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Sample records for tunisia north africa

  1. Prevalence of human cosaviruses in Tunisia, North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Dorra; Ben Farhat, Essia; Touzi, Henda; Meddeb, Zina; Ben Salah, Afif; Triki, Henda

    2015-06-01

    A new picornavirus, named human Cosavirus (HCoSV) was isolated recently from stools of children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and healthy children in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Since then, it was also isolated from patients from other countries. Five species are presently identified forming a new genus in the Picornaviridae family. This study reports the detection of HCoSV in stool specimens collected as part of the National Poliovirus surveillance Program in Tunisia, between 2011 and 2012, from patients with AFP and healthy individuals among their contacts. One hundred and ninety four stool samples were investigated by RT-PCR in the 5' non-coding region of the genome. A total of 64 specimens (33%) tested positive for HCoSV. HCoSV positive specimens were found in 36 cases with neurological syndromes and 28 of their healthy contacts. The highest rate of HCoSV infection (62.5%) occurred in children younger than 6 years of age. The sampling date of stool specimens suggested that HCoSV infection occurred regularly over time. Also, the sampling origin of stool specimen showed that HCoSV infection was detected in almost all the governorates of Tunisia from the North to the South of the country. This study is the first report of HCoSV prevalence in the North African region. It contributes to a better knowledge on the geographic distribution and the epidemiology of these viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Factors determining Gekkotan (Reptilia, Sauria distribution in Tunisia (North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wided Tlili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian geckos count nine species (1 is insular relict, 1 is endemic, 2 are ubiquitous and 5 are enfeoffed. We aim to determine factors influencing their distributions. Surveys were founded on environmental divisions. Presence/absence data for 113 grids were analyzed using multivariate tools. 18 environmental variables were revealed and clustered into five factors to model species distributions. Established models were further projected on non-explored areas within Tunisian territory. The distribution of continental geckos follows an indirect bidirectional gradient; the South-northward one is physiologically stressful and the North-southward one is biologically stressful. Five biogeographic regions were established showing concordance with climatic and vegetation regionalization. The distribution of non-anthropophilic species is positively correlated to thermal amplitudes gradient. The distribution of anthropophilic taxa is positively correlated to agricultural land-use. Oasis, sebkhas and chotts are particular landscapes that disturb both distributions. Predicted areas follow the yielded distribution patterns despite some discrepancy for S. sthenodactylus. The niche characterizing shows that land use and altitude increase the probability of occurrence of H. turcicus and T. mauritanica. Alternatively, they decrease the probability of the presence of T. deserti, T. neglecta, T. tripolitanus and S. petrii. Models could also show that the absence of S. sthenodactylus in northern regions is attributed to high altitudes and cereal land-use. As to T. fascicularis, the displacement of the northern limits of its range is mostly attributed to an improvement of field investigations. Established model of its distribution shows a restricted area of probable occurrence in central Tunisia confirming its endemism.

  3. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. La Galite Archipelago (Tunisia, North Africa): Stratigraphic and petrographic revision and insights for geodynamic evolution of the Maghrebian Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayouni, Habib; Brunelli, Daniele; Clocchiatti, Roberto; Di Staso, Angelida; El Hassani, Iz-Eddine El Amrani; Guerrera, Francesco; Kassaa, Samia; Ouazaa, Nejia Laridhi; Martín, Manuel Martín; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The location of the La Galite Archipelago on the Internal/External Zones of the Maghrebian Chain holds strong interest for the reconstruction of the geodynamic evolution of the Mesomediterranean Microplate-Africa Plate Boundary Zone. New stratigraphic and petrographic data on sedimentary successions intruded upon by plutonic rocks enabled a better definition of the palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic evolutionary model of the area during the early-middle Miocene. The lower Miocene sedimentary units ( La Galite Flysch and Numidian-like Flysch) belong to the Mauritanian (internal) and Massylian (external) sub-Domains of the Maghrebian Chain, respectively. These deposits are related to a typical syn-orogenic deposition in the Maghrebian Flysch Basin Domain, successively backthrusted above the internal units. The backthrusting age is post-Burdigalian (probably Langhian-Serravallian) and the compressional phase represents the last stage in the building of the accretionary wedge of the Maghrebian orogen. These flysch units may be co-relatable to the similar well-known formations along the Maghrebian and Betic Chains. The emplacement of potassic peraluminous magmatism, caused local metamorphism in the Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian (14-10 Ma), after the last compressional phase (backthrusting), during an extensional tectonic event. This extensional phase is probably due to the opening of a slab break-off in the deep subduction system. La Galite Archipelago represents a portion of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin tectonically emplaced above the southern margin of the "Mesomediterranean Microplate" which separated the Piemontese-Ligurian Ocean from a southern oceanic branch of the Tethys (i.e. the Maghrebian Flysch Basin). The possible presence of an imbricate thrust system between La Galite Archipelago and northern Tunisia may be useful to exclude the petroleum exploration from the deformed sectors of the offshore area considered.

  5. Neotectonic deformation in Tunisia (North of the African plate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Kadri, Ali; Delvaux, Damien; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Braham, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    In Tunisia, at the extreme North of the African plate, the neotectonic context is largely influenced by the Eurasia-Africa convergence. The aim of this work is to characterize the neotectonic regime that affected this region during Quaternary. Field work investigations integrated with published data allowed to evidence a spatial-temporal variation of the tectonic stress regime during this period. The spatial repartition of the different types of Quaternary to historical deformation shows a North-South neotectonic zoning in Tunisia. After lower Pleistocene, the Tellian domain (Maghrebides) in the North and its Atlassic foreland in central Tunisia are affected by NNW-SSE compression. It generated E-W to NE-SW folds and reverse faults, well developed in the Plio-Quaternary molassic basins of Kechabta and Jendouba (Northern Tunisia). In the Atlas, the major E-W and N-S pre-existing faults have been reactivated with dextral and sinistral strike-slip kinematic respectively, associated to en-echelon folds (Kasserine, N-S Axis, Northern Chott belt...). After the Tyrrhenian, a submeridian compressional regime affected Northern Tunisia (e.g., Bizerte region) and was responsible for the E-W folding of marine strata. More to the South, in the Tunisian Sahel, transtensional tectonics with a NW-SE horizontal maximal compression (SHmax) deformed the Tyrrhenian marine series (Khénis, Skanès, Monastir…). During the Holocene and up to present-day times, N-S compressional tectonics reactivated the E-W pre-existing faults with a reverse movement in Northern Tunisia (Bulla Regia, Utica …), generating historical earthquakes. In Central Tunisia, the Aqueduct of Cherichira (built around AD 850) is displaced by a N-S normal fault. Similarly, a mosaic of a roman house is shifted by 10 cm, along a N-S sinistral normal fault. These deformations evidence a transtensional tectonic regime. During the Quaternary, all the NW-SE oriented grabens are subsiding (e.g., Bizerte Lake, Grombalia

  6. Energy, North Africa and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.

    1995-01-01

    The energy situation in the North African countries not only offers a multitude of opportunities for regional cooperation, but also for consolidating ties with the European Union. What are the medium-term chances of putting these possibilities to use ? This article reviews the energy issues in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, all in the middle of a complete economic, political, and cultural mutations. It identifies the intra-regional cooperative projects and certain potential obstacles, and analyzes the energy relations between North Africa and Europe from the strategic viewpoint of both regions. (author). 7 tabs

  7. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  8. Electricity in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKie, Alan

    1999-06-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Market Private; Power politics: the role of the private sector; Resource base and power options; Finance: Putting together the deal; Regional integration private; Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey Private North Africa; Algeria; Egypt Private; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia GCC and Yemen; Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Emirates; Yemen Private. (Author)

  9. Sousse: extreme genetic heterogeneity in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Zemni, Ramzi; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Herrera, Rene J

    2015-01-01

    The male genetic landscape of the territory currently known as Tunisia is hampered by the scarcity of data, especially from cosmopolitan areas such as the coastal city of Sousse. In order to alleviate this lacuna, 220 males from Sousse were examined, for the first time, for more than 50 Y-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) markers and compared with 3099 individuals from key geographically targeted locations in North Africa, Europe and the Near East. The paternal lineages observed belong to a common set of Y haplogroups previously described in North Africa. In addition to the prominent autochthonous North African E-M81 haplogroup which is exclusively represented by its subclade E-M183 (44.55% of Y-chromosomes), a number of Near Eastern Neolithic lineages including E-M78, J-M267 and J-M172 account for 39% of the Y-chromosomes detected. Principal component analysis based on haplogroup frequencies, multidimensional scaling based on Rst genetic distances and analyses of molecular variance using both Y-chromosome short tandem repeat haplotypes and Y-SNP haplogroup data revealed that the Tunisian and North African groups, as a whole, are intra- and inter-specific diverse with Sousse being highly heterogeneous.

  10. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparative analysis of yield gaps and water productivity on smallholder farms in Ethiopia, South Africa and Tunisia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available obtained in field and modelling experiments in Ethiopia (maize, garlic, onion), South Africa (tomato) and Tunisia (tomato, potato, wheat). Innovative agricultural practices were introduced on smallholder farms: irrigation scheduling and NPS Zn fertilization...

  12. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  13. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  14. North Africa oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade, Algeria, Egypt and Libya have improved their fiscal terms for oil and gas development to attract more investment in this area. As a group, the three countries are implementing plans to increase crude oil production capacity 16 % from 3.15 million barrels per day (Mb/d) in 1995 to 3.65 Mb/d in the year 2000. Natural gas liquid are also being developed and their production capacity is planned to increase 30 % to 0.82 Mb/d in 2000. Concurrently, natural gas production capacity is being expanded about 50 % by 200 and natural gas exporting capacity should see a 92 % increase in 2000 over 1995 levels in short, the North Africa hydrocarbon producers are rapidly expanding their production and export capacity of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. This is the first IEA study to focus on North Africa. It shows how changing hydrocarbon legislation or production sharing agreements can result in changes in crude oil and natural gas production capacity. Much of the expansion outlined in this study is being guided by international oil companies attracted by the improved fiscal terms

  15. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  16. Carry on 50 Years of Traditional Friendship And Open a New Chapter of Cooperation Between CPAFFC and Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai; Lin

    2014-01-01

    <正>Tunisia is located at the northern end of Africa and faces the Mediterranean Sea on the north and the east.In the early 9th century BCE,the Phoenicians built Carthage bordering the Tunisian Gulf,and created the brilliant Carthaginian civilization.Now,Tunisia has become a multicultural country integrating a long civilization.China and Tunisia established diplomatic relations on January 10,1964,and despite being separated by

  17. The economics of marriage in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...

  18. Economic and geopolitical dimensions of renewable vs. nuclear energy in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marktanner, Marcus; Salman, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Addressing issues of renewable energy in North Africa must incorporate concerns regarding the compatibility of energy mixes with the nature of political regimes, their geopolitical relevance, and their socio-economic effects, in addition to economic cost-benefit deliberations. One important and under-researched aspect of nuclear energy refers to the trade-off between socio-economic development and political power conservation. Competing interests in North Africa's energy market as well as aspects of regional cooperation capacity are important when assessing the choice between renewable and nuclear energy. Therefore, the future course of meeting North Africa's energy needs is subject to a complex political and economic interplay between domestic and geopolitical development interests. The objective of this paper is to explore this complexity in more detail. We argue that the identification of any energy alternative as superior is hardly convincing unless certain standards of inclusive governance are met. We also find that it is important to highlight political-economic differences between energy importers like Morocco and Tunisia and energy exporters like Algeria, Libya, and Egypt. - Research highlights: → North Africa confronted with severe energy supply challenges in near future. → Trade-off between socio-economic development and political power conservation matters. → Economic and geopolitical dimensions of trade-off heterogeneous across North Africa.

  19. Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mulas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the

  20. Structuring and evolution of Neogene transcurrent basins in the Tellian foreland domain, north-eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Fetheddine; Zouaghi, Taher; Harrab, Salah; Sainz, Antonio Casas; Bédir, Mourad; Zargouni, Fouad

    2011-07-01

    The Neogene sedimentary basins (Serravallian to Quaternary) of the Tellian tectonic foreland in north-eastern Tunisia formed within the overall NE-SW sinistral strike-slip tectonic framework of the Ras El Korane-Thibar and El Alia-Teboursouk fault systems. From stratigraphic logs, structural cross sections and interpretation of 2D seismic lines and boreholes, the pre-Neogene basement can be interpreted to be structured according to Eocene (NW-SE) compressional and Oligocene extensional phases. This basement comprises structural highs (anticlines and horsts) and subsiding areas (synclines, half-grabens and grabens) formed during the Neogene. The subsiding areas are delineated by faults striking N030E, N-S and N140E, defining (i) narrow, strongly subsiding synclines, (ii) lozenge-shaped basins and (iii) trapezoidal basins. The architecture of their fill results from the sedimentary balance between tectonics and eustatism. Halokinesis and clay diapirism (driven by Triassic and Neogene evaporites and clays) also played an important role in basin evolution, contributing to the formation of domes and diapirs along active faults.

  1. Parental involvement and bullying among middle-school students in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdirahman, H; Fleming, L C; Jacobsen, K H

    2013-03-01

    Bullying, especially in developing countries, has not been much examined, especially the influence of parents on the risk of being bullied. The aim of this study was to determine whether active parenting is associated with reduced peer victimization among middle-school students in North Africa. A secondary analysis of data from more than 13,000 middle-school students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia between 2006 and 2008, was conducted using multiple logistic regression models. About 60% of students in Egypt and one-third of students in Libya, Morocco and Tunisia reported having been bullied in the past month. In all 4 countries, boys reported more peer victimization than girls. In Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, students who reported that their parents checked their homework, were understanding, and knew how the student spent free time had a reduced likelihood of peer victimization but this association was not significant in Libya. Interventions for reducing bullying should consider the positive impact of involved parents.

  2. Lower Palaeozoic reservoirs of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, R.; McDougall, N. [Robertson Research International Ltd., Llandudno, Conwy (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of features considered significant in the exploration and development of Lower Palaeozoic reservoirs of North Africa. Information is derived from a review of literature on the Lower Palaeozoic successions of North Africa, combined with outcrop observations from the Anti Atlas mountains of Morocco. The focus of the exploration-oriented part of the review is on identification of potential traps other than two-way structural dip closure. Stratigraphic elements described include depositional models of reservoir facies, tectonic unconformities and possible eustatic unconformities. Cases of established or potential trapping by post-depositional faulting by diagenesis and by hydrodynamic flow are examined. Development-related topics highlighted include the impact on reservoir matrix quality of burial diagenesis and of palaeo-weathering at the Hercynian unconformity. Other issues discussed which additionally affect producibility from the reservoir matrix include tectonic fracturing, palaeotopography and unloading fracturing at the Hercynian unconformity, and induced fracturing within the present stress regimes. (author)

  3. Legal improvements brighten North Africa production outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    North Africa's three main oil producing countries soon will reap benefits of past moves by their governments to encourage investment by international companies. Production of crude oil and natural gas in Algeria, Egypt, and Libya is ready to increase from suppressed levels of the recent past, says International Energy Agency, Paris. The gains are possible despite political risks, total reserves accounting for only 4% of the world's crude reserves, and oil prices well below levels of the 1980s, when the countries' flow rates peaked. The reason: producing oil in North Africa is profitable. In a recent study entitled North Africa Oil and Gas, IEA attributes the bright production outlook to improvements that the countries' governments have made in the past decade to hydrocarbon laws and the fiscal terms they offer international investors. According to announced plans, the three countries' combined capacity to produce crude oil will rise 18% by the year 2000 to 3.65 million b/d, and a further gain of 700,000 b/d is possible. IEA expects production capacity for natural gas to increase 50% from its 1995 level by 2000 to a combined 139.4 billion cu m/year. This paper discusses production capacities, Algeria's record, improvements in Egypt, and Libya's changes

  4. Pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater samples in north-eastern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslah, Bilel; Hapeshi, Evroula; Jrad, Amel; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Hedhili, Abderrazek

    2017-04-07

    Pharmaceutically active substances (PhACs) and drugs of abuse (DAs) are two classes of contaminants of emerging concern that have attracted great concern and interest by the scientific community during the last two decades. Numerous studies have revealed their presence in treated urban wastewaters. This is mainly due to the fact that some compounds are not efficiently removed during wastewater treatment processes, and are thus able to reach the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge and reuse practices. The application of an optimized multi-residue method for the simultaneous confirmation and quantification of licit and illicit drugs has been investigated in influent and effluent wastewater samples from seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in north-eastern Tunisia. Analysis was performed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Out of 12 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed, 11 of them were detected mainly in effluent wastewaters. In both matrices, antibiotics and β-blockers were the most detected groups. This suggests that these compounds show noticeable resistance against biological treatment in WWTPs. The estimated concentrations of antibiotics in effluents ranged from ca. 35 ng/L to 1.2 μg/L. However, all five studied illicit drugs were detected, mainly in influent wastewaters. Forensic investigation performed on people suspected to be drug abusers covering all Tunisian cities was conducted by monitoring an epidemiological study of human urine samples surveying rate of consumption for illicit drugs. Hence, these preliminary results confirmed the presence of illicit drugs in the influent wastewater samples. For example, quantification ranges for cocaine were found to be 25-450 ng/L in influent wastewater samples. Significant differences for cocaine consumption across the two sampling methods were observed. Consequently, we conclude that the analyses in wastewater are more reflective of the

  5. Lower Silurian `hot shales' in North Africa and Arabia: regional distribution and depositional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüning, S.; Craig, J.; Loydell, D. K.; Štorch, P.; Fitches, B.

    2000-03-01

    Lowermost Silurian organic-rich (`hot') shales are the origin of 80-90% of Palaeozoic sourced hydrocarbons in North Africa and also played a major role in petroleum generation on the Arabian Peninsula. In most cases, the shales were deposited directly above upper Ordovician (peri-) glacial sandstones during the initial early Silurian transgression that was a result of the melting of the late Ordovician icecap. Deposition of the main organic-rich shale unit in the North African/Arabian region was restricted to the earliest Silurian Rhuddanian stage ( acuminatus, atavus and probably early cyphus graptolite biozones). During this short period (1-2 m.y.), a favourable combination of factors existed which led to the development of exceptionally strong oxygen-deficiency in the area. In most countries of the study area, the post-Rhuddanian Silurian shales are organically lean and have not contributed to petroleum generation. The distribution and thickness of the basal Silurian `hot' shales have been mapped in detail for the whole North African region, using logs from some 300 exploration wells in Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. In addition, all relevant, accessible published and unpublished surface and subsurface data of the lower Silurian shales in North Africa and Arabia have been reviewed, including sedimentological, biostratigraphic and organic geochemical data. The lowermost Silurian hot shales of northern Gondwana are laterally discontinuous and their distribution and thickness were controlled by the early Silurian palaeorelief which was shaped mainly by glacial processes of the late Ordovician ice age and by Pan-African and Infracambrian compressional and extensional tectonism. The thickest and areally most extensive basal Silurian organic-rich shales in North Africa occur in Algeria, Tunisia and western Libya, while on the Arabian Peninsula they are most prolific in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Jordan and Iraq. The hot shales were not deposited in Egypt, which was a

  6. Synthetic review on the genetic relatedness between North Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soumaya

    the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. ... threatened until the Islamic Arabs expanded their religion and culture to the Maghreb, ... decline from the Middle East toward Central Asia, Caucasus, North Africa and Europe.

  7. Middle East and North Africa Region Assessment of the Local Manufacturing Potential for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzo, A.; Gousseland, P.; Verdier, J. [Ernst and Young et Associes, Neuilly-Sur-Seine (France); Kost, C.; Morin, G.; Engelken, M.; Schrof, J.; Nitz, P.; Selt, J.; Platzer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Ragwitz, M.; Boie, I.; Hauptstock, D.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The MENA CSP (Middle East and North Africa - Concentrated Solar Power) plan is an ambitious scheme with an appeal to anyone concerned about climate change and convinced by the need for clean, renewable power. But what does it really mean for the average citizen of say Morocco or Tunisia? The World Bank sees potential for significant job and wealth creation in solar energy producing countries. If the CSP market grows rapidly over the next few years, equipment manufacturing will be essential to supply this new sector. This study proposes roadmaps and an action plan to help develop the potential of locally manufactured CSP components in the existing industry and for new market entrants.

  8. Transmission topologies for the integration of renewable power into the electricity systems of North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    A cost-minimizing electricity market model was used to explore optimized infrastructures for the integration of renewable energies in interconnected North African power systems until 2030. The results show that the five countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt could together achieve significant economic benefits, reaching up to €3.4 billion, if they increase power system integration, build interconnectors and cooperate on joint utilization of their generation assets. Net electricity exports out of North Africa to Europe or Eastern Mediterranean regions, however, were not observed in the regime of integrated electricity markets until 2030, and could only be realized by much higher levels of renewable energy penetration than currently foreseen by North African governments. - Highlights: • Market model to optimize North Africa's generation and transmission infrastructures until 2030. • Simulations consider existing interconnectors, power plant inventories, as well as national renewable goals. • Savings of up to €3.4 billion can be realized by more cooperation and integrated system planning. • No electricity exports to Europe in a competitive market framework, except for very high renewable penetrations

  9. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  10. Sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercevik Amado, Liz

    2004-05-01

    A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential.

  11. Stratospheric ozone transboundary transport to upper troposphere North Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ture, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available will identify the causes and sources of MOZAIC ozone enhancements at upper tropospheric North Africa (20-350 N). In addition the paper will address the modes of transport of ozone rich airmass sampled by MOZAIC at mid latitude and North Africa....

  12. Spatio-temporal variations and genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. in cattle from the North of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkahia, Hanène; Ben Said, Mourad; El Mabrouk, Narjesse; Saidani, Mariem; Cherni, Chayma; Ben Hassen, Mariem; Bouattour, Ali; Messadi, Lilia

    2017-09-01

    In cattle, anaplasmosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale, A. phagocytophilum, and A. bovis. To date, no information concerning the seasonal dynamics of single and/or mixed infections by different Anaplasma species in bovines are available in Tunisia. In this work, a total of 1035 blood bovine samples were collected in spring (n=367), summer (n=248), autumn (n=244) and winter (n=176) from five different governorates belonging to three bioclimatic zones from the North of Tunisia. Molecular survey of A. marginale, A. centrale and A. bovis in cattle showed that average prevalence rates were 4.7% (minimum 4.1% in autumn and maximum 5.6% in summer), 7% (minimum 3.9% in winter and maximum 10.7% in autumn) and 4.9% (minimum 2.7% in spring and maximum 7.3% in summer), respectively. A. phagocytophilum was not detected in all investigated cattle. Seasonal variations of Anaplasma spp. infection and co-infection rates in overall and/or according to each bioclimatic area were recorded. Molecular characterization of A. marginale msp4 gene indicated a high sequence homology of revealed strains with A. marginale sequences from African countries. Alignment of 16S rRNA A. centrale sequences showed that Tunisian strains were identical to the vaccine strain from several sub-Saharan African and European countries. The comparison of the 16S rRNA sequences of A. bovis variants showed a perfect homology between Tunisian variants isolated from cattle, goats and sheep. These present data are essential to estimate the risk of bovine anaplasmosis in order to develop integrated control policies against multi-species pathogen communities, infecting humans and different animal species, in the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    How can renewable energy sources be efficiently integrated into the North African electricity systems? By using techno-economic modeling methods, this book explores optimized electricity system expansion pathways until the year 2030 for the five North African countries - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The results indicate that renewable energy integration is actually a viable business case for the entire region, if wind and solar capacities are properly planned in conjunction with the conventional generation system and under consideration of the country-specific electricity supply-/demand patterns. Further aspects featured in this publication are the impact of renewable power on the transnational electricity transmission system and the question how decision making processes about renewable energy strategies can be improved in the North African context. The book is a contribution to the scientific literature about energy issues in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), but also seeks to address political and industrial practitioners concerned with the development of the region's renewable energy future.

  14. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    How can renewable energy sources be efficiently integrated into the North African electricity systems? By using techno-economic modeling methods, this book explores optimized electricity system expansion pathways until the year 2030 for the five North African countries - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The results indicate that renewable energy integration is actually a viable business case for the entire region, if wind and solar capacities are properly planned in conjunction with the conventional generation system and under consideration of the country-specific electricity supply-/demand patterns. Further aspects featured in this publication are the impact of renewable power on the transnational electricity transmission system and the question how decision making processes about renewable energy strategies can be improved in the North African context. The book is a contribution to the scientific literature about energy issues in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), but also seeks to address political and industrial practitioners concerned with the development of the region's renewable energy future.

  15. Seismic reflection and structuring characterization of deep aquifer system in the Dakhla syncline (Cap Bon, North-Eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Abir; Jarraya Horriche, Faten; Gabtni, Hakim; Bédir, Mourad

    2018-04-01

    The Dakhla syncline is located in the North-Eastern Tunisia. It is bounded by Abd El Rahmene anticline to the North-West, El Haouaria Graben to the North-East, Grombalia Graben to the South-West and the Mediterranean Sea to the East. The main aquifer reservoirs of Dakhla syncline are constituted by stacks of fluvial to deltaic Neogene sequences and carbonates. The interpretation of eight seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of three oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of aquifers and their distribution in elevated structures and subsurface depressions. Lithostratigraphic correlations and seismic profiles analysis through the syncline show that the principal aquifers are thickest within the central and northern part of the study area and thinnest to the southern part of the syncline. Seismic sections shows that the fracture/fault pattern in this syncline is mainly concentrated along corridors with a major direction of NW-SE and secondary directions of N-S, E-W and NE-SW with different release. This is proved by the complexity structure of Eastern Tunisia, resulted from the interaction between the African and Eurasiatic plates. Isochron maps of aquifers systems exhibited the structuring of this syncline in sub-surface characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thickness variations. Seismic sections L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 and petroleum wells showed an heterogeneous multilayer aquifers of Miocene formed by the arrangement of ten sandstone bodies, separated by impermeable clay packages. Oligo-Miocene deposits correspond to the most great potential aquifers, with respectively an average transmissivity estimated: Somaa aquifer 6.5 10-4 m2/s, Sandstone level aquifer 2.6 10-3 m2/s, Beglia aquifer 1.1 10-3 m2/s, Ain Ghrab aquifer 1.3 10-4 m2/s and Oligocene aquifer 2 10-3 m2/s. The interpretation of spatial variations of seismic units and the

  16. Italian trade and direct investment in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Settimo

    2014-01-01

    More than three years since the events of the Arab Spring, the five North African countries � Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia are still going through a difficult transition. This study provides an overview of Italian trade and direct investment in the region. The main stylized facts are the following: (1) among the countries of the European Union, Italy is the region�s largest trading partner; (2) the region is a crucial source of energy, supplying 31 per cent of the oil and 44...

  17. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports studies have focused on all parts of the world with one exception: the Middle East and North Africa. Nonetheless, sports and particularly soccer has been in various parts of the Middle East key to ...

  18. Trust and Tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A Comparative Perspective on the Impact of the Arab Uprisings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Spierings

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA are expected to have influenced two key civic attitudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessments of the general patterns and particularities in this region are rare. This contribution theorizes the uprisings’ impact and presents new society-level measurements of trust and tolerance for the MENA, synchronizing over 40 Arab Barometer and World Values Survey surveys on Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, and Yemen, from before and after the uprisings. The analyses firstly show political-institutional trust falling in the uprisings’ aftermath in countries that went through democratic reform or regime change. It appears that politicians misbehaving and reforms not resolving social problems hurt people’s trust in politics. Secondly, in democratic transition countries Egypt and Tunisia, a decrease in social trust reflected the pattern of political-institutional trust indicating a spill-over effect. Thirdly, ethno-religious tolerance dropped region-wide after the uprisings, indicating that the aftermath of religious conflict impacted the entire Arab region. These results support rational-choice institutionalist theories, while at the same time refining them for the MENA context.

  19. Considering groundwater use to improve the assessment of groundwater pumping for irrigation in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Amichi, Farida; Ameur, Fatah; Calvez, Roger; Jenhaoui, Zakia; Bouarfa, Sami; Kuper, Marcel; Habaieb, Hamadi; Hartani, Tarik; Hammani, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater resources in semi-arid areas and especially in the Mediterranean face a growing demand for irrigated agriculture and, to a lesser extent, for domestic uses. Consequently, groundwater reserves are affected and water-table drops are widely observed. This leads to strong constraints on groundwater access for farmers, while managers worry about the future evolution of the water resources. A common problem for building proper groundwater management plans is the difficulty in assessing individual groundwater withdrawals at regional scale. Predicting future trends of these groundwater withdrawals is even more challenging. The basic question is how to assess the water budget variables and their evolution when they are deeply linked to human activities, themselves driven by countless factors (access to natural resources, public policies, market, etc.). This study provides some possible answers by focusing on the assessment of groundwater withdrawals for irrigated agriculture at three sites in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria). Efforts were made to understand the different features that influence irrigation practices, and an adaptive user-oriented methodology was used to monitor groundwater withdrawals. For each site, different key factors affecting the regional groundwater abstraction and its past evolution were identified by involving farmers' knowledge. Factors such as farmer access to land and groundwater or development of public infrastructures (electrical distribution network) are crucial to decode the results of well inventories and assess the regional groundwater abstraction and its future trend. This leads one to look with caution at the number of wells cited in the literature, which could be oversimplified.

  20. The key role of supply chain actors in groundwater irrigation development in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejars, Caroline; Daoudi, Ali; Amichi, Hichem

    2017-09-01

    The role played by supply chain actors in the rapid development of groundwater-based irrigated agriculture is analyzed. Agricultural groundwater use has increased tremendously in the past 50 years, leading to the decline of water tables. Groundwater use has enabled intensification of existing farming systems and ensured economic growth. This "groundwater economy" has been growing rapidly due to the initiative of farmers and the involvement of a wide range of supply chain actors, including suppliers of equipment, inputs retailers, and distributors of irrigated agricultural products. In North Africa, the actors in irrigated production chains often operate at the margin of public policies and are usually described as "informal", "unstructured", and as participating in "groundwater anarchy". This paper underlines the crucial role of supply chain actors in the development of groundwater irrigation, a role largely ignored by public policies and rarely studied. The analysis is based on three case studies in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, and focuses on the horticultural sub-sector, in particular on onions and tomatoes, which are irrigated high value crops. The study demonstrates that although supply chain actors are catalyzers of the expansion of groundwater irrigation, they could also become actors in adaptation to the declining water tables. Through their informal activities, they help reduce market risks, facilitate credit and access to subsidies, and disseminate innovation. The interest associated with making these actors visible to agricultural institutions is discussed, along with methods of getting them involved in the management of the resource on which they depend.

  1. Neural network and wavelets in prediction of cosmic ray variability: The North Africa as study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Neïla; Bennaceur, Raouf

    2010-04-01

    Since the Earth is permanently bombarded with energetic cosmic rays particles, cosmic ray flux has been monitored by ground based neutron monitors for decades. In this work an attempt is made to investigate the decomposition and reconstructions provided by Morlet wavelet technique, using data series of cosmic rays variabilities, then to constitute from this wavelet analysis an input data base for the neural network system with which we can then predict decomposition coefficients and all related parameters for other points. Thus the latter are used for the recomposition step in which the plots and curves describing the relative cosmic rays intensities are obtained in any points on the earth in which we do not have any information about cosmic rays intensities. Although neural network associated with wavelets are not frequently used for cosmic rays time series, they seems very suitable and are a good choice to obtain these results. In fact we have succeeded to derive a very useful tool to obtain the decomposition coefficients, the main periods for each point on the Earth and on another hand we have now a kind of virtual NM for these locations like North Africa countries, Maroc, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Cairo. We have found the aspect of very known 11-years cycle: T1, we have also revealed the variation type of T2 and especially T3 cycles which seem to be induced by particular Earth's phenomena.

  2. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fatāwa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals.

  3. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports

  4. Middle East and North Africa Data Book, September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Devarajan, Shanta; Mottaghi, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) data book serves as a quick reference and a reliable dataset for monitoring economic and social developments in the region. The data are drawn from the 2014 World Bank's World Development Indicators (WDI) and International Monetary Fund's (IMF's) direction of trade statistics. It contains macroeconomic, sectoral, and social indicators for 19 countrie...

  5. Multi-dimensional migration challenges in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes van der Klaauw

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Facing tighter European border controls, increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers from sub-Saharan countries find themselves stranded in North Africa. In the absence of functioning state asylum structures and with a growing caseload of asylum seekers, UNHCR is working to strengthen regional protection capacity, particularly in Morocco.

  6. Multi-dimensional migration challenges in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes van der Klaauw

    2007-01-01

    Facing tighter European border controls, increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers from sub-Saharan countries find themselves stranded in North Africa. In the absence of functioning state asylum structures and with a growing caseload of asylum seekers, UNHCR is working to strengthen regional protection capacity, particularly in Morocco.

  7. Middle East and North Africa | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Across the Middle East and North Africa, local economies are under strain, often relying too heavily on the oil industry. ... Our programming is designed to bring together the right partners for the most impact, in areas such as social and economic policy, the environment, politics and governance, information and ...

  8. Research for Development in the Middle East and North Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book explores the current challenges and opportunities of research for development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. Experts from the region and ... HarassMap et Uber Égypte nouent un partenariat pour sensibiliser la population à la question du harcèlement sexuel. L'organisation HarassMap ...

  9. Women of the World: Near East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamie, Mary

    The third in a series of five handbooks designed to present and analyze statistical data on women in various regions of the world, this handbook focuses on women in 14 countries in the Near East and North Africa. Beginning with an overview of population distribution and changes in the region, the analysis continues with a description of women's…

  10. Botanical aspects of aloes of north East Africa | Demissew | Bulletin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Botanical aspects of aloes of north East Africa.

  11. Assessment of surface water vulnerability to pesticide contamination using the modeling tool PegOpera: Application in North Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Amira; Habaieb, Hamadi; Deliège, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    Tunisia is a country in which three quarters of the territory is arid to semi-arid with limited water resources. Decreasing water scarcity and water pollution constitute a big challenge for water stakeholders particularly in rural areas and poor communities. The main factors influencing water availability in this Mediterranean country is, among others, overexploitation of non-renewable resources and diffuse pollution. Due to intensive agriculture in proximity of rivers and continuous use of pesticides, there is a potential risk for contamination of waterbodies by the agrochemicals used. This could have a negative impact on agricultural production as well as human health and threaten in priority the north part of the country where 82% of surface water is available. Despite this situation, no catchment monitoring program is currently put in place since it is expensive and require large investment. In this study, we established a methodology using the PegOpera modeling tool to assess the potential risk of pesticides contamination of surface water at the scale of a rural catchment situated in the northwestern part of Tunisia, the Joumine basin, draining an area of 418 km2 and devoted to agriculture, mainly rainfed cereal crops. In the downstream part of the basin, the Joumine dam was built in 1984 to provide water for irrigation and drinking purposes. We performed a survey with catchment farmers to report management practices in the area as well as spatial and temporal information about pesticide compounds, timing and application rate from which we identified the most used pesticide molecules. The SIRIS method (System of Integration of Risk with Interactions of Scores) was applied to classify compounds used according to the risk that they present to the aquatic environment and therefore to identify those chemicals that should be monitored (Guerbet et al., 2002; Le Gall et al., 2007). According to the results of this classification, we selected 6 molecules to study in

  12. Value generation of future CSP projects in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Christoph; Engelken, Maximilian; Schlegl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the value generation potential for local and international industry in different development scenarios of the concentrating solar power (CSP) market in North Africa until 2030. It analyzes the economic impact resulting from the participation of North African and European companies during construction and operation of CSP plants. The assessment is based on a self-developed solar technologies market development model (STMD) that includes economic and technical requirements and constraints for the creation of a local CSP market. In-depth interviews with industry stakeholders provide specific input, validate the calculations and complement the quantitative model results and conclusions. Long-term potential for locally generated revenues from CSP plant construction are modeled and lead to a share of local revenues of up to 60%. Potential market size of solar power plants in North Africa could reach total revenues of 120 Billion euros and thus demand for components and services contribute to national gross domestic products significantly. Recommendations are given for regional industry cooperation and policy actions for the support of local and international CSP industry in North Africa in order to improve the investment environment and growth of renewable energies in the region. - Highlights: ►New economic model to evaluate value generation of CSP take-off in North Africa. ►CSP components are assessed regarding their potentials to be produced locally. ►Potential for locally generated revenues of CSP plants: 60% of total value. ►Socio-economic impacts of RE projects become more relevant to investment decisions.

  13. The African Geospatial Sciences Institute (agsi): a New Approach to Geospatial Training in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeldenberger, S.; Khaled, K. B.

    2012-07-01

    The African Geospatial Sciences Institute (AGSI) is currently being established in Tunisia as a non-profit, non-governmental organization (NGO). Its objective is to accelerate the geospatial capacity development in North-Africa, providing the facilities for geospatial project and management training to regional government employees, university graduates, private individuals and companies. With typical course durations between one and six months, including part-time programs and long-term mentoring, its focus is on practical training, providing actual project execution experience. The AGSI will complement formal university education and will work closely with geospatial certification organizations and the geospatial industry. In the context of closer cooperation between neighboring North Africa and the European Community, the AGSI will be embedded in a network of several participating European and African universities, e. g. the ITC, and international organizations, such as the ISPRS, the ICA and the OGC. Through a close cooperation with African organizations, such as the AARSE, the RCMRD and RECTAS, the network and exchange of ideas, experiences, technology and capabilities will be extended to Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa. A board of trustees will be steering the AGSI operations and will ensure that practical training concepts and contents are certifiable and can be applied within a credit system to graduate and post-graduate education at European and African universities. The geospatial training activities of the AGSI are centered on a facility with approximately 30 part- and full-time general staff and lecturers in Tunis during the first year. The AGSI will operate a small aircraft with a medium-format aerial camera and compact LIDAR instrument for local, community-scale data capture. Surveying training, the photogrammetric processing of aerial images, GIS data capture and remote sensing training will be the main components of the practical training courses

  14. EXPLORING CONTEXTUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRADITIONAL MEDINAS IN NORTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Huyam Hadi Abudib

    2016-01-01

    In an age of globalization and standardization, cities around the world are losing their historical and cultural identity. Traditional cities of the Muslim world, in particular, are witnessing an increased transformation in their urban fabric, which is extremely different from their original one, and not necessarily better. This paper explores the historical precedents of three traditional medinas in North Africa, which are Tripoli, Tunis and Fez, from a comparative perspective. The aim of th...

