy and the lacunarity parameter present tunneling curves, which may be classified as vertical, arc, and striation nulls. Approximate analytical formulae for such curves are derived using the transfer matrix method. Comparison with numerical results shows good accuracy. The new results may be useful in the development of band-pass energy filters for electrons, semiconductor solar cells, and solid-state radiation sources up to THz frequencies.

  12. Kondo tunneling through real and artificial molecules.

    Kikoin, K; Avishai, Y


    When an asymmetric double dot is hybridized with itinerant electrons, its singlet ground state and lowly excited triplet state cross, leading to a competition between the Zhang-Rice mechanism of singlet-triplet splitting in a confined cluster and the Kondo effect (which accompanies the tunneling through quantum dot under a Coulomb blockade restriction). The rich physics of an underscreened S = 1 Kondo impurity in the presence of low-lying triplet-singlet excitations is exposed and estimates of the magnetic susceptibility and the electric conductance are presented, together with applications for molecule chemisorption on metallic substrates.

  13. Biased impurity tunneling current emission spectrum in the presence of quasi-particle interaction

    Maslova, N. S.; Arseyev, P. I.; Mantsevich, V. N.


    We performed theoretical investigations of the tunneling current noise spectra through single-level impurity in the presence of quasi-particle (electron-phonon) interaction by means of the non-equilibrium Green function formalism. We demonstrated a fundamental link between quantum noise in tunneling contact and light emission processes. We calculated tunneling current noise spectra through a single level impurity atom both in the presence and in the absence of quasi-particle interaction for a finite bias voltage and identified it as a source of experimentally observed light emission from bias STM contacts. The results turn out to be sensitive to the tunneling contact parameters. Our findings provide important insight into the nature of non-equilibrium electronic transport in tunneling junctions with quasi-particle interaction.

  14. Relativistic features and time delay of laser-induced tunnel-ionization

    Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Bauke, Heiko; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H


    The electron dynamics in the classically forbidden region during relativistic tunnel-ionization process is investigated. The classical forbidden region in the relativistic regime is identified by defining a gauge invariant total energy operator. Introducing position dependent energy levels inside the tunneling barrier, we demonstrate that the relativistic tunnel-ionization can be well described by a one-dimensional intuitive picture. This picture predicts that, in contrast to the well-known nonrelativisitic regime, the ionized electron wave packet in the relativistic regime arises with a momentum shift along the laser propagation direction. This is compatible with results from a strong field approximation calculation where the binding potential is assumed to be zero-range. Further, the tunneling time delay, stemming from Wigner's definition, is investigated for model configurations of tunneling and compared with results obtained from the exact propagator. By adapting Wigner's time delay definition the tunneli...

  15. Electric field effects in scanning tunneling microscope imaging

    Stokbro, Kurt; Quaade, Ulrich; Grey, Francois


    We present a high-voltage extension of the Tersoff-Hamann theory of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images, which includes the effect of the electric field between the tip and the sample. The theoretical model is based on first-principles electronic structure calculations and has no adjustable...

  16. Spin Heat Accumulation Induced by Tunneling from a Ferromagnet

    Vera-Marun, I.J.; Wees, B.J. van; Jansen, R.


    An electric current from a ferromagnet into a nonmagnetic material can induce a spin-dependent electron temperature. Here, it is shown that this spin heat accumulation, when created by tunneling from a ferromagnet, produces a non-negligible voltage signal that is comparable to that due to the coexis

  17. Accessing Wind Tunnels From NASA's Information Power Grid

    Becker, Jeff; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)


    The NASA Ames wind tunnel customers are one of the first users of the Information Power Grid (IPG) storage system at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division. We wanted to be able to store their data on the IPG so that it could be accessed remotely in a secure but timely fashion. In addition, incorporation into the IPG allows future use of grid computational resources, e.g., for post-processing of data, or to do side-by-side CFD validation. In this paper, we describe the integration of grid data access mechanisms with the existing DARWIN web-based system that is used to access wind tunnel test data. We also show that the combined system has reasonable performance: wind tunnel data may be retrieved at 50Mbits/s over a 100 base T network connected to the IPG storage server.

  18. 图书馆纸质资源与电子资源投入比例研究%The research of ratio between traditional and electronics resources in library

    王以婧; 李明


    With the popularization of electronic product development,library is no longer the paper-based resources into a single information carrier the pattern,but has formed a paper resource and electronic resources coexist in the new situation.Because the library types of our country,the proportion of input between paper-based resources and other kinds of resources exist difference.This paper will discuss the relationship between the traditional and electronics resources,and also points out the existing problems and the countermeasures.%随着电子产品的普及发展,图书馆已不再以纸质资源为唯一的信息载体,而是形成了纸质资源和电子资源并存的新局面。由于国内图书馆类型的不同,纸质资源与电子资源的配比也会存在差异。通过讨论二者的关系,指出存在的问题及应对之策。

  19. Coexistance of Giant Tunneling Electroresistance and Magnetoresistance in an All-Oxide Composite Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    Caffrey, Nuala Mai


    We propose, by performing advanced abinitio electron transport calculations, an all-oxide composite magnetic tunnel junction, within which both large tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and tunneling electroresistance (TER) effects can coexist. The TMR originates from the symmetry-driven spin filtering provided by an insulating BaTiO3 barrier to the electrons injected from the SrRuO3 electrodes. Following recent theoretical suggestions, the TER effect is achieved by intercalating a thin insulating layer, here SrTiO3, at one of the SrRuO3/BaTiO3 interfaces. As the complex band structure of SrTiO3 has the same symmetry as that of BaTiO3, the inclusion of such an intercalated layer does not negatively alter the TMR and in fact increases it. Crucially, the magnitude of the TER also scales with the thickness of the SrTiO3 layer. The SrTiO3 thickness becomes then a single control parameter for both the TMR and the TER effect. This protocol offers a practical way to the fabrication of four-state memory cells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  20. All-electric-controlled spin current switching in single-molecule magnet-tunnel junctions

    Zhang Zheng-Zhong; Shen Rui; Sheng Li; Wang Rui-Qiang; Wang Bai-Gen; Xing Ding-Yu


    A single-molecule magnet (SMM)coupled to two normal metallic electrodes can both switch spin-up and spindown electronic currents within two different windows of SMM gate voltage. Such spin current switching in the SMM tunnel junction arises from spin-selected single electron resonant tunneling via the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit of the SMM. Since it is not magnetically controlled but all-electrically controlled, the proposed spin current switching effect may have potential applications in future spintronics.

