WorldWideScience

Sample records for tunnel type plasma

  1. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  2. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1968-01-01

    The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3......The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3...

  3. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1969-01-01

    The normal magnetic field configuration of a Q device has been modified to obtain a 'magnetic Laval nozzle'. Continuous supersonic plasma 'winds' are obtained with Mach numbers ~3. The magnetic nozzle appears well suited for the study of the interaction of supersonic plasma 'winds' with either...

  4. Parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in a Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Kofoed, Bent; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1975-01-01

    Experimental evidence for subharmonic parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in Josephson tunnel junctions is presented. The experiments described are performed by measuring the microwave power necessary to switch a Josephson−tunnel junction biased in the zero−voltage state to a finite−volt......−voltage state. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  5. Suitability of tunneling ionization produced plasmas for the plasma beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeman, W.P.; Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.A.; Dyson, A.; Joshi, C.

    1991-01-01

    Tunneling ionization can be thought of as the high intensity, low frequency limit of multi-photon ionization (MPI). Extremely uniform plasmas were produced by the latter process at Rutherford lab for beat wave excitation experiments using a 0.5 μm laser. Plasmas with 100% ionization were produced with densities exceeding 10 17 cm -3 . The experiment uses a CO 2 laser (I max ∼ 5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 ) which allows the formation of plasmas via the tunneling process. For the experiments the authors need plasmas with densities in the range of 5 to 10 x 10 16 cm -3 . Using Thomson scattering as a diagnostic they have explored the density and temperature regime of tunneling ionization produced plasmas. They find that plasmas with densities up to 10 16 cm -3 can indeed be produced and that these plasmas are hot. Beyond this density strong refraction of laser radiation occurs due to the radial profile of the plasma. Implications of this work to the Beat Wave Accelerator program will be discussed

  6. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  7. Spin injection in n-type resonant tunneling diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi Gordo, Vanessa; Herval, Leonilson Ks; Galeti, Helder Va; Gobato, Yara Galvão; Brasil, Maria Jsp; Marques, Gilmar E; Henini, Mohamed; Airey, Robert J

    2012-10-25

    We have studied the polarized resolved photoluminescence of n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diodes under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. Under resonant tunneling conditions, we have observed two emission lines attributed to neutral (X) and negatively charged excitons (X-). We have observed a voltage-controlled circular polarization degree from the quantum well emission for both lines, with values up to -88% at 15 T at low voltages which are ascribed to an efficient spin injection from the 2D gases formed at the accumulation layers.

  8. Fabrication of metallic single electron transistors featuring plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of tunnel barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasian, Golnaz

    characterization of SETs that are made with the proposed reducing treatments enable us to study the effect of each reducing process on the properties of the constituent tunnel junctions. In comparison to the junctions annealed twice in forming gas at 400°C, we consistently observed a ~10x higher conductance in devices treated twice with H2 plasma at 300°C. The possible damage to the barrier during the plasma treatment and thermally induced film deformation during the anneal which respectively, is believed to increase and lower the conductance are among the possible cause of this difference. Although both types of treatments were effective in alleviating the effect of the activated components in the junctions, all the devices that were treated by two anneal steps or by two H2 plasma steps (for reducing the top and bottom NiO) show deviations from ideal simulated MIM SET model and suffer from significant random telegraph signal (RTS) noise. However, our results show that by using forming gas anneal for bottom NiO reduction and H2 plasma for the top NiO reduction, one can achieve devices close to ideal MIM SETs with significantly less noise.

  9. Single injection of platelet-rich plasma as a novel treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Alexander Malahias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have confirmed that platelet-rich plasma has therapeutic effects on many neuropathies, but its effects on carpal tunnel syndrome remain poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether single injection of platelet-rich plasma can improve the clinical symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fourteen patients presenting with median nerve injury who had suffered from mild carpal tunnel syndrome for over 3 months were included in this study. Under ultrasound guidance, 1-2 mL of platelet-rich plasma was injected into the region around the median nerve at the proximal edge of the carpal tunnel. At 1 month after single injection of platelet-rich plasma, Visual Analogue Scale results showed that pain almost disappeared in eight patients and it was obviously alleviated in three patients. Simultaneously, the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire showed that upper limb function was obviously improved. In addition, no ultrasonographic manifestation of the carpal tunnel syndrome was found in five patients during ultrasonographic measurement of the width of the median nerve. During 3-month follow-up, the pain was not greatly alleviated in three patients. These findings show very encouraging mid-term outcomes regarding use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  10. Epitaxial aluminum nitride tunnel barriers grown by nitridation with a plasma source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, T.; Lodewijk, C.F.J.; Vercruyssen, N.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Loudkov, D.N.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    High critical current-density (10?to?420?kA/cm2) superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions with aluminum nitride barriers have been realized using a remote nitrogen plasma from an inductively coupled plasma source operated in a pressure range of 10?3–10?1?mbar. We find a much better

  11. Modelling of series of types of automated trenchless works tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendarz, P.; Rzasinski, R.

    2016-08-01

    Microtunneling is the newest method for making underground installations. Show method is the result of experience and methods applied in other, previous methods of trenchless underground works. It is considered reasonable to elaborate a series of types of construction of tunneling machines, to develop this particular earthworks method. There are many design solutions of machines, but the current goal is to develop non - excavation robotized machine. Erosion machines with main dimensions of the tunnels which are: 1600, 2000, 2500, 3150 are design with use of the computer aided methods. Series of types of construction of tunneling machines creating process was preceded by analysis of current state. The verification of practical methodology of creating the systematic part series was based on the designed erosion machines series of types. There were developed: method of construction similarity of the erosion machines, algorithmic methods of quantitative construction attributes variant analyzes in the I-DEAS advanced graphical program, relational and program parameterization. There manufacturing process of the parts will be created, which allows to verify the technological process on the CNC machines. The models of designed will be modified and the construction will be consulted with erosion machine users and manufacturers like: Tauber Rohrbau GmbH & Co.KG from Minster, OHL ZS a.s. from Brna,. The companies’ acceptance will result in practical verification by JUMARPOL company.

  12. Transient performance estimation of charge plasma based negative capacitance junctionless tunnel FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Kondekar, P. N.; Pal, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transient behavior of an n-type double gate negative capacitance junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (NC-JLTFET). The structure is realized by using the work-function engineering of metal electrodes over a heavily doped n + silicon channel and a ferroelectric gate stack to get negative capacitance behavior. The positive feedback in the electric dipoles of ferroelectric materials results in applied gate bias boosting. Various device transient parameters viz. transconductance, output resistance, output conductance, intrinsic gain, intrinsic gate delay, transconductance generation factor and unity gain frequency are analyzed using ac analysis of the device. To study the impact of the work-function variation of control and source gate on device performance, sensitivity analysis of the device has been carried out by varying these parameters. Simulation study reveals that it preserves inherent advantages of charge-plasma junctionless structure and exhibits improved transient behavior as well. (paper)

  13. Impact ionization and tunneling operations in charge-plasma dopingless device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsuk; Kim, Yoonjoong; Lim, Doohyeok; Woo, Sola; Im, Kyeungmin; Cho, Jinsun; Kang, Hyungu; Kim, Sangsig

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we present the impact ionization and tunneling operations in a newly designed dopingless device. Our proposed device functions selectively-as either a p-channel impact-ionization MOSFET (p-IMOS) or an n-channel tunneling field-effect transistor (n-TFET)-according to the bias conditions. To realize the dopingless device, the charge-plasma effect is employed to induce n- or p-type regions without any doping process, by choosing an electrode metal with an appropriate work function. The band diagrams, I-V characteristics, subthreshold swings (SS), and carrier-concentration profiles of the device under the p-IMOS and n-TFET operation modes are analyzed in our study, using a commercial device simulator. The device yields an extremely low SS of 0.53 mV/dec under the p-IMOS operation mode. It also exhibits a low off-current of approximately 10-14 A/μm and a high ION/IOFF of approximately 108, under the n-TFET operation mode.

  14. How tunneling currents reduce plasma-induced charging

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Gyeong S.; Giapis, Konstantinos P.

    1997-01-01

    As semiconductor manufacturing moves towards smaller logic devices and thinner gate oxides, there is serious concern that pattern-dependent charging during plasma etching will impede progress by distorting etch profiles and by causing oxide breakdown. Simulations of the final overetch predict that the use of ultrathin oxides (

  15. Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing of Electron Transpiration Cooling Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    and Rockets, Vol. 21, No. 6 (1984), pp. 534-541.” J. Spacecraft Rock ., Vol. 21, No. 6, 1984, pp. 534–541. [3] Yoshizumi, T. and Hayashi, K...Report no. sc-rr-4960, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico , USA, 1964. [10] Kolesnikov, A. F., “Conditions of Simulation of Stagnation...Flows, RTO EN -8, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, October 1999, pp. 6–01 – 6–26. [12] Barbante, P. and Chazot, O., “Flight Extrapolation of Plasma Wind

  16. Transonic Wind Tunnel Modernization for Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Stall in a Wide Range of Mach Numbers by Plasma Actuators with Combined Energy/Momentum Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    wind tunnel for the study of plasma based methods for the control of dynamic stall for helicopter rotor blades. The tunnel has a 3D positioning...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This equipment grant supported the design and construction of a subsonic variable speed wind tunnel for the study of...plasma based methods for the control of dynamic stall for helicopter rotor blades. The tunnel has a 3D positioning system and servomotor mounted below

  17. True-blue laser diodes with tunnel junctions grown monolithically by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Muziol, Grzegorz; Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, Krzesimir; Turski, Henryk; Siekacz, Marcin; Feduniewicz-Zmuda, Anna; Nowakowska-Szkudlarek, Anna; Sawicka, Marta; Perlin, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate true-blue 450 nm tunnel junction (TJ) laser diodes (LDs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The absence of hydrogen during PAMBE growth allows us to achieve TJs with low resistance. We compare TJ LDs with LDs of standard construction with p-type metal contact. For both types of LD, the threshold current density is around 3 kA/cm2 and the slope efficiency is 0.5 W/A. We do not observe any significant changes in optical losses and differential gain in TJ LDs compared with standard LDs. The differential resistivity of the TJs for current densities higher than 2 kA/cm2 is below 10‑4 Ω·cm2.

  18. Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n-type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-selective contact with low minority carrier recombination and efficient majority carrier transport is mandatory to eliminate metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon (Si solar cells. In the present study, the carrier-selective contact consists of an ultra-thin tunnel oxide and a phosphorus-doped polycrystalline Si (poly-Si thin film formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD and subsequent thermal crystallization. It is shown that the poly-Si film properties (doping level, crystallization and dopant activation anneal temperature are crucial for achieving excellent contact passivation quality. It is also demonstrated quantitatively that the tunnel oxide plays a critical role in this tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCON scheme to realize desired carrier selectivity. Presence of tunnel oxide increases the implied Voc (iVoc by ~ 125 mV. The iVoc value as high as 728 mV is achieved on symmetric structure with TOPCON on both sides. Large area (239 cm2 n-type Czochralski (Cz Si solar cells are fabricated with homogeneous implanted boron emitter and screen-printed contact on the front and TOPCON on the back, achieving 21.2% cell efficiency. Detailed analysis shows that the performance of these cells is mainly limited by boron emitter recombination on the front side.

  19. Flow morphing by coaxial type plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoizumi, S.; Aono, H.; Ishikawa, H.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of study is to achieve the fluid drag reduction of a circular disk by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator (DBD-PA). We here introduced “Flow Morphing” concept that flow around the body was changed by DBD-PA jet, such as the body shape morphing. Coaxial type DBD-PA injected axisymmetric jet, generating the vortex region on the pressure side of the circular disk. The vortex generated by axisymmetric plasma jet and flow around circular disk were visualized by tracer particles method. The fluid drag was measured by compression type load cell. In addition streamwise velocity was measured by an X-type hot wire probe. The extent of fluid drag reduction by coaxial type DBD-PA jet was influenced by the volume of vortex region and the diameter of plasma electrode.

  20. Turbulence, selective decay, and merging in the SSX plasma wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tim; Brown, Michael; Flanagan, Ken; Werth, Alexandra; Lukin, V.

    2012-10-01

    A helical, relaxed plasma state has been observed in a long cylindrical volume. The cylinder has dimensions L = 1 m and R = 0.08 m. The cylinder is long enough so that the predicted minimum energy state is a close approximation to the infinite cylinder solution. The plasma is injected at v >=50 km/s by a coaxial magnetized plasma gun located at one end of the cylindrical volume. Typical plasma parameters are Ti= 25 eV, ne>=10^15 cm-3, and B = 0.25 T. The relaxed state is rapidly attained in 1--2 axial Alfv'en times after initiation of the plasma. Magnetic data is favorably compared with an analytical model. Magnetic data exhibits broadband fluctuations of the measured axial modes during the formation period. The broadband activity rapidly decays as the energy condenses into the lowest energy mode, which is in agreement to the minimum energy eigenstate of ∇xB = λB. While the global structure roughly corresponds to the minimum energy eigenstate for the wind tunnel geometry, the plasma is high beta (β= 0.5) and does not have a flat λ profile. Merging of two plasmoids in this configuration results in noticeably more dynamic activity compared to a single plasmoid. These episodes of activity exhibit s

  1. Magnetosonic solitons in semiconductor plasmas in the presence of quantum tunneling and exchange correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2018-01-01

    Low frequency magnetosonic wave excitations are investigated in semiconductor hole-electron plasmas. The quantum mechanical effects such as Fermi pressure, quantum tunneling, and exchange-correlation of holes and electrons in the presence of the magnetic field are considered. The two fluid quantum magnetohydrodynamic model is used to study magnetosonic wave dynamics, while electric and magnetic fields are coupled via Maxwell equations. The dispersion relation of the magnetosonic wave in electron-hole semiconductor plasma propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is obtained, and its dispersion effects are discussed. The Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV) for magnetosonic solitons is derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. For numerical analysis, the plasma parameters are taken from the semiconductors such as GaAs, GaSb, GaN, and InP already existing in the literature. It is found that the phase velocity of the magnetosonic wave is increased with the inclusion of exchange-correlation force in the model. The soliton dip structures of the magnetosonic wave in GaN semiconductor plasma are obtained, which satisfy the quantum plasma conditions for electron and hole fluids. The magnetosonic soliton dip structures move with speed less than the magnetosonic wave phase speed in the lab frame. The effects of exchange-correlation force in the model and variations of magnetic field intensity and electron/hole density on the magnetosonic wave dip structures are also investigated numerically for illustration.

  2. Design and performance of a beetle-type double-tip scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaschinsky, Philipp; Coenen, Peter; Pirug, Gerhard; Voigtlaender, Bert

    2006-01-01

    A combination of a double-tip scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning electron microscope in ultrahigh vacuum environment is presented. The compact beetle-type design made it possible to integrate two independently driven scanning tunneling microscopes in a small space. Moreover, an additional level for coarse movement allows the decoupling of the translation and approach of the tunneling tip. The position of the two tips can be controlled from the millimeter scale down to 50 nm with the help of an add-on electron microscope. The instrument is capable of atomic resolution imaging with each tip

  3. Experimental assessment of the performance of ablative heat shield materials from plasma wind tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhle, S.; Hermann, T.; Zander, F.

    2017-12-01

    A method for assessing the performance of typical heat shield materials is presented in this paper. Three different material samples, the DLR material uc(Zuram), the Airbus material uc(Asterm) and the carbon preform uc(Calcarb) were tested in the IRS plasma wind tunnel PWK1 at the same nominal condition. State of the art diagnostic tools, i.e., surface temperature with pyrometry and thermography and boundary layer optical emission spectroscopy were completed by photogrammetric surface recession measurements. These data allow the assessment of the net heat flux for each material. The analysis shows that the three materials each have a different effect on heat flux mitigation with ASTERM showing the largest reduction in surface heat flux. The effect of pyrolysis and blowing is clearly observed and the heat flux reduction can be determined from an energy balance.

  4. Temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance in Josephson tunnel junctions determined from plasma resonance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, N.F.; Soerensen, O.H.; Mygind, J.

    1978-01-01

    The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature T/sub c/ of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency f/sub p/ as the temperature is decreased from T/sub c/. We used three different schemes for observation of the plasma oscillations: (a) second-harmonic generation (excitation at approx. 4.5 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 4.5 GHz); (b) mixing (excitations at approx. 9 and approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz); (c) parametric half-harmonic oscillation (excitation at approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz). Measurements were possible in two temperature intervals; 0.994 or = T/T/sub c/ > or = 0.930, with the result that as the temperature was decreased the cosphi amplitude first increased from about zero to positive values and then at lower temperatures decreased approaching -1 at the lowest temperatures of the experiment

  5. Extracellular-vesicle type of volume transmission and tunnelling-nanotube type of wiring transmission add a new dimension to brain neuro-glial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, Luigi F.; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Two major types of intercellular communication are found in the central nervous system (CNS), namely wiring transmission (WT; point-to-point communication via private channels, e.g. synaptic transmission) and volume transmission (VT; communication in the extracellular fluid and in the cerebrospinal fluid). Volume and synaptic transmission become integrated because their chemical signals activate different types of interacting receptors in heteroreceptor complexes located synaptically and extrasynaptically in the plasma membrane. In VT, we focus on the role of the extracellular-vesicle type of VT, and in WT, on the potential role of the tunnelling-nanotube (TNT) type of WT. The so-called exosomes appear to be the major vesicular carrier for intercellular communication but the larger microvesicles also participate. Extracellular vesicles are released from cultured cortical neurons and different types of glial cells and modulate the signalling of the neuronal–glial networks of the CNS. This type of VT has pathological relevance, and epigenetic mechanisms may participate in the modulation of extracellular-vesicle-mediated VT. Gerdes and co-workers proposed the existence of a novel type of WT based on TNTs, which are straight transcellular channels leading to the formation in vitro of syncytial cellular networks found also in neuronal and glial cultures. PMID:25135966

  6. Quantum Gravity Effect on the Tunneling Particles from 2 + 1-Dimensional New-Type Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganim Gecim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP effect on the Hawking temperature for the 2 + 1-dimensional new-type black hole by using the quantum tunneling method for both the spin-1/2 Dirac and the spin-0 scalar particles. In computation of the GUP correction for the Hawking temperature of the black hole, we modified Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. We observed that the modified Hawking temperature of the black hole depends not only on the black hole properties, but also on the graviton mass and the intrinsic properties of the tunneling particle, such as total angular momentum, energy, and mass. Also, we see that the Hawking temperature was found to be probed by these particles in different manners. The modified Hawking temperature for the scalar particle seems low compared with its standard Hawking temperature. Also, we find that the modified Hawking temperature of the black hole caused by Dirac particle’s tunneling is raised by the total angular momentum of the particle. It is diminishable by the energy and mass of the particle and graviton mass as well. These intrinsic properties of the particle, except total angular momentum for the Dirac particle, and graviton mass may cause screening for the black hole radiation.

  7. Synthesis of Cation and Water Free Cryptomelane Type OMS-2 Cathode Materials: The Impact of Tunnel Water on Electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyraz, Altug S.; Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Bingjie; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2017-01-01

    Cryptomelane type manganese dioxides (α-MnO2, OMS-2) are interesting potential cathode materials due to the ability of their one dimensional (1D) tunnels to reversibly host various cations including Li+and an accessible stable 3+/4+ redox couple. Here, we synthesized metal cation free OMS-2 materials where the tunnels were occupied by only water and hydronium ions. Water was subsequently removed from the tunnels. Cation free OMS-2 and Dry-OMS-2 were used as cathodes in Li based batteries to investigate the role of tunnel water on their electrochemistry. The initial discharge capacity was higher for Dry-OMS-2 (252 mAh/g) compared to OMS-2 (194 mAh/g), however, after 100 cycles Dry-OMS-2 and OMS-2 delivered 137 mAh/g and 134 mAh/g, respectively. Li+ion diffusion was more facile for Dry-OMS as evidenced by rate capability, at 400 mA/g. Dry-OMS-2 delivered 135mAh/g whereas OMS-2 delivered ~115 mAh/g. This first report of the impact of tunnel water on the electrochemistry of OMS-2 type materials demonstrates that the presence of tunnel water in OMS-2 type materials negatively impacts the electrochemistry.

  8. Theoretical investigation of GaAsBi/GaAsN tunneling field-effect transistors with type-II staggered tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibo; Liu, Yan; Han, Genquan; Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    We investigate GaAsBi/GaAsN system for the design of type-II staggered hetero tunneling field-effect transistor (hetero-TFET). Strain-symmetrized GaAsBi/GaAsN with effective lattice match to GaAs exhibits a type-II band lineup, and the effective bandgap EG,eff at interface is significantly reduced with the incorporation of Bi and N elements. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) rate and drive current of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are boosted due to the utilizing of the type-II staggered tunneling junction with the reduced EG,eff. Numerical simulation shows that the drive current and subthreshold swing (SS) characteristics of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are remarkably improved by increasing Bi and N compositions. The dilute content GaAs0.85Bi0.15/GaAs0.92N0.08 staggered hetero-nTFET achieves 7.8 and 550 times higher ION compared to InAs and In0.53Ga0.47As homo-TFETs, respectively, at the supply voltage of 0.3 V. GaAsBi/GaAsN heterostructure is a potential candidate for high performance TFET.

  9. Plasma follistatin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J; Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Plasma follistatin is elevated in patients with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance as observed with polycystic ovary syndrome. In the present study, we evaluated plasma follistatin in patients with type 2 diabetes characterised by low-grade inflammation and assessed the acute effects...

  10. Representation of type I heterostructure junctionless tunnel field effect transistor for high-performance logic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei Imen Abadi, Rouzbeh; Sedigh Ziabari, Seyed Ali

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a gate-all-around junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (JLTFET) based on heterostructure of compound and group III-V semiconductors is introduced and simulated. In order to blend the high tunneling efficiency of narrow band gap material JLTFETs and the high electron mobility of III-V JLTFETs, a type I heterostructure junctionless TFET adopting Ge-AlxGa1- xAs-Ge system has been optimized by numerical simulation in terms of aluminum (Al) composition. To improve device performance, we considered a nanowire structure, and it was illustrated that high-performance logic technology can be achieved by the proposed device. The optimal Al composition founded to be around 20 % ( x = 0.2). The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed device has low leakage current I OFF of ~1.9 × 10-17, I ON of 4 µA/µm, I ON/ I OFF current ratio of 1.7 × 1011 and subthreshold swing SS of 12.6 mV/decade at the 40 nm gate length and temperature of 300 K.

  11. Increased plasma osteoprotegerin concentrations in Type 1 diabetes with albuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen-tian; Xu, Jian-min; Wang, Meng; Chen, Fu-lian; Ding, Gang

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels in Type 1 diabetic patients with albuminuria. A total of 80 Type 1 diabetic subjects and 30 control subjects were enrolled. Diabetic subjects were divided into normoalbuminuric group, microalbuminuric group and macroalbuminuric group according to urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and serum creatinine measurements. Plasma osteoprotegerin level was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay. The serum OPG levels were significantly elevated in patients with microalbuminuria (3.62 ± 0.70 ng/l) and macroalbuminuria (4.45 ± 0.76 ng/l) as compared with patients with normoalbuminuria (2.77 ± 0.78 ng/l) and control subjects (2.29 ± 0.37 ng/l). And the plasma osteoprotegerin level in macroalbuminuric group was also higher than that in microalbuminuria group. The plasma osteoprotegerin level had a positive correlation with the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), glycohemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP)and UAER. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the plasma osteoprotegerin level was an independent factor associated with albuminuria in Type 1 diabetes. The plasma values of osteoprotegerin were elevated in Type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy and gradually increased with the severity, so there is a association between plasma osteoprotegerin levels and the presence and severity of diabetic nephropathy. This finding supports the growing concept that osteoprotegerin may act as an important regulatory molecule in the angiopathy, and particularly, that it may be involved in the development of nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes.

  12. A model for plasma evolution in Filipov type plasma focus facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V.; Sobhanian, S.; Tafreshi, M. A.; Lamehi, M.

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented in this paper for the evolution of plasma in Filipov type plasma focus facilities. With the help of this model, one can predict some of the main parameters of the produced plasma and obtain the optimized geometrical an physical properties (anode radius and length, gas pressure, capacitance, bank energy etc) for the primary design purposes. The results obtained by this model will be compared with the experimental data obtained from the 90 kJ plasma focus facility D ena

  13. Characterization of different types of Nb-AlOx based Josephson tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelerhof, D.J.; Houwman, E.P.; Fransen, P.B.M.; Veldhuis, D.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on three types of Josephson tunnel junctions, standard Nb/Al,AlO x /Nb, symmetric Nb/Al,AlO x /Al/Nb, and Nb/Al,AlO x /AlO x /Nb containing a double oxide layer investigated by means of temperature dependent I-V measurements, conductance-voltage measurements, noise analysis, and Auger Electron Spectroscopy scanning across the edge of a sputtered crater profile. In standard junctions frequently small leakage currents have been observed as well as resistance fluctuations, leading to telegraph noise. Both effects can be related to the direct contact between the AlO x and the Nb counter electrode. In none of the symmetric junctions leakage currents larger than 0.01% of the theoretical maximum critical current have been observed

  14. Elevated plasma homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic individuals independent of conventional risk factors. Available study in Nigerian-Africans is scare. Methods: Seventy (30 males) and (40 females) type 2 diabetes mellitus, with age ...

  15. Quantum Tunneling of the Non-stationary Kerr-Newman Black Hole via a New Type of General Tortoise Coordinate Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhong-Wen; Deng, Juan; Li, Guo-Ping; Yang, Shu-Zheng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, the quantum tunneling of the non-stationary Kerr-Newman black hole is investigated via Hamilton-Jacobi equation and two types of general tortoise coordinate transformations. The tunneling rates, the Hawking temperatures and radiation spectrums are derived respectively. Our result shows that the new type of general tortoise coordinate transformation is more reasonable.

  16. Experimental Simulation of Meteorite Ablation during Earth Entry Using a Plasma Wind Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, Stefan; Zander, Fabian; Hermann, Tobias; Eberhart, Martin; Meindl, Arne; Oefele, Rainer [High Enthalpy Flow Diagnostics Group, Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 29, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Colas, Francois [Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémerides, Observatoire de Paris, Av. de l’Observatoire, Paris (France); Vernazza, Pierre; Drouard, Alexis [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, Marseille (France); Gattacceca, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, IRD, Coll France, CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence,France, Avenue Louis Philibert, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2017-03-10

    Three different types of rocks were tested in a high enthalpy air plasma flow. Two terrestrial rocks, basalt and argillite, and an ordinary chondrite, with a 10 mm diameter cylindrical shape were tested in order to observe decomposition, potential fragmentation, and spectral signature. The goal was to simulate meteoroid ablation to interpret meteor observation and compare these observations with ground based measurements. The test flow with a local mass-specific enthalpy of 70 MJ kg{sup −1} results in a surface heat flux at the meteorite fragment surface of approximately 16 MW m{sup −2}. The stagnation pressure is 24 hPa, which corresponds to a flight condition in the upper atmosphere around 80 km assuming an entry velocity of 10 km s{sup −1}. Five different diagnostic methods were applied simultaneously to characterize the meteorite fragmentation and destruction in the ground test: short exposure photography, regular video, high-speed imaging with 10 kHz frame rate, thermography, and Echelle emission spectroscopy. This is the first time that comprehensive testing of various meteorite fragments under the same flow condition was conducted. The data sets indeed show typical meteorite ablation behavior. The cylindrically shaped fragments melt and evaporate within about 4 s. The spectral data allow the identification of the material from the spectra which is of particular importance for future spectroscopic meteor observations. For the tested ordinary chondrite sample a comparison to an observed meteor spectra shows good agreement. The present data show that this testing methodology reproduces the ablation phenomena of meteoritic material alongside the corresponding spectral signatures.

  17. Tunnel probes for measurements of the electron and ion temperature in fusion plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Balan, P.; Ionita, C.; Stöckel, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Ďuran, Ivan; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Bařina, O.; Hrach, R.; Vicher, M.; Van Oost, G.; Van Rompuy, T.; Martines, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 10 (2004), s. 4328-4330 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/15th./. San Diego, 19.04.2004-22.04.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Tokamak * electron temperature * ion temperature * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2004

  18. Experimental study of Rabi-type oscillation induced by tunneling modes in effective near-zero-index metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yewen; Yang, Yaping; Chen, Hong

    2011-04-01

    A special cavity based on effective near-zero-index paired structures containing ɛ-negative and μ-negative materials is realized by using composite right- or left-handed transmission lines. When an artificial magnetic "atom" is put into the cavity, unusual Rabi-type splitting appears because of the strong coupling between the artificial atom and the localized tunneling mode. The direct time domain energy exchanges between the cavity and the "atom" are experimentally observed after excited by a short pulse signal. Within the "atom" field attenuation time, more than one oscillations appear. Rabi-type splitting and the Rabi-type oscillation period are invariant with the scaling changes of the length but vary with the positions where the "atom" is put with different field intensity. Moreover, the decay time of Rabi-type oscillation becomes longer when the tunneling mode possesses smaller linewidth, which is in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  19. Plasma and muscle myostatin in relation to type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Brandt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Myostatin is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle tissue, which negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Recent animal studies suggest a role for myostatin in insulin resistance. We evaluated the possible metabolic role of myostatin in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. DESIGN: 76 patients with type 2 diabetes and 92 control subjects were included in the study. They were matched for age, gender and BMI. Plasma samples and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained to assess plasma myostatin and expression of myostatin in skeletal muscle. RESULTS: Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher fasting glucose (8.9 versus 5.1 mmol/L, P<0.001, plasma insulin (68.2 versus 47.2 pmol/L, P<0.002 and HOMA2-IR (1.6 versus 0.9, P<0.0001 when compared to controls. Patients with type 2 diabetes had 1.4 (P<0.01 higher levels of muscle myostatin mRNA content than the control subjects. Plasma myostatin concentrations did not differ between patients with type 2 diabetes and controls. In healthy controls, muscle myostatin mRNA correlated with HOMA2-IR (r = 0.30, P<0.01, plasma IL-6 (r = 0.34, P<0.05 and VO2 max (r = -0.26, P<0.05, however, no correlations were observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the idea that myostatin may have a negative effect on metabolism. However, the metabolic effect of myostatin appears to be overruled by other factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Metformin increases plasma ghrelin in Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doogue, Matthew P; Begg, Evan J; Moore, M Peter; Lunt, Helen; Pemberton, Chris J; Zhang, Mei

    2009-12-01

    * Metformin, unlike the other major antihyperglycaemic drugs, is not associated with weight gain. * Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating hormone whose concentrations vary in relation to food, obesity and diabetes control. * Reports are conflicting about how metformin affects ghrelin concentrations, and this study was aimed at resolving this issue in patients with Type 2 diabetes. * In this study an increase in ghrelin concentrations was seen in response to metformin treatment in patients with Type 2 diabetes. * This effect was opposite to what might be expected if the effect of metformin on weight control was mediated via suppression of ghrelin. * It is likely that the ghrelin response was secondary to improved glycaemic control. * Meal time changes in appetite and satiety did not correlate with changes in ghrelin, which suggests ghrelin may not be important in meal initiation. Metformin treatment of Type 2 diabetes is not usually associated with weight gain, and may assist with weight reduction. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are inversely associated with obesity and food intake. Metformin might therefore affect ghrelin concentrations, although previous studies have shown variable results in this regard. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on plasma ghrelin, appetite and satiety in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Eighteen patients with Type 2 diabetes were studied before and after 6 weeks of metformin treatment, which was titrated to 1 g b.d. On the study days patients were fed standard meals of 390 kcal at 08.00 and 12.30 h, plasma samples were collected at 15- and 30-min intervals, and appetite and satiety were measured on visual analogue scales. Changes in the area under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) of plasma ghrelin, insulin, glucose, appetite and satiety were assessed and examined for correlations with metformin AUCs. Changes in fasting adiponectin and leptin were also measured. Treatment with metformin increased the

  1. Numerical solution of multiband k.p model for tunnelling in type-II heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Botha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and very general method was developed for calculating the charge and spin-resolved electron tunnelling in type-II heterojunctions. Starting from a multiband k.p description of the bulk energy-band structure, a multiband k.p Riccati equation was derived. The reflection and transmission coefficients were obtained for each channel by integrating the Riccati equation over the entire heterostructure. Numerical instability was reduced through this method, in which the multichannel log-derivative of the envelope function matrix, rather than the envelope function itself, was propagated. As an example, a six-band k.p Hamiltonian was used to calculate the current-voltage characteristics of a 10-nm wide InAs/ GaSb/InAs single quantum well device which exhibited negative differential resistance at room temperature. The calculated current as a function of applied (bias voltage was found to be in semiquantitative agreement with the experiment, a result which indicated that inelastic transport mechanisms do not contribute significantly to the valley currents measured in this particular device.

  2. KINETIC TRANSFORMATION OF SPINEL TYPE LiMnLiMn2O4 INTO TUNNEL TYPE MnO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud K Walanda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithiated phase LiMn2O4 is a potential cathode material for high-energy batteries because it can be used in conjunction with suitable carbon anode materials to produce so-called lithium ion cells. The kinetic transformation of LiMn2O4 into manganese dioxide (MnO2 in sulphuric acid has been studied. It is assumed that the conversion of LiMn2O4 into R-MnO2 is a first order autocatalytic reaction. The transformation actually proceeds through the spinel l-MnO2 as an intermediate species which is then converted into gamma phase of manganese dioxide. In this reaction LiMn2O4 whose structure spinel type, which is packing between tetrahedral coordination and octahedral coordination, is converted to form octahedral tunnel structure of manganese dioxide, which is probably regarded as a reconstructive octahedral-coordination transformation. Therefore, it is a desire to investigate the transformation of manganese oxides in solid state chemistry by analysing XRD powder patterns. Due to the reactions involving solids, concentrations of reactant and product are approached with the expression of peak areas.   Keywords: high-energy battery, lithium ion cells, kinetic transformation

  3. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS Type II After Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Tunç

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic syndrome characterised with dystrophic changes and neurovascular disordes of bone and skin of extremities. The most common etiological factors are trauma, ischemic heart disease, cerebral lesions, servical region disorders, infections, and surgical treatments. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compressive neuropaty of the upper extremity. There are various surgical and conservative alternatives in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Complex regional pain syndrome has been reported as a complication of surgical carpal tunnel release in 2-5% of patients. In this case report clinical characteristics and rehabilitation outcomes of a patient with complex regional pain syndrome after carpal tunnel release surgery is presented. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2010;16:41-3

  4. Effect of nitrogen plasma treatment at the Al2O3/Fe interface in magnetic tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Heejae; Cho, B. K.; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kim, T. W.; Park, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effects of nitrogen plasma treatment on top surface of Fe pinned layer for short times (t ex =0, 10, 30, and 60 s) in magnetic tunnel junctions and annealing of the junctions. The nitrogen-treated junctions show much reduced magnetoresistance (MR) ratio and significantly lower resistance-area (RA) products compared with the untreated junction, i.e., MR≅3%, RA≅30 kΩ μm 2 for t ex =10 s and MR≅10%, RA≅60 kΩ μm 2 for t ex =0 s. The untreated junction showed enhanced MR ratio up to about 17% and higher RA (≅70 kΩ μm2) upon thermal annealing at T a =230 deg. C, as expected. For the nitrogen-treated junctions, while the MR ratio also increases up to about 16% upon annealing at T a =230 deg. C, which is almost the same value as the one of the optimal reference junction, the RA values of the annealed junctions still keep as low as their initial values. We believe that the redistribution of nitrogen during the annealing process is responsible for the change of properties of nitrogen-treated junction. The bias dependence of MR and the estimation of effective barrier height and thickness are studied and found to be consistent with the observed changes in nitrogen-treated junctions

  5. Investigation on etch characteristics of nanometer-sized magnetic tunnel junction stacks using a HBr/Ar plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ho; Xiao, Yu Bin; Kong, Seon Mi; Chung, Chee Won

    2011-07-01

    The etch characteristics of CoFeB magnetic films and magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) stacks masked with Ti films were investigated using an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in a HBr/Ar gas mix. The etch rate, etch selectivity, and etch profile of the CoFeB films were obtained as a function of the HBr concentration. As the HBr gas was added to Ar, the etch rate of the CoFeB films, and the etch selectivity to the Ti hard mask, gradually decreased, but the etch profile of the CoFeB films was improved. The effects of the HBr concentration and etch parameters on the etch profile of the MTJ stacks with a nanometer-sized 70 x 100 nm2 pattern were explored. At 10% HBr concentration, low ICP RF power, and low DC-bias voltage, better etch profiles of the MTJ stacks were obtained without redeposition. It was confirmed that the protective layer containing hydrogen, and the surface bombardment of the Ar ions, played a key role in obtaining a steep sidewall angle in the etch profile. Fine-pattern transfer of the MTJ stacks with a high degree of anisotropy was achieved using a HBr/Ar gas chemistry.

  6. Increased plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in infants of women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Karen G; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Goetze, Jens P

    2005-01-01

    Up to 40% of newborn infants of women with type 1 diabetes have echocardiographic signs of cardiomyopathy. Increased plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its precursor (proBNP) are markers of cardiac failure and hypoxia in adults. In this study, we investigated whether pl...

  7. Self-field effects in window-type Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Koshelets, Valery P; Mukhortova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The properties of Josephson devices are strongly affected by geometrical effects such as those associated with the magnetic field induced by the bias current. The generally adopted analysis of Owen and Scalapino (1967 Phys. Rev. 164, 538) for the critical current, Ic, of an in-line Josephson tunnel...

  8. The Influence of Insurance Type on Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: An Analysis of Nationwide Practice Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Erika D; Swiatek, Peter R; Hou, Hechuan; Chung, Kevin C

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of insurance type on use of diagnostic testing, treatments, and the efficiency of care for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The 2009 to 2013 Truven MarketScan Databases were used to identify adult patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Insurance type was categorized as fee-for-service versus capitated managed care. Multivariable regression models were created to evaluate the relationship between insurance type and costs, number of visits, treatment, and electrodiagnostic study use, and controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbidities. The cohort included 233,572 patients, of which 86 percent carried fee-for-service insurance. Predicted probabilities were clinically similar between the capitated and fee-for-service insurance types for therapy (0.23 versus 0.24), steroid injection (0.07 versus 0.09), and electrodiagnostic study use (0.44 versus 0.47). The difference in predicted probabilities between the insurance groups was greatest for surgery use (0.22 versus 0.28 for managed care and fee-for-service, respectively). The mean number of visits was similar between the two groups (2.1 versus 2.0 visits). In the controlled analysis, managed care was associated with a 10 percent decrease in cost compared to patients with fee-for-service (p trends with increased implementation of bundled payment reimbursement. Routine collection of validated patient outcomes measures is critical to assess patient outcomes associated with anticipated reduction of surgical services. Risk, II.

  9. Experimental verification of the rotational type of chiral spin spiral structures by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze, Masahiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Yukio

    2017-10-16

    We report on experimental verification of the rotational type of chiral spin spirals in Mn thin films on a W(110) substrate using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) with a double-axis superconducting vector magnet. From SP-STM images using Fe-coated W tips magnetized to the out-of-plane and [001] directions, we found that both Mn mono- and double-layers exhibit cycloidal rotation whose spins rotate in the planes normal to the propagating directions. Our results agree with the theoretical prediction based on the symmetry of the system, supporting that the magnetic structures are driven by the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  10. About tunnelling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, E.

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, first we critically analyse the main theoretical definitions and calculations of the sub-barrier tunnelling and reflection times. Secondly, we propose a new, physically sensible definition of such durations, on the basis of a recent general formalism (already tested for other types of quantum collisions). At last, we discuss some results regarding temporal evolution of the tunnelling processes, and in particular the ''particle'' speed during tunnelling. (author). 36 refs, 1 fig

  11. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of two types of Iced Conductors with Elastic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, You; Cheng, He; Xinxin, Wang

    2018-01-01

    The wind tunnel tests were carried out to obtain the variation laws of static aerodynamic characteristics of crescent and D-shape iced conductor with different wind velocities, wind attack angles and torsional elastic support stiffness. Test results show that the variation of wind velocity has a relatively large influence on the aerodynamic coefficients of crescent conductor with torsional elastic support 1. However, the influence on that of D-shape conductor is not obvious. With the increase of the torsional elastic support stiffness, the lift and moment coefficient curves of the crescent iced conductor form an obvious peak phenomenon in the range of 0 ° ∼30°. Meanwhile, the wind attack angle position corresponding to the maximum value of the lift and moment coefficients of the D-shape iced conductor appear a backward moving phenomenon.

  12. Dual comb-type electrodes as a plasma source for very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Doo Sup; Lee, Seung Yoon; Lee, Heon Min; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Gil Jun

    2010-01-01

    Dual comb-type electrodes were developed as a plasma source in very high frequency (VHF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for uniform deposition of silicon films. Two VHF powers introduced to each electrode produced parallel plasma bands, and their positions could be changed by manipulating the phase difference between the supplied VHF waves. Excitation frequency was 80 MHz. The maximum plasma density using this plasma source was 1.5 x 10 10 /cm 3 and the electron temperature was around 2 eV with input power of 2.5 kW, which were measured by double tip Langmuir probe. The uniformity of deposition rate under ± 13% was achieved on 1 m 2 area with optimal plasma conditions.

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical sodium and lithium insertion properties of sodium titanium oxide with the tunnel type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kunimitsu; Akimoto, Junji

    2016-02-01

    Polycrystalline sample of sodium titanium oxide Na2Ti4O9 with the tunnel-type structure was prepared by topotactic sodium extraction in air atmosphere from the as prepared Na3Ti4O9 sample. The starting Na3Ti4O9 compound was synthesized by solid state reaction at 1273 K in Ar atmosphere. The completeness of oxidation reaction from Na3Ti4O9 to Na2Ti4O9 was monitored by the change in color from dark blue to white, and was also confirmed by the Rietveld refinement using the powder X-ray diffraction data. The sodium deficient Na2Ti4O9 maintained the original Na2.08Ti4O9-type tunnel structure and had the monoclinic crystal system, space group C2/m, and the lattice parameters of a = 23.1698(3) Å, b = 2.9406(1) Å, c = 10.6038(2) Å, β = 102.422(3)°, and V = 705.57(2) Å3. The electrochemical measurements of thus obtained Na2Ti4O9 sample showed the reversible sodium insertion and extraction reactions at 1.1 V, 1.5 V, and 1.8 V vs. Na/Na+, and reversible lithium insertion and extraction reactions at around 1.4 V, 1.8 V, and 2.0 V vs. Li/Li+. The reversible capacity for the lithium cell was achieved to be 104 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle.

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on vacuum tunneling, a novel type of microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was developed. It has an unprecedented resolution in real space on an atomic scale. The authors review the important technical features, illustrate the power of the STM for surface topographies and discuss its potential in other areas of science and technology. (Auth.)

  15. Remote N2 plasma treatment to deposit ultrathin high-k dielectric as tunneling contact layer for single-layer MoS2 MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qingkai; Zhang, Zhaofu; Hua, Mengyuan; Wei, Jin; Lei, Jiacheng; Chen, Kevin J.

    2017-12-01

    Remote N2 plasma treatment is explored as a surface functionalization technique to deposit ultrathin high-k dielectric on single-layer MoS2. The ultrathin dielectric is used as a tunneling contact layer, which also serves as an interfacial layer below the gate region for fabricating top-gate MoS2 metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). The fabricated devices exhibited small hysteresis and mobility as high as 14 cm2·V‑1·s‑1. The contact resistance was significantly reduced, which resulted in the increase of drain current from 20 to 56 µA/µm. The contact resistance reduction can be attributed to the alleviated metal–MoS2 interface reaction and the preserved conductivity of MoS2 below the source/drain metal contact.

  16. Ultrasound-guided perineural injection with platelet-rich plasma improved the neurophysiological parameters of carpal tunnel syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ying-Chen; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Hsieh, Lin-Fen

    2017-10-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common and sometimes challenging condition, which causes pain; paresthesia; tingling of the thumb, index and long fingers; and even thenar weakness in the hands. The effectiveness of corticosteroid injections seems to be transient, and there is a lack of information around long-term effects in previous studies. In recent years, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has proven to bean alternative as it encourages tissue regeneration. We hereby describe a patient with CTS showing significant improvements in electrophysiological parameters after receiving PRP injections. The results revealed significant improvements in the distal motor and sensory latencies as well as the sensory nerve action potential and compound muscle action potential amplitudes of the both median nerves. In summary, if patients are refractory to conservative treatments-such as splinting, oral medication, and corticosteroid injection-PRP may be used as an alternative before surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative analysis of turbulent effects on thermal plasma characteristics inside the plasma torches with rod- and well-type cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Min; Hong, Sang Hee

    2002-01-01

    The thermal plasma characteristics inside the two non-transferred plasma torches with rod-type cathode (RTC) and well-type cathode (WTC) are analysed in conjunction with turbulent effects on them in the atmospheric-pressure conditions. A control volume method and a modified semi-implicit pressure linked equations revised algorithm are used for solving the governing equations, i.e. conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy together with a current continuity equation for arc discharge. A cold flow analysis is introduced to find the cathode spot position in the WTC torch, and both the laminar and turbulent models are employed to gain a physical insight into the turbulent effects on the thermal plasma characteristics produced inside the two torches. The numerical analysis for an RTC torch shows that slightly different values of plasma temperature and velocity between the laminar and turbulent calculations occur and the radial temperature profiles are constricted at the axis with increasing the gas flow rate, and that the large turbulent viscosities appear mostly near the anode wall. These calculated results indicate that the turbulent effects on the thermal plasma characteristics are very weak in the whole discharge region inside the RTC torch. On the other hand, the calculated results of the two numerical simulations for a WTC torch present that the significantly different values of plasma characteristics between the two models appear in the whole torch region and the plasma temperatures decrease with increasing the gas flow rate because the relatively strong turbulent effects are prevailing in the entire interior region of the WTC torch. From the comparisons of plasma net powers calculated and measured in this work, the turbulent modelling turns out to provide the more accurately calculated results close to the measured ones compared with the laminar one, especially for the torch with WTC. This is because the turbulent effects are considerably strong in

  18. CD40L induces functional tunneling nanotube networks exclusively in dendritic cells programmed by mediators of type 1 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccard, Colleen R; Watkins, Simon C; Kalinski, Pawel; Fecek, Ronald J; Yates, Aarika L; Salter, Russell D; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Rinaldo, Charles R; Mailliard, Robbie B

    2015-02-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DC) to mediate CD4(+) T cell help for cellular immunity is guided by instructive signals received during DC maturation, as well as the resulting pattern of DC responsiveness to the Th signal, CD40L. Furthermore, the professional transfer of antigenic information from migratory DC to lymph node-residing DC is critical for the effective induction of cellular immune responses. In this study we report that, in addition to their enhanced IL-12p70 producing capacity, human DC matured in the presence of inflammatory mediators of type 1 immunity are uniquely programmed to form networks of tunneling nanotube-like structures in response to CD40L-expressing Th cells or rCD40L. This immunologic process of DC reticulation facilitates intercellular trafficking of endosome-associated vesicles and Ag, but also pathogens such HIV-1, and is regulated by the opposing roles of IFN-γ and IL-4. The initiation of DC reticulation represents a novel helper function of CD40L and a superior mechanism of intercellular communication possessed by type 1 polarized DC, as well as a target for exploitation by pathogens to enhance direct cell-to-cell spread. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented

  20. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-01-01

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  1. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-11-08

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  2. A simulation-based proposed high-k heterostructure AlGaAs/Si junctionless n-type tunnel FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahi Shiromani Balmukund; Asthana Pranav; Ghosh Bahniman

    2014-01-01

    We propose a heterostructure junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (HJL-TFET) using AlGaAs/Si. In the proposed HJL-TFET, low band gap silicon is used in the source side and higher band gap AlGaAs in the drain side. The whole AlGaAs/Si region is heavily doped n-type. The proposed HJL-TFET uses two isolated gates (named gate, gate1) with two different work functions (gate = 4.2 eV, gate1 = 5.2 eV respectively). The 2-D nature of HJL-TFET current flow is studied. The proposed structure is simulated in Silvaco with different gate dielectric materials. This structure exhibits a high on current in the range of 1.4 × 10 −6 A/μm, the off current remains as low as 9.1 × 10 −14 A/μm. So I ON /I OFF ratio of ≃ 10 8 is achieved. Point subthreshold swing has also been reduced to a value of ≃ 41 mV/decade for TiO 2 gate material. (semiconductor devices)

  3. Model of the nonhydrodynamic stage of a plasma focus (z pinch sausage-type instability)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zueva, N.M.; Imshennik, V.S.; Lokutsievskii, O.V.; Mikhailova, M.S.

    A nonhydrodynamic two-dimensional plasma model convenient for describing a later stage of development of a plasma focus (sausage-type instability) is given. In this model, ions are described by the Vlasov collisionless equation, and electrons are treated in the MHD approximation. More accurately, for electrons, use is made of generalized Ohm's law and the entropy equation, and the condition of quasi-neutrality of the plasma is also adopted

  4. Plasma-liquid system with reverse vortex flow of 'tornado' type (TORNADO-LE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybalyuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya.; Olszewski, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the plasma in plasma-liquid system with reverse vortex flow of 'tornado' type are presented. Volt-ampere characteristic of discharge in the current range from 200 to 400 mA were measured. Emission spectra of plasma in range from 200 to 1100 nm were measured. Excitation temperatures (electronic T e * , vibrational T v * and rotational T r * ) were obtained. Emission spectra of hydroxyl OH were calculated.