  15. Fairly elevated incidence of goiter with marginally low urinary iodine in adolescents living in the north-western part of Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, M.V.; Bourdoux, P.; Ben Slimane, F.; Ben Abdallah, M.; Mtimet, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the etiology of endemic goiter in the north-western part of Tunisia, we examined 93 adolescents of this region. We measured urinary iodine concentrations, serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, thyroglobulin and antithyrogobulin antibody concentrations. The adolescents were questioned about their alimentary habits, the origin of their drinking water and the presence of known goiter(s) in their family. Among these adolescents, 49.5% of them had a goiter. Urinary iodine concentrations showed mild iodine deficiency. The serum determinations gave results within the reference ranges, without any significative differences between adolescents, with or without goiter. We found two risk factors: the age of adolescents, and the presence of a known goiter in the family. These results suggest that the actual prevention may not be adequate, or most likely that goitrogenic factors are to be looked for, especially in drinking water, since the majority of these adolescents drink no controlled water

  16. Hepatitis C Virus in North Africa: An Emerging Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Daw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus is a major public health threat associated with serious clinical consequences worldwide. North Africa is a unique region composed of seven countries that vary considerably in the predisposing factors to microbial diseases both historically and at the present time. The dynamics of HCV in the region are not well documented. The data are both limited and controversial in most of the countries in the region. In North Africa, the epidemiology of HCV is disparate and understanding it has been hampered by regional “epidemiological homogeneity” concepts. As the dynamics of HCV vary from country to country, context-specific research is needed. In this review, we assess studies performed in each country in the general populations as well as among blood donors and groups exposed to the HCV infection. The reported prevalence of HCV ranges from 0.6% to 8.4% in the Maghreb countries and is predominated by genotype 1. In the Nile valley region, it ranges from 2.2% to 18.9% and is dominated by genotype 4. In North African countries, HCV seems to be a serious problem that is driven by different vectors even in different geographical locations within the same country. Efforts should be combined at both the national and regional levels to implement efficient preventive and treatment strategies.

  17. Mapping potential zones for groundwater recharge and its evaluation in arid environments using a GIS approach: Case study of North Gafsa Basin (Central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokadem, Naziha; Boughariou, Emna; Mudarra, Matías; Ben Brahim, Fatma; Andreo, Bartolome; Hamed, Younes; Bouri, Salem

    2018-05-01

    With the progressive evolution of industrial sector, agricultural, urbanization, population and drinking water supply, the water demand continuously increases which necessitates the planning of groundwater recharge particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. This paper gives a comprehensive review of various recharges studies in the North Gafsa basin (South Tunisia). This latter is characterized by a natural groundwater recharge that is deeply affected by the lack of precipitations. The aim of this study is to determine the recharge potential zones and to quantify (or estimate) the rainfall recharge of the shallow aquifers. The mapping of the potential recharge zones was established in North Gafsa basin, using geological and hydrological parameters such as slope, lithology, topography and stream network. Indeed, GIS provide tools to reclassify these input layers to produce the final map of groundwater potential zones of the study area. The final output map reveals two distinct zones representing moderate and low groundwater potential recharge. Recharge estimations were based on the four methods: (1) Chloride Method, (2) ERAS Method, (3) DGRE coefficient and (4) Fersi equations. Therefore, the overall results of the different methods demonstrate that the use of the DGRE method applying on the potential zones is more validated.

  18. Energy, pollution, and economic development in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miniar Ben Ammar Sghari

    2016-11-01

    The rising level of energy consumption that is occurring internationally also is being mirrored at regional and national levels. An interesting case study along these lines is Tunisia, which is one of the high-growth economies in the Middle East and North African area yet lacks sufficient energy supply to satisfy its growing demand. Tunisia looks like many nations around the world with a young population, growing economy, increasing domestic energy consumption, and the need to balance economic development with environmental concerns.

  19. Tectono-sedimentary events and geodynamic evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of the Alpine Margin, Gulf of Tunis, north-eastern Tunisia offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Fetheddine; Zouaghi, Taher; Chelbi, Mohamed Ben; Bédir, Mourad; Zargouni, Fouad

    2010-09-01

    The structural pattern, tectono-sedimentary framework and geodynamic evolution for Mesozoic and Cenozoic deep structures of the Gulf of Tunis (north-eastern Tunisia) are proposed using petroleum well data and a 2-D seismic interpretation. The structural system of the study area is marked by two sets of faults that control the Mesozoic subsidence and inversions during the Paleogene and Neogene times: (i) a NE-SW striking set associated with folds and faults, which have a reverse component; and (ii) a NW-SE striking set active during the Tertiary extension episodes and delineating grabens and subsiding synclines. In order to better characterize the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Gulf of Tunis structures, seismic data interpretations are compared to stratigraphic and structural data from wells and neighbouring outcrops. The Atlas and external Tell belonged to the southernmost Tethyan margin record a geodynamic evolution including: (i) rifting periods of subsidence and Tethyan oceanic accretions from Triassic until Early Cretaceous: we recognized high subsiding zones (Raja and Carthage domains), less subsiding zones (Gamart domain) and a completely emerged area (Raouad domain); (ii) compressive events during the Cenozoic with relaxation periods of the Oligocene-Aquitanian and Messinian-Early Pliocene. The NW-SE Late Eocene and Tortonian compressive events caused local inversions with sealed and eroded folded structures. During Middle to Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, we have identified depocentre structures corresponding to half-grabens and synclines in the Carthage and Karkouane domains. The north-south contractional events at the end of Early Pliocene and Late Pliocene periods are associated with significant inversion of subsidence and synsedimentary folded structures. Structuring and major tectonic events, recognized in the Gulf of Tunis, are linked to the common geodynamic evolution of the north African and western Mediterranean basins.

  20. Impacts of previous crops on Fusarium foot and root rot, and on yields of durum wheat in North West Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia CHEKALI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of ten previous crop rotations (cereals, legumes and fallow on Fusarium foot and root rot of durum wheat were investigated for three cropping seasons in a trial established in 2004 in Northwest Tunisia. Fungi isolated from the roots and stem bases were identified using morphological and molecular methods, and were primarily Fusarium culmorum and F. pseudograminearum. Under low rainfall conditions, the previous crop affected F. pseudograminearum incidence on durum wheat roots but not F. culmorum. Compared to continuous cropping of durum wheat, barley as a previous crop increased disease incidence more than fivefold, while legumes and fallow tended to reduce incidence.  Barley as a previous crop increased wheat disease severity by 47%, compared to other rotations. Grain yield was negatively correlated with the incidence of F. culmorum infection, both in roots and stem bases, and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.61 for roots and -0.77 for stem bases, P<0.0001. Fusarium pseudograminearum was also negatively correlated with yield and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.53 on roots and -0.71 on stem bases, P < 0.0001 but was not correlated with severity.

  1. Study of variation in groundwater quality in a coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia using multivariate factor analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Charfi, Sihem; Zouari, Kamel; Feki, Saber; Mami, Ezeddine

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on the Grombalia aquifer which constitutes the main water resource in Northeast Tunisia, Cap Bon Peninsula. The recharge of this aquifer is ensured mainly by direct infiltration of rainwater through permeable layers. Under semi-arid climatic conditions and increasing water demand for irrigation, about 80% of the Grombalia aquifer system shows different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic activities. The total dissolved solids values range from 0.75 to 5.6g/l.Isotopic characterization with stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) of Grombalia aquifer system identified geochemistry processes that control water chemistry. In addition, the multivariate statistical technique (Principal Component Analysis) was used to identify the origin, the recharge mode and geochemical processes controlling groundwater quality. The principal reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the Grombalia groundwater fall into three categories: (1) denitrification process; (2) dissolution of salts; and (3) irrigation return flow process. Tritium data in groundwater from the study area suggest the existence of pre1950 and post1960 recharge. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  2. Hydrochemical and Isotopic Investigation of Groundwater in the Hammamet-Nabeul Aquifer System, North-Eastern Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Moussa, A.; Zouari, K. [Laboratory of Radio-Analysis and Environment, ENIS, Sfax (Tunisia); Kurttas, T. [Isotope Hydrology Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    The combination of major element geochemistry, stable ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H) and radioactive ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C) isotopes has provided a comprehensive understanding of the natural and anthropogenic processes that control groundwater mineralization as well as the sources of different groundwater bodies within the Hammamet-Nabeul unconfined aquifer (Cap Bon peninsula, northeastern Tunisia). The geochemical examination shows the dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-SO{sub 4} water types resulting from the dissolution of halite and gypsum, the dedolomitization and the cation exchange process. Additionally, the return flow process in relation with the long term flood irrigation practice contributes to the mineralization by producing high amounts of nitrate. The stable isotope signatures reveal the existence of two groundwater groups. The non-evaporated groundwaters with relatively depleted contents, reflecting recharge at higher altitudes; and evaporated groundwaters with enriched contents highlighting the influence of return flow of irrigation waters. Tritium contents in these two groups provide evidence of the presence of pre- 1950 and post-1960 recharge periods. Carbon-14 activities in shallow wells, in spite of their contamination by organic {sup 14}C, confirm the recent origin of the groundwaters in the study area. (author)

  3. Study of variation in groundwater quality in a coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia using multivariate factor analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Charfi, Sihem

    2013-07-01

    This work focuses on the Grombalia aquifer which constitutes the main water resource in Northeast Tunisia, Cap Bon Peninsula. The recharge of this aquifer is ensured mainly by direct infiltration of rainwater through permeable layers. Under semi-arid climatic conditions and increasing water demand for irrigation, about 80% of the Grombalia aquifer system shows different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic activities. The total dissolved solids values range from 0.75 to 5.6g/l.Isotopic characterization with stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) of Grombalia aquifer system identified geochemistry processes that control water chemistry. In addition, the multivariate statistical technique (Principal Component Analysis) was used to identify the origin, the recharge mode and geochemical processes controlling groundwater quality. The principal reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the Grombalia groundwater fall into three categories: (1) denitrification process; (2) dissolution of salts; and (3) irrigation return flow process. Tritium data in groundwater from the study area suggest the existence of pre1950 and post1960 recharge. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  4. Genome-wide and paternal diversity reveal a recent origin of human populations in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Haber, Marc, 1980-; Martínez Cruz, Begoña; Zalloua, Pierre A; Elgaaied, Amel Benammar; Comas, David, 1969-

    2013-01-01

    The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete descr...

  5. Use of a time-domain electromagnetic method with geochemical tracers to explore the salinity anomalies in a small coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekirbane, Anis; Tsujimura, Maki; Kawachi, Atsushi; Lachaal, Fethi; Isoda, Hiroko; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2014-12-01

    The study area is a small coastal plain in north-eastern Tunisia. It is drained by an ephemeral stream network and is subject to several pollutant discharges such as oilfield brine coming from a neighboring oil company and wastewater from Somâa city, located in the upstream of the plain. Furthermore, a hydraulic head near the coastal part of the aquifer is below sea level, suggesting that seawater intrusion may occur. A time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) survey, based on 28 soundings, was conducted in Wadi Al Ayn and Daroufa plains to delineate the saline groundwater. Based on longitudinal and transversal resistivity two-dimensional pseudosections calibrated with boring data, the extent of saline water was identified. Geochemical tracers were combined with the resistivity dataset to differentiate the origin of groundwater salinization. In the upstream part of the plain, the infiltration of oilfield brine through the sandy bed of Wadi Al Ayn seems to have a considerable effect on groundwater salinization. However, in the coastal part of the aquifer, groundwater salinization is due to seawater intrusion and the saltwater is reaching an inland extent around 1.3 km from the shoreline. The contribution ratios of saline water bodies derived from the inverted chloride data vary for the oilfield brine from 1 to 13 % and for the seawater from 2 to 21 %.

  6. Assessment of seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination on the groundwater quality in the Korba coastal plain of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghibi, Adel; Tarhouni, Jamila; Zouhri, Lahcen

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination of groundwater have become a growing concern for people in rural areas in Tunisia where groundwater is always used as drinking water. The coastal plain of Korba (north-east of Tunisia) is a typical area where the contamination of the aquifer in the form of saltwater intrusion and high nitrate concentrations is very developed and represents the major consequence of human activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate groundwater resource level, to determine groundwater quality and to assess the risk of NO3- pollution in groundwater using hydrogeochemical tools. Groundwater were sampled and analyzed for physic-chemical parameters: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, Total Dissolved Solid and of the physical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and the temperature). The interpretation of the analytical results is shown numerically and graphically through the ionic deviations, Piper Diagram, seawater fractions and binary diagrams. Moreover, electrical conductivity investigations have been used to identify the location of the major intrusion plumes in this coastal area and to obtain new information on the spatial scales and dynamics of the fresh water-seawater interface. Those processes can be used as indicators of seawater intrusion progression. First, the hydrogeochemical investigation of this aquifer reveals the major sources of contamination, represented by seawater intrusion. Thus, the intensive extraction of groundwater from aquifer reduces freshwater outflow to the sea, creates several drawdown cones and lowering of the water table to as much as 12 m below mean sea level in the center part of the study area especially between Diarr El Hojjej and Tafelloun villages, causing seawater migration inland and rising toward the wells. Moreover, the results of this study revealed the presence of direct cation exchange linked to seawater intrusion and dissolution processes associated with

  7. EXPLORING CONTEXTUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRADITIONAL MEDINAS IN NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyam Hadi Abudib

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In an age of globalization and standardization, cities around the world are losing their historical and cultural identity. Traditional cities of the Muslim world, in particular, are witnessing an increased transformation in their urban fabric, which is extremely different from their original one, and not necessarily better. This paper explores the historical precedents of three traditional medinas in North Africa, which are Tripoli, Tunis and Fez, from a comparative perspective. The aim of this study is to analyse key contextual characteristics of these cities in an attempt to derive key principles that are capable of improving the contemporary built environment and safeguarding the cultural identity of traditional medinas.  The paper concludes with a number of lessons learned from the visual form, urban pattern and land-use of traditional medinas, and sets out challenges that face decision makers and designers in manifesting the essence of traditional medinas in contemporary urban form.

  8. Natural gas survey, middle east and North Africa, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This book provides an exhaustive, unrivaled and quarterly updated analysis of the gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. In addition to the country-by-country reports, it includes a regional overview section on the objectives and priorities of the national companies: ADNOC, EGAS, NIGC, NOC, PDO, QATARGAS, RASGAS, SAUDI ARAMCO, SONATRACH, etc... It includes: 18 country reports, 51 maps illustrating gas fields and facilities, as well as 62 tables and 87 graphs, and 2420 addresses of oil and gas companies operating in the Middle East and North Africa, with contact names, e-mail, phone and fax numbers. Each country report outlines the government policy, reserves, production, field development, foreign companies involved, export schemes, domestic consumption, etc

  9. Eradicating the Screwworm. An FAO Emergency Programme for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The arrival of New World Screwworm fly in Libya in 1988 represented a grave threat not only to Libya, but also to the African continent as a whole. The Screwworm had already proved itself one of the most devastating livestock pests in the Americas, where it had cost farmers thousands of millions of dollars in lost production and governments hundreds of millions in control and eradication measures. Its introduction to North Africa posed a serious health threat to domestic animals, wild animals, and even humans. The fly lays eggs in wounds as small as a tick bite or in orifices such as ears or the nose. The eggs hatch into larvae that eat into the living flesh of the host, enlarging the wound. More Screwworm flies - and other parasites - infest the wound and frequently, if left untreated, the victim dies. Fully grown cattle can be killed within ten days. In 1960, the cost of the Screwworm infestation in the United States of America was estimated at $100 million a year. Clearing Mexico and the southern United States of the pest took more than 20 years and cost nearly $700 million. The fly's mobility makes containment extremely difficult. Adult flies have travelled up to 200 km and, where conditions are favourable, the size and range of the population can expand rapidly. Carried by infested animals, the primary cause of the infestation spreading, Screwworm can travel across continents. The Screwworm presence in Libya, therefore, was a concern of international significance: unless quickly eradicated, it would inevitably spread. Studies carried out by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia (CSIRO) showed the Screwworm could easily migrate around the North- and West African coasts and down the Nile valley. Computer models predicted the establishment of permanent infestations throughout Africa and Southern Europe. From this base it would then reach into the Middle East and Asia. Such an infestation would be virtually impossible to

  10. Eradicating the Screwworm. An FAO Emergency Programme for North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-15

    The arrival of New World Screwworm fly in Libya in 1988 represented a grave threat not only to Libya, but also to the African continent as a whole. The Screwworm had already proved itself one of the most devastating livestock pests in the Americas, where it had cost farmers thousands of millions of dollars in lost production and governments hundreds of millions in control and eradication measures. Its introduction to North Africa posed a serious health threat to domestic animals, wild animals, and even humans. The fly lays eggs in wounds as small as a tick bite or in orifices such as ears or the nose. The eggs hatch into larvae that eat into the living flesh of the host, enlarging the wound. More Screwworm flies - and other parasites - infest the wound and frequently, if left untreated, the victim dies. Fully grown cattle can be killed within ten days. In 1960, the cost of the Screwworm infestation in the United States of America was estimated at $100 million a year. Clearing Mexico and the southern United States of the pest took more than 20 years and cost nearly $700 million. The fly's mobility makes containment extremely difficult. Adult flies have travelled up to 200 km and, where conditions are favourable, the size and range of the population can expand rapidly. Carried by infested animals, the primary cause of the infestation spreading, Screwworm can travel across continents. The Screwworm presence in Libya, therefore, was a concern of international significance: unless quickly eradicated, it would inevitably spread. Studies carried out by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia (CSIRO) showed the Screwworm could easily migrate around the North- and West African coasts and down the Nile valley. Computer models predicted the establishment of permanent infestations throughout Africa and Southern Europe. From this base it would then reach into the Middle East and Asia. Such an infestation would be virtually impossible to

  11. Workforce Development : Middle East and North Africa Regional Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Thacker, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The workforce development (WfD) systems of the seven MENA countries studied in this exercise—Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, the Palestinian Territories, Tunisia, and Yemen—were evaluated using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) workforce development diagnostic tool and scored similarly in many aspects. Broadly, the seven MENA countries’ WfD systems remain very much in need of policy and institutional reform in order to better match skills demand with skills supply. Wi...

  12. Heavy metal contamination in the environs of the Zn-pB Mine in North-West of Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Guirat, S.; Ben Aissa, N.; Mhiri, A.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of industrial heavy metals (HM) pollution on soil quality and plant growth has become a public concern. To evaluate heavy metals concentration a Zn-Pb mine site was selected, as source of pollution, localized in BouGrine (BG) region at 120 km North-west of Tunis characterized by calcareous soils. Soils of the imine site are occupied by forest pine. (Author)

  13. CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better barley

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better barley — together ... In Syria, for example, "host farmers" in nine communities were ... and Yemen, the same approach is being applied to research on lentils.

  14. Water: The Hydraulic Parameter of Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiser, Stephen D

    2000-01-01

    ...). Water is a primary concern of most governments in the Middle East and North Africa. A myriad of synergistic variables are exponentially increasing demands for water, while simultaneously decreasing the region's ability to supply...

  15. Republic of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1986-01-01

    The north African country of Tunisia (632,387 square miles) consists largely of desert, with some rich farmlands and a rocky transitional zone. Despite the government's family planning efforts, the population grew from 5.6 million in 1975, to 7.2 million in 1985, and, with its 2.4% annual growth rate, is projected to reach 8.1 million by 1990. Tunisia's rural population decreased to 46% in 1985 as workers and their families moved into urban areas. 98% of the population is Arab-Berber; Arabic and French are the offical languages. The age-sex distribution is typical of developing countries; the median age has increased from 16.8 years in 1966 to 19.5 in 1950 and persons over age 60 have increased from 5.1% in 1956 to 6.7% in 1980. Tunisian families average 5.7 persons in rural areas, and 5.4 persons in urban one. Marriages are declining, polygamy is outlawed, and divorce, once easy, is more difficult and declining. At independence in 1956, only 15% of Tunisians were literate, now 85-90% of primary school age children are enrolled and literacy had risen to 53% in 1980. Women, once heavily veiled, now have full rights and access to education. More than 60 thousand new workers compete for the 40,000 new job openings each year. An estimated 7000 laborers found work in Europe in 1984. Women composed only 11% of the 1975 work force, but by 1980, held 20% of jobs, although they were mainly low paying positions. In 1980, 35% of the laborers worked in agriculture, 19% in industry, 17% in service industries, and 10% in construction. Agriculture and tourism have declined in recent years, contributing to social unrest, currency decline, and inflated wages and consumer prices.

  16. Tunisia : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: URBAN HOUSING, HOUSING NEEDS, HOUSING CONDITIONS, LOW COST HOUSING, HOUSING POLICY, HOUSING PROGRAMMES, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Malawi, Senegal, Tunisia, Uganda. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total ...

  17. A project of a two meter telescope in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2015-03-01

    Site testing undertaken during the last 20 years by Moroccan researchers through international studies have shown that the Atlas mountains in Morocco has potentialities similar to those sites which host the largest telescopes in world. Given the quality of the sites and opportunities to conduct modern research, we believe that the installation of a 2m diameter telescope will open new horizons for Astronomy in Morocco and north Africa allowing our region to enter definitively into the very exclusive club of countries possessing an instrument of that size. A state of the art astrophysical observatory on any good astronomical observation site should be equipped with a modern 2m-class, robotic telescope and some smaller telescopes. Our plan should be to operate one of the most efficient robotic 2m class telescopes worldwide in order to offer optimal scientific opportunities for researchers and maintain highest standards for the education of students. Beside all categories of astronomical research fields, students will have the possibility to be educated intensively on the design, manufacturing and operating of modern state of the art computer controlled instruments. In the frame of such education and observation studies several PhD and dissertational work packages are possible. Many of the observations will be published in articles worldwide and a number of guest observers from other countries will have the possibility to take part in collaborations. This could be a starting point of an international reputation of our region in the field of modern astronomy.

  18. What is the referential gas outlook for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegrouche, L.

    2000-01-01

    The estimation of energy requirements for North Africa.is often a result of urgent necessities and supply models. The outlook proposed here puts the accent more on a market logic. It attempts to.combine the objectives of supply and demand, in order to anticipate a reasonable level of market growth. The survey method providing the basis of this approach involves the simulation of preferences and the comparison of forecasts. For the favourable scenario, the projected level reflects energy-related and strategic choices by the countries consulted. In the reference scenario, it refers to the anticipation of demand which becomes combined with the objectives of supply in terms of production capacity and maturing supply projects. The most relevant forecasts for gas demand are introduced for a region and on a per country basis for the period 2000 - 2030. The demand for natural gas is analysed from a global and sector-based point of view. The question of supply capacity acts as a constraint in saturating the market and anticipating its equilibrium. Global gas demand is in line with the pace of change in gross domestic product. This suggests that it is just as sensitive to economic changes as energy demand. An additional demand generated by economic growth can only intensify energy competition. The indicators used in this outlook and the results obtained support this observation. (authors)

  19. Natural gas in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enay, P.

    1997-02-01

    Natural Gas in the Middle East and North Africa gives an in-depth country-by-country survey of both the region's ambitious gas development plans and the problems it faces. It provides details of production costs, the extent and accessibility of gas reserves and the degree of host government support. The report addresses all the essential questions surrounding investment opportunities in this area and guides you through gas demand in the region. It also includes a detailed study of 11 major gas producing and consuming countries in the area, covering: Algeria; Egypt; Iran; Kuwait; Libya; Oman; Qatar; Saudia Arabia; Syria; UAE; Yemen. The report is divided into two sections for ease of use. The first section examines the demand factors for the region's gas exports, the second provides details of gas exploitation programmes in individual countries. The report also provides you with details of: gas reserves, production and use - a country-by-country review; maps of major pipelines - internal networks and export routes; growth in international gas trade; political and fiscal analysis - key to measuring investment risk and short- to medium-term political stability; and major limitations to the region's gas development - geography, political instability and US geopolitical influence in the region. (author)

  20. Utes for space heating and cooling in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordell, B.; Grein, M. a.

    2006-01-01

    The North Africa climate is dry and warm with annual mean temperature from 15 degree centigrade to 25 degree centigrade, with a temperature difference of 20 degree centigrade between the coldest and warmest month. Heating is needed during the short winter and there is a large cooling demand during the long summer. Since the undisturbed ground temperature is equal to the annual mean air temperature, the ground is warmer than the air during the winter and colder than air during summer. This is what is required for the direct use of the ground for heating and cooling. In such systems, ground coupled heating and cooling systems, and also in storage systems, Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES), some kind of underground duct (PIPE) system is used to inject or extract heat from the ground. Thermal energy is then stored and recovered by heating and cooling of the ground, while the ducts are the heat exchangers with the system. The duct system could be placed horizontally or vertically (e.g. in boreholes) in the ground. In many cases heat pumps or cooling machines are included in the systems but in favourable cases, such as in the North African climate, the ground can be used directly for heating and cooling. then, only a circulation pump is used to pump water through the underground duct system with high efficiencies. Such systems can also be used for thermal energy storage, during shorter periods (diurnal) or even between the seasons. In September 2005 Sebha University and Luleu University of Technology started a Libyan Swedish collaboration to develop and implement these systems for the North African climate. Sweden has considerable experience in ground coupled systems, theoretically and practically, and there are presently more than 300.000 systems in operation in Sweden, mainly for heating. Most of these are small-scale heating systems for singe-family houses but during the last decade several hundred large-scale systems have been built for heating and cooling of

  1. World review: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) in some parts of Africa in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Algeria, Angola, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia

  2. Sheep pox in Tunisia: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chehida, F; Ayari-Fakhfakh, E; Caufour, P; Amdouni, J; Nasr, J; Messaoudi, L; Haj Ammar, H; Sghaier, S; Bernard, C; Ghram, A; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2018-02-01

    Sheep pox, a well-known endemic capripox infection, has significant impacts on small ruminant populations in Tunisia. It is responsible for high economic losses throughout North Africa due to its enzootic nature and to the active animal transhumance existing in some governorates in Tunisia. The aim of this review was to analyse data gathered on annual vaccination campaigns designed to control its spread by reducing the level of endemicity and to describe diagnostic and management tools adapted to the Tunisian situation. Seasonal, temporal and spatial distributions of sheep pox outbreaks, as well as related clinical features, were found. It was concluded from this review that establishing strong herd immunization through individual animal immunization, creating adequate infrastructure, increasing awareness among breeders, setting up a field-based surveillance network and improving routine diagnostic methods need to be the major components of a programme to eradicate the disease. It was also felt that cost-benefit analyses of the surveillance and control strategies used would help in controlling its persistence. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Genomic ancestry of North Africans supports back-to-Africa migrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenna M Henn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available North African populations are distinct from sub-Saharan Africans based on cultural, linguistic, and phenotypic attributes; however, the time and the extent of genetic divergence between populations north and south of the Sahara remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity. We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping array data (730,000 sites from seven North African populations, spanning from Egypt to Morocco, and one Spanish population. We identify a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa; this ancestry is likely derived from "back-to-Africa" gene flow more than 12,000 years ago (ya, prior to the Holocene. The indigenous North African ancestry is more frequent in populations with historical Berber ethnicity. In most North African populations we also see substantial shared ancestry with the Near East, and to a lesser extent sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. To estimate the time of migration from sub-Saharan populations into North Africa, we implement a maximum likelihood dating method based on the distribution of migrant tracts. In order to first identify migrant tracts, we assign local ancestry to haplotypes using a novel, principal component-based analysis of three ancestral populations. We estimate that a migration of western African origin into Morocco began about 40 generations ago (approximately 1,200 ya; a migration of individuals with Nilotic ancestry into Egypt occurred about 25 generations ago (approximately 750 ya. Our genomic data reveal an extraordinarily complex history of migrations, involving at least five ancestral populations, into North Africa.

  4. Atmospheric feedbacks in North Africa from an irrigated, afforested Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemena, Tronje Peer; Matthes, Katja; Martin, Thomas; Wahl, Sebastian; Oschlies, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Afforestation of the Sahara has been proposed as a climate engineering method to sequester a substantial amount of carbon dioxide, potentially effective to mitigate climate change. Earlier studies predicted changes in the atmospheric circulation system. These atmospheric feedbacks raise questions about the self-sustainability of such an intervention, but have not been investigated in detail. Here, we investigate changes in precipitation and circulation in response to Saharan large-scale afforestation and irrigation with NCAR's CESM-WACCM Earth system model. Our model results show a Saharan temperature reduction by 6 K and weak precipitation enhancement by 267 mm/year over the Sahara. Only 26% of the evapotranspirated water re-precipitates over the Saharan Desert, considerably large amounts are advected southward to the Sahel zone and enhance the West African monsoon (WAM). Different processes cause circulation and precipitation changes over North Africa. The increase in atmospheric moisture leads to radiative cooling above the Sahara and increased high-level cloud coverage as well as atmospheric warming above the Sahel zone. Both lead to a circulation anomaly with descending air over the Sahara and ascending air over the Sahel zone. Together with changes in the meridional temperature gradient, this results in a southward shift of the inner-tropical front. The strengthening of the Tropical easterly jet and the northward displacement of the African easterly jet is associated with a northward displacement and strengthening of the WAM precipitation. Our results suggest complex atmospheric circulation feedbacks, which reduce the precipitation potential over an afforested Sahara and enhance WAM precipitation.

  5. Genome-wide and paternal diversity reveal a recent origin of human populations in North Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid

    Full Text Available The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete description of the region. In this study, we analyze uniparental and genome-wide markers examining similarities or contrasts in the results and consequently provide a comprehensive description of the evolutionary history of North Africa populations. Our results show that both males and females in North Africa underwent a similar admixture history with slight differences in the proportions of admixture components. Consequently, genome-wide diversity show similar patterns with admixture tests suggesting North Africans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to current Africans and Eurasians with more affinity towards the out-of-Africa populations than to sub-Saharan Africans. We estimate from the paternal lineages that most North Africans emerged ∼15,000 years ago during the last glacial warming and that population splits started after the desiccation of the Sahara. Although most North Africans share a common admixture history, the Tunisian Berbers show long periods of genetic isolation and appear to have diverged from surrounding populations without subsequent mixture. On the other hand, continuous gene flow from the Middle East made Egyptians genetically closer to Eurasians than to other North Africans. We show that genetic diversity of today's North Africans mostly captures patterns from migrations post Last Glacial Maximum and therefore may be insufficient to inform on the initial population of the region during the Middle Paleolithic period.

  6. Genome-wide and paternal diversity reveal a recent origin of human populations in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Haber, Marc; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Zalloua, Pierre; Benammar Elgaaied, Amel; Comas, David

    2013-01-01

    The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete description of the region. In this study, we analyze uniparental and genome-wide markers examining similarities or contrasts in the results and consequently provide a comprehensive description of the evolutionary history of North Africa populations. Our results show that both males and females in North Africa underwent a similar admixture history with slight differences in the proportions of admixture components. Consequently, genome-wide diversity show similar patterns with admixture tests suggesting North Africans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to current Africans and Eurasians with more affinity towards the out-of-Africa populations than to sub-Saharan Africans. We estimate from the paternal lineages that most North Africans emerged ∼15,000 years ago during the last glacial warming and that population splits started after the desiccation of the Sahara. Although most North Africans share a common admixture history, the Tunisian Berbers show long periods of genetic isolation and appear to have diverged from surrounding populations without subsequent mixture. On the other hand, continuous gene flow from the Middle East made Egyptians genetically closer to Eurasians than to other North Africans. We show that genetic diversity of today's North Africans mostly captures patterns from migrations post Last Glacial Maximum and therefore may be insufficient to inform on the initial population of the region during the Middle Paleolithic period.

  7. Gene flow from North Africa contributes to differential human genetic diversity in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botigué, Laura R.; Henn, Brenna M.; Gravel, Simon; Maples, Brian K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Corona, Erik; Atzmon, Gil; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry; Flores, Carlos; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Comas, David; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic diversity in southern Europe is higher than in other regions of the continent. This difference has been attributed to postglacial expansions, the demic diffusion of agriculture from the Near East, and gene flow from Africa. Using SNP data from 2,099 individuals in 43 populations, we show that estimates of recent shared ancestry between Europe and Africa are substantially increased when gene flow from North Africans, rather than Sub-Saharan Africans, is considered. The gradient of North African ancestry accounts for previous observations of low levels of sharing with Sub-Saharan Africa and is independent of recent gene flow from the Near East. The source of genetic diversity in southern Europe has important biomedical implications; we find that most disease risk alleles from genome-wide association studies follow expected patterns of divergence between Europe and North Africa, with the principal exception of multiple sclerosis. PMID:23733930

  8. Effects of a Reservoir Water on the GW Quality in a Coastal Aquifer of Semi-arid Region, North-east of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, C.; Kawachi, A.; Tsujimura, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated effects of a reservoir water in a salinized shallow aquifer based on spatial distribution of geochemical properties in groundwater (GW). In many coastal shallow aquifers of arid and semi-arid regions, groundwater table (GWT) depression and salinization have occurred due to GW overexploitation. In Korba aquifer, north-east of Tunisia, after a dam reservoir has been constructed in order to assure a water resource for irrigation, improvement of GW level and quality have been observed in the downstream area of the dam (area-A), while the GW in the other area (area-B) still has high salinity. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the effects of the reservoir water on the GW quality. In June 2013, water quality survey and sampling were carried out at 60 wells (GW), a dam reservoir, river and the sea. Major ions, boron, bromide, and oxygen-18 and deuterium in collected samples were analyzed. From the results, in the area-B, the GWT was lower than the sea level and the high salinity were observed. The Br- concentration of the GW was correlated with the Cl- concentration, and the values of B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- of the GW were similar to the seawater. Since the GWT depression allowed the seawater to intrude into the aquifer, the GW salinization occurred in this area. On the other hand, in the area-A, GWT was higher than the seawater level, and the Na+ and Cl- concentrations were lower than the area-B. Especially, in the irrigated areas by using the reservoir water, the isotopic values, B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- of the GW were relatively higher than the others. The reservoir water has high isotopic values due to evaporation effect, and the B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- values become higher due to organic matters in sediment of the reservoir or soil in the filtration process. Thus, in addition to the direct infiltration from the reservoir into the aquifer, irrigation using a reservoir water probably has a positive impact on the GW quality in this area.

  9. First molecular isolation of Mycoplasma ovis from small ruminants in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Rjeibi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eperythrozoonosis is a small ruminant disease caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma ovis (formerly known as Eperythrozoon ovis. Whilst acute infection in sheep may result in an anaemia and ill thrift syndrome, most animals do not develop clinical signs. Molecular methods were used to compare and evaluate the prevalence of infection with M. ovis in sheep and goats in Tunisia. A total of 739 whole blood samples from 573 sheep and 166 goats were tested for the M. ovis 16S rRNA gene using PCR. The overall prevalence was 6.28% ± 0.019 (36/573. Only sheep were infected with M. ovis (p < 0.001, and the prevalence was significantly higher in central Tunisia (29.2% compared with other regions (p < 0.05. The prevalence revealed significant differences according to breed and bioclimatic zones (p < 0.001. Furthermore, the prevalence in young sheep (35/330; 10.6% was higher than in adults (1/243; 0.41% (p < 0.001. Only sheep of the Barbarine breed were infected, with a prevalence of 11.8% (p < 0.001. This is the first molecular study and genetic characterisation of M. ovis in North African sheep breeds.

  10. Socioeconomic indicators are strong predictors of hepatitis A seroprevalence rates in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Mehmet; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Demiray, Tayfur; Ozbek, Ahmet; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Altindis, Mustafa

    The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between age-specific hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rates and various socioeconomic indicators within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We conducted a systematic review of all recently published studies on HAV conducted in the MENA region and identified the highest quality studies for inclusion in our analysis. We calculated the age at midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) for each study and estimated seroprevalence rates at the ages of 5, 10, and 15 years. Next, we identified the correlations between these metrics and several socioeconomic variables. HAV data collected in or after 2000 were available for 14 of the 19 countries in the MENA region. Four of the 14 included countries had intermediate HAV endemicity (Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and UAE), five had high endemicity (Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia), and five had very high endemicity (Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, and Yemen). Water and sanitation were not significant predictors of AMPI or seroprevalence, most likely because most countries in this region have high rates of access to these utilities. However, gross domestic product (GDP), gross national income (GNI), and the human development index (HDI) were all highly associated with AMPI and prevalence. The observed correlations suggest that of the MENA countries without recent HAV data, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar most likely have low endemicity, Oman likely has intermediate endemicity, and Libya likely has high endemicity. While it is unlikely that a single correlation model would be suitable for use in all world regions, the approach utilized in this analysis might provide a simple but accurate method for using economic data to impute the endemicity profiles of countries without recent data in regions where at least several neighboring countries have conducted recent serostudies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2017-04-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  12. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  13. Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Soussi, Mohamed; Boukhalfa, Kamel; Gierliński, Gerard D.