  1. Driver distraction in an unusual environment: Effects of text-messaging in tunnels.

    Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Young, Kristie L; Patten, Christopher; Lenné, Michael G; Ceci, Ruggero


    Text messaging while driving can be distracting and significantly increases the risk of being involved in a collision. Compared to freeway driving, driving in a tunnel environment introduces factors that may interact with driver attentional resources to exacerbate the effects of distraction on driving safety. With planning and design of the 18km Stockholm Bypass tunnel ongoing, and because of the potentially devastating consequences of crashes in long tunnels, it is critical to assess the effects of driver distraction in a tunnel environment. Twenty-four participants (25-50 years) drove in simulated highway and tunnel road environments while reading and writing text messages using their own mobile phones. As expected, compared to driving alone, text messaging was associated with decrements in driving performance and visual scanning behavior, and increases in subjective workload. Speeds were slower compared to baseline (no text-messaging) driving when participants performed the text-messaging tasks in the tunnel environment compared to the freeway, suggesting that drivers may have attempted to compensate more for the increased text-messaging-related workload when they were in the tunnel. On the other hand, increases in lane deviation associated with the most complex text-messaging task were more pronounced in the tunnel compared to on the freeway. Collectively, results imply that driver distraction in tunnels is associated with generally similar driving decrements as freeway driving; however, the potential consequences of these decrements in tunnels remain significantly more serious. Future research should attempt to elucidate the nature of any differential compensatory behavior in tunnel, compared to freeway, driving. In the meantime, drivers should be advised to refrain from text messaging, especially when driving in tunnels.

  2. Frequency driven inversion of tunnel magnetoimpedance and observation of positive tunnel magnetocapacitance in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Parui, Subir; Ribeiro, Mário; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Sun, Xiangnan; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.


    The relevance for modern computation of non-volatile high-frequency memories makes ac-transport measurements of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) crucial for exploring this regime. Here, we demonstrate a frequency-mediated effect in which the tunnel magnetoimpedance reverses its sign in a classical Co/Al2O3/NiFe MTJ, whereas we only observe a gradual decrease in the tunnel magnetophase. Such effects are explained by the capacitive coupling of a parallel resistor and capacitor in the equivalent circuit model of the MTJ. Furthermore, we report a positive tunnel magnetocapacitance effect, suggesting the presence of a spin-capacitance at the two ferromagnet/tunnel-barrier interfaces. Our results are important for understanding spin transport phenomena at the high frequency regime in which the spin-polarized charge accumulation due to spin-dependent penetration depth at the two interfaces plays a crucial role.

  3. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Annie M. Hughes


    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  4. Numerical Simulation of Tunneling Current in an Anisotropic Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitor

    Khairurrijal khairurrijal


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a model of the tunneling currents through a high-k dielectric stack in MOS capacitors with anisotropic masses. The transmittance was numerically calculated by employing a transfer matrix method and including longitudinal-transverse kinetic energy coupling which is represented by an electron phase velocity in the gate. The transmittance was then applied to calculate tunneling currents in TiN/HfSiOxN/SiO2/p-Si MOS capacitors. The calculated results show that as the gate electron velocity increases, the transmittance decreases and therefore the tunneling current reduces. The tunneling current becomes lower as the effective oxide thickness (EOT of HfSiOxN layer increases. When the incident electron passed through the barriers in the normal incident to the interface, the electron tunneling process becomes easier. It was also shown that the tunneling current was independent of the substrate orientation. Moreover, the model could be used in designing high speed MOS devices with low tunneling currents.

  5. Reinventing the PN Junction: Dimensionality Effects on Tunneling Switches


    Transistors," Physical Review Letters , vol. 93, p. 196805, 2004. [10] R. Gandhi , et al., "CMOS-Compatible Vertical-Silicon-Nanowire Gate-All-Around... Letters , vol. 28, pp. 743-745, Aug 2007. [5] K. Jeon, et al., "Si tunnel transistors with a novel silicided source and 46mV/dec swing," presented at...p- Type Tunneling FETs With <= 50-mV/decade Subthreshold Swing," Ieee Electron Device Letters , vol. 32, pp. 1504-1506, Nov 2011. [11] G. Dewey, et

  6. Tunnel radio communications system at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    Struven, W.C.


    A unique single frequency, dual daisy chain tunnel radio communication system has been developed for use in our new Positron-Electron Storage Ring. Communications are possible between portables in the underground ring and between a portable in the ring and all control rooms on the site. The system is designed as a wide band facility and therefore can carry many simplex and duplex transmissions. This system utilizes TV twinlead as a distributed antenna and repeater amplifiers to cover more than 7000 feet of underground tunnel. The design philosophy, tests and initial design are discussed and contrasted with the final implementation of the system. Future uses of the system are discussed.

  7. Engineering ferroelectric tunnel junctions through potential profile shaping

    Boyn, S.; Garcia, V., E-mail:; Fusil, S.; Carrétéro, C.; Garcia, K.; Collin, S.; Deranlot, C.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, 1 Av. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau, France and Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 Av. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France)


    We explore the influence of the top electrode materials (W, Co, Ni, Ir) on the electronic band profile in ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on super-tetragonal BiFeO{sub 3}. Large variations of the transport properties are observed at room temperature. In particular, the analysis of current vs. voltage curves by a direct tunneling model indicates that the metal/ferroelectric interfacial barrier height increases with the top-electrode work function. While larger metal work functions result in larger OFF/ON ratios, they also produce a large internal electric field which results in large and potentially destructive switching voltages.

  8. Engineering ferroelectric tunnel junctions through potential profile shaping

    S. Boyn


    Full Text Available We explore the influence of the top electrode materials (W, Co, Ni, Ir on the electronic band profile in ferroelectric tunnel junctions based on super-tetragonal BiFeO3. Large variations of the transport properties are observed at room temperature. In particular, the analysis of current vs. voltage curves by a direct tunneling model indicates that the metal/ferroelectric interfacial barrier height increases with the top-electrode work function. While larger metal work functions result in larger OFF/ON ratios, they also produce a large internal electric field which results in large and potentially destructive switching voltages.