  5. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, M.L.; Aurbach, G.D.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Quarto, R.; Spiegel, A.M.; Bliziotes, M.M.; Norton, J.A.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause

  6. Plasma osteoprotegerin is related to carotid and peripheral arterial disease, but not to myocardial ischemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Nybo, Mads; Dahl, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) has evolved as a biomarker for CVD. We examined the relationship between plasma OPG levels and different CVD manifestations in type 2 diabetes.......Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) has evolved as a biomarker for CVD. We examined the relationship between plasma OPG levels and different CVD manifestations in type 2 diabetes....

  7. Effect of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M. K.; Hussain, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Ahmad, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of combined and individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Department of Physiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, between October 2010 and April 2011. It comprised 80 healthy Sprague Dawley rats who were divided into four groups (n = 20 each). Rats were fed high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus. Group I served as diabetic control; group II was given cholecalciferol; group III; levo carnitine; and group IV was administered cholecalciferol and levo carnitine together. After 6 days of supplementation, terminal intracardiac blood extraction was done and samples were analysed for fasting plasma glucose and plasma insulin. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased (p <0.001) in the combined supplementation group compared to the diabetic control and individual supplementation groups. Combined supplementation showed a significant increase in fasting plasma insulin levels when compared with diabetic control and levo carnitine groups (p <0.001), and the effect of combined supplementation on ameliorating insulin resistance was significantly better (p <0.001) as compared to the individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine. Conclusions: The combined supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine for 6 days markedly improved the glycaemic control, insulin secretion and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats on high-fat diet. A prolonged supplementation by both the compounds along with caloric restriction may yield a more promising outcome. (author)

  8. Local and regular plasma oscillations in bulk donor type semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Restoring force acts on the electronic cloud of the outer electrons of a neutral or charged impurity atom when it is shifted relative to the inner charged core. Because of this the dipole oscillation arises, which influences considerably the dispersion law of the plasma oscillation in bulk donor semiconductors. Assuming that only one transition of the outer electron from the ground state to the first excited state is essential, the dispersion law is calculated. It is shown that calculated dis...

  9. Plasma adrenaline kinetics in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Hilsted, J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1989-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline kinetics (clearance, extraction across the forearm, initial plasma disappearance rate, mean sojourn time, volume of distribution) were studied in sixteen Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients during constant i.v. infusion of tritium labelled adrenaline. In patients with (n...... = 8) and without (n = 8) neuropathy forearm venous plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations as well as plasma clearance of adrenaline based on arterial sampling (1.7 vs 2.1 l/min) were not significantly different. The initial disappearance time (T 1/2) after the infusion of the tritium...

  10. Characteristics of the Plasma Source for Ground Ionosphere Simulation Surveyed by Disk-Type Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Lee, Junchan; Kim, Songoo; Chung, Taejin; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Cha, Wonho; Min, Kyoungwook; Kim, Vitaly P.

    2017-12-01

    A space plasma facility has been operated with a back-diffusion-type plasma source installed in a mid-sized vacuum chamber with a diameter of 1.5 m located in Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). To generate plasma with a temperature and density similar to the ionospheric plasma, nickel wires coated with carbonate solution were used as filaments that emit thermal electrons, and the accelerated thermal electrons emitted from the heated wires collide with the neutral gas to form plasma inside the chamber. By using a disk-type Langmuir probe installed inside the vacuum chamber, the generation of plasma similar to the space environment was validated. The characteristics of the plasma according to the grid and plate anode voltages were investigated. The grid voltage of the plasma source is realized as a suitable parameter for manipulating the electron density, while the plate voltage is suitable for adjusting the electron temperature. A simple physical model based on the collision cross-section of electron impact on nitrogen molecule was established to explain the plasma generation mechanism.

  11. Low-resistance magnetic tunnel junctions prepared by partial remote plasma oxidation of 0.9 nm Al barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo; Freitas, Paulo P.; MacKenzie, Maureen; Chapman, John N.

    2005-01-01

    Current perpendicular to the plane read-head elements suitable for high-density magnetic storage require low resistance while maintaining a reasonable magnetoresistive (MR) signal (RxA 2 and MR>20% for areal densities >200 Gb/in 2 ). This letter shows that competitive low RxA junctions can be produced using underoxidized barriers starting from 0.9 nm thick Al layers. For as-deposited junctions, tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ∼20% for RxA∼2-15 Ω μm 2 is obtained, while in the RxA∼60-150 Ω μm 2 range, TMR values between 40% to 45% are achieved. A limited number of junctions exhibits considerably lower RxA values with respect to the average, while keeping a similar MR (down to 0.44 Ω μm 2 with TMR of 20% and down to 2.2 Ω μm 2 with TMR of 52%). Experimental data suggest that current confinement to small regions (barrier defects/hot spots) may explain these results

  12. Evaluation of random plasma glucose for assessment of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Qurratul; Latif, Atif; Jaffar, Syed Raza; Ijaz, Aamir

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of random plasma glucose in outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for assessing glycaemic control. This comparative, cross-sectional study was conducted at the chemical pathology department of PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from August 2015 to March 2016, and comprised data of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who reported for evaluation of glycaemic control in non-fasting state. All blood samples were analysed for random plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin. Random plasma glucose was compared as an index test with glycated haemoglobin considering it as reference standard at a value of less than 7% for good glycaemic control. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 222 subjects, 93(42%) had good glycaemic control. Random plasma glucose showed strong positive correlation with glycated haemoglobin (p=0.000).Area under curve for random plasma glucose as determined by plotting receiver operating characteristic curve against glycated haemoglobin value of 7% was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.849-0.930). Random plasma glucose at cut-off value of 150 mg/dl was most efficient for ruling out poor glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with 90.7% sensitivity and69.9% specificity and Youden's index of 0.606. Random plasma glucose may be used to reflect glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in areas where glycated haemoglobin is not feasible.

  13. Plasma exchange in the treatment of thyroid storm secondary to type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm. Due to the rarity of the condition, little is known about the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of severe AIT. A 56-year-old male presented with thyroid storm 2months following cessation of amiodarone. Despite conventional treatment, his condition deteriorated. He underwent two cycles of plasma exchange, which successfully controlled the severe hyperthyroidism. The thyroid hormone levels continued to fall up to 10h following plasma exchange. He subsequently underwent emergency total thyroidectomy and the histology of thyroid gland confirmed type II AIT. Management of thyroid storm secondary to type II AIT can be challenging as patients may not respond to conventional treatments, and thyroid storm may be more harmful in AIT patients owing to the underlying cardiac disease. If used appropriately, plasma exchange can effectively reduce circulating hormones, to allow stabilisation of patients in preparation for emergency thyroidectomy.

  14. Wind tunnel experiments on flow separation control of an Unmanned Air Vehicle by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chen; Hua, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Plasma flow control (PFC) is a new kind of active flow control technology, which can improve the aerodynamic performances of aircrafts remarkably. The flow separation control of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (NDPAA) is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experimental results show that the applied voltages for both the nanosecond discharge and the millisecond discharge are nearly the same, but the current for nanosecond discharge (30 A) is much bigger than that for millisecond discharge (0.1 A). The flow field induced by the NDPAA is similar to a shock wave upward, and has a maximal velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. Fast heating effect for nanosecond discharge induces shock waves in the quiescent air. The lasting time of the shock waves is about 80 μs and its spread velocity is nearly 380 m/s. By using the NDPAA, the flow separation on the suction side of the UAV can be totally suppressed and the critical stall angle of attack increases from 20° to 27° with a maximal lift coefficient increment of 11.24%. The flow separation can be suppressed when the discharge voltage is larger than the threshold value, and the optimum operation frequency for the NDPAA is the one which makes the Strouhal number equal one. The NDPAA is more effective than the millisecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (MDPAA) in boundary layer flow control. The main mechanism for nanosecond discharge is shock effect. Shock effect is more effective in flow control than momentum effect in high speed flow control. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61503302, 51207169, and 51276197), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M562446), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015JM1001).

  15. Performance Evaluation of Nose Cap to Silica Tile Joint of RLV-TD under the Simulated Flight Environment using Plasma Wind Tunnel Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Aravindakshan; Krishnaraj, K.; Sreenivas, N.; Nair, Praveen

    2017-12-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation, India has successfully flight tested the reusable launch vehicle through launching of a demonstration flight known as RLV-TD HEX mission. This mission has given a platform for exposing the thermal protection system to the real hypersonic flight thermal conditions and thereby validated the design. In this vehicle, the nose cap region is thermally protected by carbon-carbon followed by silica tiles with a gap in between them for thermal expansion. The gap is filled with silica fibre. Base material on which the C-C is placed is made of molybdenum. Silica tile with strain isolation pad is bonded to aluminium structure. These interfaces with a variety of materials are characterised with different coefficients of thermal expansion joined together. In order to evaluate and qualify this joint, model tests were carried out in Plasma Wind Tunnel facility under the simultaneous simulation of heat flux and shear levels as expected in flight. The thermal and flow parameters around the model are determined and made available for the thermal analysis using in-house CFD code. Two tests were carried out. The measured temperatures at different locations were benign in both these tests and the SiC coating on C-C and the interface were also intact. These tests essentially qualified the joint interface between C-C and molybdenum bracket and C-C to silica tile interface of RLV-TD.

  16. Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR on Fe-Al2O3 Nano Granular Film Growth by Helicon Plasma Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Purwanto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Al2O3 nanogranular thin film by helicon plasma sputtering with the variation of Fe content from 0.1 to 0.7 volume fraction have been prepared. The magnetic and magnetoresistance properties were investigated by a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM and a Four Point Probe (FPP. The Rutherford BackScattering (RBS was performed with the SIMNRA software. Conversion Electron Mossbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS study was also performed to estimate the fraction of Fe and α-Fe2O3 in the granular film. The results suggested that the percolation concentration occured at 0.55 Fe volume fractions, with the maximum Magnetoresistance (MR ratio of 3%. The present MR ratio that was lower than the previous results may be related to the existence of α-Fe2O3 phase.

  17. Pulsed floating-type Langmuir probe for measurements of electron energy distribution function in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikjin; Kim, Aram; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-01-01

    A floating type Langmuir probe was studied to measure the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in plasmas. This method measures the current (I)-voltage (V) curve with rising and falling variations based on a floating potential by using charge-discharge characteristics of the series capacitor when a square-pulse voltage is applied. In addition, this method measures the EEDF by using the alternating current (ac) superposition method. The measured EEDFs were in good agreement with results from a conventional single Langmuir probe. This technique could be applied as a plasma diagnostic method in the capacitively coupled plasma where the plasma potential is extremely high or the processing plasma where the deposition gas is used.

  18. Characterization of plasma etching damage on p -type GaN using Schottky diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi, Kato; K., Mikamo; Masaya, Ichimura; M., Kanechika; O., Ishiguro; T., Kachi

    2008-01-01

    The plasma etching damage in p-type GaN has been characterized. From current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes, it was revealed that inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching causes an increase in series resistance of the Schottky diodes and compensation of acceptors in p-type GaN. We investigated deep levels near the valence band of p-type GaN using current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and no deep level originating from the ICP etching damage was ...

  19. Adaptation of Sing Lee's model to the Filippov type plasma focus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V; Tafreshi, M A; Sobhanian, S; Khorram, S

    2005-01-01

    A new model for plasma behaviour in Filippov type plasma focus (PF) systems has been described and used. This model is based on the so-called slug model and Sing Lee's model for Mather type PF devices. Using the model, the discharge current and its derivative as a function of time, and the pinch time and the maximum discharge current as a function of pressure, have been predicted. At the end, the predicted data are compared with the experimental data obtained through a Filippov type PF facility with a nominal maximum energy of 90 kJ

  20. Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma osteoprotegerin with diminished effect in type 2 diabetes and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gitte Maria; Vind, Birgitte; Nybo, Mads

    2009-01-01

    the acute effects of insulin on plasma OPG concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obese individuals compared with lean controls. DESIGN: The study population consisted of ten type 2 diabetic, ten obese subjects, and ten lean subjects with no family history of diabetes. METHODS: All subjects...... infusion decreased plasma OPG concentrations in all groups (Pobese and type 2 diabetic individuals (P=0.007). Baseline OPG correlated with fasting insulin, baseline lactate, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic group, and with baseline FFA...... in the lean group. The relative change of OPG in response to insulin correlated inversely with HbA1c and baseline FFA in the lean group. CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma OPG, but with diminished effect in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Increased levels of OPG in arteries...

  1. Evaluation of prenatal RHD typing strategies on cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootkerk-Tax, Martine G. H. M.; Soussan, Aicha Ait; de Haas, Masja; Maaskant-van Wijk, Petra A.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma led to the development of assays to predict the fetal D status with RHD-specific sequences. Few assays are designed in such a way that the fetus can be typed in RHDpsi mothers and that RHDpsi fetuses are correctly typed. Owing to

  2. Plasma insulin response to oral glucose tolerance test in type-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the plasma insulin pattern in type 2 diabetic Nigerians both in the fasting state and in response to a standard oral glucose tolerance test. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Diabetic clinic, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria Nigeria. Subjects: Forty type 2 diabetic patients and thirty six ...

  3. Plasma product treatment in various types of von Willebrand's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, E

    1994-01-01

    Four different virus-inactivated factor VIII concentrates (Haemate P, Behring; Profilate, Alpha, FVIII-VHP-vWF, CRTS), near-pure von Willebrand factor (Facteur Willebrand, CRTS) or one recombinant FVIII preparation (Recombinate, Baxter) were given to one or more patients with different forms of von Willebrand's disease. Duke bleeding time, VIII:C, vWF:Ag, RC of activity, and the multimeric pattern of plasma vWF were monitored. Both Duke bleeding time and the multimeric pattern were normalized after treatment with Haemate P, FVIII-VHP-vWF, or Facteur Willebrand, and to a lesser extent after Profilate. Except in one case, the reduction in bleeding time lasted longer after Haemate P than after the other concentrates. Recombinate had no effect on primary hemostasis, and the half-life of VIII:C was very short. If prompt hemostasis is required, and when pharmacological correction of the defect is impossible, we recommend a concentrate containing both FVIII and the full complement of vWF multimers, but for prophylactic treatment pure von Willebrand factor may be used.

  4. Plasma adrenaline kinetics in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Hilsted, J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1989-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline kinetics (clearance, extraction across the forearm, initial plasma disappearance rate, mean sojourn time, volume of distribution) were studied in sixteen Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients during constant i.v. infusion of tritium labelled adrenaline. In patients with (n...... = 8) and without (n = 8) neuropathy forearm venous plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations as well as plasma clearance of adrenaline based on arterial sampling (1.7 vs 2.1 l/min) were not significantly different. The initial disappearance time (T 1/2) after the infusion of the tritium...... labelled adrenaline had been stopped was significantly prolonged in Type 1 diabetic patients with neuropathy compared to those without (after 20 min infusion 2.7 vs 2.2 min, p less than 0.02, after 75 min infusion 3.7 vs 2.9 min, p less than 0.05). The corresponding values for the mean sojourn time...

  5. Diagnostics of a stationary MPD-type plasma jet with a HCN laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graser, W.; Hoffmann, P.

    1975-01-01

    A HCN laser interferometer of the Ashby-Jephcott type operating at a wavelength of 337 μm was used to measure spatially resolved electron densities in a stationary MPD-type plasma jet with non-LTE behavior. Experiments were performed with and without superimposed magnetic fields up to 0.1 T at the exit of the plasma accelerator. Electron densities were obtained within the limits of 5times10 12 and 10 15 cm -3 with an accuracy better than 10%. Within the axially symmetric expanding plasma of about 15-cm average diameter and 50-cm length the radial resolving power came to less than 1 cm. So this technique has proved to be suitable to fill a gap in the diagnostics of stationary magnetized plasmas in the mean range of electron densities. (auth)

  6. Plasma and muscle myostatin in relation to type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Nielsen, Anders R; Fischer, Christian P

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle tissue, which negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Recent animal studies suggest a role for myostatin in insulin resistance. We evaluated the possible metabolic role of myostatin in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy...

  7. A Novel High-Precision Digital Tunneling Magnetic Resistance-Type Sensor for the Nanosatellites’ Space Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS magnetic sensors are widely used in the nanosatellites field. We proposed a novel high-precision miniaturized three-axis digital tunneling magnetic resistance-type (TMR sensor. The design of the three-axis digital magnetic sensor includes a low-noise sensitive element and high-performance interface circuit. The TMR sensor element can achieve a background noise of 150 pT/Hz1/2 by the vertical modulation film at a modulation frequency of 5 kHz. The interface circuit is mainly composed of an analog front-end current feedback instrumentation amplifier (CFIA with chopper structure and a fully differential 4th-order Sigma-Delta (ΣΔ analog to digital converter (ADC. The low-frequency 1/f noise of the TMR magnetic sensor are reduced by the input-stage and system-stage chopper. The dynamic element matching (DEM is applied to average out the mismatch between the input and feedback transconductor so as to improve the gain accuracy and gain drift. The digital output is achieved by a switched-capacitor ΣΔ ADC. The interface circuit is implemented by a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The performance test of the TMR magnetic sensor system shows that: at a 5 V operating voltage, the sensor can achieve a power consumption of 120 mW, a full scale of ±1 Guass, a bias error of 0.01% full scale (FS, a nonlinearity of x-axis 0.13% FS, y-axis 0.11% FS, z-axis 0.15% FS and a noise density of x-axis 250 pT/Hz1/2 (at 1 Hz, y-axis 240 pT/Hz1/2 (at 1 Hz, z-axis 250 pT/Hz1/2 (at 1 Hz, respectively. This work has a less power consumption, a smaller size, and higher resolution than other miniaturized magnetometers by comparison.

  8. Performance and Vibratory Loads Data From a Wind-Tunnel Test of a Model Helicopter Main-Rotor Blade With a Paddle-Type Tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Mirick, Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to obtain data to permit evaluation of paddle-type tip technology for possible use in future U.S. advanced rotor designs. Data was obtained for both a baseline main-rotor blade and a main-rotor blade with a paddle-type tip. The baseline and paddle-type tip blades were compared with regard to rotor performance, oscillatory pitch-link loads, and 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads. Data was obtained in hover and forward flight over a nominal range of advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.425. Results indicate that the paddle-type tip offers no performance improvements in either hover or forward flight. Pitch-link oscillatory loads for the paddle-type tip are higher than for the baseline blade, whereas 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads are generally lower.

  9. Increased CXCR3 Expression of Infiltrating Plasma Cells in Hunner Type Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Morikawa, Teppei; Maeda, Daichi; Shintani, Yukako; Niimi, Aya; Nomiya, Akira; Nakayama, Atsuhito; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    An up-regulated CXCR3 pathway and affluent plasma cell infiltration are characteristic features of Hunner type interstitial cystitis (HIC). We further examined these two features using bladder biopsy samples taken from 27 patients with HIC and 15 patients with non-IC cystitis as a control. The number of CD3-positive T lymphocytes, CD20-positive B lymphocytes, CD138-positive plasma cells, and CXCR3-positive cells was quantified by digital image analysis. Double-immunofluorescence for CXCR3 and CD138 was used to detect CXCR3 expression in plasma cells. Correlations between CXCR3 positivity and lymphocytic and plasma cell numbers and clinical parameters were explored. The density of CXCR3-positive cells showed no significant differences between HIC and non-IC cystitis specimens. However, distribution of CXCR3-positivity in plasma cells indicated co-localization of CXCR3 with CD138 in HIC specimens, but not in non-IC cystitis specimens. The number of CXCR3-positive cells correlated with plasma cells in HIC specimens alone. Infiltration of CXCR3-positive cells was unrelated to clinical parameters of patients with HIC. These results suggest that infiltration of CXCR3-positive plasma cells is a characteristic feature of HIC. The CXCR3 pathway and specific immune responses may be involved in accumulation/retention of plasma cells and pathophysiology of the HIC bladder. PMID:27339056

  10. Separated Type Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Microjets Array for Maskless Microscale Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maskless etching approaches such as microdischarges and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs have been studied recently. Nonetheless, a simple, long lifetime, and efficient maskless etching method is still a challenge. In this work, a separated type maskless etching system based on atmospheric pressure He/O2 plasma jet and microfabricated Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS nozzle have been developed with advantages of simple-structure, flexibility, and parallel processing capacity. The plasma was generated in the glass tube, forming the micron level plasma jet between the nozzle and the surface of polymer. The plasma microjet was capable of removing photoresist without masks since it contains oxygen reactive species verified by spectra measurement. The experimental results illustrated that different features of microholes etched by plasma microjet could be achieved by controlling the distance between the nozzle and the substrate, additive oxygen ratio, and etch time, the result of which is consistent with the analysis result of plasma spectra. In addition, a parallel etching process was also realized by plasma microjets array.

  11. Typical Underwater Tunnels in the Mainland of China and Related Tunneling Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairong Hong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many underwater tunnels have been constructed in the mainland of China, and great progress has been made in related tunneling technologies. This paper presents the history and state of the art of underwater tunnels in the mainland of China in terms of shield-bored tunnels, drill-and-blast tunnels, and immersed tunnels. Typical underwater tunnels of these types in the mainland of China are described, along with innovative technologies regarding comprehensive geological prediction, grouting-based consolidation, the design and construction of large cross-sectional tunnels with shallow cover in weak strata, cutting tool replacement under limited drainage and reduced pressure conditions, the detection and treatment of boulders, the construction of underwater tunnels in areas with high seismic intensity, and the treatment of serious sedimentation in a foundation channel of immersed tunnels. Some suggestions are made regarding the three potential great strait-crossing tunnels—the Qiongzhou Strait-Crossing Tunnel, Bohai Strait-Crossing Tunnel, and Taiwan Strait-Crossing Tunnel—and issues related to these great strait-crossing tunnels that need further study are proposed. Keywords: Underwater tunnel, Strait-crossing tunnel, Shield-bored tunnel, Immersed tunnel, Drill and blast

  12. Reduced resistance drift in tunnel junctions using confined tunnel barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowski, Z. S.; Pomeroy, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions with the aluminum oxide tunnel barriers confined between cobalt electrodes exhibit less resistance drift over time than junctions that utilize a thick, unconfined aluminum electrode. The improved long time stability is attributed to better initial oxide quality achieved through confinement (use of a potential energy well for the oxygen) and plasma oxidation. In this work, Co/AlOx/Co and Co/Al/AlOx/Co tunnel junction aging is compared over a period of approximately 9 months using transport measurements and Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) based modelling. The Co/AlOx/Co (confined) tunnel junction resistance increased by (32 ± 6) % over 5400 h, while Co/Al/AlOx/Co (unconfined) tunnel junction resistance increased by (85 ± 23) % over 5200 h. Fit parameters for the tunnel barrier width and potential energy barriers were extracted using WKB transport modelling. These values change only a small amount in the confined Co/AlOx/Co tunnel junction but show a significant drift in the unconfined Co/AlOx/Co tunnel junction.

  13. Comparing transfusion reaction rates for various plasma types: a systematic review and meta-analysis/regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van Hout, Fabienne M A; Schipperus, Martin R; le Cessie, Saskia; Middelburg, Rutger A; Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2017-09-01

    We estimated rates for common plasma-associated transfusion reactions and compared reported rates for various plasma types. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles that reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Random-effects pooled rates were calculated and compared between plasma types. Meta-regression was used to compare various plasma types with regard to their reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Forty-eight studies reported transfusion reaction rates for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; mixed-sex and male-only), amotosalen INTERCEPT FFP, methylene blue-treated FFP, and solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma. Random-effects pooled average rates for FFP were: allergic reactions, 92/10 5 units transfused (95% confidence interval [CI], 46-184/10 5 units transfused); febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs), 12/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 7-22/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), 6/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1-30/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), 1.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1.2-2.7/10 5 units transfused); and anaphylactic reactions, 0.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 0-45.7/10 5 units transfused). Risk differences between plasma types were not significant for allergic reactions, TACO, or anaphylactic reactions. Methylene blue-treated FFP led to fewer FNHTRs than FFP (risk difference = -15.3 FNHTRs/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -24.7 to -7.1 reactions/10 5 units transfused); and male-only FFP led to fewer cases of TRALI than mixed-sex FFP (risk difference = -0.74 TRALI/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -2.42 to -0.42 injuries/10 5 units transfused). Meta-regression demonstrates that the rate of FNHTRs is lower for methylene blue-treated compared with FFP, and the rate of TRALI is lower for male-only than for mixed-sex FFP; whereas no significant differences are observed between plasma types for allergic reactions, TACO

  14. Plasma Glucose and Serum Ceruloplasmin in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Jeppu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 2 and metabolic syndrome are conditions associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2. Plasma glucose (fasting/postprandial and serum ceruloplasmin levels and their relationship were studied. Study population consisted of 150 individuals—50 individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2, 50 individuals with metabolic syndrome, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Plasma levels of fasting and postprandial glucose were measured along with serum ceruloplasmin. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson correlation. The fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels in metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2 were increased when compared to control. Serum ceruloplasmin level was 327.8 ± 68.9 in control, 227.3 ± 46.8 in metabolic syndrome, and 194.0 ± 49.6 in diabetes mellitus type 2 individuals. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the fasting, postprandial plasma glucose, and serum ceruloplasmin in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Changes of plasma angiogenic factors during chronic resistance exercise in type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, S.P.; Gharakhanlou, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Exercise has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic resistance exercise on some plasma angiogenic factors in type 1 diabetic rats. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, diabetic and diabetic trained (n = 10 each). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats in the trained group undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble form of VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) were determined. Results: We found a significant reduction in plasma NO concentrations in diabetic rats compared to the controls (p 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 concentrations between diabetic sedentary and trained groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, VEGF/sFlt-1 ratios in diabetic animals were lower than the control group and resistance exercise could not increase this ratio in diabetic animals (p > 0.05) Conclusion: Resistance exercise could not change plasma VEGF, sFlt-1 and VEGF/sFlt-1 ratio. However, it increased plasma NO concentrations in diabetic animals. More studies are needed to determine the effects of this type of exercise on the angiogenesis process. (author)

  16. Inclusion of plasma lipid species improves classification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of individuals with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance have fasting plasma glucose less than 6.1 mmol/L and so are not identified with fasting plasma glucose measurements. In this study, we sought to evaluate the utility of plasma lipids to improve on fasting plasma glucose and other standard risk factors for the identification of type 2 diabetes or those at increased risk (impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our diabetes risk classification model was trained and cross-validated on a cohort 76 individuals with undiagnosed diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance and 170 gender and body mass index matched individuals with normal glucose tolerance, all with fasting plasma glucose less than 6.1 mmol/L. The inclusion of 21 individual plasma lipid species to triglycerides and HbA1c as predictors in the diabetes risk classification model resulted in a statistically significant gain in area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.049 (p<0.001 and a net reclassification improvement of 10.5% (p<0.001. The gain in area under the curve and net reclassification improvement were subsequently validated on a separate cohort of 485 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma lipid species can improve the performance of classification models based on standard lipid and non-lipid risk factors.

  17. Recognition tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, Stuart; He Jin; Zhang Peiming; Chang Shuai; Huang Shuo; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. (topical review)

  18. Recognition tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Stuart; He Jin; Zhang Peiming; Chang Shuai; Huang Shuo [Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Sankey, Otto [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 1862 53, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-02

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. (topical review)

  19. A Compact Disk Type Plasma Propulsion System with Modulated Magnetic Field for Nanoscale Space Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Ueda, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yukihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki

    2008-01-01

    A compact 5 mm disk type plasma thruster simply composed of only a set of antenna windings and bias field coil which produces significant thrust of 0.74 mN with rotating magnetic field has been proposed and successfully developed for future applications to low altitude nanosatellites. The key technology issue is that the rotating speed is set above the ion plasma frequency but far below the electron plasma frequency, in order to produce the electron drag current and axial electric field as a consequence of the interaction with the bias field. The formation of axial electric field was confirmed and the produced plasma density was >6x10 18 m -3 , whereas the power consumption is 500 W in the inductively coupled mode of operation. The anticipated thrust density and specific thrust could potentially be extended to 7.64 Nm -2 and 850 s, respectively, which is comparable to conventional Hall effect thrusters.

  20. Positive association of plasma leptin with sleep quality in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tomoe; Morioka, Tomoaki; Yoda, Koichiro; Toi, Norikazu; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Maruo, Saori; Yamazaki, Yuko; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Motoyama, Koka; Yamada, Shinsuke; Shoji, Tetsuo; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki

    2018-02-26

    Poor sleep quality is associated with obesity and diabetes. The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, was recently shown to underlie the link between abnormal sleep and obesity. We aimed to investigate the association between leptin and sleep quality in type 2 diabetes patients. In the present cross-sectional study, we studied 182 type 2 diabetes patients, among whom 113 were diagnosed with obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ). Fasting plasma leptin levels were measured, and sleep architecture was assessed using single-channel electroencephalography. Using unadjusted analyses, the obese type 2 diabetes patients, but not their non-obese counterparts, showed a positive correlation between plasma leptin levels and a parameter for deep sleep assessed by delta power during the first sleep cycle. Multivariate analysis showed that plasma leptin levels were positively associated with delta power, but not with the total sleep time, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, body mass index and the apnea-hypopnea index, in the obesity group. However, neither delta power nor total sleep time was associated with leptin in the non-obesity group. Plasma leptin levels are independently associated with sleep quality in obese, but not in non-obese, type 2 diabetes patients. The present study indicates a favorable relationship between leptin and sleep quality in obese type 2 diabetes patients. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Type 2 diabetes associated changes in the plasma non-esterified fatty acids, oxylipins and endocannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has profound effects on metabolism that can be detected in plasma. While increases in circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are well described in T2D, effects on circulating signaling lipids have received little attention. Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are classes of ...

  2. Plasma chitotriosidase and CCL18: Early biochemical surrogate markers in type B Niemann-Pick disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, J.; Wijburg, F. A.; Hollak, C. E.; Groener, J. E.; Verhoek, M.; Scheij, S.; Aten, J.; Boot, R. G.; Aerts, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Type B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a nonneuronopathic lysosomal storage disorder which is characterized by accumulation of sphingomyelin-laden macrophages. The availability of plasma markers for storage cells may be of great value in facilitating therapeutic decisions. Given the similarity of the

  3. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However, the impact...

  4. Inclusion of plasma lipid species improves classification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Christopher K; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Jowett, Jeremy B M; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan; Meikle, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    A significant proportion of individuals with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance have fasting plasma glucose less than 6.1 mmol/L and so are not identified with fasting plasma glucose measurements. In this study, we sought to evaluate the utility of plasma lipids to improve on fasting plasma glucose and other standard risk factors for the identification of type 2 diabetes or those at increased risk (impaired glucose tolerance). Our diabetes risk classification model was trained and cross-validated on a cohort 76 individuals with undiagnosed diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance and 170 gender and body mass index matched individuals with normal glucose tolerance, all with fasting plasma glucose less than 6.1 mmol/L. The inclusion of 21 individual plasma lipid species to triglycerides and HbA1c as predictors in the diabetes risk classification model resulted in a statistically significant gain in area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.049 (plipid species can improve the performance of classification models based on standard lipid and non-lipid risk factors.

  5. DNA of Erythroid Origin Is Present in Human Plasma and Informs the Types of Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W K Jacky; Gai, Wanxia; Sun, Kun; Wong, Raymond S M; Chan, Rebecca W Y; Jiang, Peiyong; Chan, Natalie P H; Hui, Winnie W I; Chan, Anthony W H; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Ng, Siew C; Law, Man-Fai; Chan, K C Allen; Chiu, Rossa W K; Lo, Y M Dennis

    2017-10-01

    There is much interest in the tissue of origin of circulating DNA in plasma. Data generated using DNA methylation markers have suggested that hematopoietic cells of white cell lineages are important contributors to the circulating DNA pool. However, it is not known whether cells of the erythroid lineage would also release DNA into the plasma. Using high-resolution methylation profiles of erythroblasts and other tissue types, 3 genomic loci were found to be hypomethylated in erythroblasts but hypermethylated in other cell types. We developed digital PCR assays for measuring erythroid DNA using the differentially methylated region for each locus. Based on the methylation marker in the ferrochelatase gene, erythroid DNA represented a median of 30.1% of the plasma DNA of healthy subjects. In subjects with anemia of different etiologies, quantitative analysis of circulating erythroid DNA could reflect the erythropoietic activity in the bone marrow. For patients with reduced erythropoietic activity, as exemplified by aplastic anemia, the percentage of circulating erythroid DNA was decreased. For patients with increased but ineffective erythropoiesis, as exemplified by β-thalassemia major, the percentage was increased. In addition, the plasma concentration of erythroid DNA was found to correlate with treatment response in aplastic anemia and iron deficiency anemia. Plasma DNA analysis using digital PCR assays targeting the other 2 differentially methylated regions showed similar findings. Erythroid DNA is a hitherto unrecognized major component of the circulating DNA pool and is a noninvasive biomarker for differential diagnosis and monitoring of anemia. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  6. Plasma calprotectin and its association with cardiovascular disease manifestations, obesity and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Lise; Nybo, Mads; Poulsen, Mikael Kj?r; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Dahl, Jordi; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasma calprotectin is a potential biomarker of cardiovascular disease (CVD), insulin resistance (IR), and obesity. We examined the relationship between plasma calprotectin concentrations, CVD manifestations and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in order to evaluate plasma calprotectin as a risk assessor of CVD in diabetic patients without known CVD. Methods An automated immunoassay for determination of plasma calprotectin was developed ...

  7. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Morillas-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD.

  8. MIXED HYALINE VASCULAR AND PLASMA CELL TYPE CASTLEMAN’S DISEASE: REPORT OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asgarani

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Castleman’s disease (angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia includes a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders. The cause of this disease remains uncertain. There are two types of localized Castleman’s disease: the more common hyaline vascular and the plasma cell types. Mixed variant is an uncommon localized lesion in general population. The lesions can occur in any part of the body that contains lymphoid tissue, although seventy percent are found in the anterior mediastinum. We report a thirty years old boy with Castleman’s disease who presented with fever, anorexia, weight loss,sweating, anemia and abdominal mass. The histologic examination of the biopsy specimens revealed a mixed hyaline vascular and plasma cell type of Castleman’s disease.

  9. Repetitive plasma loads typical for ITER Type-I ELMS; simulation in QSPA Kh-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tsarenko, A.V.; Landman, I.

    2005-01-01

    The power loads on current tokamaks associated with the Type I ELMs generally do not affect the lifetime of divertor elements. However, the ITER ELMs may lead to unacceptable lifetime; their loads are estimated as QELM(1-3) MJ/m 2 at t = 0.1-1 ms and the repetition frequency of an order of 1 Hz (∼ 400 ELMs during each ITER pulse). Such plasma energy loads expected for ITER ELMs are not achieved in existing tokamaks. Therefore powerful plasma accelerators are used at present for study of plasma-target interaction and for numerical models validation. Quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators (QSPA), which characterized by essentially longer duration of plasma stream generation in comparison with pulsed plasma guns, became especially attractive facilities for investigations of plasma-surface interaction in conditions of high heat loads simulating the ITER disruptions and ELMs. The paper presents experimental study of energy characteristics of the plasma streams generated with quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50 and the main features of plasma interaction with material surfaces in dependence on plasma heat loads. The samples of pure sintered tungsten of EU trademark have been exposed to hydrogen plasma streams produced by the accelerator. To estimate the range of tolerable loads the effects of ELMs on the lifetime of plasma facing components have been experimentally simulated for large numbers of impacts with varying energy density. The experiments were performed with up to 450 pulses of the duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads in the range of 0.5 - 1.2 MJ/m 2 . At this calorimetry (both at plasma stream and at the target surface), piezo-detectors as well as spectroscopy and interferometry measurements were applied to determine the impacting plasma parameters in different regimes of operation. A threshold character of morphological changes on the tungsten surface under the melting in respect to the pulses number is demonstrated. The number of initial

  10. INCAS SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu STOICA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The INCAS Subsonic Wind Tunnel is a closed circuit, continuous, atmospheric pressure facility with a maximum speed of 110 m/s. The test section is octagonal ,of 2.5 m wide, 2.0 m high and 4 m long. The tunnel is powered by a 1200 kW, air cooled variable speed DC motor which drives a 12 blade, 3.5 m diameter fan and is equipped with a six component pyramidal type external mechanical balance with a 700 Kgf maximum lift capacity.The angle of attack range is between -45º and +45º while the yaw angle range is between -140º and +216º .The data acquisition system has been modified recently to allow the recording of all test data on a PC - type computer using LABVIEW and a PXI – type chassis containing specialized data acquisition modules.The tunnel is equipped with a variable frequency electrical supply system for powered models and a 10 bar compressed air supply for pneumatic flow control applications.In the recent years the subsonic wind tunnel has been intensively used for tests within several European projects (AVERT, CESAR and others.

  11. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  12. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor forms in plasma as markers of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik J; Thurison, Tine; Ryndel, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To test if circulating forms of the soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are potential biomarkers of plaque vulnerability. DESIGN AND METHODS:: Plasma concentrations of suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III) and uPAR(I) were measured by time-resolved fluorescence...... immunoassays in Caucasian patients operated for symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (n=255). Local suPAR release from plaques into the circulation was assessed in plasma passing retrogradely over the plaque in the carotid artery, collected during surgery (n=7). RESULTS:: The suPAR(I-III) (P=0.03) and su......PAR(II-III) (P=0.006) concentrations were higher after ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks, i.e., clinical subgroups associated with poorer prognosis and a less stable plaque phenotype, than after amaurosis fugax. Slightly elevated suPAR(I-III) levels were found in plasma from the carotid lesion...

  13. Two stream instability in n-type gallium arsenide semiconductor quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Muley, Apurva

    2018-01-01

    By using quantum hydrodynamic model, we derive a generalized dielectric response function for two stream instability (convective only) in n-type gallium arsenide semiconductor plasma. We investigate the phase and amplification profiles of two stream instability with externally applied electric field ranging from 2600 to 4000 kV m-1 in presence of non-dimensional quantum parameter- H. In this range, a significant number of electrons in satellite valley become comparable to the number of electrons in central valley. The presence of quantum corrections in plasma medium induces two novel modes; one of it has amplifying nature and propagates in forward direction. It also modifies the spectral profile of four pre-existing modes in classical plasma. The existence of two stream instability is also established analytically by deriving the real part of longitudinal electrokinetic power flow density.

  14. Plasma copeptin as marker of cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bar-Shalom, Dana; Poulsen, Mikael K; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2014-01-01

    Recently, copeptin was found associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients treated in primary care. This study aimed to evaluate whether plasma copeptin correlated to CVD in asymptomatic T2DM patients intensively investigated...... for sub-clinical CVD. A total of 302 T2DM patients referred to the Diabetes Clinic at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, entered the study. None of the patients had known or suspected CVD. As a control group, 30 healthy adults were recruited from the DanRisk study - a random sample of middle-aged Danes...... correlations between creatinine, copeptin levels and PAD in T2DM patients, and if confirmed, plasma copeptin combined with plasma creatinine could be a candidate for PAD screening in T2DM patients....

  15. Cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma from moderately hypercholesterolaemic type 1 diabetic patients is enhanced, and is unaffected by simvastatin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R; Kerstens, MN; Sluiter, WJ; Groen, AK; van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    Cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma is important in reverse cholesterol transport and may be affected by simvastatin in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In 14 moderately hypercholesterolaemic type 1 diabetic and 13 healthy men we determined plasma (apo)lipoproteins, pre-beta HDL formation, cholesteryl

  16. The changes in plasma endothelin after dosing intervention in type 2 diabetes and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xixiu; Sun Jinfeng; Li Lusheng; Wang Shufang; Zhao Xin

    2002-01-01

    To explore the correlation of endothelin (ET), insulin resistance and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes, the serum concentrations of OGTT, INS, C-P and plasma ET were measured by radioimmunoassay in 30 normal subjects and 82 patients with type 2 diabetes. ET level had a linear negative correlationship with IAI. The level of ET were significantly greater in group with microangiopathy than in group without microangiopathy (P<0.01). Insulin sensitivity are strongly correlated with vascular endothelial cells. The intervention may play an important role in decreasing insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes, and it is a vascular complications

  17. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentration for diagnosis of acute heart failure with renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Atik Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP is the diagnostic tool for acute heart failure (AHF.This natriu­retic peptide level depends on renal function, through renal metabolism and excretion. Therefore we examined the effect ofrenal impairment on plasma BNP level during diagnosis of AHF.Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of renal dysfunction on plasma BNP level and to determine appropriate cutoff value of plasma BNP to diagnose the patients of AHF with renal insufficiency.Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the Depart­ment of Biochemistry Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU. The study was done among 90 AHF patients selected from cardiology emergency department during the period of July 2012 to June 2013. After enrollment plasma BNP concentration was measured and eGFR was estimated from serum creatinine by the four parameter Modifica­tion of Diet and Renal Disease (MORD equation and then grouped into two groups on the basis of empirical cut off value of eGFR 60 ml/min/1.73 m2Results: In this study a significant negative correlation was found between plasma BNP evel and eGFR (P<0.001 , with higher BNP levels observed as eGFR declined. The optimal BNP cutoff value for diagno­sis of AHF patients with renal insufficiency was 824 pg/ml. At this cutoff level AHF with renal insufficiency could be diagnosed with sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 71 %, respectively.Conclusions: By adjusting the cutoff value, plasma BNP can be used to diagnose AHF with renal insufficiency with an acceptable sensitivity and specificity.

  18. Plasma heme oxygenase-1 concentration is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating concentrations of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 have been recently reported to be elevated in several chronic disorders. However, no study has ever examined the association between circulating HO-1 concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 581 cases with newly-diagnosed T2DM (New-T2DM and 611 comparison controls were recruited in this two-phase case-control study, comprising 420 cases and 429 controls collected in the first phase study and 161 cases and 182 controls in the second phase replication study. Analyses, using both separated data and combined data from the two-phase studies, show that plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly increased in New-T2DM cases compared to controls (P<0.001. Plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with plasma glucose concentrations, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR (P<0.001. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and family history of diabetes, the ORs for New-T2DM in the highest quartile of plasma HO-1 concentrations, compared with the lowest, was 8.23 (95% CI 5.55-12.21; P for trend <0.001. The trend remained significant after additional adjustment for fasting plasma glucose/insulin, HOMA-beta/HOMA-IR, TC/TG, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension, and even in further stratification analysis by age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with higher ORs for New-T2DM, which add more knowledge regarding the important role of oxidative stress in T2DM. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of plasma HO-1, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM and its complications.

  19. Carbonylated plasma proteins as potential biomarkers of obesity induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Fedorova, Maria; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2014-11-07

    Protein carbonylation is a common nonenzymatic oxidative post-translational modification, which is often considered as biomarker of oxidative stress. Recent evidence links protein carbonylation also to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), though the protein targets of carbonylation in human plasma have not been identified. In this study, we profiled carbonylated proteins in plasma samples obtained from lean individuals and obese patients with or without T2DM. The plasma samples were digested with trypsin, carbonyl groups were derivatized with O-(biotinylcarbazoylmethyl)hydroxylamine, enriched by avidin affinity chromatography, and analyzed by RPC-MS/MS. Signals of potentially modified peptides were targeted in a second LC-MS/MS analysis to retrieve the peptide sequence and the modified residues. A total of 158 unique carbonylated proteins were identified, of which 52 were detected in plasma samples of all three groups. Interestingly, 36 carbonylated proteins were detected only in obese patients with T2DM, whereas 18 were detected in both nondiabetic groups. The carbonylated proteins originated mostly from liver, plasma, platelet, and endothelium. Functionally, they were mainly involved in cell adhesion, signaling, angiogenesis, and cytoskeletal remodeling. Among the identified carbonylated proteins were several candidates, such as VEGFR-2, MMP-1, argin, MKK4, and compliment C5, already connected before to diabetes, obesity and metabolic diseases.

  20. Plasma succinylacetone is persistently raised after liver transplantation in tyrosinaemia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David C; Preece, Mary Anne; Holme, Elisabeth; Lloyd, Carla; Newsome, Phil N; McKiernan, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosinaemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare disorder leading to accumulation of toxic metabolites such as succinylacetone (SA) and a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Children with HT1 traditionally required liver transplantation (OLT) and while the need for this has been reduced by the introduction of nitisinone some still require OLT. SA inhibits the enzyme porphobilinogen (PBG) synthase and its activity can be used as a marker of active SA. Elevated urinary SA post OLT has been reported previously. This study describes a novel finding of elevated plasma SA following OLT for HT1. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients treated for HT1 at our institution from 1989-2010. Thirteen patients had an OLT for HT1. In patients who received nitisinone prior to OLT, mean urinary and plasma SA were elevated prior to treatment but normalised by the time of OLT (p ≤ 0.01). Mean PBG synthase activity increased from 0.032 to 0.99 nkat/gHb (ref range 0.58-1.25) at the time of OLT (p PBG synthase activity were not available prior to OLT for this group. Following OLT, mean urinary and plasma SA were elevated in all for the duration of follow-up and associated with low-normal PBG synthase activity. Urinary and plasma SA levels are elevated following OLT for HT1. Low-normal PBG synthase activity suggests the plasma SA may be active. The clinical significance of this is unclear.

  1. Characterization of plasma etching damage on p-type GaN using Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M.; Mikamo, K.; Ichimura, M.; Kanechika, M.; Ishiguro, O.; Kachi, T.

    2008-01-01

    The plasma etching damage in p-type GaN has been characterized. From current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes, it was revealed that inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching causes an increase in series resistance of the Schottky diodes and compensation of acceptors in p-type GaN. We investigated deep levels near the valence band of p-type GaN using current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and no deep level originating from the ICP etching damage was observed. On the other hand, by capacitance DLTS measurements for n-type GaN, we observed an increase in concentration of a donor-type defect with an activation energy of 0.25 eV after the ICP etching. The origin of this defect would be due to nitrogen vacancies. We also observed this defect by photocapacitance measurements for ICP-etched p-type GaN. For both n- and p-type GaN, we found that the low bias power ICP etching is effective to reduce the concentration of this defect introduced by the high bias power ICP etching

  2. HLA class I sequence-based typing using DNA recovered from frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Laura A; Abdur Rahman, Manal; Ng, Carmond; Le, Anh Q; Milloy, M-J; Mo, Theresa; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2012-08-31

    We describe a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method for intermediate-to-high-resolution sequence-based HLA class I typing using frozen plasma as a source of genomic DNA. The plasma samples investigated had a median age of 8.5 years. Total nucleic acids were isolated from matched frozen PBMC (~2.5 million) and plasma (500 μl) samples from a panel of 25 individuals using commercial silica-based kits. Extractions yielded median [IQR] nucleic acid concentrations of 85.7 [47.0-130.0]ng/μl and 2.2 [1.7-2.6]ng/μl from PBMC and plasma, respectively. Following extraction, ~1000 base pair regions spanning exons 2 and 3 of HLA-A, -B and -C were amplified independently via nested PCR using universal, locus-specific primers and sequenced directly. Chromatogram analysis was performed using commercial DNA sequence analysis software and allele interpretation was performed using a free web-based tool. HLA-A, -B and -C amplification rates were 100% and chromatograms were of uniformly high quality with clearly distinguishable mixed bases regardless of DNA source. Concordance between PBMC and plasma-derived HLA types was 100% at the allele and protein levels. At the nucleotide level, a single partially discordant base (resulting from a failure to call both peaks in a mixed base) was observed out of >46,975 bases sequenced (>99.9% concordance). This protocol has previously been used to perform HLA class I typing from a variety of genomic DNA sources including PBMC, whole blood, granulocyte pellets and serum, from specimens up to 30 years old. This method provides comparable specificity to conventional sequence-based approaches and could be applied in situations where cell samples are unavailable or DNA quantities are limiting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  4. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However, the impact of hemog...... of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population....

  5. Plasma apolipoprotein M responses to statin and fibrate administration in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelle, Paul J W H; Ahnström, Josefin; Dikkeschei, Bert D

    2010-01-01

    by statin or fibrate administration in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Fourteen type 2 diabetic patients participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study which included three 8-week treatment periods with simvastatin (40mg daily), bezafibrate (400mg daily), and their combination. Results: Apo......M was decreased by 7% in response to simvastatin (P administration. Plasma apoM concentrations correlated positively with apoB-containing lipoprotein measures at baseline and during placebo (P

  6. Space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compensated semiconductor quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Ghosh, B.

    2018-03-01

    Using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and standard reductive perturbation method, we have investigated the formation and characteristics of space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compensated drifting semiconductor plasma with varying doping profiles. Through numerical analysis, it is shown that the structures of space-charge solitary waves and double layers depend significantly on electron drift and compensation parameter which measures a comparative proportion of the donor, acceptor and intrinsic ion concentrations.

  7. Voltage- and Light-Controlled Spin Properties of a Two-Dimensional Hole Gas in p-Type GaAs/AlAs Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeti, H. V. A.; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Taylor, D.; Henini, M.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the spin properties of a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at the contact layer of a p-type GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD). We have measured the polarized-resolved photoluminescence of the RTD as a function of bias voltage, laser intensity and external magnetic field up to 15T. By tuning the voltage and the laser intensity, we are able to change the spin-splitting from the 2DHG from almost 0 meV to 5 meV and its polarization degree from - 40% to + 50% at 15T. These results are attributed to changes of the local electric field applied to the two-dimensional gas which affects the valence band and the hole Rashba spin-orbit effect.