    2017-05-01

    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and

  14. Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports Back-to-Africa Migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon; Wang, Wei; Brisbin, Abra; Byrnes, Jake K.; Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Comas, David

    2012-01-01

    North African populations are distinct from sub-Saharan Africans based on cultural, linguistic, and phenotypic attributes; however, the time and the extent of genetic divergence between populations north and south of the Sahara remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity. We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping array data (730,000 sites) from seven North African populations, spanning from Egypt to Morocco, and one Spanish population. We identify a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa; this ancestry is likely derived from “back-to-Africa” gene flow more than 12,000 years ago (ya), prior to the Holocene. The indigenous North African ancestry is more frequent in populations with historical Berber ethnicity. In most North African populations we also see substantial shared ancestry with the Near East, and to a lesser extent sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. To estimate the time of migration from sub-Saharan populations into North Africa, we implement a maximum likelihood dating method based on the distribution of migrant tracts. In order to first identify migrant tracts, we assign local ancestry to haplotypes using a novel, principal component-based analysis of three ancestral populations. We estimate that a migration of western African origin into Morocco began about 40 generations ago (approximately 1,200 ya); a migration of individuals with Nilotic ancestry into Egypt occurred about 25 generations ago (approximately 750 ya). Our genomic data reveal an extraordinarily complex history of migrations, involving at least five ancestral populations, into North Africa. PMID:22253600

  15. Infectious diseases in North Africa and North African immigrants to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyatti, Meriem; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Zouheir, Yassine; Benani, Abdelouaheb; El Messaoudi, Moulay-Driss; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    The epidemiological transition has reduced infectious diseases mortality in most European countries, yet increased migrant influx risks importing diseases. All reported prevalence rates must be considered on a case-by-case basis depending on the disease in question, respective European Union (EU) country and migratory patterns at work. Tuberculosis has seen a re-emergence in Europe and is concentrated among migrants. Migrants arriving from North Africa (NA) and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) carry higher rates of hepatitis C and B than the local EU population. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) impact of NA migrants to Europe is very low but a hallmark of the HIV epidemic is the penetration and circulation of non-B strains, recombinant forms and HIV-drug-resistant profiles through SSA migrants using NA as a transit point into Europe. Leishmaniasis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease prevalent to Southern Europe although not specifically isolated in migrant groups. Although not endemic in NA countries, malaria represent S: a risk in terms of re-emergence in Europe through transitory migrants arriving from SSA with the destination to Europe. Schistosomiasis has been largely eliminated from NA. High migrant flux into European countries has resulted in changing patterns of communicable disease and collectively requires a continuous surveillance. World Health Organization guidelines recommend targeted screening and preventative vaccination, followed by integration of migrants into the local health-care systems allowing for long-term treatment and follow-up. Finally, effective public health campaigns as a form of prevention are essential for the mitigation of disease dissemination in the migrant pool and for second-generation children of migrants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic analysis of milk production and consumption in the Middle East and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk products are considered as the essential food commodities for humans. Milk products contain essential elements for the human body such as protein, glucose, minerals and vitamins. Moreover, milk is considered the cheapest source of animal protein, an important resource for some related transformation industries and provides employment opportunities for a large number of small producers in both rural and urban areas. The aim of this paper is to analyze the factors which determine the supply and demand for liquid milk (henceforth milk in the Middle East and North Africa in order to point out the main problems and constraints obstructing the milk production in this region. The research also attempts to understand the drivers for the development in milk production in the Middle East and North Africa.Total milk production in the Middle East and North Africa increased from about 12.57 million tons in 1990 to about 25.18 millions tons in 2008. This paper attempts to identify the factors which influence the effectiveness of production, consumption and foreign trade of milk in the Middle East and North Africa. The most important factors affecting consumption is the population, per capita income and produced quantity where a 1% increase in all of them results in increasing the quantity consumed by 1.3%, 2.86% and 0.611%, respectively. Milk sector provides employment opportunities for more than 25% of the working force in some Middle East and North Africa countries.

  17. Dietary trends in the Middle East and North Africa: an ecological study (1961 to 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzarand, Mahdieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Jessri, Mahsa; Toolabi, Karamollah; Mojarrad, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-10-01

    Middle Eastern and North African countries are undergoing nutrition transition, a transition which is associated with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases. This necessitates the evaluation of dietary patterns in these regions. The present study aimed to assess changes in dietary patterns in Middle Eastern and North African countries between 1961 and 2007. Availability of energy and fifteen main food items during 1961-2007 was examined using FAO food balance sheets from the FAOSTAT database. Fifteen countries including nine in the Middle East and six in North Africa were selected and the average availability of total energy and different food items in these regions were compared. Over the 47 years studied, energy and food availability (apart from animal fats and alcoholic beverages) has increased in the Middle East and North Africa. In both regions the proportion of energy derived from meat and vegetable oils has increased significantly while that from cereals decreased significantly. In addition, the proportion of energy from milk and dairy products and vegetables has shown an ascending trend in North Africa while the proportion of energy from fruits has shown a descending trend in the Middle East. The study results reveal an unfavourable trend towards a Westernized diet in the Middle East and, to a certain extent, in North Africa. Tailored nutritional education encouraging healthy eating for prevention of the burden of chronic diseases in these countries seems essential.

  18. Regime Change in North Africa and Implications for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUMO

    networks and; the future of repressive regimes on the continent. A Conceptual ..... The former President of Burkina Faso, Thomas Sankara, once reportedly said that “power is like a bottle ..... Liberal Democracy and its Critics in Africa: Political.

  19. A Programme for the Eradication of the New World Screwworm from North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-15

    The recent establishment of the New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, in North Africa poses an enormous threat to that continent, as well as the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. Because of the urgent need to initiate an eradication programme as soon as possible, three consultants met in Vienna from 8 to 19 January 1990 to prepare a programme outlining the eradication of the NWS from North Africa. Emphasis was placed on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) portion of an eradication programme. At the time the report was prepared the NWS had been reported only from Libya, therefore the report deals with eradication from that country. The document will be used by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture as a guide to assist FAO in NWS eradication from North Africa.

  20. A Programme for the Eradication of the New World Screwworm from North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The recent establishment of the New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, in North Africa poses an enormous threat to that continent, as well as the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. Because of the urgent need to initiate an eradication programme as soon as possible, three consultants met in Vienna from 8 to 19 January 1990 to prepare a programme outlining the eradication of the NWS from North Africa. Emphasis was placed on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) portion of an eradication programme. At the time the report was prepared the NWS had been reported only from Libya, therefore the report deals with eradication from that country. The document will be used by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture as a guide to assist FAO in NWS eradication from North Africa.

  1. Battle Analysis of the Battle of Sidi Bou Zid, Tunisia, North Africa. Defensive, Encircled Forces, 14 February 1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-23

    was in their tank weapon systems - especially in the Tiger tank . It had a larger caliber main gun which fired a higher velocity round from greater...of a Tiger tank at the ranges being fought. *It’s traverse was so limited that it could only fire in the dirction in which it was facing. More over...battalions and one heavy tank company equipped with Mark VI Tiger tanks With reinforcing antitank and artillery units. ’General von Broich organized

  2. Africa-Asia trade versus Africa's trade with the North: Trends and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study shows that Europe continues to be Africa's major trading partner given the historical relations and long standing trading arrangements between the two. However, evidence also shows that despite maintaining strong trade linkages with Europe, Africa's trade with Asia has been growing at a much faster ...

  3. Financial gradualism and banking crises in North Africa region: an investigation by a panel logit model

    OpenAIRE

    KHATTAB, Ahmed; IHADIYAN, Abid

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In order to overcome the troubles of the crisis in the seventies, North African countries have adopted financial liberalization policies to enhance their economic growth. Moreover, these policies have affected the stability of their banking systems. The purpose of this study is to test the impact of financial liberalization on the probability of appearance of banking crises which covers a sample of four countries of the North Africa region during the period 1970-2003 by using a pane...

  4. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Middle East and North Africa Climate

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2016-01-01

    Dust-climate interaction over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has long been studied, as it is the "dustiest" region on earth. However, the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the role of dust direct radiative effect on MENA climate

  5. Translations on Near East and North Africa. Number 1593, New Valley Development Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-17

    People’s Demo- cratic Republic of Yemen _Persian Gulf Area Qatar _Saudi Arabia _Spanish North Africa Sudan _Sultanate of Oman _Syria...and organizing the drainage situation. We have acquired the use of the highest-quality pipe materials used in wells and a knowledge of aquifers . We

  6. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Terink, W.; Hoogeveen, J.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Debele, B.

    Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. An

  7. Water as a Human Right for the Middle East and North Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-07-11

    Jul 11, 2008 ... Water as a Human Right for the Middle East and North Africa ... Asit K. Biswas is President of the Third World Centre for Water Management, Atizapan, Mexico. ... the International Centre for Water, Zaragoza, Spain and President, International Water Resources Association. ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  8. Changes in the sex ratio of the Common Pochard Aythya ferina in Europe and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brides, Kane; Wood, Kevin; Hearn, Richard; Fijen, T.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Assessments of the sex ratio among Common Pochard Aythya ferina flocks were undertaken in countries across Europe and into North Africa in January 2016, for comparison with results from surveys carried out over the same area in January 1989 and January 1990. The mean (± 95% CI) proportions of males

  9. The determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East North Africa region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogmans, T.J.; Ebbers, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although, there has been increasing interest in the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in emerging markets, FDI into the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region has so far received little attention among academics. The MENA region provides a useful ground for the testing of traditional

  10. Risk scores for diabetes and impaired glycaemia in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To develop risk scores for diabetes and diabetes or impaired glycaemia for individuals living in the Middle East and North Africa region. In addition, to derive national risk scores for Algeria, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and to compare the performance of the regional risk...

  11. Dengue in the Middle East and North Africa: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphrey, J.M. (John M.); N.B. Cleton (Natalie); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); Glesby, M.J. (Marshall J.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); L.J. Abu-Raddad (Laith J)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is widespread and its disease burden has increased in past decades. However, little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Methodology / Principal Findings: Following Cochrane Collaboration

  12. Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larruga José M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World-wide phylogeographic distribution of human complete mitochondrial DNA sequences suggested a West Asian origin for the autochthonous North African lineage U6. We report here a more detailed analysis of this lineage, unraveling successive expansions that affected not only Africa but neighboring regions such as the Near East, the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. Results Divergence times, geographic origin and expansions of the U6 mitochondrial DNA clade, have been deduced from the analysis of 14 complete U6 sequences, and 56 different haplotypes, characterized by hypervariable segment sequences and RFLPs. Conclusions The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity. Subgroup U6a reflects the first African expansion from the Maghrib returning to the east in Paleolithic times. Derivative clade U6a1 signals a posterior movement from East Africa back to the Maghrib and the Near East. This migration coincides with the probable Afroasiatic linguistic expansion. U6b and U6c clades, restricted to West Africa, had more localized expansions. U6b probably reached the Iberian Peninsula during the Capsian diffusion in North Africa. Two autochthonous derivatives of these clades (U6b1 and U6c1 indicate the arrival of North African settlers to the Canarian Archipelago in prehistoric times, most probably due to the Saharan desiccation. The absence of these Canarian lineages nowadays in Africa suggests important demographic movements in the western area of this Continent.

  13. Measuring Entrepreneurial Activity in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total funding. CA$ 678,500. Country(s). Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Project Leader. Dr. Mohamed Derrabi. Institution. Al Akhawayn University. Institution Country. Morocco. Institution Website. http://www.aui.ma. Project Leader. Abedou Abderrahamne. Institution.

  14. Corporate websites in Africa: Has online investor relations communication improved during the past four years? Evidence from Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelof Baard

    2011-07-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to measure the availability of corporate websites and dedicated investor relations (IR sections; to evaluate the content of IR information communicated and to compare findings with previous research. Method: For ease of comparison this study has evaluated the same 40 companies in each of the countries, namely Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Tunisia that were evaluated in the 2006 study. A number of steps were taken to find the websites after which all the working websites were screened and evaluated against a checklist of international best practices. Results: Although improvements were apparent, 19% of the companies in the study still do not have websites, 20% do not supply financial information on websites and a significant number of companies do not optimally utilise websites according to international best practices. Conclusion: Notwithstanding improvements, a significant number of companies do not optimally utilise their corporate websites to communicate to investors. Possible reasons were discussed (e.g. necessary skills, available technology and cost, but it was concluded that companies are probably either negligent, do not regard it as important to communicate information to investors via corporate websites, or do not realise the benefits of communicating company information in this manner.

  15. Control and repression on clandestine immigration from North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    María José Rodríguez Mesa

    2014-01-01

    By its geographic position, Spain is the forced way of thousands of North African and Sub-Saharan citizens who try to arrive and to settle in Europe. But, in addition, in the last years, Spain has become a receiving country of foreign citizens who, in a situation of regularity or of administrative irregularity remain more or less continuously in its territory. This fact, along with the restrictive criteria imposed by the European norms and the visa requirement from May 1991 for Moroccan subje...

  16. Security Threats Emerging from the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Çınar, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    The main security threats affecting the Middle East and North African (MENA) region arise from energy insecurity, immigration and terrorism. These threats would remain if authorities and other stake holders do not address the root causes of the problems, which are artificial national borders, authoritarian regimes and lack of pluralist education. This paper suggests that lifting state borders and setting up regional economic communities such as the EU may ease conflicts in the region which ca...

  17. The epidemiology of noncommunicable respiratory disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rana; Robinson, Ryan; Mortimer, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major and increasing global health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that NCDs represent 63% of all global deaths of which 3.9 million are due to chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in particular. COPD is now the third most common cause of death globally; 90% of these deaths occur in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). COPD affects 329 million people, almost 5% of the world's population. In addition, asthma affects 334 million people, again representing almost 5% of the world's population. There is limited literature published on the epidemiology of COPD and Asthma from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Both diseases are under-diagnosed and underestimated in both SSA and MENA regions. The burden of COPD in sub-Saharan Africa is disputed and reports offer variable prevalence estimates, ranging from 4.1% to almost 22.2%. SSA and MENA countries report similar mortality rates from COPD of 18 per 100,000 population (2001 data). Asthma is a less common cause of death than COPD but is a major cause of morbidity; WHO estimates that there are 250,000 deaths per year from asthma, mainly in LMICs and it remains in the top twenty causes of disability in children globally. Risk factors for CRD are genetic and environmental; the latter dominated by air pollution exposures including tobacco smoke, household air pollution, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures.

  18. Recent intensified impact of December Arctic Oscillation on subsequent January temperature in Eurasia and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shengping; Wang, Huijun; Gao, Yongqi; Li, Fei

    2018-03-01

    This study reveals an intensified influence of December Arctic Oscillation (AO) on the subsequent January surface air temperature (SAT) over Eurasia and North Africa in recent decades. The connection is statistically insignificant during 1957/58-1979/80 (P1), which becomes statistically significant during 1989/90-2011/12 (P2). The possible causes are further investigated. Associated with positive December AO during P2, significant anomalous anticyclone emerges over the central North Atlantic, which is accompanied with significant westerly and easterly anomalies along 45°-65°N and 20°-40°N, respectively. This favors the significant influence of December AO on the subsequent January SAT and atmospheric circulation over Eurasia and North Africa via triggering the North Atlantic tripole sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly that persists into the subsequent January. By contrast, the December AO-related anomalous anticyclone during P1 is weak and is characterized by two separate centers located in the eastern and western North Atlantic. Correspondingly, the westerly and easterly anomalies over the North Atlantic Ocean are weak and the-related tripole SST anomaly is not well formed, unfavorable for the persistent impact of the December AO into the subsequent January. Further analyses indicate that the different anomalous anticyclone associated with the December AO over the North Atlantic may be induced by the strengthened synoptic-scale eddy feedbacks over the North Atlantic, which may be related to the interdecadal intensification of the storm track activity. Additionally, the planetary stationary wave related to the December AO propagates from surface into upper stratosphere at mid-latitudes during P2, which further propagates downward to the troposphere and causes anomalous atmospheric circulation in the subsequent January.

  19. Potential for nuclear desalination as a source of low cost potable water in North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Based on the limited regional water resources and in recognizing the possible role of nuclear energy in seawater desalination, the five North African Countries (NACs): Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia submitted a request to the IAEA in 1990 for assistance in carrying out a feasibility study on the use of nuclear energy for seawater desalination in some pre-selected sites in these countries to cover their medium- and long-term needs for economical potable water. The present report has been prepared and is presented to the NACs in response to their request. It contains an assessment of the regional specific aspects, the available technical options with respect to desalination processes and energy sources, the cost evaluation of various technical options for the production of desalinated water, as well as the financial constraints and options, and finally the necessary steps needed to ensure the successful implementation of a nuclear desalination programme. The report also complements other work of the IAEA in the field of nuclear desalination, carried out in response to various resolutions of the IAEA General Conferences since 1989, namely: ``Use of Nuclear Reactors for Seawater Desalination``, IAEA-TECDOC-574 (1990) and ``Technical and Economic Evaluation of Potable Water Production through Desalination of Seawater by using Nuclear Energy and Other Means``, IAEA-TECDOC-666 (1992). 105 refs, 39 figs, tabs.

  20. Potential for nuclear desalination as a source of low cost potable water in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Based on the limited regional water resources and in recognizing the possible role of nuclear energy in seawater desalination, the five North African Countries (NACs): Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia submitted a request to the IAEA in 1990 for assistance in carrying out a feasibility study on the use of nuclear energy for seawater desalination in some pre-selected sites in these countries to cover their medium- and long-term needs for economical potable water. The present report has been prepared and is presented to the NACs in response to their request. It contains an assessment of the regional specific aspects, the available technical options with respect to desalination processes and energy sources, the cost evaluation of various technical options for the production of desalinated water, as well as the financial constraints and options, and finally the necessary steps needed to ensure the successful implementation of a nuclear desalination programme. The report also complements other work of the IAEA in the field of nuclear desalination, carried out in response to various resolutions of the IAEA General Conferences since 1989, namely: ''Use of Nuclear Reactors for Seawater Desalination'', IAEA-TECDOC-574 (1990) and ''Technical and Economic Evaluation of Potable Water Production through Desalination of Seawater by using Nuclear Energy and Other Means'', IAEA-TECDOC-666 (1992). 105 refs, 39 figs, tabs

  1. a Heritage Inventory for Documenting Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrick, N.; Zerbini, A.

    2017-08-01

    The heritage of the Middle East and North Africa is under growing threat from a variety of factors, including agricultural expansion, urban development, looting, and conflict. Recording and documenting this heritage is therefore a key priority to aid heritage practitioners tasked with protecting sites and evaluating their condition on the ground. The Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA) project has developed a methodology for the identification, documentation, analysis, and monitoring of sites across the region to aid heritage professionals in these efforts. The project uses remote sensing techniques along with traditional archaeological research and prospection methods to collect data, which are stored and managed in a custom-designed database adapted from open-source Arches v.3 software, using CIDOC CRM standards and controlled vocabularies. In addition to these activities, the EAMENA project has initiated an international conference series and training workshops to support and establish partnerships with heritage professionals and institutions across the region.

  2. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; Messouli, Mohammed; Makhlouf, Baghdad; EI Laamrani, Abderahmane; Boumezzough, Ali

    2013-08-20

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence.

  3. A HERITAGE INVENTORY FOR DOCUMENTING ENDANGERED ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sheldrick

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The heritage of the Middle East and North Africa is under growing threat from a variety of factors, including agricultural expansion, urban development, looting, and conflict. Recording and documenting this heritage is therefore a key priority to aid heritage practitioners tasked with protecting sites and evaluating their condition on the ground. The Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA project has developed a methodology for the identification, documentation, analysis, and monitoring of sites across the region to aid heritage professionals in these efforts. The project uses remote sensing techniques along with traditional archaeological research and prospection methods to collect data, which are stored and managed in a custom-designed database adapted from open-source Arches v.3 software, using CIDOC CRM standards and controlled vocabularies. In addition to these activities, the EAMENA project has initiated an international conference series and training workshops to support and establish partnerships with heritage professionals and institutions across the region.

  4. Panorama 2012 - The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueille, Jean-Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Despite the extent of their reserves, oil production in most countries of the Middle East and North Africa is not likely to increase significantly in the years ahead. Exports from the Middle East, 75% of which are to Asia, and those from North Africa, most of which are focused on Europe, should remain stable overall. The increase in gas production will contribute more to meeting fast-growing domestic demand than to boosting exports. Indeed, many Middle Eastern countries are paradoxically experiencing strains on domestic energy supplies due to energy demand stimulated by energy prices that are generally - and artificially - very low, and the adoption of economic development models based on energy-intensive industries. (author)

  5. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Imen; Ben Rejeb, Jaleleddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  6. A review of EIA report quality in the North West province of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandham, Luke A.; Pretorius, Hester M.

    2008-01-01

    The revised EIA regulations implemented on 3 July 2006 focused attention on the question of EIA effectiveness in South Africa. EIR quality review is one of the quality control functions contributing to EIA effectiveness within any EIA system, therefore the EIR quality review package developed by Lee and Colley was adapted and used to review the quality of a sample of 28 EIRs in the North West province of South Africa. Overall, 86% of the reports achieved satisfactory grades, with the descriptive and presentational elements of the EIRs more satisfactorily addressed, and the analytical components such as impact significance, addressed to a less satisfactory degree. EIR quality appears to be on par with international standards, but there are areas of distinct weakness. Further research is required to optimise quality review, and to reveal whether the new regulations have succeeded in addressing these weaknesses and made positive contributions to EIR quality, as a component of EIA effectiveness in South Africa

  7. The security of energy infrastructure and supply in North Africa: Hydrocarbons and renewable energies in comparative perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacher, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.lacher@swp-berlin.org [Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik/German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Berlin (Germany); Kumetat, Dennis, E-mail: d.kumetat@lse.ac.uk [Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    While security risks to energy infrastructure and supply are frequently cited as a source of concern in the public debate on Europe's energy relationships with North Africa, few academic publications have addressed the issue to date. This article focuses on two potential threats to energy security in the North African context: first, intenational disruption of energy supplies by governments; second, attacks by non-state actors on energy infrastructure. Based on an analysis of North African security and energy geopolitics, the article provides an assessment of these threats as they have materialized with regard to existing energy industries, particularly oil and gas. The article then seeks to apply the findings to renewable energy schemes that are currently being discussed and developed, gauging the likelihood and impact of such threats materializing in respect to various technologies, and differentiating between different states of the region. Finally, the article provides recommendations for policy and further research needs for a successful common European-North African energy future. - Research Highlights: >Interest for investments into renewable energy projects in North Africa is growing. >Perceptions of political/security risks to renewables in North Africa are exaggerated. >Investment in renewables would boost interdependencies between Europe, North Africa. >Terrorist attacks unlikely to pose a major threat to renewables projects in North Africa.

  8. The security of energy infrastructure and supply in North Africa: Hydrocarbons and renewable energies in comparative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacher, Wolfram; Kumetat, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    While security risks to energy infrastructure and supply are frequently cited as a source of concern in the public debate on Europe's energy relationships with North Africa, few academic publications have addressed the issue to date. This article focuses on two potential threats to energy security in the North African context: first, intenational disruption of energy supplies by governments; second, attacks by non-state actors on energy infrastructure. Based on an analysis of North African security and energy geopolitics, the article provides an assessment of these threats as they have materialized with regard to existing energy industries, particularly oil and gas. The article then seeks to apply the findings to renewable energy schemes that are currently being discussed and developed, gauging the likelihood and impact of such threats materializing in respect to various technologies, and differentiating between different states of the region. Finally, the article provides recommendations for policy and further research needs for a successful common European-North African energy future. - Research Highlights: →Interest for investments into renewable energy projects in North Africa is growing. →Perceptions of political/security risks to renewables in North Africa are exaggerated. →Investment in renewables would boost interdependencies between Europe, North Africa. →Terrorist attacks unlikely to pose a major threat to renewables projects in North Africa.

  9. Jobs for Shared Prosperity : Time for Action in the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Roberta; Morgandi, Matteo; Grun, Rebekka; Brodmann, Stefanie; Angel-Urdinola, Diego; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Marotta, Daniela; Schiffbauer, Marc; Mata Lorenzo, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Arab Spring, when thousands of young women and men fought for the opportunity to realize their aspirations and potential, the question of jobs continues to be crucial in the Middle East and North Africa region. This report uses jobs as a lens to weave together the complex dynamics of employment creation, skills supply, and the institutional environment of labor markets. Consistent with the framework of the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, of which this report is...

  10. Low cost carriers in the Middle East and North Africa: Prospects and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, W.G.; Mason, Keith J.

    2016-01-01

    We examine socio-economic indicators relevant to ‘low cost carriers’ (LCCs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and review the evolution of air transport liberalization and air service agreements in the region. We analyse the business strategies of MENA-based LCCs and using a benchmarking methodology, we compare the business strategy of Air Arabia Group with those of dominant European LCCs EasyJet and Ryanair. Our economic development indicators suggest future potential for...

  11. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  12. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  13. Bioavailability of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr in the sediments of the Tessa River: A mining area in the North-West Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Abdelaziz; Helali, Mohamed Amine; Oueslati, Walid; Abdelmalek-Babbou, Chiraz; Chaabani, Fredj

    2018-01-01

    Tessa River is seen as one of the important rivers in Tunisia. Its catchment is known for its agricultural and mining activities, especially the Bougrine and Fedj Lahdhoum mines. Eighteen (18) surface sediments and five (5) water samples were collected from the Tessa River, near these two mining sites. Sediments are essentially sandy (>80%), the most important mineral is quartz (20-73%), then calcite (41%) and dolomites (4%). Heavy metal contents are relatively high near the mining sites, 356 μg g-1 for Pb, 3000 μg g-1 for Zn, and 5 μg g-1 for Cd. These values are lower downstream due to watercourse dilution effects. Other heavy metals: Cu, Ni and Cr, are low, and values are relatively constant in all the studied samples, even near the mining sites. The metals originate from natural sources and not from mining activities. This trend is confirmed by the enrichment factor (EF) where EFNi, EFCu and EFCr are lower or equal to 1, unlike EFPb, EFZn or EFCd where values are much higher (>20). Chemical speciation of these metals does not show any spatial variation. Except for cadmium which is bound to the residual fraction and in the carbonates; all other heavy metals are bound to the five sediment chemical fractions: the residual fraction (>52%), followed by the oxyhydroxides fraction (21%) and carbonates (16%), and finally bound to the organic matter and to the exchangeable fraction (bioavailable fraction of the studied heavy metals exceeds 45%, which present risk of toxicity.

  14. Identifying Areas Suitable for the Occurrence of Rift Valley Fever in North Africa: Implications for Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsevska, E; Hellal, J; Mejri, S; Hammami, S; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2016-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has caused widespread outbreaks throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with serious consequences for livestock-based economies and public health. Although there have never been any reports of RVF in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, it is a priority disease in the Maghreb, due to the threat of introduction of the virus through transboundary livestock movements or infected mosquito vectors. However, the implementation of surveillance activities and early warning contingency plans requires better knowledge of the epidemiological situation. We conducted a multicriteria decision analysis, integrating host distribution with a combination of important ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance, to identify hotspots and suitable time periods for RVF enzootic circulation (i.e. stable transmission at a low to moderate level for an extended period of time) and an RVF epizootic event (i.e. a sudden occurrence of a large number of infected animals over a large geographic area) in the Maghreb. We also modelled vector species distribution using available information on vector presence and habitat preference. We found that the northern regions of the Maghreb were moderately suitable for RVF enzootics, but highly suitable for RVF epizootics. The vector species distribution model identified these regions as the most favourable mosquito habitats. Due to the low density of animal hosts and arid conditions, the desert region showed low RVF suitability, except in oases. However, the presence of competent vectors in putative unsuitable areas underlines the need for further assessments of mosquito habitat preference. This study produced monthly RVF suitability maps useful for animal health managers and veterinary services involved in designing risk-based surveillance programmes. The suitability maps can be further enhanced using existing country-specific sources of information and by incorporating knowledge

  15. Tunisia; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    This report provides the analysis of the IMF's projections and estimates on Tunisia's basic data; sectoral distribution of GDP at constant and current prices; supply and use of resources at current and constant prices; consumer price index; balance of payments; selected exchange rate indices; revenue from the petroleum sector during 1995–2000; assets and liabilities of the central bank and deposit money banks; monetary survey; selected interest rates; direction of trade energy production and ...

  16. A brief summary of the epidemiology and genetic relatedness of avian influenza H9N2 virus in birds and mammals in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Mettenleiter, T C; Abdelwhab, E M

    2017-12-01

    H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their 'internal' gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East (ME) and North Africa since the late 1990s, little is known about its epidemiology and genetics on a regional level. In this review, we summarised the epidemiological situation of H9N2 in poultry and mammals in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The virus has been isolated from humans in Egypt and serosurveys indicated widespread infection particularly among poultry workers and pigs in some countries. Some isolates replicated well in experimentally inoculated dogs, mice, hamsters and ferrets. Insufficient protection of immunised poultry was frequently reported most likely due to concurrent viral or bacterial infections and antigenic drift of the field viruses from outdated vaccine strains. Genetic analysis indicated several distinct phylogroups including a panzootic genotype in the Asian and African parts of the ME, which may be useful for the development of vaccines. The extensive circulation of H9N2 for about 20 years in this region where the H5N1 virus is also endemic in some countries, poses a serious public health threat. Regional surveillance and control strategy are highly recommended.

  17. Global Warming, New Climate, New Atmospheric Circulation and New Water Cycle in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Global warming has now reached the energetic phase of H2O's return to the ground after the saturation of the atmosphere in evaporation since the 80s and 90s of the last century, which were characterized by severe droughts, mainly in Africa.This phase is the result of the accumulation of thermal energy exchanges in the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere system that resulted in the thrust reversal of the energy balance toward the poles. This situation is characterized by a new thermal distribution: above the ocean, the situation is more in surplus compared to the mainland, or even opposite when the balance is negative on the land, and in the atmosphere, warm thermal advection easily reach the North Pole (planetary crests), as well as cold advection push deep into North Africa and the Gulf of Mexico (planetary valleys: Polar Vortex).This "New Ground Energy Balance" establishes a "New Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC)" with an undulating character throughout the year, including the winter characterized by intense latitudinal very active energy exchanges between the surplus areas (tropical) and the deficit (polar) on the one hand, and the atmosphere, the ocean and the continent on the other.The excess radiation balance increases the potential evaporation of the atmosphere and provides a new geographical distribution of Moisture and Water worldwide: the excess water vapor is easily converted by cold advection (Polar Vortex) to heavy rains that cause floods or snow storms that paralyze the normal functioning of human activities, which creates many difficulties for users and leaves damage and casualties, but ensures water availability missing since a long time in many parts of the world, in Africa, Europe and America.The new thermal distribution reorganizes the geography of atmospheric pressure: the ocean energy concentration is transmitted directly to the atmosphere, and the excess torque is pushed northward. The Azores anticyclone is strengthened and is a global lock by the

  18. Patterns of genetic diversity in Hepatozoon spp. infecting snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P; Salvi, Daniele; Brito, José C; Carretero, Miguel A; Perera, Ana; Meimberg, Harald; Harris, David James

    2014-03-01

    Species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 are blood parasites most commonly found in snakes but some have been described from all tetrapod groups and a wide variety of hematophagous invertebrates. Previous studies have suggested possible associations between Hepatozoon spp. found in predators and prey. Particularly, some saurophagous snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean region have been found to be infected with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those of various sympatric lizard hosts. In this study, we have screened tissue samples of 111 North African and Mediterranean snakes, using specific primers for the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, the newly-generated Hepatozoon spp. sequences grouped separately into five main clusters. Three of these clusters were composed by Hepatozoon spp. also found in snakes and other reptiles from the Mediterranean Basin and North Africa. In the other two clusters, the new sequences were not closely related to geographically proximate known sequences. The phylogeny of Hepatozoon spp. inferred here was not associated with intermediate host taxonomy or geographical distribution. From the other factors that could explain these evolutionary patterns, the most likely seems series of intermediate hosts providing similar ribotypes of Hepatozoon and a high prevalence of host shifts for Hepatozoon spp. This is indicated by ribotypes of high similarity found in different reptile families, as well as by divergent ribotypes found in the same host species. This potentially low host specificity has profound implications for the systematics of Hepatozoon spp.

  19. Mitochondrial haplogroup H1 in north Africa: an early holocene arrival from Iberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ottoni

    Full Text Available The Tuareg of the Fezzan region (Libya are characterized by an extremely high frequency (61% of haplogroup H1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup that is common in all Western European populations. To define how and when H1 spread from Europe to North Africa up to the Central Sahara, in Fezzan, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genomes of eleven Libyan Tuareg belonging to H1. Coalescence time estimates suggest an arrival of the European H1 mtDNAs at about 8,000-9,000 years ago, while phylogenetic analyses reveal three novel H1 branches, termed H1v, H1w and H1x, which appear to be specific for North African populations, but whose frequencies can be extremely different even in relatively close Tuareg villages. Overall, these findings support the scenario of an arrival of haplogroup H1 in North Africa from Iberia at the beginning of the Holocene, as a consequence of the improvement in climate conditions after the Younger Dryas cold snap, followed by in situ formation of local H1 sub-haplogroups. This process of autochthonous differentiation continues in the Libyan Tuareg who, probably due to isolation and recent founder events, are characterized by village-specific maternal mtDNA lineages.

  20. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalila El Ati

    obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings.

  1. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati, Jalila; Traissac, Pierre; Delpeuch, Francis; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Béji, Chiraz; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Bougatef, Souha; Kolsteren, Patrick; Maire, Bernard; Ben Romdhane, Habiba

    2012-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg)/height(m)(2) and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), PGender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7]) than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3]) or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings.

  2. Simultaneous Inversion of Receiver Functions, Multi-Mode Dispersion, and Travel-Time Tomography for Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Middle East and North Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ammon, Charles J; Kosarian, Minoo; Hermann, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    .... Towards this goal, we perform receiver function analysis using teleseismic waveforms recorded at permanent and temporary broadband seismic stations located in Middle East, Europe, Asia, and North Africa...

  3. Analysis of MAIAC Dust Aerosol Retrievals from MODIS Over North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Hsu, C.; Torres, O.; Leptoukh, G.; Kalashnikova, O.; Korkin, S.

    2011-01-01

    An initial comparison of aerosol optical thickness over North Africa for year 2007 was performed between the Deep Blue and Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithms complimented with MISR and OMI data. The new MAIAC algorithm has a better sensitivity to the small dust storms than the DB algorithm, but it also has biases in the brightest desert regions indicating the need for improvement. The quarterly averaged AOT values in the Bodele depression and western downwind transport region show a good agreement among MAIAC, MISR and OMI data, while the DB algorithm shows a somewhat different seasonality.

  4. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the pace and extent of economic development across the developing regions yields that Arab countries have displaced a weak economic performance over the past 20 years, despite their favorable geo-strategic location and a high density of national and international structural adjustment...... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  5. Spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    2018-01-01

    be crossed, the difficulty of operating close to targets, and the need to maintain an element of surprise. We wish to understand what motivates or constrains a group leader to attack at a location other than the most obvious one: that is, the one that would yield the greatest overt pay-off. This chapter...... leverages the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data project (ACLED) dataset that catalogues violent extremist incidents in North and West Africa since 1997. We use these data to generate a form of “social network” whose nodes are administrative regions, an approach similar to the one described by Batagelj...

  6. Honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Andrzej; Windle, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    A systematic review of the research literature on honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) indicates a paucity of studies relative to the presumed magnitude of the problem. Forty articles were reviewed and critically appraised, of which only 9 contained primary data and 11 presented original secondary analyses. Despite a recent increase in published studies, persistent methodological limitations restrict the generalizability of findings. Most studies focus on legal aspects, determinants, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators. Victims are mostly young females murdered by their male kin. Unambiguous evidence of a decline in tolerance of honor killings remains elusive.

  7. Crustal evolution in north-east and east Africa from model Nd ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, N.B.W.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Ries, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors present the results of an Nd isotope study on the major rock units of the Pan-African (1,100-500 Myr BP) terrane. Charnockites from Jabel Uweinat, a basement inlier at the junction of Egypt, Libya and the Sudan, yield middle Archaean model Nd ages, whilst model ages of < 1,200 Myr have been obtained in a belt from the Eastern Desert of Egypt to north-west Kenya. Overall, the Pan-African rocks from north-east and east Africa and those from the Damara of Namibia exhibit a wide range of epsilonsub(Nd)(T) from +7.5 to -18.0 which reflects regional changes in tectonic style and is not readily reconciled with simple models for the evolution of average continental crust. (author)

  8. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

    2008-03-31

    Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

  9. Seasonal and spatial distributions of dinoflgellates in relation to environmental factors along the north and south coasts of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Rekik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the spatial and seasonal distribution of dinoflagellates in relation to environmental factors in north (restored and south (not yet restored coasts of Sfax. Methods: The present study was conducted during the year of 2010 and 2011 at 12 stations for evaluation of the spatial and seasonal distribution of dinoflagellates and abiotic parameters. Results: Results revealed a striking difference between the two coasts regarding pH with strong acidification of seawater in the south, which may be caused by industrial activity. Suspended matter was more in the north than in the south, which may be reasonably attributed to the recently added soil that has not yet fully stabilised. Inverted microscopy analysis of dinoflagellates showed 35 and 28 taxa in the north and south coasts of Sfax, respectively. Dinoflagellates developed in association with an important proliferation of common species like Gymnodinium sp., Prorocentrum lima and Prorocentrum micans. Two distinct associations of dinoflagellates species were identified: a north association involving an important abundance of Peridinium sp. and Protoperidinium sp., and a south assemblage concerning mainly Prorocentum triestinum. Chlorophyll a concentrations on the north [(2.48 ± 2.12 mg/L] and south [(4.95 ± 6.60 mg/L] coasts of Sfax were not correlated with dinoflagellates abundance, probably explained by the fact that an important number of dinoflagellates species are deprived of chloroplasts. The highest heterotrophic dinoflagellates mean abundance was recorded in south Sfax coast (1.64 × 102 cells/L during summer. Conclusions: This study shows that environmental variables were in relation with the dinoflagellates community composition which exhibited clear variations over the study area.