  9. Tunnel fire testing and modeling the Morgex North tunnel experiment

    Borghetti, Fabio; Gandini, Paolo; Frassoldati, Alessio; Tavelli, Silvia


    This book aims to cast light on all aspects of tunnel fires, based on experimental activities and theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. In particular, the authors describe a transient full-scale fire test (~15 MW), explaining how they designed and performed the experimental activity inside the Morgex North tunnel in Italy. The entire organization of the experiment is described, from preliminary evaluations to the solutions found for management of operational difficulties and safety issues. This fire test allowed the collection of different measurements (temperature, air velocity, smoke composition, pollutant species) useful for validating and improving CFD codes and for testing the real behavior of the tunnel and its safety systems during a diesel oil fire with a significant heat release rate. Finally, the fire dynamics are compared with empirical correlations, CFD simulations, and literature measurements obtained in other similar tunnel fire tests. This book will be of interest to all ...

  10. Dynamical tunneling theory and experiment

    Keshavamurthy, Srihari


    A prominent aspect of quantum theory, tunneling arises in a variety of contexts across several fields of study, including nuclear, atomic, molecular, and optical physics and has led to technologically relevant applications in mesoscopic science. Exploring mechanisms and consequences, Dynamical Tunneling: Theory and Experiment presents the work of international experts who discuss the considerable progress that has been achieved in this arena in the past two decades.Highlights in this volume include:A historical introduction and overview of dynamical tunneling, with case histories ranging from

  11. Quantum Tunneling and Complex Trajectories

    Meynig, Max; Haggard, Hal


    In general, the semiclassical approximation of quantum mechanical tunneling fails to treat tunneling through barriers if real initial conditions and trajectories are used. By analytically continuing classical dynamics to the complex plane the problems encountered in the approximation can be resolved. While, the complex methods discussed here have been previously explored, no one has exhibited an analytically solvable case. The essential features of the complex method will be discussed in the context of a novel, analytically solvable problem. These methods could be useful in quantum gravity, with applications to the tunneling of spacetime geometries.

  12. Tunnel Cost-Estimating Methods.



  13. Impact of the electron beam tunnel on a folded waveguide slow-wave structure%电子注通道形貌对折叠波导慢波结构的影响

    王亚军; 陈樟; 施志贵


    The folded waveguide structure is a promising slow-wave structure for terahertz traveling wave tubes.The influence of the beam tunnel on the circuit cold characteristics was analyzed,including dispersion relation,interaction impedance and circuit attenuation.The simulation results show that a beam tunnel with a rectangular cross section exhibits slightly steeper dispersion relation and higher attenuation coefficient than the beam tunnel with a circular cross section.Compared with the beam tunnel with a circular cross section,interaction impedance of beam tunnel with a rectangular cross section is lower about 0.5 Ω at a 220 GHz central frequency.For cold beam,the linear theory predicts a gain growth rate of 4.85 dB/cm and 5.22 dB/cm,respectively.They have a similar 3dB bandwidth of 6.3 GHz and 7.2 GHz.The large signal simulations show that the nonlinear gain is 24.42 dB and 28.44 dB at 220 GHz for 54 mm (100 periods)folded waveguide slow-wave structure with rectangular cross section and circular cross section,respectively.%折叠波导结构是一种极具潜力的太赫兹行波管慢波电路.分析了电子注通道形貌对折叠波导高频特性的影响,包括色散特性、耦合阻抗和衰减特性.仿真结果表明,相比于圆形电子注通道,矩形电子注通道的折叠波导结构色散要略微陡一些,损耗也要略微高一些.在中心频率处,矩形电子注通道结构的耦合阻抗比圆形电子注通道结构低0.5Ω左右.皮尔斯小信号理论表明,在中心频率处,矩形电子注通道结构和圆形电子注通道结构的增益速率分别为4.85 dB/cm和5.22 dB/cm,具有相似的3 dB带宽,约为6.3 GHz和7.2 GHz.粒子模拟表明,对于矩形和圆形电子注通道,54 mm(100个周期)的折叠波导慢波结构在220 GHz增益分别为24.42 dB和28.44 dB.

  14. Tunneling of atoms, nuclei and molecules

    Bertulani, C A


    This is a brief review of few relevant topics on tunneling of composite particles and how the coupling to intrinsic and external degrees of freedom affects tunneling probabilities. I discuss the phenomena of resonant tunneling, different barriers seen by subsystems, damping of resonant tunneling by level bunching and continuum effects due to particle dissociation.

  15. Tunneling spectroscopy of a magnetic adatoms on topological insulator surfaces

    Misiorny, M.; Bjerngaard, M.; Paaske, J.

    In this communication, we address the question of how the presence of a magnetic impurity on a topological insulator (TI) surface manifests in the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) when such a system is probed by a STM. For this purpose, we consider a single magnetic adatom with arbitrary spin, whose dynamics is governed by the local magnetic anisotropy. The spin is exchange-coupled to two-dimensional helical surface electrons, corresponding to the surface of a three-dimensional TI like Bi2Se3, with its characteristic hexagonally warped Dirac cone band structure. Employing an effective exchange-tunneling model, we calculate the non-linear differential conductance from a spin-polarized STM tip to the helical substrate, valid in the perturbative regime of weak exchange-tunneling and including the nonequilibrium pumping of the adatom spin states. The interplay between the magnetic anisotropy and the spin-momentum locked surface electrons is shown to give a number of specific imprints in the IETS, which could be investigated by spin-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy. M. Misiorny, M. Bjerngaard and J. Paaske, manuscript in preparation Work supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Education as `Iuventus Plus' project (IP2014 030973) in years 2015-2016.

  16. Single electron spintronics.

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H


    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  17. Improving performance of resonant tunneling devices in asymmetric structures

    Shi, Jun-jie; Sanders, Barry C.; Pan, Shao-hua; Goldys, E. M.