  8. Device simulation of GeSn/GeSiSn pocket n-type tunnel field-effect transistor for analog and RF applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suyuan; Zheng, Jun; Xue, Chunlai; Li, Chuanbo; Zuo, Yuhua; Cheng, Buwen; Wang, Qiming

    2017-11-01

    We present the device simulations of analog and radio frequency (RF) performances of four double-gate pocket n-type tunneling field-effect transistors (NTFETs). The direct current (DC), analog and RF performances of the Ge-homo, GeSn-homo, GeSn/Ge and GeSn/GeSiSn NTFETs, are compared. The GeSn NTFETs greatly improve the on-state current (ION) and average subthreshold slope (SS), when compared with the Ge NTFET. Moreover, the GeSn/GeSiSn NTFET has the largest intrinsic gain (Av), and exhibits a suppressed ambipolar behavior, improved cut-off frequency (fT), and gain bandwidth product (GBW), according to the analyzed analog and RF figures of merit (FOM). Therefore, it can be concluded that the GeSn/GeSiSn NTFET has great potential as a promising candidate for the realization of future generation low-power analog/RF applications.

  9. Impacts of the Callipyge mutation on ovine plasma metabolites and muscle fibre type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness.

  10. Association of Plasma Ghrelin Levels with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Saudi Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qarni, Ali Ahmed; Joatar, Faris Elbahi; Das, Nagalla; Awad, Mohamed; Eltayeb, Mona; Al-Zubair, Ahmed Gasim; Ali, Muhalab E.; Al Masaud, Abdulaziz; Shire, Abdirashid M.; Gumaa, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the exact mechanism of insulin resistance (IR) has not yet been established, IR is the hallmark characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and IR in Saudi subjects with T2DM. Methods Patients with T2DM (n=107, cases) and non-diabetic apparently healthy subjects (n=101, controls) from Saudi Arabia were included in this study. The biochemical profiles and plasma insulin levels of all subjects were analyzed, and IR was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Active ghrelin levels in plasma were measured using the radioimmunoassay technique. Results Only 46.7% (50 of 107) of the T2DM subjects had IR, including 26% (28 of 107) with severe IR (HOMA-IR ≥5), while 5.9% (six of 101) of the controls had moderate IR (3 ≤HOMA-IR HOMA-IR values were not associated with age, disease duration, or gender. Importantly, T2DM itself and the co-occurrence of IR with T2DM were significantly associated with low plasma ghrelin levels. However, ghrelin levels were inversely correlated with the HOMA-IR index, body weight, and fasting plasma insulin levels, mainly in the control subjects, which was indicative of the breakdown of metabolic homeostasis in T2DM. Conclusion The prevalence of IR was relatively low, and IR may be inversely associated with plasma ghrelin levels among Saudi patients with T2DM. PMID:28555463

  11. Plasma lysophosphatidylcholine levels are reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N Barber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are associated with increased circulating free fatty acids and triacylglycerols. However, very little is known about specific molecular lipid species associated with these diseases. In order to gain further insight into this, we performed plasma lipidomic analysis in a rodent model of obesity and insulin resistance as well as in lean, obese and obese individuals with T2DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipidomic analysis using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed marked changes in the plasma of 12 week high fat fed mice. Although a number of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species were elevated along with of a number of sphingolipids, a particularly interesting finding was the high fat diet (HFD-induced reduction in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC levels. As liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue play an important role in metabolism, we next determined whether the HFD altered LPCs in these tissues. In contrast to our findings in plasma, only very modest changes in tissue LPCs were noted. To determine when the change in plasma LPCs occurred in response to the HFD, mice were studied after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of HFD. The HFD caused rapid alterations in plasma LPCs with most changes occurring within the first week. Consistent with our rodent model, data from our small human cohort showed a reduction in a number of LPC species in obese and obese individuals with T2DM. Interestingly, no differences were found between the obese otherwise healthy individuals and the obese T2DM patients. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of species, our lipidomic profiling revealed a generalized decrease in circulating LPC species in states of obesity. Moreover, our data indicate that diet and adiposity, rather than insulin resistance or diabetes per se, play an important role in altering the plasma LPC profile.

  12. Plasma oxysterols: biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment in spastic paraplegia type 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Cecilia; Lamari, Foudil; Rainteau, Dominique; Lafourcade, Alexandre; Banneau, Guillaume; Humbert, Lydie; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Petit, Elodie; Debs, Rabab; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Ollagnon, Elisabeth; Lavie, Julie; Pilliod, Julie; Coupry, Isabelle; Babin, Patrick J; Guissart, Claire; Benyounes, Imen; Ullmann, Urielle; Lesca, Gaetan; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Labauge, Pierre; Odent, Sylvie; Ewenczyk, Claire; Wolf, Claude; Stevanin, Giovanni; Hajage, David; Durr, Alexandra; Goizet, Cyril; Mochel, Fanny

    2018-01-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias are an expanding and heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by spasticity in the lower limbs. Plasma biomarkers are needed to guide the genetic testing of spastic paraplegia. Spastic paraplegia type 5 (SPG5) is an autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia due to mutations in CYP7B1, which encodes a cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase implicated in cholesterol and bile acids metabolism. We developed a method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to validate two plasma 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) as diagnostic biomarkers in a cohort of 21 patients with SPG5. For 14 patients, SPG5 was initially suspected on the basis of genetic analysis, and then confirmed by increased plasma 25-OHC, 27-OHC and their ratio to total cholesterol. For seven patients, the diagnosis was initially based on elevated plasma oxysterol levels and confirmed by the identification of two causal CYP7B1 mutations. The receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that 25-OHC, 27-OHC and their ratio to total cholesterol discriminated between SPG5 patients and healthy controls with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Taking advantage of the robustness of these plasma oxysterols, we then conducted a phase II therapeutic trial in 12 patients and tested whether candidate molecules (atorvastatin, chenodeoxycholic acid and resveratrol) can lower plasma oxysterols and improve bile acids profile. The trial consisted of a three-period, three-treatment crossover study and the six different sequences of three treatments were randomized. Using a linear mixed effect regression model with a random intercept, we observed that atorvastatin decreased moderately plasma 27-OHC (∼30%, P acids profile in SPG5 patients, with significantly decreased total serum bile acids associated with a relative decrease of ursodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids compared to deoxycholic acid. Treatment with

  13. Plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Ates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the relationship between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDRP and plasma coenzyme Q10(CoQ10 concentration.METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes and PDRP were determined to be the case group (n=50. The control group was consist of healthy individuals (n=50. Plasma CoQ10 and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in both groups.RESULTS: Ubiquinone-10 (Coenzyme Q10 levels in PDRP and control subjects are 3.81±1.19µmol/L and 1.91±0.62µmol/L, respectively. Plasma MDA levels in PDRP and control subjects were 8.16±2µmol/L and 3.44±2.08µmol/L, respectively. Ratio of Ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 in PDRP and control subjects were 0.26±0.16 and 1.41±0.68, respectively.CONCLUSION:The ratio of ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 is found lower in patients with PDRP. High levels of plasma ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 ratio indicate the protective effect on diabetic retinopathy.

  14. Role of decreased Plasma Tryptophan in memory deficits observed in Type-I diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Tabassum, S.; Haider, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between plasma tryptophan and the occurrence of memory dysfunctions in male and female type 1 diabetics. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at two urban healthcare facilities in Karachi from January to June 2009, and comprised 100 diabetic subjects of among whom were 50 men and 50 women. The controls were also similar in number and gender. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the memory impairment in the subjects. Plasma tryptophan was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet method. Students t-test was used to analyse tryptophan data. Results: There was considerable memory impairment in the cases (n=40) compared to the controls (n=5). Results also showed a significant (p<0.01) decrease in plasma tryptophan levels in both male and female diabetic patients. Conclusions: Diabetic subjects exhibited occurrence of memory impairment with concomitant decline in plasma tryptophan levels. The findings indicate that decreased brain uptake of tryptophan and lowered brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels may be responsible for the memory deficits seen in diabetics. (author)

  15. Estimation of parameters for plasma glucose regulation in type-2 diabetics in presence of meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prova; Sutradhar, Ashoke; Datta, Pallab

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the authors propose a methodology for the estimation of glucose masses in stomach (both in solid and liquid forms), intestine, plasma and tissue; insulin masses in portal vein, liver, plasma and interstitial fluid using only plasma glucose measurement. The proposed methodology fuses glucose-insulin homoeostasis model (in the presence of meal intake) and plasma glucose measurement with a Bayesian non-linear filter. Uncertainty of the model over individual variations has been incorporated by adding process noise to the homoeostasis model. The estimation is carried out over 24 h for the healthy people as well as a type II diabetes mellitus patients. In simulation, the estimator follows the truth accurately for both the cases. Moreover, the performances of two non-linear filters, namely the unscented Kalman filter (KF) and cubature quadrature KF are compared in terms of root mean square error. The proposed methodology will be helpful in future to: (i) observe a patient's insulin-glucose profile, (ii) calculate drug dose for any hyperglycaemic patients and (iii) develop a closed-loop controller for automated insulin delivery system.

  16. Discriminating the hemolytic risk of blood type A plasmas using the complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnion, Kenji M; Hair, Pamela S; Krishna, Neel K; Sass, Megan A; Enos, Clinton W; Whitley, Pamela H; Maes, Lanne Y; Goldberg, Corinne L

    2017-03-01

    The agglutination-based cross-matching method is sensitive for antibody binding to red blood cells but is only partially predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis, which is important in many acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. Here, we describe complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assays that directly evaluate complement-mediated hemolysis between individual serum-plasma and red blood cell combinations. The CHUHE assay is used to evaluate correlations between agglutination titers and complement-mediated hemolysis as well as the hemolytic potential of plasma from type A blood donors. Plasma or serum from each type A blood donor was incubated with AB or B red blood cells in the CHUHE assay and measured for free hemoglobin release. CHUHE assays for serum or plasma demonstrate a wide, dynamic range and high sensitivity for complement-mediated hemolysis for individual serum/plasma and red blood cell combinations. CHUHE results suggest that agglutination assays alone are only moderately predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis. CHUHE results also suggest that plasma from particular type A blood donors produce minimal complement-mediated hemolysis, whereas plasma from other type A blood donors produce moderate to high-level complement-mediated hemolysis, depending on the red blood cell donor. The current results indicate that the CHUHE assay can be used to assess complement-mediated hemolysis for plasma or serum from a type A blood donor, providing additional risk discrimination over agglutination titers alone. © 2016 AABB.

  17. Plasma alpha-defensin is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, G.; Tarnow, L.; Astrup, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In an observational, prospective design, 389 patients with long-lasting type 1 diabetes were examined for CVD at study start (1993; baseline) and followed up through the Danish National Register for a median of 10.1 yr (range 0.2-10.4 yr......). Plasma was collected in 1993 and stored at -80 C until analysis of plasma alpha-defensin using an in-house RIA. RESULTS: At baseline, plasma alpha-defensin was significantly higher in patients with than without nephropathy [median and interquartile ranges: 305 (205-321) vs. 223 (182-263) mug/liter; P ....0001]. During follow-up, 98 patients reached the primary end point (fatal and nonfatal events of CVD). Prospectively a baseline alpha-defensin within the upper vs. the lower tertile significantly increased the covariate-adjusted risk for CVD-related morbidity and mortality to a hazard ratio of 2.8 (1...

  18. Low-field tunnel-type magnetoresistance properties of polycrystalline and epitaxial La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 MnO sub 3 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, I B; Choi, S Y

    2000-01-01

    The low-field tunnel-type magnetoresistance (TMB) properties of sol-gel derived polycrystalline and epitaxial La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 MnO sub 3 (LSMO) thin films were investigated. The polycrystalline thin films were fabricated on Si (100) with a thermally oxidized SiO sub 2 layer while the epitaxial thin films were grown on LaAlO sub 3 (001) single-crystal substrates. The epitaxial thin films displayed both typical intrinsic colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and abnormal extrinsic tunnel-type magnetoresistance behaviors. Tunnel-type MR ratio as high as 0.4% were observed in the polycrystalline thin films at a field of 120 Oe at room temperature (300 K) whereas the ratios were less than 0.1% for the epitaxial films in the same field range. The low-field tunnel-type MR of polycrystalline LSMO/SiO sub 2 ?Si (100) thin films originated from the behaviors of the grain-boundary properties.

  19. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem

    2016-01-01

    controls, but differences were not statistically significant due to considerable variation. CONCLUSION: Postprandial plasma patterns of bile acids with FXR agonistic properties (CDCA, DCA, and CA) and FXR antagonistic properties (UDCA) in T2D patients support the notion of a "T2D-bile acid-FGF-19......CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...

  20. Plasma NT-proBNP and White Matter Hyperintensities in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP from the heart as well as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the brain predict cardiovascular (CV) mortality in the general population. The cause of poor prognosis associated with elevated P-NT-proBNP is not known but WMH precede strokes in high risk pop...... populations. We assessed the association between P-NT-proBNP and WMH or brain atrophy measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in type 2 diabetic patients, and age-matched controls.......Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP from the heart as well as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the brain predict cardiovascular (CV) mortality in the general population. The cause of poor prognosis associated with elevated P-NT-proBNP is not known but WMH precede strokes in high risk...

  1. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  2. Plasma calprotectin and its association with cardiovascular disease manifestations, obesity and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Nybo, M.; Poulsen, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plasma calprotectin is a potential biomarker of cardiovascular disease (CVD), insulin resistance (IR), and obesity. We examined the relationship between plasma calprotectin concentrations, CVD manifestations and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2......DM) in order to evaluate plasma calprotectin as a risk assessor of CVD in diabetic patients without known CVD. Methods: An automated immunoassay for determination of plasma calprotectin was developed based on a fecal Calprotectin ELIA, and a reference range was established from 120 healthy adults...

  3. Development and application of W/Cu flat-type plasma facing components at ASIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zhao, S. X.; Sun, Z. X.; Xu, Y.; Li, B.; Wei, R.; Wang, W. J.; Qin, S. G.; Shi, Y. L.; Xie, C. Y.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Missirlian, M.; Guilhem, D.; Liu, G. H.; Yang, Z. S.; Luo, G.-N.

    2017-12-01

    W/Cu flat-type plasma facing components (PFCs) were widely used in divertor of fusion device because of its advantages, such as low cost, light in weight and good machinability. However, it is very difficult to manufacture them due to the large mismatch between the thermo-mechanical properties of W and Cu. Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) has successfully developed W/Cu flat-type PFCs for EAST W/Cu divertor project by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology. This paper presents the development and application of W/Cu flat-type PFCs at ASIPP. The optimized manufacturing process is to cast pure copper onto the rear side of W tiles at temperature of 1200 °C firstly, and then to HIP the W/Cu tiles onto CuCrZr heat sink at temperature of 600 °C, pressure of 150 MPa and duration of 3 h. W/Cu flat-type testing mock-up for EAST survived 1000 cycles at heat load of 5 MW m-2 in high heat flux tests. And then ASIPP prepared two mock-ups for CEA’s tungsten environment in steady-state tokamak (WEST) project. One mock-up withstood successfully 302 cycles of 20 MW m-2, which are far beyond the design requirement. Since 2014, W/Cu flat-type PFCs were wildly used in EAST upper divertor as baffle and dome components which showed excellent performance in 2015 and 2016 campaigns. Given the success in EAST upper divertor, W/Cu flat-type concept is as well applied in the design of actively cooled Langmuir probes which will be mounted onto EAST divertor targets soon.

  4. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...

  5. Validity of F-wave minimal latency of median and ulnar nerves for diagnosis and severity assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome in type II diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Habib, S.S.; Omar, S.A.; Drees, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus is a common problem and is sometimes associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) due to compression of median nerve at wrist. Electrophysiological tests are frequently used for its diagnosis. In this work, F-wave minimal latency (FWML) difference between median and ulnar nerve and F-ratio is used to facilitate the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Thirty control cases were selected who were physically fit for normal electrophysiological values. Thirty-two patients with a long history of type II diabetes mellitus were studied for electro-diagnostic tests. All patients had clinical evidence of CTS. Among all diabetics about 20 cases had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>7.5). F-wave minimal latency (FWML) were measured in median and ulnar nerves and F-ratio of median nerve were also noted. The mean values in different groups were compared using t-test and p greater or equal to 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In control group, the ulnar FWML was either equal or slightly longer that the median FWML value. In CTS group with type II diabetes mellitus the FWML value of median nerve were significantly longer than FWML of the ulnar nerve. Moreover, in uncontrolled diabetic patients the FWML values was very much longer than controlled group. Similarly the F-ratio of median nerve was significantly low. Conclusion: In addition to the specific criteria for CTS diagnosis, the parameters like FWML difference in median and ulnar nerve with reduced F-ratio of median nerve can be useful in establishing the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus. (author)

  6. ABO blood group in relation to plasma lipids and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Xu, Rui-Xia; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a newly-identified member that plays an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis and holds decent promise for hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD) treatment. However, the determining factors of PCSK9 are not well-characterized. It is well established that ABO blood group is associated with cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, the relationship between ABO blood groups and plasma PCSK9 level was examined. A group of 507 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic or interventional coronary angiography were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The baseline clinical characteristics were collected, and the plasma PCSK9 levels were determined using ELISA. As a result, subjects of non-O type had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non high density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apo B), and PCSK9 compared with that of O type (p ABO group was significantly and independently associated with PCSK9 level (β = 7.91, p = 0.009). Additionally, mediation analysis indicated that ≈8%-19% of the effect of ABO blood group on PCSK9 levels was mediated by TC, LDL-C or NHDL-C levels. These data firstly suggested that the ABO blood group might be a significant determinant factor for plasma PCSK9 level. It is also possible that the observed association between PCSK9 and ABO blood group might be in part involved in their CAD susceptibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Krog, Grethe Risum; Rieneck, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis.......The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis....

  8. Fasting plasma C-peptide, glucagon stimulated plasma C-peptide, and urinary C-peptide in relation to clinical type of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjessing, H J; Matzen, L E; Faber, O K

    1989-01-01

    diabetic subjects. Patients were classified clinically as Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects in the presence of at least two of the following criteria: 1) significant ketonuria, 2) insulin treatment started within one year after diagnosis, 3) age of diagnosis less than or equal to 40 years, and 4...... islet B-cell function and were separated according to the 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% C-peptide percentiles. The two classifications of patients were compared by calculating the prevalence of clinical Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in each of the C-peptide classes. This analysis showed that patients......Many patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus are treated with insulin in order to control hyperglycaemia. We studied fasting plasma C-peptide, glucagon stimulated plasma C-peptide, and 24 h urinary C-peptide in relation to clinical type of diabetes in 132 insulin treated...

  9. Measurement of sheath thickness by lining out grooves in the Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Wu Zhiwen; Ning Zhongxi; Wang Xiaogang

    2007-01-01

    Using grooves created along the axial direction of the discharge channel, a method for measuring sheath thickness in Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters has been developed. By distorting the wall surface using these grooves, it is possible to numerically study the effect of the wall surface on the sheath and near wall conductivity. Monte Carlo method is applied to calculate the electron temperature variation with different groove depths. The electron dynamic process in the plasma is described by a test particle method with the electron randomly entering the sheath from the discharge channel and being reflected back. Numerical results show that the reflected electron temperature is hardly affected by the wall surface if the groove depth is much less than the sheath thickness. On the other hand, the reflected electron temperature increases if the groove depth is much greater than the sheath thickness. The reflected electron temperature has a sharp jump when the depth of groove is on the order of the sheath thickness. The simulation is repeated with different sheath thicknesses and the results are the same. Therefore, a diagnosis mean of the sheath thickness can be developed based on the method. Also the simulation results are in accord with the experimental data. Besides, the measurement method may be applicable to other plasma device with similar orthogonal steady state electrical and magnetic fields

  10. The effect of the novel internal-type linear inductive antenna for large area magnetized inductive plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Shulika, Olga.; Kim, K. N.; Yeom, G. Y.; Lee, J. K.

    2004-09-01

    As the technology of plasma processing progresses, there is a continuing demand for higher plasma density, uniformity over large areas and greater control over plasma parameters to optimize the processes of etching, deposition and surface treatment. Traditionally, the external planar ICP sources with low pressure high density plasma have limited scale-up capabilities due to its high impedance accompanied by the large antenna size. Also due to the cost and thickness of their dielectric material in order to generate uniform plasma. In this study the novel internal-type linear inductive antenna system (1,020mm¡¿830mm¡¿437mm) with permanent magnet arrays are investigated to improve both the plasma density and the uniformity of LAPS (Large Area Plasma Source) for FPD processing. Generally plasma discharges are enhanced because the inductance of the novel antenna (termed as the double comb antenna) is lower than that of the serpentine-type antenna and also the magnetic confinement of electron increases the power absorption efficiency. The uniformity is improved by reducing the standing wave effect. The total length of antenna is comparable to the driving rf wavelength to cause the plasma nonuniformity. To describe the discharge phenomenon we have developed a magnetized two-dimensional fluid simulation. This work was supported by National Research Laboratory (NRL) Program of the Korea Ministry of Science and Technology. [References] 1. J.K.Lee, Lin Meng, Y.K.Shin, H,J,Lee and T.H.Chung, ¡°Modeling and Simulation of a Large-Area Plasma Source¡±, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.36(1997) pp. 5714-5723 2. S.E.Park, B.U.Cho, Y.J.Lee*, and G.Y.Yeom*, and J.K.Lee, ¡°The Characteristics of Large Area Processing Plasmas¡±, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., Vol.31 ,No.4(2003) pp. 628-637

  11. Elevated plasma levels of copeptin linked to diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Wu, Xiao-Xuan; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Xiao

    2017-02-15

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) system has been postulated to play a role in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus in human and animal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of plasma copeptin in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Plasma copeptin concentrations were determined in 281 patients with T2DM. At baseline, demographic and clinical information including presence of DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR) was collected. The relationship between copeptin and DR or VTDR was investigated using logistic regression. T2DM participants with DR or VTDR had significantly higher plasma copeptin concentrations on admission (P predict DR and VDTR demonstrated areas under the curve for copeptin of 0.784 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.724-0.844) and 0.834 (95% CI 0.781-0.904), respectively, which were superior to those for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (DR AUC 0.736, 95% CI 0.676-0.797; VTDR AUC 0.754, 95% CI 0.703-0.828; P 3rd quartile) to be an independent marker of DR (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.04-6.79; P < 0.0001) and VTDR (OR 4.32, 95% CI 2.12-8.14; P < 0.0001). We found that increased plasma copeptin concentrations were an independent marker of DR and VDTR in Chinese patients with T2DM, suggesting a possible role of copeptin in the pathogenesis of DR complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stacy R.; Ngo, Jerry; Flores, Rebecca; Midyett, Jason; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Blake, Donald R.; Galassetti, Pietro R.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of diabetes mellitus, affecting tens of millions of patients, requires frequent assessment of plasma glucose. Patient compliance for sufficient testing is often reduced by the unpleasantness of current methodologies, which require blood samples and often cause pain and skin callusing. We propose that the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as a novel, alternative, noninvasive means to monitor glycemia in these patients. Seventeen healthy (9 females and 8 males, 28.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eight type 1 diabetic (T1DM) volunteers (5 females and 3 males, 25.8 ± 1.7 yr) were enrolled in a 240-min triphasic intravenous dextrose infusion protocol (baseline, hyperglycemia, euglycemia-hyperinsulinemia). In T1DM patients, insulin was also administered (using differing protocols on 2 repeated visits to separate the effects of insulinemia on breath composition). Exhaled breath and room air samples were collected at 12 time points, and concentrations of ∼100 VOCs were determined by gas chromatography and matched with direct plasma glucose measurements. Standard least squares regression was used on several subsets of exhaled gases to generate multilinear models to predict plasma glucose for each subject. Plasma glucose estimates based on two groups of four gases each (cluster A: acetone, methyl nitrate, ethanol, and ethyl benzene; cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone) displayed very strong correlations with glucose concentrations (0.883 and 0.869 for clusters A and B, respectively) across nearly 300 measurements. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately predict glycemia through exhaled breath analysis over a broad range of clinically relevant concentrations in both healthy and T1DM subjects. PMID:21467303

  13. The plasma osteoprotegerin level and osteoprotegerin expression in renal biopsy tissue are increased in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S-T; Zhang, C-Y; Zhang, C-M; Rong, W

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the plasma osteoprotegerin level and osteoprotegerin expression in renal biopsy tissue in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. Plasma osteoprotegerin level was measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 48 type 2 diabetes with normoalbuminuria, 48 patients with microalbuminuria, 44 patients with macroalbuminuria and 40 healthy persons. Part of diabetes patients with nephropathy were performed kidney biopsy by ultrasound guide. The osteoprotegerin expression in kidney biopsy tissue is examined by immunohistochemistry. The plasma osteoprotegerin levels were significantly elevated in patients with microalbuminuria (3.73±0.75 ng/l) and macroalbuminuria (4.68±0.82 ng/l) as compared with patients with normoalbuminuria (2.71±0.69 ng/l) and control subjects (2.11±0.42 ng/l). And the plasma osteoprotegerin level in macroalbuminuric group was also higher than that in microalbuminuria group. The plasma osteoprotegerin level had a positive correlation with the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), glycohemoglobinA1c (HbA1C), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and log(UAER). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that plasma osteoprotegerin level was an independent factor associated with albuminuria in type 2 diabetes. The immunohistochemistry results showed that positive immunostaining for osteoprotegerin was observed in the renal tubule cells of biopsy and not in glomerulus, and the osteoprotegerin expression was higher in macroalbuminuria group than that in microalbuminuria group. The plasma osteoprotegerin level and the osteoprotegerin expression in renal tubule cells of biopsy tissue were increased in nephropathy of type 2 diabetes. This finding supports the growing concept that osteoprotegerin may act as an important regulatory molecule in the angiopathy, and particularly, that it may be involved in the occurrence and development of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. What factors do relate with plasma B type natriuretic peptide levels? A study by nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Keita; Sarai, Masayoshi; Sato, Takahisa [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2002-02-01

    To find clinical factors relating with plasma B type natriuretic peptide levels (BNP), early and delayed imagings at rest were done in 104 patients with heart diseases (66 males/38 females, mean age of 65.4 y) after the intravenous injection of 111 MBq of {sup 123}I-MIDI (metaiodobenzylguanidine). Myocardial SPECT synchronized with electrocardiography was also done after 600 MBq of {sup 123}I-MIDI injection. In the same day, BNP was measured. Images were taken with ADAC gamma camera VERTEX-plus of 2-detector type. Log BNP was found related with age, H/M(D) (heart/mediastinum count ratio, delayed) and BMI (body mass index) as well as EF (left ventricular ejection fraction) and since the correlation was more significant than BNP, log BNP was considered to be a more sensitive measure. (K.H.)

  15. Plasma proteome analysis of patients with type 1 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Julie; Hansen, Henning Gram; Lajer, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of a clinical proteomics program focused on diabetes and its complications we are looking for new and better protein biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy. The search for new and better biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy has, with a few exceptions, previously focused on either hypothesis-d...... enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis.......As part of a clinical proteomics program focused on diabetes and its complications we are looking for new and better protein biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy. The search for new and better biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy has, with a few exceptions, previously focused on either hypothesis......-driven studies or urinary based investigations. To date only two studies have investigated the proteome of blood in search for new biomarkers, and these studies were conducted in sera from patients with type 2 diabetes. This is the first reported in depth proteomic study where plasma from type 1 diabetic...

  16. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases, low density lipoprotein oxidisability and soluble adhesion molecules after a glucose load in Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Jackie

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute hyperglycaemia is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in Type 2 diabetes which may be mediated through increased oxidative damage to plasma low density lipoprotein, and in vitro, high glucose concentrations promote proatherogenic adhesion molecule expression and matrix metalloproteinase expression. Methods We examined these atherogenic risk markers in 21 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and 20 controls during an oral 75 g glucose tolerance test. Plasma soluble adhesion molecule concentrations [E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1], plasma matrix metalloproteinases [MMP-3 and 9] and plasma LDL oxidisability were measured at 30 minute intervals. Results In the diabetes group, the concentrations of all plasma soluble adhesion molecules fell promptly [all p Conclusions A glucose load leads to a rapid fall in plasma soluble adhesion molecule concentrations in Type 2 diabetes and controls, perhaps reflecting reduced generation of soluble from membrane forms during enhanced leukocyte – endothelial adhesion or increased hepatic clearance, without changes in plasma matrix metalloproteinase concentrations or low density lipoprotein oxidisability. These in vivo findings are in contrast with in vitro data.

  17. Plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jin; Yoo, Kwang-Ha; Park, Hyung-Suk; Chung, Sang-Man; Jin, Choon-Jo; Lee, Yoen; Shin, Young-Goo; Chung, Choon-Hee

    2005-02-28

    Insulin resistance, which implies impairment of insulin signaling in the target tissues, is a common cause of type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue plays an important role in insulin resistance through the dysregulated production and secretion of adipose-derived proteins, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, resistin, angiotensinogen, and adiponectin. Adiponectin was estimated to be a protective adipocytokine against atherosclerosis, and also to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the relationship between fasting plasma adiponectin concentration and adiposity, body composition, insulin sensitivity (ITT, HOMAIR, QUICK), lipid profile, fasting insulin concentration were examined in Korean type 2 diabetes. The difference in the adiponectin concentrations was also examined in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, with adjustment for gender, age and body mass index. 102 type 2 diabetics and 50 controls were examined. After a 12-h overnight fast, all subjects underwent a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. Baseline blood samples were drawn for the determinations of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. The body composition was estimated using a bioelectric impedance analyzer (Inbody 2.0). The insulin sensitivity was estimated using the insulin tolerance test (ITT), HOMAIR and QUICK methods. In the diabetic group, the fasting adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in men than in women. They were negatively correlated with BMI (r=-0.453), hip circumference (r=-0.341), fasting glucose concentrations (r=-0.277) and HOMAIR (r= -0.233). In addition, they were positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r=0.321) and HDL-cholesterol (r= 0.291). The systolic blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol were found to be independent variables, from a multiple logistic regression analysis, which influenced the adiponectin concentration

  18. Effect of fast-food Mediterranean-type diet on human plasma oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Pantelis; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Phenekos, Costas; Tsoukatos, Demokritos C

    2007-09-01

    Oxidation of lipoproteins, particularly of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is of prime importance in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with an unexpectedly low rate of cardiovascular events. Type 2 diabetic patients are at high risk of developing atherosclerosis. Functional alterations in the endothelium, which lead to atherosclerosis, are stimulated by oxidized lipoproteins, particularly oxidized LDL. The present study investigated the effect of Greek quick casual Mediterranean-type diet (fast food Mediterranean-type diet) consumption on the resistance to oxidation in plasma from type 2 diabetic patients and healthy human subjects. Lipids from fast food Mediterranean-type foodstuffs were extracted and tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit copper (Cu2+)-induced LDL oxidation. Foodstuffs that exerted the most potent in vitro antioxidative activity were chosen for the diet of study groups. Eighteen type 2 diabetic patients (group A) and 10 healthy subjects (group B) were fed a 4-week diet contained the chosen foodstuffs, while 17 type 2 diabetic patients (group C) were kept on their regular diet that they were following before the study. Type 2 diabetic patients were treated with sulfonylureas or metformin and were under good glycemic control (hemoglobin A1C type 2 diabetic patients (groups A and C) and healthy human subjects (group B), as this was detected at a time before the oxidation products become detectable, namely, lag time. After the 4-week period on the chosen diet the lag time in groups A and B significantly increased, while it was not changed in group C. In type 2 diabetic patients lag time was increased from 57.3 +/- 13.3 minutes (mean +/- SD) to 103.8 +/- 21.8 minutes (mean +/- SD) (P Fast food Mediterranean foodstuffs exerted antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo after consumption in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy human subjects. Therefore consumption of a fast food

  19. Demonstration of high-performance p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors using argon-plasma surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Dae; Kwon, Soo-Hun; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of low-temperature argon (Ar)-plasma surface treatments on the physical and chemical structures of p-type tin oxide thin-films and the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). From the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, we found that SnO was the dominant phase in the deposited tin oxide thin-film, and the Ar-plasma treatment partially transformed the tin oxide phase from SnO to SnO2 by oxidation. The resistivity of the tin oxide thin-film increased with the plasma-treatment time because of the reduced hole concentration. In addition, the root-mean-square roughness of the tin oxide thin-film decreased as the plasma-treatment time increased. The p-type oxide TFT with an Ar-plasma-treated tin oxide thin-film exhibited excellent electrical performance with a high current on-off ratio (5.2 × 106) and a low off-current (1.2 × 10-12 A), which demonstrates that the low-temperature Ar-plasma treatment is a simple and effective method for improving the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide TFTs.

  20. Critical issues concerning tunnel ventilation in the super conducting super collider ring tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egilsrud, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the problem of designing a ventilation system for the SSC Collider Ring Tunnel. The history of ventilation of tunnels is briefly reviewed and the types of systems used for ventilation of rail, transit and highway tunnels are described in detail. Next, the ventilation system prepared for the Collider Ring Tunnel in the RTK conceptual conventional design report is described. The author questions this design from a safety and practical standpoint. He offers several other solutions which provided a more powerful system for emergencies. One supplies fresh outside air uniformly along the tunnel length. All suggested systems increase costs over the RTK proposed system. The possible problem of troublesome condensation forming on equipment in the tunnel and tunnel walls in hot, humid weather is also a major concern. 5 figs

  1. A unique plasma microRNA profile defines type 2 diabetes progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Candia

    Full Text Available A major unmet medical need to better manage Type 2 Diabetes (T2D is the accurate disease prediction in subjects who show glucose dysmetabolism, but are not yet diagnosed as diabetic. We investigated the possibility to predict/monitor the progression to T2D in these subjects by retrospectively quantifying blood circulating microRNAs in plasma of subjects with i normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 9; ii impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 9, divided into non-progressors (NP, n = 5 and progressors (P, n = 4 based on subsequent diabetes occurrence, and iii newly diagnosed T2D (n = 9. We found that impaired glucose tolerance associated with a global increase of plasma circulating microRNAs. While miR-148 and miR-222 were specifically modulated in diabetic subjects and correlated with parameters of glucose tolerance, the most accentuated microRNA dysregulation was found in NP IGT subjects, with increased level of miR-122, miR-99 and decreased level of let-7d, miR-18a, miR-18b, miR-23a, miR-27a, miR-28 and miR-30d in comparison with either NGT or T2D. Interestingly, several of these microRNAs significantly correlated with parameters of cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, we observed the major perturbation of plasma circulating microRNA in NP pre-diabetic subjects and identified a unique microRNA profile that may become helpful in predicting diabetic development.

  2. Breaking Up Prolonged Sitting Alters the Postprandial Plasma Lipidomic Profile of Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Megan S; Dempsey, Paddy C; Sethi, Parneet; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Mellett, Natalie A; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Meikle, Peter J; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2017-06-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is exacerbated by prolonged sitting and may trigger inflammation and oxidative stress. It is unknown what impact countermeasures to prolonged sitting have on the postprandial lipidome. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular interruptions to sitting, compared with prolonged sitting, on the postprandial plasma lipidome. Randomized crossover experimental trial. Participants underwent three 7-hour conditions: uninterrupted sitting (SIT); light-intensity walking interruptions (LW); and simple resistance activity interruptions (SRA). Baseline (fasting) and 7-hour (postprandial) plasma samples from 21 inactive overweight/obese adults with T2D were analyzed for 338 lipid species using mass spectrometry. Using mixed model analysis (controlling for baseline outcome variable, gender, body mass index, and condition order), the percentage change in lipid species (baseline to 7 hours) was compared between conditions with Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Thirty-seven lipids were different between conditions (P postprandial elevations in diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and phosphatidylethanolamines were attenuated in LW and SRA. Plasmalogens and lysoalkylphosphatidylcholines were reduced in SIT, compared with attenuated reductions or elevations in LW and SRA. Phosphatidylserines were elevated with LW, compared with reductions in SIT and SRA. Compared with SIT, LW and SRA were associated with reductions in lipids associated with inflammation; increased concentrations of lipids associated with antioxidant capacity; and differential changes in species associated with platelet activation. Acutely interrupting prolonged sitting time may impart beneficial effects on the postprandial plasma lipidome of adults with T2D. Evidence on longer-term intervention is needed. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  3. Low-dose spironolactone reduces plasma fibulin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and resistant hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Cangemi, Claudia; Henriksen, J E

    2015-01-01

    whether antihypertensive treatment with spironolactone changes plasma fibulin-1 levels. In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 119 patients with type 2 diabetes and resistant hypertension were included. A dose of spironolactone 25 mg or matching placebo was added to previous...... treatment (P=0.009), but increased after placebo (P=0.017). Baseline plasma fibulin-1 correlated with BP and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Increased levels of plasma fibulin-1 (P=0.004) were observed in diabetic participants reporting erectile dysfunction as compared with participants who did not....... Treatment with low-dose spironolactone reduced plasma fibulin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and resistant hypertension. This supports the hypothesis that the antihypertensive effect of the mineralocorticoid receptor blocker in part may be due to regression of vascular remodeling....

  4. Plasma hepatic enzymes as biopredictors of type, metastasis, and prognostication of hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulazeez Adelaja Akinlolu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The present study evaluated the levels of some hepatic enzymes in the plasma of Nigerians affected with hematological malignancies, to determine if these enzymes could be established as predictors of possible metastasis to the liver, the degree of severity of the disease or prognostication of hematological malignancies. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven consented subjects with multiple myeloma (n = 4, non-Hodgkins lymphoma (n = 5, Hodgkins lymphoma (n = 5, chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 6, and chronic lymphoid leukemia (n = 6 as well as control subjects (n = 7 were recruited having gotten the ethical approval from the authorities of the teaching hospitals used for the study. Evaluations of activities of enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatases, alanine and aspartate transaminases, lactate, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases were carried out in the samples collected. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: Statistically significant levels of the enzymes were found in chronic hematological malignancies such as chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphoid leukemia. Conclusion: Evaluating the plasma levels of hepatic enzymes in Nigerians affected with hematological malignancies could assist in predicting possible metastasis to the liver, type or the degree of severity of the disease, or prognostication of hematological malignancies affected.

  5. Correlation of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels with metabolic risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahued-Ortega, José Armando; León-García, Plácido Enrique; Hernández-Pérez, Elizabeth

    2018-04-17

    Natriuretic peptide type B (BNP) is a marker of myocardium injury. This peptide has been associated with metabolic risk markers, although controversy exists in this regard. The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation of plasma BNP levels with metabolic risk parameters. A retrospective, observational study that included 152 patients, who were classified according to their clinical diagnosis as patients with metabolic syndrome. Plasma BNP levels and clinical metabolic parameters were assessed by using Spearmańs rank correlation coefficient. A significant inverse association with weight (r=-.408; p<.0001) and BMI (r=-.443; p<.001) was obtained. While a positive significant association with systolic pressure (r=.324; p<.001) was observed. A significant decrease was found in BNP levels and components of metabolic syndrome. (p<.05). Based on the results from this study, we can conclude that BNP determination could be an adequate metabolic marker. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 minutes by direct PCR from plasma or serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz Friedrich; Flegel, Willy Albert; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fya, Fyb, Jka and Jkb antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. PMID:27991657

  7. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... the expected concentration of plasma proBNP based on age and gender was established for dyspneic subjects: an actual plasma proBNP concentration below half of the expected value ruled out left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 100% to 100%; specificity 15%, 95% CI 12...

  8. Acute Effects of Morning Light on Plasma Glucose and Triglycerides in Healthy Men and Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Ruth I.; Stenvers, Dirk J.; Visintainer, Dana; Linnenbank, Andre; Tanck, Michael W.; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Smilde, Age K.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Serlie, Mireille J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Ambient light intensity is signaled directly to hypothalamic areas that regulate energy metabolism. Observational studies have shown associations between ambient light intensity and plasma glucose and lipid levels, but human data on the acute metabolic effects of light are scarce. Since light is the main signal indicating the onset of the diurnal phase of physical activity and food intake in humans, we hypothesized that bright light would affect glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, we determined the acute effects of bright light on plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in 2 randomized crossover trials: (1) in 8 healthy lean men and (2) in 8 obese men with type 2 diabetes. From 0730 h, subjects were exposed to either bright light (4000 lux) or dim light (10 lux) for 5 h. After 1 h of light exposure, subjects consumed a 600-kcal mixed meal. Primary endpoints were fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels. In healthy men, bright light did not affect fasting or postprandial plasma glucose levels. However, bright light increased fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light increased fasting and postprandial glucose levels. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light did not affect fasting triglyceride levels but increased postprandial triglyceride levels. We show that ambient light intensity acutely affects human plasma glucose and triglyceride levels. Our findings warrant further research into the consequences of the metabolic effects of light for the diagnosis and prevention of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:28470119

  9. Rapid changes in plasma androgens during insulin withdrawal in male type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone were measured in 15 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetics with (n = 8) and without (n = 7) B-cell function during 12 h of insulin withdrawal and compared with those of 8 normal subjects. Before insulin withdrawal...... no significant difference was found in androgen concentrations between the diabetic and the normal subjects. The normal diurnal profiles, with highest androgen concentrations in the morning before insulin withdrawal (08:00) and lowest concentrations at 20:00 h were maintained in the diabetics. However......, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations were lower in the diabetics after 4 h of insulin withdrawal and remained so throughout the study. The concentrations of androstenedione were not significantly different between diabetics and normal subjects except after 4 h of insulin withdrawal. Despite...

  10. Resonance-like tunneling across a barrier with adjacent wells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    devices using n-type oxygen-doped gallium arsenide and silicon dioxide. It is envisaged that these results will have applications in the design of tunneling devices. Keywords. Potential barrier with wells; tunneling; resonance. PACS Nos 03.65.-w; 03.65.Xp. 1. Introduction. The mechanism of quantum tunneling (T) across ...

  11. Reduced plasma total homocysteine concentrations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus is determined by increased renal clearance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, B.A.J.; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Blom, H.J.; Smits, P.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elevated plasma levels of total homocysteine are related to the development of vascular complications. Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly at risk for the development of these complications. Several factors determine plasma total homocysteine including renal function.

  12. TunnelVision: LHC Tunnel Photogrammetry System for Structural Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Fallas, William

    2014-01-01

    In this document an algorithm to detect deformations in the LHC Tunnel of CERN is presented. It is based on two images, one represents the ideal state of the tunnel and the other one the actual state. To find the differences between both, the algorithm is divided in three steps. First, an image enhancement is applied to make easier the detection. Second, two different approaches to reduce noise are applied to one or both images. And third, it is defined a group of characteristics about the type of deformation desired to detect. Finally, the conclusions show the effectiveness of the algorithm in the experimental results.

  13. Direct measurements of the plasma potential by katsumata-type probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, C.; Adámek, Jiří; Stöckel, Jan; Brotánková, Jana; Martines, E.; Popa, G.; Costin, C.; van de Peppel, L.; Van Oost, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 8 suppl.B (2006), s. 145-150 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB100430601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : toroidal plasma system * tokamak * probe diagnostics * plasma potential Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  14. Mean energy of ions at outlet of a type Ecr plasma source; Energia promedio de los iones a la salida de una fuente de plasma tipo ECR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Gonzalez D, J. [Departamento de Fisica, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    In this work it is described the calculations to mean energy of the ions in the extraction zone of a type Ecr plasma source considering the presence of a metallic substrate. This zone is characterized by the existence of a divergent magnetic field. It is showed that mean energy is function as the distance between the outlet and substrate as the value of the external magnetic field. (Author)

  15. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spin tunnelling; spin path integrals; discrete phase integral method; diabolical points. ... technologies. Our purpose in this article is rather different. The molecular systems have total spin of the order of 10, and magnetocrystalline anisotropies of few tens of Kelvin ...... The point С' is of this new type, and here it may be said to.

  16. Application of the relativistic electron beams originating in the discharges of plasma focus type for the combined laser-REB plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the recent years allow to treat the discharge of plasma-focus-type (DPF) as an inductive storage with the switching time of the order of tens nsec. It results from the interferometry and X-ray measurements. The moment of the current sheath rupture coincides with the beginning of hard X-ray pulse. A considerable part of the bank energy (concentrated in the magnetic field near focus) converts into the electron beam energy with the mean energy of electrons of the order of 100 keV after the disruption of the current. The interferometry is allowed to investigate the dynamics of REB in DPF. The beam appeared to be divided into several filaments, and disturbed by ''hose'' instability and self-focusing inside the residual plasma. The X-ray pinhole pictures showed high plasma luminosity in the regions of beam focus, a neutron yield of the set-up had its maximum at this moment. All these data with anomalous scattering of diagnostic laser light in this region, high level of plasma noise with the frequency of the order of Langmuir frequency (by the factor of 10 6 ) and broad neutron spectra show us that an effective turbulent interaction of REB with plasma takes place in DPF. An experiment of particular interest for us involves the realization of laser initiated breakdown in the insulator and a combined laser-REB plasma heating. Analytical calculations indicate that when the REB energy is of the order of 10 4 to 10 6 J and the laser pulse duration of 10 -9 to 10 -10 sec, the laser energy of the order of 10 3 J is required for the experiment

  17. Note: A portable pulsed neutron source based on the smallest sealed-type plasma focus device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R K; Mishra, Prabhat; Srivastava, Rohit; Rawool, A M; Kaushik, T C; Gupta, Satish C

    2011-02-01

    Development and operation of a portable and compact pulsed neutron source based on sealed-type plasma focus (PF) device are reported. The unit is the smallest sealed-type neutron producing PF device. The effective volume of the PF unit is 33 cm(3) only. A compact size single capacitor (4 μF) is used as the energy driver. A battery based power supply unit is used for charging the capacitor and triggering the spark gap. The PF unit is operated at 10 kV (200 J) and at a deuterium gas filling pressure of 8 mb. The device is operated over a time span of 200 days and the neutron emissions have been observed for 200 shots without changing the gas in between the shots. The maximum yield of this device is 7.8 × 10(4) neutrons/pulse. Beyond 200 shots the yield is below the threshold (1050 neutrons/pulse) of our (3)He detector. The neutron energy is evaluated using time of flight technique and the value is (2.49 ± 0.27) MeV. The measured neutron pulse width is (24 ± 5) ns. Multishot and long duration operations envisage the potentiality of such portable device for repetitive mode of operation.

  18. Integrated predictive modelling of JET H-mode plasma with type-I ELMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parail, V.; Bateman, G.; Becoulet, M.

    2003-01-01

    Edge plasma parameters influence plasma performance in many different ways (profile stiffness is probably one of the best known examples). In ELMy H-mode, a thin region with improved transport characteristics (Edge Transport Barrier) links the core and the scrape-off layer. There is a strong coupling between these three areas, so that even a modest variation of plasma parameters in one region can lead to a dramatic change in the overall plasma performance. Systematic MHD stability analysis and self-consistent integrated predictive modelling of a series of JET ELMy H-mode plasmas, including scans in gas fuelling and triangularity are presented. (author)

  19. Microstructural and aqueous corrosion aspects of laser-surface-melted type 304 SS plasma-coated mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, M. G.; Dayal, R. K.; Singh Raman, R. K.

    1994-06-01

    Plasma spray deposition of metals, ceramics, or plastics onto base metals to produce wear- and corrosion-resistant surfaces is a promising technique whereby base metal performance can be considerably im-proved. Because these coatings invariably contain pores, voids, and cracks, laser surface melting may be employed to improve their homogeneity. This study focuses on the corrosion performance of laser- sur-face- melted type 304 SS plasma- coated mild steel specimens. Mild steel strips were plasma coated with an approximately 100 to 200 μm thick layer of type 304 by transferred plasma jet. These specimens were sub-sequently laser irradiated using a 3 kW continuous- wave CO2 gas laser. Eight different sets of specimens were selected based on different laser beam travel speeds. Scanning electron microscopic studies of the plasma- coated specimens revealed both pancake and flowery types of deposited particles. Optical micro-scopic studies followed by anodic polarization experiments were carried out on these specimens in IN H2SO4 medium. It was observed that specimens with laser beam interaction times ranging from 30 to 120 ms showed relatively better general corrosion performance than specimens with interaction times of from 15 to 24 ms.

  20. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Que, Lan; Ya-Ning, Meng; Xing-Pu, Li; Ye-Lun, Zhang; Guang-Yao, Song; Hui-Juan, Ma

    2013-05-17

    Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in

  1. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. DNS Tunneling Detection Method Based on Multilabel Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Almusawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DNS tunneling is a method used by malicious users who intend to bypass the firewall to send or receive commands and data. This has a significant impact on revealing or releasing classified information. Several researchers have examined the use of machine learning in terms of detecting DNS tunneling. However, these studies have treated the problem of DNS tunneling as a binary classification where the class label is either legitimate or tunnel. In fact, there are different types of DNS tunneling such as FTP-DNS tunneling, HTTP-DNS tunneling, HTTPS-DNS tunneling, and POP3-DNS tunneling. Therefore, there is a vital demand to not only detect the DNS tunneling but rather classify such tunnel. This study aims to propose a multilabel support vector machine in order to detect and classify the DNS tunneling. The proposed method has been evaluated using a benchmark dataset that contains numerous DNS queries and is compared with a multilabel Bayesian classifier based on the number of corrected classified DNS tunneling instances. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed SVM classification method by obtaining an f-measure of 0.80.

  3. Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...