  10. The Intertropical Convergence Zone over the Middle East and North Africa: Detection and Trends

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Anna A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of identifying the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The ITCZ is a zone of wind convergence around the equator that coincides with an area of intense precipitation that is commonly termed a tropical rainbelt. In Africa, these two concepts are frequently confounded. This work studies the correlation between precipitation and commonly used ITCZ indicators. A further attempt is made to detect movement in the African ITCZ, based on earlier paleontological studies showing historical changes in precipitation. Zonally averaged wind convergence is found to be the most reliable indicator of the African ITCZ, one having a low correlation with zonally averaged precipitation. Precipitation is found only to be a reliable indicator for the African ITCZ in zones near the wind convergence, which reaches as far north as 20_N in the summer. No secular change in location of the African ITCZ is found for the time of available data. Finally, historical data shows that any increase in precipitation in the Sahel, a region where precipitation is driven by the ITCZ, is mildly negatively correlated with precipitation in the rainbelt area, suggesting that shifts in the ITCZ result in a widening of the precipitation profile as well as a shift of the entire zone.

  11. The Intertropical Convergence Zone over the Middle East and North Africa: Detection and Trends

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Anna A.

    2013-05-01

    This thesis provides an overview of identifying the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The ITCZ is a zone of wind convergence around the equator that coincides with an area of intense precipitation that is commonly termed a tropical rainbelt. In Africa, these two concepts are frequently confounded. This work studies the correlation between precipitation and commonly used ITCZ indicators. A further attempt is made to detect movement in the African ITCZ, based on earlier paleontological studies showing historical changes in precipitation. Zonally averaged wind convergence is found to be the most reliable indicator of the African ITCZ, one having a low correlation with zonally averaged precipitation. Precipitation is found only to be a reliable indicator for the African ITCZ in zones near the wind convergence, which reaches as far north as 20_N in the summer. No secular change in location of the African ITCZ is found for the time of available data. Finally, historical data shows that any increase in precipitation in the Sahel, a region where precipitation is driven by the ITCZ, is mildly negatively correlated with precipitation in the rainbelt area, suggesting that shifts in the ITCZ result in a widening of the precipitation profile as well as a shift of the entire zone.

  12. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence. We find the correlation between the rainy season precipitation and the same year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to be strong for both regions while the number of cases of ZCL incidence lags the precipitation and NDVI by 2 years. The zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis seasonal dynamic appears to be controlled by minimum temperatures and presents a 2-month lag between the reported infection date and the presumed date when the infection actually occurred. The decadal increase in the number of ZCL occurrence in the region suggests that changes in climate increased minimum temperatures sufficiently and created conditions suitable for endemicity that did not previously exist. We also find that temperatures above a critical range suppress ZCL incidence by limiting the vector's reproductive activity.

  13. Preliminary report on osteochondrosis in cattle in the north-western parts of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Prozesky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The north-western part of South Africa, in particular, is well known for mineral imbalances. Aphosphorosis, resulting in rickets and osteomalacia, received a lot of attention at the turn of the nineteenth century (1882–1912. This was followed in 1997 by research on Vryburg hepatosis, another area-specific mineral imbalance–related disease in young calves reared on manganese-rich soil derived from the weathering of dolomitic (carbonate rock formations. In 1982, a totally new syndrome (osteochondrosis manifested in, amongst others, areas in South Africa where aphosphorosis was rife. Osteochondrosis was also identified in the south-western parts of Namibia as well as southern Botswana and other areas in South Africa. Osteochondrosis has a multifactorial aetiology and this study focused on the role of minerals, particularly phosphorus, in the development of the disease. A significant improvement in the clinical signs in experimental animals and a reduction of osteochondrosis occurred on farms where animals received bioavailable trace minerals and phosphorus as part of a balanced lick. An increase in the occurrence of the disease on farms during severe drought conditions in 2012–2013 prompted researchers to investigate the possible role of chronic metabolic acidosis in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  14. Dust aerosol and optical properties over North Africa simulated with the ALADIN numerical prediction model from 2006 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, M.; Tulet, P.; Fischer, C.; Bouteloup, Y.; Bouyssel, F.; Brachemi, O.

    2015-02-01

    The seasonal cycle and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols in North Africa were simulated for the period from 2006 to 2010 using the numerical atmospheric model ALADIN coupled to the surface scheme SURFEX. The particularity of the simulations is that the major physical processes responsible for dust emission and transport, as well as radiative effects, are taken into account at short timescales and mesoscale resolution. The aim of these simulations is to quantify the dust emission and deposition, locate the major areas of dust emission and establish a climatology of aerosol optical properties in North Africa. The mean monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) simulated by ALADIN is compared with the AOTs derived from the standard Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms of the Aqua-MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products over North Africa, and with a set of sun photometer measurements located at Banizoumbou, Cinzana, Soroa, Mbour and Capo Verde. The vertical distribution of dust aerosol represented by extinction profiles is also analysed using CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) observations. The annual dust emission simulated by ALADIN over North Africa is 878 Tg year-1. The Bodélé depression appears to be the main area of dust emission in North Africa, with an average estimate of about 21.6 Tg year-1. The simulated AOTs are in good agreement with satellite and sun photometer observations. The positions of the maxima of the modelled AOTs over North Africa match the observed positions, and the ALADIN simulations satisfactorily reproduce the various dust events over the 2006-2010 period. The AOT climatology proposed in this paper provides a solid database of optical properties and consolidates the existing climatology over this region derived from satellites, the AERONET network and Regional Climate Models. Moreover, the three-dimensional distribution of the simulated AOTs also provides information about the

  15. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (economic significance across central North Africa. Therefore, an appreciation of the processes of ice sheet growth and decay provides significant insights into the controls on large-scale heterogeneities within these sediments, and in analogue deposits produced by glaciations of different ages. Deglacial, Early Silurian black shale represents the most important

  16. Paleozoic oil/gas shale reservoirs in southern Tunisia: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soua, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    During these last years, considerable attention has been given to unconventional oil and gas shale in northern Africa where the most productive Paleozoic basins are located (e.g. Berkine, Illizi, Kufra, Murzuk, Tindouf, Ahnet, Oued Mya, Mouydir, etc.). In most petroleum systems, which characterize these basins, the Silurian played the main role in hydrocarbon generation with two main 'hot' shale levels distributed in different locations (basins) and their deposition was restricted to the Rhuddanian (Lllandovery: early Silurian) and the Ludlow-Pridoli (late Silurian). A third major hot shale level had been identified in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian). Southern Tunisia is characterized by three main Paleozoic sedimentary basins, which are from North to South, the southern Chotts, Jeffara and Berkine Basin. They are separated by a major roughly E-W trending lower Paleozoic structural high, which encompass the Mehrez-Oued Hamous uplift to the West (Algeria) and the Nefusa uplift to the East (Libya), passing by the Touggourt-Talemzane-PGA-Bou Namcha (TTPB) structure close to southern Tunisia. The forementioned major source rocks in southern Tunisia are defined by hot shales with elevated Gamma ray values often exceeding 1400 API (in Hayatt-1 well), deposited in deep water environments during short lived (c. 2 Ma) periods of anoxia. In the course of this review, thickness, distribution and maturity maps have been established for each hot shale level using data for more than 70 wells located in both Tunisia and Algeria. Mineralogical modeling was achieved using Spectral Gamma Ray data (U, Th, K), SopectroLith logs (to acquire data for Fe, Si and Ti) and Elemental Capture Spectroscopy (ECS). The latter technique provided data for quartz, pyrite, carbonate, clay and Sulfur. In addition to this, the Gamma Ray (GR), Neutron Porosity (ΦN), deep Resistivity (Rt) and Bulk Density (ρb) logs were used to model bulk mineralogy and lithology. Biostratigraphic and complete

  17. Hydrocarbon potential of a new Jurassic play, central Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, A.O.; Law, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A largely unrecognized Jurassic Sag Basin has been identified in central Tunisia, proximal to the Permo-Carboniferous flexure delineating the northern boundary of the Saharan platform of north Africa. The northwestern margin of the Sag is delineated by an extensive region of salt-cored anticlines and localized salt diapirs extending north and west. Due to lack of deep drilling, delineation of the Sag is largely based on regional gravity data. Subsidence of the Jurassic Sag Basin is characterized by rapid expansion of Jurassic sediments from 400 m. of tidal flat and shelf carbonate at the western outcrop to over 2000 meters of tidal flat and basinal carbonate and shale within the basin center, a five-fold expansion. Rapid loading of the basin continued into Lower Cretaceous time, marked by lateral flowage of Triassic salt into pronounced structural trends. Published source rock data and interpreted subsurface well data provided the basis for GENEX 1-D hydrocarbon generation and expulsion modeling of the Sag. Middle Jurassic black source shales typically contain Type II and Type III kerogens with T.O.C.'s ranging up to 4 percent. Modeling results indicate that middle Jurassic shales are presently mature for liquid generation within portions of the Sag, with maximum generation taking place during the Tertiary. Potential hydrocarbon generation yields, based on 60 meters of mature source shale, are 20,000 BOE/acre for gas and 75,000 BOE/acre for liquids. Prospects within the region could contain an estimated potential reserve of several T.C.F. or over 1 billion barrels of oil

  18. [Acupuncture and moxibustion in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shi-Lin; Xu, Jin-Shui

    2013-04-01

    The development status of acupuncture and moxibustion in Tunisia is introduced in this article. Although acupuncture and moxibustion only has a history of more than 30 years in Tunisia, it is very popular among the local people. Until now, there is one acupuncture and moxibustion center aided and built with the help of the Chinese government. Acupuncture and moxibustion clinical department has been set in some of the hospitals, and acupuncture and moxibustion clinical practice is also carried out in some private clinics. Cost of acupuncture and moxibustion in public hospitals has already been covered by medical insurance. As for education of acupuncture and moxibustion, training courses were set up in medical colleges of Tunisia by Tunisian government which is lectured by Chinese acupuncture experts. Acupuncture and moxibustion has been used to treat many diseases in Tunisia and is warmly welcomed by Tunisian.

  19. Domestic radon in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, Michele V.; Omrane, Latifa; Mtimet, Sadok; Hammou, Azza

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine level of natural radioactivity and to eventually identify areas where radon concentrations are elevated, measurements of indoor air radon concentrations were carried out in Tunisian houses since 1999. Passive alpha-track open Kodalpha dosimeters have been placed in one or two rooms by dwellings at 1 m to 1.50 m from soil. The first campaign controlled the capital, Tunis, and lasted 14 months by two months periods. The annual median was 30 Bq m -3 . In the 120 surveyed houses, a seasonal variation has been found with the highest concentrations unregistered in winter. The second campaign was conducted in 1,151 houses situated in all the inhabited areas of Tunisia during two winter months. The median was 36 Bq m -3 with a maximum of 512 Bq m -3 . The majority of results were lower than 100 Bq m -3 . Only 5.5% of results were comprised between 100 and 200 Bq m -3 and 0.7% between 200 and 400 Bq m -3 . The third campaign was performed in an area where inhabitants used to live in underground homes. Sixty modern and sixty underground houses were controlled during one year by three months periods. The results were significantly different with a median at 46.5 Bq m -3 in the modern houses and 305 Bq m -3 in the underground caves with a maximum at 1,563 Bq m -3 . 54% of results were under 100 Bq m -3 , 32% between 100 and 400, 13% between 400 and 1,000 Bq m -3 . Only 1% (two underground houses) were higher than 1,000 Bq m -3 . A careful enquiry showed that most of these underground houses are no more inhabited and are rarely opened. In these dwellings, the highest concentrations were found during summer. Most of the indoor radon concentration levels found in Tunisia were under international recommended levels. (author)

  20. The paleocene in north Africa - Sea-level changes and paleoproductivity in Tunisa, Libya and Egypt using microfossils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guasti, E.; Lüning, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Paleocene is a time of warm oceans and generally high sea levels. In North Africa, vast epicontinental seas extended far inside the African continent. In this paper we correlate sea level, primary paleoproductivity and facies distribution of the proximal, carbonate-dominated Paleocene deposits

  1. Trust and tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A comparative perspective on the impact of the Arab uprisings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.

    2017-01-01

    The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are expected to have influenced two key civic attitudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessments of the general patterns and particularities in this region are

  2. A Human Economy: A "Third Way" for the Future of Young People in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in…

  3. Gender and Transport in the Middle East and North Africa Region : Case Studies from the West Bank and Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Mobility is a major factor of access to economic resources, education, health, and other key elements influencing women's empowerment. In the Middle East and North Africa's countries, like in many other developing economies, women's mobility is constrained not only by the limited, sometimes unaffordable transport supply but also by social and cultural factors that frame women's access to t...

  4. Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Serrhini, Mohammed; Felgueiras, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This book contains a selection of articles from The Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016 (EMENA-TSSL'16), held between the 3th and 5th of October at Saidia, Oujda, Morocco. EMENA-TSSL'16 is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss recent results and innovations, current trends, professional experiences and challenges in Information & Communication Technologies, and Security to support Learning. The main topics covered are: A) Online Education; B) Emerging Technologies in Education; C) Artificial Intelligence in Education; D) Gamification and Serious games; E) Network & Web Technologies Applications; F) Online experimentation and Virtual Laboratories; G) Multimedia Systems and Applications; H) Security and Privacy; I) Multimedia, Computer Vision and Image Processing; J) Cloud, Big Data Analytics and Applications; K) Human-Computer Interaction; L) Software Systems, Architectures, Applications and Tools; M) Onli...

  5. Atmospheric transportation of marihuana pollen from North Africa to the Southwest of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezudo, Baltasar; Recio, Marta; Sánchez-Laulhé, JoséMaŕia; Trigo, María Del Mar; Toro, Francisco Javier; Polvorinos, Fausto

    As a result of aerobiological samples taken on the Costa del Sol (S. Spain), Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) pollen was detected from May to September 1991-1996, always sporadically and usually during the afternoons. Sampling was by two volumetric spore traps set up in Malaga and Estepona, two coastal towns approximately 90 km apart. A study of the days when this pollen was recorded points to the movement of air masses from North Africa to southern Spain. Furthermore, the isentropic air trajectories calculated for these days reinforce the possibility of the pollen originating in marihuana plantations in northern Morocco (Rif). This study demonstrates the application of aerobiology to the control of the source, quantity and phenology of the crop.

  6. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Climatic changes and water resources in the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zereini, Fathi [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences; Hoetzl, Heinz (eds.) [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. Geologie

    2008-07-01

    ''Climatic Change and Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa'' is dedicated to high-priority topics related to the impact of climate change on water resources in a water scarce region. The subject is described and discussed in three main chapters and different case studies. The three main chapters are (1) Climatic changes - sources and effects on the water cycle, (2) Impact of climate change on water resources, (3) Water resources and water management. These chapters are split up into further 26 sections. A total of 64 individuals from many countries have made contributions to this book. All topics in this book are complimentary and contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between global climate change, world water cycle and water resources. A valuable and meaningful interdisciplinary mixture of topics is combined in this book which will be of great interest to many scientists. (orig.)

  8. Energy infrastructure in the Middle East and North Africa to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enav, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2010, the 19 countries of the Middle East and North Africa will need to spend approximately $500bn on new energy infrastructure to meet their declared needs and priorities. Private sector involvement will be inevitable with many countries operating under strict budgetary limitations. The opportunities this represents for foreign investment cannot be ignored. This report assesses both power generation and hydrocarbon financing needs on a country-by-country basis. It also identifies the likely financing modalities for each country with a detailed appraisal of country credit-worthiness, highlighting risks and opportunities for outside investors. For each country, the report examines: macro-economic profiles; political risk profiles; prospects for hydrocarbon; and electricity infrastructure development. (author)

  9. Modification and implementation of NCCN guidelines on lymphomas in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbachi, Ali; Azim, Hamdy A; Alizadeh, Hussain; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Barista, Ibrahim; Chaudhri, Naeem A; Fahed, Zahira; Fahmy, Omar A; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Khalaf, Mohamed H; Khatib, Sami; Kutoubi, Aghiad; Paydas, Semra; Elayoubi, Hanadi Rafii; Zaatari, Ghazi; Zawam, Hamdy M; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2010-07-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, cancer has many epidemiologic and clinical features that are different from those in the rest of the world. Additionally, the region has a relatively young population and large disparities in the availability of resources at diagnostic and treatment levels. A critical need exists for regional guidelines on cancer care, including those for lymphoid malignancies. A panel of lymphoma experts from MENA reviewed the 2009 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Hodgkin Lymphoma and suggested modifications for the region that were discussed with the United States NCCN Lymphoma Panels. This article presents the consensus recommendations.

  10. Structural control on the deep hydrogeological and geothermal aquifers related to the fractured Campanian-Miocene reservoirs of north-eastern Tunisia foreland constrained by subsurface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomsi, Sami; Echihi, Oussema; Slimani, Naji

    2012-03-01

    A set of different data including high resolution seismic sections, petroleum wire-logging well data, borehole piezometry, structural cross-sections and outcrop analysis allowed us to characterise the tectonic framework, and its relationships with the deep aquifers seated in Cretaceous-Miocene deep reservoirs. The structural framework, based on major structures, controls the occurrence of deep aquifers and sub-basin aquifer distributions. Five structural domains can be defined, having different morphostructural characteristics. The northernmost domain lying on the north-south axis and Zaghouan thrust system is a domain of recharge by underflow of the different subsurface reservoirs and aquifers from outcrops of highly fractured reservoirs. On the other hand, the morphostructural configuration controls the piezometry of underground flows in the Plio-Quaternary unconfined aquifer. In the subsurface the Late Cretaceous-Miocene reservoirs are widespread with high thicknesses in many places and high porosities and connectivities especially along major fault corridors and on the crestal parts of major anticlines. Among all reservoirs, the Oligo-Miocene, detritic series are widespread and present high cumulative thicknesses. Subsurface and fieldwork outline the occurrence of 10 fractured sandy reservoirs for these series with packages having high hydrodynamic and petrophysical characteristics. These series show low salinities (maximum 5 g/l) in the northern part of the study area and will constitute an important source of drinkable water for the next generations. A regional structural cross-section is presented, compiled from all the different data sets, allowing us to define the major characteristics of the hydrogeological-hydrogeothermal sub-basins. Eight hydrogeological provinces are defined from north-west to south-east. A major thermal anomaly is clearly identified in the south-eastern part of the study area in Sfax-Sidi Il Itayem. This anomaly is possibly related to

  11. Incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in poultry products in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Y. Olobatoke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serotypes in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE broiler products in the North West Province of South Africa. A total of 120 raw broiler samples, 40 samples of polonies and 20 samples of smoked viennas were obtained from retail points in major cities and towns in the province. Samples were subjected to aerobic plate count and later screened for the presence of NTS using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. The average bacterial count in raw products was 3.1 x 105 cfu/g whereas bacterial contamination of RTE products was 1.8 x 103 cfu/g. The average recovery rate of NTS species from raw broiler products was 12.5% and the serotypes identified were S. typhimurium (46.4%, S. enteritidis (30.9% and S. newport (22.9%. No NTS was recovered from the RTE products. However, S. typhimurium was the predominant serotype in whole carcasses whereas S. enteritidis and S. newport were prevalent in chicken parts. Out of the 160 presumptive NTS isolates screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 140 (87.5% were confirmed for the presence of the Salmonella-specific invA gene. In addition, 115 (82.4% of the confirmed isolates harboured the plasmid spvC gene. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting of isolates using RAPD 1 and RAPD 3 primers, revealed some inter- and intra-serotype genetic diversity among isolates, suggesting varying sources of contamination. The results of this study represent the first report on the incidence and prevalent serotypes of NTS in chicken products in the North West Province of South Africa.

  12. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2018-02-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  13. SPECIFICS OF GERMAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г А Ханнанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an analysis of the main factors, determining German policy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. More active German military-technical engagement in the settlement of the crises in the region on the modern stage determines relevance of this article’s topic. Based on historical method, author considers the development of German foreign policy in the Arab world, examining the main aspects of the colonial policy of German empire on the threshold of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the prerequisites of the intensification of German-Arabic contacts in the period of Cold War. In accordance with the principals of system analysis Germany’s Middle East policy was investigated in complex, given geopolitical, economic and military aspects. Special emphasis is put on the problem of transformation of Middle East regional order as a factor of political instability. Notwithstanding the rea-sonableness of Germany’s standing for stable and predictable regional order, these goals were challenged owing to the fact that Germany benefits from the regional disorder in terms of increase of its influence. In reliance on the German goals in the Middle East and North Africa, mentioned in the Coalition Agreement of 2013, the author points out the priority of crisis management. At the same time the ethno-confessional conflict potential of the region meets the interests of German military-industrial complex. Increase of Germany’s export of weapons to the Arab states as well as neglecting the restrictions on export go to prove that Germany backs the armaments race in the Middle East. In this regard, German policy is characterized by “double standards” and inconsistency. These specifics can be explained by the ongoing process of Middle East policy shift and searching for new priorities on a long-term horizon. In the conclusion, the author analyzes the specifics and prospects of German policy in MENA region.

  14. Towards the sustainable management of thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast.) forests in Tunisia: models for main tree attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama, R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.; Garchi, S.; Ammari, Y.; Canellas, I.; Tahar, S.

    2012-11-01

    The thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast.) forests are one of the most important ecosystems in semiarid environments in north-western Africa, providing important economic profit and social services to local populations. However, lack of tools aiding sustainable management of these forests is detected. In the present work models for the main tree attributes as total height, crown diameter, height to crown base and stem form are developed for the species, using data from a net of plots installed in JbelLattrech region, in the NE Tunisia. Presented models allow characterizing the actual state and timber production of forests by using variables measured in typical forest inventories and conform a preliminary step for the future development of dynamic growth models. (Author) 18 refs.

  15. Wall-papering Fog: How the United States’ Africa Command (AFRICOM) Can Counter the Threat of Radical Islamic Fundamentalism in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    represented on the combatant commander’s staff in key positions , and that the Joint Chiefs of Staff determines the assignment of forces.19 Establishment... positioned on the continent, what kinds of missions can it be expected to accomplish, and where will all of the people come from to fill the newest...attributed to the native Berber clans. Their language is Tamazight and is not officially recognized in North Africa. Imazighen is translated as “free

  16. The seawater desalination needs of Tunisia after the year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Kraiem, H.

    2000-01-01

    The supply of drinking water for north and central Tunisia is guaranteed from surface water resources in the north and other subsurface resources. These resources will satisfy the water demand in this region until the year 2010 and 100000 m 3 /d by the year 2015. In the south of Tunisia, the water supply comes from local subsurface resources, including the lake water of the chotts. Maximum exploitation of these lakes, whose average salinity exceeds 2 g/l, has already been reached. Therefore, non-conventional resources such as desalination have become unavoidable if the water quality is to be improved and the resources are to be maximized. The needs of this region will reach 80000 m 3 /d by the year 2010. This deficit can only be met by the desalination of seawater. At present, about 60000 m 3 /d of water is desalinated in the country using the reverse osmosis process and electric energy. (author)

  17. A Founder Large Deletion Mutation in Xeroderma Pigmentosum-Variant Form in Tunisia: Implication for Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Ben Rekaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum Variant (XP-V form is characterized by a late onset of skin symptoms. Our aim is the clinical and genetic investigations of XP-V Tunisian patients in order to develop a simple tool for early diagnosis. We investigated 16 suspected XP patients belonging to ten consanguineous families. Analysis of the POLH gene was performed by linkage analysis, long range PCR, and sequencing. Genetic analysis showed linkage to the POLH gene with a founder haplotype in all affected patients. Long range PCR of exon 9 to exon 11 showed a 3926 bp deletion compared to control individuals. Sequence analysis demonstrates that this deletion has occurred between two Alu-Sq2 repetitive sequences in the same orientation, respectively, in introns 9 and 10. We suggest that this mutation POLH NG_009252.1: g.36847_40771del3925 is caused by an equal crossover event that occurred between two homologous chromosomes at meiosis. These results allowed us to develop a simple test based on a simple PCR in order to screen suspected XP-V patients. In Tunisia, the prevalence of XP-V group seems to be underestimated and clinical diagnosis is usually later. Cascade screening of this founder mutation by PCR in regions with high frequency of XP provides a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of XP-V in Tunisia and North Africa.

  18. A founder large deletion mutation in Xeroderma pigmentosum-Variant form in Tunisia: implication for molecular diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rekaya, Mariem; Laroussi, Nadia; Messaoud, Olfa; Jones, Mariem; Jerbi, Manel; Naouali, Chokri; Bouyacoub, Yosra; Chargui, Mariem; Kefi, Rym; Fazaa, Becima; Boubaker, Mohamed Samir; Boussen, Hamouda; Mokni, Mourad; Abdelhak, Sonia; Zghal, Mohamed; Khaled, Aida; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda

    2014-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum Variant (XP-V) form is characterized by a late onset of skin symptoms. Our aim is the clinical and genetic investigations of XP-V Tunisian patients in order to develop a simple tool for early diagnosis. We investigated 16 suspected XP patients belonging to ten consanguineous families. Analysis of the POLH gene was performed by linkage analysis, long range PCR, and sequencing. Genetic analysis showed linkage to the POLH gene with a founder haplotype in all affected patients. Long range PCR of exon 9 to exon 11 showed a 3926 bp deletion compared to control individuals. Sequence analysis demonstrates that this deletion has occurred between two Alu-Sq2 repetitive sequences in the same orientation, respectively, in introns 9 and 10. We suggest that this mutation POLH NG_009252.1: g.36847_40771del3925 is caused by an equal crossover event that occurred between two homologous chromosomes at meiosis. These results allowed us to develop a simple test based on a simple PCR in order to screen suspected XP-V patients. In Tunisia, the prevalence of XP-V group seems to be underestimated and clinical diagnosis is usually later. Cascade screening of this founder mutation by PCR in regions with high frequency of XP provides a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of XP-V in Tunisia and North Africa.

  19. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) riouxi: a synonym of Phlebotomus chabaudi without any proven vectorial role in Tunisia and Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbabi, A; Rhim, A; Ghrab, J; Martin, O; Aoun, K; Bouratbine, A; Ready, P D

    2014-08-01

    Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) riouxi Depaquit, Léger & Killick-Kendrick (Diptera: Psychodidae) was described as a typological species based on a few morphological characters distinguishing it from Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) chabaudi Croset, Abonnenc & Rioux. The naming of P. riouxi coincided with its incrimination as a rural vector of Leishmania tropica Wright (junior synonym: Leishmania killicki Rioux, Lanotte & Pratlong) in Tataouine governorate, an arid region of southern Tunisia. The current report finds insufficient evidence to incriminate either phlebotomine sandfly as a vector of L. tropica in North Africa. Phlebotomus riouxi was found not to have the characteristics of a phylogenetic or biological species, and therefore it is synonymized with P. chabaudi. Both taxa were recorded together for the first time in Tunisia, in Tataouine, where three of 12 males showed intermediate morphology and both sexes of each taxon were not characterized by specific lineages of the nuclear gene elongation factor-1α or the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, for which a long 3' terminal fragment is recommended for phlebotomine phylogenetics. This case study indicates that the eco-epidemiology of leishmaniasis should focus more on identifying key components of vectorial transmission that are susceptible to interventions for disease control, rather than on defining sibling species of vectors. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Sensitivity of the Regional Climate in the Middle East and North Africa to Volcanic Perturbations

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  1. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  2. A nuclear-powered North Africa: Just a desert mirage or is there something on the horizon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    All of the North African countries have plans to develop nuclear power. If successful, nuclear energy could supply up to 9-15% of all electricity consumption in the region by 2030. How realistic are these plans and under what conditions can they be implemented? This paper seeks to answer this question by analyzing the motivations and capacities for deploying nuclear energy in the five North African countries by examining both regional and national factors. These factors are compared to similar characteristics of the countries with existing nuclear power programs using a series of quantitative indicators. While all five countries have strong motivations to develop nuclear power, which result from the high growth rates in demand for electricity and energy security concerns, their financial and institutional capacities to deploy nuclear energy vary and are generally lower than in those countries which already operate nuclear power plants. Most likely, North Africa will need to rely on external assistance to implement its nuclear energy plans. The article identifies three scenarios of nuclear power development from the interplay between internal and external factors, particularly the success of renewable energy projects and the ability to attract international investment in nuclear power. - Research Highlights: → Nuclear power is an option to diversify electricity and meet demand in N. Africa. → With current plans, nuclear power could generate up to 15% of electricity by 2030. → Capacities in N. Africa are insufficient to launch nuclear power programs. → Deployment of nuclear power in N. Africa depends on external assistance and investment.

  3. The role of cryptotephra in refining the chronology of Late Pleistocene human evolution and cultural change in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R. N. E.; Lane, C. S.; Albert, P. G.; White, D.; Collcutt, S. N.; Bouzouggar, A.; Ditchfield, P.; Farr, L.; Oh, A.; Ottolini, L.; Smith, V. C.; Van Peer, P.; Kindermann, K.

    2015-06-01

    Sites in North Africa hold key information for dating the presence of Homo sapiens and the distribution of Middle Stone Age (MSA), Middle Palaeolithic (MP) and Later Stone Age (LSA) cultural activity in the Late Pleistocene. Here we present new and review recently published tephrochronological evidence for five cave sites in North Africa with long MSA/MP and LSA cultural sequences. Four tephra horizons have been identified at the Haua Fteah (Cyrenaica, Libya). They include cryptotephra evidence for the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption dating to ˜39 ka that allows correlation with other Palaeolithic sequences in the eastern Mediterranean and as far north as Russia. Cryptotephra have also been recorded from the Moroccan sites of Taforalt, Rhafas and Dar es-Soltane 1. At Taforalt the geochemical composition suggests a provenance in the Azores, while examples from Sodmein (Egypt) appear to derive from central Anatolia and another unknown source. In these latter examples chemical compositional data from relevant proximal volcanic centres is currently lacking so the identification of tephra in layers of known age and cultural association provides the first reliable age determinations for distal volcanic events and their geographical extent. The future potential for tephrochronological research in North Africa is also discussed.

  4. Foreign Direct Investment and Energy Supply in the Middle East and North Africa: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghali, Siddig

    Middle East and North Africa countries have been criticized for failing to utilize foreign direct investment energy resources efficiently. The changing of energy resources environment of the past decades with its growing emphasis on the importance of imminent energy supply challenges require strategists to consider different types of energy resources investment to improve energy supply. One type of energy investment will show effectiveness and efficiency in utilizing foreign direct investment in exposing RE, fossil fuels, natural gas, and reducing CO2 emissions. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to utilize foreign direct investment to predict total primary energy supply in the Middle East and North Africa region between 1971 and 2013. The study was conducted using a sample size of 43 years of energy supply resources and foreign direct investment from 1971 to 2013, which includes all of the years for which FDI is available. RE potential may equip Middle East and North Africa countries with sustainable and clean electricity for centuries to come, as non-renewable energy resources may not meet the demands globally and domestically or environmentally. As demands for fossil fuels grow, carbon emissions will increase. RE may be a better option of CO 2 emissions sequestration and will increase electricity to rural areas without government subsidies and complex decision-making policies. RE infrastructure will reduce water desalinization costs, cooling systems, and be useful in heating. Establishing concentrated solar power may be useful for the region cooperation, negotiations, and integration to share this energy. The alternative sought to fossil fuels was nuclear power. However, nuclear power depends on depleting, non-renewable uranium resources. The cost of uranium will increase if widely used and the presence of a nuclear plant in an unstable region is unsafe. Thus, renewable energy as a long-term option is efficient. A nonlinear regression

  5. [The limnology of Tunisia: physicochemical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaiza, M

    1984-01-01

    Several chemical and physical parameters are measured in forty seven stations, distributed on the most part of the hydrographic systems of Tunisia. Some parameters: temperature of the water (T), salinity (S, electric conductivity (CE), chloride (Cl-), total hardness (DT) and turbidity (TUR) show great variations in the Northern hydrographic systems. In these systems, the parameters (S, CE, Cl-, DT) are generally elevated in the tributaries of the south bank of the Medjerda, the North-East streams, Melah and Tine Streams which flow in the Ichkeul lake. The waters in these septentrional systems are sometimes very turbid. The waters of the meridional hydrological system are very clear. The resurgence thermal waters are characterized by the small amplitude of variations of the studied parameters. The waters are alkaline, generally very mineralized they are well oxygenized in the no-polluted stations.

  6. Violence Research from North Africa to South Asia: A Historical and Structural Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hippler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This is a historical and sociological overview of violence and violence research in and on North Africa, West Asia, and South Asia, considering only studies for a global audience. The main focus is on political violence, with a brief look at religious and communal violence, youth violence, and domestic and gendered violence. These regions have been consistently affected by political violence for many decades, the main source of which seems to be the ongoing state formation process, as well as social transformation in general. The literature on violence is dominated by international debates, at

  7. Statistical and dynamical assessment of land-ocean-atmosphere interactions across North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan

    North Africa is highly vulnerable to hydrologic variability and extremes, including impacts of climate change. The current understanding of oceanic versus terrestrial drivers of North African droughts and pluvials is largely model-based, with vast disagreement among models in terms of the simulated oceanic impacts and vegetation feedbacks. Regarding oceanic impacts, the relative importance of the tropical Pacific, tropical Indian, and tropical Atlantic Oceans in regulating the North African rainfall variability, as well as the underlying mechanism, remains debated among different modeling studies. Classic theory of land-atmosphere interactions across the Sahel ecotone, largely based on climate modeling experiments, has promoted positive vegetation-rainfall feedbacks associated with a dominant surface albedo mechanism. However, neither the proposed positive vegetation-rainfall feedback with its underlying albedo mechanism, nor its relative importance compared with oceanic drivers, has been convincingly demonstrated up to now using observational data. Here, the multivariate Generalized Equilibrium Feedback Assessment (GEFA) is applied in order to identify the observed oceanic and terrestrial drivers of North African climate and quantify their impacts. The reliability of the statistical GEFA method is first evaluated against dynamical experiments within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In order to reduce the sampling error caused by short data records, the traditional GEFA approach is refined through stepwise GEFA, in which unimportant forcings are dropped through stepwise selection. In order to evaluate GEFA's reliability in capturing oceanic impacts, the atmospheric response to a sea-surface temperature (SST) forcing across the tropical Pacific, tropical Indian, and tropical Atlantic Ocean is estimated independently through ensembles of dynamical experiments and compared with GEFA-based assessments. Furthermore, GEFA's performance in capturing terrestrial

  8. Sensitivity of the Regional Climate in the Middle East and North Africa to Volcanic Perturbations

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar

    2017-07-27

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory\\'s High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  9. Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P; Lozouet, Pierre

    2009-09-22

    Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations.

  10. Entrepreneurs’ gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative of t....... Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs.......The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative...... of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network...

  11. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be

  12. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent

  13. The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: evidence for North Africa countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests to investigate the dynamic causal links between per capita renewable energy consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of five North Africa countries spanning the period 1980-2011. In the short-run, the Granger causality tests show the existence of a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and agriculture, a unidirectional causali...

  14. A review and assessment of energy policy in the Middle East and North Africa region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The energy landscape of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has undergone a significant transformation in recent years as a result of intersecting technological, economic and political trends, both regional and international. The evolving dynamics of international energy markets, increased diversification of energy sources, global concerns for climate change, and regional conflict are among the leading factors impacting the evolution of MENA energy policy. This paper provides an assessment and outlook for energy policy in the MENA region within the context of the myriad factors impacting policy design and implementation. A review and analysis of the social, political and economic factors that are impacting regional energy policy is provided and followed by analysis of regional energy policy with consideration of hydrocarbon exploration and production, regional energy trade, demand management and clean energy production. The findings show that the MENA region is in the midst of an energy transition that has uncertain outcomes but will undoubtedly have long lasting impacts on the global energy system. - Highlights: • The MENA region is undergoing an energy transition shaped by political, social and economic dynamics. • Political, economic and social turmoil will constrain energy systems developments in many MENA countries. • MENA countries that can evolve their energy systems are prioritizing energy security and energy cost minimization. • Energy demand management, sustainable energy supply and regional cooperation are essential to achieving energy priorities.

  15. Control of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection in cattle in North Africa

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    Mohamed Gharbi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection is a protozoan disease of cattle transmitted by Hyalomma ticks. This parasite is causing high losses in several countries in South Europe, North Africa and Asia. Indeed, both symptomatic and subclinical forms are present in infected animals causing live weight decrease, milk yield decrease, abortions and in some cases death. Due to its high medical and financial impact, the control of this disease is of paramount importance. It can be implemented through five control measures: (i treatment of infected animals with theilericidal drugs and other symptomatic treatments (this option is used for the treatment of animals and is insufficient to eradicate the parasite, (ii use of acaricides in animals which contain several side effects for humans, animals and the environment, (iii roughcasting and smoothing of the outer and inner surfaces of the cattle buildings for endophilic tick species (this control option is expensive but leads to the eradication of the parasite from the farm, (iv vaccination against ticks, a control option used with success against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus species but not still available for Hyalomma ticks and (v vaccination against the parasite with live attenuated vaccines. These control options were presented in the paper and their advantages and limits were discussed. The implementation of one (or more of these control options should take into account other considerations (social, political, etc.; they sometimes cause the failure of the control action.