    Based on the global coherent tunneling model, we present a self-consistent calculation and show that structural asymmetry of double barrier resonant tunneling structures (DBRTSs) significantly modifies the current-voltage characteristics compared to the symmetric structures. Within the framework of the dielectric continuum model, we further investigate the phonon-assisted tunneling (PAT) current in symmetric and asymmetric DBRTSs. Both the interface modes and the confined bulk-like longitudinal-optical phonons are considered. The results indicate that the four higher-frequency interface phonon modes (especially the one which has the largest electron-phonon interaction at either interface of the emitter barrier) dominate the PAT processes. We show that a suitably designed asymmetric structure can produce much larger peak current and absolute value of the negative differential conductivity than its commonly used symmetric counterpart.

  18. Properties of native ultrathin aluminium oxide tunnel barriers

    Gloos, K; Pekola, J P


    We have investigated planar metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions with aluminium oxide as the dielectricum. These oxide barriers were grown on an aluminium electrode in pure oxygen at room temperature till saturation. By applying the Simmons model we derived discrete widths of the tunnelling barrier, separated by DELTA s approx 0.38 nm. This corresponds to the addition of single layers of oxygen atoms. The minimum thickness of s sub 0 approx 0.54 nm is then due to a double layer of oxygen. We found a strong and systematic dependence of the barrier height on the barrier thickness. Breakdown fields up to 5 GV m sup - sup 1 were reached. They decreased strongly with increasing barrier thickness. Electrical breakdown could be described by a metal-insulator like transition of the dielectric barrier due to the large density of tunnelling electrons.

  19. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence


    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  20. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Quispe Jose A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  1. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Becker, Michael


    The present thesis deals with the electronic structure, work function and single-atom contact conductance of Pb thin films, investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic structure of Pb(111) thin films on Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Quantum size effects, in particular, quantum well states (QWSs), play a crucial role in the electronic and physical properties of these films. Quantitative analysis of the spectra yields the QWS energies as a function of film thickness, the Pb bulk-band dispersion in {gamma}-L direction, scattering phase shifts at the Pb/Ag interface and vacuum barrier as well as the lifetime broadening at anti {gamma}. The work function {phi} is an important property of surfaces, which influences catalytic reactivity and charge injection at interfaces. It controls the availability of charge carriers in front of a surface. Modifying {phi} has been achieved by deposition of metals and molecules. For investigating {phi} at the atomic scale, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a widely used technique. STM measures an apparent barrier height {phi}{sub a}, which is commonly related to the sample work function {phi}{sub s} by: {phi}{sub a}=({phi}{sub s}+{phi}{sub t}- vertical stroke eV vertical stroke)/2, with {phi}{sub t} the work function of the tunneling tip, V the applied tunneling bias voltage, and -e the electron charge. Hence, the effect of the finite voltage in STM on {phi}{sub a} is assumed to be linear and the comparison of {phi}{sub a} measured at different surface sites is assumed to yield quantitative information about work function differences. Here, the dependence of {phi}{sub a} on the Pb film thickness and applied bias voltage V is investigated. {phi}{sub a} is found to vary significantly with V. This bias dependence leads to drastic changes and even inversion of contrast in spatial maps of {phi}{sub a}, which are related to the QWSs in the Pb

  2. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  3. The Statistics of Chaotic Tunnelling

    Creagh, S C; Creagh, Stephen C.; Whelan, Niall D.


    We discuss the statistics of tunnelling rates in the presence of chaotic classical dynamics. This applies to resonance widths in chaotic metastable wells and to tunnelling splittings in chaotic symmetric double wells. The theory is based on using the properties of a semiclassical tunnelling operator together with random matrix theory arguments about wave function overlaps. The resulting distribution depends on the stability of a specific tunnelling orbit and is therefore not universal. However it does reduce to the universal Porter-Thomas form as the orbit becomes very unstable. For some choices of system parameters there are systematic deviations which we explain in terms of scarring of certain real periodic orbits. The theory is tested in a model symmetric double well problem and possible experimental realisations are discussed.

  4. Self-Organizing Tunnel Peers


    Tunneling is an important approach in IPv6 transition techniques. The tunnel broker model provides a way to build virtual IPv6 networks without manual configuration.However, neither it adapts performance variation on the IPv4 infrastructure,nor it is a scalable solution for a wide-area IPv6 networking environment. In this paper, a self-organizing tunnel peer (SOTP)model is presented. Tunnel peers are clustered in the SOTP system so that optimization is scalable. Four primitive operations related to cluster construction - arrest,release,division and death - endow the system with the nature of self-organization.Occurrence and behavior of the operations are decided by criteria on the IPv4 end-to-end performance; hence measurement is an indispensable component of the system. The metabolism of cluster relaxes the requirement to accuracy of measurement and optimization.

  5. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.


    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  6. 基于ASP.NET的电子资源整合系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of an Integrated Electronic Resource System Based on ASP.NET

    冀宪武; 陈晓冬; 何燕; 杨方; 曹宇宾; 潘大丰


    电子信息资源的整合是数字图书馆建设中的一个非常重要的环节,论述了数字资源整合的必要性,结合农业图书馆的实际,开展了电子资源整合服务平台的设计与实现。%The integration of electronic information resources is a very important part in digital library construction.In this paper,the necessity for integration of digital resources was discussed,combined with the actuality of the agricultural library,the design and implementation about services platform of electronic resource integration were carried out.

  7. Growth, Characterization, and Simulation of Novel Semiconductor Tunnel Structures.

    Chow, David Hsingkuo

    This thesis presents investigations of novel semiconductor heterostructure devices based on quantum mechanical tunneling. Due to their small characteristic dimensions, these devices have extremely fast charge transport properties. Thus, it is expected that tunnel structure devices will be well -suited to high frequency and optoelectronic applications. In chapter 2, a theoretical model is developed to simulate tunneling currents in single barrier heterostructures. The model includes band bending effects and a two band treatment of electron attenuation coefficients in the barrier. It is proposed that certain material systems have the appropriate band alignments to realize a novel single barrier negative differential resistance (NDR) mechanism. A thorough theoretical analysis of these single barrier NDR structures is presented. The first experimental demonstration of the single barrier NDR mechanism is reported in chapter 3. The HgTe/CdTe material system was selected for the demonstration. In this material system, low temperatures (Triple barrier GaAs/AlAs tunnel structures are found to display strong NDR, indicating that the tunneling process is coherent (as opposed to sequential) in nature. Finally, a technique for depositing high quality InAs buffer layers on GaAs substrates is developed.