  4. Quantum theory of tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Razavy, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    In this revised and expanded edition, in addition to a comprehensible introduction to the theoretical foundations of quantum tunneling based on different methods of formulating and solving tunneling problems, different semiclassical approximations for multidimensional systems are presented. Particular attention is given to the tunneling of composite systems, with examples taken from molecular tunneling and also from nuclear reactions. The interesting and puzzling features of tunneling times are given extensive coverage, and the possibility of measurement of these times with quantum clocks are critically examined. In addition by considering the analogy between evanescent waves in waveguides and in quantum tunneling, the times related to electromagnetic wave propagation have been used to explain certain aspects of quantum tunneling times. These topics are treated in both non-relativistic as well as relativistic regimes. Finally, a large number of examples of tunneling in atomic, molecular, condensed matter and ...

  5. Road and Railroad Tunnels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Tunnels in the United States According to the HSIP Tiger Team Report, a tunnel is defined as a linear underground passageway open at both ends. This dataset is based...

  6. Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is a continuous flow wind-tunnel facility capable of speeds up to Mach 1.2 at stagnation pressures up to one atmosphere. The TDT...

  7. Plasma osteoprotegerin is related to carotid and peripheral arterial disease, but not to myocardial ischemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) has evolved as a biomarker for CVD. We examined the relationship between plasma OPG levels and different CVD manifestations in type 2 diabetes. Methods Type 2 diabetes patients without known CVD referred consecutively to a diabetes clinic for the first time (n = 305, aged: 58.6 ± 11.3 years, diabetes duration: 4.5 ± 5.3 years) were screened for carotid arterial disease, peripheral arterial disease, and myocardial ischemia by means of carotid artery ultrasonography, peripheral ankle and toe systolic blood pressure measurements, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). In addition, plasma OPG concentrations and other CVD-related markers were measured. Results The prevalence of carotid arterial disease, peripheral arterial disease, and myocardial ischemia was 42%, 15%, and 30%, respectively. Plasma OPG was significantly increased in patients with carotid and peripheral arterial disease compared to patients without (p < 0.001, respectively), however, this was not the case for patients with myocardial ischemia versus those without (p = 0.71). When adjusted for age, HbA1c and U-albumin creatinine ratio in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, plasma OPG remained strongly associated with carotid arterial disease (adjusted OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.22-3.67; p = 0.008), but not with peripheral arterial disease or myocardial ischemia. Conclusions Increased plasma OPG concentration is associated with carotid and peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, whereas no relation is observed with respect to myocardial ischemia on MPS. The reason for this discrepancy is unknown. Trial registration number at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT00298844 PMID:21838881

  8. Urine and plasma metabolites predict the development of diabetic nephropathy in individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena, M. J.; Lambers Heerspink, H. J.; Hellemons, M. E.; Friedrich, T.; Dallmann, G.; Lajer, M.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Rossing, P.; de Zeeuw, D.; Roscioni, S. S.

    Aims Early detection of individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension at risk for micro- or macroalbuminuria may facilitate prevention and treatment of renal disease. We aimed to discover plasma and urine metabolites that predict the development of micro-or macroalbuminuria. Methods

  9. Effect of 17β-estradiol on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women with type II diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, H.E.; Leuven, J.A.G.; Kluft, C.; Krans, H.M.J.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Buytenhek, R.; Laarse, A. van der; Princen, H.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    In type II diabetes mellitus the altered hormonal state after menopause may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is associated with a decreased cardiovascular risk, at least in nondiabetic post-menopausal women. We studied the effect of ERT on plasma

  10. The inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in a plasma milieu : effect of thrombomodulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E.A.M.; Los, P.; Rijken, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu- PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process which may contribute to the maintenance of a fresh blood clot. We have examined the inactivation of scu-PA by thrombin in a plasma milieu to get more insight in

  11. Plasma disappearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Kverneland, Arne

    1993-01-01

    The fractional plasma escape rates of glycated and non-glycated albumin have earlier been measured in groups of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and control subjects. The escape of non-glycated albumin was similar in control subjects and normoalbuminuric patients, but elevated in pati...... to be the glycosaminoglycans of the glomerular basal membrane and the interstitial matrix....

  12. ABNORMAL PLASMA NORADRENALINE RESPONSE AND EXERCISE INDUCED ALBUMINURIA IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETES-MELLITUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOOGENBERG, K; DULLAART, RPF

    1992-01-01

    Submaximal exercise provokes an abnormal elevation in albuminuria in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Plasma catecholamines might be involved in this phenomenon by a renal vasoconstrictive effect. Twelve healthy subjects (Controls: albuminuria It is concluded that the exercise-induced

  13. Generation of type III solar radio bursts: the role of induced scattering of plasma waves by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.; Lerner, A.M.; Rapoport, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma waves in type III solar radio-burst sources might have a spectrum which can explain why, in the quasilinear burst generation model, nonlinear scattering of the waves by ions is so weak. The agent exciting a burst would travel through the corona at velocities limited to a definite range

  14. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  15. Major SSC tunneling begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project

  16. Dielectric breakdown in AlO{sub x} tunnelling barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D M; Carara, M; Schelp, L F; Dorneles, L S [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria 97105-900, RS (Brazil); Fichtner, P F P, E-mail: lsdorneles@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Fisica, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Caixa Postal 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil)

    2011-04-06

    We studied the dielectric breakdown in tunnelling barriers produced by plasma-assisted oxidation of an aluminium surface. The barrier mean height, thickness and the effective tunnelling area were extracted from current versus voltage curves measured at room temperature. The effective tunnelling area ranged from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}, corresponding to less than 1% of the geometrical surface of the samples. The estimated electrical field to breakdown agreed with predictions from thermochemical models, and decreased exponentially with the effective tunnelling area.

  17. Formation of Nitrogen Oxides in an Apokamp-Type Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnin, É. A.; Goltsova, P. A.; Panarin, V. A.; Skakun, V. S.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Didenko, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    Using optical and chemical processes, the composition of the products of decay of the atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma is determined in a pulsed, high-voltage discharge in the modes of apokampic and corona discharges. It is shown that the products of decay primarily contain nitrogen oxides NO x, and in the mode of the corona discharge - ozone. Potential applications of this source of plasma are discussed with respect to plasma processing of the seeds of agricultural crops.

  18. Plasma C-type natriuretic peptide as a predictor for therapeutic response to metoprolol in children with postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    Full Text Available POTS is a global public-health disease, but predictor for therapeutic response to metoprolol in children with POTS is lacking. This study was designed to investigate predictive value of plasma C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP in the therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS in children. Totally 34 children with POTS and 27 healthy children were included in the study. The head-up test or head-up tilt test was used to check heart rate and blood pressure from supine to upright in subjects. A double antibody (competitive sandwich immunoluminometric assay was used to detect plasma CNP. Metoprolol was used to treat children with POTS. The difference in plasma concentrations of CNP between responders and non-responders was compared. An ROC curve was used to analyze plasma CNP to predict efficacy of metoprolol on POTS in children. Plasma CNP in children with POTS was significantly higher than that of healthy children [(51.9 ± 31.4 vs. (25.1 ± 19.1 pg/ml, P 32.55 pg/ml yielded a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 70% in predicting therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on POTS children. Plasma CNP might serve as a useful predictor for the therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on POTS in children.

  19. High Surface Area Tunnels in Hexagonal WO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanmei; Yeung, Michael T; Lech, Andrew T; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chain; Li, Tianqi; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Jun; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-07-08

    High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods. The 3.67 Å diameter tunnels are characterized by low-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms with nonlocal density functional theory fitting, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. These open and rigid tunnels absorb H(+) and Li(+), but not Na(+) in aqueous electrolytes without inducing a phase transformation, accessing both internal and external active sites. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3.67 Å diameter tunnels in h-WO3 shows potential applications in electrochemical energy storage, selective ion transfer, and selective gas adsorption.

  20. Modulation of electrical properties in Cu/n-type InP Schottky junctions using oxygen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Jung, Chan Yeong; Hyun Kim, Se; Cho, Yunae; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Using current–voltage (I–V) measurements, we investigated the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the temperature-dependent electrical properties of Cu/n-type indium phosphide (InP) Schottky contacts at temperatures in the range 100–300 K. Changes in the electrical parameters were evident below 180 K for the low-plasma-power sample (100 W), which is indicative of the presence of a wider distribution of regions of low barrier height. Modified Richardson plots were used to obtain Richardson constants, which were similar to the theoretical value of 9.4 A cm −2 K −2 for n-type InP. This suggests that, for all the samples, a thermionic emission model including a spatially inhomogeneous Schottky barrier can be used to describe the charge transport phenomena at the metal/semiconductor interface. The voltage dependence of the reverse-bias current revealed that Schottky emission was dominant for the untreated and high-plasma-power (250 W) samples. For the low-plasma-power sample, Poole–Frenkel emission was dominant at low voltages, whereas Schottky emission dominated at higher voltages. Defect states and nonuniformity of the interfacial layer appear to be significant in the reverse-bias charge transport properties of the low-plasma-power sample. (paper)

  1. Electrical characterization of deep levels in n-type GaAs after hydrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamhere, C.; Botha, J.R.; Venter, A.

    2011-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS (L-DLTS) have been used to investigate defects in an n-type GaAs before and after exposure to a dc hydrogen plasma (hydrogenation). DLTS revealed the presence of three prominent electron traps in the material in the temperature range 20-300 K. However, L-DLTS with its higher resolution enabled the splitting of two narrowly spaced emission rates. Consequently four electron traps at, E C -0.33 eV, E C -0.36 eV, E C -0.38 eV and E C -0.56 eV were observed in the control sample. Following hydrogenation, all these traps were passivated with a new complex (presumably the M3), emerging at E C -0.58 eV. Isochronal annealing of the passivated material between 50 and 300 o C, revealed the emergence of a secondary defect, not previously observed, at E C -0.37 eV. Finally, the effect of hydrogen passivation is completely reversed upon annealing at 300 o C, as all the defects originally observed in the reference sample were recovered.

  2. Electrical characterization of deep levels in n-type GaAs after hydrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamhere, C., E-mail: s210239522@live.nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Botha, J.R.; Venter, A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-05-15

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS (L-DLTS) have been used to investigate defects in an n-type GaAs before and after exposure to a dc hydrogen plasma (hydrogenation). DLTS revealed the presence of three prominent electron traps in the material in the temperature range 20-300 K. However, L-DLTS with its higher resolution enabled the splitting of two narrowly spaced emission rates. Consequently four electron traps at, E{sub C}-0.33 eV, E{sub C}-0.36 eV, E{sub C}-0.38 eV and E{sub C}-0.56 eV were observed in the control sample. Following hydrogenation, all these traps were passivated with a new complex (presumably the M3), emerging at E{sub C}-0.58 eV. Isochronal annealing of the passivated material between 50 and 300 {sup o}C, revealed the emergence of a secondary defect, not previously observed, at E{sub C}-0.37 eV. Finally, the effect of hydrogen passivation is completely reversed upon annealing at 300 {sup o}C, as all the defects originally observed in the reference sample were recovered.

  3. A feature of negative hydrogen ion production in the Uramoto-type sheet plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimbo, Kouichi [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1997-02-01

    It seems that negative hydrogen ions H{sup -} are formed directly from atomic hydrogens H. When the chamber was biased more negative against the anode potential at constant are power, forming a much deeper electrostatic well in the Uramoto-type sheet plasma negative ion source, more negative hydrogen ion currents were extracted. The chamber potential V{sub B} was biased down to -100V in the 150V discharge. The negative ion current J{sup -} was evaluated by the JAERI-probe measurement. J{sup -} increases linearly with the chamber current I{sub B}. The largest J{sup -} value was obtained at absolute value of |V{sub prob,f}|=15V and absolute value of |V{sub B}|=100V; the discharge was not operated for absolute value of |V{sub B}|>100V. We speculate the following collisional (three-body) electron attachment to H as a possible production process for H{sup -}; e+e+H{yields}e+H{sup -}. This process may explain the linear increase of J{sup -} with absolute value of |V{sub prob,f}|. (S.Y.)

  4. Trajectories of Postload Plasma Glucose in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Oka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to clarify how the trajectories of 1-hour postload plasma glucose (PG and 2-hour PG were different in the development of type 2 diabetes. Using data of repeated health checkups in Japanese workers from April 2006 to March 2016, longitudinal changes of fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour PG on the oral glucose tolerance test were analyzed with a linear mixed effects model. Of the 1464 nondiabetic subjects at baseline, 112 subjects progressed to type 2 diabetes during the observation period (progressors. In progressors, 1-hour PG and 2-hour PG showed gradual increases with slopes of 1.33 ± 0.2 and 0.58 ± 0.2 mg/dL/year, respectively, followed by a steep increase by which they attained diabetes. Until immediately before the diabetes transition, age- and sex-adjusted mean level of 2-hour PG was 149 ± 2.7 mg/dL, 34 ± 2.7 (30% higher compared to nonprogressors, while that of 1-hour PG was 206 ± 4.1 mg/dL, 60 ± 4.3 mg/dL (41% higher compared to nonprogressors. In conclusion, diabetes transition was preceded by a mild elevation of 2-hour PG for several years or more. The elevation in 1-hour PG was larger than that of 2-hour PG until immediately before the transition to diabetes.

  5. Novel Cyclosilazane-Type Silicon Precursor and Two-Step Plasma for Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Jang, Se Jin; Lee, Sang-Ick; Lee, Won-Jun

    2018-03-02

    We designed cyclosilazane-type silicon precursors and proposed a three-step plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process to prepare silicon nitride films with high quality and excellent step coverage. The cyclosilazane-type precursor, 1,3-di-isopropylamino-2,4-dimethylcyclosilazane (CSN-2), has a closed ring structure for good thermal stability and high reactivity. CSN-2 showed thermal stability up to 450 °C and a sufficient vapor pressure of 4 Torr at 60 °C. The energy for the chemisorption of CSN-2 on the undercoordinated silicon nitride surface as calculated by density functional theory method was -7.38 eV. The PEALD process window was between 200 and 500 °C, with a growth rate of 0.43 Å/cycle. The best film quality was obtained at 500 °C, with hydrogen impurity of ∼7 atom %, oxygen impurity less than 2 atom %, low wet etching rate, and excellent step coverage of ∼95%. At 300 °C and lower temperatures, the wet etching rate was high especially at the lower sidewall of the trench pattern. We introduced the three-step PEALD process to improve the film quality and the step coverage on the lower sidewall. The sequence of the three-step PEALD process consists of the CSN-2 feeding step, the NH 3 /N 2 plasma step, and the N 2 plasma step. The H radicals in NH 3 /N 2 plasma efficiently remove the ligands from the precursor, and the N 2 plasma after the NH 3 plasma removes the surface hydrogen atoms to activate the adsorption of the precursor. The films deposited at 300 °C using the novel precursor and the three-step PEALD process showed a significantly improved step coverage of ∼95% and an excellent wet etching resistance at the lower sidewall, which is only twice as high as that of the blanket film prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  6. Drying of mango pulp in a dryer of laboratory tunnel type; Secado de pulpa de mango en un secador de laboratorio tipo tunel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Resendiz, Oscar; Chagoyan Serrano, Jose; Flores I, Alfredo; Rodriguez M, Jose A [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The result of four tests of drying of mango pulp Kent are presented, which were carried out in a dryer of the tunnel type in constant conditions of temperature, speed and absolute humidity of the air. The temperatures at which the tests were conducted were 35, 40, 45 and 50 Celsius degrees. The average speed of the drying air was 2.35 m/s. For the four tests the drying variables were measured for the purpose of controlling the process. The tests were suspended after 10 hours. The initial and final moisture contents of the samples on a wet weight basis for the test at 35 were 87.04% and 58.94% for that at 40 were 87.42% and 17.25%, for that at 45 were 87.55% and 13.29%, and for that at 50 were 87.43% and 48%. The graphs of the evolution of moisture content of the samples dried under the specified conditions are compared. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de cuatro pruebas de secado de pulpa de mango Kent, las cuales se realizaron en un secador tipo tunel en condiciones constantes de temperatura, velocidad y humedad absoluta del aire. Las temperaturas empleadas fueron 35, 40, 45 y 50 grados Celsius y la velocidad del aire de secado fue de 2.35 m/s. Para las cuatro pruebas se midieron las variables de secado mencionadas con el fin de controlar el proceso. Las pruebas se suspendieron al cumplirse 10 h. Las humedades inicial y final base humeda de las muestras para la prueba de 35 fueron 87.04% y 58.94%, para la de 40 fueron 87.42% y 17.25% y para la de 45 fueron de 87.55% y 13.29% y para la de 50 fueron de 87.43% y 48%. Se comparan entre si las graficas de la evolucion del contenido de humedad de las muestras que se secaron a las condiciones ya mencionadas.

  7. Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennault, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel in Building 11 at the NASA Glenn Research Center is committed to researching the effects of in flight icing on aircraft and testing ways to stop the formation of hazardous icing conditions on planes. During this summer, I worked here with Richard DelRosa, the lead engineer for this area. address one of the major concerns of aviation: icing conditions. During the war, many planes crashed (especially supply planes going over the.Himalayas) because ice built up in their wings and clogged the engines. To this day, it remains the largest ice tunnel in the world, with a test section that measures 6 feet high, 9 feet long, and 20 feet wide. It can simulate airspeeds from 50 to 300 miles per hour at temperatures as low as -50 Fahrenheit. Using these capabilities, IRT can simulate actual conditions at high altitudes. The first thing I did was creating a cross reference in Microsoft Excel. It lists commands for the DPU units that control the pressure and temperature variations in the tunnel, as well as the type of command (keyboard, multiplier, divide, etc). The cross reference also contains the algorithm for every command, and which page it is listed in on the control sheet (visual Auto-CAD graphs, which I helped to make). I actually spent most of the time on the computer using Auto-CAD. I drew a diagram of the entire icing tunnel and then drew diagrams of its various parts. Between my mentor and me, we have drawings of every part of it, from the spray bars to the thermocouples, power cabinets, input-output connectors for power systems, and layouts of various other machines. I was also responsible for drawing schematics for the Escort system (which controls the spray bars), the power system, DPUs, and other electrical systems. In my spare time, I am attempting to build and program the "toddler". Toddler is a walking robot that I have to program in PBASIC language. When complete, it should be able to walk on level terrain while avoiding obstacles in

  8. Incompatible type A plasma transfusion in patients requiring massive transfusion protocol: Outcomes of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, W Tait; Morse, Bryan C; Bernard, Andrew; Davenport, Daniel L; Sams, Valerie G; Goodman, Michael D; Dumire, Russell; Carrick, Matthew M; McCarthy, Patrick; Stubbs, James R; Pritts, Timothy A; Dente, Christopher J; Luo-Owen, Xian; Gregory, Jason A; Turay, David; Gomaa, Dina; Quispe, Juan C; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Haddad, Nadeem N; Choudhry, Asad; Quesada, Jose F; Zielinski, Martin D

    2017-07-01

    With a relative shortage of type AB plasma, many centers have converted to type A plasma for resuscitation of patients whose blood type is unknown. The goal of this study is to determine outcomes for trauma patients who received incompatible plasma transfusions as part of a massive transfusion protocol (MTP). As part of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional trial, registry and blood bank data were collected from eight trauma centers for trauma patients (age, ≥ 15 years) receiving emergency release plasma transfusions as part of MTPs from January 2012 to August 2016. Incompatible type A plasma was defined as transfusion to patient blood type B or type AB. Of the 1,536 patients identified, 92% received compatible plasma transfusions and 8% received incompatible type A plasma. Patient characteristics were similar except for greater penetrating injuries (48% vs 36%; p = 0.01) in the incompatible group. In the incompatible group, patients were transfused more plasma units at 4 hours (median, 9 vs. 5; p plasma to patients with blood groups B and AB as part of a MTP does not appear to be associated with significant increases in morbidity or mortality. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  9. Design of a Wien filter type heavy ion beam probe system for the measurement of plasma potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Hideki; Adati, Keizo; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Okamura, Shoichi; Sato, Teruyuki

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes the design of a Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) system to measure the two-dimensional plasma potential profile in the central mirror region of an open ended plasma confinement device (RFC-XX-M). This HIBP system incorporates three novel features. The first is a Wien filter-type guide field that reduces the required beam acceleration voltage. The second is a set of deflecting electrodes located at the exit position of the secondary ion beam that steers all secondary ions into the analyzer at the same angle. And the third is a new method of absolute calibration.

  10. Design of a Wien Filter Type Heavy Ion Beam Probe System for the Measurement of Plasma Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideki; Adati, Keizô; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Okamura, Shoichi; Sato, Teruyuki

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes the design of a Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) system to measure the two-dimensional plasma potential profile in the central mirror region of an open ended plasma confinement device (RFC-XX-M). This HIBP system incorporates three novel features. The first is a Wien filter-type guide field that reduces the required beam acceleraltion voltage. The second is a set of deflecting electrodes located at the exit position of the secondary ion beam that steers all secondary ions into the analyzer at the same angle. And the third is a new method of absolute calibration.

  11. Elevated fasting plasma cortisol is associated with ischemic heart disease and its risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh type 2 diabetes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rebecca M; Labad, Javier; Strachan, Mark W J; Braun, Anke; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Lee, Amanda J; Frier, Brian M; Seckl, Jonathan R; Walker, Brian R; Price, Jackie F

    2010-04-01

    Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may underlie the metabolic syndrome, but whether circulating cortisol levels predict cardiovascular end points is less clear. People with type 2 diabetes are at increased cardiovascular disease risk and thus are suitable to study associations of plasma cortisol with cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess whether altered HPA axis activity was associated with features of the metabolic syndrome and ischemic heart disease in people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in the general community, including 919 men and women aged 67.9 (4.2) yr with type 2 diabetes (the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study). We measured fasting morning plasma cortisol. Associations between cortisol levels, features of the metabolic syndrome, obesity, and ischemic heart disease were determined. Elevated plasma cortisol levels were associated with raised fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels (P cortisol levels were associated with prevalent ischemic heart disease (>800 vs. cortisol is also associated with a greater prevalence of ischemic heart disease, independent of conventional risk factors. Understanding the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease merits further exploration.

  12. Creatinine plasma at uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at primary health care in Binjai city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdiana; Savira, M.; Syahputra, M.; Santoso, A.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study knowing the comparison creatinine plasma levels at uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at Primary Health Care in Binjai city of North Sumatera in Indonesia. This cross-sectional study was conductedon 40 type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients who attended Primary Health Care in Binjai. Patients with age > 40 years old, (both sexes) were included in the study. We recorded different demographic parameter as age, Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and personal history status. And we examined the biochemicalparameters including Hba1c, Fasting Blood Sugar Levels (FBL) and creatinine serum. We separated into two groups base on HbA1c test, controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. We measured FBL by using the portable measuring instrument, and Thamrin clinical laboratory measured Hba1c, andwe measured creatinine plasmaby spectrophotometry in Biochemistry laboratory. With statistical analysis using T-test found that there was asignificant differencein creatinine plasma levels between uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (p<0.005).

  13. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, S A; Engelen, L; Buijs, J

    2017-01-01

    , and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: We prospectively followed 337 type 1 diabetic patients [mean age 41.4 years (9.6), 39% female], 170 with and 167 without diabetic nephropathy, with median follow-up of 12.3 years. Survival analyses were applied to investigate...... differences in plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10, and TIMP-1-levels in patients with and without a cardiovascular event and in those who died vs survivors. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, nephropathy and for other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: After......BACKGROUND: Altered regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) may contribute to vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. We investigated associations between plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10 and TIMP-1...

  14. Association between plasma activities of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, F; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Agerholm-Larsen, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Plasma semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is elevated in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetic late complications. The regulation of SSAO production remains unknown. We studied correlations between plasma SSA...... is involved in the regulation of both plasma SSAO and serum ACE, which is different from the genetic determination of ACE activity....

  15. Structural Series in the Ternary A-Mn-As System (A = Alkali Metal): Double-Layer-Type CsMn4As3 and RbMn4As3 and Tunnel-Type KMn4As3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi; Iimura, Soshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2018-04-16

    New manganese arsenides CsMn 4 As 3 , RbMn 4 As 3 , and KMn 4 As 3 were synthesized by solid-state reaction. They consist of edge-sharing MnAs 4 tetrahedra, which are a building block similar to those of Fe-based superconductors. CsMn 4 As 3 and RbMn 4 As 3 adopt the KCu 4 S 3 -type structure (tetragonal P4/ mmm space group, No. 123) with a Mn 4 As 3 double layer, while KMn 4 As 3 has the CaFe 4 As 3 -type structure (orthorhombic Pnma space group, No. 62) with a Mn 4 As 3 tunnel framework. The structural change from CsMn 4 As 3 and RbMn 4 As 3 to KMn 4 As 3 as well as the structural trend of the other ternary A-Mn-As (A = alkali metal) and AE-Mn-As (AE = alkaline-earth metal) compounds is understood as a consequence of reduction of the coordination number around the A and AE sites owing to the decrease of the ionic radius from Cs + to Mg 2+ . Electrical resistivity measurements confirm that the three new phases are Mott insulators with band gaps of 0.52 (CsMn 4 As 3 ), 0.43 (RbMn 4 As 3 ), and 0.31 eV (KMn 4 As 3 ). Magnetic and heat capacity measurements revealed that CsMn 4 As 3 and RbMn 4 As 3 are antiferromagnets without apparent phase transitions below 400 K, which is similar to the magnetism of LaMnAsO and BaMn 2 As 2 , while the existence of the ferromagnetic component was indicated in KMn 4 As 3 with a magnetic transition at 179 K.

  16. Dependence of Au- production upon the target work function in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yushirou; Sasao, Mamiko; Fujita, Junji; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Wada, Motoi.

    1991-01-01

    A method to measure the work function of the target surface in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source has been developed. The method can determine the work function by measuring the photoelectric current induced by two lasers (He-Ne, Ar + laser). The dependence of Au - production upon the work function of the target surface in the ion source was studied using this method. The time variation of the target work function and Au - production rate were measured during the cesium coverage decrease due to the plasma ion sputtering. The observed minimum work function of a cesiated gold surface in an Ar plasma was 1.3 eV. At the same time, the negative ion production rate (Au - current/target current) took the maximum value. The negative ion production rate indicated the same dependence on the incident ion energy as that of the sputtering rate when the work function was constant. (author)

  17. Changes of plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and urinary albumin contents in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lili

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and urinary albumin contents in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with nephropathy. Methods: Plasma Hcy (with fluorescence immunoassay) fasting glucose, BUN, Cr (with biochemistry) levels and urinary albumin contents (with RIA) were determined in 36 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 30 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 30 controls. Results: The fasting blood glucose levels in the 2 groups of diabetic patients were not much different. Again, the BUN and Cr levels in the 3 groups of patients were about the same. The plasma Hcy levels in the group of patients with diabetic nephropathy were significantly higher than those in both controls and DM2 patients without nephropathy (all P<0.01). Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for nephropathy in DM2 patients. (authors)

  18. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... dyspnea in the emergency department, but their diagnostic significance in evaluating chronic dyspnea in the general population is unknown. METHODS: Within the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a large, community-based population study, dyspnea was evaluated by spirometry, oxygen saturation, echocardiography......, and plasma proBNP. RESULTS: Of 2,929 participants, 959 reported dyspnea. The plasma proBNP concentration was higher in the group with dyspnea (mean 17.8 pmol/l; 95% confidence interval [CI] 16.3 to 19.4 pmol/l) than in the group without (10.6 pmol/l; 95% CI 10.0 to 11.4 pmol/l; p

  19. Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean population: relation with nutritional and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakoumopoulou, E; Tentolouris, N; Kirlaki, E; Perrea, D; Kitsou, E; Psallas, M; Doulgerakis, D; Katsilambros, N

    2005-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a major and independent risk factor for atherothrombotic vascular disease. It may be promoted by genetic factors, nutritional deficiencies of the vitamin cofactors required for homocysteine metabolism, and other modifiable factors. This cross-sectional study investigated the effect of dietary habits and lifestyle on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean population. A total of 126 diabetic and 76 healthy subjects were interviewed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Information consisted of dietary and smoking habits, coffee and alcohol consumption and physical activity recording, during the month prior to enrollment. Measurements included blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), plasma tHcy, folate, vitamin B12, lipids, HbA(1c), creatinine, uric acid, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Plasma tHcy levels were not different between diabetic and control subjects (11.49+/-3.68 vs 12.67+/-3.79 micromol/l respectively, P = 0.40). Diabetic subjects had significantly higher plasma folate levels and consumed more fish, fruit and vegetables, in comparison with controls. Controls consumed more red meat, coffee, and alcohol. Multivariate analysis in diabetic subjects, after controlling for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, duration of diabetes, GFR, plasma uric acid levels, and the amount of the weekly consumption of fruit and vegetables, demonstrated that age, GFR and the weekly amount of fruit and vegetable consumption were independently associated with plasma tHcy concentrations [regression coefficient (B) = 0.11, SE (B) = 0.03, P = 0.001, B = -0.07, SE (B) = 0.01, P coffee, alcohol and red meat consumption, and physical activity level were not related with plasma tHcy levels in either study group. 1) Plasma tHcy levels were not different in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. 2) In patients with type 2 diabetes age, GFR and the consumption of fruit

  20. Daily rhythms of plasma melatonin, but not plasma leptin or leptin mRNA, vary between lean, obese and type 2 diabetic men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mäntele

    Full Text Available Melatonin and leptin exhibit daily rhythms that may contribute towards changes in metabolic physiology. It remains unclear, however, whether this rhythmicity is altered in obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2DM. We tested the hypothesis that 24-hour profiles of melatonin, leptin and leptin mRNA are altered by metabolic status in laboratory conditions. Men between 45-65 years old were recruited into lean, obese-non-diabetic or obese-T2DM groups. Volunteers followed strict sleep-wake and dietary regimes for 1 week before the laboratory study. They were then maintained in controlled light-dark conditions, semi-recumbent posture and fed hourly iso-energetic drinks during wake periods. Hourly blood samples were collected for hormone analysis. Subcutaneous adipose biopsies were collected 6-hourly for gene expression analysis. Although there was no effect of subject group on the timing of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration was significantly higher in obese-non-diabetic subjects compared to weight-matched T2DM subjects (p<0.01 and lean controls (p<0.05. Two T2DM subjects failed to produce any detectable melatonin, although did exhibit plasma cortisol rhythms comparable to others in the group. Consistent with the literature, there was a significant (p<0.001 effect of subject group on absolute plasma leptin concentration and, when expressed relative to an individual's 24-hour mean, plasma leptin showed significant (p<0.001 diurnal variation. However, there was no difference in amplitude or timing of leptin rhythms between experimental groups. There was also no significant effect of time on leptin mRNA expression. Despite an overall effect (p<0.05 of experimental group, post-hoc analysis revealed no significant pair-wise effects of group on leptin mRNA expression. Altered plasma melatonin rhythms in weight-matched T2DM and non-diabetic individuals supports a possible role of melatonin in T2DM aetiology. However, neither

  1. Aspects of plasma arc cutting process in the AISI 321 type stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Barros, I. de.

    1985-01-01

    Some aspects of plasma arc cutting process in the AISI321 stainless steel, used in nuclear industry, are analysed. The maximum values of the velocity of cutting and, the minimum quantity of energy per unit of length necesary for the plasma were determined. The localization of irregularities in the cut surface in function of the velocity of cutting was investigated. The cut surfaces were evaluated by surface roughness, using as measurement parameter, the distance between the sharpest salience and the deepest reentrance of the sample profile. The width of layer from thermal action of the plasma was influenced by the velocity of cutting. (Author) [pt

  2. Predictive properties of plasma amino acid profile for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kume

    Full Text Available Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD is an important therapeutic object of diabetes care. This study assessed whether an index based on plasma free amino acid (PFAA profiles could predict the onset of CVD in diabetic patients. The baseline concentrations of 31 PFAAs were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry in 385 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes registered in 2001 for our prospective observational follow-up study. During 10 years of follow-up, 63 patients developed cardiovascular composite endpoints (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, worsening of heart failure and stroke. Using the PFAA profiles and clinical information, an index (CVD-AI consisting of six amino acids to predict the onset of any endpoints was retrospectively constructed. CVD-AI levels were significantly higher in patients who did than did not develop CVD. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of CVD-AI (0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.64-0.79] showed equal or slightly better discriminatory capacity than urinary albumin excretion rate (0.69 [95% CI: 0.62-0.77] on predicting endpoints. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that the high level of CVD-AI was identified as an independent risk factor for CVD (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.86 [95% CI: 1.57-5.19]. This predictive effect of CVD-AI was observed even in patients with normoalbuminuria, as well as those with albuminuria. In conclusion, these results suggest that CVD-AI based on PFAA profiles is useful for identifying diabetic patients at risk for CVD regardless of the degree of albuminuria, or for improving the discriminative capability by combining it with albuminuria.

  3. Fasting plasma glucose in the screening for type 2 diabetes in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsø, Dag; Jenssen, Trond; Hager, Helle; Røislien, Jo; Hjelmesaeth, Jøran

    2010-03-01

    Higher mortality rates among morbidly obese (BMI of > or =40 or > or =35 kg/m2 with weight-related comorbidities) subjects are mainly explained by comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. As bariatric surgery ameliorates diabetes, obese diabetic subjects will receive great benefits from bariatric surgery. Screening for diabetes prior to surgical referral is therefore crucial. We studied 1,253 consecutively recruited (2005-2008) morbidly obese subjects (67% women). Among subjects without known diabetes, 70% (670/961) performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Screen-detected diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (fPG) > or =7.0 mmol/l and/or 2-h glucose concentration (2hPG) > or = 11.1 mmol/l. Within the study population, 31% had diabetes, of which 8% were screen-detected. Eighty percent of those with screen-detected diabetes were diagnosed by fPG. In subjects with nondiabetic fPG concentrations, elevating the fPG cutoff value from 5.2 mmol/l to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommended value of 6.1 mmol/l reduced the percentage of the population needing an OGTT considerably (78-23%), but only slightly reduced the sensitivity of fPG in detecting a diabetic 2hPG concentration (100-77%). Only 7% of the patients with fPG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/l had a diabetic 2hPG concentration. Following the WHO's recommendations, we found that 95% of all subjects with unknown diabetes were identified. Fasting glucose identified four out of five morbidly obese subjects with unknown diabetes. A supplemental OGTT in selected persons identified the majority of the remaining diabetic cases.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Mubaraq A; Opiyo, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Exercise plays significant role in the health outcomes of patients with diabetes, however, little is known about patients' knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with T2D. This cross-sectional study recruited 299 patients with T2D (male=105; female=194) from selected government hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Validated questionnaires were used to assess of exercise for plasma blood glucose control and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at exercise whilst 269(90.0%) had negative attitude to exercise practice. Less than a third, 82(27.4%) engaged in exercise practice for plasma blood glucose control. There was significant association between knowledge and practice of exercise ((2)=12.535; p=0.002). Furthermore, significant associations were found between knowledge and gender ((2)=11.453; p=0.003), and socioeconomic status ((2)=29.127, p=0.001) but not associated with attitude towards exercise (p>0.05). Patients with demonstrated good knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control but reported negative attitude and poor practice of exercise. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Thames Tideway Tunnel (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Lecture 3: Insight into a pioneering project at the cutting edge of engineering: the upgrade to London’s failing sewerage system. With a growing population and heavier rainfall, the River Thames is regularly polluted in breach of European Directive requirements. Two new storage and transfer tunnels will run up to 85m deep under the river and will intercept and divert sewer overflows to a treatment facility in east London. The challenges faced by constructing a tunnel project of this size under the river and through London’s historic urban environment will set a new UK record for this type of tunnelling.

  6. Association of Plasma Myeloperoxidase Level with Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study aimed to investigate whether the change of plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO level would be associated with the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD among diabetic patients. Methods. 339 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM underwent coronary angiography. Of them, 204 cases had CAD and were assigned to CAD group and 135 cases without CAD were assigned to non-CAD group. Results. Compared to non-CAD group, CAD group had higher level of plasma MPO (p<0.01. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that plasma MPO level was correlated with Gensini score. Multiple logistic analysis showed that the odds ratios for CAD across increasing tertiles of MPO level were 1.191 (0.971–1.547 and 1.488 (1.115–2.228 (p=0.048, p=0.009 versus 1st tertile of MPO level, resp. by adjusting for age, sex, and other conventional risk factors for CAD. The subjects were stratified into nine groups according to tertiles of MPO and HbA1c. The odds ratio for CAD was significantly higher in group with highest levels of MPO and HbA1c (OR = 4.08, p<0.01. Conclusion. Plasma MPO level was positively correlated with the degree of coronary artery stenosis in type 2 diabetic patients, and increasing blood glucose might amplify the association between MPO and CAD.

  7. Plasma Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Qi; Zong, Geng; Valvi, Damaskini

    2018-01-01

    collection, and menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy). Plasma concentrations of five major PFASs, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorodecanoic acid were measured. Odds ratios (ORs) of T2D...

  8. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  9. P-type sp3-bonded BN/n-type Si heterodiode solar cell fabricated by laser-plasma synchronous CVD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Shojiro; Nagata, Takahiro; Chikyo, Toyohiro; Sato, Yuhei; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hirano, Daisuke; Takizawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Katsumitsu; Hashimoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Takuya; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A heterojunction of p-type sp 3 -bonded boron nitride (BN) and n-type Si fabricated by laser-plasma synchronous chemical vapour deposition (CVD) showed excellent rectifying properties and proved to work as a solar cell with photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.76%. The BN film was deposited on an n-type Si (1 0 0) substrate by plasma CVD from B 2 H 6 + NH 3 + Ar while doping of Si into the BN film was induced by the simultaneous irradiation of an intense excimer laser with a pulse power of 490 mJ cm -2 , at a wavelength of 193 nm and at a repetition rate of 20 Hz. The source of dopant Si was supposed to be the Si substrate ablated at the initial stage of the film growth. The laser enhanced the doping (and/or diffusion) of Si into BN as well as the growth of sp 3 -bonded BN simultaneously in this method. P-type conduction of BN films was determined by the hot (thermoelectric) probe method. The BN/Si heterodiode with an essentially transparent p-type BN as a front layer is supposed to efficiently absorb light reaching the active region so as to potentially result in high efficiency.

  10. Quantitative iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Identification of Candidate Biomarkers for Diabetic Nephropathy in Plasma of Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Julie; Thingholm, Tine Engberg; Larsen, Martin R

    2010-01-01

    spectrometry in three identical repetitions using isobaric mass tags (iTRAQ). The results were further analysed with ingenuity pathway analysis. Levels of apolipoprotein A1, A2, B, C3, E and J were analysed and validated by a multiplex immunoassay in 20 type 1 diabetic patients with macroalbuminuria and 10......INTRODUCTION: As part of a clinical proteomics programme focused on diabetes and its complications, it was our goal to investigate the proteome of plasma in order to find improved candidate biomarkers to predict diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Proteins derived from plasma from a cross......-sectional cohort of 123 type 1 diabetic patients previously diagnosed as normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric or macroalbuminuric were enriched with hexapeptide library beads and subsequently pooled within three groups. Proteins from the three groups were compared by online liquid chromatography and tandem mass...

  11. Does overnight normalization of plasma glucose by insulin infusion affect assessment of glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, P; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, O

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: In order to perform euglycaemic clamp studies in Type 2 diabetic patients, plasma glucose must be reduced to normal levels. This can be done either (i) acutely during the clamp study using high-dose insulin infusion, or (ii) slowly overnight preceding the clamp study using a low-dose insulin...... infusion. We assessed whether the choice of either of these methods to obtain euglycaemia biases subsequent assessment of glucose metabolism and insulin action. METHODS: We studied seven obese Type 2 diabetic patients twice: once with (+ ON) and once without (- ON) prior overnight insulin infusion. Glucose...... turnover rates were quantified by adjusted primed-constant 3-3H-glucose infusions, and insulin action was assessed in 4-h euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU m-2 min-1) clamp studies using labelled glucose infusates (Hot-GINF). RESULTS: Basal plasma glucose levels (mean +/- sd) were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 10...

  12. Determination of Coreceptor Usage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 from Patient Plasma Samples by Using a Recombinant Phenotypic Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Trouplin, Virginie; Salvatori, Francesca; Cappello, Fanny; Obry, Veronique; Brelot, Anne; Heveker, Nikolaus; Alizon, Marc; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Clavel, François; Mammano, Fabrizio

    2001-01-01

    We developed a recombinant virus technique to determine the coreceptor usage of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from plasma samples, the source expected to represent the most actively replicating virus population in infected subjects. This method is not subject to selective bias associated with virus isolation in culture, a step required for conventional tropism determination procedures. The addition of a simple subcloning step allowed semiquantitative evaluation of virus populati...

  13. Plasma amino acid profiles are associated with insulin, C-peptide and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Noguchi, Y; Shimba, N; Miyano, H; Watanabe, T; Iseki, K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profiles have been associated with a future risk of developing diabetes or cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic subjects. These PFAA alterations might predominantly result from the metabolic shift caused by insulin resistance and visceral fat deposition. The variety of PFAA profiles within diabetic subjects is not well researched. In this study, we focused on type 2 diabetic subjects and examined the association between PFAA profiles and insulin- and...

  14. Plasma Metabolomic Profiles Reflective of Glucose Homeostasis in Non-Diabetic and Type 2 Diabetic Obese African-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fiehn, Oliver; Garvey, W. Timothy; Newman, John W.; Lok, Kerry H.; Hoppel, Charles L.; Adams, Sean H.

    2010-01-01

    Insulin resistance progressing to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is marked by a broad perturbation of macronutrient intermediary metabolism. Understanding the biochemical networks that underlie metabolic homeostasis and how they associate with insulin action will help unravel diabetes etiology and should foster discovery of new biomarkers of disease risk and severity. We examined differences in plasma concentrations of >350 metabolites in fasted obese T2DM vs. obese non-diabetic African-Amer...

  15. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tri Q; Tarnow, Lise; Jorsal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic.......1-1.7]). In contrast, in normoalbuminuric patients, plasma CTGF did not correlate with clinical parameters and did not predict outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CTGF contributes significantly to prediction of ESRD and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetic nephropathy....... patients with persistent normoalbuminuria. Follow-up time was 12.8 years. Prediction of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality by plasma CTGF was analyzed in conjunction with conventional risk factors. RESULTS: Plasma CTGF was higher in patients with nephropathy than in patients with normoalbuminuria...

  16. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefo....... CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 48-h continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients 1) lowers fasting as well as meal-related plasma glucose, 2) reduces appetite, 3) has no gastrointestinal side effects, and 4) has no negative effect on blood pressure......., previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area...

  17. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore......, previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area....... CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 48-h continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients 1) lowers fasting as well as meal-related plasma glucose, 2) reduces appetite, 3) has no gastrointestinal side effects, and 4) has no negative effect on blood pressure....

  18. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijing Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM. We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent, 0.67 (0.55–0.83, 0.64 (0.51–0.79, and 0.58 (0.46–0.73, respectively (p for trend <0.001. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval for pre-DM were 1 (referent, 0.70 (0.54–0.91, 0.67 (0.52–0.88, and 0.58 (0.43–0.78, respectively (p for trend < 0.001. Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults.

  19. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  20. Study of fully-depleted Ge double-gate n-type Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors for improvement in on-state current and sub-threshold swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Hu, Huiyong; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Heming; Cui, Shimin; Shu, Bin; Wang, Bin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a fully-depleted (FD) Ge double-gate (DG) n-type Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors (TFET) structure is studied in detail by two-dimensional numerical simulation. The simulation results indicated that the on-state current Ion and on-off ratio of the FD Ge DG-TFET increases about 1 order of magnitude comparing with the Conventional Ge DG-TFET, and Ion=3.95×10-5 A/μm and the below 60 mV/decade subthreshold swing S=26.4 mV/decade are achieved with the length of gate LD=20 nm, the workfuntion of metal gate Φm=0.2 eV and the doping concentration of n+-type-channel ND=1×1018 cm-3. Moreover, the impacts of Φm, ND and LD are investigated. The simulation results indicated that the off-state current Ioff includes the tunneling current at the middle of channel IB the gated-induced drain leakage (GIDL) current IGIDL. With optimized Φm and ND, Ioff is reduced about 2 orders of magnitude to 2.5×10-13 A/μm with LD increasing from 40 nm to 100 nm, and on-off ratio is increased to 1.58×107.

  1. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, S A; Engelen, L; Buijs, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) may contribute to vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. We investigated associations between plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10 and TIMP-1...... differences in plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10, and TIMP-1-levels in patients with and without a cardiovascular event and in those who died vs survivors. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, nephropathy and for other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: After...... adjustment for potential confounders, higher MMP-2 plasma levels were significantly associated with higher incidence of cardiovascular events [HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.11; 1.99)], and higher plasma levels of MMP-1 [1.38 (1.07; 1.78)], MMP-2 [1.60 (1.19; 2.15)] and MMP-3 [1.39 (1.05; 1.85)] were associated with all...

  2. Simultaneous analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants in plasma by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Schuh, Roselena S; Ferranti, Priscila; Ortiz, Rafael S; Souza, Daniele Z; Pechansky, Flavio; Froehlich, Pedro E; Limberger, Renata P

    2014-09-01

    Brazil is considered one of the countries with the highest number of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users worldwide, mainly diethylpropion (DIE) and fenproporex (FEN). The use of ATS is mostly linked to diverted prescription stimulants and this misuse is widely associated with (ab)use by drivers. A validated method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of amphetamine (AMP), DIE and FEN in plasma samples employing direct immersion-solid-phase microextraction, and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis. Trichloroacetic acid 10% was used for plasma deproteinization. In situ derivatization with propylchloroformate was employed. The linear range of the method covered from 5.0 to 100 ng/mL. The detection limits were 1.0 (AMP), 1.5 (DIE) and 2.0 ng/mL (FEN). The accuracy assessment of the control samples was within 85.58-108.33% of the target plasma concentrations. Recoveries ranged from 46.35 to 84.46% and precision was <15% of the value of relative standard deviation. This method is appropriate for screening and confirmation in plasma forensic toxicology analyses of these basic drugs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Plasma B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP As a Marker of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Zahurul Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first stage of diabetic cardiomyopathy is represented by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD with preserved systolic function, in an asymptomatic patient. B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP is a cardiac neurohormone predominantly released from the cardiac ventricles in response to left ventricular volume expansion and pressure overload. The diagnostic role of BNP for detecting LVDD in asymptomatic diabetic patients is still debated and this study was undertaken to find out this relationship of plasma BNP level with LVDD in asymptomatic diabetic patients. First 100 patients who had type 2 diabetes for more than 5 years and had no known cardiac disease other than LVDD (grade-1 & 2, admitted in BIRDEM Hospital were recruited. Plasma BNP was measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA method using AXSYM auto analyzer. Two-dimensional, M-mode, spectral, and color flow Doppler echocardiograms was repeated on the same day of blood collection for plasma BNP measurement. After processing of all available data, statistical analysis of their significance was done with the help of computer based SPSS (Statistical Program for Social Science program. Male female distribution of the study participants was 46% and 54% respectively. Mean plasma BNP level in all participants was 150 pg/ml. In male and female participants the values were 168 and 135 pg/ml respectively. The distribution did not show any significant association (p=0.491. Of the 100 study participants 89% had E/A ratio <1. Distribution of participants with abnormal E/A and E/e did not show any significant association (p=0.955 and 0.844 respectively. Study participants with varying level of plasma BNP level were analyzed in terms of E/A and E/e ratio. Distribution of participants between BNP Groups and E/A and E/e groups did not show statistically significant association (p=0.529. We concluded that plasma BNP has no relation with LVDD (grade-1 and 2 in patients with type 2

  4. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with a single-crystalline LiF tunnel barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Narayananellore, Sai; Doko, Naoki; Matsuo, Norihiro; Saito, Hidekazu; Yuasa, Shinji

    2018-04-01

    We fabricated Fe/LiF/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgO(001) substrate, where LiF is an insulating tunnel barrier with the same crystal structure as MgO (rock-salt type). Crystallographical studies such as transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction observations revealed that the LiF tunnel barrier is single-crystalline and has a LiF(001)[100] ∥ bottom Fe(001)[110] crystal orientation, which is constructed in the same manner as MgO(001) on Fe(001). Also, the in-plane lattice mismatch between the LiF tunnel barrier and the Fe bottom electrode was estimated to be small (about 0.5%). Despite such advantages for the tunnel barrier of the MTJ, the observed tunnel magnetoresistance (MR) ratio was low (˜6% at 20 K) and showed a significant decrease with increasing temperature (˜1% at room temperature). The results imply that indirect tunneling and/or thermally excited carriers in the LiF tunnel barrier, in which the current basically is not spin-polarized, play a major role in electrical transport in the MTJ.

  5. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-type I: its plasma determinants and relation with cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, T.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.

    2004-01-01

    The habitual level of PAI-1 is influenced by many factors, of which obesity and insulin resistance are the most important. It is possible to reduce plasma PAI-1 by changes in life style, e.g. weight reduction and physical activity. Data on potential interactions between environmental and metabolic

  6. Comparison of different types of plasma in radioactive surface decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Kadowaki, M.; Windarto, F.H.; Mori, S.

    2005-01-01

    A highly effective decontamination technique is required for the recycling of material from decommissioned reactors and the decontamination of the spent fuel clad in future reprocessing. The plasma technique, based on the plasma etching process for producing semiconductors, is one of the candidates for an advanced alternative to the aqueous process using oxalic-acid solution. In this paper, we compare and discuss various plasma decontamination processes, the low-pressure and the atmospheric-pressure processes, also bringing into the discussion the processes, which we have developed. Consequently, we conclude the following. The low-pressure process is suitable for basic experiments and may be used in the decontamination process for alpha-ray emitters because of its advantage of confinement. The atmospheric-pressure process has an etching rate one or two orders higher than the low-pressure process. Therefore, the atmospheric-pressure process is superior for decontaminating wide areas such as the inner surfaces of reactor vessels. In particular, the non-equilibrium plasma process has the peculiar characteristic of being able to supply a great number of active atoms to the fluorination reaction without extra heat generation, and so it can be useful for this purpose. (orig.)