  16. Analysing annual financial statements of public ordinary secondary schools in the Tshwane north district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Doussy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from an analysis of the annual financial statements of public ordinary secondary schools in the Tshwane North District, South Africa. The analysis was done to assess the quality of these annual financial statements as well as the apparent usefulness thereof for the parents of the learners in the school. These users are probably most concerned with the quality and usefulness of information presented to them for providing the necessary assurance that the funds received by the school are properly accounted for and used to the advantage of their children. The results suggest that assurance in this regard is lacking as audits are not done at all, or are of an extremely poor quality. The quality of the financial statements is also poor, with scant regard for Generally Accepted Accounting Practice or the South African Schools Act. Urgent intervention from the Education Departments is needed to ensure that the South African Schools Act is adhered to and that proper audits are conducted by suitably qualified accountants and auditors. The South African Institute for Chartered Accountants (SAICA should also play a more positive role in this regard by ensuring that audit practices are enforced and quality annual financial statements are presented

  17. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Droogers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. An advanced, physically based, distributed, hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectoral water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 393 km3 yr−1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr−1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection, an increase of 157 km3 yr−1. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty, based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 yr−1 to 283 km3 yr−1~in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  18. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  19. Urban Chikungunya in the Middle East and North Africa: A systematic review.

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    John M Humphrey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA is not well characterized despite increasing recognition of its expanding infection and disease burden in recent years.Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed records describing the human prevalence and incidence, CHIKV prevalence/infection rates in vectors, outbreaks, and reported cases for CHIKV across the MENA region. We identified 29 human seroprevalence measures, one human incidence study, one study reporting CHIKV infection rates in Aedes, and nine outbreaks and case reports/series reported in the MENA from 1970-2015. Overall, anti-CHIKV antibody or reports of autochthonous transmission were identified from 10 of 23 countries in the MENA region (Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen, with seroprevalence measures among general populations (median 1.0%, range 0-43% and acute febrile illness populations (median 9.8%, range 0-30%. Sudan reported the highest number of studies (n = 11 and the highest seroprevalence among general populations (median 12%, range 0-43% and undifferentiated acute febrile illness populations (median 18%, range 10-23%. CHIKV outbreaks were reported from Djibouti, Pakistan, Sudan, and Yemen.Seroprevalence studies and outbreak reports suggest endemic transmission of urban cycle CHIKV in at least the Red Sea region and Pakistan. However, indications of seroprevalence despite a low quantity of CHIKV epidemiologic research from the region suggests that CHIKV transmission is currently underrecognized.

  20. INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

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    Syed Mahbubur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC were requested to communicate intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs in a clear, transparent and understandable way before the Conference of the Parties (known as COP21 held in Paris in 2015. The Contributions were supposed to be balanced and comprehensive to ensure sustainable development and expected to include finance, technology requires, technology transfer and capacity building aiming at mitigation and adaptation. This research focuses on investigating the INDCs prepared by countries from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA, one of the most water-scarce and dry regions in the world. Following a content analysis, this research has found that INDCs from the region have not been able to reflect the desired output. Submissions were also not timely and not sufficiently ahead of time. Many countries were not able to disclose the current status. INDCs can play a significant role by providing objective, timely, and reliable information, which is missing at present in the countries from MENA.

  1. The child medulloblastoma in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochbati, L.; Bouaouina, N.; Besbes, M.; Frikha, H.; Benna, F.; Daoud, J.; Gargouri, W.; Damak, H.; Ben Abdallah, M.; Maalej, M.

    2000-01-01

    The medulloblastoma is the first pediatric cerebral tumor in Tunisia. Its treatment relies on the surgery and radiotherapy of cerebro-spinal axis. The chemotherapy is in progress for evaluation to try a de-escalation of irradiation dose. (N.C.)

  2. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Haese, D' L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water

  3. Mortality in Patients with HIV-1 Infection Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: A Collaborative Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Andrew; Schomaker, Michael; May, Margaret T.; Hogg, Robert S.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Monge, Susana; Keiser, Olivia; Lampe, Fiona C.; Giddy, Janet; Ndirangu, James; Garone, Daniela; Fox, Matthew; Ingle, Suzanne M.; Reiss, Peter; Dabis, Francois; Costagliola, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; Ehren, Kathrin; Campbell, Colin; Gill, M. John; Saag, Michael; Justice, Amy C.; Guest, Jodie; Crane, Heidi M.; Egger, Matthias; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America. Methods and Findings Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF) could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation) mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa), and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0–3, 3–6, 6–12, 12–24, and 24–48 months on ART for the period 2001–2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America]), 20,306 (67%), 9,961 (34%), and 824 (12%) were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively). High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Mortality was initially much lower in Europe and North America than South Africa, but the differences were reduced or reversed (North America) at longer durations on ART (adjusted rate ratios 0.46, 95% CI 0.37–0.58, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.27–2.05 between 24 and 48 months on ART comparing Europe and North America to South Africa). While bias due to under-ascertainment of mortality was minimised through death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and frequency of linkage. Conclusions After accounting for under-ascertainment of mortality

  4. Mortality in patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Boulle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America.Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa, and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, 12-24, and 24-48 months on ART for the period 2001-2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America], 20,306 (67%, 9,961 (34%, and 824 (12% were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count <50 cells/µl. Cumulative mortality at 4 years was 16.6%, 4.7%, and 15.3% in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Mortality was initially much lower in Europe and North America than South Africa, but the differences were reduced or reversed (North America at longer durations on ART (adjusted rate ratios 0.46, 95% CI 0.37-0.58, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.27-2.05 between 24 and 48 months on ART comparing Europe and North America to South Africa. While bias due to under-ascertainment of mortality was minimised through death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and frequency of linkage.After accounting for under

  5. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  6. New observations indicate the possible presence of permafrost in North Africa (Djebel Toubkal, High Atlas, Morocco

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    G. Vieira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Relict and present-day periglacial features have been reported in the literature for the upper reaches of the High Atlas mountains, which is the highest range in North Africa (Djebel Toubkal – 4167 m a.s.l.. A lobate feature in the Irhzer Ikhibi south at 3800 m a.s.l. has been previously interpreted as an active rock glacier, but no measurements of ground or air temperatures are known to exist for the area. In order to assess the possible presence of permafrost, we analyse data from June 2015 to June 2016 from two air temperature measurement sites at 2370 and 3210 m a.s.l. and from four ground surface temperature (GST sites at 3220, 3815, 3980 and 4160 m a.s.l. to characterize conditions along an altitudinal gradient along the Oued Ihghyghaye valley to the summit of the Djebel Toubkal. GSTs were collected at 1 h intervals, and the presence of snow cover at the monitoring sites was validated using Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 imagery. Two field visits allowed for logger installation and collection and for assessing the geomorphological features in the area. The results show that snow plays a major role on the thermal regime of the shallow ground, inducing important spatial variability. The lowest site at 3220 m had a thermal regime characterized by frequent freeze–thaw cycles during the cold season but with few days of snow. When snow settled, the ground surface remained isothermal at 0 °C , indicating the absence of permafrost. The highest sites at 3980 and 4160 m a.s.l. showed very frequent freeze–thaw cycles and a small influence of the snow cover on GST, reflecting the lack of snow accumulation due to the wind-exposed settings on a ridge and on the summit plateau. The site located at 3815 m in the Irhzer Ikhibi south valley had a cold, stable thermal regime with GST varying from −4.5 to −6 °C from December to March, under a continuous snow cover. The site's location in a concave setting favours wind

  7. Sustainable Management of Climate Change: The Case of the Middle East and North Africa Region

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    Adel M. Al Taweel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world. Particularly vulnerable are arid and low-laying coastal areas, conditions that prevail through most of the Middle East and North Africa [MENA]. This region is an economically diverse one, including both the oil-rich economies in the Gulf and countries that are resource-scarce in relation to their population.  However, with about 23 percent of MENA’s population living on less than $2 a day, it is imperative that the climate change management strategies adopted be cost-effective and emphasize economic, social and human development while addressing the concerns arising from anthropogenic climate change.Over the past decades several national and international mechanisms were developed in an attempt to reduce the emissions considered to be mainly responsible for climate change, and to assist in coping with the adverse effects that are beginning to occur as a result of climate change. Unfortunately, many of these approaches are presently associated with economic penalties that often adversely affect the socio-economic welfare of the populace, particularly in low-, and medium-income countries. In this regard, it is informative to note the experience recently gained by Trinidad and Tobago [T&T] in its attempt to reduce GHG emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industrial and agricultural sectors. Using appropriate decision making tools and a policy environment based on a combination of regulations and incentives, the environmental challenges can be turned into a vehicle for sustainable development.This paper discusses the factors that need to be considered while developing a sustainable climate change management approach for the MENA region and develops some recommendations that may be essential for achieving the desired climate change mitigation/adaptation actions while minimizing social disruption.

  8. Phylogeographic structure and demographic patterns of brown trout in North-West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Aleš; Marić, Saša; Bajec, Simona Sušnik; Berrebi, Patrick; Janjani, Said; Schöffmann, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the phylogeographic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Morocco, elucidate their colonization patterns in North-West Africa and identify the mtDNA lineages involved in this process. We also aimed to resolve whether certain brown trout entities are also genetically distinct. Sixty-two brown trout from eleven locations across the Mediterranean and the Atlantic drainages in Morocco were surveyed using sequence analysis of the mtDNA control region and nuclear gene LDH, and by genotyping twelve microsatellite loci. Our study confirms that in Morocco both the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins are populated by Atlantic mtDNA lineage brown trout only, demonstrating that the Atlantic lineage (especially its southern clade) invaded initially not only the western part of the Mediterranean basin in Morocco but also expanded deep into the central area. Atlantic haplotypes identified here sort into three distinct groups suggesting Morocco was colonized in at least three successive waves (1.2, 0.4 and 0.2-0.1 MY ago). This notion becomes more pronounced with the finding of a distinct haplotype in the Dades river system, whose origin appears to coalesce with the nascent stage of the basal mtDNA evolutionary lineages of brown trout. According to our results, Salmo akairos, Salmo pellegrini and "green trout" from Lake Isli do not exhibited any character states that distinctively separate them from the other brown trout populations studied. Therefore, their status as distinct species was not confirmed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment: Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardashti, Sara; Samaei, Mehrnoosh; Firouzeh, Mona Mohammadi; Mirshahvalad, Seyed Ali; Pahlaviani, Fatemeh Golsoorat; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad

    2015-05-12

    New World Health Organization guidelines recommend the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of ≤ 500 cells/mm(3). Substantial reduction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is addressed as a major public health outcome of this new approach. Middle East and North Africa (MENA), known as the area of controversies in terms of availability of comprehensive data, has shown concentrated epidemics among most of it's at risk population groups. Serious challenges impede the applicability of new guidelines in the MENA Region. Insufficient resources restrict ART coverage to less than 14%, while only one fourth of the countries had reportable data on patients' CD4 counts at the time of diagnosis. Clinical guidelines need to be significantly modified to reach practical utility, and surveillance systems have not yet been developed in many countries of MENA. Based on available evidence in several countries people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men are increasingly vulnerable to HIV and viral hepatitis, while their sexual partners - either female sex workers or women in monogamous relationships with high-risk men - are potential bridging populations that are not appropriately addressed by regional programs. Research to monitor the response to ART among the mentioned groups are seriously lacking, while drug resistant HIV strains and limited information on adherence patterns to treatment regimens require urgent recognition by health policymakers. Commitment to defined goals in the fight against HIV, development of innovative methods to improve registration and reporting systems, monitoring and evaluation of current programs followed by cost-effective modifications are proposed as effective steps to be acknowledged by National AIDS Programs of the countries of MENA Region.

  10. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

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    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  11. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  12. Characteristics of Droughts in South Africa: A Case Study of Free State and North West Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Free State (FS and North West (NW Provinces are often hard hit by droughts with impacts on water availability, farm production and livestock holdings. The South African government declared the two Provinces drought disaster areas in the 2015/2016 hydrological year. This is a major drawback, since both the Provinces play an important role to South African economy as they are a haven to agricultural production and have major water reservoirs in South Africa. This study was undertaken to investigate the historical evolution of drought within the FS and NW Provinces over the past 30 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI calculated based on monthly meteorological data from 14 weather/climate stations within the FS and NW Provinces were used to explore and characterize variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency and severity in FS and NW Provinces during 1985–2015. Results indicate that there exist localized positive and negative trends with spatial dependence across the selected stations. In particular, about 60% of the weather stations exhibiting a decreasing trend are located in FS Province, suggesting that FS has being experiencing increasing drought during the analyzed period compared to NW Province. Results from the analysis of drought evaluation indicators (DEIs calculated from SPEI suggest that drought severity and frequency was more pronounced in FS while the intensity of the drought was more in NW Province during 1985–2015. In addition, based on SPEI calculations, moderate drought occurrences increased during 1985–1994 and 1995–2004 periods and decreased thereafter (2005–2015 in both Provinces. Drought classification based on parameters derived from SPEI produced similar results for mild drought occurrences during the same time scales.

  13. The epidemiology of Norovirus in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidieh, Khalil; Charide, Rana; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Melhem, Nada M

    2017-11-10

    Norovirus (NoV) is considered the second leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE). To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews assessing the role of NoV in AGE in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Consequently, we conducted an extensive systematic literature review on articles studying NoV in the 24 countries of the MENA region during the past 15 years (2000-2015). The methods and reporting were set according to the 2015 PRISMA-P and based on the elements from the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). We retrieved 38 studies meeting our predefined inclusion criteria and were used to extract full data. Studies reporting on NoV were conducted in 15 out of the 24 countries of the region. The reported NoV infection rates in MENA countries ranged between 0.82% and 36.84%. The majority of studies were clinical observational studies assessing NoV rates mainly among children. Participants were recruited from in- and outpatient clinics. NoV infection was reported all year round with with peaks observed mainly during cold months. GII.4 was the predominant genotype detected in stool of participants as reported by 16 out of 25 studies (64%). Overall, there is an increasing recognition of NoV as an important causative agent of AGE across all age groups in the MENA region. Further studies are needed to assess the national and the regional burden of NoV among different age groups, its molecular diversity and seasonal variability.

  14. Financing concentrating solar power in the Middle East and North Africa-Subsidy or investment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieb, Franz; Mueller-Steinhagen, Hans; Kern, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a strategy for the market introduction of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) that will not require considerable subsidization and will not constitute a significant burden for electricity consumers in the region. In the first section, the paper explains the need of MENA countries for sustainable supply of electricity and calculates the cost of electricity for a model case country. In the second part, the cost development of concentrating solar power plants is calculated on the basis of expectations for the expansion of CSP on a global level. After that, the challenges for the market introduction of CSP in MENA are explained. Finally, we present a strategy for the market introduction of CSP in MENA, removing the main barriers for financing and starting market introduction in the peak load and the medium load segment of power supply. The paper explains why long-term power purchase agreements (PPA) for CSP should be calculated on the basis of avoided costs, starting in the peak load segment. Such PPA are not yet available, the paper aims to convince policy makers to introduce them. - Research Highlights: → Concentrating Solar Power in the Mediterranean Region (MED-CSP 2005) (www.dlr.de/tt/med-csp). → Trans-Mediterranean Interconnection for Concentrating Solar Power (TRANS-CSP 2006) (www.dlr.de/tt/trans-csp). → Concentrating Solar Power for Seawater Desalination (AQUA-CSP 2007) (www.dlr.de/tt/aqua-csp). → Risk of Energy Availability: Common Corridors for Europe Supply Security (REACCESS 2009) (http://reaccess.epu.ntua.gr/). → Combined Solar Power and Desalination in the Mediterranean (MED-CSD 2010) (www.med-csd-ec.eu).

  15. A morphological intermediate between eosimiiform and simiiform primates from the late middle Eocene of Tunisia: Macroevolutionary and paleobiogeographic implications of early anthropoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Essid, El Mabrouk; Marzougui, Wissem; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Adnet, Sylvain; Marandat, Bernard; Merzeraud, Gilles; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Yans, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Although advanced anthropoid primates (i.e., Simiiformes) are recorded at the end of the Eocene in North Africa (Proteopithecidae, Parapithecidae, and Oligopithecidae), the origin and emergence of this group has so far remained undocumented. The question as to whether these primates are the result of a monophyletic radiation of endemic anthropoids in Africa, or several Asian clades colonizing Africa, is a current focus of paleoprimatology. In this article, we report the discovery of a new anthropoid from Djebel el Kébar in central Tunisia, dating from the late middle Eocene (Bartonian). This taxon, Amamria tunisiensis, new genus and species, currently known by only one isolated upper molar, is among the most ancient anthropoids to be recorded in Africa thus far. Amamria displays a suite of dental features that are primarily observed in Eosimiiformes (stem Anthropoidea). However, it is not allocated to any known family of that group (i.e., Asian Eosimiidae and Afro-Asian Afrotarsiidae) inasmuch as it develops some dental traits that are unknown among eosimiiforms, but can be found in African simiiform anthropoids such as proteopithecids and oligopithecids. With such a mosaic of dental traits, Amamria appears to be a structural intermediate, and as such it could occupy a key position, close to the root of the African simiiforms. Given its antiquity and its apparent pivotal position, the possibility exists that Amamria could have evolved in Africa from Asian eosimiiform or Asian "proto"-simiiform ancestors, which would have entered Africa sometime during the middle Eocene. Amamria could then represent one of the earliest offshoots of the African simiiform radiation. This view would then be rather in favor of the hypothesis of a monophyletic radiation of endemic simiiform anthropoids in Africa. Finally, these new data suggest that there must have been at least two Asian anthropoid colonizers of Africa: the afrotarsiids and the ancestor of Amamria. © 2014 Wiley

  16. Barley Breeding for Quality Improvement in Tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... sub-humid environment at Beja and a semi-arid one at Kef. Heading date ... State of art showed that barley was a main food crop in. North Africa for ... rably to many other food grains (wheat, rye, and oats) and played a .... rates both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) into ...

  17. Radiological quality of mineral waters battled in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, N.

    2002-01-01

    There are approximately 60 natural water springs in Tunisia, but only 10 of them, mostly in the north, are legally authorized to be sold for bottled mineral water. The object of this study is to determine the radiological content of the mineral waters bottled in Tunisia by calculating the annual effective dose resulting from ingestion of the natural radionuclides in these waters. The results show that radioactivity is relatively low in the Tunisian mineral waters and is due essentially to uranium and radium picked up as the water passes through the deep rocks. Levels measured range from 3.3 to 2.5 mBq/L for 234 U. Radium levels range from 2.0 to 67.0 mBq/L for 226 Ra and from 2.0 to 30.2 mBq/L for 228 Ra. These levels are lower than those measured in many other regions over the world. For daily mineral water consumption over one year, the estimated effective dose level varies between 0.006 and 0.091 mSv for an adult and between 0.008 and 0.107 mSv for a 5-year old child. These results do not present a public health risk in Tunisia. This investigation enabled us to assess the contribution of bottler water to radiological exposure of natural origins. (author)

  18. Popular and formal Islam, and supralocal relations : the Highlands of Northwestern Tunisia, 1800-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper explores the interplay between local popular Islam and the repeated introduction of formal Islam in Khrumiria, North-western Tunisia, against the background of its social and political structure and the radical changes the latter underwent in the colonial and post-colonial era. The

  19. Can ICT belong in Africa, or is it owned by the North Atlantic Region?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Binsbergen W.M.J. van, van Dijk, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    This introductory chapter sketches globalization and Africa in broad theoretical terms, examining the meaning of the term globalization; the impact of globalization on daily life in Africa in economic as well as sociocultural terms; globalization as a historical phenomenon; the political aspects of

  20. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  1. Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Michael J.; Stadler, Christian; Ariño, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Context matters in the global strategy literature. We discuss how Africa, as a setting that received limited attention in the past, offers opportunity to challenge existing theory and develop new insights. The overall goal is to ask: What will the field of global strategic management look like once...

  2. Deep Soil Conditions Make Mediterranean Cork Oak Stem Growth Vulnerable to Autumnal Rainfall Decline in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Zribi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tree rings provide fruitful information on climate features driving annual forest growth through statistical correlations between annual tree growth and climate features. Indices built upon tree growth limitation by carbon sequestration (source hypothesis or drought-driven cambial phenology (sink hypothesis can be used to better identify underlying processes. We used both analytical frameworks on Quercus suber, a sparsely studied species due to tree ring methodological issues, and growing on a favorable sub-humid Mediterranean climate and deep soil conditions in Tunisia (North Africa. Statistical analysis revealed the major role of autumnal rainfall before the growing season on annual tree growth over the 1918–2008 time series. Using a water budget model, we were able to explain the critical role of the deep soil water refill during the wet season in affecting both the drought onset controlling growth phenology and the summer drought intensity affecting carbon assimilation. Analysis of recent climate changes in the region additionally illustrated an increase in temperatures enhancing the evaporative demand and advancing growth start, and a decline in rainfalls in autumn, two key variables driving stem growth. We concluded on the benefits of using process-based indices in dendrochronological analysis and identified the main vulnerability of this Mediterranean forest to autumnal rainfall decline, a peculiar aspect of climate change under summer-dry climates.

  3. A bridge with Tunisia to share knowledge about restoration of cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Baratin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The University of Urbino, with the School of Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage crossed the Italian border and landed in Tunisia. The aim is to create a new course of study in Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage, lasting three years, in the euro-Mediterranean countries raising, in this way, the region of North Africa. Besides the University of Urbino - which plays the role of leader - eleven institutions in the project, two Italians are involved, the UNIMED, the Union of the Mediterranean University in Rome, and the IUAV, MeLa Multimedia Laboratory in Venice, a Spanish partner, the University of Barcelona, one French, the ENSAM-ARTS, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Arts et Métiers Paris Tech, six Tunisian University, the ISMTP, Université de Tunis, the UMA, Université de la Manouba, the UC , Université de Sousse, the UNIVGB, University of Gabes, the USS, Université de Sfax, the UZ, Zitouna University, and, finally, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.This initiative is the first to introduce in the training system of the Tunisian University of the Mediterranean country the Schools of Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage that have the same approach to European schools.

  4. Political fragmentation and alliances among armed non-state actors in North and Western Africa (1997-2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Leuprecht, Christian; Skillicorn, David

    2018-01-01

    investigates the way the structural positions of conflicting parties affect their ability to resort to political violence. To this end, we combine two spectral embedding techniques that have previously been considered separately: one for directed graphs that takes into account the direction of relationships......Drawing on a collection of open source data, the article uses network analysis to represent alliances and conflicts among 179 organizations involved in violence in North and Western Africa between 1997 and 2014. Owing to the fundamentally relational nature of internecine violence, this article...

  5. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...

  6. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Middle East and North Africa Climate

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2016-11-01

    Dust-climate interaction over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has long been studied, as it is the "dustiest" region on earth. However, the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the role of dust direct radiative effect on MENA climate is still rudimentary. The present dissertation investigates dust direct radiative effect on MENA climate during summer with a special emphasis on the sensitivity of climate response to dust shortwave absorption, which is one of the most uncertain components of dust direct radiative effect. Simulations are conducted with and without dust radiative effect, to differentiate the effect of dust on climate. To elucidate the sensitivity of climate response to dust shortwave absorption, simulations with dust assume three different cases of dust shortwave absorption, representing dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient shortwave absorber. The non-uniformly distributed dust perturb circulations at various scales. Therefore, the present study takes advantage of the high spatial resolution capabilities of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), which incorporates global and regional circulations. AMIP-style global high-resolution simulations are conducted at a spatial resolution of 25 km. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet and West African Monsoon circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rainbelt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Similarly, the temperature under rainbelt cools and that over subtropical deserts warms. Inter-comparison of various dust shortwave absorption cases shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the

  7. Scientific Wealth in Middle East and North Africa: Productivity, Indigeneity, and Specialty in 1981-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Afreen; Stoppani, Jonathan; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Several developing countries seek to build knowledge-based economies by attempting to expand scientific research capabilities. Characterizing the state and direction of progress in this arena is challenging but important. Here, we employ three metrics: a classical metric of productivity (publications per person), an adapted metric which we denote as Revealed Scientific Advantage (developed from work used to compare publications in scientific fields among countries) to characterize disciplinary specialty, and a new metric, scientific indigeneity (defined as the ratio of publications with domestic corresponding authors) to characterize the locus of scientific activity that also serves as a partial proxy for local absorptive capacity. These metrics-using population and publications data that are available for most countries-allow the characterization of some key features of national scientific enterprise. The trends in productivity and indigeneity when compared across other countries and regions can serve as indicators of strength or fragility in the national research ecosystems, and the trends in specialty can allow regional policy makers to assess the extent to which the areas of focus of research align (or not align) with regional priorities. We apply the metrics to study the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)-a region where science and technology capacity will play a key role in national economic diversification. We analyze 9.8 million publication records between 1981-2013 in 17 countries of MENA from Morocco to Iraq and compare it to selected countries throughout the world. The results show that international collaborators increasingly drove the scientific activity in MENA. The median indigeneity reached 52% in 2013 (indicating that almost half of the corresponding authors were located in foreign countries). Additionally, the regional disciplinary focus in chemical and petroleum engineering is waning with modest growth in the life sciences. We find repeated

  8. Riverine and wet atmospheric inputs of materials to a North Africa coastal site (Annaba Bay, Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounissi, Makhlouf; Amira, Aicha Beya; Dulac, François

    2018-07-01

    This study simultaneously assesses for the first time the relative contributions of riverine and wet atmospheric inputs of materials into the Algerian Annaba Bay on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa. Surface water sampling and water discharge estimates were performed weekly in 2014 at the outlets of the Mafragh River (MR) and Seybouse River (SR). Riverine samples were analyzed for dissolved nutrients and particulate matter (suspended particulate matter: SPM; particulate organic carbon: POC; biogenic silica: BSi; chlorophyll a: Chl a; particulate organic nitrogen: PON and particulate organic phosphorus (POP). Rainwater samples were jointly collected at a close weather station on a daily basis and analyzed for dissolved nutrients. The rainwater from the Annaba region was characterized by high concentrations of phosphate (PO4) and silicic acid (Si(OH)4) that are several times the average Mediterranean values, and by strong deposition fluxes. Conversely, the levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and associated fluxes were remarkably low. The dissolved nutrient fluxes for the two catchments were low following the lowering of the river flows, but those of particulate matter (POC, Chl a, BSi) displayed significant amounts, especially for the MR catchment. BSi and POP represented approximately a third of the total silicon and total phosphorus fluxes, respectively. The levels of dissolved N and P in the MR water were comparable to those in rainwater. MR appeared to be a nearly pristine ecosystem with low nutrient levels and almost balanced N:P and Si:N ratios. SR water had low Si(OH)4 levels but was highly charged with NH4 and PO4 and showed unbalanced N:P and Si:N ratios in almost all samples. These conditions have resulted in large phytoplankton biomasses, which may lead to eutrophication. More importantly, the rainwater was identified as a relevant source of fertilizers for marine waters and agricultural land in the

  9. Solar electricity imports from the Middle East and North Africa to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieb, Franz; Schillings, Christoph; Pregger, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    The huge solar resources in the MENA countries (Middle East and North Africa), significant improvements in concentrating solar power (CSP) technology and in power transmission technologies, and the urgent need to remove carbon emissions from the European (EU) energy system lead to an increased interest in an EU-MENA electricity grid interconnection. As contribution to the current discussions about DESERTEC, MedGrid and other initiatives this article describes the approach and results of an analysis of possible solar electricity import corridors from MENA to Europe including Turkey. The study is based on solar energy potentials of the MENA countries identified by remote sensing, reviewed performance and cost data of generation and transmission technologies, and geographic data and information systems (GIS) for the spatial analysis. CSP plants combined with high temperature heat storage and high voltage direct current (HVDC) overhead lines and sea cables represent the key technologies for implementing this promising option for renewable energy import/export. The total technical solar power generation potential from remote sensing analysis in the seven MENA countries considered was calculated to about 538,000 TWh/yr. This huge potential implies that less than 0.2% of the land suitable for CSP plants would be enough to supply 15% of the electricity demand expected in Europe in the year 2050. A GIS analysis of potential future HVDC corridors led to the description and characterization of 33 possible import routes to main European centers of demand. - Highlights: ► Concentrating Solar Power in the Mediterranean Region (MED-CSP 2005) (www.dlr.de/tt/med-csp). ► Trans-Mediterranean Interconnection for Concentrating Solar Power (TRANS-CSP 2006) (www.dlr.de/tt/trans-csp). ► Concentrating Solar Power for Seawater Desalination (AQUA-CSP 2007) (www.dlr.de/tt/aqua-csp). ► Risk of Energy Availability: Common Corridors for Europe Supply Security (REACCESS 2009) (http

  10. Renewable energy for the Middle East and North Africa. Policies for a successful transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalilvand, David Ramin [Freie Univ. Berlin (DE). Berlin Centre for Caspian Region Studies (BC CARE)

    2012-02-15

    This study was commissioned by the FES Sustainable Energy Programme in the MENA region. The programme supports the search for suitable policies to promote energy savings and energy efficiency. Moreover, it encourages a transition towards an energy supply based on renewable energy sources. While the Middle East and North Africa hold a greater potential for the use of renewable energy than any other region on the planet, it is at the same time the region with the smallest share of renewable energy in its primary energy supply. Many analysts see the way energy policies are structured in most MENA countries as the main reason for the lack of renewable energy utilities and the above-average per capita energy consumption. It is only through political will and smart policies that countries can succeed in transforming their energy sectors towards sustainability. The German Renewable Energy Act, which was introduced by a coalition government of Social Democrats and Greens in 2000, has enabled Germany to rapidly increase its sustainable energy sector. It has also created more than 370,000 new green jobs in the renewable energy industry. While many different players are already active in the wider field of renewable energy in the MENA region, their efforts have mainly focussed on facilitating business- to-business conferences, technical research, and energy financing issues. So far, little has been done in the fields of policy research, policy consulting, and public awareness to promote a sustainable use of energy in the region. The FES is ready to share some successful policy experiences by providing German and international expertise, analysis, and policy advice to interested policymakers, activists, and researchers. The Arab Spring has strengthened our belief that public opinion can change politics everywhere. Since energy questions often relate to public interest (pollution, nuclear power, pricing), it is time to use the momentum of change for introducing ideas about

  11. The Challenges and Relevance of Exploring the Genetics of North Africa's "Barbary Lion" and the Conservation of Putative Descendants in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Simon A

    2016-01-01

    The lions of North Africa were unique in ecological terms as well as from a human cultural perspective and were the definitive lions of Roman and Medieval Europe. Labelled "Barbary" lions, they were once numerous in North Africa but were exterminated by the mid-20th century. Despite subsequent degeneration of the Atlas Mountain ecosystem through human pressures, the feasibility of lion reintroduction has been debated since the 1970s. Research on the long-established captive lion collection traditionally kept by the sultans and kings of Morocco has enabled selective breeding coordinated across Moroccan and European zoos involving a significant number of animals. Molecular genetic research has recently provided insights into lion phylogeny which, despite previous suggestions that all lions share recent common ancestry, now indicates clear distinctions between lions in North, West, and Central Africa, the Middle East, and India versus those in Southern and Eastern Africa. A review of the evolutionary relevance of North African lions highlights the important challenges and opportunities in understanding relationships between Moroccan lions, extinct North African lions, and extant lion populations in India and West and Central Africa and the potential role for lions in ecosystem recovery in those regions.

  12. The Challenges and Relevance of Exploring the Genetics of North Africa's “Barbary Lion” and the Conservation of Putative Descendants in Captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The lions of North Africa were unique in ecological terms as well as from a human cultural perspective and were the definitive lions of Roman and Medieval Europe. Labelled “Barbary” lions, they were once numerous in North Africa but were exterminated by the mid-20th century. Despite subsequent degeneration of the Atlas Mountain ecosystem through human pressures, the feasibility of lion reintroduction has been debated since the 1970s. Research on the long-established captive lion collection traditionally kept by the sultans and kings of Morocco has enabled selective breeding coordinated across Moroccan and European zoos involving a significant number of animals. Molecular genetic research has recently provided insights into lion phylogeny which, despite previous suggestions that all lions share recent common ancestry, now indicates clear distinctions between lions in North, West, and Central Africa, the Middle East, and India versus those in Southern and Eastern Africa. A review of the evolutionary relevance of North African lions highlights the important challenges and opportunities in understanding relationships between Moroccan lions, extinct North African lions, and extant lion populations in India and West and Central Africa and the potential role for lions in ecosystem recovery in those regions. PMID:27656310

  13. CD41 T cell recovery during suppression of HIV replication: an international comparison of the immunological efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in North America, Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Elvin H; Neilands, Torsten B; Thièbaut, Rodolphe; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Nash, Denis; Moore, Richard D; Wood, Robin; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Althoff, Keri N; Lim, Poh Lian; Nachega, Jean B; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Kambugu, Andrew; Little, Francesca; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Nakanjako, Damalie; Kiggundu, Valerian; Ki Li, Patrick Chung; Bangsberg, David R; Fox, Matthew P; Prozesky, HansW; Hunt, Peter W; Davies, Mary-Ann; Reynolds, Steven J; Egger, Matthias; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Vittinghoff, Eric V; Deeks, Steven G; Martin, Jeffrey N

    2015-02-01

    Even among HIV-infected patients who fully suppress plasma HIV RNA replication on antiretroviral therapy, genetic (e.g. CCL3L1 copy number), viral (e.g. tropism) and environmental (e.g. chronic exposure to microbial antigens) factors influence CD4 recovery. These factors differ markedly around the world and therefore the expected CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression may differ globally. We evaluated HIV-infected adults from North America, West Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and Asia starting non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitorbased regimens containing efavirenz or nevirapine, who achieved at least one HIV RNA level Africa showed diminished CD4 recovery as compared with other regions. Three years after antiretroviral therapy initiation, the mean CD4 count for a prototypical patient with a pre-therapy CD4 count of 150/ml was 529/ml [95% confidence interval (CI): 517–541] in North America, 494/ml (95% CI: 429–559) in West Africa, 515/ml (95% CI: 508–522) in Southern Africa, 503/ml (95% CI: 478–528) in Asia and 437/ml (95% CI: 425–449) in East Africa. CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression is diminished in East Africa as compared with other regions of the world, and observed differences are large enough to potentially influence clinical outcomes. Epidemiological analyses on a global scale can identify macroscopic effects unobservable at the clinical, national or individual regional level.

  14. Ancient and recent Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to North Africa as viewed by mtDNA diversity in Tunisian Arab populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkamel, Sarra; Boussetta, Sami; Khodjet-El-Khil, Houssein; Benammar Elgaaied, Amel; Cherni, Lotfi

    2018-05-01

    Through previous mitochondrial DNA studies, the Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to Tunisian populations appears limited. In fact, most of the studied communities were cosmopolitan, or of Berber or Andalusian origin. To provide genetic evidence for the actual contribution of Middle Eastern mtDNA lineages to Tunisia, we focused on two Arab speaking populations from Kairouan and Wesletia known to belong to an Arab genealogical lineage. A total of 114 samples were sequenced for the mtDNA HVS-I and HVS-II regions. Using these data, we evaluated the distribution of Middle Eastern haplogroups in the study populations, constructed interpolation maps, and established phylogenetic networks allowing estimation of the coalescence time for three specific Middle Eastern subclades (R0a, J1b, and T1). Both studied populations displayed North African genetic structure and Middle Eastern lineages with a frequency of 12% and 28.12% in Kairouan and Wesletia, respectively. TMRCA estimates for haplogroups T1a, R0a, and J1b in Tunisian Arabian samples were around 15 000 YBP, 9000 to 5000 YBP, and 960 to 600 YBP, respectively. The Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to Tunisian populations, as to other North African populations, occurred mostly in deep prehistory. They were brought in different migration waves during the Upper Paleolithic, probably with the expansion of Iberomaurusian culture, and during Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic periods, which are concomitant with the Capsian civilization. Middle Eastern lineages also came to Tunisia during the recent Islamic expansion of the 7th CE and the subsequent massive Bedouin migration during the 11th CE. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Synoptic Disturbances Found in Precipitable Water Fields North of Equatorial Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patla, Jason

    1999-01-01

    The origin and structure of tropical synoptic scale precipitable water (PW) anomalies estimated from TOVS satellite observations are analyzed as they propagate eastward across northern Africa during MAM 1988...

  16. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  17. APPLYING THE VERNACULAR MODEL TO HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Jokhadar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalisation and continuous urbanisation, architects have a greater responsibility to design residential buildings with comfortable and sustainable environments. However, sustainable solutions should not concern themselves only with utilising technology, but also with creating synergies amongst a community’s social, cultural, historical, and environmental aspects. This research focuses on the implications of this wider definition of sustainability within the hot-arid climates of the Middle East and North Africa. Most of the current high-rise residential buildings in these regions do not promote social cohesion as they have been constructed without consideration for local identity and lifestyle. In contrast, vernacular courtyard dwellings and neighbourhoods offer good examples of socially cohesive and healthy environments. Yet, vernacular houses might not be compatible with pressures of modern construction. The question then becomes how to maintain the relationship between the spatial, social and environmental aspects while employing the latest technologies and materials. This paper presents the different qualities of vernacular houses and neighbourhoods in the different regions of the Middle East and North Africa. Social and spatial relationships of different cases are assessed, through a typological analysis approach using a developed syntactic-geometric model, to trace the lifestyle and the cultural values of the society. The aim is a parametric exploration of appropriate sustainable solutions that facilitate the synergy of socio-climatic requirements, the well-being qualities of the residents, and the specifics of culture, time and people while designing sustainable high-rise developments.