  8. Effects of in-plane magnetization orientation on magnetic and electronic properties in a Bcc Co (001)/rock salt MgO (001)/Bcc Co (001) magnetic tunnel junction system: ab initio calculations.

    Yoo, Dong Su; Chae, Kisung; Chung, Yong-Chae


    Ab initio calculations were performed on a fully epitaxial bcc Co (001)/rock salt MgO (001)/bcc Co (001) magnetic tunnel junction system for two cases where the magnetization is parallel to bcc Co [100] and to bcc Co [110]. Structural optimization reveals that the two cases are equivalent systems and that the Co electrodes contract in the z-direction whereas the MgO insulating barrier expands. The magnetic moments of each monolayer vary slightly in each case; furthermore, only the magnetic moment at the surface of the Co atom shows any enhancement (12%). The layer decomposed density of states profiles reveals that the bonding character of the junction interface is derived mainly from the 2p-3d hybridization of the MgO and Co interfacial atoms.

  9. Andreev Tunneling Through a Ferromagnet/Quantum-Dot/Superconductor System

    RAOHong-Hu; ZHUYu; 等


    We study Andreev tunneling through a ferromagnet/quantum-dot(QD)/superconductor system,By using nonequilibrum Green function method.the averaged occupation of electrons in QD and the Andreev tunneling current are studied.Comparing to the norma-metal/quantum-dot/superconductor,the system shows significant changes:(i) The averaged occupations of spin-up and spin-down electrons are not equal,(ii)With the increase of the polaryzation of ferromagnetic lead,the Andreev reflection current decreases.(iii) However,even the ferromagnetic lead reaches full polarization,the averaged occupation of spin-dowm electrons is not zero,The physics of these changes is discussed.

  10. Library resources on the Internet

    Buchanan, Nancy L.


    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  11. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel


    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  12. IR detection and energy harvesting using antenna coupled MIM tunnel diodes

    Yesilkoy, Filiz

    The infrared (IR) spectrum lies between the microwave and optical frequency ranges, which are well suited for communication and energy harvesting purposes, respectively. The long wavelength IR (LWIR) spectrum, corresponding to wavelengths from 8microm to 15microm, includes the thermal radiation emitted by objects at room temperature and the Earth's terrestrial radiation. Therefore, LWIR detectors are very appealing for thermal imaging purposes. Thermal detectors developed so far either demand cryogenic operation for fast detection, or they rely on the accumulation of thermal energy in their mass and subsequent measurable changes in material properties. Therefore, they are relatively slow. Quantum detectors allow for tunable and instantaneous detection but are expensive and require complex processes for fabrication. Bolometer detectors are simple and cheap but do not allow for tunability or for rapid detection. Harvesting the LWIR radiation energy sourced by the Earth's heating/cooling cycle is very important for the development of mobile energy resources. While speed is not as significant an issue here, conversion efficiency is an eminent problem for cheap, large area energy transduction. This dissertation addresses the development of tunable, fast, and low cost wave detectors that can operate at room temperature and, when produced in large array format, can harvest Earth's terrestrial radiation energy. This dissertation demonstrates the design, fabrication and testing of Antenna Coupled Metal-Insulator-Metal (ACMIM) tunnel diodes optimized for 10microm wavelength radiation detection. ACMIM tunnel diodes operate as electromagnetic wave detectors: the incident radiation is coupled by an antenna and converted into a 30 terahertz signal that is rectified by a fast tunneling MIM diode. For efficient IR radiation coupling, the antenna geometry and its critical dimensions are studied using a commercial finite-element based multi-physics simulation tool, and the half

  13. Spin electronics

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael


    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  14. Optically controlled electroresistance and electrically controlled photovoltage in ferroelectric tunnel junctions.

    Jin Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhihong; Yu, Weili; Wu, Tom


    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) have recently attracted considerable interest as a promising candidate for applications in the next-generation non-volatile memory technology. In this work, using an ultrathin (3 nm) ferroelectric Sm0.1Bi0.9FeO3 layer as the tunnelling barrier and a semiconducting Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal as the bottom electrode, we achieve a tunnelling electroresistance as large as 10(5). Furthermore, the FTJ memory states could be modulated by light illumination, which is accompanied by a hysteretic photovoltaic effect. These complimentary effects are attributed to the bias- and light-induced modulation of the tunnel barrier, both in height and width, at the semiconductor/ferroelectric interface. Overall, the highly tunable tunnelling electroresistance and the correlated photovoltaic functionalities provide a new route for producing and non-destructively sensing multiple non-volatile electronic states in such FTJs.

  15. Optically controlled electroresistance and electrically controlled photovoltage in ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Jin Hu, Wei


    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) have recently attracted considerable interest as a promising candidate for applications in the next-generation non-volatile memory technology. In this work, using an ultrathin (3 nm) ferroelectric Sm0.1Bi0.9FeO3 layer as the tunnelling barrier and a semiconducting Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal as the bottom electrode, we achieve a tunnelling electroresistance as large as 105. Furthermore, the FTJ memory states could be modulated by light illumination, which is accompanied by a hysteretic photovoltaic effect. These complimentary effects are attributed to the bias- and light-induced modulation of the tunnel barrier, both in height and width, at the semiconductor/ferroelectric interface. Overall, the highly tunable tunnelling electroresistance and the correlated photovoltaic functionalities provide a new route for producing and non-destructively sensing multiple non-volatile electronic states in such FTJs.

  16. Magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    Ning, Keyu; Liu, Houfang; Ju, Zhenyi; Fang, Chi; Wan, Caihua; Cheng, Jinglei; Liu, Xiao; Li, Linsen; Feng, Jiafeng; Wei, Hongxiang; Han, Xiufeng; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling


    As one invigorated filed of spin caloritronics combining with spin, charge and heat current, the magneto-Seebeck effect has been experimentally and theoretically studied in spin tunneling thin films and nanostructures. Here we analyze the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy (p-MTJs) under various measurement temperatures. The large tunnel magneto-Seebeck (TMS) ratio up to -838.8% for p-MTJs at 200 K is achieved, with Seebeck coefficient S in parallel and antiparallel states of 6.7 mV/K and 62.9 mV/K, respectively. The temperature dependence of the tunnel magneto-Seebeck can be attributed to the contributing transmission function and electron states at the interface between CoFeB electrode and MgO barrier.