  7. Effect of adjunct metformin treatment on levels of plasma lipids in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Tarnow, L.; Astrup, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    , we report the effect of a 1-year treatment with metformin vs. placebo on plasma lipids in T1DM patients and persistent poor glycaemic control. METHODS: One hundred T1DM patients with haemoglobinA(1c) (HbA(1c)) > or =8.5% during the year before enrolment entered a 1-month run-in period on placebo...

  8. Tunnel magnetoresistance in double spin filter junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Alireza

    2003-01-01

    We consider a new type of magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of two ferromagnetic tunnel barriers acting as spin filters (SFs), separated by a nonmagnetic metal (NM) layer. Using the transfer matrix method and the free-electron approximation, the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) on the thickness of the central NM layer, bias voltage and temperature in the double SF junction are studied theoretically. It is shown that the TMR and electron-spin polarization in this structure can reach very large values under suitable conditions. The highest value of the TMR can reach 99%. By an appropriate choice of the thickness of the central NM layer, the degree of spin polarization in this structure will be higher than that of the single SF junctions. These results may be useful in designing future spin-polarized tunnelling devices

  9. Plasma Copeptin, AVP Gene Variants, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Cohort From the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Ronan; El Boustany, Ray; Bouby, Nadine; Potier, Louis; Fumeron, Frédéric; Mohammedi, Kamel; Balkau, Beverley; Tichet, Jean; Bankir, Lise; Marre, Michel; Velho, Gilberto

    2016-06-01

    Experimental data support a role for vasopressin in metabolic disorders. We investigated associations of plasma copeptin, a surrogate of vasopressin, and of allelic variations in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II gene with insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and the risk for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We studied 5110 unrelated French men and women from a prospective cohort of the general population (Data from Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome cohort, 9-y follow-up). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. Incidence of IFG or T2DM during follow-up. The incidence of hyperglycemia (IFG/T2DM) during follow-up by quartiles of baseline plasma copeptin was 11.0% (Q1), 14.5% (Q2), 17.0% (Q3), and 23.5% (Q4), log-rank test P = .003. Participants in the upper quartile of plasma copeptin had significantly lower insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment index) at baseline and during follow-up, as compared with other participants. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed significant associations of the CC genotype of rs6084264, the TT genotype of rs2282018, the C-allele of rs2770381, and the CC genotype of rs1410713 with the incidence of hyperglycemia. The genotypes associated with an increased risk of hyperglycemia were also associated with increased plasma copeptin in men but not in women. High plasma copeptin was associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and an increased risk for IFG/T2DM diabetes in this community-based cohort. Moreover, in men, allelic associations support a causal role for vasopressin in these disorders.

  10. Plasma lysosphingomyelin demonstrates great potential as a diagnostic biomarker for Niemann-Pick disease type C in a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W D Welford

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C is a devastating, neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder which is characterised by variable manifestation of visceral signs, progressive neuropsychiatric deterioration and premature death, caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. Due to the complexity of diagnosis and the availability of an approved therapy in the EU, improved detection of NP-C may have a huge impact on future disease management. At the cellular level dysfunction or deficiency of either the NPC1 or NPC2 protein leads to a complex intracellular endosomal/lysosomal trafficking defect, and organ specific patterns of sphingolipid accumulation. Lysosphingolipids have been shown to be excellent biomarkers of sphingolipidosis in several enzyme deficient lysosomal storage disorders. Additionally, in a recent study the lysosphingolipids, lysosphingomyelin (SPC and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph, appeared to be elevated in the plasma of three adult NP-C patients. In order to investigate the clinical utility of SPC and GlcSph as diagnostic markers, an in-depth fit for purpose biomarker assay validation for measurement of these biomarkers in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Plasma SPC and GlcSph are stable and can be measured accurately, precisely and reproducibly. In a retrospective analysis of 57 NP-C patients and 70 control subjects, median plasma SPC and GlcSph were significantly elevated in NP-C by 2.8-fold and 1.4-fold respectively. For miglustat-naïve NP-C patients, aged 2-50 years, the area under the ROC curve was 0.999 for SPC and 0.776 for GlcSph. Plasma GlcSph did not correlate with SPC levels in NP-C patients. The data indicate excellent potential for the use of lysosphingomyelin in NP-C diagnosis, where it could be used to identify NP-C patients for confirmatory genetic testing.

  11. Phosphosite mapping of P-type plasma membrane H+-ATPase in homologous and heterologous environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudashevskaya, Elena; Ye, Juanying; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation is an important posttranslational modification of proteins in living cells and primarily serves regulatory purposes. Several methods were employed for isolating phosphopeptides from proteolytically digested plasma membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana. After a mass spectrometric...... other P-type ATPase. Phosphosites were almost exclusively (9 of 10) in the terminal regulatory domains of the pumps. The AHA2 isoform was subsequently expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The plant protein was phosphorylated at multiple sites in yeast, and surprisingly, seven of nine...... of the phosphosites identified in AHA2 were identical in the plant and fungal systems even though none of the target sequences in AHA2 show homology to proteins of the fungal host. These findings suggest an unexpected accessibility of the terminal regulatory domain of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase to protein kinase...

  12. Plasma proteomics classifiers improve risk prediction for renal disease in patients with hypertension or type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena, Michelle J; Jankowski, Joachim; Heinze, Georg

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Micro and macroalbuminuria are strong risk factors for progression of nephropathy in patients with hypertension or type 2 diabetes. Early detection of progression to micro and macroalbuminuria may facilitate prevention and treatment of renal diseases. We aimed to develop plasma...... and the Steno Diabetes Center. Cases transitioned from normo to microalbuminuria, or from micro to macroalbuminuria. Controls, matched for age, sex, and baseline albuminuria stage, did not transition. Follow-up was 3.0 ± 0.9 years. Plasma proteomics profiles were measured by liquid chromatography......-electrospray-trap mass-spectrometry. Classifiers were developed and cross-validated for prediction of transition in albuminuria stage. Improvement in risk prediction was tested on top of a reference model of baseline albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention...

  13. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  14. A bio-immuno assay to determine free tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in Stabilyte® plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Revet, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a two-step bio-immuno assay (BIA), which determines active (free) tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in (acidified) plasma. Plasma samples, diluted in buffer of pH 6.0, are added to the wells of a microtiter plate containing an immobilised monoclonal antibody which binds

  15. Use of dried spots of whole blood, plasma, and mother's milk collected on filter paper for measurement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Workenesh; Schuurman, Rob; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Mengistu, Yohannes; Goudsmit, Jaap; Paxton, William A.; de Baar, Michel P.; Pollakis, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    We studied the use of dried spots of bodily fluids (plasma, whole blood, and mother's milk) on filter paper as a means of sample collection and storage for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load testing under stringent field conditions. Plasma placed directly in lysis buffer, which

  16. Association of plasma angiotensin-(1-7 level and left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Hao

    Full Text Available We recently found that overexpression of angiotensin (Ang-converting enzyme 2, which metabolizes Ang-II to Ang-(1-7 and Ang-I to Ang-(1-9, may prevent diabetes-induced left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in rats. Our objective was to evaluate the association of plasma Ang-(1-7 level and left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.We measured the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF, ratio of early to late left ventricular filling velocity (E/A and ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow to annular velocity (E/Ea by ultrasonography in 110 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for more than 5 years. Anthropometric and fasting blood values were obtained from medical records. The plasma Ang-(1-7 level in patients with a poor EF (15 was significantly lower than that in patients with E/Ea ≤15. Ang-(1-7 level was negatively correlated with E/Ea and Log-N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and positively with EF and E/A. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that Ang-(1-7, hemoglobin A1c and Ang-II levels as well as duration of diabetes predicted EF; Ang-(1-7 level, fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and duration of diabetes predicted E/A; and Ang-(1-7 and hemoglobin A1c levels predicted E/Ea.Plasma Ang-(1-7 level is independently associated with left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and may be a biomarker for assessing cardiac function in such patients.

  17. Key steps in type III secretion system (T3SS) towards translocon assembly with potential sensor at plant plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongtao; Dong, Hansong

    2015-09-01

    Many plant- and animal-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins from bacterial cells into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. The effector translocation occurs through an integral component of T3SS, the channel-like translocon, assembled by hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteinaceous translocators in a two-step process. In the first, hydrophilic translocators localize to the tip of a proteinaceous needle in animal pathogens, or a proteinaceous pilus in plant pathogens, and associate with hydrophobic translocators, which insert into host plasma membranes in the second step. However, the pilus needs to penetrate plant cell walls in advance. All hydrophilic translocators so far identified in plant pathogens are characteristic of harpins: T3SS accessory proteins containing a unitary hydrophilic domain or an additional enzymatic domain. Two-domain harpins carrying a pectate lyase domain potentially target plant cell walls and facilitate the penetration of the pectin-rich middle lamella by the bacterial pilus. One-domain harpins target plant plasma membranes and may play a crucial role in translocon assembly, which may also involve contrapuntal associations of hydrophobic translocators. In all cases, sensory components in the target plasma membrane are indispensable for the membrane recognition of translocators and the functionality of the translocon. The conjectural sensors point to membrane lipids and proteins, and a phosphatidic acid and an aquaporin are able to interact with selected harpin-type translocators. Interactions between translocators and their sensors at the target plasma membrane are assumed to be critical for translocon assembly. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. C-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are elevated in subjects with achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Robert C; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A; Mackenzie, William G; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen; Zabel, Bernhard; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bober, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a crucial regulator of endochondral bone growth. In a previous report of a child with acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM), caused by loss-of-function of the CNP receptor (natriuretic peptide receptor-B [NPR-B]), plasma levels of CNP were elevated. In vitro studies have shown that activation of the MAPK kinase (MEK)/ERK MAPK pathway causes functional inhibition of NPR-B. Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia are syndromes of short-limbed dwarfism caused by activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, which result in overactivation of the MEK/ERK MAPK pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these syndromes exhibit evidence of CNP resistance as reflected by increases in plasma CNP and its amino-terminal propeptide (NTproCNP). This was a prospective, observational study. Participants were 63 children and 20 adults with achondroplasia, 6 children with hypochondroplasia, 2 children with thanatophoric dysplasia, and 4 children and 1 adult with AMDM. Plasma levels of CNP and NTproCNP were higher in children with achondroplasia with CNP SD scores (SDSs) of 1.0 (0.3-1.4) (median [interquartile range]) and NTproCNP SDSs of 1.4 (0.4-1.8; P achondroplasia (CNP SDSs of 1.5 [0.7-2.1] and NTproCNP SDSs of 0.5 [0.1-1.0], P < .005). In children with hypochondroplasia, CNP SDSs were 1.3 (0.7-1.5) (P = .08) and NTproCNP SDSs were 1.9 (1.8-2.3) (P < .05). In children with AMDM, CNP SDSs were 1.6 (1.4-3.3) and NTproCNP SDSs were 4.2 (2.7-6.2) (P < .01). In these skeletal dysplasias, elevated plasma levels of proCNP products suggest the presence of tissue resistance to CNP.

  19. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  20. Effect of nutrition on plasma C-type natriuretic peptide forms in adult sheep: evidence for enhanced C-type natriuretic peptide degradation during caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Timothy C R; Ryan, John F; Wellby, Martin; Barrell, Graham K; Yandle, Timothy G; Richards, A Mark; Espiner, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies in lambs and children show that the plasma concentration of amino terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide (NTproCNP), a stable product of proCNP, is strongly correlated with skeletal growth and markers of bone formation. Consistent with these findings, CNP expression is sensitive to nutritional status and is reduced by caloric restriction (CR) in both the fetus and the postnatal lamb. However, the effect of nutritional status on CNP in the adult, once linear growth is complete, is unknown. Hypothesizing that reduced CNP synthesis during CR is contingent on the presence of active growth plates, we studied the effect of CR ( 25% of maintenance) or loading (CL, 200% of maintenance) on CNP forms and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in adult ewes and compared the findings to responses in a control group (C) fed a maintenance diet of 10.6 MJ of metabolizable energy. Live body weight was reduced (17%) in the CR group and increased (10%) in the CL group after 16 days of intervention. Plasma CNP concentration and ALP both fell in CR sheep and were significantly lower than C (P < .05 for both), returning toward basal levels 1 week after refeeding. In contrast, plasma NTproCNP did not differ (CR vs C). There were no significant changes in CNP forms and ALP in CL sheep compared with C. Fall in plasma CNP but not in NTproCNP in CR adult sheep suggests that CNP degradation (not synthesis) is altered, and contrasts with previous findings in growing lambs where CR reduces both CNP forms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Total plasma homocysteine is associated with hypertension in Type I diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, S; Tarnow, L; Stehouwer, C D

    2002-01-01

    /l in patients with normal GFR are not related to vascular complications, but to hypertension (8.6-11.3 micro mol/l: OR 1.9; >11.3 micro mol/l: OR 3.7). The risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) was also enhanced by a plasma homocysteine concentration greater than 11.3 micro mol/l (OR 5.9). Although the T allele...

  2. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  3. Negative ion beam formation using thermal contact ionization type plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuura, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Kazutugu; Masuoka, Toshio; Katsumata, Itsuo [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    The small ion sources utilizing thermal ionization have been already developed, and at present, in order to increase ion yield, that being developed to the cylindrical plasma prototype having the inner surface of a Re foil cylinder as the ionization surface, and stably functioning at 3,000 K has been developed, and by using this plasma source, the research on the formation of various ions has been carried out. At present, the research on the formation of Li negative ion beam is carried out. The separation of negative ions from electrons is performed with the locally limited magnetic field using a small iron core electromagnet placed behind the electrostatic accelerating lens system. So for, the formation of about 2 {mu}A at maximum of negative ions was confirmed. It was decided to identify the kinds of ions by time of flight (TOF) process, and the various improvements for this purpose were carried out. The experimental setup, the structure of the plasma source, the circuits for TOF measurement and so on are explained. The experimental results are reported. The problems are the possibility of the formation of alkali metals, the resolution of the time axis of the TOF system and so on. (K.I.)

  4. Dose-current discharge correlation analysis in a Mather type Plasma Focus device for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumini, M.; Mostacci, D.; Tartari, A.; Mazza, A.; Cucchi, G.; Isolan, L.; Buontempo, F.; Zironi, I.; Castellani, G.

    2017-11-01

    In a Plasma Focus device the plasma collapses into the pinch where it reaches thermonuclear conditions for a few tens of nanoseconds, becoming a multi-radiation source. The nature of the radiation generated depends on the gas filling the chamber and the device working parameters. The self-collimated electron beam generated in the backward direction with respect to the plasma motion is one of the main radiation sources of interest also for medical applications. The electron beam may be guided against a high Z material target to produce an X-ray beam. This technique offers an ultra-high dose rate source of X-rays, able to deliver during the pinch a massive dose (up to 1 Gy per discharge for the PFMA-3 test device), as measured with EBT3 GafchromicⒸfilm tissue equivalent dosimeters. Given the stochastic behavior of the discharge process, a reliable on-line estimate of the dose-delivered is a very challenging task, in some way preventing a systematic application as a potentially interesting therapy device. This work presents an approach to linking the dose registered by the EBT3 GafchromicⒸfilms with the information contained in the signal recorded during the current discharge process. Processing the signal with the Wigner-Ville distribution, a spectrogram was obtained, displaying the information on intensity at various frequency scales, identifying the band of frequencies representative of the pinch events and define some patterns correlated with the dose.

  5. Plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, M.; Tarnow, L.; Jorsal, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels are predictive of cardiovascular events, decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We...... performed a prospective observational follow-up study including 397 type 1 diabetic patients with overt diabetic nephropathy (243 men aged 42.1 +/- 10.5 years, GFR 76 +/- 34 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and a control group of 175 patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes and persistent normoalbuminuria (104 men...... aged 42.7 +/- 9.7 years, duration of diabetes 27.7 +/- 8.3 years). Patients were followed for a median 11.3 years (range 0.0-12.9) with yearly measurements of GFR ((51)Cr-EDTA plasma clearance) in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Endpoints were fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD...

  6. The gonadal hormone regulates the plasma lactate levels in type 2 diabetes treated with and without metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Liu, Fang; Li, Qing; Tang, Junling; Zheng, Taishan; Lu, Fengdi; Lu, Huijuan; Jia, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    Our previous study showed there was a gender difference in plasma lactate concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the effect of sex hormone levels on plasma lactic acid (LA) levels in type 2 diabetes with and without metformin therapy. Fasting whole blood specimens of 392 type 2 diabetes patients treated with metformin (n=199) or not (n=193) were collected. LA was measured with an enzyme-electrode assay. Levels of sex hormones, including testosterone (T) and estradiol (E(2)), were measured with a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay. Spearman's or Pearson's correlation and logistic regression analysis were performed for the factors associated with LA. The LA level in the metformin group was significantly higher than that in the non-metformin group (1.26±0.43 vs. 1.14±0.49 mmol/L, PLA levels of females were significantly higher than those of males (PLA concentrations were positively correlated with E(2) level but negatively correlated with metformin and T levels (Pmetformin, and T were independent factors influencing lactate levels. Analysis of subgroups demonstrated that the LA concentrations increased with the elevation of E(2) level (Pmetformin. E(2) up-regulates but T tend to down-regulate lactate levels.

  7. Higher plasma high-mobility group box 1 levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, J W M; Ferreira, I; Schalkwijk, C G

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes.......This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  8. Effects of piragliatin, a glucokinase activator, on fasting and postprandial plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jianguo; Zhai, Suoping

    2016-02-01

    To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of piragliatin, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending-doses study was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Fifty-nine T2D patients were given piragliatin or placebo in a dose-escalation design as a single dose on day 1 followed by multiple doses on days 3 through 8 at doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg twice a day (BID) as well as 200 mg every day (QD). Blood and urine samples were collected for PK analysis. PD assessments included plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1. Piragliatin exposure was dose proportional without appreciable accumulation or food effect. Piragliatin treatment at steady state yielded dose-dependent reductions up to 32.5% and 35.5% for the highest dose in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose. Piragliatin was well tolerated. Mild or moderate hypoglycemia with rapid recovery after sugar-containing drinks or scheduled meals was the only dose-limiting adverse event. It is concluded that multiple doses of piragliatin consistently showed rapid, dose-dependent glucose reduction of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose in T2D patients. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  10. Changes in plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Nishimura,1 Takashi Nishimura,2 Katsuya Onishi,3 Toru Oga,4 Yoshinori Hasegawa,5 Paul W Jones61Department of Pulmonary Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Japan; 2Kyoto-Katsura Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 3Onishi Heart Clinic, Tsu, Japan; 4Department of Respiratory Care and Sleep Control Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 5Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 6Division of Clinical Science, St George's Hospital Medical School, London, EnglandBackground: Elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels and their association with heart failure have been reported in subjects with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD.Purpose: To examine and compare plasma BNP levels and diastolic and systolic dysfunction in subjects with AECOPD and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: In all, 87 unselected consecutive hospitalizations due to AECOPD in 61 subjects and a total of 190 consecutive subjects with stable COPD were recruited. Plasma BNP levels were compared cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Transthoracic echocardiographic examinations were also performed in the hospitalized subjects.Results: In the hospitalized subjects, the median plasma BNP level (interquartile range was 55.4 (26.9–129.3 pg/mL and was higher than that of patients with stable COPD: 18.3 (10.0–45.3 for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease grade I; 25.8 (11.0–53.7 for grade II; 22.1 (9.1–52.6 for grade III; and 17.2 (9.6–22.9 pg/mL for grade IV, all P<0.001. In 15 subjects studied prospectively, the median plasma BNP level was 19.4 (9.8–32.2 pg/mL before AECOPD, 72.7 (27.7–146.3 pg/mL during AECOPD, and 14.6 (12.9–39.0 pg/mL after AECOPD (P<0.0033 and P<0.0013, respectively. Median plasma BNP levels during AECOPD were significantly higher in

  11. Nitrite plasma levels in type 1 and 2 diabetics with and without complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlito, S; Gallina, M

    1999-01-01

    The authors thought it interesting to examine the interrelationship between nitric oxide and diabetes mellitus by the determination of the nitrite plasma levels, stable end-products of nitric oxide, in various clinical patterns of diabetes mellitus. Our series consisted of 161 female subjects (mean age 54 +/- 7 years, disease duration 5 +/- 3 months) subdivided into: a) 13 patients suffering from insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) without clinical and instrumental signs of micro- and macroangiopathy; b) 148 suffering from non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) of whom: 1) 52 without vascular complications (28 normal weight, BMI 30); 2) 40 with clinical and instrumental signs of non hypertensive coronary heart disease (CHD); 3) 25 with CHD and hypertension (arterial blood pressure over 160/95 mmHg); 4) 31 with hypercholesterolemia (values over 250 mg/dl). All patients were examined in good glycometabolic conditions reached by oral hypoglycemiant (12 cases) or insulin (149 cases) treatment. As normal control 37 female subjects (mean age 48 +/- 7) without internistic diseases were considered. For each sample we determined the plasma levels of nitrites by the Gutman and Hollywood method. Almost similar nitrite plasma levels in IDDM (17 +/- 0.5 mumol/L) and normal controls (17 +/- 0.2 mumol/L) were found; in non complicated non obese NIDDM a not significantly elevated value (21 +/- 0.8 mumol/L) as compared with the IDDM and control group was found; the obese NIDDM patients showed a value (18 +/- 0.4 mumol/L) not significantly different in comparison with the non obese NIDDM group. In the NIDDM group with non hypertensive CHD) the nitrite value was almost similar (20 +/- 0.5 mumol/L) to the corresponding group without vascular complications. In the patients with CHD and hypertension the nitrite level was superimposable (20 +/- 0.7 mumol/L) on the one recorded in NIDDM patients without vascular complications and in those with CHD without hypertension. In NIDDM

  12. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 by fresh-frozen plasma treated with methylene blue and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Manuel; Luis-Hidalgo, Mar; Bracho, María Alma; Blanquer, Amando; Larrea, Luis; Villalba, José; Puig, Nieves; Planelles, Dolores; Montoro, José; González-Candelas, Fernando; Roig, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The risk of transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) has been minimized by introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) and pathogen inactivation (PI). This case report describes transmission of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) to two recipients despite these measures. In March 2009 a possible TTI of HIV-1 was identified in a patient that had received pooled buffy coat platelet concentrate (BC-PLT) in November 2005. The subsequent lookback study found two more patients who had received methylene blue (MB)-treated fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and red blood cells (RBCs) from the same donation. In November 2005 the donor had tested negative for both HIV antibodies and HIV-1 RNA by 44 minipool (44 MP) NAT. Repository samples of this donation and samples from the recipients were used for viral load (VL) and sequence analysis. HIV-1 RNA was detectable by individual donation (ID)-NAT in the repository sample from the 2005 window period donation and a VL of 135 copies/mL was measured. HIV-1 infection was confirmed in both recipients of both BC-PLT (65 mL of plasma) and MB-FFP (261 mL of plasma), but not in the patient that had received 4-week-old RBCs (20 mL of plasma). The sequence analysis revealed a close phylogenetic relationship between the virus strains isolated from the donor and recipients, compatible with TTI. Approximately 17,600 and 4400 virions in the MB-FFP and BC-PLT were infectious, but 1350 virions in the RBCs were not. ID-NAT would have prevented this transmission, but the combination of MP-NAT and MB-PI did not. © 2015 AABB.

  13. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  14. Engineering of tunnel barrier for highly integrated nonvolatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hee-Wook; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Won-Ju

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the engineered tunnel barrier technology is introduced by using the engineered tunnel barrier of VARIOT type (SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2) and CRESTED type (Si3N4/SiO2/Si3N4) with Si3N4 and high- k HfO2 layers as charge trapping layers, respectively. In addition, the high- k stacked VARIOT type of SiO2/HfO2/Al2O3 and Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 are compared with O/N/O tunnel barrier memory. As a result, the engineered tunnel barrier memory device showed excellent memory characteristics compared to the single SiO2 tunnel barrier memory device, such as very high P/E (program/erase) speed, good retention time and no degradation in endurance characteristics.

  15. Plasma free amino acid profiling of five types of cancer patients and its application for early detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI-mass spectrometry (MS. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer, regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a

  16. Physical exercise induces enhancement of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) levels in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooijewaard, G.; Boer, A.de; Turion, P.N.C.; Cohen, A.F.; Breimer, D.D.; Kluft, C.

    1991-01-01

    The enhancement of the blood fibrinolytic potential by physical exercise is generally attributed to the release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) from the vessel wall. In this study we have investigated the possible contribution of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Six healthy

  17. Plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Tarnow, Lise; Jorsal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    adjustment for well-known progression promoters, including baseline GFR, the HR (adjusted) was 1.85 (95% CI 0.99-3.46, P = 0.055) for ESRD comparing upper and lower median ADMA levels. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma ADMA levels predict fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in patients with type 1 diabetic......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels are predictive of cardiovascular events, decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We...... after adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors including baseline GFR (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for elevated ADMA 2.05 [95% CI 1.31-3.20], P = 0.002). Furthermore, elevated ADMA levels predicted an increased rate of decline in GFR, development of ESRD, and all-cause mortality (P

  18. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2...... diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned...... to eat a Palaeolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, or a diabetes diet designed in accordance with current diabetes dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. The patients were recruited from primary health-care units and included three...

  19. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  20. Quantum tunneling with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokieda, M.; Hagino, K.

    2017-05-01

    Using the phenomenological quantum friction models introduced by P. Caldirola [Nuovo Cimento 18, 393 (1941), 10.1007/BF02960144] and E. Kanai [Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 440 (1948), 10.1143/ptp/3.4.440], M. D. Kostin [J. Chem. Phys. 57, 3589 (1972), 10.1063/1.1678812], and K. Albrecht [Phys. Lett. B 56, 127 (1975), 10.1016/0370-2693(75)90283-X], we study quantum tunneling of a one-dimensional potential in the presence of energy dissipation. To this end, we calculate the tunneling probability using a time-dependent wave-packet method. The friction reduces the tunneling probability. We show that the three models provide similar penetrabilities to each other, among which the Caldirola-Kanai model requires the least numerical effort. We also discuss the effect of energy dissipation on quantum tunneling in terms of barrier distributions.

  1. INCAS TRISONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin MUNTEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  2. Water Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility in Pittsburgh, PA, re-creates the conditions found 3,000 meters beneath the ocean’s surface, allowing scientists to study...

  3. Energy spectrum of argon ions emitted from Filippov type Sahand plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadnejad, M.; Pestehe, S. J.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The energy and flux of the argon ions produced in Sahand plasma focus have been measured by employing a well-designed Faraday cup. The secondary electron emission effects on the ion signals are simulated and the dimensions of Faraday cup are optimized to minimize these effects. The measured ion energy spectrum is corrected for the ion energy loss and charge exchange in the background gas. The effects of the capacitor bank voltage and working gas pressure on the ion energy spectrum are also investigated. It has been shown that the emitted ion number per energy increases as the capacitor bank voltage increases. Decreasing the working gas pressure leads to the increase in the number of emitted ion per energy

  4. Plasma C1q/TNF-Related Protein-9 Levels Are Associated with Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes without Renal Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Asada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-9 (CTRP9, a paralog of adiponectin, is expressed in adipose tissue. CTRP9 exerts protective effects against obesity and atherosclerosis in rodents. We investigated the association between plasma CTRP9 levels and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. We included 419 patients with type 2 diabetes, 161 of whom had chronic kidney disease (CKD. Fasting plasma CTRP9 and total adiponectin levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The intima-media thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery was measured with ultrasonography. Results. Plasma CTRP9 levels were higher in the CKD group than in the non-CKD group. Plasma CTRP9 levels were positively correlated with carotid IMT in the non-CKD group. Multivariate analyses revealed that plasma CTRP9 levels were positively associated with carotid IMT in the non-CKD group, independent of age, sex, body mass index, adiponectin, and other cardiovascular risk factors. However, plasma CTRP9 levels were not associated with carotid IMT in the CKD group. Conclusion. Plasma CTRP9 levels are associated with atherosclerosis in diabetic patients without CKD, independently of obesity, adiponectin, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. This study indicates a potential role of CTRP9 in atherosclerosis progression in human type 2 diabetes.

  5. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R.; Dai, Fei; Bellona, Christopher L.; Holsen, Thomas M.; Bohl, Douglas G.; Paek, Eunsu; Dickenson, Eric R. V.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant (k obs). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs, a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas-liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas-liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  6. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  7. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM...

  8. Altered Plasma Levels of Glucagon, GLP-1 and Glicentin During OGTT in Adolescents With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manell, Hannes; Staaf, Johan; Manukyan, Levon; Kristinsson, Hjalti; Cen, Jing; Stenlid, Rasmus; Ciba, Iris; Forslund, Anders; Bergsten, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Proglucagon-derived hormones are important for glucose metabolism, but little is known about them in pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fasting and postprandial levels of proglucagon-derived peptides glucagon, GLP-1, and glicentin in adolescents with obesity across the glucose tolerance spectrum were investigated. This was a cross-sectional study with plasma hormone levels quantified at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This study took place in a pediatric obesity clinic at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Adolescents with obesity, age 10-18 years, with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 23), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 19), or T2DM (n = 4) and age-matched lean adolescents (n = 19) were included. Outcome measures were fasting and OGTT plasma levels of insulin, glucagon, active GLP-1, and glicentin. Adolescents with obesity and IGT had lower fasting GLP-1 and glicentin levels than those with NGT (0.25 vs 0.53 pM, P adolescents with obesity and T2DM had higher fasting glucagon levels (18.1 vs 10.1 pM, P adolescents with obesity and NGT than in lean adolescents (P Obese adolescents with IGT have lowered fasting GLP-1 and glicentin levels. In T2DM, fasting glucagon levels are elevated, whereas GLP-1 and glicentin levels are maintained low. During OGTT, adolescents with obesity have more products of pancreatically than intestinally cleaved proglucagon (ie, more glucagon and less GLP-1) in the plasma. This shift becomes more pronounced when glucose tolerance deteriorates.

  9. New types of coating systems for steel sheets by high-rate evaporation in combination with plasma processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffel, B.; Metzner, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik (FEP), Dresden (Germany); Ehlers, K.D. [Salzgitter AG Stahl und Technologie (Germany); Schuhmacher, B. [Dortmunder Oberflaechencentrum GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Flossdorf, F.J.; Steinbeck, G. [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenleute (VDEh), Duesseldorf (Germany); Steffen, R. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany); Hagler, J. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2002-03-01

    High-rate evaporation in combination with plasma processes is a promising approach to obtain new types of steel sheet coating with improved corrosion resistance and application properties. To estimate the potential for the application of PVD-coatings (physical vapour deposition) different coating systems for steel sheet as well as for hot-dip or electro-galvanized steel sheet were designed. The samples were produced on a laboratory scale using PVD processes with very high deposition rates (in the order of 1 {mu}m s{sup -1}) as well as high-power plasma processes for the pre-treatment. The relationship between the composition, microstructure and properties of the coating systems, in particular concerning corrosion protection, abrasion during forming, phosphating and paint adhesion, were studied. It was found that the corrosion resistance of galvanized steel sheets can be considerably improved by vapour deposition of metal or inorganic films with a thickness of several hundred nanometers. Investigations on vapour deposition of titanium and stainless steel coatings on steel sheets, for applications in a severely corrosive environment, showed that the corrosion resistance in relation to the coating thickness can be significantly enhanced by means of plasma activation during the vapour deposition process. Finally, an outlook on possible industrial applications including an estimation of the process costs will be presented. For certain coating systems the results look promising. Consequently, these particular coating systems will be investigated in more detail by means of using a large-scale in-line deposition plant for metallic strips and sheets. (orig.)

  10. Elevated plasma pigment epithelium-derived factor in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus is attributable to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggestad, Jeanie B; Wang, Joshua J; Zhang, Sarah X; Thompson, David M; Short, Kevin R

    2015-12-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a member of the serpin family secreted by adipocytes. Plasma PEDF is increased in obese children and adults. Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have higher circulating PEDF but there are no reports in children with T2DM. To compare PEDF concentration in children with T2DM to normal weight and obese children without T2DM and determine associations with anthropometric or serum factors. Participants were 34 obese children with T2DM diagnosed by American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, 61 normal weight [body mass index (BMI) 25-75 percentile] and 63 obese (BMI ≥ 95 percentile) children of age 8-18 yr. Plasma PEDF was measured in fasting plasma samples. Anthropometric, serum, and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, DXA) data were obtained for each subject to identify potential predictor variables. PEDF was 55% higher (p = 0.001) in the T2DM group compared with normal weight children, but did not differ from obese children. In the T2DM group, fat mass and lean mass both individually predicted PEDF (r² = 0.22 and 0.17, p = 0.02 and p obese groups, therefore, obesity, rather than diabetes, may account for the higher PEDF in children with T2DM compared with normal weight children. PEDF was positively associated with both lean mass and fat mass both of which may contribute to the circulating level of the protein, and potentially to PEDF's association with insulin resistance in obese children with and without diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Different in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, N.G.; Koulman, A.; Sharp, S.J.; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2

  12. Differential effect of T-type voltage-gated calcium channel disruption on renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne D; Andersen, Henrik; Cardel, Majken

    2014-01-01

    of two T-type Cav knock-out mice strains. Continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate, and para-aminohippurate clearance (renal plasma flow) and inulin clearance (GFR) were performed in conscious, chronically catheterized, wild type and Cav 3.1-/- and Cav 3.2-/- mice. Contractility of afferent...

  13. Plasma Cholesteryl Ester Fatty Acids do not Mediate the Association of Ethnicity with Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the HELIUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muilwijk, Mirthe; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B.; Gill, Jason M. R.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Ethnic minority groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) than the host population. Our aim is to identify whether plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acids (CEFA) mediate the ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes. Methods and results: We included 202 Dutch, 206 South-Asian Surinamese,

  14. Neutron production with mixture of deuterium and krypton in Sahand Filippov type plasma focus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, M.A.; Sobhanian, S.; Rawat, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    This Letter reports the order of magnitude enhancement in neutron yield from Sahand plasma focus device with krypton seeded deuterium operation. The highest average neutron yield of 2.2x10 9 neutrons per shot was achieved at 1.00 Torr deuterium with 3% krypton which is higher than the best average neutron yield of 3.18x10 8 neutrons per shot for pure deuterium operation. Estimation of average neutron energy showed that the maximum and minimum average energies are 2.98±0.6 MeV at 16 kV in 0.25 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr and 2.07±0.2 MeV at 18 kV operation in 0.5 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr, respectively. The anisotropy of neutron emission from Sahand DPF showed that the neutrons are produced mainly by beam-target mechanisms. -- Highlights: → The highest average neutron yield of 2.2x10 9 neutrons per shot was achieved at mixture of deuterium and krypton. → In the krypton seeding of deuterium also anisotropy of neutron emission deuterium is found. → The krypton seeding of deuterium made the neutron emission more reliable over wider operating pressure ranges.

  15. PLASMA-LIPOPROTEIN ABNORMALITIES IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETES-MELLITUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF

    Lipoprotein abnormalities may well contribute to the increased risk of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease observed in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The spectrum of diabetes-associated changes in lipoprotein metabolism is discussed. The

  16. Decreased Plasma Nesfatin-1 Level Is Related to the Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fupeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Thyroid dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether nesfatin-1 played a role in the thyroid dysfunction in patients with T2DM. Methods. 55 euthyroid patients were enrolled in this study including 30 patients with T2DM and 25 patients with impaired glucose regulation (IGR. 30 age-matched healthy people were also included as the control. The plasma levels of nesfatin-1, thyrotropin (TSH, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c as well as the body mass index (BMI were comparatively analyzed among the three groups. Results. The nesfatin-1 was significantly lower in patients with T2DM than in patients with IGR and in the control. On the contrary, the TSH level was significantly higher in patients with T2DM than in patients with IGR and in the control. Simple regression analysis showed that the plasma nesfatin-1 was negatively correlated with the TSH and HbA1c levels and positively correlated with the BMI. With multiple stepwise regression analysis, the nesfatin-1 remained to be independently correlated with the TSH, BMI, and HbA1c. Conclusions. The study was suggesting a role of nesfatin-1 in thyroid dysfunction in patients with T2DM.

  17. Determination of coreceptor usage of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from patient plasma samples by using a recombinant phenotypic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouplin, V; Salvatori, F; Cappello, F; Obry, V; Brelot, A; Heveker, N; Alizon, M; Scarlatti, G; Clavel, F; Mammano, F

    2001-01-01

    We developed a recombinant virus technique to determine the coreceptor usage of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from plasma samples, the source expected to represent the most actively replicating virus population in infected subjects. This method is not subject to selective bias associated with virus isolation in culture, a step required for conventional tropism determination procedures. The addition of a simple subcloning step allowed semiquantitative evaluation of virus populations with a different coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) usage specificity present in each plasma sample. This procedure detected mixtures of CCR5- and CXCR4-exclusive virus populations as well as dualtropic viral variants, in variable proportions. Sequence analysis of dualtropic clones indicated that changes in the V3 loop are necessary for the use of CXCR4 as a coreceptor, but the overall context of the V1-V3 region is important to preserve the capacity to use CCR5. This convenient technique can greatly assist the study of virus evolution and compartmentalization in infected individuals.

  18. Association of plasma osteoprotegerin and adiponectin with arterial function, cardiac function and metabolism in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerre Mette

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoprotegerin (OPG, a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is linked to cardiovascular disease. Negative associations exist between circulating OPG and cardiac function. The adipocytokine adiponectin (ADPN is downregulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and coronary artery disease and shows an inverse correlation with insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease risk. We assessed the relationship of plasma OPG and ADPN and arterial function, cardiac function and myocardial glucose metabolism in T2DM. Methods We included 78 asymptomatic men with uncomplicated, well-controlled T2DM, without inducible ischemia, assessed by dobutamine-stress echocardiography, and 14 age-matched controls. Cardiac function was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, myocardial glucose metabolism (MMRglu by 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. OPG and ADPN levels were measured in plasma. Results T2DM patients vs. controls showed lower aortic distensibility, left ventricular (LV volumes, impaired LV diastolic function and MMRglu (all P P Conclusions OPG was inversely associated with aortic distensibility, LV volumes and LV diastolic function, while ADPN was positively associated with MMRglu. These findings indicate that in asymptomatic men with uncomplicated T2DM, OPG and ADPN may be markers of underlying mechanisms linking the diabetic state to cardiac abnormalities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53177482

  19. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein metabolism and HDL lipid transfers are equally altered in metabolic syndrome and in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa M; Vinagre, Carmen G C; Dallan, Luis A O; Chacra, Ana P M; Maranhão, Raul C

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to states of insulin resistance that predispose to development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim was to investigate whether plasma lipids and lipid metabolism differ in MetS patients compared to those with T2DM with poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin > 7.0). Eighteen patients with T2DM, 18 with MetS and 14 controls, paired for age (40-70 years) and body mass index (BMI), were studied. Plasma lipids and the kinetics of a triacylglycerol-rich emulsion labeled with [(3)H]-triolein ([(3)H]-TAG) and [(14)C]-cholesteryl esters ([(14)C]-CE) injected intravenously followed by one-hour blood sampling were determined. Lipid transfers from an artificial nanoemulsion donor to high-density lipoprotien (HDL) were assayed in vitro. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) were not different in T2DM (128 ± 7; 42 ± 7) and MetS (142 ± 6; 39 ± 3), but triacylglycerols were even higher in MetS (215 ± 13) than in T2DM (161 ±11, p lipid metabolism examined here, and suggest that there are different thresholds for the insulin action on glucose and lipids. These findings highlight the magnitude of the lipid disturbances in MetS, and may have implications in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Metabolomics Reveals Relationship between Plasma Inositols and Birth Weight: Possible Markers for Fetal Programming of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Marlene Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies in man and with experimental animal models have shown that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR resulting in low birth weight is associated with higher risk of programming welfare diseases in later life. In the pig, severe IUGR occurs naturally and contribute substantially to a large intralitter variation in birth weight and may therefore be a good model for man. In the present paper the natural form of IUGR in pigs was studied close to term by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics. The NMR-based investigations revealed different metabolic profiles of plasma samples from low-birth weight (LW and high-birth weight (HW piglets, respectively, and differences were assigned to levels of glucose and myo-inositol. Further studies by GC-MS revealed that LW piglets had a significant higher concentration of myoinositol and D-chiro-inositol in plasma compared to larger littermates. Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been coupled with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in adults, and the present paper therefore suggests that IUGR is related to impaired glucose metabolism during fetal development, which may cause type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  1. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy a , Fy b , Jk a and Jk b antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. High-Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27...

  3. Analysis of efficiency of a solar dryer tunnel type of mango pulp; Analisis de la eficiencia de un secador solar tipo tunel para pulpa de mango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagoyan Serrano, Jose [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A new method to assess the performance of a solar dryer is presented. It describes energy efficiency indicators to improve a commercial dryer design. First, a preliminary dryer design procedure is described step by step. Then, two different modes of a tunnel dryer are investigated: Batch and semi-continue operations. The results of the analysis show that, the thermal efficiency is not sufficient to rate de dryer performance. It is necessary to include the productivity of the drying process and the quality of the dried fruit. The drying process and productivity tend to go hand-in-hand but in opposite directions. That is to say, raising the thermal efficiency reduce the process productivity and conversely. The analysis also suggests that an agreement between the efficiency, productivity and the quality must be specified in the drier design. [Spanish] Se presenta un procedimiento nuevo para evaluar la operacion de un secador solar, con el cual se precisan indicadores de la eficiencia que pueden ser utiles para mejorar el diseno del equipo. Se empieza por describir los pasos de un procedimiento de diseno preliminar de un sistema de secado. Despues, se analizan cualitativamente dos secadores: uno que opera por lotes y el otro de modo semicontinuo. Los resultados del analisis muestran que, la eficiencia termica del equipo no es un criterio suficiente para evaluar su operacion; tambien se requiere tomar encuenta la productividad del proceso de secado y la calidad del producto final. Se concluye que la eficiencia termica y la productividad del proceso son conceptos encontrados. Es decir, la eficiencia termica del equipo no es un criterio suficiente para evaluar su operacion; tambien se requiere tomar en cuenta la productividad del proceso de secado y la calidad del producto final. Se concluye que la eficiencia termica y la productividad del proceso son conceptos encontrados. Es decir, la eficiencia termica solo se puede aumentar a costa de la productividad y viceversa

  4. Atmospheric plasma surface modifications of electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL hybrid scaffolds by nozzle type plasma jets for usage of cell cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surucu, Seda [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Atilim University, Incek, Golbasi, 06836, Ankara (Turkey); Masur, Kai [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (Germany); Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal, E-mail: hilal.sasmazel@atilim.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Atilim University, Incek, Golbasi, 06836, Ankara (Turkey); Von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL scaffolds introduced to the literature by us were modified with atmospheric pressure plasma jets. • Plasma was fed into the system with different gas flow rates, time and distances. • Topographical and functional changes were examined by various characterization methods. • Optimum plasma treatment parameters for enhanced topography and functionality were determined. • Electrospun hybrid plasma surface modified samples showed the increased biocompatibility performance of L929 fibroblast cells. - Abstract: This paper reports Ar gas, Ar + O{sub 2}, Ar + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} gas mixtures and dry air plasma modifications by atmospheric pressure argon driven kINPen and air driven Diener (PlasmaBeam) plasma jets to alter surface properties of three dimensional (3D), electrospun PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer by layer hybrid scaffolds to improve human fibroblast (MRC5) cell attachment and growth. The characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed that the plasma modification carried out under dry air and Ar + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} gas mixtures were altered effectively the nanotopography and the functionality of the material surfaces. It was found that the samples treated with Ar + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} gas mixtures for 1 min and dry air for 9 min have better hydrophilicity 78.9° ± 1.0 and 75.6° ± 0.1, respectively compared to the untreated samples (126.5°). Biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds was determined with alamarBlue (aB) assay and MTT assay methods, Giemsa staining, fluorescence microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that plasma treated samples increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality and topography of the surfaces significantly, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on

  5. RITD – Wind tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Schmidt, Walter; Heilimo, Jyri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Arruego, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    the RITD test model were determined by the technique of free oscillations. The dynamically representative mock-up model was installed on the holder with one degree of freedom. The test model mounted on the free oscillation holder was placed into gas flow of the wind tunnel at the known angle of attack. This facilitated the determination of conditions of stability or instability for the descending atmospheric entry vehicle. The wind tunnel tests confirmed that the RITD-type re-entry vehicle making use of inflatable hypersonic decelerators will be able to have dynamically stable re-entry and descent sequence at the Earth atmosphere.

  6. [Plasma homocysteine, Lp(a), and oxidative stress markers in peripheral macroangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Jose T; Folgado, José; Molina Mendez, Mercedes; Martinez-Hervás, Sergio; Peiro, Marta; Ascaso, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    To study new risk factors for peripheral macroangiopathy (PM) in patients with diabetes, as oxidative stress (OS) and its interaction with classical risk factors: age, Lp(a), plasma homocysteine values and HbA1c. We studied 204 type2 diabetic (T2DM) patients, consecutive selected form a reference hospital and a secondary hospital form our Community (2009-2010). Design was a case (ABIcontrol (ABI0.9-1.2) study. PM was defined using ankle brachial index (ABI). Thirty nine T2DM subjects presented ABI>1.2 and were excluded. Clinical and biological parameters were determined using standard methods. Comparing clinical and biological parameters obtained in both studied groups (T2DM+ABIde Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Inductively coupled plasma-induced defects in n-type GaN studied from Schottky diode characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, W.; Tokuda, Y.; Ueda, H.; Kachi, T.

    2006-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-(ICP-)induced defects in n-type GaN have been studied from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) for Schottky diodes fabricated on etched surfaces. The samples after ICP etching show the ohmic I-V characteristics. Schottky characteristics are obtained after annealing at 600 and 800 deg. C in N 2 , but are not restored to that of the control samples. DLTS shows that the effect of ICP etching is small on the region beyond 80 nm from the surface. These results suggest that there remain ICP-induced damage in the near-surface region after thermal annealing

  8. P-type ZnO thin films prepared by plasma molecular beam epitaxy using radical NO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, H.W.; Lu, Y.M.; Shen, D.Z.; Liu, Y.C.; Yan, J.F.; Li, B.H.; Zhang, Z.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.; Fan, X.W. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China); Shan, C.X. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-05-01

    N-doped p-type ZnO thin films were grown by plasma molecular beam epitaxy (P-MBE) on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) using radical NO as oxygen source and nitrogen dopant. The reproducible ZnO thin films have maximum net hole concentration (N{sub A}-N{sub D}) of 1.2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and minimum resistivity of 9.36 {omega} cm. The influence of N incorporation on the quality of the ZnO thin films was studied using X-ray diffraction and absorption spectra. The photoluminescence spectra at 77 K of p-type ZnO thin films are dominated by the emission from donor-acceptor pair recombination. The formation mechanism of p-type ZnO is explained by the optical emission spectra of radical N{sub 2} and radical NO. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. The magnetic resonance imaging of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. An investigation about the etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Jun; Inagaki, Katsunori; Hirahara, Hirotsune; Miyaoka, Hideyo [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Takigawa, Souichirou [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Toyosu Hospital

    2002-10-01

    The etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome has not been clarified. We evaluated cross sectional area of carpal tunnel, flexor tendons, median nerve and thickness of transverse carpal ligament by enhanced MRI. Twenty-six patients were tested who has been diagnosed based on electromyogram and clinical symptons as idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. All patients were female and the mean age was 64 years old. The cross sectional area of carpal tunnel, the median nerve, the flexor tendons and synovium around them in carpal tunnel were calculated. And the thickness of the transverse carpal ligament as well. The mean area of the flexor tendons with synovium in carpal tunnel was 110.5{+-}25.5 mm{sup 2} (control group; 79.3{+-}13.8 mm{sup 2}), ratio of flexor tendon area to carpal tunnel area was 51.6{+-}8.9% (control; 40.5{+-}2.4%), and the thickness of the transverse carpal ligament was 3.3{+-}0.5 mm (control; 2.5{+-}0.4 mm) in severe idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. The mean area of the flexor tendons with synovium in severe idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome was significantly greater than that of mild type (p<0.05). In such a process, we could classify these MRI findings into the following four subgroups. Enlargement of cross sectional area of flexor tendons and synovium (n=8; 25.8%), thickened transverse carpal ligament (n=11; 35.5%), combined type (n=7; 22.6%) and impossible to classify (n=5; 16.1%). This classification with enhanced MRI was correlated to clinical course and electrophysiologic severity. In conclusion, we can suggest that to evaluate cross sectional area of the wrist (carpal tunnel) with enhanced MRI is one of the useful assistant method for diagnosing and investigating the etiology of severe idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. (author)

  10. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Interaction between groundwater and TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) excavated tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Font Capó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A number of problems, e.g. sudden inflows are encountered during tunneling under the piezometric level, especially when the excavation crosses high transmissivity areas. These inflows may drag materials when the tunnel crosses low competent layers, resulting in subsidence, chimney formation and collapses. Moreover, inflows can lead to a decrease in head level because of aquifer drainage. Tunnels can be drilled by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) to minimize inflows and groundwater impacts, restr...