  18. Everyday hazards and vulnerabilities amongst backyard dwellers: A case study of Vredendal North, Matzikama Municipality, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Zweig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The populations of many small towns in South Africa continue to expand unmatched by parallel economic growth, entrenching high levels of poverty. The town of Vredendal, located close to the national route between Namibia and Cape Town in South Africa, is a West Coast development node and an emergent industrial and processing area that continues to attract an influx of people seeking economic opportunities. This is challenging the capacity of the local municipality, which has a waiting list for state-provided low-cost housing units, whilst the provision of adequate infrastructure to meet growing local need is also a developmental concern. In the suburb of Vredendal North this has resulted in the proliferation of unplanned informal dwellings in the backyards of formalised low-cost housing areas. Largely overlooked by urban researchers, little is known or understood about small town backyard populations. This prompted a brief study of Vredendal North backyard dwellers commissioned by the local municipality to identify their everyday hazards and livelihood vulnerabilities to inform future development planning. A community workshop identified critical development needs and suggested that backyard dwellers in small towns experience similar living conditions and hazards to those in the cities, although underlain by some unique differences.

  19. Tunisia: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on more attractive E and P terms, and the Abiod Chalk oil play which means busier exploration in Tunisia. E and P agreement terms and conditions have been liberalized in the face of declining oil and gas production, thus encouraging development of smaller, previously marginal prospects. Ownership and acreage changes may have significant impact in the next few years as Texaco, under a farm-in, has acquired 60% and operatorship of Conquest Exploration's El Jem onshore block and Samedan acquired large acreage interests from Royal Dutch Shell

  20. The photovoltaic market in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouazzi, A.S.; Hydri, S.; Sakji, O.

    1997-01-01

    In this article, our aim is to estimate the number of rural houses to be supplied with electricity by photovoltaic systems, using data from the national electric company in Tunisia (STEG) and the 1994 General Census. We also intent to estimate the electric consumption of three categories of houses, depending on the electrical appliances they own and on the annual hours of sunshine of the part of the country where they are situated. The estimated of the needed peak power is 15525 kWp to electrify 114,323 houses. (author)

  1. Seasonal forecasts of the SINTEX-F coupled model applied to maize yield and streamflow estimates over north-eastern South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 Meteorological Applications Vol. 21(3) Seasonal forecasts of the SINTEX-F coupled model applied to maize yield and streamflow estimates over north-eastern South Africa J. Malherbe,a* W. A. Landman,b,c C. Olivier,d H. Sakumae and J- J. Luof a Institute... for Soil, Climate and Water, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa b Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa c Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology...

  2. Early childhood obesity: a survey of knowledge and practices of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Inge; AlSaleem, Bader; Olang, Beheshteh; Karima, Berkouk; Samy, Gamal; Husain, Khaled; Elhalik, Mahmoud; Miqdady, Mohamad; Rawashdeh, Mohamad; Salah, Mohamed; Mouane, Nezha; Rohani, Pejman; Singhal, Atul; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2017-04-28

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health issues of the twenty-first century affecting even low- and middle-income countries. Overweight and obese children are more likely to stay obese into adulthood. Due to the paucity of data on local practices, our study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa region with respect to early-onset obesity. A specific questionnaire investigating the perception and knowledge on early-onset obesity was circulated to healthcare providers (general physicians, pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologist, neonatologists) practicing in 17 Middle East and North African countries. A total of 999/1051 completed forms (95% response) were evaluated. Of all respondents, 28.9% did not consistently use growth charts to monitor growth during every visit and only 25.2% and 46.6% of respondents were aware of the correct cut-off criterion for overweight and obesity, respectively. Of those surveyed, 22.3, 14.0, 36.1, 48.2, and 49.1% of respondents did not consider hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, fatty liver disease, and decreased life span, respectively, to be a long-term complication of early childhood obesity. Furthermore, only 0.7% of respondents correctly answered all survey questions pertaining to knowledge of early childhood overweight and obesity. The survey highlights the low use of growth charts in the evaluation of early childhood growth in Middle East and North Africa region, and demonstrated poor knowledge of healthcare providers on the short- and long-term complications of early-onset obesity. This suggests a need for both continued professional education and development, and implementation of guidelines for the prevention and management of early childhood overweight and obesity.

  3. Ambient seismic noise levels: A survey of the permanent and temporary seismographic networks in Morocco, North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fellah, Y.; Khairy Abd Ed-Aal, A.; El Moudnib, L.; Mimoun, H.; Villasenor, A.; Gallart, J.; Thomas, C.; Elouai, D.; Mimoun, C.; Himmi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The results, of a conducted study carried out to analyze variations in ambient seismic noise levels at sites of the installed broadband stations in Morocco, North Africa, are obtained. The permanent and the temporary seismic stations installed in Morocco of the Scientific Institute ( IS, Rabat, Morocco), institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera (ICTJA, Barcelona, Spain) and Institut für Geophysik (Munster, Germany) were used in this study. In this work, we used 23 broadband seismic stations installed in different structural domains covering all Morocco from south to north. The main purposes of the current study are: 1) to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra for Morocco obtained from recently installed broadband stations, 2) to assess the effects of experimental temporary seismic vault construction, 3) to determine the time needed for noise at sites to stabilize, 4) to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. We calculated power spectral densities of background noise for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites and then compared them with the high-noise model and low-noise Model of Peterson (1993). All segments from day and night local time windows were included in the calculation without parsing out earthquakes. The obtained results of the current study could be used forthcoming to evaluate permanent station quality. Moreover, this study could be considered as a first step to develop new seismic noise models in North Africa not included in Peterson (1993). Keywords Background noise; Power spectral density; Model of Peterson; Scientific Institute; Institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera; Institut für Geophysik

  4. Area Handbook Series: Tunisia; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    extended its hegemony along the coast of North Africa from the Atlantic Ocean to Cyrenaica as well as to Sardinia and western Sicily (see fig. 2... hegemony o~cr thu itLer autono- mous Ottoman regencies in the Maghrib. In 1702 a janissarv offi- cer, Ibrahim al Sharif, murdered the bey-pasha, Murad...an unrestricted number of concubines, had the inescapable side effect of placing a high value on masculine virility. Women were restricted to the home

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus and genotype distribution in immigrants crossing to Europe from North and sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Ahmed, Mohamed O; Dau, Aghnyia A; Agnan, Mohamed M

    The association between the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and immigration is rarely studied, particularly for the immigrants crossing to the resettlement countries. Most of the published data are confined to those immigrants who were resident in European countries and rarely immigrated before they reach the final destination. Libya is a large country in North Africa with the longest coast of the Mediterranean Sea facing the European Union. It has been considered as the main transient station for African immigrants to Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the prevalence of HCV in African immigrants gathered in Libya from different African countries on their way to Europe and (2) HCV genotype distribution in these immigrants and its correlation with different demographic factors. A total of 14 205 serum samples were collected in a 3-year period (2013-2015) from different immigrants from North and sub-Saharan Africa who resided in the African immigrant campus, Tripoli, Libya. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. Each serum sample was tested for anti-HCV antibody using ELISA. The genotypes were determined and assigned using a specific genotyping assay and correlated with demographic and potential risk factors of the recruited individuals. Of the immigrants studied, 1078 (7.6%) were positive for HCV. The prevalence of HCV infection ranged from 1.4% to 18.7%; it was higher among individuals arriving from Nile river (3.6-18.7%) of North Africa, followed by those who arrived from the West African region (2.1-14.1%), Horn of Africa (HOA, 6.8-9.9%), and Maghreb countries (1.4-2.7%). The relative risk factor attributable to gender variation was not significant (95% Cl: 0.8513-1.2381). Five genotypes were detected in 911 African immigrants. Genotypic analysis showed that the predominant HCV genotypes in this group were genotypes 4, 1, and 2 that

  6. 76 FR 55456 - The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Africa (MENA) region, the President called for a Trade and Investment Partnership Initiative to explore ways to further strengthen economic ties both between the United States and MENA countries and among the MENA countries themselves. Over the coming months, the United States, partnering where possible...

  7. All projects related to Tunisia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Management Models of Forest Resources in the Atlas Mountain Chain (North Africa) ... Total Funding: CA$ 908,000.00 ... variability is increasingly influencing those aspects of human health that are affected by water quantity and water quality.

  8. The vegetation of the north-western Orange Free State, South Africa. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kooij

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil, land types and climate of the north-western Orange Free State are described. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  9. Africa's Participation in TIMSS-2003

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    In 2003, six African countries - Ghana Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Botswana and South. Africa - participated in an international assessment programme in science and mathematics, called the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The study examined the performance of eighth graders in ...

  10. A Climatology of Dust-Emission Events over North Africa Based on 27 Years of Surface Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, S.; Knippertz, P.; Schepanski, K.

    2012-04-01

    The huge quantity of mineral dust emitted annually from North Africa makes this area crucial to the global dust cycle. Once in the atmosphere, dust aerosols have a significant impact on the global radiation budget, clouds, the carbon cycle and can even act as a fertilizer to rain forests in South America. Current model estimates of dust production from North Africa are uncertain. At the heart of this problem is insufficient understanding of key dust emitting processes such as haboobs (cold pools generated through evaporation of convective precipitation), low-level jets (LLJs), and dry convection (dust devils and dust plumes). Scarce observations in this region, in particular in the Sahara, make model evaluation difficult. This work uses long-term surface observations from the MIDAS data set (~120 stations in the arid part of North Africa) to explore the diurnal, seasonal, decadal and geographical variations in dust emission events and their associated wind thresholds. The threshold values are determined from probability density functions of observed 10-minute anemomenter wind speeds. Emission events are defined using the present weather codes (WW) of SYNOP reports. These codes represent events of smaller intensity such as "Dust or sand raised by wind" to severe dust storms. During the 27-year study period (1984-2011) stations are required to have a minimum of 1000 dust observations to be included in the analysis. Dust emission frequency (DEF) is calculated for different time intervals (e.g. monthly, 3-hourly) taking into account the different number of measurements available at each station. North of 25°N a maximum during March-May is evident and relatively consistent over the whole North African region. Wind-speed thresholds for dust emission north of 25°N are higher than south of 25°N in the Sahel, where station-to-station variability is larger, and enhanced DEF activity during February-March is observed. The variability in this region is closely linked to the

  11. A measure for the efficiency of water use and its determinants, a case study of small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Buysse, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water

  12. The genetic impact of the lake chad basin population in North Africa as documented by mitochondrial diversity and internal variation of the L3e5 haplogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorná, Eliška; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    The presence of sub-Saharan L-type mtDNA sequences in North Africa has traditionally been explained by the recent slave trade. However, gene flow between sub-Saharan and northern African populations would also have been made possible earlier through the greening of the Sahara resulting from Early Holocene climatic improvement. In this article, we examine human dispersals across the Sahara through the analysis of the sub-Saharan mtDNA haplogroup L3e5, which is not only commonly found in the Lake Chad Basin (∼17%), but which also attains nonnegligible frequencies (∼10%) in some Northwestern African populations. Age estimates point to its origin ∼10 ka, probably directly in the Lake Chad Basin, where the clade occurs across linguistic boundaries. The virtual absence of this specific haplogroup in Daza from Northern Chad and all West African populations suggests that its migration took place elsewhere, perhaps through Northern Niger. Interestingly, independent confirmation of Early Holocene contacts between North Africa and the Lake Chad Basin have been provided by craniofacial data from Central Niger, supporting our suggestion that the Early Holocene offered a suitable climatic window for genetic exchanges between North and sub-Saharan Africa. In view of its younger founder age in North Africa, the discontinuous distribution of L3e5 was probably caused by the Middle Holocene re-expansion of the Sahara desert, disrupting the clade's original continuous spread. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  13. Members of the Gammarus pulex-group (Crustacea – Amphipoda) from North Africa and Spain, with description of a new species from Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, Sjouk

    1971-01-01

    Gammarus gauthieri (Karaman) was known from North Africa only. During systematic sampling, carried out in 1969 to 1970, it became clear, that the species is also widely distributed in the Iberian peninsula. Comparative descriptions of this species and of two other members of the Gammarus

  14. Vocational training in Tunisia Strengths and weaknesses

    OpenAIRE

    bouoiyour, jamal

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of institutional aspects of professional training in Tunisia. We describe briefly the genesis of this system and pointed out that Tunisia in spite of remarkable progress, suffers from some problems related to the low and partial integration of the professional training system in the general system of training. In a more precise way, the implement of professional training turns out incapable to anticipate future professions. Furthermore, when certain professions a...

  15. The meaning and effect of HIV/AIDS stigma for people living with AIDS and nurses involved in their care in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Greeff

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The five countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world are situated in southern Africa, and South Africa, with an estimated 4,7 million people living with HIV (PLWA, has more cases of HIV/AIDS than any other country. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to impact on those living with and affected by the HIV disease and their health-care providers, particularly in southern Africa, where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma has become a major problem in the provision o f care for PLWA in Africa. A five-year multinational African study on perceived AIDS stigma was undertaken. The North West Province in South Africa formed part of this study. The first phase focused on exploring and describing the meaning and effect o f stigma for PLWA and nurses involved in their care. This article focuses on the data for the North West Province, South Africa. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used. Through focus groups the critical incident method was applied to gain respondents’ emic and etic views. The study was conducted in the Potchefstroom district and the Kayakulu area. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilised. The open coding technique was used for data analysis. Three types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma and several dimensions for each type o f stigma were identified. Recommendations for interventions, a measuring scale and the formulation of a conceptual model were formulated.

  16. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  17. The state of harm reduction in the Middle East and North Africa: A focus on Iran and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmich, Hakima; Madani, Navid

    2016-05-01

    HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs are on the rise in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. But the regional response to the epidemic falls short both in terms of the quality and scale of response. From the threat of the death sentence for drug offenses to the burden of refugees fleeing conflict, there are many legal, political and social barriers that hinder the introduction and expansion of harm reduction in the region. However Iran and Morocco are two pioneering countries and over the last decade they have been providing evidence that harm reduction is feasible and acceptable in MENA. Using different approaches, these two countries have overcome various obstacles and encouraged discussion and collaboration among stakeholders, including government, health professionals, civil society and community-based organizations. In so doing they have created an enabling environment to endorse a national harm strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving the Quality and Quantity of HIV Data in the Middle East and North Africa: Key Challenges and Ways Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karamouzian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the HIV pandemic is witnessing a decline in the number of new infections in most regions of the world, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA has a rapidly growing HIV problem. While generating HIV data has been consistently increasing since 2005, MENA’s contribution to the global HIV literature is just over 1% and the existing evidence often falls behind the academic standards. Several factors could be at play that contribute to the limited quantity and quality of HIV data in MENA. This editorial tries to explore and explain the barriers to collecting high-quality HIV data and generating precise estimates in MENA. These barriers include a number of logistic and socio-political challenges faced by researchers, public health officials, and policy-makers. Looking at successful regional HIV programs, we explore examples were policies have shifted and lessons could be learned in developing appropriate responses to HIV across the region.

  19. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  20. Climatology of nocturnal low-level jets over North Africa and implications for modeling mineral dust emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, S; Schepanski, K; Heinold, B; Knippertz, P; Tegen, I

    2013-06-27

    [1] This study presents the first climatology for the dust emission amount associated with Nocturnal Low-Level Jets (NLLJs) in North Africa. These wind speed maxima near the top of the nocturnal boundary layer can generate near-surface peak winds due to shear-driven turbulence in the course of the night and the NLLJ breakdown during the following morning. The associated increase in the near-surface wind speed is a driver for mineral dust emission. A new detection algorithm for NLLJs is presented and used for a statistical assessment of NLLJs in 32 years of ERA-Interim reanalysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. NLLJs occur in 29% of the nights in the annual and spatial mean. The NLLJ climatology shows a distinct annual cycle with marked regional differences. Maxima of up to 80% NLLJ frequency are found where low-level baroclinicity and orographic channels cause favorable conditions, e.g., over the Bodélé Depression, Chad, for November-February and along the West Saharan and Mauritanian coast for April-September. Downward mixing of NLLJ momentum to the surface causes 15% of mineral dust emission in the annual and spatial mean and can be associated with up to 60% of the total dust amount in specific areas, e.g., the Bodélé Depression and south of the Hoggar-Tibesti Channel. The sharp diurnal cycle underlines the importance of using wind speed information with high temporal resolution as driving fields for dust emission models. Citation: Fiedler, S., K. Schepanski, B. Heinold, P. Knippertz, and I. Tegen (2013), Climatology of nocturnal low-level jets over North Africa and implications for modeling mineral dust emission, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 6100-6121, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50394.

  1. tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    31 déc. 2014 ... l'absence des ressources fourragères, à cause des ressources en eau généralement limitées tant quantitativement ... (Réseau de Distribution d'eau potable et Sondages), alors que 10% des eaux (Citernes) sont sales, à cause de .... éleveurs assurent la désinfection des trayons après la traite (Figure 2).

  2. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    The North African electricity systems are in a phase of rapid transformation. The ever-increasing electricity demand - with annual growth rates of more than 6% - is placing great strain on the regional economies, especially in times of economic downturn and political instability in the aftermath of

  3. Renewable energy and resource curse on the possible consequences of solar energy in North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, Yuh Jin

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to project whether the five North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisa) have the potentials to suffer from a solar energy curse. Under the assumption that a solar energy curse will be similar to the current resource curse, the combination of

  4. Perception of risks in renewable energy projects: The case of concentrated solar power in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony; Barras, Lucile; Battaglini, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    The world needs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to prevent climate change, while meeting the energy needs of developed and developing economies. Recent studies suggest that generation of electricity from concentrated solar power in North African countries and its transmission to Europe could provide European and North African partners with low-carbon electricity.The private capital will be likely required to achieve the scale of new investment and yet the North African region experience difficulties with sustaining high levels of foreign direct investment from the private sector. The literature identifies a number of risks as barriers to investment, and we examine these in the particular context of renewable energy development. We conducted three stages of interviews with stakeholders to learn their perceptions of the risks most likely to affect renewable energy projects. Three class of risks—regulatory, political, and force majeure (which includes terrorism)—stand out as being of high concern. Of these, regulatory risks are perceived as being the most consequential, and the most likely to occur. This suggests that attention to building the capacities of North African countries to develop, implement, and enforce sound regulations in a transparent manner could be an important step in promoting renewable energy cooperation with Europe.

  5. THE MEDIEVAL AND OTTOMAN HAMMAMS OF ALGERIA; ELEMENTS FOR A HISTORICAL STUDY OF BATHS ARCHITECTURE IN NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Cherif-Seffadj

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Algerian medinas (Islamic cities have several traditional public baths (hammams. However, these hammams are the least known in the Maghreb countries. The first French archaeological surveys carried out on Islamic monuments and sites in Algeria, have found few historic baths in medieval towns. All along the highlands route, from Algiers (capital city of Algeria located in the North to Tlemcen (city in the Western part of Algeria, these structures are found in all the cities founded after the Islamic religion expanded in the Western North Africa. These buildings are often associated to large mosques. In architectural history, these baths illustrate original spatial and organizational compositions under form proportions, methods of construction, ornamental elements and the technical skills of their builders. The ancient traditions of bathing interpreted in this building type are an undeniable legacy. They are present through architectural typology and technical implementation reflecting the important architectural heritage of the great Roman cities in Algeria. Furthermore, these traditions and buildings evolved through different eras. Master builders, who left Andalusia to seek refuge in the Maghreb countries, added the construction and ornamentation skills and techniques brought from Muslim Spain, while the Ottomans contribution in the history of many urban cities is important. Hence, the dual appellation of the hammam as “Moorish bath” and “Turkish bath” in Algeria is the perfect illustration of the evolution of bath architecture in Algeria.

  6. Virtual Water and Food Security in Tunisia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the world grain market has social implications for Tunisia's small farmers and ... Thus, when a country exports an agricultural product, in effect it also exports ... Tunisia that incorporates the virtual water concept in a food security strategy.

  7. The Quest for Military Cooperation in North Africa: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    popularly known as the Arab Spring. The toppling of Egyptian , Tunisian, and Libyan leaders during 2011 did not result in a peaceful and uncomplicated...the Egyptian view that military interven- tion was required to stabilize Libya. The first section of the Letort Paper will examine the North African...proach. It also became clear that the lack of a regional security architecture constituted a weakness in effec- tive tackling of cross-border threats

  8. Characterization of a Colletotrichum population causing anthracnose disease on Olive in northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaoui, M; Raya, M C; Bouri, M; Moral, J; Perez-Rodriguez, M; Trapero, A; Msallem, M; Rhouma, A

    2016-05-01

    To phenotypically, physiologically and molecularly characterize the causal agent of olive anthracnose in the northern Tunisia and to study its genetic variability and pathogenicity. A total of 43 isolates were obtained from symptomatic olives collected from four regions in northern Tunisia. A range of morphological and physiological characteristics was recorded; and a phylogenetic study, based on the sequence analysis of both internal transcribed spacers and TUB2 gene regions, was performed. Of the 43 isolates, 41 were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum s.s, and only two were affiliated to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.s. Two more representative Spanish isolates, included for comparison, were identified as Colletotrichum godetiae. Using six inter-simple-sequence-repeat markers, homogeneity between isolates from different locations and within the same species was recorded. In pathogenicity and virulence studies, C. gloeosporioides s.s was found to be less virulent, while the Spanish C. godetiae isolate was significantly more virulent than the Tunisian C. acutatum s.s. Olive anthracnose in the North of Tunisia is mainly caused by C. acutatum s.s species. This is the first study of olive anthracnose in Tunisia, which combines both phenotypic and molecular approaches. Colletotrichum acutatum s.s group was recorded for the first time in the country as the causal agent of olive anthracnose. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Continental fossil vertebrates from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Brazil, and their relationship with contemporaneous faunas from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Fanti, Federico; Therrien, François; Lamanna, Matthew C.

    2011-05-01

    The Albian-Cenomanian Alcântara Formation of northeastern Brazil preserves the most diverse continental vertebrate fauna of this age yet known from northern South America. The Alcântara vertebrate assemblage, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs, displays close similarities to contemporaneous faunas from North Africa. The co-occurrence of as many as eight freshwater or estuarine fish taxa ( Onchopristis, Bartschichthys, Lepidotes, Stephanodus, Mawsonia, Arganodus, Ceratodus africanus, and possibly Ceratodus humei) and up to seven terrestrial archosaur taxa ( Sigilmassasaurus, Rebbachisauridae, Baryonychinae, Spinosaurinae, Carcharodontosauridae, possibly Pholidosauridae, and doubtfully Bahariasaurus) suggests that a land route connecting northeastern Brazil and North Africa existed at least until the Albian. Interestingly, most components of this mid-Cretaceous northern South American/North African assemblage are not shared with coeval southern South American faunas, which are themselves characterized by a number of distinct freshwater and terrestrial vertebrate taxa (e.g., chelid turtles, megaraptoran and unenlagiine theropods). These results suggest that, although mid-Cretaceous faunal interchange was probably possible between northern South America and North Africa, paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, and/or paleoenvironmental barriers may have hindered continental vertebrate dispersal between northern and southern South America during this time.

  10. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANTIT

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  11. North-South Rivalry and Offshore Balancing in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    Sub-Saharan Africa constitutes a distinct security region and hosts a high proportion of fragile and failed states presiding over territories with abundant resources – but no indigenous great powers! Following offensive neorealist logic, the absence of local great powers explains the continued...... benign neglect of the US. External influence from European powers is nonetheless significant, albeit several BRIC countries are challenging the position of the former colonial masters. In response France and the United Kingdom (UK) have turned to European foreign and security policy integration to pool...... resources and promote burden sharing with other EU partners, in order to maintain power in the region. This European mobilization has kept rivals at bay but has also instigated balancing behaviour as revisionist suitors boost their conventional power projection capabilities....

  12. Sources of material for 'loess' deposits at 15°N in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Sue; Smalley, Ian; O'Hara-Dhand, Ken

    2014-05-01

    Africa is not a loess-rich continent. Lacking are the large expanses of glacial terrain and the high cold mountain regions, which would have provided the material and processes for loess deposits. African geomorphology and climatic history did not favour the formation of major loess deposits. However, within the African setting there are situations which could lead to particle formation and loess deposition. Loess deposits are made from 'large' dust (i.e. particles around 30µm). Small dust (around 3µm) is generated in large amounts in Africa, and distributed over large distances. Large dust is not generated in significant amounts in Africa, and this accounts for the relative lack of loess deposits. It is a relative lack; examination of the map of loess distribution in the World by Scheidig 1934 (still the best world loess map) shows some possible loess in Africa. In particular there is a band across the continent at around 15°N. We propose some possible sources for this material, and fit these sources into a recently revised deterministic model of loess deposit formation. And look at some exotic but possible indicators of the loessic nature of the 15°N band. Three possible material sources are: (1). The Fonta-Djalon highlands to the west of the loess band, (2). The Bodélé Depression, towards the centre of the loess band, and (3). The Ethiopian highlands to the east. There is a convenient river associated with the loess band; the Niger rises in the Fonta-Djalon region and carries material through the loess zone. The catchment of the Niger is well placed to receive large dust material from the Bodélé depression. Most Bodélé material is small dust carried away in high suspension but small amounts of large dust could be transported to the Niger catchment. Material from the Ethiopian highlands makes up the Nile silt but again some could be transported to the west to contribute to the loess band- which is a modest loess deposit. The deposit can be examined with

  13. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  14. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL.) MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sghaier; M. Tome; J. Tome; M. Sanchez-Gonzalez; I. Cañellas; R. Calama

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived f...

  15. Migrations of European honey bee lineages into Africa, Asia, and North America during the Oligocene and Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Wappler, Torsten; Engel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Today honey bees, principally the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, represent a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. Through the efforts of humans they have become established well outside of their modern native ranges, having been introduced multiple times into the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and many areas of Oceania. The native, i.e., non-human influenced, distribution and migration of honey bee species and populations has been a matter of serious and continued debate. Apicultural dogma informs us that the center of origin of honey bees (genus Apis) resides in Asia, with subsequent migration and diversification into Europe and Asia. Recent population genetic studies of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, slightly modified this received wisdom by suggesting that this species originated in Africa and subsequently reinvaded Eurasia. Research into the historical biogeography of honey bees has ignored entirely the abundant fossil evidence distributed through a variety of Late Paleogene (Oligocene) and Early Neogene (Miocene) deposits, a diversity which is predominantly European in origin, particularly among the most basal species of the genus. We have examined the morphological disparity and affinities of the full living and fossil diversity of honey bees ranging from their earliest origins to the present day. This analysis indicates that honey bees exhibited a greater morphological disparity during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, a time when the principal lineages were established, and that Apis apparently originated in Europe, spreading from there into Asia, Africa, and North America, with subsequent diversification in the former two regions and extinction in the latter. During the human migrations and colonization honey bees were once again introduced multiple times into the Americas, as well as into Australia and Asia.

  16. Tunisia: high fertility stalls development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, M

    1985-01-01

    Despite government policy enacted in 1964 to reduce fertility in order to hasten socioeconomic progress, population pressures continue to impair development in Tunisia. The birth rate fell 20% over the last 2 decades, but this accomplishment has been outweighed by a 50% decline in mortality rates. As a result, the rate of natural population increase has remained relatively constant at 2.5%/year. The initial decline in fertility that followed introduction of the national family planning program appears to have reached a plateau, explained in part by the resurgence of conservatism and religious fundamentalism and the consequent emphasis on women's childbearing roles. Unemployment in rural areas has led to widespread migration and unemployment is as high as 20% in the nonagricultural sector. Many young Tunisians lack adequate educational preparation to enter the labor force; in 1982, 27% of new job entrants could not read or write. The government's plan to decentralize development to stabilize population and achieve equilibrium between regions has been thwarted by the pace of population growth and limited resources. The rural regions where population is increasing the fastest are also the most difficult to reach with family planning programs. On the other hand, there have been some successes in this area when services have been adapted to the lifestyle and traditions of those in these isolated rural villages.

  17. Development actions of wind energy in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esseghir, M.

    1991-01-01

    The actions undertaken in Tunisia during the last few years concern research, development and industrial processes and the creation of the National Energy Agency (Agence de Maitrise de l'Energie (AME)) interested in starting up national programs for energy planning, energy saving, and the use of alternative energy sources. This study is based on the most important wind applications realized in the last few years in Tunisia. Firstly the national energy situation is observed. Then attention is paid to the activities in the field of wind energy. After this follows a general description of wind availability per region in Tunisia. Two important applications, water pumping and rural electrification, are described. Finally the perspectives and the evolution of these applications for the future are dealt with. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 2 ills

  18. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  19. Networks and spatial patterns of extremist organizations in North and West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Leuprecht, Christian; Skillicorn, David

    2018-01-01

    (Cunningham 2006; Findley and Rudloff 2012). Building on network science and spatial analysis, the overall objective of this chapter is to bridge these strands of literature and lay the foundations for a more formal approach to social and spatial networks of belligerents in the region. Examining...... of ensuring border integrity through border patrols and law enforcement. The chapter proceeds as follows. The second section reviews the literature on the social and spatial organization of state and non-state organizations, paying particular attention to the role of networks and national borders. The third...... and stability” (MaliActu 2016). The much-debated letter, which arrived one month before Ansar Dine attacked a UN convoy in the north of the country (RFI 2016), is the latest development in a tortuous military career for ag Ghaly, who, since the 1990s, has been a foreign fighter for the late Colonel Gaddafi...

  20. Economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and CO₂ emissions in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2015-10-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests to examine the dynamic causal link between per capita real gross domestic product (GDP), combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consumption, and CO2 emissions for a panel of five North African countries during the period 1971-2008. Granger causality test results suggest short- and long-run unidirectional causalities running from CO2 emissions and CRW consumption to real GDP and a short-run unidirectional causality running from CRW to CO2 emissions. The results from panel long-run fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) estimates show that CO2 emissions and CRW consumption have a positive and statistically significant impact on GDP. Our policy recommendations are that these countries should use more CRW because this increases their output, reduces their energy dependency on fossil energy, and may decrease their CO2 emissions.

  1. Thrust-wrench interference tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz (Africa-Iberia plate boundary in the North-East Atlantic): Insights from analog models

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte , João ,; Rosas , Filipe ,; Terrinha , Pedro; Gutscher , Marc-André ,; Malavielle , Jacques; Silva , Sonia; Matias , Luis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In the Gulf of Cadiz key segment of the Africa-Iberia plate boundary (North-East Atlantic ocean), three main different modes of tectonic interference between a recently identified wrench system (SWIM) and the Gulf of Cadiz Accretionary Wedge (GCAW) were tested through analog sand-box modeling: a) An active accretionary wedge on top of a pre-existent inactive basement fault; b) An active strike-slip fault cutting a previously formed, inactive, accretionary wedge; and c)...

  2. Many paths to walk: the political and economic integration of nomadic communities in Roman North Africa (I-III cent. A.D.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    The colonial image of endemic political and economic antagonism between nomadic and sedentary groups in the context of Roman North Africa should be discarded. Likewise, the rigid adherence to symbiosis and cooperation in more recent studies is based on a rather one-sided reading of anthropological literature. For the analysis of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources, supported by insights derived from anthropology, shows that political and economic integration trajectories of nomads...

  3. High growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets: the case of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem, Omaima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the phenomena of the high growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets. It explores the applicability of international entrepreneurship theory to the context of the emerging market enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It integrates the literature of strategic entrepreneurship and that of portfolio entrepreneurship with the literature of international entrepreneurship to provide a closer fi...

  4. Analysis of the summertime buildup of tropospheric ozone abundances over the Middle East and North Africa as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Worden, John R.; Noone, David; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jay

    2009-03-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument in summer 2005. Observations from TES reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere (500-400 hPa) across North Africa and the Middle East. Observed ozone abundances in the middle troposphere are at a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter, consistent with the previously predicted summertime "Middle East ozone maximum." This summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian and Sahara anticyclones, centered over the Zagros and Atlas Mountains, respectively. These anticyclones isolate the middle troposphere over northeast Africa and the Middle East, with westerlies to the north and easterlies to the south, facilitating the buildup of ozone. Over the Middle East, we find that in situ production and transport from Asia provides comparable contributions of 30-35% to the ozone buildup. Over North Africa, in situ production is dominant (at about 20%), with transport from Asia, North America, and equatorial Africa each contributing about 10-15% to the total ozone. We find that although the eastern Mediterranean is characterized by strong descent in the middle and upper troposphere in summer, transport from the boundary layer accounts for about 25% of the local Middle Eastern contribution to the ozone enhancement in the middle troposphere. This upward transport of boundary layer air is associated with orographic lifting along the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water.

  5. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  6. Efficiency Analysis of Islamic Banks in the Middle East and North Africa Region: A Bootstrap DEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raéf Bahrini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures and analyzes the technical efficiency of Islamic banks in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region during the period 2007–2012. To do this, the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach was employed in order to provide a robust estimation of the overall technical efficiency and its components: pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency in the case of MENA Islamic banks. The main results show that over the period of study, pure technical inefficiency was the main source of overall technical inefficiency instead of scale inefficiency. This finding was confirmed for all MENA Islamic banks as well as for the two subsamples: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and non-GCC Islamic banks. Furthermore, our results show that GCC Islamic banks had stable efficiency scores during the global financial crisis (2007–2008 and in the early post-crisis period (2009–2010. However, a decline in overall technical efficiency of all panels of MENA Islamic banks was recorded in the last two years of the study period (2011–2012. Thus, we recommend that MENA Islamic bank managers focus more on improving their management practices rather than increasing their sizes. We also recommend that financial authorities in MENA countries implement several regulatory and financial measures in order to ensure the development of MENA Islamic banking.

  7. Insights on stock structure of round sardinella Sardinella aurita off north-west Africa based on otolith shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, M; Jeyid, A M; Jaafour, S; Yahyaoui, A; Diop, M; Amara, R

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the geographic variability in otolith shape of round sardinella Sardinella aurita as a tool for stock discrimination. Fish were analysed from six sampling locations from Senegal to the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 78%. Group A: Nador (Alboran Sea), group B: Casablanca (northern Morocco) and group C: Senegalese-Mauritanian. The results of this study confirm the absence of an Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea transition for this species, the Gibraltar Strait acting as an efficient barrier for S. aurita population separation. Off north-west Africa, fish from northern Morocco form a single group which is clearly isolated from Senegalese-Mauritanian waters, confirming the existence of a distinct stock in this area. Among group C, some discontinuity exists and suggests the existence of a sedentary fraction of S. aurita in northern Mauritania (Arguin Bank). The results are discussed in relation to oceanographic features and physical barriers to dispersal and fish management strategy in the study area. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. In search of a merged identity: the case of multi-campus North-West University, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Kamsteeg

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s post–apartheid governments have taken far–reaching policy measures to transform the system of higher education, do away with its strongly segregated character, and develop an efficient and internationally recognised system that provides equal chances for all ethnic groups. Since 2002 higher education has become the explicit target of a government policy, geared to cultural development and intervention, including the enforcement of a series of mergers between traditionally white and black universities and former technikons (currently universities of technology. This process has caused intense debate at the level of leadership and among policy makers in these institutions, but little is known of how this ideological battle over educational development has affected daily academic practice. This paper gives a first, somewhat tentative discussion on the current effects of the changes in higher education in South Africa, and in particular at one of the institutions affected: the newly merged North-West University (NWU. The article is based on documentary research and three personal visits to the university; in the process a joint research project was initiated between the VU University of Amsterdam (VUUA and NWU. This paper attempts to shed some early light on how efficiency and social equity goals are met within NWU’s institutional merger, beginning from a cultural perspective that focuses on the construction of ‘merger narratives’. The paper also gives a voice to critical reactions, narratives of resistance that have emerged from the university shop floor.

  9. Analysis of aerosol absorption properties and transport over North Africa and the Middle East using AERONET data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper particle categorization and absorption properties were discussed to understand transport mechanisms at different geographic locations and possible radiative impacts on climate. The long-term Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET data set (1999–2015 is used to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD, single scattering albedo (SSA, and the absorption Ångström exponent (αabs at eight locations in North Africa and the Middle East. Average variation in SSA is calculated at four wavelengths (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm, and the relationship between aerosol absorption and physical properties is used to infer dominant aerosol types at different locations. It was found that seasonality and geographic location play a major role in identifying dominant aerosol types at each location. Analyzing aerosol characteristics among different sites using AERONET Version 2, Level 2.0 data retrievals and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT backward trajectories shows possible aerosol particle transport among different locations indicating the importance of understanding transport mechanisms in identifying aerosol sources.

  10. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  11. A human economy: A ``third way'' for the future of young people in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-06-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in this region. There is a consequent lack of participation at all levels, and a large number of youth are showing symptoms of low self-esteem, frustration, anger and unrest. After discussing the outcomes of years of an inhuman economic system on a global level, this article points to a more humane and empowering path. The author argues that, instead of continuing with profit-oriented capitalism or relying on the informal sector, the co-operative way represents a third alternative to existing economic sectors within the dominant contemporary economic system. The article analyses the many benefits of this path for the realisation of a humane economy. In so doing, it touches on issues of equity and social protection. Finally, the article outlines what needs to be done if this is to be a viable solution for a human economy. While giving many examples of successful co-operative enterprises worldwide, the author singles out the MENA region as one which could also benefit from the new trends outlined.