  17. Magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy

    Keyu Ning


    Full Text Available As one invigorated filed of spin caloritronics combining with spin, charge and heat current, the magneto-Seebeck effect has been experimentally and theoretically studied in spin tunneling thin films and nanostructures. Here we analyze the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy (p-MTJs under various measurement temperatures. The large tunnel magneto-Seebeck (TMS ratio up to −838.8% for p-MTJs at 200 K is achieved, with Seebeck coefficient S in parallel and antiparallel states of 6.7 mV/K and 62.9 mV/K, respectively. The temperature dependence of the tunnel magneto-Seebeck can be attributed to the contributing transmission function and electron states at the interface between CoFeB electrode and MgO barrier.

  18. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

    Kobara H


    Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

  19. 基于 EZproxy 日志的电子资源异常访问行为研究%Research on Abnormal Access to Electronic Resources Based on EZproxy Logs

    雷东升; 郭振英


    The off - campus access to electronic resources in the library benefits readers a lot .Meanwhile ,some abnormal access behavior arises .The paper analyzed the electronic resources access log with EZproxyog proxy server ,designed and devel-oped the EZproxy log analysis system so as to pretreat ,upload ,count and analyze the access log to electronic resources .To dis-cover the abnormal access behavior of readers on the basis of the characteristics of their access and to classify the abnormal behav -ior , the paper could avoid that IP is temporarily blocked by the supporters of database of electronic resources in the library so that can maintain the readers' rights and improve the efficiency of resource access .%校外访问图书馆电子资源在方便读者的同时也出现一些异常访问行为,利用 EZproxy 代理服务器日志信息分析异常访问行为特征,设计并开发 EZproxy 日志分析系统,完成对电子资源访问日志的预处理、上传、统计和分析,从访问特征发掘读者的异常访问行为,对异常行为情况分类处理,基本避免了异常访问行为导致图书馆电子资源被数据库商临时封掉 IP 的现象出现,维护图书馆读者的合法权利,提高资源访问效率。

  20. Nonlinear photon-assisted tunneling transport in optical gap antennas.

    Stolz, Arnaud; Berthelot, Johann; Mennemanteuil, Marie-Maxime; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Markey, Laurent; Meunier, Vincent; Bouhelier, Alexandre


    We introduce strongly coupled optical gap antennas to interface optical radiation with current-carrying electrons at the nanoscale. The transducer relies on the nonlinear optical and electrical properties of an optical gap antenna operating in the tunneling regime. We discuss the underlying physical mechanisms controlling the conversion involving d-band electrons and demonstrate that a simple two-wire optical antenna can provide advanced optoelectronic functionalities beyond tailoring the electromagnetic response of a single emitter. Interfacing an electronic command layer with a nanoscale optical device may thus be facilitated by the optical rectennas discussed here.

  1. Laser-driven relativistic tunneling from p-states

    Klaiber, Michael


    The tunneling ionization of an electron from a p-state in a highly charged ion in the relativistic regime is investigated in a linearly polarized strong laser field. In contrast to the case of an s-state, the tunneling ionization from the p-state is spin asymmetric. We have singled out two reasons for the spin asymmetry: first, the difference of the electron energy Zeeman splitting in the bound state and during tunneling, and second, the relativistic momentum shift along the laser propagation direction during the under-the barrier motion. Due to the latter, those states are predominantly ionized where the electron rotation is opposite to the electron relativistic shift during the under-the-barrier motion. We have investigated the dependence of the ionization rate on the laser intensity for different projections of the total angular momentum and identified the intensity parameter which governs this behaviour. The significant change of the ionization rate is originated from the different precession dynamics of ...

  2. TunnelVision: LHC Tunnel Photogrammetry System for Structural Monitoring

    Fallas, William


    In this document an algorithm to detect deformations in the LHC Tunnel of CERN is presented. It is based on two images, one represents the ideal state of the tunnel and the other one the actual state. To find the differences between both, the algorithm is divided in three steps. First, an image enhancement is applied to make easier the detection. Second, two different approaches to reduce noise are applied to one or both images. And third, it is defined a group of characteristics about the type of deformation desired to detect. Finally, the conclusions show the effectiveness of the algorithm in the experimental results.

  3. Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    Walter, Marvin; Walowski, Jakob; Zbarsky, Vladyslav; Münzenberg, Markus; Schäfers, Markus; Ebke, Daniel; Reiss, Günter; Thomas, Andy; Peretzki, Patrick; Seibt, Michael; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Czerner, Michael; Bachmann, Michael; Heiliger, Christian


    Creating temperature gradients in magnetic nanostructures has resulted in a new research direction, that is, the combination of magneto- and thermoelectric effects. Here, we demonstrate the observation of one important effect of this class: the magneto-Seebeck effect. It is observed when a magnetic configuration changes the charge-based Seebeck coefficient. In particular, the Seebeck coefficient changes during the transition from a parallel to an antiparallel magnetic configuration in a tunnel junction. In this respect, it is the analogue to the tunnelling magnetoresistance. The Seebeck coefficients in parallel and antiparallel configurations are of the order of the voltages known from the charge-Seebeck effect. The size and sign of the effect can be controlled by the composition of the electrodes' atomic layers adjacent to the barrier and the temperature. The geometric centre of the electronic density of states relative to the Fermi level determines the size of the Seebeck effect. Experimentally, we realized 8.8% magneto-Seebeck effect, which results from a voltage change of about -8.7 μV K⁻¹ from the antiparallel to the parallel direction close to the predicted value of -12.1 μV K⁻¹. In contrast to the spin-Seebeck effect, it can be measured as a voltage change directly without conversion of a spin current.

  4. The importance of Fe surface states for spintronic devices based on magnetic tunnel junctions

    Chantis, Athanasios N [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In this article we give a review of our recent theoretical studies of the influence of Fe(001) surface (interface) states on spin-polarized electron transport across magnetic tunnel junctions with Fe electrodes. We show that minority-spin surface (interface) states are responsible for at least two effects which are important for spin electronics. First, they can produce a sizable tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions with a single Fe electrode. The effect is driven by a Rashba shift of the resonant surface band when the magnetization changes direction. This can introduce a new class of spintronic devices, namely, tunneling magnetoresistance junctions with a single ferromagnetic electrode. Second, in Fe/GaAs(001) magnetic tunnel junctions minority-spin interface states produce a strong dependence of the tunneling current spin polarization on applied electrical bias. A dramatic sign reversal within a voltage range of just a few tenths of an eV is predicted. This explains the observed sign reversal of spin polarization in recent experiments of electrical spin injection in Fe/GaAs(001) and related reversal of tunneling magnetoresistance through vertical Fe/GaAs/Fe trilayers.