  12. Seepage into PEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, H.

    1990-01-01

    The current rate of seepage into the PEP tunnel in the vicinity of IR-10 is very low compared to previous years. Adequate means of handling this low flow are in place. It is not clear whether the reduction in the flow is temporary, perhaps due to three consecutive dry years, or permanent due to drainage of a perched water table. During PEP construction a large amount of effort was expended in attempts to seal the tunnel, with no immediate effect. The efforts to ''manage'' the water flow are deemed to be successful. By covering equipment to protect it from dripping water and channeling seepage into the drainage gutters, the seepage has been reduced to a tolerable nuisance. There is no sure, safe procedure for sealing a leaky shotcreted tunnel

  13. LEP tunnel monorail

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    A monorail from CERN's Large Electron Positron collider (LEP, for short). It ran around the 27km tunnel, transporting equipment and personnel. With its 27-kilometre circumference, LEP was the largest electron-positron accelerator ever built and ran from 1989 to 2000. During 11 years of research, LEP's experiments provided a detailed study of the electroweak interaction. Measurements performed at LEP also proved that there are three – and only three – generations of particles of matter. LEP was closed down on 2 November 2000 to make way for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the same tunnel.

  14. Excavating a transfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The transfer tunnel being dug here will take the 450 GeV beam from the SPS and inject it into the LHC where the beam energies will be increased to 7 TeV. In order to transfer this beam from the SPS to the LHC, two transfer tunnels are used to circulate the beams in opposite directions. When excavated, the accelerator components, including magnets, beam pipes and cryogenics will be installed and connected to both the SPS and LHC ready for operation to begin in 2008.

  15. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass and phospholipid transfer protein activity are associated with leptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; de Vries, R.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Tol, A.; Sluiter, W. J.

    Adipose tissue contributes to plasma levels of lipid transfer proteins and is also the major source of plasma adipokines. We hypothesized that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET, a measure of CETP

  16. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  17. Gap anisotropy and tunneling currents. [MPS3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarides, N.; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    1996-01-01

    The tunneling Hamiltonian formalism is applied to calculate the tunnelingcurrents through a small superconducting tunnel junction. The formalism isextended to nonconstant tunneling matrix elements. The electrodes of thejunction are assumed to......The tunneling Hamiltonian formalism is applied to calculate the tunnelingcurrents through a small superconducting tunnel junction. The formalism isextended to nonconstant tunneling matrix elements. The electrodes of thejunction are assumed to...

  18. [Experimental study on the corrosion behavior of a type of oral near β-type titanium alloys modified with double glow plasma nitriding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ke; Li, Fenglan

    2015-12-01

    To study the electrochemical corrosion performance of a type of biomedical materials near beta titanium alloy(Ti-3Zr-2Sn-3Mo-25Nb, TLM) in artificial saliva before and after nitride changing, and to provide clinical basis for clinical application of titanium alloy TLM. The double glow plasma alloying technology was used to nitride the surface of titanium alloy TLM. The surface properties of the modified layer were observed and tested by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, glow discharge spectrum analyzer, X-ray diffraction and micro hardness tester. Then, electrochemical measurement system was used to test and compare titanium alloy TLM's electrochemical corrosion in artificial saliva before and after its surface change. Finally, the surface morphology of the original titanium alloy and the modified layer was compared by scanning electron microscope. By the technology of double glow plasma nitriding, the surface of the titanium alloy TLM had been successfully nitrided with a modified layer of 4-5 µm in thickness, uniform and compact. Its main compositions were Ti and Ti(2)N. The Microhardness of modified layer also had been improved from (236.8 ± 5.4) to (871.8 ± 5.2) HV. The self-corrosion potential in electrochemical corrosion tests had been increased from -0.559 V to -0.540 V, while the self- corrosion current density had been reduced from 2.091 × 10(-7) A/cm(2) to 7.188 × 10(-8) A/cm(2). Besides, alternating-current impedance(AC Impedance) had also been increased. With the scanning electron microscope, it's obvious that the diameter of corrosion holes on modified layer were approximately 10 µm. As to the diameter and number of corrosion holes on modified layer, they had been decreased comparing with the original titanium alloy. The type of near beta titanium alloy TLM can construct a nitriding modified layer on its surface. Meanwhile, the performance of its anti- corrosion in artificial saliva has been improved, comparing to the original

  19. Higher plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W M; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunct......To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal...

  20. Global parameter optimization of a Mather-type plasma focus in the framework of the Gratton–Vargas two-dimensional snowplow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S K H

    2014-01-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) is known to produce highly energetic ions, electrons and plasma environment which can be used for breeding short-lived isotopes, plasma nanotechnology and other material processing applications. Commercial utilization of DPF in such areas would need a design tool that can be deployed in an automatic search for the best possible device configuration for a given application. The recently revisited (Auluck 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 112501) Gratton–Vargas (GV) two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus provides a numerical formula for dynamic inductance of a Mather-type plasma focus fitted to thousands of automated computations, which enables the construction of such a design tool. This inductance formula is utilized in the present work to explore global optimization, based on first-principles optimality criteria, in a four-dimensional parameter-subspace of the zero-resistance GV model. The optimization process is shown to reproduce the empirically observed constancy of the drive parameter over eight decades in capacitor bank energy. The optimized geometry of plasma focus normalized to the anode radius is shown to be independent of voltage, while the optimized anode radius is shown to be related to capacitor bank inductance. (paper)

  1. Global parameter optimization of a Mather-type plasma focus in the framework of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional snowplow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) is known to produce highly energetic ions, electrons and plasma environment which can be used for breeding short-lived isotopes, plasma nanotechnology and other material processing applications. Commercial utilization of DPF in such areas would need a design tool that can be deployed in an automatic search for the best possible device configuration for a given application. The recently revisited (Auluck 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 112501) Gratton-Vargas (GV) two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus provides a numerical formula for dynamic inductance of a Mather-type plasma focus fitted to thousands of automated computations, which enables the construction of such a design tool. This inductance formula is utilized in the present work to explore global optimization, based on first-principles optimality criteria, in a four-dimensional parameter-subspace of the zero-resistance GV model. The optimization process is shown to reproduce the empirically observed constancy of the drive parameter over eight decades in capacitor bank energy. The optimized geometry of plasma focus normalized to the anode radius is shown to be independent of voltage, while the optimized anode radius is shown to be related to capacitor bank inductance.

  2. Unstable Semiclassical Trajectories in Tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Levkov, D G; Sibiryakov, S M

    2007-01-01

    Some tunneling phenomena are described, in the semiclassical approximation, by unstable complex trajectories. We develop a systematic procedure to stabilize the trajectories and to calculate the tunneling probability, including both the suppression exponent and prefactor. We find that the instability of tunneling solutions modifies the power-law dependence of the prefactor on h as compared to the case of stable solutions.

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-β1, urinary microalbuminuria (MAU) levels in patients with type II diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liming; Xu Shan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-β 1 , urinary microalbuminuria levels in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: Plasma ET-1 (with RIA) serum TGF-β 1 (with ELISA)microalbuminuria (with immune method) levels were determination in 40 cases of DM2 without nephropathy, 32 cases of DM2 with nephropathy and 35 controls. Results: The plasma ET-1, serum TGF-β 1 , microalbuminuria levels in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls(P 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-β 1 , microalbuminuria levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe. They could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  4. Increased microRNA-146a levels in plasma of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Rong

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, are thought to serve as crucial regulators of gene expression. Dysregulated expression of miRNAs has been described in various diseases and may contribute to related pathologic processes. Our aim was to examine circulating miRNA-146a levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (new-T2DM patients from a Chinese Han population.Circulating miRNA-146a was extracted from plasma samples of 90 new-T2DM patients and 90 age- and sex-matched controls. Quantitative PCR assessment revealed that circulating miRNA-146a levels were significantly elevated in new-T2DM patients compared with controls. Participants in the highest tertile of circulating miRNA-146a levels showed a notably higher risk for new-T2DM (crude OR 4.333, 95% CI, 1.935 to 9.705, P = 0.001 than persons in the lowest tertile. Controlling for known risk factors and some biochemical indicators did not attenuate the aforementioned association. In addition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves generated for miRNA-146a revealed an area under the curve (AUC of 0.725 (95% CI, 0.651 to 0.799, P < 0.001. Moreover, higher circulating miRNA-146a levels were significantly associated with higher plasma heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 concentrations (β coefficient = 0.131, P < 0.001 and lower HOMA-beta (β coefficient = -0.153, P = 0.015.We found that circulating miRNA-146a levels were significantly elevated in new-T2DM patients compared with healthy controls. Whether expression of circulating miRNA-146a holds predictive value for T2DM warrants further investigations.

  5. No evidence of a causal relationship between plasma homocysteine and type 2 diabetes: A Mendelian randomization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender eKumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several observational studies have shown an association between increased circulating homocysteine and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. We aimed to assess whether this relation is causal using genetic data from large populations of individuals of European descent.Methods: We investigated the association of between homocysteine concentrations with and blood glucose, plasma insulin, T2D in the PIVUS cohort (n=1,016. A score of five previously published single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from genes involved in homocysteine metabolism were utilized as genetic instrument for homocysteine concentrations. The effect estimate of this genetic score with T2D was determined using results from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM consortium (including 34,840 cases and 114,981 controls. Further, the effects of the genetic score with fasting glucose and insulin were determined using results from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC (up to 38,238 non-diabetic participants. Results: The genetic score provided a strong instrument for homocysteine concentrations (P=2.7x10-143, F=650. In the PIVUS cohort, we found an association of homocysteine with fasting insulin (β=0.0564 [95% CI 0.0210, 0.09088], P=0.001, but not with incident diabetes. We did not find any evidence of a causal effect of homocysteine onwith fasting glucose, fasting insulin or T2D (P>0.05 for all analyses when using data from DIAGRAM or MAGIC studies.Conclusion: No evidence of a causal relationship of levels of plasma homocysteine with fasting glucose, fasting insulin or T2D was observed.

  6. Plasma metabolomic profiles reflective of glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic obese African-American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Fiehn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance progressing to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is marked by a broad perturbation of macronutrient intermediary metabolism. Understanding the biochemical networks that underlie metabolic homeostasis and how they associate with insulin action will help unravel diabetes etiology and should foster discovery of new biomarkers of disease risk and severity. We examined differences in plasma concentrations of >350 metabolites in fasted obese T2DM vs. obese non-diabetic African-American women, and utilized principal components analysis to identify 158 metabolite components that strongly correlated with fasting HbA1c over a broad range of the latter (r = -0.631; p<0.0001. In addition to many unidentified small molecules, specific metabolites that were increased significantly in T2DM subjects included certain amino acids and their derivatives (i.e., leucine, 2-ketoisocaproate, valine, cystine, histidine, 2-hydroxybutanoate, long-chain fatty acids, and carbohydrate derivatives. Leucine and valine concentrations rose with increasing HbA1c, and significantly correlated with plasma acetylcarnitine concentrations. It is hypothesized that this reflects a close link between abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, amino acid catabolism, and efficiency of fuel combustion in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. It is speculated that a mechanism for potential TCA cycle inefficiency concurrent with insulin resistance is "anaplerotic stress" emanating from reduced amino acid-derived carbon flux to TCA cycle intermediates, which if coupled to perturbation in cataplerosis would lead to net reduction in TCA cycle capacity relative to fuel delivery.

  7. Tunneling and transport properties of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tralshawala, N.

    1993-01-01

    We obtained the electron-phonon spectral function, α 2 F(ω), from our tunneling data on Ba 1-x K x BiO 3 (BKBO) and Nd 2-x Ce x CuO 4-y (NCCO). The analysis is novel in its utilization of tunneling α 2 F(ω) function to estimate the contribution to resistivity from the electron-phonon scattering. We tested this methodology for conventional superconductors Nb, V, and VN. We make a strong case for the phonon-mediated coupling in BKBO. We show that phono-mediated coupling plays a major role in the superconductivity of NCCO. Tunneling data on BKBO exhibit a BCS gap and this ratio 2Δ/k B T c (of about 3.9) corresponds to a moderately coupled superconductor. The tunneling α 2 F(ω) compares well with the phonon density of states obtained from the inelastic neutron scattering data; and the T c calculated from the tunneling α 2 F(ω) matches well with the measured value. We explain the resistivity of BKBO using the tunneling α 2 F(ω). The high-T c (about 27 K), the low λ value (about 1), and the fact that optical phonons contribute heavily to the higher T c suggests that a deeper physical understanding of BKBO is needed to understand the high-T c cuprates. NCCO is a moderate T c cuprate superconductor that also shares the presence of spin density wave instability with other cuprates. But NCCO is electron-doped. The gap region tunneling data is distinctly non-BCS-like, but nevertheless we can obtain α 2 F(ω), which compares well with the phonon density of states and can explain the measured T c . We show that NCCO is also moderately coupled with stronger coupling to the optical phonons. Our analysis allows the identification of a T 2 contribution to the resistivity of NCCO and establishes a connection between variations in the magnitude of this contribution and the plasma frequency ω p

  8. Plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as a major risk marker for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, P; Hildebrandt, P; Hess, G

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined whether plasma N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts cardiovascular outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 160 microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 55.1 years [SD 7.2], 119 men) were enrolled in the Steno-2 ....../INTERPRETATION: We conclude that high plasma NT-proBNP is a major risk marker for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined whether plasma N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts cardiovascular outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 160 microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 55.1 years [SD 7.2], 119 men) were enrolled in the Steno-2......, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularisation procedures in the heart or legs, and amputations. RESULTS: In the whole group, plasma NT-proBNP being above the median was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease during follow-up, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 4.4 (95% CI 2.3-8.4; p

  9. The Dietary Furocoumarin Imperatorin Increases Plasma GLP-1 Levels in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Imperatorin, a dietary furocoumarin, is found not only in medicinal plants, but also in popular culinary herbs, such as parsley and fennel. Recently, imperatorin has been shown to activate GPR119 in cells. Another GPR, GPR131, also called TGR5 or G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, is known to regulate glucose metabolism. Additionally, TGR5 activation increases glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 secretion to lower blood sugar levels in animals. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether the effects of imperatorin on GLP-1 secretion are mediated by TGR5. First, we transfected cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells with the TGR5 gene. Glucose uptake was confirmed in the transfected cells using a fluorescent indicator. Moreover, NCI-H716 cells, which secrete GLP-1, were used to investigate the changes in calcium concentrations and GLP-1 levels. In addition, streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1-like diabetic rats were used to identify the effects of imperatorin in vivo. Imperatorin dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in CHO-K1 cells expressing TGR5. In STZ diabetic rats, similar to the results in NCI-H716 cells, imperatorin induced a marked increase of GLP-1 secretion that was reduced, but not totally abolished, by a dose of triamterene that inhibited TGR5. Moreover, increases in GLP-1 secretion induced by imperatorin and GPR119 activation were shown in NCI-H716 cells. We demonstrated that imperatorin induced GLP-1 secretion via activating TGR5 and GPR119. Therefore, imperatorin shall be considered as a TGR5 and GPR119 agonist.

  10. Tunnelling with wormhole creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoldi, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) (Italy); Tanaka, T., E-mail: tanaka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The description of quantum tunnelling in the presence of gravity shows subtleties in some cases. We discuss wormhole production in the context of the spherically symmetric thin-shell approximation. By presenting a fully consistent treatment based on canonical quantization, we solve a controversy present in the literature.

  11. Tunnelling with wormhole creation

    OpenAIRE

    Ansoldi, Stefano; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    The description of quantum tunnelling in the presence of gravity shows subtleties in some cases. Here we discuss wormhole production in the context of the spherically symmetric thin-shell approximation. By presenting a fully consistent treatment based on canonical quantization, we solve a controversy present in literature.

  12. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry: Molecules in the Strange Quantum World. Sharmistha Karmakar Deepthi Jose Ayan Datta. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 160-174 ...

  13. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ⎜ ARTICLE. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry. Molecules in the Strange Quantum World. Sharmistha Karmakar, Deepthi Jose and Ayan Datta. (left) Sharmistha Karmakar is doing her PhD in the group of. Ayan Datta, IACS,. Kolkata. Her research interests are modelling molecules with strong optical absorbtion and.

  14. Preliminary study on the transport of hazardous materials through tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubbico, Roberto; Di Cave, Sergio; Mazzarotta, Barbara; Silvetti, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The risk associated to road and rail transportation of some hazardous materials along two routes, one including a significant portion in tunnels, and the other following the same path, but running completely in the open, is assessed. The results show that, for rail transport, no particular risk increase or mitigation is associated to the circulation of the dangerous goods through tunnels; on the contrary, for road transport, a risk increase is generally observed in the presence of tunnels. However, for LPG, the risk curve in the open lies above that in tunnels in the high frequency-low fatality zone, according to the different evolution of the accidental scenarios in the tunnel (assuming no ventilation). The transportation of liquefied nitrogen, not hazardous in the open but potentially asphyxiating in a tunnel, gives rise to a negligible risk when performed by rail, but to a not negligible one, when performed by road. These preliminary results focused on the risk for the exposed population, suggest that it may be unnecessary to limit dangerous goods circulation through rail tunnels, while, at least for some types of dangerous goods, the circulation through road tunnels may be allowed/forbidden based on the results of a specific risk analysis.

  15. The Channel Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The

  16. Short communication: lack of correlation between UGT1A1*6, *28 genotypes, and plasma raltegravir concentrations in Japanese HIV type 1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Atsushi; Ikemura, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Shibata, Masaaki; Amioka, Katsuo; Nomura, Toshiharu; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Sugiura, Wataru

    2012-08-01

    Raltegravir is metabolized by glucuronidation via UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1). We analyzed the genotypes of UGT1A1 (*6, *27, and *28) and their contribution to plasma raltegravir concentrations in 56 Japanese HIV-1-infected patients in the National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center of Japan. Among the 56 patients, the UGT1A1 genotype in two patients was *6 homozygote. Heterozygous variants were found in 13 patients for *6 and in 11 patients for *28, while all of the patients were found to carry wild-type sequences at the position corresponding to the *27 allele. Plasma raltegravir concentration of a male patient with *6 homozygote (0.53 μg/ml) was modestly higher than that of patients with wild type (0.12 μg/ml) or *6 heterozygote (0.16 μg/ml). Another female patient with the *6 homozygote had a low plasma raltegravir concentration (0.03 μg/ml). Patients heterozygous for the *6 or *28 allele did not display significantly different plasma raltegravir concentrations compared to patients homozygous for the respective wild-type allele. Thus, in the present study, we showed that heterozygous reduced-function *6 and *28 alleles appear to have no significant effect on plasma raltegravir concentrations in Japanese HIV-1-infected patients. However, variability in raltegravir concentration and small patient population precluded a correlation between UGT1A1*6 homozygosity and plasma raltegravir concentration. To clarify the contribution of UGT1A1*6 or *28 polymorphisms to plasma raltegravir concentrations, further investigations on larger subject populations are required.

  17. Analysis of an Underground Structure Settlement Risk due to Tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Ghodrat, Hadi; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    on studied geotechnical conditions of the region. In this paper, a method of risk level assessment for various types of structures, such as frame and masonry structures, and various types of foundation, such as continuous and isolated, is well defined and the risk level is classified. Moreover, the value......The tunnel of the Tabriz urban railway line 2 (TURL2), Iran, will pass through an underground commercial center on its way. Too little distance between the tunnel crown and the underground structure foundation will probably cause collapse or excessive settlement during the tunnel construction based...... of the underground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlement risk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification of various types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes...

  18. Monitoring pilot projects on bored tunnelling : The Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; De Boer, F.; Admiraal, J.B.M.; Van Jaarsveld, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    Two pilot projects for bored tunnelling in soft soil have been undertaken in the Netherlands. The monitoring was commissioned under the authority of the Centre for Underground Construction (COB). A description of the research related to the Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel will be

  19. Tunneling features in semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseev, P. I.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.; Panov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The most telling scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) data available on the influence of nonequilibrium tunneling effects and electronic spectra reconstruction are reviewed and theoretically explained by self-consistently accounting for nonequilibrium electron distribution and the change (due to the tunneling current) in the electron density of states near the tunneling junction. The paper discusses the basic ideas of the self-consistent tunneling theory, which forms the basis for experimental research and which allows many effects observed in STM/STS experiments to be explained and new phenomena to be predicted.

  20. High-power plasma dynamic systems of quasi-stationary type in IPP NSK KIPT: results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solyakov, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to brief review of main experimental results of investigations of high-power quasi-stationary plasma dynamic systems in the IPP NSC KIPT. In experiments were shown that to received accelerated plasma streams with high value of energy in quasi-stationary modes all conditions on the accelerating channel boundary should be controlled independently. As a results of optimizations of the modes of operation all QSPA active elements quasi-stationary plasma flow in the channel during 480 μs at discharge durations 550μs was obtained. The plasma streams velocity was close to theoretical limit for present experimental conditions. Plasma streams with maximum velocity up to 4.2 · 10 7 cm/s and total value of energy containment in the stream 0.4...0.6 MJ were received. The main properties of compression zone formation in the plasma streams generated by magneto-plasma compressor in quasi-stationary modes were investigated. In experiments were shown that initial conditions, namely residual pressure in the vacuum chamber made a big influence on the value of plasma density in compression zone. Compressive plasma streams with density (2...4)·10 18 cm -3 during 20...25μs at discharge duration 10μs were obtained. This value of plasma density is close to theoretical limit for present experimental conditions

  1. Sub-fT/Hz1/2 resolution and field-stable SQUID magnetometer based on low parasitic capacitance sub-micrometer cross-type Josephson tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Zakosarenko, V.; Schönau, T.; Anders, S.; Fritzsch, L.; Mück, M.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2012-11-01

    We review the development of low parasitic capacitance sub-micrometer cross-type Josephson tunnel junctions for their use in highly sensitive and field-stable SQUID magnetometers. The potential of such junctions is shown on I-V characteristics as well as on Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. The evaluation of Fiske steps lead to a specific junction capacitance of about 62 fF/μm2 for a critical current density of about 1.7 kA/cm2. The avoidance of any idle-region - the undesired overlap between superconducting electrodes around the junction - due to a self-aligned junction definition process lead to highly sensitive SQUIDs; multiloop SQUID magnetometers exhibiting exceptionally low magnetic field noise levels as low as 0.3 fT/Hz1/2, as well as large usable voltage swings of more than 150 μVpp. Furthermore, junction dimensions in the sub-micrometer range allowed for very high tolerable background fields during cool-down of up to 6.5 mT. In operation mode, the SQUID magnetometers recovered completely from magnetization pulses of up to 76 mT. With respect to their easy and reliable usage as well as their high sensitivity, the presented SQUID sensors are adequate for many applications, like in geophysics, biomagnetism or low-field magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Sub-fT/Hz{sup 1/2} resolution and field-stable SQUID magnetometer based on low parasitic capacitance sub-micrometer cross-type Josephson tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, M., E-mail: matthias.schmelz@ipht-jena.de [Institute of Photonic Technology, PO Box 100239, D-07702 Jena (Germany); Stolz, R.; Zakosarenko, V.; Schoenau, T.; Anders, S.; Fritzsch, L. [Institute of Photonic Technology, PO Box 100239, D-07702 Jena (Germany); Mueck, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Meyer, M. [Supracon AG, Wildenbruchstrasse 15, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Meyer, H.-G. [Institute of Photonic Technology, PO Box 100239, D-07702 Jena (Germany)

    2012-11-20

    We review the development of low parasitic capacitance sub-micrometer cross-type Josephson tunnel junctions for their use in highly sensitive and field-stable SQUID magnetometers. The potential of such junctions is shown on I-V characteristics as well as on Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. The evaluation of Fiske steps lead to a specific junction capacitance of about 62 fF/{mu}m{sup 2} for a critical current density of about 1.7 kA/cm{sup 2}. The avoidance of any idle-region - the undesired overlap between superconducting electrodes around the junction - due to a self-aligned junction definition process lead to highly sensitive SQUIDs; multiloop SQUID magnetometers exhibiting exceptionally low magnetic field noise levels as low as 0.3 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}, as well as large usable voltage swings of more than 150 {mu}Vpp. Furthermore, junction dimensions in the sub-micrometer range allowed for very high tolerable background fields during cool-down of up to 6.5 mT. In operation mode, the SQUID magnetometers recovered completely from magnetization pulses of up to 76 mT. With respect to their easy and reliable usage as well as their high sensitivity, the presented SQUID sensors are adequate for many applications, like in geophysics, biomagnetism or low-field magnetic resonance imaging.

  3. Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparation Types Show Impact on Chondrogenic Differentiation, Migration, and Proliferation of Human Subchondral Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuz, Peter Cornelius; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Pruss, Axel; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of platelet concentrates on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Furthermore, the migratory and proliferative effect of platelet concentrates were assessed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared using preparation kits (Autologous Conditioned Plasma [ACP] Kit [Arthrex, Naples, FL]; Regen ACR-C Kit [Regen Lab, Le Mont-Sur-Lausanne, Switzerland]; and Dr.PRP Kit [Rmedica, Seoul, Republic of Korea]) by apheresis (PRP-A) and by centrifugation (PRP-C). In contrast to clinical application, freeze-and-thaw cycles were subsequently performed to activate platelets and to prevent medium coagulation by residual fibrinogen in vitro. MPCs were harvested from the cortico-spongious bone of femoral heads. Chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs was induced in high-density pellet cultures and evaluated by histochemical staining of typical cartilage matrix components. Migration of MPCs was assessed using a chemotaxis assay, and proliferation activity was measured by DNA content. MPCs cultured in the presence of 5% ACP, Regen, or Dr.PRP formed fibrous tissue, whereas MPCs stimulated with 5% PRP-A or PRP-C developed compact and dense cartilaginous tissue rich in type II collagen and proteoglycans. All platelet concentrates significantly (ACP, P = .00041; Regen, P = .00029; Dr.PRP, P = .00051; PRP-A, P platelet concentrates but one (Dr.PRP, P = .63) showed a proliferative effect on MPCs, as shown by significant increases (ACP, P = .027; Regen, P = .0029; PRP-A, P = .00021; and PRP-C, P = .00069) in DNA content. Platelet concentrates obtained by different preparation methods exhibit different potentials to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation, migration, and proliferation of MPCs. Platelet concentrates obtained by commercially available preparation kits failed to induce chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs, whereas highly standardized PRP

  4. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  5. The metabolite generated by dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 metabolism of glucagon-like peptide-1 has no influence on plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, M; Madsbad, S; Deacon, C F

    2006-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is metabolised by the enzyme dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4), generating a metabolite with potential antagonistic properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of that metabolite on plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes...

  6. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  7. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, S.J.; Koulman, A.; Schulze, M.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas

  8. Increased cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts to plasma from hypertriglyceridemic type 2 diabetic patients : Roles of pre beta-HDL, phospholipid transfer protein and cholesterol esterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Groen, A. K.; Perton, F. G.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Wijland, M. J. A.; Dikkeschei, L. D.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; van Tol, A.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    We tested whether hypertriglyceridemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by alterations in pre beta-HDL, which are considered to be initial acceptors of cell-derived cholesterol, and by changes in the ability of plasma to promote cellular cholesterol efflux. In 28

  9. A combination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and its association with incidence of type 2 diabetes : The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J.; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B.; Kröger, Janine; Griffin, Julian L.; Huerta, José María; Guevara, Marcela; Sluijs, Ivonne; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Chajes, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C.; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Franks, Paul W.; Gavrila, Diana; Gunter, Marc J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Nilsson, Peter M.; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Rolandsson, Olov; Sieri, Sabina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas

  10. Increased clearance explains lower plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator by estradiol: Evidence for potently enhanced mannose receptor expression in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, M.; Jong, M.; Bijsterbosch, M.; Bekkers, M.; Toet, K.; Havekes, L.; Emeis, J.; Kooistra, T.

    1999-01-01

    Several clinical studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between circulating levels of estrogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that estrogen lower plasma levels of t-PA by increasing its clearance from the bloodstream.

  11. A Technique for Measuring the Scalar and Tensor Plasma Conductivity Using an Induction-Type MHD Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, A.R.M.

    1966-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for accurately measuring the scalar and tensor a. c. electrical conductivity of plasmas used in a.c. MHD generators and accelerators. The device consists of a cylindrical plasma column (region 1) moving with a regulated axial velocity. An external magnetic field structure is located outside the plasma, and separated from it by a thin annular homogeneous medium (region 2). The magnetic field system is designed to produce in the plasma a constant axial magnetic field.and a travelling wave magnetic field. The coils of the latter magnetic field system are excited so as to produce radial, azimuthal or axial magnetic field components alone or any combination of them as required. This field design permits measuring the scalar and tensor components of the plasma conductivity directly. The theory of the apparatus is presented analytically in detail. The plasma is described by an accurate set of hydrodynamic-Maxwell equations. The plasma induced magnetic field, pressure variations and velocity profiles are taken into consideration. In region 2, the Maxwell equations are solved exactly. The boundary conditions between regions 1 and 2 are described accurately, and for the boundary conditions between region 2 and the magnetic field system a Fourier synthesis of the travelling magnetic field components is done. An accurate expression for the plasma conductivity shows that o depends upon the Alfvén speed, the slip between the plasma axial speed and the phase velocity of the applied travelling wave magnetic field, the frequency, the plasma current density, the components of the applied travelling wave magnetic field system and the device's cylindrical configuration. The design features are chosen so as to simulate the actual operating conditions of travelling magnetic wave a.c. plasma accelerators and generators. It permits accurate measurements of the plasma conductivity in these specific applications and the results are compared to those of

  12. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  13. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm).

  14. Plasma Cholesteryl Ester Fatty Acids do not Mediate the Association of Ethnicity with Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the HELIUS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilwijk, Mirthe; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B; Gill, Jason M R; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2018-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) than the host population. Our aim is to identify whether plasma cholesteryl ester fatty acids (CEFA) mediate the ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes. We included 202 Dutch, 206 South-Asian Surinamese, 205 African Surinamese, 215 Turkish, and 213 Moroccan origin participants of the HELIUS study (Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Logistic regression is used to determine the associations between plasma CEFA and T2D. Mediation analysis is used to identify whether CEFA contributed to the association between ethnicity and T2D. We adjusted for ethnicity, age, sex, smoking, physical activity, and BMI. Associations between plasma CEFA and T2D were similar across all ethnic groups. Although differences in plasma CEFA across ethnic groups were observed, CEFA did not mediate the differences in T2D prevalence between ethnic groups. Although ethnic differences in plasma CEFA are found and CEFA are associated with T2D, CEFA does not contribute to the difference in T2D prevalence between ethnic groups. If confirmed, this implies that maintenance of the more beneficial CEFA profiles in the non-Dutch ethnic groups may be encouraged to prevent an even higher prevalence of T2D in these groups. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The TASS-tunnel. Geological mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardenby, Carljohan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Sigurdsson, Oskar (HAskGeokonsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The project entitled 'Sealing of tunnel at great depth' (Fintaetning av tunnel paa stort djup) needed a new tunnel in an area as undisturbed as possible and with cross-cutting water-bearing structures. The new tunnel, which was given the name TASS, was excavated on the -450 m level of SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL). The length of the tunnel is approximately 80 m and the theoretical tunnel area 19 m2. As is the case with all the other tunnels of the Aespoe HRL, the new tunnel has been geologically mapped. In addition, laser scanning combined with digital photography has been carried out. The tunnel was also used to test various types of explosives, borehole layouts and drilling techniques. The geological mapping of tunnel floor, walls and roof took place on four major occasions when a halt was made in tunnel excavation to allow for various tests. Before the mapping started on these occasions, laser scanning took place. The tunnel faces were mapped after each round (drilling, blasting and unloading). The present report describes the geological features of the tunnel and briefly how the laser scanning was performed. Water-bearing structures have been compared to similar structures in the neighbouring tunnels. The rock type names used here follow the old established Aespoe HRL nomenclature. Narrow (<0.1 m wide) dykes are normally mapped as fracture fillings. The dominating rock type is Aespoe diorite, which constitutes some 90 % of the rock mass. It is mostly mapped as fresh rock. . Minor constituents of the rock mass are fine-grained granite, hybrid rock, pegmatite, quartz veins/lenses and undifferentiated mafic rock. The mapping of fractures and deformation zones considers a number of parameters such as number of fractures, open/healed, width, length, description of fracture surfaces (roughness, planarity, etc), fracture filling, alteration and water. The deformation zones are discriminated into two main categories (&apos

  16. [A cross-sectional survey on prevalence and risk factors for abnormal plasma liver enzymes in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Xiong, Zhou-yi; Sun, Jia; Yan, Ting; Chen, Rong-ping; Zhang, Ru-yi; Yang, Fan; Yang, Rui; Cai, De-hong

    2013-12-01

    To explore the prevalence and risk factors for abnormal plasma liver enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from 60 tertiary and secondary hospitals in Guangdong Province between August 2011 and March 2012. The abnormal plasma liver enzymes was diagnosed as alanine aminotransferase >40 U/L and/or aspartate aminotransferase >40 U/L. Binary Logistic regression was used to assess the associations between abnormal plasma liver enzymes and associated risk factors. The abnormal plasma liver enzymes were detected in 709/3543 diabetics with overweight or obesity. And the prevalence of abnormal plasma liver enzymes was 20.0%. According to binary Logistic regression analysis, the presence of abnormal plasma liver enzymes was associated with male gender (OR = 1.603, 95%CI: 1.247-2.061), higher HbA1c(OR = 1.049, 95%CI: 1.005-1.096), higher body mass index (OR = 1.058, 95%CI: 1.014-1.103), higher waist circumference (OR = 1.019, 95%CI: 1.006-1.032), higher triglyceride level (OR = 1.053, 95%CI: 1.008-1.100), adiposis hepatica (OR = 1.543; 95%CI: 1.244-1.914), regular exercises (OR = 0.591, 95%CI: 0.472-0.740) and diet control (OR = 0.794, 95%CI: 0.635-0.993). There is a high prevalence of abnormal plasma liver enzymes in overweight/obese with diabetics. And decreasing the levels of HbA1c, body mass index, waist circumference and triglycerides, regular exercises and diet control may decrease its prevalence.

  17. Controlling chaos based on a novel intelligent integral terminal sliding mode control in a rod-type plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, Khari; Zahra, Rahmani; Behrooz, Rezaie

    2016-05-01

    An integral terminal sliding mode controller is proposed in order to control chaos in a rod-type plasma torch system. In this method, a new sliding surface is defined based on a combination of the conventional sliding surface in terminal sliding mode control and a nonlinear function of the integral of the system states. It is assumed that the dynamics of a chaotic system are unknown and also the system is exposed to disturbance and unstructured uncertainty. To achieve a chattering-free and high-speed response for such an unknown system, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is utilized in the next step to approximate the unknown part of the nonlinear dynamics. Then, the proposed integral terminal sliding mode controller stabilizes the approximated system based on Lyapunov’s stability theory. In addition, a Bee algorithm is used to select the coefficients of integral terminal sliding mode controller to improve the performance of the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the improvement in the response speed, chattering rejection, transient response, and robustness against uncertainties.

  18. Ligand-induced type II interleukin-4 receptor dimers are sustained by rapid re-association within plasma membrane microcompartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, David; Moraga, Ignacio; Winkelmann, Hauke; Birkholz, Oliver; Wilmes, Stephan; Schulte, Markos; Kraich, Michael; Kenneweg, Hella; Beutel, Oliver; Selenschik, Philipp; Paterok, Dirk; Gavutis, Martynas; Schmidt, Thomas; Garcia, K. Christopher; Müller, Thomas D.; Piehler, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The spatiotemporal organization of cytokine receptors in the plasma membrane is still debated with models ranging from ligand-independent receptor pre-dimerization to ligand-induced receptor dimerization occurring only after receptor uptake into endosomes. Here, we explore the molecular and cellular determinants governing the assembly of the type II interleukin-4 receptor, taking advantage of various agonists binding the receptor subunits with different affinities and rate constants. Quantitative kinetic studies using artificial membranes confirm that receptor dimerization is governed by the two-dimensional ligand-receptor interactions and identify a critical role of the transmembrane domain in receptor dimerization. Single molecule localization microscopy at physiological cell surface expression levels, however, reveals efficient ligand-induced receptor dimerization by all ligands, largely independent of receptor binding affinities, in line with the similar STAT6 activation potencies observed for all IL-4 variants. Detailed spatiotemporal analyses suggest that kinetic trapping of receptor dimers in actin-dependent microcompartments sustains robust receptor dimerization and signalling.

  19. Does overnight normalization of plasma glucose by insulin infusion affect assessment of glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, P.; Højlund, K.; Hother-Nielsen, O.

    2003-01-01

    infusion. We assessed whether the choice of either of these methods to obtain euglycaemia biases subsequent assessment of glucose metabolism and insulin action. METHODS: We studied seven obese Type 2 diabetic patients twice: once with (+ ON) and once without (- ON) prior overnight insulin infusion. Glucose...... turnover rates were quantified by adjusted primed-constant 3-3H-glucose infusions, and insulin action was assessed in 4-h euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU m-2 min-1) clamp studies using labelled glucose infusates (Hot-GINF). RESULTS: Basal plasma glucose levels (mean +/- sd) were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 10.......7 +/- 2.9 mmol/l in the + ON and - ON studies, respectively, and were clamped at -5.5 mmol/l. Basal rates of glucose production (GP) were similar in the + ON and - ON studies, 83 +/- 13 vs. 85 +/- 14 mg m-2 min-1 (NS), whereas basal rates of glucose disappearance (Rd) were lower in the + ON than...

  20. Compression between ion and hard x-ray emissions from nitrogen and argon in Mather type plasma focus device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Paghe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some characteristics of a Mather type Plasma Focus (PF device such as a discharge current, pinch time, ion flux and hard x-ray intensity has been investigated simultaneously in argon and nitrogen gases separately for various operating gas pressures and charging voltages of capacitor bank. It was observed that pinch phenomena was energy and pressure dependent in current sheath as well as ion and hard x-ray emission intensity. Optimum pressure with maximum ion flux and the most intense hard x-ray showed a nearly linear dependence on the charging voltage of the device. Maximum ion flux was estimated in the order of 1018 ions per steradian in both gases. Hard x-ray emission was registered a little after discharge current and Faraday cup (FC signals. Also, optimum pressure for maximum ion flux was not the same as the pressure for intense hard x-rays. Hard x-ray intensity reached its peak at higher pressures

  1. Hard-rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1975-01-01

    Intense sub-microsecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types. The spall debris generally consists of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate, this technique appears promising for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a pulsed electron tunnel excavator, capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods, is presented. (auth)

  2. Ferroelectric tunneling element and memory applications which utilize the tunneling element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [Knoxville, TN; Christen, Hans M [Knoxville, TN; Baddorf, Arthur P [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent [Knoxville, TN; Lee, Ho Nyung [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-20

    A tunneling element includes a thin film layer of ferroelectric material and a pair of dissimilar electrically-conductive layers disposed on opposite sides of the ferroelectric layer. Because of the dissimilarity in composition or construction between the electrically-conductive layers, the electron transport behavior of the electrically-conductive layers is polarization dependent when the tunneling element is below the Curie temperature of the layer of ferroelectric material. The element can be used as a basis of compact 1R type non-volatile random access memory (RAM). The advantages include extremely simple architecture, ultimate scalability and fast access times generic for all ferroelectric memories.

  3. Nanowire resonant tunneling diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, M. T.; Ohlsson, B. J.; Thelander, C.; Persson, A. I.; Deppert, K.; Wallenberg, L. R.; Samuelson, L.

    2002-12-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures and their implementation into electronic and photonic devices have had tremendous impact on science and technology. In the development of quantum nanoelectronics, one-dimensional (1D) heterostructure devices are receiving a lot of interest. We report here functional 1D resonant tunneling diodes obtained via bottom-up assembly of designed segments of different semiconductor materials in III/V nanowires. The emitter, collector, and the central quantum dot are made from InAs and the barrier material from InP. Ideal resonant tunneling behavior, with peak-to-valley ratios of up to 50:1 and current densities of 1 nA/μm2 was observed at low temperatures.

  4. Effect of ethnicity, dietary intake and physical activity on plasma adiponectin concentrations among malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Koo Hui; Sathyasurya, Daniel Robert; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B

    2013-01-01

    The Malaysian Health and morbidity Survey (2006) reported the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the Indian population compared to the Malay and Chinese populations. Many studies have supported the important role of adiponectin in insulin-sensitizing, which is associated with T2DM. These studies have raised a research question whether the variation in prevalence is related to the adiponectin concentrations or the lifestyle factors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the adiponectin concentrations differ between the Malay, Chinese and the Indian populations with T2DM. It is to investigate the association of adiponectin concentrations with ethnicity, dietary intake and physical activity too. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 210 T2DM patients with mean (SD) age of 56.73 (10.23) years were recruited from Penang, Malaysia. Data on demographic background, medical history, anthropometry (weight, height, visceral fat, percentage of body fat and waist circumference), dietary intake (3 days 24 hours diet recall) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were obtained accordingly. Plasma adiponectin and routine laboratory tests (fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride) were performed according to standard procedure. After adjustment for physical activity and dietary intakes, the Indian population had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations (P = 0.003) when compared with the Malay and the Chinese populations, The Indian population also had significantly higher value of HbA1c (P = 0.017) and significantly lower HDL (P = 0.013). Plasma adiponectin concentrations was significantly associated with ethnicity (P = 0.011), dietary carbohydrate (P = 0.003) and physical activity total MET score (P = 0.026), after medical history, age, sex, total cholesterol and visceral fat adjusted. However, dietary carbohydrate and physical activity did not show significantly

  5. Hawking Radiation As Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Maulik K.; Wilczek, Frank

    2000-01-01

    We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and contrast the problem of spontaneous emission of charged particles from a charged conductor

  6. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  7. Carpal tunnel release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Bo; Sørensen, A I; Crone, K L

    2013-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was done to compare the results of carpal tunnel release using classic incision, short incision, or endoscopic technique. In total, 90 consecutive cases were included. Follow-up was 24 weeks. We found a significantly shorter sick leave in the endoscopi...... incision could be found. There were no serious complications in either group. The results indicate that the endoscopic procedure is safe and has the benefit of faster rehabilitation and return to work....

  8. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  9. Plasma concentrations of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are elevated in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus with microalbuminuria and overt nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jacobsen, P; Rossing, K

    2000-01-01

    with microalbuminuria (n = 15); group 3-patients with macroalbuminuria and normal serum creatinine (n = 15), group 4-patients with macroalbuminuria and moderately elevated serum creatinine (n = 13). RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were similar in healthy controls and normoalbuminuric Type 1...... diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and the concentrations of sICAM-1 as well as sVCAM-1 are elevated in patients with macroalbuminuria and normal s-creatinine. The elevated plasma concentrations of these soluble adhesion molecule concentrations in patients with renal complication can...

  10. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spe...

  11. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  12. Fasting Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide as a Risk Marker of Poor Renal Outcomes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes with Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Signe Abitz; Øllgaard, Jens Christian; Parving, Hans-Henrik Dyring

    pressure, cholesterol, HbA1c and u-AER (p ≤ 0.014). After further adjustment for baseline eGFR significance was lost for all endpoints, except for CVD events (HR per doubling: 1.22, [1.05-1.41]; p=0.010). Conclusion In type 1 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy, higher fasting plasma TMAO level......Background Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite of phosphatidylcholine, choline and carnitine produced by the gut microbiota from ingested animal foods. It has been suggested as an independent gut microbiota derived risk factor for renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with type...... 1 diabetes are at increased risk of renal and cardiovascular disease and early mortality. We investigated associations between plasma TMAO and outcomes in a prospective study. Methods TMAO was measured at baseline in 384 patients with type 1 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy (u-AER > 300 mg/g), 61...

  13. Observation of nuclear gamma resonance with superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kozin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nb-based superconducting tunnel junction detectors have been used for the registration of electrons following a nuclear gamma resonance (Mössbauer effect. Electrons were produced by a RhFe scatterer under irradiation by the 57Co(Rh Mössbauer source. This observation demonstrates the role which can be played by superconducting tunnel junction detectors in the field of conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy and other types of electron spectroscopy.

  14. Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 is not altered in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its relationship with non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B may be modified by type 2 diabetes mellitus: the CODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.C.G.J.; Troutt, J.S.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Ferreira, I.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Schaper, N.C.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Konrad, R.J.; C.D.A., Stehouwer

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with elevated plasma apolipoprotein B and triglycerides levels, reduced HDL cholesterol and the presence of small-dense LDL particles. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin

  15. High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan M; Wagner, Jakob B; Samuelson, Lars; Deppert, Knut; Borgström, Magnus T

    2010-03-10

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27.6 at liquid helium temperature. These sub-100-nm-diameter structures are promising components for solar cells as well as electronic applications.

  16. Elevated levels of plasma von Willebrand factor and the risk of macro- and microvascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, P; Vedel, P; Parving, H H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the concept suggesting that microalbuminuria in combination with high levels of plasma von Willebrand factor is a stronger predictor for cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications than microalbuminuria alone in type 2 diabetic...... patients. METHODS: One hundred and sixty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and persistent microalbuminuria were followed for an average of 3.8 (SD 0.3) years. 70% of the patients were treated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors. Patients in this subanalysis were divided into two groups...... nephropathy or progression in diabetic retinopathy than microalbuminuria alone in patients with type 2 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria....

  17. Plasma total homocysteine levels in children with type 1 diabetes: relationship with vitamin status, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, disease parameters and coronary risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinleyici, E C; Kirel, Birgul; Alatas, Ozkan; Muslumanoglu, Hamza; Kilic, Zubeyir; Dogruel, Nesrin

    2006-08-01

    The objectives of this study were: to determine plasma total homocysteine tHcy levels and the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in children with type 1 diabetes, to determine correlates of plasma tHcy levels with nutritional factor such as serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels, genetic factors as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR gene polymorphism (C677T and A1298C), to attempt to identify possible dependencies between tHcy and the degree of metabolic control, the duration of the disease and presence of complications, and also to determine the relationship between other coronary risk factors. Plasma tHcy levels and other related parameters performed in 32 children with type 1 diabetes and 23 age-sex matched healthy children. Median tHcy level was higher in the patient group (11.38, 3.28 to 66.01 micromol/l) than the control group (8.78, 1.06 to 13.66 mol/l) (p cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoprotein B, systolic blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and lower folate, apolipoprotein A1 levels and glomerular filtration rate values than the control group. Plasma tHcy levels were higher in diabetic children with poor metabolic control. Because of hyperhomocysteinemia is common in diabetic children and plasma tHcy levels correlated with early onset of the disease and disease duration, we recommend the usage of plasma tHcy levels as a risk indicator parameter with other coronary risk factor for detecting and preventing cardiovascular disease in diabetic children.

  18. Modelamiento del Ambiente Térmico y Aéreo de un Galpón de Presión Negativa Tipo Túnel para Pollitos / Modeling of the Thermal Environments in Shed Negative Pressure Tunnel Type of Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Osorio Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La optimización de los procesos productivos tiene granimportancia en el mundo actual debido al continuo desarrollo y avance. Con la finalidad de evaluar el desempeño productivo en el sector avícola, se hace necesaria la adecuación del ambiente interno de las instalaciones avícolas con técnicas que atiendan las exigencias de confort térmico con mayor eficiencia energética. En este trabajo, se evaluó el ambiente térmico interno de un galpón de presión negativa tipo túnel durante la primera fase de crecimiento de pollos de engorde. La evaluación de comportamiento térmico en este período fue realizada utilizando la dinámica de fluidos computacionales (CFD. El modelo computacional demostró ser una herramienta eficaz para el entendimiento y mejora de diseños bioclimáticos de ambientes internos de galpones avícolas. / The optimization of production processes hasgreat importance in the world due to the development andadvancement. In order to evaluate the productive performance in poultry production, it becomes necessary the indoor environmental adequacy of the poultry buildings by technologies that attend the requirements of thermal comfort with major energy efficiency. This study evaluated the thermal environment of a domestic shed of negative pressure tunnel type, during the first growth phase of broilers. The evaluation of the thermal behavior model during this period was made using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The computational model proved to be an effective tool forunderstanding and improving of bioclimatic designs of indoorenvironments to create this kind of sheds.

  19. Structural and optical characterization of p-type highly Fe-doped SnO2 thin films and tunneling transport on SnO2:Fe/p-Si heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Othmen, Walid; Ben Hamed, Zied; Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed; Elhouichet, Habib; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2018-03-01

    Nanocrystalline highly Fe-doped SnO2 thin films were prepared using a new simple sol-gel method with iron amounts of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The obtained gel offers a long durability and high quality allowing to reach a sub-5 nm nanocrystalline size with a good crystallinity. The films were structurally characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) that confirms the formation of rutile SnO2. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images reveals the good crystallinity of the nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy shows that the SnO2 rutile structure is maintained even for high iron concentration. The variation of the PL intensity with Fe concentration reveals that iron influences the distribution of oxygen vacancies in tin oxide. The optical transmittance results indicate a redshift of the SnO2 band gap when iron concentration increases. The above optical results lead us to assume the presence of a compensation phenomenon between oxygen vacancies and introduced holes following Fe doping. From current-voltage measurements, an inversion of the conduction type from n to p is strongly predicted to follow the iron addition. Electrical characterizations of SnO2:Fe/p-Si and SnO2:Fe/n-Si heterojunctions seem to be in accordance with this deduction. The quantum tunneling mechanism is expected to be important at high Fe doping level, which was confirmed by current-voltage measurements at different temperatures. Both optical and electrical properties of the elaborated films present a particularity for the same iron concentration and adopt similar tendencies with Fe amount, which strongly correlate the experimental observations. In order to evaluate the applicability of the elaborated films, we proceed to the fabrication of the SnO2:Fe/SnO2 homojunction for which we note a good rectifying behavior.