  12. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Health impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine S. Farrag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has serious consequences both immediately and in adulthood. The rates of obesity in children and adolescents are rising rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. We systematically searched the literature to explore adverse effects associated with childhood obesity in this region and the management efforts for dealing with it. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood OR adolescence AND obesity AND (MENA or each country AND ("last five years" [PDat]. Studies that examined adverse effects of childhood obesity gave fairly consistent results, revealing associations with higher blood pressure, pre-diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk. Little or no overall effect on rates of childhood obesity has yet been demonstrated by interventions used to manage the problem. Obesity has a considerable impact on the health of children and adolescents, and the countries of the MENA region should endorse strategies and programs to prevent and manage this problem in an effective way.

  13. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Health impact and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Nesrine S; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Farag, Mohamed K

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has serious consequences both immediately and in adulthood. The rates of obesity in children and adolescents are rising rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We systematically searched the literature to explore adverse effects associated with childhood obesity in this region and the management efforts for dealing with it. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood) OR adolescence) AND obesity) AND (MENA or each country) AND ("last five years" [PDat]). Studies that examined adverse effects of childhood obesity gave fairly consistent results, revealing associations with higher blood pressure, pre-diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk. Little or no overall effect on rates of childhood obesity has yet been demonstrated by interventions used to manage the problem. Obesity has a considerable impact on the health of children and adolescents, and the countries of the MENA region should endorse strategies and programs to prevent and manage this problem in an effective way.

  14. Escalating heat-stress mortality risk due to global warming in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2018-08-01

    Climate change will substantially exacerbate extreme temperature and heatwaves. The impacts will be more intense across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), a region mostly characterized by hot and arid climate, already intolerable for human beings in many parts. In this study, daily climate data from 17 fine-resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are acquired to calculate wet-bulb temperature and investigate the mortality risk for people aged over 65 years caused by excessive heat stress across the MENA region. Spatially adaptive temperature thresholds are implemented for quantifying the mortality risk, and the analysis is conducted for the historical period of 1951-2005 and two future scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 during the 2006-2100 period. Results show that the mortality risk will increase in distant future to 8-20 times higher than that of the historical period if no climate change mitigation is implemented. The coastal regions of the Red sea, Persian Gulf, and Mediterranean Sea indicate substantial increase in mortality risk. Nonetheless, the risk ratio will be limited to 3-7 times if global warming is limited to 2 °C. Climate change planning and adaptation is imperative for mitigating heat-related mortality risk across the region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A reform strategy of the energy sector of the 12 countries of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Doukas, Haris; Kagiannas, Argyris G.; Askounis, Dimitris Th.

    2006-01-01

    The development of an energy reform strategy based on the market economy so as to introduce competition in the market segments is of crucial importance for provision of a stable and favourable environment for energy investments. Reform strategies have begun developing in most of the 12 Mediterranean Countries of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean, especially in the context of the Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Even though energy sector reforms have been initiated, they are still at an early stage in most of these countries. The majority of energy utilities remain state owned, vertically integrated monopolies. Few of these countries have established energy regulators, and where they have, these institutions have many difficulties in effective development. In addition, competition is virtually absent from the sector, and private participation has been confined to independent power plants, which tend to be introduced into unreformed sectors. The aim of this paper is to propose energy reform strategies for the reform of the sector by 2010 in terms of the development of the regional oil, gas and electricity sectors in these countries

  16. Technical and Political Assessment of Nuclear Power In the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, Lindsay K.; Kessler, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    An exceptional number of Middle Eastern and North African nations have recently expressed interest in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Many of these countries have explored nuclear research in limited ways in the past, but the current focused interest and application of resources towards developing nuclear-generated electricity and nuclear-powered desalination plants is unprecedented. Consequently, questions arise in response to this emerging trend: What instigated this interest? To what end(s) will a nuclear program be applied? Does the country have adequate technical, political, legislative, nonproliferation, and safety infrastructure required for the capability desired? If so, what are the next steps for a country in preparation for a future nuclear program? And if not, what collaboration efforts are possible with the United States or others? This report provides information on the capabilities and interests of 13 countries in the region in nuclear energy programs in light of safety, nonproliferation and security concerns. It also provides information useful for determining potential for offering technical collaboration, financial aid, and/or political support.

  17. Snowpack Variation and Hydrologic Impacts across the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. A.; Ward, M. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle East is a region historically sensitive to climate variability and change, and contains snowpacks that have been shown to be important inputs to key regional water resources, including the Tigris-Euphrates river system. Focusing on the Middle East (and the smaller snowpacks of northwestern Africa), this presentation aims to (i) quantify each year's snowpack development and recession over recent decades, highlighting interannual to decadal variability, and (ii) advance understanding on the connection between the snowpack variations and aspects of regional hydrology. The presentation draws on satellite-based products, station data, and model reanalyses. Variation is summarized using space-time statistical techniques, as well as simpler regional indices: Northwestern Iran / Southern Caucasus (NWIC, includes Zagros Mountains); Eastern Turkey (ETKY, includes Taurus Mountains); and smaller scale indices for Lebanon and the Atlas Mountains. The Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System archives daily snow cover extent at 24 km resolution for 1999-present (primarily from visible satellite imagery). These data show that for both NWIC and ETKY, the mean snow extent peaks in late January with substantial coverage ( 300,000 km2 in each region), contracting to near zero by late June. A very large mid-winter interannual variance is also shown, implying substantial variation in hydrologic impacts during spring melt. Variability and decadal trends are compared with station snow depth reports (Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily). Strong agreement gives confidence in data quality, as well as, indicating high covariation of depth and extent. The connection with hydrologic impacts is investigated using reanalysis products, including the Global Land Data Assimilation System V2, which for the Middle East, shows broad agreement with observed maximum snow extent and spring retreat. The connections internal to the reanalysis between snow cover, melt and

  18. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprinting of transatlantic dust derived from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wancang; Balsam, William; Williams, Earle; Long, Xiaoyong; Ji, Junfeng

    2018-03-01

    Long-range transport of African dust plays an important role in understanding dust-climate relationships including dust source areas, dust pathways and associated atmospheric and/or oceanic processes. Clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions can be used as geochemical fingerprints to constrain dust provenance and the pathways of long-range transported mineral dust. We investigated the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition of surface samples along four transects bordering the Sahara Desert. The transects are from Mali, Niger/Benin/Togo, Egypt and Morocco. Our results show that the Mali transect on the West African Craton (WAC) produces lower εNd (εNd-mean = -16.38) and εHf (εHf-mean = -9.59) values than the other three transects. The Egyptian transect exhibits the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (87Sr/86Srmean = 0.709842), the highest εHf (εHf-mean = -0.34) and εNd values of the four transects. Comparison of the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic values from our North African samples to transatlantic African dust collected in Barbados demonstrates that the dust's provenance is primarily the western Sahel and Sahara as well as the central Sahel. Summer emission dust is derived mainly from the western Sahel and Sahara regions. The source of transatlantic dust in spring and autumn is more varied than in the summer and includes dust not only from western areas, but also south central areas. Comparison of the Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprints between the source and sink of transatlantic dust also suggests that a northwestward shift in dust source occurs from the winter, through the spring and into the summer. The isotopic data we develop here provide another tool for discriminating changes in dust archives resulting from paleoenvironmental evolution of source regions.

  19. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Asma NAJAR; Imen HAMDI; Arvind VARSANI

    2017-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan), the North-Western region (Kef) and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan) during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs) in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA) showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%), Cap Bon (14%) and Bizerte (35%), in randomly collected samples from t...

  20. Gene diversity, agroecological structure and introgression patterns among village chicken populations across North, West and Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Grégoire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource for improving farmers’ income in Africa. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of village chickens across a subset of African countries. Four hundred seventy-two chickens were sampled in 23 administrative provinces across Cameroon, Benin, Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and Morocco. Geographical coordinates were recorded to analyze the relationships between geographic distribution and genetic diversity. Molecular characterization was performed with a set of 22 microsatellite markers. Five commercial lines, broilers and layers, were also genotyped to investigate potential gene flow. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Results High heterozygosity levels, ranging from 0.51 to 0.67, were reported for all local populations, corresponding to the values usually found in scavenging populations worldwide. Allelic richness varied from 2.04 for a commercial line to 4.84 for one population from Côte d’Ivoire. Evidence of gene flow between commercial and local populations was observed in Morocco and in Cameroon, which could be related to long-term improvement programs with the distribution of crossbred chicks. The impact of such introgressions seemed rather limited, probably because of poor adaptation of exotic birds to village conditions, and because of the consumers’ preference for local chickens. No such gene flow was observed in Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, where improvement programs are also less developed. The clustering approach revealed an interesting similarity between local populations found in regions sharing high levels of precipitation, from Cameroon to Côte d’Ivoire. Restricting the study to Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, did not result in a typical breed structure but a south-west to north-east gradient was observed. Three genetically differentiated areas (P  Conclusions

  1. An IR Sounding-Based Analysis of the Saharan Air Layer in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen D.; Mohr, Karen I.

    2018-01-01

    Intense daytime surface heating over barren-to-sparsely vegetated surfaces results in dry convective mixing. In the absence of external forcing such as mountain waves, the dry convection can produce a deep, well-mixed, nearly isentropic boundary layer that becomes a well-mixed residual layer in the evening. These well-mixed layers (WML) retain their unique mid-tropospheric thermal and humidity structure for several days. To detect the SAL and characterize its properties, AIRS Level 2 Ver. 6 temperature and humidity products (2003-Present) are evaluated against rawinsondes and compared to model analysis at each of the 55 rawinsonde stations in northern Africa. To distinguish WML from Saharan air layers (WMLs of Saharan origin), the detection involved a two-step process: 1) algorithm-based detection of WMLs in dry environments (less than 7 g per kilogram mixing ratio) 2) identification of Sahara air layers (SAL) by applying Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) back trajectories to determine the history of each WML. WML occurrence rates from AIRS closely resemble that from rawinsondes, yet rates from model analysis were up to 30% higher than observations in the Sahara due to model errors. Despite the overly frequent occurrence of WMLs from model analysis, HYSPLIT trajectory analysis showed that SAL occurrence rates (given a WML exists) from rawinsondes, AIRS, and model analysis were nearly identical. Although the number of WMLs varied among the data sources, the proportion of WMLs which were classified as SAL was nearly the same. The analysis of SAL bulk properties showed that AIRS and model analysis exhibited a slight warm and moist bias relative to rawinsondes in non-Saharan locations, but model analysis was notably warmer than rawinsondes and AIRS within the Sahara. The latter result is likely associated with the dearth of available data assimilated by model analysis in the Sahara. The variability of SAL thicknesses was reasonably

  2. Hessian Fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say, Populations in the North of Tunisia: Virulence, Yield Loss Assessment and Phenological Data Poblaciones de Mosca de Hess, Mayetiola destructor (Say, en el Norte de Túnez: Virulencia, Evaluación de Pérdida de Producción y Datos Fenológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanem Makni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and an endemic pest in Tunisia. Two natural populations of this insect from the North of Tunisia were evaluated, in the field, for their virulence, based on response developed by bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars carrying H3, H5, H6, H7H8, H11, H13 and H16 resistance genes. H11, H13 and H16 showed a high effectiveness against both populations; therefore, their implication in Hessian fly breeding programs would be of interest. The level of infestation, as well as the yield loss, was assessed, based on the percentage of infested plants and variation in growth parameters due to infestation. The percentage of infested plants, over a 2-yr period in Mateur, averaged 18.82% for durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf. Husn. and 32.50% for bread wheat. For the improved durum wheat cv. Karim used as reference, the plant height, number of internodes, number of productive tillers per plant, and 100-seed weight were negatively affected by infestation, while the number of tillers per plant was positively affected. Aiming to update information about the annual number of the fly generations occurring on wheat, we surveyed infestation in Jédéida. At least three Hessian fly generations were detected on bread wheat and durum wheat. Continued regular surveying of Hessian fly populations in terms of virulence, impact on yield and annual generations is required for optimal deployment of resistance genes and integrated management of Hessian fly across all wheat production areas.La mosca de Hess, Mayetiola destructor (Say, es una plaga mundial destructiva del trigo y endémica en Túnez. Se evaluaron dos poblaciones naturales de este insecto desde el Norte de Túnez, en el campo, por su virulencia, basado en la respuesta desarrollada por cultivares de trigo panadero (Triticum aestivum L. portando los genes de resistencia H3, H5, H6, H7H8, H11, H13 y H16. H11, H13

  3. Level of job satisfaction amongst nurses in the North-West Province, South Africa: Post occupational specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisinyana H. Khunou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction and burnout have been recurring problems amongst nurses in the Republic of South Africa (RSA. As a result, nurses are still leaving the rural public sector in search of lucrative work at the urban and private sectors and in developed countries. Accordingly, Occupational Specific Dispensation (OSD was introduced as a strategy to ircumvent the problem. However, since the implementation of OSD in 2007, there have been no studies conducted regarding the level of job satisfaction amongst nurses after the implementation of OSD in the North-West Province, especially because each province has its own challenges that are unique to the area. Objectives: The study had two objectives: to describe the level of job satisfaction amongstprofessional and other category nurses (OCNs at a public hospital in the North-West Provinceand describe the perceptions of nurses about OSD and their intention to continue working inthe hospital. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 92 professional nurses (PNs, 90 enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants (Nursing Act 2005, which made a total of 182 participants. For the purpose of the study, the enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants were referred to as OCNs. Data were collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire–short form and OSD statements and analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 18. Results: The majority of PNs (79.3%, n = 73 and OCNs (86.7%, n = 77 were dissatisfied with the working conditions and salary: PNs (80.4%, n = 74 and OCNs (87.8%, n = 79. The nurses mostly discredited the current state of the OSD implementation. Majority of the PNs (84%, n = 77 and OCNs (91%, n = 82 disagreed with the statement that ‘level of job satisfaction has improved after the implementation of OSD’. Conclusions: The National Department of Health should consider

  4. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  5. Attrition and Opportunities Along the HIV Care Continuum: Findings From a Population-Based Sample, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Shade, Starley B; El Ayadi, Alison M; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Grignon, Jessica S; Liegler, Teri; Morris, Jessica; Naidoo, Evasen; Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Barnhart, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014. We used weighting and multiple imputation of missing data to estimate HIV prevalence, undiagnosed infection, linkage and retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. We sampled 1044 respondents aged 18-49. HIV prevalence was 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7 to 26.2) for men and 26.7% (95% confidence interval: 22.1 to 31.4) for women. Among those HIV positive, 48.4% of men and 75.7% of women were aware of their serostatus; 44.0% of men and 74.8% of women reported ever linking to HIV care; 33.1% of men and 58.4% of women were retained in care; and 21.6% of men and 50.0% of women had dried blood spots viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Among those already linked to care, 81.7% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 56.0% of those not on ART were retained in care, and 51.8% currently retained in care on ART had viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Despite expanded treatment in South Africa, attrition along the continuum of HIV care is slowing prevention progress. Improved detection is critically needed, particularly among men. Reported linkage and retention is reasonable for those on ART; however, failure to achieve viral suppression is worrisome.

  6. Characteristics and correlates of alcohol consumption among adult chronic care patients in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin Bhana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB, heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of treatment efforts among such patients. Objective. To explore the characteristics, correlates and diagnoses of alcohol use disorders among chronic care patients in SA. Method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three public health clinic facilities in the North West Province of SA. A total of 1 322 patients were recruited from non-emergency waiting areas. Results. Proportions of patients with abstinence, hazardous, harmful and dependent consumption were determined using logistic regression. Of the patients screened, nearly half (45% drank alcohol and, of these, 10% were classified as hazardous drinkers, 1.7% as harmful drinkers, and 1.6% as dependent drinkers (overall 3% alcohol use disorder. Abstinence proportions were 60% and 38% among women and men, respectively. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores for men were 63% higher than for women. The lowest patient abstinence proportion (47% and highest dependent drinking (10% was for TB. The highest abstinence proportion was for diabetes (65%, and the highest hazardous and harmful drinking was among TB (14% and HIV (7% patients. Conclusions. The high levels of risky drinking among chronic care patients, particularly among patients receiving treatment for HIV and TB, are concerning. Instituting appropriate screening measures and referral to treatment would be an important first step in mitigating the effects of risky alcohol use among chronic care patients.

  7. Quantifying dust plume formation and aerosol size distribution during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in North Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit Ali

    2015-01-01

    Dust particles mixed in the free troposphere have longer lifetimes than airborne particles near the surface. Their cumulative radiative impact on earth’s meteorological processes and climate might be significant despite their relatively small contribution to total dust abundance. One example is the elevated dust--laden Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over the equatorial North Atlantic, which cools the sea surface and likely suppresses hurricane activity. To understand the formation mechanisms of SAL, we combine model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM--I), which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution and the microphysical, optical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan mineral dust. We employed the Weather Research Forecast model coupled with the Chemistry/Aerosol module (WRF--Chem) to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The experimental domain covers northwest Africa including the southern Sahara, Morocco and part of the Atlantic Ocean with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical layers. The experiments were run from 20 May to 9 June 2006, covering the period of most intensive dust outbreaks. Comparisons of model results with available airborne and ground--based observations show that WRF--Chem reproduces observed meteorological fields as well as aerosol distribution across the entire region and along the airplane’s tracks. We evaluated several aerosol uplift processes and found that orographic lifting, aerosol transport through the land/sea interface with steep gradients of meteorological characteristics, and interaction of sea breezes with the continental outflow are key mechanisms that form a surface--detached aerosol plume over the ocean. Comparisons of simulated dust size distributions with airplane and ground--based observations are generally good, but suggest

  8. Characterisation of Shigella species isolated from river catchments in the North West province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Wose Kinge

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of Shigella species in water from the five river catchments in the North West province of South Africa were investigated. Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic bacillus that causes shigellosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations (such as children, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals that depend on river water. A total of 54 water samples collected in winter (April 2007 to July 2007 and summer (December 2007 to March 2008 were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella agar by the spread-plate method. Suspected Shigella isolates obtained were characterised by primary biochemical (Triple Sugar Iron agar and agglutination and molecular (polymerase chain reactions, PCR tests. Amplification of the invasion plasmid gene (ipaH by PCR was done to confirm the presence of Shigella spp. in water. In total, 214 Shigella boydii, 15 Shigella dysenteriae, 11 Shigella flexneri and 2 Shigella sonnei were confirmed by serotyping in both winter and summer samples. The ipaH gene (606 bp was present in 176 and 49 of the winter and summer isolates, respectively. The presence of Shigella spp. in water was confirmed with over 90% specificity. The need for more effective management of these river catchments and the provision of potable water and sanitation facilities is needed to minimise the occurrence and transmission of water-borne diseases caused by these and other pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Observed rainfall trends and precipitation uncertainty in the vicinity of the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittis, G.

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the century-long and more recent rainfall trends over the greater region of Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Five up-to-date gridded observational datasets are employed. Besides mean annual values, trends of six indices of drought and extreme precipitation are also considered in the analysis. Most important findings include the significant negative trends over the Maghreb, Levant, Arabian Peninsula, and Sahel regions that are evident since the beginning of the twentieth century and are more or less extended to today. On the other hand, for some Mediterranean regions such as the Balkans and the Anatolian Plateau, precipitation records during the most recent decades indicate a significant increasing trend and a recovering from the dry conditions that occurred during the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. The fact that over parts of the study region the selected datasets were found to have substantial differences in terms of mean climate, trends, and interannual variability, motivated the more thorough investigation of the precipitation observational uncertainty. Several aspects, such as annual and monthly mean climatologies and also discrepancies in the monthly time-series distribution, are discussed using common methods in the field of climatology but also more sophisticated, nonparametric approaches such as the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Results indicate that in the best case, the data sources are found to have statistically significant differences in the distribution of monthly precipitation for about 50% of the study region extent. This percentage is increased up to 70% when particular datasets are compared. Indicatively, the range between the tested rainfall datasets is found to be more than 20% of their mean annual values for most of the extent of MENA, while locally, for the hyper-arid regions, this percentage is increased up to 100%. Precipitation observational uncertainty is also profound for parts of southern Europe. Outlier

  10. Measuring Efficiency of Health Systems of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer; Akinci, Fevzi

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of twenty health systems in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to inform evidence-based health policy decisions. In addition, the effects of alternative stochastic frontier model specification on the empirical results are examined. We conducted a stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the country-level technical efficiencies using secondary panel data for 20 MENA countries for the period of 1995-2012 from the World Bank database. We also tested the effect of alternative frontier model specification using three random-effects approaches: a time-invariant model where efficiency effects are assumed to be static with regard to time, and a time-varying efficiency model where efficiency effects have temporal variation, and one model to account for heterogeneity. The average estimated technical inefficiency of health systems in the MENA region was 6.9 % with a range of 5.7-7.9 % across the three models. Among the top performers, Lebanon, Qatar, and Morocco are ranked consistently high according to the three different inefficiency model specifications. On the opposite side, Sudan, Yemen and Djibouti ranked among the worst performers. On average, the two most technically efficient countries were Qatar and Lebanon. We found that the estimated technical efficiency scores vary substantially across alternative parametric models. Based on the findings reported in this study, most MENA countries appear to be operating, on average, with a reasonably high degree of technical efficiency compared with other countries in the region. However, there is evidence to suggest that there are considerable efficiency gains yet to be made by some MENA countries. Additional empirical research is needed to inform future health policies aimed at improving both the efficiency and sustainability of the health systems in the MENA region.

  11. Nuclear medicine in Tunisia : current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is concerned with the utilisation of radioactivity in vivo or in vitro for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In Tunisia, there are four public departments of nuclear medicine and seven private clinics. 50% of the population is localized in the north, which justifies the existence of 7 public and private departments of nuclear medicine with nine gamma cameras in this region. In the south, there are 30 pour cent of the population that goes to Sfax and 20 pour cent to Sousse where we count two departments with gamma cameras in public services and one in the private sector. The nuclear medicine services in the public sector have 4 SPECT / CT. Siemens is the leading provider of gamma cameras and occupies 73 pour cent of market share, subsequently ranks SMV (13 pour cent) and (GE and GAEDE) have the same proportion of the market share (7 pour cent). For radio-protected rooms, there is a single center with a single chamber from four public services. On the other hand, there are 2/7 private centers that are equipped with five radio-protected electrically rooms. Concerning the human resources, there are 26 doctors and 24 technicians in the public sector. The private sector has 6 doctors and 12 technicians. In 2012, there has been 22000 examinations (diagnostic and therapeutic procedures) in which 14,600 in nuclear medicine departments of public hospitals. Bone scintigraphy ranks first, with a relative frequency of 40-80 pour cent thereafter ranks renal scintigraphy (10-15 pour cent) and then the thyroid scintigraphy (8-12 pour cent). The waiting period is a major problem, especially in the public sector. Taking as an example, for the therapy of thyroid, injection of 100 mCi of I-131 requires a period of waiting more than six months and waiting more than three months for the bone scan. The second problem for patient with cancer is the distance, there are 11 centers concentrated in 3 coastal cities and none in the inner areas of the country, no regional

  12. Late Miocene extensional systems in northern Tunisia and their relation with SE directed delamination of the African subcontinental mantle lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Gaidi, Seif; Melki, Fetheddine; Pérez-Peña, Vicente; Marzougui, Wissem; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Galve, Jorge Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Recent work has proposed the delamination of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere under northern Tunisia during the late Miocene. This process is required to explain the present location of the Tunisian segment of the African slab, imaged by seismic tomography, hanging under the Gulf of Gabes to the south of Tunisia. Thus, having retreated towards the SE several hundred km from its original position under the Tellian-Atlas nappe contact that crops out along the north of Tunisia. However, no tectonic structures have been described which could be related to this mechanism of lithospheric mantle peeling. Here we describe for the first time extensional fault systems in northern Tunisia that strongly thinned the Tellian nappes, exhuming rocks from the Tunisian Atlas in the core of folded extensional detachments. Two normal fault systems with sub-orthogonal extensional transport occur. These were active during the late Miocene associated to the extrusion of 13 Ma granodiorite and 9 Ma rhyodacite in the footwall of the Nefza detachment. We have differentiated an extensional system formed by low-angle normal faults with NE- and SW-directed transport cutting through the Early to Middle Miocene Tellian nappen stack and a later system of low and high-angle normal faults that cuts down into the underlying Tunisian Atlas units with SE-directed transport, which root in the Nefza detachment. Both normal fault systems have been later folded and cut by thrusts during Plio-Quaternary NW-SE directed compression. These findings change the interpretation of the tectonic evolution of Tunisia that has always been framed in a transpressive to compressive setting, manifesting the extensional effects of Late Miocene lithospheric mantle delamination under northern Tunisia.

  13. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaziri, Sihem

    2015-12-01

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master's level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics.

  14. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaziri, Sihem

    2015-01-01

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master’s level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics

  15. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaziri, Sihem [Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage (Tunisia)

    2015-12-31

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master’s level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics.

  16. The Numidian of northern Tunisia: stratigraphic data and geodynamic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbi, F.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Numidian flysch consists of a thick turbiditic sandy and clayey formation of Oligocene-Lower Miocene age which outcrops largely in northern Tunisia. Concerning the relationship between the Numidian formation and its «substratum», two hypothesis are discussed : i allochtonous Numidian units (tangential abnormal contact ; ii autochtonous Numidian units (sedimentary contact : locally downlap. Detailed investigation undertaken in the study area, based on the survey and the dating of lithological logs, coupled with geodynamic and petrogenetic events, lead to the following results : i absence of tangential tectonic contact in the base of Numidian series ; ii a significant Tertiary tectonics attested by several phases. Moreover, the Numidian siliciclastic series are affected, like the other Tertiary formations in the North of Tunisia, by south-east ward deep-seated thrusts, oriented N50-60.El flysch Numidiense es una formación arenisco-arcillosa de gran espesor y de edad Oligoceno-Mioceno inferior, que aflora en el norte de Túnez. La naturaleza del contacto basal de esta formación ha suscitado numerosas discusiones. De ellas destacan dos hipótesis: 1 las unidades numidienses alóctonas se apoyan en forma de contacto anormal tangencial, y 2 se trata de unidades autóctonas (contacto sedimentario normal, a veces de tipo "downlap".El levantamiento de cortes litológicos detallados y su datación, combinado con datos de tipo geodinámico y petrogenético, ha permitido confirmar la ausencia de un contacto tectónico tangencial en la base del Numidiense y por el contrario, establecer la existencia de una significativa tectónica terciaria desarrollada en varias fases. Asi, las series siliciclásticas Numidienses se ven afectadas, como otras formaciones terciarias del norte de Túnez, por cabalgamientos de vergencia SE.

  17. Fairness in healthcare finance and delivery: what about Tunisia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Arfa, Chokri; Ventelou, Bruno; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence on hidden inequity in health care in North African countries abounds. Yet firm empirical evidence has been harder to come by. This article fills the gap. It presents the first analysis of equity in the healthcare system using the particular case of Tunisia. Analyses are based on an unusually rich source of data taken from the Tunisian HealthCare Utilization and Morbidity Survey. Payments for health care are derived from the total amount of healthcare spending which was incurred by households over the last year. Utilization of health care is measured by the number of physical units of two types of services: outpatient and inpatient. The measurement of need for health care is apprehended through a rich set of ill-health indicators and demographics. Findings are presented and compared at both the aggregate level, using the general summary index approach, and the disaggregate level, using the distribution-free stochastic dominance approach. The overall picture is that direct out-of-pocket payments, which constitute a sizeable share in the current financing mix, emerge to be a progressive means of financing health care overall. Interestingly, however, when statistical testing is applied at the disaggregate level progressivity is retained over the top half of the distribution. Further analyses of the distributions of need for--and utilization of--two types of health care--outpatient and inpatient--reveal that the observed progressivity is rather an outcome of the heavy use, but not need, for health care at the higher income levels. Several policy relevant factors are discussed, and some recommendations are advanced for future reforms of the health care in Tunisia. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  18. Implications of Water Budget Deficits on Socio-Economic Stability and Food Security in the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.; Scabbia, G.

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa is accentuated by forecasted climatic variability, decreasing precipitation volumes and projected population growth, urbanization and economic development, increasing water demand. These factors impose uncertainties on food security and socio-economic stability in the region. We develop a water-budget model combining hydrologic, climatic and economic data to quantify water deficit volumes and groundwater depletion rates for the main aquifer systems in the area, taking into account three different climatic scenarios, and calculated from the precipitation forecast elaborated in the CSIRO, ECHAM4 and HADCM3 global circulation models from 2016 to 2050 over 1-year intervals. Water demand comprises water requirements for each economic sector, derived from data such as population, GDP, cropland cover and electricity production, and is based upon the five different SSPs. Conventional and non-conventional water resource supply data are retrieved from FAO Aquastat and institutional databases. Our results suggest that in the next 35 years, in North Africa, only Egypt and Libya will exhibit severe water deficits with respectively 44% and 89.7% of their current water budgets by 2050 (SSP2-AVG climatic scenario), while all the countries in the Arabian Peninsula will be subjected to water stress; the majority of small-size aquifers in the Arabian Peninsula will reach full depletion by 2050. In North Africa, the fossil aquifers' volume loss will be 1-15% by 2050, and total depletion within 200-300 years. Our study suggests that (1) anthropogenic drivers on water resources are harsher than projected climatic variability; (2) the estimated water deficit will induce substantial rise in domestic food production's costs, causing higher dependency on food imports; and (3) projected water deficits will most strongly impact the nations with the lowest GDPP, namely Egypt, Yemen and Libya.

  19. Republic of Tunisia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Tunisia. The analysis of practices is based among others on the review of a sample of 16 financial statements prepared in accordance with Tunisian accounting standards, including 6 listed enterprise sector companies, 3 listed credit institutions and 3 insurance undertakings (of which 2 are listed). The assessment uses International Finan...

  20. Overview of geothermal activities in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhia, H.

    1990-01-01

    For Tunisia, the oil crisis and the decrease in local energy resources gave impetus to geothermal energy for potential assessment, exploration and utilization. Research undertaken showed a country with real potentialities either by its important deep aquifers or by the relatively high values of geothermal gradient and heat flow. This paper reports that it is expected that these efforts of geothermal investigation will continue in the future

  1. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) mineralization at Fedj Hassene ore field, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions; Le champ filonien a Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) du district minier de Fedj Hassene (Nord Ouest de la Tunisie): Mineralogie, Elements en traces, Isotopes du Soufre et Inclusions Fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejaouil, J.; Bouhlel, S.; Barca, D.; Braham, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Fedj Hassene district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within sub parallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassene, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.11 g/cm{sup 3} and pressure close to 200 bars. Micro thermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194 degree centigrade. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156 degree centigrade and 210 degree centigrade and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The {delta}{sup 3}4S (VCDT) values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6% to 6,4% (average=5,6%). Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the d{delta}{sup 3}4S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassene in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg) vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern

  2. Dust plume formation in the free troposphere and aerosol size distribution during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in North Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit Ali

    2015-11-27

    Dust particles mixed in the free troposphere have longer lifetimes than airborne particles near the surface. Their cumulative radiative impact on earth’s meteorological processes and climate might be significant despite their relatively small contribution to total dust abundance. One example is the elevated dust-laden Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic, which cools the sea surface. To understand the formation mechanisms of a dust layer in the free troposphere, this study combines model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-I), which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution and the microphysical, optical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan mineral dust. The Weather Research Forecast model coupled with the Chemistry/Aerosol module (WRF-Chem) is employed to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The model domain covers northwest Africa and adjacent water with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical layers. The experiments were run from 20 May to 9 June 2006, covering the period of the most intensive dust outbreaks. Comparisons of model results with available airborne and ground-based observations show that WRF-Chem reproduces observed meteorological fields as well as aerosol distribution across the entire region and along the airplane’s tracks. Several mechanisms that cause aerosol entrainment into the free troposphere are evaluated and it is found that orographic lifting, and interaction of sea breeze with the continental outflow are key mechanisms that form a surface-detached aerosol plume over the ocean. The model dust emission scheme is tuned to simultaneously fit the observed total optical depth and the ratio of aerosol optical depths generated by fine and coarse dust modes. Comparisons of simulated dust size distributions with

  3. Dust plume formation in the free troposphere and aerosol size distribution during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basit Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dust particles mixed in the free troposphere have longer lifetimes than airborne particles near the surface. Their cumulative radiative impact on earth's meteorological processes and climate might be significant despite their relatively small contribution to total dust abundance. One example is the elevated dust-laden Saharan Air Layer (SAL over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic, which cools the sea surface. To understand the formation mechanisms of a dust layer in the free troposphere, this study combines model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-I, which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution and the microphysical, optical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan mineral dust. The Weather Research Forecast model coupled with the Chemistry/Aerosol module (WRF-Chem is employed to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The model domain covers northwest Africa and adjacent water with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical layers. The experiments were run from 20 May to 9 June 2006, covering the period of the most intensive dust outbreaks. Comparisons of model results with available airborne and ground-based observations show that WRF-Chem reproduces observed meteorological fields as well as aerosol distribution across the entire region and along the airplane's tracks. Several mechanisms that cause aerosol entrainment into the free troposphere are evaluated and it is found that orographic lifting, and interaction of sea breeze with the continental outflow are key mechanisms that form a surface-detached aerosol plume over the ocean. The model dust emission scheme is tuned to simultaneously fit the observed total optical depth and the ratio of aerosol optical depths generated by fine and coarse dust modes. Comparisons of simulated dust size

  4. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL. MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sghaier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived from the base functions of Richards, Lundqvist, Hossfeld IV and Weibull were tested using the age-independent formulations of the growth functions. Both numerical and graphical analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the candidate models.Main results: Based on the analysis, the age-independent difference equation derived from the base function Richards model was selected. Two of the three parameters (growth rate and shape parameter of the retained model were related to site quality, represented by a Growth Index, stand density and the basal area in larger trees divided by diameter of the subject tree expressing the inter-tree competition.Research highlights: The proposed model can be useful for predicting the diameter growth of Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia when age is not available or for trees growing in uneven-aged stands.Keywords: Age-independent growth model; difference equations; Tetraclinis articulata; Tunisia.

  5. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  6. Tobacco advertising/promotions and adolescents' smoking risk in Northern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Ledford, E Cannon; Andersen, Lori; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2014-05-01

    Comprehensive tobacco advertising/promotion bans are effective against adolescent smoking but many developing countries have implemented only partial bans. This study examines the association between advertising/promotions exposure and adolescent cigarette smoking risk in North Africa, and possible mediation of this association by parent and peer smoking. Adolescent data (n=12 329) from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed (Libya, 2007; Egypt, 2005; Morocco, 2006; Tunisia 2007; and Sudan, 2005). Current smoking (any cigarette use in the past 30 days) and never-smokers' initiation susceptibility (composite of openness to accepting a cigarette from a friend and intention to start smoking in the next year) outcomes were examined. Advertising/promotion exposures included media and in-person contacts. Weighted univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. Current smoking prevalence ranged from 5.6% (Egypt) to 15.3% (Tunisia) among boys, and 1.1% (Libya and Egypt) to 2.0% (Morocco and Sudan) among girls. Initiation susceptibility ranged from 14.1% (Sudan) to 25.0% (Tunisia) among boys, and from 13.3% (Sudan) to 15.0% (Libya) among girls. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents reported exposure to at least one type of advertising/promotion. In multivariable analyses adjusting for demographics, each type of advertising/promotion was significantly and positively associated with boys' current smoking status; most advertising/promotion exposure types were also positively associated with initiation susceptibility among boys and girls. Peer smoking only partially mediated these associations. Tobacco advertising/promotion exposure was highly prevalent and associated with adolescents' smoking risk in these countries. The comprehensiveness and enforcement of advertising/promotion bans needs to be enhanced.