  5. Fabrication and current–voltage characteristics of NiOx/ZnO based MIIM tunnel diode

    Singh, Aparajita, E-mail: [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174, United States of America (United States); Ratnadurai, Rudraskandan [Global Foundaries, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Kumar, Rajesh [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States); Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Krishnan, Subramanian [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States); Emirov, Yusuf [Advanced Materials Engineering Research Institute, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States); Bhansali, Shekhar [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States)


    Highlights: • Fabrication of single and bilayer tunnel diodes by sputter deposition. • Current–voltage characteristics study. • Enhanced asymmetry and non-linearity. • Study of tunneling mechanism. - Abstract: Enhanced asymmetric and non-linear characteristics of Ni–NiOx based MIM diode has been reported by the addition of a second insulator layer ZnO to form MIIM configuration. These properties are required for applications like energy-harvesting devices, terahertz electronics, macro electronics, etc. In this work, single insulator layer Ni–NiOx–Cr and double insulator Ni–NiOx–ZnO–Cr tunnel diodes were fabricated and their I–V characteristics were studied. A significant increase by one order of magnitude in asymmetry has been observed in case of bilayer NiOx/ZnO dielectric configuration at low voltages. The sensitivity of the NiOx and NiOx/ZnO dielectric configuration in MIM stack was 11 V{sup −1} and 16 V{sup −1}. The improved performance of the bilayer insulator diode is due to the second insulator which enables resonant tunneling or step-tunneling. Resonant tunneling was found to be dominant through trap assisted tunneling in the NiOx/ZnO diode.

  6. Electronic Phase Separation in Pr sub 1 sub x (Ca, Sr) sub x MnO sub 3 subdelta and Tunneling Magnetoresistance in Sr sub 2 FeMoO sub 6

    Niebieskikwiat, D G


    In this work, we approach two aspects of the physics of magnetic perovskites presenting colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). Firstly, we go deeply into the phase separation (PS) between the ferromagnetic (FM) metallic state and the antiferro-magnetic (AFM) charge ordered (CO) insulating state, in manganites of the type Pr sub 1 sub x (Ca,Sr) sub x MnO sub 3 subdelta. Secondly, and more briefly, we analyze the problem of the influence of the grain boundary insulating barriers on the tunneling magnetoresistance in the Sr sub 2 FeMoO sub 6 double perovskite.The use of different measurement techniques allowed us to make a complete characterization of the PS state in the compounds Pr sub 0.65Ca sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 5 sub - sub y Sr sub y MnO sub 3 for 0 ) keeping constant the carrier concentration (x = 0.35). This material presents an evolution from a CO insulating phase for small (y =0), towards the FM metallic phase for large (y = 0.20). In t

  7. Light amplification by stimulated emission from an optically pumped molecular junction in a scanning tunneling microscope

    Braun, K; Wang, X; Adler, H; Peisert, H; Chasse, T; Zhang, D; Meixner, A J


    Here, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate optical amplification and stimulated emission from a single optically pumped molecular tunneling junction of a scanning tunneling microscope. The gap between a sharp gold tip and a flat gold substrate covered with a self-assembled monolayer of 5-chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole molecules forms an extremely small optical gain medium. When electrons tunnel from the molecules highest occupied molecular orbital to the tip, holes are left behind. These can be repopulated by hot electrons induced by the laser-driven plasmon oscillation on the metal surfaces enclosing the cavity. Solving the laser-rate equations for this system shows that the repopulation process can be efficiently stimulated by the gap modes near field, TERS scattering from neighboring molecules acting as an optical seed. Our results demonstrate how optical enhancement inside the plasmonic cavity can be further increased by a stronger localization via tunneling through molecules. We anticipate that st...

  8. Coulomb and tunneling-coupled trilayer systems at zero magnetic field

    Miravet, D.; Proetto, C. R.; Bolcatto, P. G.


    The ground-state electronic configuration of three coupled bidimensional electron gases has been determined using a variational Hartree-Fock approach, at zero magnetic field. The layers are Coulomb coupled, and tunneling is present between neighboring layers. In the limit of small separation between layers, the tunneling becomes the dominant energy contribution, while for large distance between layers the physics is driven by the Hartree electrostatic energy. Transition from tunneling to Hartree dominated physics is shifted towards larger layer separation values as the total bidimensional density of the trilayers decreases. The interlayer exchange stabilizes a "balanced" configuration, where the three layers are approximately equally occupied; most of the experiments are performed in the vicinity of this balanced configuration. Several ground-state configurations are a consequence of a delicate interplay between tunneling and intersubband exchange.

  9. Tunneling-Induced Transient Gain in an Asymmetric Double Quantum Well

    XU Wei-Hua; WU Jin-Hui; GAO Jin-Yue


    @@ We investigate the transient behaviour of a weak probe in asymmetric double quantum well structures, where two excited states are coupled by resonant tunnelling through a thin barrier in a three-level system of electronic subbands. There is no external coherent coupling field applied, and we find that probe gain can be achieved during the transient process, which is induced by the coherent coupling of the upper states via the resonant tunnelling.We show that the transient behaviour of the probe depends on the coupling strength and the dephasing rate and can be tuned by changing the width of the tunnelling barrier.

  10. Coherent quantum transport in normal-metal/d-wave superconductor/normal-metal double tunnel junctions

    DONG; Zhengchao; FU; Hao


    Taking into account the effects of quantum interference and interface scattering, combining the electron current with hole current contribution to tunnel current,we study the coherent quantum transport in normal-metal/d-wave superconductor/normal-metal (NM/d-wave SC/NM) double tunnel junctions by using extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) approach. It is shown that all quasiparticle transport coefficients and conductance spectrum exhibit oscillating behavior with the energy, in which periodic vanishing of Andreev reflection (AR) above superconducting gap is found.In tunnel limit for the interface scattering strength taken very large, there are a series of bound states of quasiparticles formed in SC.