  20. Heart rate variability and plasma biomarkers in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Effect of a bout of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaruma, Chadi P; Ferreira, Maycon; Sponton, Carlos H G; Delbin, Maria A; Zanesco, Angelina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate: (1) the cardiovascular parameters and plasma biomarkers in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) at baseline; and (2) the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood glucose in response to a session of aerobic exercise (AE) and during recovery period. Adults (18-35 years) were divided into two groups: control (CT, n=10) and T1DM (n=9). Anthropometric, cardiovascular, and biochemical parameters, and aerobic capacity (indirect peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) were evaluated at baseline. Thirty minutes of AE (40-60% intensity) was performed on a treadmill. Blood glucose and HRV were determined at rest, during AE, and during the recovery period. Anthropometric measurements, cardiovascular parameters, aerobic capacity, and biochemical parameters were similar between the groups at baseline. In the T1DM group, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentrations were increased while nitrite/nitrate (NOx(-)) levels were reduced. During AE, the magnitude of the reduction of blood glucose was greater than that during the recovery period in the T1DM group. The RR intervals and SDNN were reduced at rest as well as in the recovery period in T1DM subjects, whereas the RMSSD and pNN50 were only reduced during the recovery period. No changes were observed in low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. Our study shows that T1DM patients on insulin therapy have poor blood glucose control with greater lipid peroxidation and lower NOx(-) levels, accompanied by an imbalance in autonomic function detected by the challenge of AE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum dissipation, scattering and tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleuterio, S.M.; Vilela Mendes, R.

    1984-01-01

    A quantization technique for dissipative systems is used to discuss one dimensional problems including tunneling with dissipation, capture in dissipative potential wells and quantum coherence. (orig.)

  2. Interleukin-34 levels in gingival crevicular fluid and plasma in periodontal health and disease with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, C N; Pradeep, A R

    2018-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and correlate the levels of interleukin-34 (IL-34) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 175 patients were divided into five groups: (a) group I had 35 periodontally-healthy patients; (b) group II had 35 chronic gingivitis patients; (c) group III had 35 CP patients without type-2 DM; (d) group IV had 35 CP patients with type-2 DM; and (e) group V had 35 type-2 DM patients without CP. The GCF and plasma levels of IL-34 were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical and systemic parameters, such as gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, and glycated hemoglobin levels, were evaluated. The mean IL-34 concentration in GCF and plasma was highest for group IV, followed by groups III, V, and II, and lowest in group I. The difference between them was statistically significant (P periodontal disease progression and DM. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Soluble type A substance in fresh-frozen plasma as a function of ABO and Secretor genotypes and Lewis phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achermann, F J; Julmy, F; Gilliver, L G; Carrel, T P; Nydegger, U E

    2005-06-01

    Soluble ABO blood group substance (SAS) in fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and its cognate alloantibody titer reduction capacity (TRC) are not considered when prescribing this product for plasma exchange (PEX) therapy of ABO incompatible transplant recipients. SAS was quantified in 250 single FFPs using ELISA. Total and IgG class-specific anti-A TRCs of FFPs were measured using a microhemagglutination inhibition assay. SAS level depended not only on the A subtype (p p p p = 0.0003).

  4. Thermovoltages in vacuum tunneling investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, D. H.; Rettenberger, Armin; Grand, Jean Yves; Läuger, K.; Leiderer, Paul; Dransfeld, Klaus; Möller, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    By heating the tunneling tip of a scanning tunneling microscope the thermoelectric properties of a variable vacuum barrier have been investigated. The lateral variation of the observed thermovoltage will be discussed for polycrystalline gold, stepped surfaces of silver, as well as for copper islands on silver.

  5. Fundamental visual problems in tunnels : sumposium on tunnel lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    2018-01-01

    Tunnels and underpasses are likely to play a greater part in our future road network. Daytime lighting for tunnel entrances represents a considerable proportion of their total running costs and it is important that the right solution should be found. Guidance is given in CIE Publication No. 26

  6. Engineers win award for Swiss tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A Derby engineering consultancy has won the Tunnelling Industry Award 2003 for Excellence in Tunnel Design, offered by the British Tunnelling Society, for its work on the LHC in Geneva, Switzerland (1/2 page).

  7. Counter Tunnel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    DSP-3000 fiber - optic gyro , MicroStrain 3DM-GX2 IMU, with USB and Ethernet connec- tors. Small enough to fit into all the tunnels that were explored...frame arms were sufficient for de- ployment of the RDC. Gigabit multi-mode fiber - optic communication and 48 VDC power were passed to the RDC through...with AcuAMP ACT050 current sensors. The control box monitoring all of the information, as well as the source of the 48 VDC and fiber - optic cable to

  8. Low plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor are potential risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Yi; Du, Xiao-Fang; Ma, Xiang; Guo, Jian-Lian; Lu, Jian-Min; Ma, Lu-Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies suggested that neurotrophins play a role in the diabetic retinopathy (DR). We therefore evaluated the role of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Plasma levels of BDNF were determined in type 2 diabetic patients (N=344). At baseline, the demographical and clinical data were taken. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to test the overall predict accuracy of BDNF and other markers. Diabetic patients with DR and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) had significantly lower BDNF levels on admission (Pdiabetes duration for DR from 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.82) to 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95; Pdiabetic patients, suggesting a possible role of BDNF in the pathogenesis of DR complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An alternative to the plasma emission model: Particle-in-cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution (sub-Debye length grid size and 10 000 particle species per cell), 1.5D particle-in-cell, relativistic, fully electromagnetic simulations are used to model electromagnetic wave emission generation in the context of solar type III radio bursts. The model studies generation of electromagnetic waves by a super-thermal, hot beam of electrons injected into a plasma thread that contains uniform longitudinal magnetic field and a parabolic density gradient. In effect, a single magnetic line connecting Sun to Earth is considered, for which five cases are studied. (i) We find that the physical system without a beam is stable and only low amplitude level electromagnetic drift waves (noise) are excited. (ii) The beam injection direction is controlled by setting either longitudinal or oblique electron initial drift speed, i.e., by setting the beam pitch angle (the angle between the beam velocity vector and the direction of background magnetic field). In the case of zero pitch angle, i.e., when v-vector b ·E-vector perpendicular =0, the beam excites only electrostatic, standing waves, oscillating at local plasma frequency, in the beam injection spatial location, and only low level electromagnetic drift wave noise is also generated. (iii) In the case of oblique beam pitch angles, i.e., when v-vector b ·E-vector perpendicular =0, again electrostatic waves with same properties are excited. However, now the beam also generates the electromagnetic waves with the properties commensurate to type III radio bursts. The latter is evidenced by the wavelet analysis of transverse electric field component, which shows that as the beam moves to the regions of lower density and hence lower plasma frequency, frequency of the electromagnetic waves drops accordingly. (iv) When the density gradient is removed, an electron beam with an oblique pitch angle still generates the electromagnetic radiation. However, in the latter case no frequency decrease is seen. (v) Since in most of

  10. Visualization of pool boiling from complex surfaces with internal tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszko Robert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental investigations of boiling heat transfer for a system of connected narrow horizontal and vertical tunnels. These extended surfaces, named narrow tunnel structure (NTS, can be applied to electronic element cooling. The experiments were carried out with ethanol at atmospheric pressure. The tunnel external covers were manufactured out of 0.1 mm thick perforated copper foil (hole diameters 0.5 mm, sintered with the mini-fins, formed on the vertical side of the 10 mm high rectangular fins and horizontal inter-fin surface. Visualization studies were conducted with a transparent structured model of joined narrow tunnels limited with the perforated foil. The visualization investigations aimed to formulate assumptions for the boiling model through distinguishing boiling types and defining all phases of bubble growth.

  11. Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus in the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Aline Zazeri; Rodrigues, Nathália de Campos; Gonzaga, Marina Ignácio; Paiolo, João Carlos Cicogna; de Souza, Carolina Arantes; Stefanutto, Nadine Aparecida Vicentini; Omori, Wellington Pine; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz; Brisotti, João Luiz; Matheucci Junior, Euclides; Mariano, Vânia Sammartino; de Oliveira, Gislane Lelis Vilela

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form...

  12. Effects of a Western-Type Diet on Plasma Lipids and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Matthew J; Aycock, S Tyler; Clarkson, Thomas B; Kaplan, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to assess a nonhuman primate diet that mimicked the Western-type diet of humans with regard to palatability and the diet's effects on plasma lipid concentrations and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We evaluated male (n = 8) and female (n = 11) African green monkeys (vervets; Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) that initially were fed a standard diet. Each cohort then was divided into 2 groups, which received either standard chow or the Western diet. Food consumption and fecal quali...

  13. Weight gain is associated with improved glycaemic control but with adverse changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure isn Type 1 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferriss, J B

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To assess the effects of weight gain on metabolic control, plasma lipids and blood pressure in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (n = 3250) were examined at baseline and 1800 (55%) were re-examined a mean of 7.3 years later. Patients had Type 1 diabetes, defined as a diagnosis made before age 36 years and with a need for continuous insulin therapy within a year of diagnosis. Patients were aged 15-60 years at baseline and were stratified for age, sex and duration of diabetes. RESULTS: The change in HbA(1c) from baseline to follow-up examination was significantly more favourable in those who gained 5 kg or more during follow-up (\\'marked weight gain\\') than in patients who gained less or no weight or lost weight (\\'less or no weight gain\\'). In those with marked weight gain, there was a significantly greater rise in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol and significantly less favourable changes in low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with those with less or no weight gain, with or without adjustment for HbA(1c). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also rose significantly more in the group with marked weight gain. CONCLUSION: Weight gain in patients with Type 1 diabetes has adverse effects on plasma lipids and blood pressure, despite a small improvement in glycaemic control.

  14. Clinical significance of changes of plasma concentration of endothelium and serum levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jianping; Zhang Guoyuan; Li Suping; Wu Chenxiu; Sun Yuejun; Yan Zongxun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the changes of plasma endothelium (ET) and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma ET and serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 61 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) 36 without complication and 25 cases with complications and 33 controls. Results: (1) The plasma levels of ET and serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than those in the controls (p<0.01); (2) The blood levels of ET, TNF-α in patients with complications were significantly higher than those in patients without complications (p<0.02); (3) The blood levels of ET, IL-6 and TNF-α were mutually positively correlated. Conclusion: Monitoring of ET, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in diabetic patients can provide additional valuable information for assessing the course of disease and efficacy of management

  15. Transmission of the allergy reaction of a delayed type against Salmonella abortus ovis through blood plasma of gamma-irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, G.

    1977-01-01

    Use is made of blood plasma taken from guinea pigs (sensibilized with a live culture of Salmonella abortus ovis and then irradiated with 800 rad gamma-rays) to transmit the skin allergy reaction to normal, nonsensibilized guinea pigs. The allergy reaction has been demonstrated in the recipients of plasma as early as the 3-4th hour following the injection of the allergen into the skin. It reaches its peak at the 12-24th hour and later on strongly diminishes, remaining in few of the animals only up to the 48th hour. The infiltrate at the site of injection in the skin of positively reacting animals contains at the 24th hour cells of the polymorphonuclear type, which predominate, while the cells of the mononuclear type are few in number. There are no precipitins in the plasma of the donors, and the titer of the agglutinins and the cytophile antibodies is very low. Regardless of these findings it is concluded that the transmitted allergy reaction is of the fast type (after Arthuss), and not of the delayed one. (author)

  16. Muscle mass, visceral fat, and plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide in healthy individuals (from the J-SHIPP Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Taiji; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ochi, Masayuki; Nagai, Tokihisa; Okada, Yoko; Igase, Michiya; Miki, Tetsuro

    2014-08-15

    A paradoxical negative association between obesity and the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level has been firmly established. An individual's fat mass increases and muscle mass decreases with aging. Because aging is a potent determinant of plasma BNP levels, BNP may be related not only to fat mass but also to muscle mass. However, no studies have evaluated the associations between body composition and plasma levels of BNP. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate these associations in 1,431 apparently healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. The abdominal visceral fat area and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were quantified by computed tomography. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were measured as possible confounding parameters. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured as an index of arterial stiffness, and the pulse pressure (PP) of the second peak of the radial systolic blood pressure waveform (PP2) was used as an estimate of the central PP. Plasma BNP levels were significantly and negatively associated with the visceral fat area (r = -0.13, p <0.0001) and thigh muscle CSA (r = -0.25, p <0.0001). Corrections with possible confounding parameters including age, gender, heart rate, mean blood pressure, body weight, body height, adiponectin, leptin, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, and PP2 eliminated the association of BNP with visceral fat area but not with thigh muscle CSA (β = -0.27, p <0.0001). These findings indicate that along with adiposity, muscle mass is an independent determinant of plasma BNP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hawking temperature from tunnelling formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, P.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the attempt to understand Hawking radiation as tunnelling across black hole horizons produces a Hawking temperature double the standard value. It is explained here how one can obtain the standard value in the same tunnelling approach.

  18. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the ...

  19. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Search English Español Carpal Tunnel Syndrome KidsHealth / For Kids / Carpal Tunnel Syndrome What's in this article? Where ...

  20. Effects of nozzle type atmospheric dry air plasma on L929 fibroblast cells hybrid poly (ε-caprolactone)/chitosan/poly (ε-caprolactone) scaffolds interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ozan; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-08-01

    In the study presented here, in order to improve the surface functionality and topography of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/chitosan/PCL hybrid tissue scaffolds fabricated layer by layer with electrospinning technique, an atmospheric pressure nozzle type plasma surface modification was utilized. The optimization of the plasma process parameters was carried out by monitoring the changes in surface hydrophilicity by using contact angle measurements. SEM, AFM and XPS analyses were utilized to observe the changes in topographical and chemical properties of the modified surfaces. The results showed that applied plasma modification altered the nanotopography and the functionality of the surfaces of the scaffolds. The modification applied for 9 min from a distance of 17 cm was found to provide the possible contact angle value (75.163±0.083) closest to the target value which is the value of tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) petri dishes (∼49.7°), compared to the unmodified samples (84.46±3.86). In vitro cell culture was carried out by L929 mouse fibroblast cell line in order to examine the effects of plasma surface modification on cell-material interactions. Standard MTT assay showed improved cell viability on/within modified scaffolds confirmed with the observations of the cell attachment and the morphology by means of SEM, fluorescence and confocal imaging. The experiments performed in the study proved the enhanced biocompatibility of the nozzle type dry air plasma modified scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tunneling of heat: Beyond linear response regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Kamil; Saroka, David

    2018-02-01

    We examine nanoscale processes of heat (energy) transfer as carried by electrons tunneling via potential barriers and molecular interconnects between two heat reservoirs (thermal baths). For that purpose, we use Landauer-type formulas to calculate thermal conductance and quadratic correction to heat flux flowing via quantum systems. As an input, we implement analytical expressions for transmission functions related to simple potential barriers and atomic bridges. Our results are discussed with respect to energy of tunneling electrons, temperature, the presence of resonant states, and specific parameters characterizing potential barriers as well as heat carriers. The simplicity of semi-analytical models developed by us allows to fit experimental data and extract crucial information about the values of model parameters. Further investigations are expected for more realistic transmission functions, while time-dependent aspects of nanoscale heat transfer may be addressed by using the concept of wave packets scattered on potential barriers and point-like defects within regular (periodic) nanostructures.

  2. Tunneling in thin MOS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserjian, J.

    1974-01-01

    Recent results on tunneling in thin MOS structures are described. Thermally grown SiO2 films in the thickness range of 22-40 A have been shown to be effectively uniform on an atomic scale and exhibit an extremely abrupt oxide-silicon interface. Resonant reflections are observed at this interface for Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and are shown to agree with the exact theory for a trapezoidal barrier. Tunneling at lower fields is consistent with elastic tunneling into the silicon direct conduction band and, at still lower fields, inelastic tunneling into the indirect conduction band. Approximate dispersion relations are obtained over portions of the silicon-dioxide energy gap and conduction band.

  3. Fasting plasma levels of nesfatin-1 in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the nutrient-related fluctuation of nesfatin-1 level in normal humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Chun; Wang, Hai-Yan; Chen, Xi; Guan, Hong-Zai; Jiang, Zheng-Yao

    2010-01-08

    The novel satiety factor nesfatin-1 has been shown to decrease food intake and body weight in rodents after i.c.v. injection. However, no further developments regarding the true patho-physiological relevance of nesfatin-1 in obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1 DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) have been reported. A recent study by Stengel et al. demonstrated that a down-regulation of NUCB2 mRNA in gastric endocrine cells was observed after 24-h fasting. They raised the possibility that nesfatin/NUCB2 gene expression may be regulated by nutritional status, suggesting that nesfatin-1 in the stomach might play a role in satiety. In the present study, fasting levels in plasma nesfatin-1, insulin and glucose were measured and analyzed in healthy subjects and in patients with T1 DM and T2 DM. Plasma nesfatin-1 levels were measured 6 times before and after oral glucose ingestion in healthy subjects. No sex differences in plasma nesfatin-1 were found. The mean fasting plasma nesfatin-1 levels were slightly but not significantly higher in T1 DM patients compared to healthy subjects. However, fasting plasma nesfatin-1 levels were significantly lower in T2 DM patients compared to healthy subjects and T1 DM patients. Plasma nesfatin-1 did not change acutely, although a small rise in circulating nesfatin-1 occurred within 30 min after the beginning of an oral glucose ingestion (from a mean basal value of 0.99+/-0.23 ng/ml to a maximum of 1.08+/-0.24 ng/ml). No significant difference in plasma nesfatin-1 before and after an oral glucose was observed. In conclusion, we showed that fasting nesfatin-1 was significantly lower in T2 DM patients compared to healthy subjects and T1 DM patients. The significance of this result is unclear but the reduction in fasting nesfatin-1 may be one of the appetite-related hormones involved in diabetic hyperphagia. In addition, neither glucose nor saline ingestions affected plasma nesfatin-1, suggesting that gastric chemosensation is

  4. The TELEC - A plasma type of direct energy converter. [Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter for electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) is a high-power density plasma device designed to convert a 10.6-micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. Electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in plasma electrons, creating a high-electron temperature. Energetic electrons diffuse from the plasma and strike two electrodes having different areas. The larger electrode collects more electrons and there is a net transport of current. An electromagnetic field is generated in the external circuit. A computer program has been designed to analyze TELEC performance allowing parametric variation for optimization. Values are presented for TELEC performance as a function of cesium pressure and for current density and efficiency as a function of output voltage. Efficiency is shown to increase with pressure, reaching a maximum over 45%.

  5. Preoperative Fasting Plasma C-Peptide Levels as Predictors of Remission of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenmao; Bai, Rixing; Yan, Ming; Song, Maomin

    2017-12-01

    The study evaluated the predictive role of preoperative fasting C-peptide, hemoglobin (Hb)A1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) levels on diabetes remission in patients with type 2 diabetes following bariatric surgery. Medline, PubMed, Central, and Google Scholar databases of up to September 7, 2016 were searched using the following terms: type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y, anastomosis, C-peptide, weight loss, HbA/HbA1c, predictive/predictor. Meta-analysis of the pooled data indicated that fasting C-peptide was predictive of increased chance of remission of type 2 diabetes (pooled difference in means = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61 to 1.25, p fasting plasma C-peptide was associated with increased type 2 diabetes remission after bariatric surgery, whereas baseline HbA1c and FPG levels were associated with reduced chance of remission. These parameters may be used as a guideline in weighing the risks and benefits for surgical intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. A short-term evaluation of the relationship between plasma ascorbic acid levels and periodontal disease in systemically healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Neeraja H; Acharya, Anirudh B; Patil, Vidya S; Trivedi, Dheeraj J; Thakur, Srinath L

    2013-06-01

    Deficient ascorbic acid levels (AALs) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with periodontal disease. This study evaluated the relationship between plasma AAL and periodontitis in systemically healthy and T2DM subjects, which to the best of our knowledge is being reported for the first time. One hundred twenty subjects were categorized into four groups of 30 each as group 1: without periodontal disease; group 2: chronic gingivitis; group 3: chronic periodontitis, and group 4: chronic periodontitis and freshly diagnosed T2DM. Plaque index (PlI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and probing pocket depths (PPDs) were evaluated. Venous blood was evaluated for plasma AAL spectrophotometrically. Randomized subjects were subgrouped within groups 2-4, to receive either scaling and root planing (SRP) with dietary supplementation (450 mg) of ascorbic acid (AA) for two weeks or only SRP. After two weeks, the clinical parameters were reassessed. Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures and paired t test were used with the level of statistical significance adjusted to p ≤ .05. AAL plasma levels were significantly greater in group 1 than in group 2 (p = .0007) and in group 4 (p = .0003). A significant reduction in the SBI was seen in the subgroups that received dietary supplementation of vitamin C within group 2 (p = .0012) and group 4 (p = .036). Plasma AAL is below the normal range in systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis. Dietary AA supplementation with SRP improves the SBI in subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis.

  7. The Increased Circulating Plasma Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Do Not Correlate to Metabolic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To characterize the plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D and its relation to both present and historical metabolic control and microvascular complications. Methods. Plasma levels of VEGF and routine clinical parameters were analyzed in 115 patients with long-standing T1D and 45 healthy controls (HC. All patients were under clinical routine diabetes treatment at Uppsala University Hospital. Results. The plasma levels of VEGF were increased by 37% in patients with T1D when compared to HC (18.2±0.8 versus 13.2±1.0 pg/ml, p<0.001. The levels of VEGF correlated to insulin needs and BMI but not to present or historical metabolic control. The levels of VEGF were similar in patients with T1D and microvascular complications (microalbuminuria and retinopathy when compared with patients without microvascular complications. Historical HbA1c levels were found to be the best predictor for present metabolic control. Conclusion. Circulating plasma levels of VEGF do not correlate to present or historical metabolic control in long-standing T1D and the levels are not affected by the presence of microvascular complications.

  8. LC-MS/MS multiplex analysis of lysosphingolipids in plasma and amniotic fluid: A novel tool for the screening of sphingolipidoses and Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Pettazzoni

    Full Text Available The biological diagnosis of sphingolipidoses currently relies on the measurement of specific enzymatic activities and/or genetic studies. Lysosphingolipids have recently emerged as potential biomarkers of sphingolipidoses and Niemann-Pick type C in plasma.We developed a sensitive and specific method enabling the simultaneous quantification of lysosphingolipids by LC-MS/MS: lysoglobotriaosylceramide for Fabry disease, lysohexosylceramide (i.e. lysoglucosylceramide and/or lysogalactosylceramide for Gaucher and Krabbe diseases, lysosphingomyelin and its carboxylated analogue lysosphingomyelin-509 for Niemann-Pick type A or B, and C diseases, lysoGM1 ganglioside for GM1gangliosidosis and lysoGM2 ganglioside for GM2 gangliosidosis.The diagnostic performances were validated in plasma samples analysing a large series of patients affected with sphingolipidoses and Niemann-Pick type C disease (n = 98, other inborn errors of metabolism (n = 23, and controls (n = 228. The multiplex measurement of lysosphingolipids allowed the screening of Fabry (including female patients and late-onset variants, Gaucher and infantile Krabbe, Niemann-Pick type A/B and C diseases with high sensitivity and specificity. LysoGM1 and LysoGM2 were elevated in most of the patients affected with GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis respectively. In amniotic fluid supernatant from pregnancies presenting non-immune hydrops fetalis (n = 77, including previously diagnosed Gaucher (n = 5, GM1 gangliosidosis (n = 4 and galactosialidosis (n = 4 fetuses and from normal pregnancies (n = 15, a specific and dramatic increase of lysohexosylceramide was observed only in the Gaucher amniotic fluid samples.This multiplex assay which allows the simultaneous measurement of lysosphingolipids in plasma modifies the diagnostic strategy of sphingolipidoses and Niemann-Pick type C. Furthermore, in pregnancies presenting non-immune hydrops fetalis, lysohexosylceramide measurement in amniotic fluid offers a rapid

  9. The etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Evaluation from the viewpoint of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Jun

    2003-01-01

    The etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome has not been clarified. A cross sectional area of carpal tunnel, flexor tendons, median nerve, and thickness of transverse carpal ligament were evaluated by MRI. Twenty-six patients who were electrophysiologically diagnosed with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were tested by MRI. All patients were females; the mean age was sixty-four years old. The cross sectional area of carpal tunnel, the median nerve area, the area of the flexor tendons and its synovium in carpal tunnel, and thickness of the transverse carpal ligament were calculated. The following are of a seuere type carpal tunnel syndrome: Mean area of the flexor tendons and its synovium in carpal tunnel, 110.5±25.5 mm 2 (control group; 79.3±13.8 mm 2 ); ratio of flexor tendons and its synovium area to carpal tunnel area, 51.6±8.8% (control; 40.5±2.3%); and thickness of the transverse carpal ligament, 3.3±0.4 mm (control; 2.4±0.4 mm). These mean areas in severe carpal tunnel syndrome were significantly greater than those in mild type (p<0.05 or p<0.01). From the viewpoint of this result, it is possible that tenosynovitis is strongly to the etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. In other words, synovium edema causes chronic high pressure environment in carpal tunnel. Moreover, we classified these MRI findings into the following subgroups: enlargement of cross sectional area of flexor tendon and its synovia (n=8; 25.8%), thickened transverse carpal ligament (n=11; 35.5%), and combined type (n=7; 22.6%). This classification by MRI imaging was related to a clinical course and electro-physiologic severity. The present study suggests that to evaluate the cross sectional, area of an MRI image is useful for diagnosis and cure of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. (author)

  10. New type of discharge-produced plasma source for extreme ultraviolet based on liquid tin jet electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshelev, K.N.; Krivtsun, V.M.; Ivanov, V.; Yakushev, O.; Chekmarev, A.; Koloshnikov, V.; Snegirev, E.; Medvedev, Viacheslav

    2012-01-01

    A new approach for discharge-produced plasma (DPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources based on the usage of two liquid metallic alloy jets as discharge electrodes has been proposed and tested. Discharge was ignited using laser ablation of one of the cathode jets. A system with two jet electrodes was

  11. Development of a displacement immunoassay for human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein in plasma : the basic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, D; Pelsers, MMAL; Korf, J; Hermens, WT; Glatz, JFC

    2003-01-01

    To risk-stratify patients with chest pain who are admitted to emergency rooms and for whom initial evaluation is not conclusive, the use of cardiac markers has become a standard procedure. A recently introduced early plasma marker for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the 14.5-kDa cytoplasmic

  12. Mass spectrometric quantification of glucosylsphingosine in plasma and urine of type 1 Gaucher patients using an isotope standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaian, Mina; Wisse, Patrick; Ferraz, Maria J.; Gold, Henrik; Donker-Koopman, Wilma E.; Verhoek, Marri; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Boot, Rolf G.; Kramer, Gertjan; Dekker, Nick; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) leads to Gaucher disease (GD), an inherited disorder characterised by storage of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) in lysosomes of tissue macrophages. Recently, we reported marked increases of deacylated GlcCer, named glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph), in plasma of GD

  13. A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bonnefond, Amélie; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In genome-wide association (GWA) data from 2,151 nondiabetic French subjects, we identified rs1387153, near MTNR1B (which encodes the melatonin receptor 2 (MT2)), as a modulator of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; P = 1.3 x 10(-7)). In European populations, the rs1387153 T allele is associated with i...

  14. Design and properties of planar-type tunnel FETs using In0.53Ga0.47As/InxGa1-xAs/In0.53Ga0.47As quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, D.-H.; Ji, S.-M.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.

    2017-10-01

    Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (tunnel FETs) have been proposed using In0.53Ga0.47As/InxGa1-xAs/In0.53Ga0.47As Quantum Well (InxGa1-xAs QW) channels which improve their performance. It is expected in this structure that the high-In-content InxGa1-xAs QW layer with the lower bandgap can increase the tunneling current and resulting on-current (Ion), while the low-In-content In0.53Ga0.47As layer, where the source junction edge is mainly formed, can suppress the increase in the junction leakage current because of the higher bandgap. Considering the strain effect and the quantum confinement effect of the InxGa1-xAs QW layers, the In content and the QW thickness are designed carefully in terms of the reduction in the effective bandgap. The proposed tunnel FETs using the QW layers grown by Metal-organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy are fabricated, and the electrical and physical properties are systematically evaluated. It is found that the InxGa1-xAs QW can significantly enhance the performance of tunnel FETs. As expected in the calculation of the effective bandgap, the higher In content and thicker QW thickness lead to higher Ion, while the thinner QW thickness makes the sub-threshold swing (S.S.) steeper through the reduction in off-current (Ioff) and enhancement of carrier confinement. The minimum sub-threshold swing (S.S.min) of 62 mV/dec is obtained at VD = 150 mV for a tunnel FET with an In0.53Ga0.47As (2.6 nm)/In0.67Ga0.33 As (3.2 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As (96.3 nm) QW structure. Also, the highest Ion of 11 μA/μm at VD = 150 mV and VG = 1 V, which is 8.5 times higher than 1.3 μA/μm of a control In0.53Ga0.47As tunnel FET, is obtained for a tunnel FET with an In0.53Ga0.47As (2.2 nm)/InAs (6.3 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As (94.4 nm) QW structure. It is found that the InAs QW tunnel FETs with the InAs QW thicker than 5 nm significantly degrade by high junction leakage current attributed to the lattice relaxation.

  15. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Alice; Matthan, Nirupa R; Spartano, Nicole L; Butkowski, Ann E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-12-01

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat type on aortic cholesterol accumulation, lipoprotein profiles, hepatic lipids and selected genes. F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (20/group) were fed (12 weeks) semi-purified or non-purified diets containing either 10 % (w/w) coconut oil or safflower oil and 0.15 % (w/w) cholesterol. The non-purified diets relative to semi-purified diets resulted in significantly higher TC (72 % [percent difference] and 38 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) and nHDL-C (84 and 61 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively), and lower HDL-C (-47 and -45 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) concentrations. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the hamsters fed the non-purified coconut oil-supplemented diets were three- to fourfold higher than non-purified safflower oil-supplemented, and both semi-purified diets. With the exception of HDL-C, a significant effect of fat type was observed in TC, nHDL-C and triacylglycerol (all P cholesterol accumulation. There was an inverse relationship between plasma nHDL-C and triacylglycerol, and hepatic cholesteryl ester content (P cholesterol accumulation.

  16. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-10-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies.

  17. Plasma osteoprotegerin levels are inversely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: A case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yixin; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Zhen; Li, Xiaoyong; Fang, Wenjun; Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Suijun; Zhou, Houguang; Fan, Jiangao; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2016-04-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is a decoy receptor for the receptor activator of nucleus factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). OPG has an effect on systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. A case-control study was performed with 746 patients with type 2 diabetes. Of the study population, 367 patients had B-mode ultrasound-proven NAFLD and 379 were controls. The plasma OPG levels were measured using ELISA methods. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasound after the exclusion of alcohol abuse and other liver diseases. The OPG levels were significantly decreased in patients with NAFLD (2.3±1.1μg/L vs. 2.8±1.3μg/L, p=3.75×10(5)) compared to controls. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the OPG levels were associated with age and systolic blood pressure (both p<0.05). The participants in the lowest OPG quartile had a significantly increased risk for NAFLD (OR=3.49, 95% CI 1.86-6.94) after adjusting for potential cofounders. The plasma OPG level is negatively associated with NAFLD independent of potential cofounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ``Phantom'' Modes in Ab Initio Tunneling Calculations: Implications for Theoretical Materials Optimization, Tunneling, and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, Sergey V.; Pramanik, Dipankar

    2015-03-01

    Development of low-leakage dielectrics for semiconductor industry, together with many other areas of academic and industrial research, increasingly rely upon ab initio tunneling and transport calculations. Complex band structure (CBS) is a powerful formalism to establish the nature of tunneling modes, providing both a deeper understanding and a guided optimization of materials, with practical applications ranging from screening candidate dielectrics for lowest ``ultimate leakage'' to identifying charge-neutrality levels and Fermi level pinning. We demonstrate that CBS is prone to a particular type of spurious ``phantom'' solution, previously deemed true but irrelevant because of a very fast decay. We demonstrate that (i) in complex materials, phantom modes may exhibit very slow decay (appearing as leading tunneling terms implying qualitative and huge quantitative errors), (ii) the phantom modes are spurious, (iii) unlike the pseudopotential ``ghost'' states, phantoms are an apparently unavoidable artifact of large numerical basis sets, (iv) a presumed increase in computational accuracy increases the number of phantoms, effectively corrupting the CBS results despite the higher accuracy achieved in resolving the true CBS modes and the real band structure, and (v) the phantom modes cannot be easily separated from the true CBS modes. We discuss implications for direct transport calculations. The strategy for dealing with the phantom states is discussed in the context of optimizing high-quality high- κ dielectric materials for decreased tunneling leakage.

  19. Tunneling-percolation model of multicomponent nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sohan; Karimi, Pouyan; Sabet, Fereshteh A.; Jasiuk, Iwona; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Using a mixture of different types of fillers has been experimentally shown to improve the electrical conductivity of polymer nanocomposites beyond the weighted average due to synergistic effects. In this study, we develop a critical path analysis-based tunneling-percolation model for multicomponent systems of nanocomposites with ellipsoidal fillers. The nature of the interaction between different filler components is controlled by a key modeling parameter capturing the tunneling interactions between fillers. This generalization allows us to examine scenarios where the nature of a given type of filler can be varied continuously from an insulating-type to a conductive-type. The percolation behavior of two-component systems with a combination of prolate, oblate, and spherical fillers is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations for different relative volume fractions and nature of interactions while keeping the total volume fraction fixed. The simulation results are shown to be in semi-quantitative agreement with predictions made by the second-virial-approximation-based theories. Our results suggest that for multicomponent systems with well-dispersed fillers, the synergistic effects are linked directly with the nature of interactions between different filler types. Moreover, addition of prolate fillers to oblate or spherical fillers should generally improve the electrical conductivity of multicomponent nanocomposites.

  20. Plasma branched chain/aromatic amino acids, enriched Mediterranean diet and risk of type 2 diabetes: case-cohort study within the PREDIMED Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Toledo, Estefanía; Clish, Clary B; Razquin, Cristina; Liang, Liming; Wang, Dong D; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Hernáez, Álvaro; Yu, Edward; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Zheng, Yan; Arós, Fernando; Romaguera, Dora; Dennis, Courtney; Ros, Emilio; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Papandreou, Christopher; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Hu, Frank B; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2018-04-16

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) are associated with type 2 diabetes. However, repeated measurements of BCAA/AAA and their interactions with dietary interventions have not been evaluated. We investigated the associations between baseline and changes at 1 year in BCAA/AAA with type 2 diabetes in the context of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) trial. We included 251 participants with incident type 2 diabetes and a random sample of 694 participants (641 participants without type 2 diabetes and 53 overlapping cases) in a case-cohort study nested within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial. Participants were randomised to a MedDiet+extra-virgin olive oil (n = 273), a MedDiet+nuts (n = 324) or a control diet (n = 295). We used LC-MS/MS to measure plasma levels of amino acids. Type 2 diabetes was a pre-specified secondary outcome of the PREDIMED trial. Elevated plasma levels of individual BCAAs/AAAs were associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk after a median follow-up of 3.8 years: multivariable HR for the highest vs lowest quartile ranged from 1.32 for phenylalanine ([95% CI 0.90, 1.92], p for trend = 0.015) to 3.29 for leucine ([95% CI 2.03, 5.34], p for trend<0.001). Increases in BCAA score at 1 year were associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk in the control group with HR per SD = 1.61 (95% CI 1.02, 2.54), but not in the MedDiet groups (p for interaction <0.001). The MedDiet+extra-virgin olive oil significantly reduced BCAA levels after 1 year of intervention (p = 0.005 vs the control group). Our results support that higher baseline BCAAs and their increases at 1 year were associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk. A Mediterranean diet rich in extra-virgin olive oil significantly reduced the levels of BCAA and attenuated the positive association between plasma BCAA levels and type 2 diabetes incidence. Clinical trial number: SRCTN35739639 ( www.controlled-trials.com ).

  1. Plasma levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR and early mortality risk among patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangani Nonzwakazi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR have a strong independent association with HIV-1-related mortality. The practical utility of plasma suPAR in assessing short-term all-cause mortality risk was evaluated in patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART programme in South Africa. Methods An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to measure plasma concentrations of suPAR in patients at the time of enrolment to the ART programme. The association between plasma suPAR concentrations, baseline patient characteristics and cohort outcomes after 4 months of ART were determined. Results Patients (n = 293, 70% female had a median age of 33 years and were followed up for a median of 5 months from enrolment. The median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/μl (IQR = 22–72 and 38% of patients had WHO stage 4 disease. 218 (74% patients remained alive after 4 months of ART; 39 (13% died and 36 (12% were lost to the programme for other reasons. Patients who died had significantly higher plasma suPAR concentrations compared to those who either survived (P 10 suPAR concentrations were significantly associated with lower CD4 cell counts, WHO clinical stage 4 disease and male sex. In multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with death, log10 suPAR concentration was the most strongly associated variable (P Conclusion Plasma suPAR concentration was the strongest independent predictor of short-term mortality risk among patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in this ART programme. However, lack of a discriminatory threshold did not permit this marker to be used to triage patients according to short-term mortality risk.

  2. Interferon-α is the primary plasma type-I IFN in HIV-1 infection and correlates with immune activation and disease markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth A D Hardy

    Full Text Available Type-I interferon (IFN-I has been increasingly implicated in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Various studies have shown elevated IFN-I and an IFN-I-induced gene and protein expression signature in HIV-1 infection, yet the elevated IFN-I species has not been conclusively identified, its source remains obscure and its role in driving HIV-1 pathogenesis is controversial. We assessed IFN-I species in plasma by ELISAs and bioassay, and we investigated potential sources of IFN-I in blood and lymph node tissue by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we measured the effect of therapeutic administration of IFNα in HCV-infected subjects to model the effect of IFNα on chronic immune activation. IFN-I bioactivity was significantly increased in plasma of untreated HIV-1-infected subjects relative to uninfected subjects (p = 0.012, and IFNα was the predominant IFN-I subtype correlating with IFN-I bioactivity (r = 0.658, p<0.001. IFNα was not detectable in plasma of subjects receiving anti-retroviral therapy. Elevated expression of IFNα mRNA was limited to lymph node tissue cells, suggesting that peripheral blood leukocytes are not a major source of IFNα in untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Plasma IFN-I levels correlated inversely with CD4 T cell count (p = 0.003 and positively with levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD38 expression on CD8 T cells (p = 0.009. In hepatitis C virus-infected subjects, treatment with IFN-I and ribavirin increased expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells (p = 0.003. These studies identify IFNα derived from lymph nodes, rather than blood leukocytes, as a possible source of the IFN-I signature that contributes to immune activation in HIV-1 infection.

  3. Niemann-Pick Type C-2 Disease: Identification by Analysis of Plasma Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-Triol and Further Insight into the Clinical Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunert, J; Lotz-Havla, A S; Polo, G; Kannenberg, F; Fobker, M; Griese, M; Mengel, E; Muntau, A C; Schnabel, P; Sommerburg, O; Borggraefe, I; Dardis, A; Burlina, A P; Mall, M A; Ciana, G; Bembi, B; Burlina, A B; Marquardt, T

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease is a rare disorder caused by impaired intracellular lipid transport due to mutations in either the NPC1 or the NPC2 gene. Ninety-five % of NPC patients show mutations in the NPC1 gene. A much smaller number of patients suffer from NPC2 disease and present respiratory failure as one of the most frequent symptoms. Several plasma oxysterols are highly elevated in NPC1 and can be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of NPC1. Plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol was evaluated as biomarker for NPC2 by GC/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The diagnosis was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and filipin staining. We report three NPC2 patients with typical respiratory problems and a detailed description of the nature of the lung disease in one of them. All patients had elevated levels of plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol. In two of these patients, the positive oxysterol result led to a rapid diagnosis of NPC2 by genetic analysis. The phenotype of the third patient has been described previously. In this patient a cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol concentration markedly above the reference range was found. Measurement of plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol enables to discriminate between controls and NPC1 and NPC2 patients, making it a valuable biomarker for the rapid diagnosis not only for NPC1 but also for NPC2 disease.The measurement of oxysterols should be well kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lysosomal diseases, as the elevation of oxysterols in plasma may speed up the diagnosis of NPC1 and NPC2.

  4. Plasma Pro-C3 (N-terminal type III collagen propeptide) predicts fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette J.; Veidal, Sanne S.; Karsdal, Morten A.

    2015-01-01

    of helical collagen type III degradation (C3M), in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHOD: Pro-C3 and C3M were measured by ELISA in plasma from CHC patients (n = 194) from a prior phase II antifibrotic trial (NCT00244751). Plasma samples and paired liver biopsies were obtained at baseline and after 1.......021) compared to group 0. No significant differences were observed for C3M. In multivariate analysis, only baseline Pro-C3, but not FibroTest, had an independent association with fibrosis progression. CONCLUSIONS: Pro-C3 is a useful test to predict fibrogenesis and monitor disease progression. Moreover......, it could differentiate mild from moderate disease. Pro-C3 may become a promising blood parameter be included in future studies for monitoring disease progression and eventually for evaluation of potential antifibrotic therapies....

  5. Serum Trace Elements and Electrolytes Are Associated with Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Yurasov, Vasily V; Demidov, Vasily A; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Radysh, Ivan V; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of the research was to assess the level of trace elements and electrolytes in serum of postmenopausal diabetic women. Sixty-four postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 64 age- and body mass index-matched controls were examined. Serum trace elements were assessed using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels were evaluated using Randox kits. The obtained data demonstrate that DM2 patients were characterized by 42 and 34 % higher FPG and HbA 1c levels, respectively (p women was increased by 10 and 15 % in comparison to the respective control values (p = 0.002 and DM2 pathogenesis. Further studies are required to assess the intimate mechanisms of the observed differences.

  6. High Current Density InAsSb/GaSb Tunnel Field Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Anil; Borg, Mattias; Ganjipour, Bahram; Ek, Martin; Dick Thelander, Kimberly; Lind, Erik; Nilsson, Peter; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Steep-slope devices, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), have recently gained interest due to their potential for low power operation at room temperature. The devices are based on inter-band tunneling which could limit the on-current since the charge carriers must tunnel through a barrier to traverse the device. The InAs/GaSb heterostructure forms a broken type II band alignment which enables inter-band tunneling without a barrier, allowing high on-currents. We ha...

  7. Shortcomings of the Winkler Model in the Assessment of Sectioned Tunnels under Seismic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Lyngs, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    A Winkler-type model is often applied in the design of tunnels subject to seismic loading. Since the subgrade stiffness is modelled by disjoint springs, distributed continuously along the tunnel, the model does not account for retroaction via the soil. This may not be a problem in the design of t......-element solution, using a planned tunnel at Thessaloniki, Greece, as a case study. The aim of the analysis is to quantify the inaccuracy of the Winkler model in the prediction of damage at a gasket between two tunnel elements....

  8. Tunneling decay in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpee, T.; Dykman, M.I.; Platzman, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    We provide a semiclassical theory of tunneling decay in a magnetic field and a three-dimensional potential of a general form. Because of broken time-reversal symmetry, the standard WKB technique has to be modified. The decay rate is found from the analysis of the Hamilton trajectories of the particle in complex phase space and time. In a magnetic field, the tunneling particle comes from beneath the barrier with a nonzero velocity. The exit location in the classically allowed region is obtained by matching the decaying and outgoing branches of the WKB wave function on a caustic of the set of the complex trajectories. The slope of the logarithm of the wave function sharply changes on the anti-Stokes surface where there occurs switching between different WKB branches. For potential wells that are parabolic near the minimum, we also provide a bounce-type formulation. The theory is applied to the models that are relevant to tunneling from correlated two-dimensional electron systems in a magnetic field parallel to the electron layer

  9. Tunnel fire testing and modeling the Morgex North tunnel experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Borghetti, Fabio; Gandini, Paolo; Frassoldati, Alessio; Tavelli, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to cast light on all aspects of tunnel fires, based on experimental activities and theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. In particular, the authors describe a transient full-scale fire test (~15 MW), explaining how they designed and performed the experimental activity inside the Morgex North tunnel in Italy. The entire organization of the experiment is described, from preliminary evaluations to the solutions found for management of operational difficulties and safety issues. This fire test allowed the collection of different measurements (temperature, air velocity, smoke composition, pollutant species) useful for validating and improving CFD codes and for testing the real behavior of the tunnel and its safety systems during a diesel oil fire with a significant heat release rate. Finally, the fire dynamics are compared with empirical correlations, CFD simulations, and literature measurements obtained in other similar tunnel fire tests. This book will be of interest to all ...

  10. Charged Fermions Tunneling from a Rotating Charged Black Hole in 5-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiling; Lin Rong; Wang Chuanyin

    2010-01-01

    Recent research shows that Hawking radiation from black hole horizon can be treated as a quantum tunneling process, and fermions tunneling method can successfully recover Hawking temperature. In this tunneling framework, choosing a set of appropriate matrices γ μ is an important technique for fermions tunneling method. In this paper, motivated by Kerner and Man's fermions tunneling method of 4 dimension black holes, we further improve the analysis to investigate Hawking tunneling radiation from a rotating charged black hole in 5-dimensional gauged supergravity by constructing a set of appropriate matrices γ μ for general covariant Dirac equation. Finally, the expected Hawking temperature of the black hole is correctly recovered, which takes the same form as that obtained by other methods. This method is universal, and can also be directly extend to the other different-type 5-dimensional charged black holes.

  11. Reliability of modified tunneling barriers for high performance nonvolatile charge trap flash memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Goon-Ho; Cho, Won-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Charge trap flash memory devices with modified tunneling barriers were fabricated using the tunneling barrier engineering technique. Variable oxide thickness (VARIOT) barrier and CRESTED barrier consisting of thin SiO2 and Si3N4 dielectric layers were used as engineered tunneling barriers. High-k dielectrics were used as charge trapping and blocking oxide layer to improve the program/erase speed. The VARIOT type tunneling barrier composed of oxide-nitride-oxide layers revealed reliable electrical characteristics; long retention time and superior endurance. On the other hand, the CRESTED tunneling barrier composed of nitride-oxide-nitride (NON) layers showed degraded retention and endurance characteristics. It is found that the degradation of NON barrier is associated with the increase in interface state density at tunneling barrier/silicon channel by programming and erasing (P/E) stress.

  12. Shortcomings of the Winkler model in the Assessment of Sectioned Tunnels under Seismic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Lyngs, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    A Winkler-type model is often applied in the design of tunnels subject to seismic loading. Since the subgrade stiffness is modelled by disjoint springs, distributed continuously along the tunnel, the model does not account for retroaction via the soil. This may not be a problem in the design...... of tunnels with a uniform cross section. However, for sectioned tunnels divided into a number of elements, erroneous results may be expected-especially regarding the relative deformations at the joints. In this paper, the results of a Winkler model are compared with a full three-dimensional continuum finite......-element solution, using a planned tunnel at Thessaloniki, Greece, as a case study. The aim of the analysis is to quantify the inaccuracy of the Winkler model in the prediction of damage at a gasket between two tunnel elements....

  13. Shortcomings of the Winkler Model in the Assessment of Sectioned Tunnels under Seismic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Lyngs, Jakob Hausgaard

    A Winkler-type model is often applied in the design of tunnels subject to seismic loading. Since the subgrade stiffness is modelled by disjoint springs, distributed continuously along the tunnel, the model does not account for retroaction via the soil. This may not be a problem in the design...... of tunnels with a uniform cross section. However, for sectioned tunnels divided into a number of elements, erroneous results may be expected-especially regarding the relative deformations at the joints. In this paper, the results of aWinkler model are compared with a full three-dimensional continuum finite......-element solution, using a planned tunnel at Thessaloniki, Greece, as a case study. The aim of the analysis is to quantify the inaccuracy of the Winkler model in the prediction of damage at a gasket between two tunnel elements....

  14. KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    An underground research tunnel is essential to validate the integrity of a high-level waste disposal system, and the safety of geological disposal. In this study, KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) was constructed in the site of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The results of the site investigation and the design of underground tunnel were presented. The procedure for the construction permits and the construction of KURT were described briefly. The in-situ experiments being carried out at KURT were also introduced

  15. Tunneling Ionization of Diatomic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Jens Søren Sieg

    2016-01-01

    When a molecule is subject to a strong laser field, there is a probability that an electron can escape, even though the electrons are bound by a large potential barrier. This is possible because electrons are quantum mechanical in nature, and they are therefore able to tunnel through potential...... of tunneling ionizaion of molecules is presented and the results of numerical calculations are shown. One perhaps surprising result is, that the frequently used Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down for weak fields when describing tunneling ionization. An analytic theory applicable in the weak-field limit...

  16. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large wind tunnels simulating the actual flight conditions as nearly as possible. Often, several wind tunnels ... wind tunnel tests can be 'scaled' to the actual velocity and actual body size using suitable scaling laws. A typical wind tunnel consists ofa test section ... tion and control positions. Some of this instrumentation like six.

  17. 78 FR 46117 - National Tunnel Inspection Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The Fort McHenry Tunnel handles a daily traffic volume of more than... vehicular, transit, and rail tunnels in the New York City metropolitan area. Although it is still too early... congestion along alternative routes, and save users both dollars and fuel. If these tunnels were closed due...

  18. The metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed greater differences between patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls than those in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Han, Ji Yun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-03-01

    To determine differences between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the plasma metabolites in patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In all, 65 nononobese patients (aged 30-70 years) with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and 65 nonobese sex-matched healthy controls were included, and fasting peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma metabolomes were profiled. The diabetic or impaired fasting glucose patients showed higher circulating and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α than controls. Compared with controls, impaired fasting glucose or diabetic subjects showed increases in 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolites: six amino acids (valine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), l-pyroglutamic acid, two fatty acid amides containing palmitic amide and oleamide and two lysophosphatidylcholines. In impaired fasting glucose or diabetic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 positively associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysophosphatidylcholines and circulating inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities. In plasma metabolites between patients and healthy controls, we observed significant increases in only three amino acids (proline, valine and leucine) and decreases in only five lysophosphatidylcholines. This study demonstrates significant differences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolome in patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes compared with healthy controls. These differences were greater than those observed in the plasma metabolome. These data suggest peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a useful tool to better understand the inflammatory pathophysiology of diabetes.

  19. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmire, W.H.; Munzer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation

  20. Railway Tunnel Clearance Inspection Method Based on 3D Point Cloud from Mobile Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhui; Wang, Shaohua; Mei, Xi; Yin, Wangling; Lin, Chunfeng; Mao, Qingzhou

    2017-01-01

    Railway tunnel clearance is directly related to the safe operation of trains and upgrading of freight capacity. As more and more railway are put into operation and the operation is continuously becoming faster, the railway tunnel clearance inspection should be more precise and efficient. In view of the problems existing in traditional tunnel clearance inspection methods, such as low density, slow speed and a lot of manual operations, this paper proposes a tunnel clearance inspection approach based on 3D point clouds obtained by a mobile laser scanning system (MLS). First, a dynamic coordinate system for railway tunnel clearance inspection has been proposed. A rail line extraction algorithm based on 3D linear fitting is implemented from the segmented point cloud to establish a dynamic clearance coordinate system. Second, a method to seamlessly connect all rail segments based on the railway clearance restrictions, and a seamless rail alignment is formed sequentially from the middle tunnel section to both ends. Finally, based on the rail alignment and the track clearance coordinate system, different types of clearance frames are introduced for intrusion operation with the tunnel section to realize the tunnel clearance inspection. By taking the Shuanghekou Tunnel of the Chengdu–Kunming Railway as an example, when the clearance inspection is carried out by the method mentioned herein, its precision can reach 0.03 m, and difference types of clearances can be effectively calculated. This method has a wide application prospects. PMID:28880232

  1. Railway Tunnel Clearance Inspection Method Based on 3D Point Cloud from Mobile Laser Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhui; Wang, Shaohua; Mei, Xi; Yin, Wangling; Lin, Chunfeng; Hu, Qingwu; Mao, Qingzhou

    2017-09-07

    Railway tunnel clearance is directly related to the safe operation of trains and upgrading of freight capacity. As more and more railway are put into operation and the operation is continuously becoming faster, the railway tunnel clearance inspection should be more precise and efficient. In view of the problems existing in traditional tunnel clearance inspection methods, such as low density, slow speed and a lot of manual operations, this paper proposes a tunnel clearance inspection approach based on 3D point clouds obtained by a mobile laser scanning system (MLS). First, a dynamic coordinate system for railway tunnel clearance inspection has been proposed. A rail line extraction algorithm based on 3D linear fitting is implemented from the segmented point cloud to establish a dynamic clearance coordinate system. Second, a method to seamlessly connect all rail segments based on the railway clearance restrictions, and a seamless rail alignment is formed sequentially from the middle tunnel section to both ends. Finally, based on the rail alignment and the track clearance coordinate system, different types of clearance frames are introduced for intrusion operation with the tunnel section to realize the tunnel clearance inspection. By taking the Shuanghekou Tunnel of the Chengdu-Kunming Railway as an example, when the clearance inspection is carried out by the method mentioned herein, its precision can reach 0.03 m, and difference types of clearances can be effectively calculated. This method has a wide application prospects.

  2. Relationship of plasma apolipoprotein M with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 levels in non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelle, Paul J W H; Lambert, Gilles; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2011-01-01

    M is related to PCSK9 levels in subjects with varying degrees of obesity. METHODS: We sought correlations between plasma apoM and PCSK9, measured using recently developed ELISAs, in 79 non-diabetic subjects. RESULTS: ApoM and PCSK9 levels were both correlated positively with total cholesterol, non-HDL...... cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoB (P correlated positively with PCSK9 in lean individuals (n = 37, r = 0.337, P = 0.041), but not in overweight subjects (n = 32, r = 0.125, P = 0.50) and in obese subjects (n = 10, r = -0.055, P = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: The PCSK9 pathway may...... contribute to plasma apoM regulation in humans. The influence of PCSK9 on circulating apoM appears to be modified by adiposity...

  3. Characterization of surface hardening in a nitrated chromium steel by microwave plasma type ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La O C, G. de.

    1995-01-01

    With this work it is demonstrated the possibility of performing the nitriding process by using a CVD-ECR source, based on the results obtained after treating several samples of AISI H-12 steel. Also, the main operating parameters (time of treatment, sample temperatures and gas mixture) are determined during nitriding of this steel with the mentioned source. Samples used before nitriding were quenched and tempered at 580 Centigrade degrees. Several experiments were done by using a pure nitrogen plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20 minutes at temperatures from 450 to 550 Centigrade degrees, and by using a N 2 - H 2 plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20, 30 and 40 minutes at temperatures from 350 to 550 Centigrade degrees. Metallography, microhardness, EDS and Auger analysis were done to observe changes suffered for the samples after treatment. (Author)

  4. Tunnel boring waste test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, J.G.

    1984-03-01

    The test plan has been prepared in anticipation of the need to excavate certain repository openings by relying upon mechanical excavation techniques. The test plan proposes that specific technical issues can be resolved and key design parameters defined by excavating openings in basalt near the surface, utilizing a full face tunnel boring machine (TBM). The purpose and objective of this type of testing will define the overall feasibility and attributes of mechanical excavation in basalt. The test plan recognizes that although this technology is generally available for underground construction for some geologic settings, the current state of technology for excavation in basalt is limited and the potential for improvement is considerable. The test plan recommends that it is economically advantageous to conduct additional testing in the laboratory to allow refinement of this plan based on the laboratory results. Thus, this test plan is considered preliminary in nature, with respect to detailed testing recommendations. However, the gross design attributes and resource requirements of a near-surface TBM demonstration are considered to be valid. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Optical and electrical characterization at the nanoscale with a transparent probe of a scanning tunnelling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychugov, Ilya; Omi, Hiroo; Murashita, Tooru; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    A new type of scanning probe microscope, combining features of the scanning tunnelling microscope, the scanning tunnelling luminescence microscope with a transparent probe and the aperture scanning near-field optical microscope, is described. Proof-of-concept experiments were performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at varying temperature on GaAs/AlAs heterostructures.

  6. Crossover from quantum tunneling to classical hopping of domain walls in ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Pu, Fu-Cho

    2001-09-01

    In the model of quantum tunneling of domain walls in ferromagnets given by Chudnovsky et al., the crossover from quantum tunneling to classical hopping is investigated. Considering the periodical boundary condition of spatial coordinate, the type of transition depends critically on the length of ferromagnet along the Y-axis.

  7. Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 is an independent predictor of coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Inubushi, Masayuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Furumoto, Tomoo; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-01-01

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is related to cardiovascular events, but its role in subclinical coronary microvascular dysfunction remains unknown. Thus, in the present study it was investigated whether elevated plasma PAI-1 activity is associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertensive patients. Thirty patients with untreated essential hypertension and 10 age-matched healthy controls were studied prospectively. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography. Clinical variables associated with atherosclerosis (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), and PAI-1 activity) were assessed to determine their involvement in coronary microvascular dysfunction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced hyperemic MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were significantly lower in hypertensive patients than in healthy controls (ATP-induced MBF: 2.77±0.82 vs 3.49±0.71 ml·g -1 ·min -1 ; p<0.02 and CFR: 2.95±1.06 vs 4.25±0.69; p<0.001). By univariate analysis, CFR was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.46, p<0.02), and inversely with HOMA-IR (r=-0.39, p<0.05) and PAI-1 activity (r=-0.61, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, elevated PAI-1 activity remained a significant independent determinant of diminished CFR. Elevated plasma PAI-1 activity was independently associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction, which suggests that plasma PAI-1 activity is an important clue linking hypofibrinolysis to the development of atherosclerosis. (author)

  8. Destructive quantum interference in spin tunneling problems

    OpenAIRE

    von Delft, Jan; Henley, Christopher L.

    1992-01-01

    In some spin tunneling problems, there are several different but symmetry-related tunneling paths that connect the same initial and final configurations. The topological phase factors of the corresponding tunneling amplitudes can lead to destructive interference between the different paths, so that the total tunneling amplitude is zero. In the study of tunneling between different ground state configurations of the Kagom\\'{e}-lattice quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, this occurs when the spi...

  9. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  10. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  11. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  12. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  13. Plasma metabolites associated with type 2 diabetes in a Swedish population: a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Brunius, Carl; Lehtonen, Marko; Auriola, Seppo; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Rolandsson, Olov; Hanhineva, Kati; Landberg, Rikard

    2018-04-01

    The aims of the present work were to identify plasma metabolites that predict future type 2 diabetes, to investigate the changes in identified metabolites among individuals who later did or did not develop type 2 diabetes over time, and to assess the extent to which inclusion of predictive metabolites could improve risk prediction. We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Using untargeted liquid chromatography-MS metabolomics, we analysed plasma samples from 503 case-control pairs at baseline (a median time of 7 years prior to diagnosis) and samples from a subset of 187 case-control pairs at 10 years of follow-up. Discriminative metabolites between cases and controls at baseline were optimally selected using a multivariate data analysis pipeline adapted for large-scale metabolomics. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between discriminative metabolites and future type 2 diabetes, adjusting for several known risk factors. Reproducibility of identified metabolites was estimated by intra-class correlation over the 10 year period among the subset of healthy participants; their systematic changes over time in relation to diagnosis among those who developed type 2 diabetes were investigated using mixed models. Risk prediction performance of models made from different predictors was evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, discrimination improvement index and net reclassification index. We identified 46 predictive plasma metabolites of type 2 diabetes. Among novel findings, phosphatidylcholines (PCs) containing odd-chain fatty acids (C19:1 and C17:0) and 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate were associated with the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes; we also confirmed previously identified predictive biomarkers. Identified metabolites strongly correlated with insulin resistance and/or beta cell dysfunction. Of 46 identified

  14. CEBAF: Injector tunnel in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    On 28 October, a 100 kV DC electron beam was generated in the injector tunnel at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) being constructed at Newport News, Virginia. In this first tunnel operation, the beam was transported from the electron gun via the room-temperature section to the injector's first superconducting section (5 MeV). The gun and beam steering subsystems behaved as designed, under control from the main control centre

  15. Quantum resonances in physical tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.; Truax, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been emphasized that the probability of quantum tunneling is a critical function of the shape of the potential. Applying this observation to physical systems, we point out that in principal information on potential surfaces can be obtained by studying tunneling rates. This is especially true in cases where only spectral data is known, since many potentials yield the same spectrum. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  16. Higher plasma levels of advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low-gr......-related pathophysiological mechanisms. Thus, AGEs may explain, in part, the increased cardiovascular disease and mortality attributable to type 1 diabetes and constitute a specific target for treatment in these patients.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low......-grade inflammation, and arterial stiffness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 169 individuals with diabetic nephropathy and 170 individuals with persistent normoalbuminuria who were free of CVD at study entry and in whom levels of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N...

  17. Effective hard x-ray spectrum of a tabletop Mather-type plasma focus optimized for flash radiography of metallic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, V.; Moreno, C.; Sigaut, L.; Clausse, A.

    2007-12-01

    The effective spectrum of the hard x-ray output of a Mather-type tabletop plasma focus device was determined from attenuation data on metallic samples using commercial radiographic film coupled to a Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor intensifier screen. It was found that the radiation has relevant spectral components in the 40-150 keV range, with a single maximum around 60-80 keV. The radiation output allows for 50 ns resolution, good contrast, and introspective imaging of metallic objects even through metallic walls. A numerical estimation of the induced voltage on the focus during the compressional stage is briefly discussed.

  18. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  19. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A. [High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  20. Resonant tunneling diode oscillators for optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott; Zhang, Weikang; Wang, Jue; Al-Khalidi, Abdullah; Cantu, Horacio; Figueiredo, Jose; Wasige, Edward; Kelly, Anthony E.

    2017-08-01

    The ability to use resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) as both transmitters and receivers is an emerging topic, especially with regards to wireless communications. Successful data transmission has been achieved using electronic RTDs with carrier frequencies exceeding 0.3 THz. Specific optical-based RTDs, which act as photodetectors, have been developed by adjusting the device structure to include a light absorption layer and small optical windows on top of the device to allow direct optical access. This also allows the optical signal to directly modulate the RTD oscillation. Both types of RTD oscillators will allow for seamless integration of high frequency radio and optical fiber networks.

  1. Plasma extracellular superoxide dismutase concentration, allelic variations in the SOD3 gene and risk of myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedi, Kamel; Bellili-Muñoz, Naïma; Marklund, Stefan L; Driss, Fathi; Le Nagard, Hervé; Patente, Thiago A; Fumeron, Frédéric; Roussel, Ronan; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Velho, Gilberto

    2015-01-15

    Oxidative stress is involved in development of diabetes complications. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, SOD3) is a major extracellular antioxidant enzyme and is highly expressed in arterial walls. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and 8-iso-prostaglandin (isoprostane) are markers of oxidative stress. We investigated association of SOD3 gene variants, plasma concentrations of EC-SOD, AOPP and isoprostane with myocardial infarction and mortality in diabetic patients. We studied three cohorts designed to evaluate the vascular complications of diabetes: the GENEDIAB study (469 participants with type 1 diabetes at baseline; follow-up data for 259 participants), the GENESIS study (603 participants with type 1 diabetes at baseline; follow-up data for 525 participants) and the DIABHYCAR study (3137 participants with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up). Duration of follow-up was 9, 5, and 5 years, respectively. Main outcome measures were incidence of myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular and total mortality during follow-up. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SOD3 locus were genotyped in the three cohorts. Plasma concentrations of EC-SOD, AOPP, and isoprostane were measured in baseline samples of GENEDIAB participants. In GENEDIAB/GENESIS pooled cohorts, the minor T-allele of rs2284659 variant was inversely associated with the prevalence at baseline (Odds Ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.78, p = 0.004) and the incidence during follow-up of myocardial infarction (Hazard Ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83, p = 0.003) and with cardiovascular (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.08-0.74, p = 0.004) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.73, p = 0.0006). The protective allele was associated with higher plasma EC-SOD and lower plasma AOPP concentrations in GENEDIAB. It was also inversely associated with incidence of myocardial infarction (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.94, p = 0.01) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97, p = 0

  2. Study of a recombination X-ray laser scheme in a H-like nitrogen plasma created by optical field induced ionization; Etude de la faisabilite d'un laser X en recombinaison dans un plasma d'azote hydrogenoide cree par effet tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulin, S

    2001-07-01

    Thanks to their high brightness and short wavelength, X ray lasers are interesting diagnostics in many experiments because they can efficiently probe dense plasmas. Furthermore their mono-chromaticity and collimation make them interesting tools in plasma physics but also in many biology or chemistry experiments. The effective use of this diagnostic is mainly depending on its dimensions and cost. For this reason, research on X ray laser is now focused on the reduction of cost and the realization of table-top facilities. One of these research axis, based on the optical field induced ionization (OFI) of the plasma, is presented in this work. An ultra-short (60 fs) high-brightness (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) Ti:Sapphire (790 nm) laser is focused into a nitrogen pulsed gas jet. A dense (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) plasma of fully stripped nitrogen is created by the way. During the fast recombination of the plasma some population inversions between levels of principal quantum number 2 and 1 (2.4 nm) and 3 and 2 (13.4 nm) can occur depending on the plasma parameters. The creation of the plasma by OFI, laser-plasma interaction dominated by relativistic self-focusing, and recombination dynamics are studied by numerical simulations on one hand and experiments on the other hand. Temperature measurements and numerical simulations show a strong heating, destructive for the laser scheme, which can be explained by Raman instability growing. Nevertheless plasma X ray emission in the 2-20 nm range show a strong increase with the electronic density of the 13.4 nm line intensity. This behavior is consistent with a laser effect but is not detected on the 2.4 nm transition line. (author)

  3. Hormone therapy with tamoxifen reduces plasma levels of NT-B-type natriuretic peptide but does not change ventricular ejection fraction after chemotherapy in women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B. Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen on the plasma concentration of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer and to correlate changes in NT-proBNP with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Over a period of 12 months, we followed 60 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer. The patients were separated into a group that received only chemotherapy (n=23, a group that received chemotherapy + tamoxifen (n=21, and a group that received only tamoxifen (n=16. Plasma levels of NT-proBNP were assessed at 0 (T0, 6 (T6, and 12 (T12 months of treatment, and echocardiography data were assessed at T0 and T12. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were increased in the chemotherapy-only group at T6 and T12, whereas elevated NT-proBNP levels were only found at T6 in the chemotherapy + tamoxifen group. At T12, the chemotherapy + tamoxifen group exhibited a significant reduction in the peptide to levels similar to the group that received tamoxifen alone. The chemotherapy-only group exhibited a significant decrease in LVEF at T12, whereas the chemotherapy + tamoxifen and tamoxifen-only groups maintained levels similar to those at the beginning of treatment. Treatment with tamoxifen for 6 months after chemotherapy significantly reduced the plasma levels of NT-proBNP and did not change LVEF in women with breast cancer.

  4. One-hour and two-hour postload plasma glucose concentrations are comparable predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southwestern Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Ethan; Hohenadel, Maximilian G; Piaggi, Paolo; Vijayakumar, Pavithra; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Krakoff, Jonathan; Chang, Douglas C

    2017-09-01

    Elevated 2-h plasma glucose concentration (2 h-PG) during a 75 g OGTT predict the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, 1-h plasma glucose concentration (1 h-PG) is associated with insulin secretion and may be a better predictor of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the association between 1 h-PG and 2 h-PG using gold standard methods for measuring insulin secretion and action. We also compared 1 h-PG and 2 h-PG as predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This analysis included adult volunteers without diabetes, predominantly Native Americans of Southwestern heritage, who were involved in a longitudinal epidemiological study from 1965 to 2007, with a baseline OGTT that included measurement of 1 h-PG. Group 1 (n = 716) underwent an IVGTT and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp for measurement of acute insulin response (AIR) and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (M), respectively. Some members of Group 1 (n = 490 of 716) and members of a second, larger, group (Group 2; n = 1946) were followed-up to assess the development of type 2 diabetes (median 9.0 and 12.8 years follow-up, respectively). Compared with 2 h-PG (r = -0.281), 1 h-PG (r = -0.384) was more closely associated with AIR, whereas, compared with 1 h-PG (r = -0.340), 2 h-PG (r = -0.408) was more closely associated with M. Measures of 1 h-PG and 2 h-PG had similar abilities to predict type 2 diabetes, which did not change when both were included in the model. A 1 h-PG cut-off of 9.3 mmol/l provided similar levels of sensitivity and specificity as a 2 h-PG cut-off of 7.8 mmol/l; the latter is used to define impaired glucose tolerance, a recognised predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The 1 h-PG was associated with important physiological predictors of type 2 diabetes and was as effective as 2 h-PG for predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus. The 1 h-PG is, therefore, an alternative method of identifying individuals with an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes

  5. Electroluminescence from single nanowires by tunnel injection: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmler, Mariano A.; Bao, Jiming; Shalish, Ilan; Yi, Wei; Yoon, Joonah; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh; Capasso, Federico

    2007-01-01

    We present a hybrid light-emitting diode structure composed of an n-type gallium nitride nanowire on a p-type silicon substrate in which current is injected along the length of the nanowire. The device emits ultraviolet light under both bias polarities. Tunnel-injection of holes from the p-type substrate (under forward bias) and from the metal (under reverse bias) through thin native oxide barriers consistently explains the observed electroluminescence behaviour. This work shows that the stan...

  6. Analysis of an underground structure settlement risk due to tunneling- A case study from Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Vahdatirad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The tunnel of the Tabriz urban railway line 2 (TURL2, Iran, will pass through an underground commercial center onits way. Too little distance between the tunnel crown and the underground structure foundation will probably cause collapseor excessive settlement during the tunnel construction based on studied geotechnical conditions of the region. In this paper,a method of risk level assessment for various types of structures, such as frame and masonry structures, and various typesof foundation, such as continuous and isolated, is well defined and the risk level is classified. Moreover, the value of theunderground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlementrisk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification ofvarious types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes in this section need a special monitoring system and consolidationmeasures before the passage of a tunnel boring machine.

  7. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  8. Theory of superconducting tunneling without the tunneling Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    When a tunneling barrier is nearly transparent, the standard tunneling (or transfer) Hamiltonian approximation fails. The author describes the theory which is necessary for calculating the tunneling current in these cases, and illustrate it by comparing theory and experiment on superconductor/insulator/superconductor (SIS) junctions have ultra-thin tunnel barriers. This theory accurately explains the subgap structure which appears in the dynamical resistance of such SIS junctions, including many observed details which no previous theory has reproduced. The expression for the current through an SIS junction with an ultrathin barrier is given by I(t) = Re{Sigma/sub n/ J/sub n/ (omega/sub o/)e/sup in omega/o/sup t/} where omega/sub o/ = 2eV/h is the Josephson frequency, V is the bias voltage, and the J/sub n/ are voltage dependent coefficients, one for each positive or negative integer, n, and n=0. The relative sign of the terms involving cos(n omega/sub o/t) and sin(n omega/sub o/t) agrees with experiment, in contrast to previous theories of Josephson tunneling

  9. Tunneling Negative Magnetoresistance via δ Doping in a Graphene-Based Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jian-Hui; Chen Ni; Mo Hua; Zhang Yan; Zhang Zhi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance via δ doping in a graphene-based magnetic tunnel junction in detail. It is found that the transmission probability and the conductance oscillates with the position and the aptitude of the δ doping. Also, both the transmission probability and the conductance at the parallel configuration are suppressed by the magnetic field more obviously than that at the antiparallel configuration, which implies a large negative magnetoresistance for this device. The results show that the negative magnetoresistance of over 300% at B = 1.0 T is observed by choosing suitable doped parameters, and the temperature plays an important role in the magnetoresistance. Thus it is possible to open a way to effectively manipulate the magnetoresistance devices, and to make a type of magnetoresistance device by controlling the structural parameter of the δ doping. (paper)

  10. The effect of endurance training with cinnamon supplementation on plasma concentrations of liver enzymes (ALT, AST in women with type II diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Torabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is associated with many pathological changes and one of the most important consequences of the diabetes is hepatic injury. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of eight weeks endurance training with consumption of cinnamon supplementation on plasma concentrations of liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST in women with type II diabetes. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 36 female volunteers with type II diabetes (age 52.72±2.64 years and body mass index 29.28±2.94 Kg/m2 were participated. The subjects were homogenized regarding their body mass index and then were divided randomly into four groups (each group=9 patients: Training, training-cinnamon, cinnamon, and Control. Endurance training was performed for eight weeks (three sessions per week at the intensity of 60-75% of maximum heart rate for 40-60 minutes. The consumption of cinnamon supplementation was 1.5 gr per day. Plasma concentrations of ALT and AST were measured following 12 hours fasting, 48 hours before and after performing the experiment, by the enzymatic method. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and factorial ANOVA, using SPSS version 21 (Chicago, IL, USA and at the significant level of P0.05. There was no significant difference between groups in pre and posttests. Conclusion: The results confirm that cinnamon supplementation may be effective in improving the plasma levels of ALT but the intensity and duration of an effective exercise training especially with consumption of cinnamon supplementation simultaneously need more study in diabetic patients.

  11. Correlation and association between plasma platelet-, monocyte- and endothelial cell-derived microparticles in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shosaku; Inami, Norihito; Shouzu, Akira; Urase, Fumiaki; Maeda, Yasuhiro

    2009-09-01

    Elevated platelet-derived mircoparticles (MP) (PDMP), endothelial cell-derived MP (EDMP), and monocyte-derived MP (MDMP) concentrations are documented in almost all thrombotic diseases. However, the intricate interactions between PDMP, MDMP and EDMP in hypertensive patients with or without type 2 diabetes remains poorly understood. Therefore, to clarify the correlation and association of MPs, we measured and analysed the levels of MPs in 359 hypertensive patients. We compared the results of chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, platelet activation markers and microparticles in hypertensive patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of all markers were significantly higher in the hypertensive patients with diabetes than in the non-diabetic patients. For hypertensive patients with diabetes, univariate analysis showed that age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHO), creatinine (CRTN), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), regulated on activation normally T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), MDMP and EDMP were significantly associated with PDMP. In addition, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, sP-selectin, sE-selectin, sVCAM-1, sCD40L, RANTES, MDMP and EDMP were significant factors in the multivariate model with PDMP. Furthermore, a correlation between plasma PDMP and MDMP or EDMP in hypertensive patients were observed both with and without diabetes. These results suggest that the existence of diabetes mellitus affects PDMP generation in hypertensive patients and that enhanced plasma levels of PDMP and an association between the plasma levels of PDMP, MDMP and EDMP may result in the development of atherothrombotic complications in hypertensive patients.

  12. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobara H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

  13. Comparative study of the action of two different types of bleaching agents activated by two different types of irradiation fonts: xenon plasma arc lamp and 960 nm diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walverde, Debora Ayala

    2001-01-01

    This in vitro study compares two different types of tooth bleaching agents stimulated with two different irradiation fonts. These fonts accelerate the action of the bleaching agents upon the enamel surface by heating up the materials. We used the xenon plasma arc lamp and a 960 nm fiber-coupled diode laser to irradiate the two materials containing 35% of hydrogen peroxide (Opus White and Opalescence extra). The color of the teeth was measured with a spectrophotometer using the CIELAB color system that gives the numeric values of L * a * b * . (author)

  14. The effect of fasting plasma glucose variability on the risk of retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients: retrospective long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Toshiko; Ide, Takehiko; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Masatoshi; Kawazu, Shoji; Matsuyama, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to determine whether fasting plasma glucose (FPG) variability can predict diabetic retinopathy development and progression independently of glycemic control. Subjects consisted of 170 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients not showing diabetic retinopathy on their first visit to our hospital between 1966 and 1979, and continuously visited thereafter for 27-40 (mean, 33) years. Plasma glucose and HbA1c data obtained on every hospital visit were collected. As FPG variability parameter, standard deviations (SD) were used. The investigation in which patients were classified based on the median value of the mean HbA1c or FPG and that of FPG SD have revealed that the risk of retinopathy development and progression were similar between the group showing good control and high variability and that with poor control and low variability. In multivariate analysis models with the mean FPG or HbA1c as a covariate and models using the mean FPG or HbA1c as a time-dependent covariate after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, hypertension, and hypoglycemia, FPG SD was a significant independent risk factor for retinopathy. In type 2 diabetic patients, FPG variability is a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy independent of the mean FPG or HbA1c. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field induced tunneling is studied in three different types of quantum wells by solving time-independent effective mass equation in analytic methods based on three different Airy function approaches. Comparison of different Airy function methods indicates that they are identical and connected to each other by the ...

  16. Tunnel FinFET CMOS inverter with very low short-circuit current for ultralow-power Internet of Things application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yukinori; Fukuda, Koichi; Liu, Yongxun; Mori, Takahiro; Mizubayashi, Wataru; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Fuketa, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Shintaro; Migita, Shinji; Masahara, Meishoku; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ota, Hiroyuki; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We have demonstrated the operation of a CMOS inverter consisting of Si tunnel FinFETs. Both p- and n-type tunnel FinFETs are successfully fabricated and operated on the same SOI wafer. The current mismatch between p- and n-type tunnel FETs is compensated by tuning the number of fin channels. Very low short-circuit current and clear voltage input-output characteristics are obtained. The thin epitaxial channel in the tunnel FinFETs effectively increases the drain current and accordingly reduces the drain capacitance, which could help high-performance tunnel FET CMOS inverter operation.

  17. Hysteresis of boiling for different tunnel-pore surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszko Robert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of boiling hysteresis on structured surfaces covered with perforated foil is proposed. Hysteresis is an adverse phenomenon, preventing high heat flux systems from thermal stabilization, characterized by a boiling curve variation at an increase and decrease of heat flux density. Experimental data were discussed for three kinds of enhanced surfaces: tunnel structures (TS, narrow tunnel structures (NTS and mini-fins covered with the copper wire net (NTS-L. The experiments were carried out with water, R-123 and FC-72 at atmospheric pressure. A detailed analysis of the measurement results identified several cases of type I, II and III for TS, NTS and NTS-L surfaces.

  18. Principle plug design for deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaramo, M.; Lehtonen, A.

    2009-06-01

    This report examines the plug structures to be built in the deposition tunnels of the repository. The deposition tunnels located below the depth of 400 metres have been used as input data. Each plug consists of a massive concrete structure. The planned maximum pressure acting on the plug is 7.5 MPa. It consists of 4.5 MPa of groundwater pressure and 3 MPa of swelling pressure of the backfill. Five different plug types have been examined. Two of them (butt and irregular plug) turned out to be difficult from the point of view of other works in the central and deposition tunnels. One type (straight plug) requires a lot of construction material. Wedge-shaped and dome plugs have been examined more carefully. The wedge shaped plug has advantageous properties in comparison with the dome plug, such as a three dimensional state of stress, the wedging effect which increases strength as pressure increases and larger tolerances for the excavation of the slot. Leakage water has a longer path through the wedge shaped plug than through the dome plug. Pressure load affects the wedge shaped plug, creating normal stresses, which are compressive along each coordinate axis. The long-term rise in temperature in the deposition tunnels can produce high extra stresses in all the plug alternatives. These stresses make it necessary to increase the strength of the concrete or the distance between the plug and the nearest deposition hole. The stability effects of different plug distances and deposition tunnel orientations have been examined. The plug does not significantly affect stresses in the surrounding bedrock or the stability of the bedrock. Stresses caused by excavation and temperature rise are decisive factors. A groundwater chloride content of 0-3% in the environment of the repository is used as input data. It affects the tightness of the concrete and the quality of the cement. Cement has to be sulphate resistant with a low pH value. Low pH results in the weakening of the corrosion

  19. Plasma glucose and insulin responses after consumption of breakfasts with different sources of soluble fiber in type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Cláudia M; de Paula, Tatiana P; Viana, Luciana V; Machado, Vitória Mt; de Almeida, Jussara C; Azevedo, Mirela J

    2017-11-01

    Background: The amount and quality of carbohydrates are important determinants of plasma glucose after meals. Regarding fiber content, it is unclear whether the intake of soluble fibers from foods or supplements has an equally beneficial effect on lowering postprandial glucose. Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the acute effect of soluble fiber intake from foods or supplements after a common meal on postprandial plasma glucose and plasma insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Design: A randomized crossover clinical trial was conducted in patients with T2D. Patients consumed isocaloric breakfasts (mean ± SD: 369.8 ± 9.4 kcal) with high amounts of fiber from diet food sources (total fiber: 9.7 g; soluble fiber: 5.4 g), high amounts of soluble fiber from guar gum supplement (total fiber: 9.1 g; soluble fiber: 5.4 g), and normal amounts of fiber (total fiber: 2.4 g; soluble fiber: 0.8 g). Primary outcomes were postprandial plasma glucose and insulin (0-180 min). Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test. Results: A total of 19 patients [aged 65.8 ± 7.3 y; median (IQR), 10 (5-9) y of T2D duration; glycated hemoglobin 7.0% ± 0.8%; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) 28.2 ± 2.9] completed 57 meal tests. After breakfast, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for plasma glucose [mg/dL · min; mean (95% CI)] did not differ between high fiber from diet (HFD) [7861 (6257, 9465)] and high fiber from supplement (HFS) [7847 (5605, 10,090)] ( P = 1.00) and both were lower than usual fiber (UF) [9527 (7549, 11,504)] ( P = 0.014 and P = 0.037, respectively). iAUCs [μIU/mL · min; mean (95% CI)] did not differ ( P = 0.877): HFD [3781 (2513, 5050)], HFS [4006 (2711, 5302), and UF [4315 (3027, 5603)]. Conclusions: Higher fiber intake was associated with lower postprandial glucose at breakfast, and the intake of soluble fiber from food and supplement had a similar effect in patients with T2D. This trial was registered at

  20. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems

  1. Doped Josephson tunneling junction for use in a sensitive IR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Saffren, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    A superconductive tunneling device having a modified tunnel barrier capable of supporting Josephson tunneling current is provided. The tunnel barrier located between a pair of electrodes includes a molecular species which is capable of coupling incident radiation of a spectrum characteristic of the molecular species into the tunnel barrier. The coupled radiation modulates the known Josephson characteristics of the superconducting device. As a result of the present invention, a superconductive tunneling device can be tuned or made sensitive to a particular radiation associated with the dopant molecular species. The present invention is particularly useful in providing an improved infrared detector. The tunnel barrier region can be, for example, an oxide of an electrode or frozen gas. The molecular species can be intermixed with the barrier region such as the frozen gas or deposited as one or more layers of molecules on the barrier region. The deposited molecules of the molecular species are unbonded and capable of responding to a radiation characteristic of the molecules. Semi-conductor material can be utilized as the molecular species to provide an increased selective bandwidth response. Finally, appropriate detector equipment can be utilized to measure the modulation of any of the Josephson characteristics such as critical current, voltage steps, Lambe-Jaklevic peaks and plasma frequency. (auth)

  2. Autonomous robot for detecting subsurface voids and tunnels using microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stacy S.; Crawford, Nicholas C.; Croft, Leigh Ann; Howard, Michael; Miller, Stephen; Rippy, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Tunnels have been used to evade security of defensive positions both during times of war and peace for hundreds of years. Tunnels are presently being built under the Mexican Border by drug smugglers and possibly terrorists. Several have been discovered at the border crossing at Nogales near Tucson, Arizona, along with others at other border towns. During this war on terror, tunnels under the Mexican Border pose a significant threat for the security of the United States. It is also possible that terrorists will attempt to tunnel under strategic buildings and possibly discharge explosives. The Center for Cave and Karst Study (CCKS) at Western Kentucky University has a long and successful history of determining the location of caves and subsurface voids using microgravity technology. Currently, the CCKS is developing a remotely controlled robot which will be used to locate voids underground. The robot will be a remotely controlled vehicle that will use microgravity and GPS to accurately detect and measure voids below the surface. It is hoped that this robot will also be used in military applications to locate other types of voids underground such as tunnels and bunkers. It is anticipated that the robot will be able to function up to a mile from the operator. This paper will describe the construction of the robot and the use of microgravity technology to locate subsurface voids with the robot.

  3. Advanced Metrology for Characterization of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel

    solutions to take products to the next node and the field of memory technology is no exception. Over the past decade research and development in a novel, non-volatile memory type known as MRAM has intensified, and commercial MRAM devices are now available. MRAM holds an extremely favorable position...... as it is believed to have the potential of becoming a truly universal memory solution dominant within all fields of memory application. A decade ago the company CAPRES A/S introduced the so-called CIPTech, which is a metrology tool utilizing micro four-point probes (M4PPs) and a method known as current in......-plane tunneling (CIPT) for characterization of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), which constitutes the key component not only in MRAM but also the read-heads of modern hard disk drives. MTJs are described by their tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), which is the relative difference of the resistance area products (RA...

  4. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Knop, Filip K; Memon, Ashfaque A; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Picazo, Óscar; Chanrai, Madhvi; Sunquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Jönsson, Tommy

    2016-05-23

    We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. In a randomised, open-label, cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to eat a Palaeolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, or a diabetes diet designed in accordance with current diabetes dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. The patients were recruited from primary health-care units and included three women and 10 men [age (mean ± SD) 64 ± 6 years; BMI 30 ± 7 kg/m(2); diabetes duration 8 ± 5 years; glycated haemoglobin 6.6 ± 0.6 % (57.3 ± 6 mmol/mol)] with unaltered diabetes treatment and stable body weight for 3 months prior to the start of the study. Outcome variables included fasting plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, adipsin, visfatin, resistin, glucagon, insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin. Dietary intake was evaluated by use of 4-day weighed food records. Seven participants started with the Palaeolithic diet and six with the diabetes diet. The Palaeolithic diet resulted in a large effect size (Cohen's d = -1.26) at lowering fasting plasma leptin levels compared to the diabetes diet [mean difference (95 % CI), -2.3 (-5.1 to 0.4) ng/ml, p = 0.023]. No statistically significant differences between the diets for the other variables, analysed in this study, were observed. Over a 3-month study period, a Palaeolithic diet resulted in reduced fasting plasma leptin levels, but did not change fasting levels of insulin, C

  5. Current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance treated with unified model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, PAE

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual similarity between current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) is exploited by utilizing a unified single-particle model accounting for both types of magnetoresistance. By defining structures composed of ferromagnetic,

  6. Increased plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activities are associated with high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T P; Liu, Y H; Yang, L X; Qin, S H; Liu, H B

    2015-10-01

    Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) is a newly identified adipokine related to these risk factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association between plasma DPP4 activities and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. A total of 985 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were studied. Plasma DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R), oxidative stress parameters, inflammatory markers and common carotid artery Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT) were measured in all participants. Participants in the highest quartile of DPP4 activity had higher HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), M6P-R, c-IMT compared with participants in the lowest quartile (all P atherosclerosis risk was significantly higher (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.03-8.17) than in the lowest quartile. This association remained strong (2.17; 1.21-3.89) after further controlling for HbA1c, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, and IL-6. This study shows that increased DPP4 activities are positively and independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest of potential role of DPP4 in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis and in the prevention and management of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the enhancement of plasma glucose levels in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Taga, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup is used as a premium natural sweeter, and is known for being good for human health. In the present study, we investigate whether maple syrup is suitable as a sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats develop type 2 diabetes mellitus by 30 weeks of age, and 60-week-old OLETF rats show hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia via pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. The administration of sucrose or maple syrup following an OGT test increased plasma glucose (PG) levels in OLETF rats, but the enhancement in PG following the oral administration of maple syrup was lower than in the case of sucrose administration in both 30- and 60-week-old OLETF rats. Although, the insulin levels in 30-week-old OLETF rats also increased following the oral administration of sucrose or maple syrup, no increase in insulin levels was seen in 60-week-old OLETF rats following the oral administration of either sucrose or maple syrup. No significant differences were observed in insulin levels between sucrose- and maple syrup-administered OLETF rats at either 30 or 60 weeks of age. The present study strongly suggests that the maple syrup may have a lower glycemic index than sucrose, which may help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus correlates positively with HbAlc levels, but is not acutely affected by food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryskjaer, Jakob; Deacon, Carolyn F; Carr, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    hormones are metabolized quickly by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). It is well known that type-2 diabetic patients have an impaired incretin effect. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate plasma DPP-IV activity in the fasting and the postprandial state in type-2 diabetic...... patients and control subjects. DESIGN: The study included two protocols. Protocol one involved 40 fasting type-2 diabetic patients (28 men); age 61 +/- 1.4 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; body mass index (BMI) 31 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2); HbAlc 7.2 +/- 0.2%; and 20 matched control subjects (14 men) were studied. Protocol...... two involved eight type-2 diabetic patients (six men); age 63 +/- 1.2 years; BMI 33 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2); HbAlc 7.5 +/- 0.4%; eight matched control subjects were included. METHODS: In protocol one, fasting values of DPP-IV activity were evaluated and in protocol two, postprandial DPP-IV activity during...

  10. Probing electronic interactions using electron tunneling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pratap

    The scanning tunneling microscope: Principle d. eI. Tunneling Current. Topography by tracking current: Constant height mode. Tracking the height: Constant current mode. NbSe. 2 single crystal. (Grown by P. Shirage and A. Thamizhavel) ...

  11. Proposal for Marshmallow Tunnel Stemming Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-01-01

    Discussion of findings after the shot in the tunnel and instructions for a deeper drilling below the tunnel using radiation probes to help define the cavity shape and documentary photography of the findings.

  12. Quantum mechanical tunneling in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum mechanical tunneling plays important roles in a wide range of natural sciences, from nuclear and solid-state physics to proton transfer and chemical reactions in chemistry and biology. Responding to the need for further understanding of multidimensional tunneling, the authors have recently developed practical methods that can be applied to multidimensional systems. Quantum Mechanical Tunneling in Chemical Physics presents basic theories, as well as original ones developed by the authors. It also provides methodologies and numerical applications to real molecular systems. The book offers information so readers can understand the basic concepts and dynamics of multidimensional tunneling phenomena and use the described methods for various molecular spectroscopy and chemical dynamics problems. The text focuses on three tunneling phenomena: (1) energy splitting, or tunneling splitting, in symmetric double well potential, (2) decay of metastable state through tunneling, and (3) tunneling effects in chemical...

  13. Bias dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance in spin filtering tunnel junctions: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüders, U.; Bibes, M.; Fusil, S.; Bouzehouane, K.; Jacquet, E.; Sommers, C. B.; Contour, J.-P.; Bobo, J.-F.; Barthélémy, A.; Fert, A.; Levy, P. M.

    2007-10-01

    A spin filter is a type of magnetic tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic and the insulating barrier is ferro- or ferrimagnetic. We report on spin-dependent transport measurements and their theoretical analysis in epitaxial spin filters integrating a tunnel barrier of the high-Curie-temperature ferrimagnetic spinel NiFe2O4 , with half-metallic La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 and Au electrodes. A positive tunnel magnetoresonance of up to ˜50% is obtained at low temperature, which we find decreases with bias voltage. In view of these experimental results, we propose a theoretical treatment of the transport properties of spin filters with epitaxial magnetic barriers, based on an elliptical variation of the decay rates within the spin-dependent gaps in analogy with what was calculated for nonmagnetic barrier materials such as MgO or SrTiO3 . Whereas the spin filtering efficiency for zero bias is of one sign, we show that this can easily change with bias; the degree of change hinges on the energy variation of the majority and minority spin decay rates of the transmission across the barrier. We point out some shortcomings of approaches based on models in which the transmission is related to spin-dependent barrier heights, and some implications for future experimental and theoretical research on spin filters.

  14. Mediation of Endogenous β-Endorphin in the Plasma Glucose-Lowering Action of Herbal Products Observed in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been advances in the development of new substances effective in managing diabetic disorders. Opioid receptors couple multiple systems to result in various biological effects, although opioids are best known for analgesia. In the present review, we used our recent data to describe the advance in plasma glucose-lowering action of herbal products, especially the mediation of β-endorphin in glucose homeostasis of insulin-deficient diabetes. In type 1-like streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, we identified many products purified from herbs that show a dose-dependent plasma glucose-lowering action. Increase in β-endorphin secretion from the adrenal gland may activate peripheral opioid μ-receptors (MOR to enhance the expression of muscle glucose transporters and/or to reduce hepatic gluconeogenesis at the gene level, thereby leading to improved glucose utilization in peripheral tissues for amelioration of severe hyperglycemia. It has also been observed that stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors (α1-ARs in the adrenal gland by some herbal products is responsible for the increase in β-endorphin secretion via a phospholipase C-protein kinase dependent pathway. However, an increase in β-endorphin secretion from the adrenal gland by herbal products can function via another receptor. New insights into the mediation of endogenous β-endorphin activation of peripheral MOR by herbal products for regulation of glucose homeostasis without the presence of insulin have been established. Therefore, an increase in β-endorphin secretion and/or direct stimulation of peripheral MOR via an insulin-independent action might serve as the potential target for development of a therapeutic agent or promising adjuvant in intensive plasma glucose control.

  15. Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus in the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Aline Zazeri; Rodrigues, Nathália de Campos; Gonzaga, Marina Ignácio; Paiolo, João Carlos Cicogna; de Souza, Carolina Arantes; Stefanutto, Nadine Aparecida Vicentini; Omori, Wellington Pine; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz; Brisotti, João Luiz; Matheucci Junior, Euclides; Mariano, Vânia Sammartino; de Oliveira, Gislane Lelis Vilela

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form. Stool samples were required for DNA extraction, and the V3/V4 regions of bacterial 16S were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Peripheral blood was used to quantify inflammatory cytokines and plasma LPS concentrations, by CBA flex and ELISA, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney and Spearman’s tests. Analysis of variance, diversity indexes, and analysis of alpha- and beta-diversity were conducted using an annotated Operational Taxonomic Unit table. This study included 20 patients and 22 controls. We observed significant differences (P Prevotella copri, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides rodentium, and Bacteroides xylanisolvens. The proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly increased (P Prevotella species, and a positive correlation between the LPS levels and P. copri reads. The P. copri and B. vulgatus species were associated with insulin resistance in previous studies. In this study, we suggested that the prevalence of Gram-negative species in the gut and the increased plasma IL-6 in patients could be linked to low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. In conclusion, the P. copri and B. vulgatus species could represent an intestinal microbiota signature, associated with T2D development. Furthermore, the identification of these Gram-negative bacteria, and the detection of inflammatory markers, such as increased IL-6, could be used as diabetes predictive markers in overweight, obese and in genetically predisposed

  16. Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence ofPrevotella copriandBacteroides vulgatusin the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Aline Zazeri; Rodrigues, Nathália de Campos; Gonzaga, Marina Ignácio; Paiolo, João Carlos Cicogna; de Souza, Carolina Arantes; Stefanutto, Nadine Aparecida Vicentini; Omori, Wellington Pine; Pinheiro, Daniel Guariz; Brisotti, João Luiz; Matheucci Junior, Euclides; Mariano, Vânia Sammartino; de Oliveira, Gislane Lelis Vilela

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form. Stool samples were required for DNA extraction, and the V3/V4 regions of bacterial 16S were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Peripheral blood was used to quantify inflammatory cytokines and plasma LPS concentrations, by CBA flex and ELISA, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Spearman's tests. Analysis of variance, diversity indexes, and analysis of alpha- and beta-diversity were conducted using an annotated Operational Taxonomic Unit table. This study included 20 patients and 22 controls. We observed significant differences ( P  Prevotella copri, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides rodentium , and Bacteroides xylanisolvens . The proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly increased ( P  Prevotella species, and a positive correlation between the LPS levels and P. copri reads. The P. copri and B. vulgatus species were associated with insulin resistance in previous studies. In this study, we suggested that the prevalence of Gram-negative species in the gut and the increased plasma IL-6 in patients could be linked to low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. In conclusion, the P. copri and B. vulgatus species could represent an intestinal microbiota signature, associated with T2D development. Furthermore, the identification of these Gram-negative bacteria, and the detection of inflammatory markers, such as increased IL-6, could be used as diabetes predictive markers in overweight, obese and in genetically predisposed

  17. Effects of a Western-type diet on plasma lipids and other cardiometabolic risk factors in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Matthew J; Aycock, S Tyler; Clarkson, Thomas B; Kaplan, Jay R

    2013-07-01

    Our goal was to assess a nonhuman primate diet that mimicked the Western-type diet of humans with regard to palatability and the diet's effects on plasma lipid concentrations and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We evaluated male (n = 8) and female (n = 11) African green monkeys (vervets; Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) that initially were fed a standard diet. Each cohort then was divided into 2 groups, which received either standard chow or the Western diet. Food consumption and fecal quality were measured weekly. Body weight, waist circumference, and body-mass index were measured every 2 wk. CBC and clinical chemistry analyses were performed at baseline and 4 wk after the diet change. Plasma lipid concentrations, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and fructosamine were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 wk after the diet change. Isoflavones were measured in the male monkeys at 6 wk after diet change, and lipid particle size was measured in the female monkeys at the 12-wk point. Green monkeys readily ate the Western diet and maintained baseline body weight and morphometric measures, with no adverse effects on fecal quality or clinical measures. Total plasma cholesterol was higher in monkeys fed the Western diet compared with standard chow. Isoflavones were higher in male monkeys fed standard chow compared with the Western diet, but lipid particle size did not differ by diet in female monkeys. Our data indicate that the Western diet led to changes in various biomedical risk factors of green monkeys to become similar to those of humans in the United States.

  18. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anupam

    2001-02-01

    We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the space of magnetic fields, known as diabolical points. This phenomena is explained in terms of two approaches, one based on spin-coherent-state path integrals, and the other on a generalization of the phase integral (or WKB) method to difference equations. Explicit formulas for the diabolical points are obtained for a model Hamiltonian.

  19. Tunneling field effect transistor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the art in tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). Readers will learn the TFETs physics from advanced atomistic simulations, the TFETs fabrication process and the important roles that TFETs will play in enabling integrated circuit designs for power efficiency. · Provides comprehensive reference to tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs); · Covers all aspects of TFETs, from device process to modeling and applications; · Enables design of power-efficient integrated circuits, with low power consumption TFETs.

  20. Watertightness of concrete tunnel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Glerum, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Netherlands are situated in the delta. of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt. Therefore the ground mainly consists.of sediments, such as sand, clay and silt. In certain regions peat layers of varying thickness are found. The high permeability of some of these materials and the fact that the groundwater table is generally only 1 m below ground level, make an adequate watertightness one of the main features of tunnel engineering in the Netherlands. Tunnels in Holland are both of the immers...