  11. Light emission and finite-frequency shot noise in molecular junctions: from tunneling to contact

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Brandbyge, Mads


    Scanning tunneling microscope induced light emission from an atomic or molecular junction has been probed from the tunneling to contact regime in recent experiments. There, the measured light emission yields suggest a strong correlation with the high-frequency current/charge fluctuations. We show...... that this is consistent with the established theory in the tunneling regime, by writing the finite-frequency shot noise as a sum of inelastic transitions between different electronic states. Based on this, we develop a practical scheme to perform calculations on realistic structures using nonequilibrium Green's functions...

  12. Relationship between the electric performance and the photoluminescence spectra of resonant tunnelling diodes

    Zhang Xiao-Xin; Zeng Yi-Ping; Wang Xiao-Guang; Wang Bao-Qiang; Zhu Zhan-Ping


    Resonant tunnelling diodes with different structures were grown. Their photoluminescence spectra were investigated. By contrast, the luminescence in the quantum well is separated from that of other epilayers. The result is obtained that the exciton of the luminescence in the quantum well is partly come from the cap layer in the experiment.So the photoluminescence spectrum is closely related to the electron transport in the resonant tunnelling diode structure.This offers a method by which the important performance of resonant tunnelling diode could be forecast by analysing the integrated photoluminescence intensities.

  13. Electrical switching in Fe /Cr/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions

    Halley, D.; Majjad, H.; Bowen, M.; Najjari, N.; Henry, Y.; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C.; Weber, W.; Bertoni, G.; Verbeeck, J.; Van Tendeloo, G.


    Hysteretic resistance switching is observed in epitaxial Fe /Cr/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions under bias voltage cycling between negative and positive values of about 1V. The junctions switch back and forth between high- and low-resistance states, both of which depend on the device bias history. A linear dependence is found between the magnitude of the tunnel magnetoresistance and the crafted resistance of the junctions. To explain these results, a model is proposed that considers electron transport both by elastic tunneling and by defect-assisted transmission.

  14. Making Mn substitutional impurities in InAs using a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Song, Young Jae; Erwin, Steven C; Rutter, Gregory M; First, Phillip N; Zhitenev, Nikolai B; Stroscio, Joseph A


    We describe in detail an atom-by-atom exchange manipulation technique using a scanning tunneling microscope probe. As-deposited Mn adatoms (Mn(ad)) are exchanged one-by-one with surface In atoms (In(su)) to create a Mn surface-substitutional (Mn(In)) and an exchanged In adatom (In(ad)) by an electron tunneling induced reaction Mn(ad) + In(su) --> Mn(In) + In(ad) on the InAs(110) surface. In combination with density-functional theory and high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging, we have identified the reaction pathway for the Mn and In atom exchange.

  15. Design of tunneling injection quantum dot lasers

    JIA Guo-zhi; YAO Jiang-hong; SHU Yong-chun; WANG Zhan-guo


    To implement high quality tunneling injection quantum dot lasers,effects of primary factors on performance of the tunneling injection quantum dot lasers were investigated. The considered factors were tunneling probability,tunneling time and carriers thermal escape time from the quantum well. The calculation results show that with increasing of the ground-state energy level in quantum well,the tunneling probability increases and the tunneling time decreases,while the thermal escape time decreases because the ground-state energy levelis shallower. Longitudinal optical phonon-assisted tunneling can be an effective method to solve the problem that both the tunneling time and the thermal escape time decrease simultaneously with the ground-state energy level increasing in quantum well.

  16. Hydrogen gas storage in fluorinated ultramicroporous tunnel crystal

    Kataoka, Keisuke; Katagiri, Toshimasa


    We report hydrogen storage at an ordinary pressure due to a bottle-neck effect of an ultramicroporous crystal. Stored hydrogen was kept at an ordinary pressure below -110 °C. The amounts of stored hydrogen gas linearly correlated with the initial pressures. These phenomena suggested the ultramicroporous tunnels worked as a molecular gas cylinder.We report hydrogen storage at an ordinary pressure due to a bottle-neck effect of an ultramicroporous crystal. Stored hydrogen was kept at an ordinary pressure below -110 °C. The amounts of stored hydrogen gas linearly correlated with the initial pressures. These phenomena suggested the ultramicroporous tunnels worked as a molecular gas cylinder. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 246922. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30940h

  17. Holders for in situ treatments of scanning tunneling microscopy tips.

    Ishida, Nobuyuki; Subagyo, Agus; Ikeuchi, Akira; Sueoka, Kazuhisa


    We have developed holders for scanning tunneling microscopy tips that can be used for in situ treatments of the tips, such as electron bombardment (EB) heating, ion sputtering, and the coating of magnetic materials. The holders can be readily installed into the transfer paths and do not require any special type of base stages. Scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the tip apex after EB heating. Also, spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy using an Fe coated W tip on the Cr(001) single crystal surface is performed in order to confirm both the capability of heating a tip up to about 2200 K and the spin sensitivity of the magnetically coated tip.

  18. Tunneling field effect transistor technology

    Chan, Mansun


    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the art in tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). Readers will learn the TFETs physics from advanced atomistic simulations, the TFETs fabrication process and the important roles that TFETs will play in enabling integrated circuit designs for power efficiency. · Provides comprehensive reference to tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs); · Covers all aspects of TFETs, from device process to modeling and applications; · Enables design of power-efficient integrated circuits, with low power consumption TFETs.

  19. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Anupam Garg


    We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the space of magnetic fields, known as diabolical points. This phenomena is explained in terms of two approaches, one based on spin-coherent-state path integrals, and the other on a generalization of the phase integral (or WKB) method to difference equations. Explicit formulas for the diabolical points are obtained for a model Hamiltonian.

  20. Quantum Cosmology for Tunneling Universes

    Kim, Sang Pyo


    In a quantum cosmological model consisting of a Euclidean region and a Lorentzian region, Hartle-Hawking's no-bounary wave function, and Linde's wave function and Vilenkin's tunneling wave function are briefly described and compared with each other. We put a particular emphasis on semiclassical gravity from quantum cosmology and compare it with the conventional quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. Finally, we discuss the recent debate on catastrophic particle production in the tunneling universe between Rubakov and Vilenkin within the semiclassical gravity.