  7. Switching the poles in sexual and reproductive health research: implementing a research capacity-strengthening network in West and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou, Jean-Paul; Assarag, Bouchra; Delamou, Alexandre; Van der Veken, Karen; Belaid, Loubna; Ouédraogo, Moctar; Khalfallah, Sonia; Aouras, Hayet; Diadhiou, Mohamed; Fassassi, Raïmi; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2016-08-08

    Health research capacities have been improved in Africa but still remain weak as compared to other regions of the World. To strengthen these research capacities, international collaboration and networking for knowledge and capacity transfer are needed. In this commentary, we present the Network for Scientific Support in the field of Sexual and Reproductive Health in West and North Africa, its priority research topics and discuss its implementation process. Established in January 2014, the Network aims at generating human rights and gender-based research fully carried out and driven by South based institutions. It is composed of 12 institutions including the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp (Belgium) and 11 institutions from eight Francophone West and North African countries. The key areas of interest of this network are health policies analysis and health system research in family planning, HIV prevention among vulnerable groups, quality of care and breast cancers. Since it started, seventeen research proposals based on locally relevant research questions have been developed. Among the seventeen proposals, eleven have been implemented. Several research institutions enhanced linkages with local representations of international partners such as UNFPA. The network is committed to strengthening methodological research capacities and soft skills such as fundraising, advocacy and leadership. Such competencies are strongly needed for developing an effective South-based leadership in Sexual and Reproductive Health research, and for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

  8. Species on the rocks: Systematics and biogeography of the rock-dwelling Ptyodactylus geckos (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) in North Africa and Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Červenka, Jan; Crochet, Pierre-André; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Wilms, Thomas; Geniez, Philippe; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Brito, José C; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the diversity of species in the Palearctic and the processes that have generated it is still weak for large parts of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia. Reptiles are among their most remarkable representatives, with numerous groups well adapted to the diverse environments. The Ptyodactylus geckos are a strictly rock-dwelling genus with homogeneous morphology distributed across mountain formations and rocky plateaus from the western African ranges in Mauritania and the Maghreb to the eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, with an isolated species in southern Pakistan. Here, we use a broad sampling of 378 specimens, two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (c-mos, MC1R, ACM4, RAG2) markers in order to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus and place its diversification in a temporal framework. The results reveal high levels of intraspecific variability, indicative of undescribed diversity, and they do not support the monophyly of one species (P. ragazzii). Ptyodactylus species are allopatric across most of their range, which may relate to their high preference for the same type of structural habitat. The onset of their diversification is estimated to have occurred in the Late Oligocene, while that of several deep clades in the phylogeny took place during the Late Miocene, a period when an increase in aridification in North Africa and Arabia initiated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV among People Who Inject Drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Ghina R.; Weiss, Helen A.; Thomas, Sara L.; Riome, Suzanne; Setayesh, Hamidreza; Riedner, Gabriele; Semini, Iris; Tawil, Oussama; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is perceived that little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The primary objective of this study was to assess the status of the HIV epidemic among PWID in MENA by describing HIV prevalence and incidence. Secondary objectives were to describe the risk behavior environment and the HIV epidemic potential among PWID, and to estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and covering 23 MENA countries. PubMed, Embase, regional and international databases, as well as country-level reports were searched up to December 16, 2013. Primary studies reporting (1) the prevalence/incidence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, or hepatitis C virus (HCV) among PWIDs; or (2) the prevalence of injecting or sexual risk behaviors, or HIV knowledge among PWID; or (3) the number/proportion of PWID in MENA countries, were eligible for inclusion. The quality, quantity, and geographic coverage of the data were assessed at country level. Risk of bias in predefined quality domains was described to assess the quality of available HIV prevalence measures. After multiple level screening, 192 eligible reports were included in the review. There were 197 HIV prevalence measures on a total of 58,241 PWID extracted from reports, and an additional 226 HIV prevalence measures extracted from the databases. We estimated that there are 626,000 PWID in MENA (range: 335,000–1,635,000, prevalence of 0.24 per 100 adults). We found evidence of HIV epidemics among PWID in at least one-third of MENA countries, most of which are emerging concentrated epidemics and with HIV prevalence overall in the range of 10%–15%. Some of the epidemics have however already reached considerable levels including some of the highest HIV prevalence among PWID globally (87.1% in Tripoli, Libya). The relatively high

  10. The role of climatic cycles and trans-Saharan migration corridors in species diversification: Biogeography of Psammophis schokari group in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Duarte Vasconcelos; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Carranza, Salvador; Brito, José Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Highlands, hydrographic systems and coastal areas have been hypothesised to form corridors across the hyperarid Sahara desert in North Africa, allowing dispersal and gene flow for non-xeric species. Here we aim to provide a genetic test for the trans-Saharan corridor model, and predict the location and stability of ecological-corridors, by combining phylogeography and palaeoclimatic modelling. The model was the Psammophis schokari (Schokari sand racer) group, fast-moving and widely distributed generalist colubrids occurring mostly in arid and semiarid scrublands. We combined dated phylogenies of mitochondrial and nuclear markers with palaeoclimatic modelling. For the phylogeographic analysis, we used 75 samples of P. schokari and P. aegyptius, and Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood methods. For the ecological models, we used Maxent over the distribution of P. schokari and West African lineages. Models were projected to past conditions (mid Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum and Last Inter-Glacial) to infer climatic stable areas. Climatic stability was predicted to be mostly restricted to coastal areas and not spatially continuous. A putative temporary trans-Saharan corridor was identified in Eastern Sahara, with a more stable one along the Atlantic coast. Six parapatric lineages were identified within P. schokari, four occurring in North Africa. These likely diverged during the Pliocene. The Tamanraset River might have been a vicariant agent. African lineages may have experienced further subsequent diversification during the late Pleistocene. The main P. schokari refugia were probably located along the northern margins of the Sahara, allowing its North-to-South colonization. Trans-Saharan corridors seem to have played a role in P. schokari biogeography, allowing colonization of central Saharan mountains and Sahel. Some might have worked as refugia, and even the most stable corridors may have sections working as filters, depending on each climatic phase. We expect the use

  11. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Torini Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkenhagen, Kai

    2017-02-22

    Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea. The Tigris-Euphrates system is an important crossroad for the colonisation of the Jordan River, the Orontes River and the watercourses of the Arabian Peninsula by freshwater fishes. The Jordan lost its connection to the Euphrates earlier than the Orontes. The Arabian Peninsula was colonised from the Tigris-Euphrates system in at least two independent events.

  13. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  14. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  15. Dust aerosol impact on North Africa climate: a GCM investigation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions using A-Train satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa have been investigated using the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA. The model includes an efficient and physically based radiation parameterization scheme developed specifically for application to clouds and aerosols. Parameterization of the effective ice particle size in association with the aerosol first indirect effect based on ice cloud and aerosol data retrieved from A-Train satellite observations have been employed in climate model simulations. Offline simulations reveal that the direct solar, IR, and net forcings by dust aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA generally increase with increasing aerosol optical depth. When the dust semi-direct effect is included with the presence of ice clouds, positive IR radiative forcing is enhanced since ice clouds trap substantial IR radiation, while the positive solar forcing with dust aerosols alone has been changed to negative values due to the strong reflection of solar radiation by clouds, indicating that cloud forcing associated with aerosol semi-direct effect could exceed direct aerosol forcing. With the aerosol first indirect effect, the net cloud forcing is generally reduced in the case for an ice water path (IWP larger than 20 g m−2. The magnitude of the reduction increases with IWP.

    AGCM simulations show that the reduced ice crystal mean effective size due to the aerosol first indirect effect results in less OLR and net solar flux at TOA over the cloudy area of the North Africa region because ice clouds with smaller size trap more IR radiation and reflect more solar radiation. The precipitation in the same area, however, increases due to the aerosol indirect effect on ice clouds, corresponding to the enhanced convection as indicated by reduced OLR. Adding the aerosol direct effect into the model simulation reduces the precipitation in the

  16. On What Foundation is Africa Building its Science and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2003, six African countries - Ghana Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Botswana and South Africa - participated in an international assessment programme in science and mathematics, called the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The study examined the performance of eighth graders in mathematics ...

  17. Molecular identification of parasitic nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida) in feces of wild ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Yousra; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Dhibi, Moktar; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-11-08

    In Tunisia and other North African countries, there is a lack of knowledge about parasite biodiversity within threatened wild ruminants and there are not any studies on their gastrointestinal nematodes. Thus the aim of this study was to identify gastrointestinal fauna in the faecal samples of Tunisian wild ruminants. A total of 262 faecal samples were collected from domestic sheep and goat, and wild ruminants (Addax, Barbary sheep, Barbary red deer, Dorcas gazelle, Slender-horned gazelle and Scimitar-horned Oryx) living in protected areas. Samples were examined with floatation (saturated sodium chloride solution), polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA. Microscopic analysis allowed the identification of only Nematodirus genus or molecular tools allowed a first identification of five gastrointestinal nematode species in North African wild ruminants: Chabertia ovina (1.6%), Camelostrongylus mentulatus (1.6%), Marshallagia marshalli (4.7%), Nematodirus helvetianus (62.5%) and Nematodirus spathiger (29.7%). This study reported the first records of C. mentulatus and M. marshalli in Addax and of M. marshalli in Dorcas gazelle and it was the first reported record of N. helvetianus and M. marshalli in Tunisia.

  18. Renewable Energies and Water Security: Thermo Solar Energy as an Alternative for Seawater Desalination in North Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Enrique Vieira de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change-related events, added to estimations about economical and population growth – tend to aggravate water scarcity, which is already affecting almost every country in the North of Africa and the Middle East. Based on a critical analysis of the “ACQUA-CSP” report, we discuss the initiatives devoted to the mitigation of water stress in these regions, with an emphasis on the seawater desalination processes. Since existing desalination plants are currently powered by fossil fuels, the use of thermo solar energy will be introduced as a sustainable strategy for the increase of water supply. We conclude that, in order to achieve the successful management of water resources, engineering and infrastructure solutions must be oriented by democratic institutions able to mediate conflicts over the allocation of water resources.

  19. Investigation by multivariate analysis of groundwater composition in a multilayer aquifer system from North Africa: A multi-tracer approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassi, Lassaad, E-mail: lassaad@geologist.com [Faculte des Sciences, Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Zrig, Gabes 6072 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > We investigate the hydrodynamics and hydrochemistry of a multilayer aquifer system. > We examine the geochemical evolution, the origins and the circulation patterns of groundwater. > The mineralization is controlled by water-rock interaction and return flow process. > Groundwater derives from palaeoclimatic and modern end-members. > Mixing by upward and downward leakage occurs between these two end-members. - Abstract: A multi-tracer approach has been carried out in the Sbeitla multilayer aquifer system, central Tunisia, to investigate the geochemical evolution, the origin of groundwaters and their circulation patterns. It involves statistical data analysis coupled with the definition of the hydrochemical and isotopic features of the different groundwaters. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of geochemical data used in conjunction with bivariate diagrams of major and trace elements indicate that groundwater mineralization is mainly controlled by water-rock interaction and anthropogenic processes in relation to return flow of irrigation waters. The PCA of isotopic data and bivariate conventional diagrams of stable and radiogenic isotopes i.e. {delta}{sup 18}O vs. {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O vs. {sup 14}C provide valuable information about the origin and the circulation patterns of the different groundwater groups. They permit classifying groundwaters into three groups. The first group is characterized by low {sup 3}H concentrations, low {sup 14}C activities and depleted stable isotope contents. It corresponds to an old end-member in relation with palaeoclimatic recharge which occurred during the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene humid periods. The second group is distinguished by high to moderate {sup 3}H concentrations, high {sup 14}C activities and enriched heavy isotope signatures. It corresponds to a modern end-member originating from a mixture of post-nuclear and present-day recharge in relation to return flow of irrigation waters

  20. Hydrogeological framework and geometry modeling via joint gravity and borehole parameters, the Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem basin (central-eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souei, Ali; Atawa, Mohamed; Zouaghi, Taher

    2018-03-01

    The Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem basin, in the central-eastern part of Tunisia, is characterized by the scarcity of surface and subsurface water resources. Although the aquifer systems of this basin are not well understood, the scarce water resources are subject to a high rate of exploitation leading to a significant drop in the level of the water table. This work presents correlation of gravity data with hydrogeological data in order to improve the knowledge of the deep structures and aquifer systems. Various geophysical filtering techniques (e.g., residual anomaly, upward continuation, horizontal gradient, and Euler deconvolution) applied to the complete Bouguer anomaly, deduce the deep structures and geometry of the basin and highlight gravity lineaments that correspond to the tectonic features. The structural framework of the Nadhour-Sisseb-El Alem hydrogeological basin shows N-S to NNE-SSW and E-W oriented structures that should be related to tectonic deformations. In addition to the faults, previously recognized, new lineaments are highlighted by the present work. They correspond to NE-, NW-, E- and N- trending faults that have controlled structuring and geometry of the basin. 2D gravity forward modeling, based on the interpretation of geophysical, geological and hydrogeological data, led to a better understanding of the basin geometry and spatial distribution of the Campanian-Maastrichtian and Cenozoic potential aquifers. Three hydrogeological sub-basins identified include the Nadhour sub-basin in the north, the El Alem sub-Basin in the South and the Etrabelsia sub-Basin in the East. These sub-basins are marked by a thickening of deposits, are separated by the Sisseb-Fadeloun raised structure of Neogene and Quaternary thinned series. The results allow the determination of limit conditions for the basin hydrodynamic evolution and explain some anomalies on the quantity and quality of the groundwater. They provide a management guide for water resources prospection in

  1. The Orientalisation of North Africa: New hints from the study of autosomal STRs in an Arab population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkamel, Sarra; Cherni, Lotfi; Alvarez, Luis; Marques, Sofia L; Prata, Maria J; Boussetta, Sami; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Khodjet-El-Khil, Houssein

    2017-03-01

    Recent genomic analyses suggest that the current North African gene pool was mainly influenced by population flow coming from the East that altered the genetic structure of autochthonous Berber populations. Such genetic flow has not been extensively addressed yet using North African populations of Middle-eastern origin as reference. To discern the Middle-eastern component in the genetic background of Tunisian Arabs and evaluate the extent of gene flow from the Middle East into North African autochthonous Berber populations. This study has examined 113 Tunisians of well-known Arabian origin from Kairouan region, using 15 autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) loci. No deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed and all loci presented high levels of heterozygosity. Principal coordinate and STRUCTURE analyses were consistent in clustering together North African and Middle Eastern populations, likely reflecting the recent gene flow from the East dating back to the Arab conquest period. This demographic migration and the Arabisation process that submerged the original Berber language and customs seems to have be accompanied by substantial gene flow and genetic admixture. This study represents an additional step to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the complex demographic history of North African populations.

  2. Tunisia: to finance energy management. Proceedings of the international conference, Hammamet (Tunisia), 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguinat, Elisabeth; Missaoui, Rafik; Gromard, Christian de; Dognin, Hubert; Breton-Moyet, Laurence; Barbier, Jean-Pierre; Ayadi, Benaissa; Osman, Nejib; Amaimia, Neji; Bahri, Mounir; Marrouki, Sami; Henry, Alain; Dudziak, Rossana; ); Rassaa, Abdel Aziz; Kanoun, Faouzia; Pariente-David, Silvia; Baguenier, Henri; Gaudin, Thomas; Draeck, Mark; Lamande, Faycal; Quefelec, Stephane; Bosse, Philippe; Perthuis, Christian de; Amous, Samir; Lopez, Jose; Saidi, Ferid; Gueschir, Maxime; Allaire, Julien; Mezghani, Mohamed; Rejeb, Sarra; Soukah, Elyes; Laajimi, Brahim; Begon, Christophe; El Khoury, Pierre; Missaoui, Rafik; Sanz de Burgoa, Patricia; Ouchikh, Nadia; Joffre, Andre; Touhami, Myriem; ); Lihidheb, Kawther; Laponche, Bernard; Boujnah, Nejib

    2008-01-01

    After opening speeches, this publication proposes the contributions to a conference. These contributions addressed the following themes: investments in energy management and their financing (peculiarity, tools used by the AFD, tools of bilateral aid of the French economic mission in Tunisia, financing tools of the World Bank, needs and financing tools for investments in energy management in the eleventh plan in Tunisia), tools and examples of energy management financing (experience of the NovEnergia investment fund, financial and economic instruments in France, the British experience in energy saving certificates, funding the solar-gas plant project of Hassi R'Mel in Algeria, perspectives for the Blue Plan, example of the FFEM in financial partnership and energy management, financing carbon and energy management). The conference also comprised four sector-based workshops which addressed issues related to energy consumption, management and saving in the following sectors: industry, transports, housing, and office building. Contributions presented within these workshops notably give examples in Tunisia, France, Vietnam, or Lebanon

  3. Survey of waterbirds wintering in Tunisia, January 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUAG Rachid

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available During a joint international expedition, there have been recorded between 18-31 January 2003 a total number of 83,653 water birds(belonging to 76 species in 58 wetlands of Tunisia.

  4. All projects related to Tunisia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will analyze three state institutions in Tunisia, Egypt, and Yemen - the ... state-controlled religious institutions, and state-owned media - to assess the ... POLICY MAKING, MIDDLE EAST, Civil society, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

  5. Arab Spring National Dialogues in Tunisia and Yemen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-conflict societies are in a fragile state in which social cohesion needs to be gradually ... Tunisia's national dialogue has been more successful than Yemen's in ... topic, which followed a Canadian Policy Research Networks Roundtable on.

  6. Greywater, greenhouses increase food production in Tunisia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-13

    May 13, 2011 ... Research shows how cities and agriculture can grow together. ... sources of water for irrigation would be deployed to increase agricultural production. ... Following Tunisia's strict wastewater use regulation, it was used to grow ...

  7. Closure of the Africa-Eurasia-North America plate motion circuit and tectonics of the Gloria fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.; Demets, Charles; Stein, Seth

    1989-01-01

    The current motions of the African, Eurasian, and North American plates are examined. The problems addressed include whether there is resolvable motion of a Spitsbergen microplate, the direction of motion between the African and North American plates, whether the Gloria fault is an active transform fault, and the implications of plate circuit closures for rates of intraplate deformation. Marine geophysical data and magnetic profiles are used to construct a model which predicts about 4 mm/yr slip across the Azores-Gibraltar Ridge, and west-northwest convergence near Gibraltar. The analyzed data are consistent with a rigid plate model with the Gloria fault being a transform fault.

  8. [Intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia: a review of 23 years of monitoring in the department of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Kalthoum; Fakhfakh, Najla; Belhadj, Sleh; Kaouech, Emira; Kallel, Kalthoum; Chaker, Emna

    2015-07-01

    In order to fight digestive parasitism in Tunisia, a national program of surveillance of non-permanent resident students in Tunisia has been found to detect these parasitosis in this target population. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia, to identify the different parasitic species founded and to show the interest of this screening. During a period of 23 years (1990-2012), 7386 parasitological examinations of stools has been made among students essentially from or had visited tropical Africa, Maghreb and Middle-East, at the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunis. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism found was 34.45% (i.e. 2545 infested students). Among the protozoa that have been isolated in the majority of cases (78.75%), amoebae were most frequently found (86.4%) represented mainly by Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus in respectively, 25.62 and 23.33% of parasites isolated; while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, only pathogenic Amoeba was found in 8.05% of the total of parasites isolated. Regarding helminths, found in 21.25% of parasites isolated, Ankylostome was predominant (34.5%) represented by the species of Necator americanus. A single case of Ancylostom duodenale has been isolated. Among the identified parasite species, 38.7% were known parasitic pathogens for humans. These results note the interest of the control of the non-permanent resident students in Tunisia. The precocious tracking and treatment of affected subjects permits to avoid the introduction and the dissemination of parasites already rare and virulent strains in our country.

  9. Business Culture Differences in Communication between Finland and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemaiel, Karima

    2013-01-01

    The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...

  10. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghedira Kamel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans, facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge.

  11. Spatial Metadata in Africa and the Middle East

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available , Israel, Jordan, Madagas- car, Morocco, Nigeria, Qatar, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen). We have also used the best practices studies of the Environmental Information System Programme for Sub-Saharan Africa (EIS) [EIS 1999..., the governmental authorities responsible for the management and distribution of digital spatial data (from remote sensing sources), on behalf of the public sector, are: • ASECNA: for data with low resolution (e.g.: NOAA and METEOSAT); and • CENATEL: for data...

  12. A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The palm tribe Chamaedoreeae reaches its higher diversity in Central America, however, its distribution ranges from the north eastern part of Mexico to Bolivia with a disjunction to the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. The disjunct distribution of Chamaedoreeae is generally considered a res...

  13. The link between migration, the reproductive cycle and condition of Sardinella aurita off Mauritania, north-west Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Mantingh, I.T.; Wague, A.

    2007-01-01

    The annual migration pattern of round sardinella Sardinella aurita up and down the north-western African coast between 12° N (Senegal) and 22° N (western Sahara) was shown to be associated with spawning activity and a distinct seasonality in fish condition, based on monthly sampling from commercial

  14. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Managed aquifer recharge on the west coast north of Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme (AWRMS) located some 40 km north of Cape Town shows how insightful planning and management can expand the groundwater supply potential of a primary aquifer for bulk urban water supply. The AWRMS...

  15. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  16. Choosing between agricultural development projects in the North-West Province of South Africa: a multiple criteria analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cloete, Philippus Christoffel; Van der Merwe, Johannes Daniël; Van Schalkwyk, Herman Daniël

    2012-01-01

    In the light of past development failures, coupled with the pressure on government to deliver on their promises made towards agricultural development, a need was developed for a framework to assist government in choosing between agricultural development projects in the North West Province, consequently assisting government with their budget allocation towards agricultural development. Consequently, detailed agricultural development plans were drafted with the intent to provide a framework or ...

  17. The contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province, South Africa / Senye Monica Kedibone

    OpenAIRE

    Senye, Monica Kedibone

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province. The aim of the study was to identify the contribution of women entrepreneurs in the economic growth, to determine forces driving women to become entrepreneurs. The study also aimed at examining future challenges for women entrepreneurs as well as strategies to advance women entrepreneurs . The Quantitative research method was chosen for the study and the targeted populat...

  18. Financial Liberalization and Economic Growth in the North Africa Region: Cointegration Panel Analysis by DOLS and FMOLS Models

    OpenAIRE

    KHATTAB, Ahmed; IHADIYAN, Abid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This article aims at examining the impact of financial liberalization on the economic growth in the North African countries. The econometric study, which covers the period between 1995 and 2013, relies on a sample composed of four Northern African countries and referring to the database of the World Bank data (2013), Heritage Foundation (2013) and Financial Openness of (the Institute for international and development Economics, 2009). The estimate model of cointegration panel reveal...

  19. Impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the trans-Atlantic migrations of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, A. James; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Haines, Keith

    2008-09-01

    Glass eel catches and FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) landings of the European freshwater eel (Anguilla anguilla) show a decrease over the past 20 years. The long-term trends in the time series mask an interannual fluctuation, which becomes apparent on the application of a high-pass filter and autocorrelation analysis. Both the FAO landings and the glass eel catches show interannual fluctuations with a repeat period of 6-8 years, similar to the period of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Most glass eel catch monitoring stations are in phase. The glass eel catches show a significant negative correlation with the NAO lagged by 0-2 years, consistent with the hypothesis that the positive NAO phase has an adverse impact on the larval survival in and migration from the Sargasso Sea spawning location, one year prior to the arrival of the glass eels in Europe and North Africa. The FAO landings can be divided into two groups of different phase that have an approximate correspondence to the NAO dipole in winter rainfall in Europe and North Africa. One group (P) comprises Denmark, Ireland, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Tunisia, and the United Kingdom, and the other group (N) comprises France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey. At least for the interannual fluctuations, the success of the glass eel fishery (and eel recruitment) may be coupled with the number of migrating silver eels from the N group of countries and uncoupled with the P group of countries.

  20. Serologic evidence of exposure to Rift Valley fever virus detected in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bosworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFv is capable of causing dramatic outbreaks amongst economically important animal species and is capable of causing severe symptoms and mortality in humans. RVFv is known to circulate widely throughout East Africa; serologic evidence of exposure has also been found in some northern African countries, including Mauritania. This study aimed to ascertain whether RVFv is circulating in regions beyond its known geographic range. Samples from febrile patients (n=181 and nonfebrile healthy agricultural and slaughterhouse workers (n=38 were collected during the summer of 2014 and surveyed for exposure to RVFv by both serologic tests and PCR. Of the 219 samples tested, 7.8% of nonfebrile participants showed immunoglobulin G reactivity to RVFv nucleoprotein and 8.3% of febrile patients showed immunoglobulin M reactivity, with the latter samples indicating recent exposure to the virus. Our results suggest an active circulation of RVFv and evidence of human exposure in the population of Tunisia.

  1. Isotopes to Study the coastal aquifer plain, Cap Bon, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hamouda, M. F.; Zouari, Kamel; Tarhouni, J.; Gaye, C.B.; Oueslati, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of Tunisia about 60 km south of the Tunis city. It is bounded by the Gulf of Haematite in the East, Djebel Sidi Aberahmane in the West, The town of Nabeul in the south and the area of the town Kelibia in the north. The landscape is a coastal plain slightly sloping (3%) towards the sea. The groundwater of the Oriental coast aquifer system occurs mainly at two levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 50 m whose reservoir is consisted by sediments of the Plio quaternary and a deep aquifer between about 150 and 400 m located in the sand stone formations of Miocene of the anticline of Djebel Sidi Abderrahmene. The climate of the region is semi-arid to sub-humid and of Mediterranean type. There are no perennial rivers in this region; but intense storms occasionally cause surface runoff, which is discharged by the oueds. The study is related to a technical cooperation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, aimed at the use of isotope techniques to study the seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers of Cap Bon in Tunisia. In this regard, a better understanding of the recharge and flow regime as well as the origin or salinity of the groundwater was required. To reach this goal, isotope and geochemical investigations were carried out. Water samples were taken from wells, boreholes from deep and shallow aquifer of the Oriental coastal aquifer located between Beni Khiar in the south and Kelibia in the north. The samples were analysed for their chemical and isotopic compositions (18O, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S). In the following, the results of these analyses are presented and discussed in terms of the recharge and flow regime of the groundwater and the origin and evolution of its salinity. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that the groundwater is very eterogeneous and suggest the aquifer is replenished by recent water coming from direct infiltration from rain. At

  2. Effects of Saharan Mineral Dust Aerosols on the Dynamics of an Idealized African Easterly Jet-African Easterly Wave System over North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Dustin Francis Phillip

    The central objective of this work is to examine the direct radiative effects of Saharan mineral dust aerosols on the dynamics of African easterly waves (AEWs) and the African easterly jet (AEJ). Achieving this objective is built around two tasks that use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to an online dust model (WRF-dust model). The first task (Chapter 2) examines the linear dynamics of AEWs; the second task (Chapter 3) examines the nonlinear evolution of AEWs and their interactions with the AEJ. In Chapter 2, the direct radiative effects of dust on the linear dynamics of AEWs are examined analytically and numerically. The analytical analysis combines the thermodynamic equation with a dust continuity equation to form an expression for the generation of eddy available potential energy (APE) by the dust field. The generation of eddy APE is a function of the transmissivity and spatial gradients of the dust, which are modulated by the Doppler-shifted frequency. The expression predicts that for a fixed dust distribution, the wave response will be largest in regions where the dust gradients are maximized and the Doppler-shifted frequency vanishes. The numerical analysis calculates the linear dynamics of AEWs using zonally averaged basic states for wind, temperature and dust consistent with summertime conditions over North Africa. For the fastest growing AEW, the dust increases the growth rate from ~15% to 90% for aerosol optical depths ranging from tau=1.0 to tau=2.5. A local energetics analysis shows that for tau=1.0, the dust increases the maximum barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions by ~50% and ~100%, respectively. The maxima in the generation of APE and conversions of energy are co-located and occur where the meridional dust gradient is maximized near the critical layer, i.e., where the Doppler-shifted frequency is small, in agreement with the prediction from the analytical analysis. In Chapter 3, the direct radiative effects of dust

  3. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  4. Condom use as part of the wider HIV prevention strategy: experiences from communities in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Marije; Murray, Montagu

    2008-07-01

    Correct and consistent condom usage remains a pivotal strategy in reaching the target set by the South African government to reduce new HIV infections by 50% in the next 5 years. Studies have found that there has been an increase in condom usage by some categories of the population, but usage has not yet reached the desired levels in order to meet the target. This article reports on the findings of a study on condom usage in eight communities in the North West Province, which was part of a wider HIV and AIDS programme evaluation commissioned by the North West Provincial Department of Health. The main aim was to assess accessibility to condoms, and knowledge, attitudes and practices around condom use by four sampled communities in the North West Province. Eight focus group discussions were held and 50 households were interviewed. The study found positive results regarding accessibility and awareness of condoms. However, this often did not lead to the desired behavioural change of using condoms in risky sexual interactions. The majority of respondents still resisted condom usage, used condoms inconsistently, or were not in a position to negotiate protected sexual intercourse. The main reasons reported for this were: reduced pleasure, perceived and real physical side-effects, myths, lack of information, status, financial reasons, distrust in the efficacy of condoms, family planning, cultural reasons, gender-related reasons and trust. Many of the barriers to consistent condom use cannot be overcome by strategies that target the individual. Interventions need to address underlying developmental factors such as the non-biological factors that increase the susceptibility of women to HIV infection. As this falls outside of the scope of the mandate of the Department of Health, various partnerships with other key role players need to be established and/or strengthened, such as with local government, non-governmental organisations and faith-based organisations.

  5. Rift propagation at craton margin.: Distribution of faulting and volcanism in the North Tanzanian Divergence (East Africa) during Neogene times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, B.; Nonnotte, P.; Rolet, J.; Benoit, M.; Guillou, H.; Mousseau-Nonnotte, M.; Albaric, J.; Deverchère, J.

    2008-02-01

    A revised kinematic model is proposed for the Neogene tectono-magmatic development of the North Tanzanian Divergence where the axial valley in S Kenya splits southwards into a wide diverging pattern of block faulting in association with the disappearance of volcanism. Propagation of rifting along the S Kenya proto-rift during the last 8 Ma is first assumed to have operated by linkage of discrete magmatic cells as far S as the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic belt that follows the margin of cratonic blocks in N Tanzania. Strain is believed to have nucleated throughout the thermally-weakened lithosphere in the transverse volcanic belt that might have later linked the S Kenya and N Tanzania rift segments with marked structural changes along-strike. The North Tanzanian Divergence is now regarded as a two-armed rift pattern involving: (1) a wide domain of tilted fault blocks to the W (Mbulu) that encompasses the Eyasi and Manyara fault systems, in direct continuation with the Natron northern trough. The reactivation of basement fabrics in the cold and intact Precambrian lithosphere in the Mbulu domain resulted in an oblique rift pattern that contrasts with the orthogonal extension that prevailed in the Magadi-Natron trough above a more attenuated lithosphere. (2) To the E, the Pangani horst-like range is thought to be a younger (< 1 Ma) structure that formed in response to the relocation of extension S of the Kilimanjaro magmatic center. A significant contrast in the mechanical behaviour of the stretched lithosphere in the North Tanzanian diverging rift is assumed to have occurred on both sides of the Masai cratonic block with a mid-crustal decoupling level to the W where asymmetrical fault-basin patterns are dominant (Magadi-Natron and Mbulu), whereas a component of dynamical uplift is suspected to have caused the topographic elevation of the Pangani range in relation with possible far-travelled mantle melts produced at depth further N.

  6. Lateral extrusion of Tunisia : Contribution of Jeffara Fault (southern branch) and Petroleum Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedhoui, R.; Deffontaines, B.; Rabia, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting to the northward African plate motion toward Eurasia and due to its geographic position in the North African margin, since early cretaceous, Tunisia seems to be submitted to an eastward migration. The aim of this work is to study the southern branch of this inferred tectonic splay that may guide the Tunisian extrusion characterised to the east by the Mediterranean sea as a free eastern boundary. The Jeffara Fault zone (southern Tunisia), represent a case example of such deformation faced by Tunisia. Helped by the results of previous researchers (Bouaziz, 1995 ; Rabiaa, 1998 ; Touati et Rodgers, 1998 ; Sokoutis D. et al., 2000 ; Bouaziz et al., 2002 ; Jallouli et al., 2005 ; Deffontaines et al., 2008…), and new evidences developed in this study, we propose a geodynamic Tunisian east extrusion model, due to such the northern African plate migration to the Eurasian one. In this subject, structural geomorphology is undertaken herein based on both geomorphometric drainage network analysis (Deffontaines et al., 1990), the Digital Terrain Model photo-interpretation (SRTM) combined with photo-interpretation of detailed optical images (Landsat ETM+), and confirmed by field work and numerous seismic profiles at depth. All these informations were then integrated within a GIS (Geodatabase) (Deffontaines 1990 ; Deffontaines et al. 1994 ; Deffontaines, 2000 ; Slama, 2008 ; Deffontaines, 2008) and are coherent with the eastern extrusion of the Sahel block. We infer that the NW-SE Gafsa-Tozeur, which continue to the Jeffara major fault zone acting as a transtensive right lateral motion since early cretaceous is the southern branch of the Sahel block extrusion. Our structural analyses prove the presence of NW-SE right lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so on that parallel this major NW-SE transtensive extrusion fault zone.These evidences confirm the fact that the NW-SE Jeffara faults correspond

  7. Are HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men emerging in the Middle East and North Africa?: a systematic review and data synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghina Mumtaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM bear a disproportionately higher burden of HIV infection than the general population. MSM in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA are a largely hidden population because of a prevailing stigma towards this type of sexual behavior, thereby limiting the ability to assess infection transmission patterns among them. It is widely perceived that data are virtually nonexistent on MSM and HIV in this region. The objective of this review was to delineate, for the first time, the evidence on the epidemiology of HIV among MSM in MENA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a systematic review of all biological, behavioral, and other related data on HIV and MSM in MENA. Sources of data included PubMed (Medline, international organizations' reports and databases, country-level reports and databases including governmental and nongovernmental organization publications, and various other institutional documents. This review showed that onsiderable data are available on MSM and HIV in MENA. While HIV prevalence continues at low levels among different MSM groups, HIV epidemics appear to be emerging in at least few countries, with a prevalence reaching up to 28% among certain MSM groups. By 2008, the contribution of MSM transmission to the total HIV notified cases increased and exceeded 25% in several countries. The high levels of risk behavior (4-14 partners on average in the last six months among different MSM populations and of biomarkers of risks (such as herpes simplex virus type 2 at 3%-54%, the overall low rate of consistent condom use (generally below 25%, the relative frequency of male sex work (20%-76%, and the substantial overlap with heterosexual risk behavior and injecting drug use suggest potential for further spread. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and data synthesis indicate that HIV epidemics appear to be emerging among MSM in at least a few MENA countries and could already be in a concentrated state among

  8. How Terrorism Affects Attitudes toward Democracy: Tunisia in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Robert; Brym, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Tunisia is the only country that emerged from the Arab Spring as a democracy. However, Tunisian democracy is threatened by political divisions, economic problems, and the threat of terrorist attacks. We shed light on Tunisia's democratic prospects by examining (1) the degree to which major terrorist attacks in 2015 influenced Tunisian public opinion on democracy and (2) the extent to which preference for a democratic system affected opinions on the prospects for democracy in Tunisia. We use data from three waves of a nationwide survey conducted just before and just after Tunisia's first major terrorist attack, and just after the country's second major terrorist attack. We demonstrate that after the attacks the Tunisian public became less favourable toward democracy and less optimistic that Tunisia would soon be ready for it. Such scepticism was widespread, affecting people who preferred democracy as much as those who did not. We conclude that the prospects for Tunisian democracy are more precarious than is sometimes assumed. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  9. Season of birth and multiple sclerosis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhom, Youssef; Kacem, Imen; Bayoudh, Lamia; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Hizem, Yosr; Ben Abdelfettah, Sami; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on date of birth of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients showed an association between month of birth and the risk of developing MS. This association has not been investigated in an African country. We aimed to determine if the risk of MS is associated with month of birth in Tunisia. Data concerning date of birth for MS patients in Tunisia (n = 1912) was obtained. Birth rates of MS patients were compared with all births in Tunisia matched by year of birth (n = 11,615,912). We used a chi-squared analysis and the Hewitt's non-parametric test for seasonality. The distribution of births among MS patients compared with the control population was not different when tested by the chi-squared test. The Hewitt's test for seasonality showed an excess of births between May and October among MS patients (p = 0.03). The peak of Births of MS patients in Tunisia was in July and the nadir in December. Our data does support the seasonality hypothesis of month of birth as risk factor for MS in Tunisia. Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy could be a possible explanation that needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Proterozoic to Mesozoic evolution of North-West Africa and Peri-Gondwana microplates: Detrital zircon ages from Morocco and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Davies, Joshua H. F. L.; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Merle, Renaud; Dal Corso, Jacopo; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fioretti, Anna Maria; Bellieni, Giuliano; Medina, Fida; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; McHone, Greg; Font, Eric; Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil

    2017-05-01

    The complex history of assemblage and disruption of continental plates surrounding the Atlantic Ocean is in part recorded by the distribution of detrital zircon ages entrained in continental sedimentary strata from Morocco (Central High Atlas and Argana basins) and Canada (Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick). Here we investigate detrital zircon from the latest Triassic (ca. 202 Ma) sedimentary strata directly underlying lava flows of the Central Atlantic magmatic province or interlayered within them. SHRIMP (Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe) and LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) U-Pb ages for zircon range from Paleozoic to Archean with a dominant Neoproterozoic peak, and significant amounts of ca. 2 Ga zircon. These ages suggest a prevailing West African (Gondwanan) provenance at all sampling sites. Notably, the Paleoproterozoic zircon population is particularly abundant in central Morocco, north of the High Atlas chain, suggesting the presence of Eburnean-aged rocks in this part of the country, which is consistent with recent geochronologic data from outcropping rocks. Minor amounts of late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic zircon ages (ca. 1.1-0.9 Ga) in Moroccan samples are more difficult to interpret. A provenance from Avalonia or Amazonia, as proposed by previous studies is not supported by the age distributions observed here. An involvement of more distal source regions, possibly located in north-eastern Africa (Arabian Nubian Shield) would instead be possible. Paleozoic zircon ages are abundant in the Canadian sample, pointing to a significant contribution from Hercynian aged source rocks. Such a signal is nearly absent in the Moroccan samples, suggesting that zircon-bearing Hercynian granitic rocks of the Moroccan Meseta block were not yet outcropping at ca. 200 Ma. The only Moroccan samples that yield Paleozoic zircon ages are those interlayered within the CAMP lavas, suggesting an increased dismantling

  11. Developing energy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Energy and economic growth are connected and the wealth of Western countries is based on a high availability of energy. Africa is a continent vast by its size, well populated and well supplied with fossil energy (oil, gas, coal) and renewable energy (hydroelectric, biomass, solar). But consumption is limited, without distribution infrastructures and initially, without capitals for necessary investments. The situation is particularly critical in Sub-Sahara Africa since the African energy consumption is mainly concentrated in South Africa and North Africa. An annual conference, the Energy Summit in Africa, brings together all players in the sector, from all the continent's countries, from Europe and America, in an attempt to establish recommendations for more availability and a better use of energy in Africa. The next summit is scheduled for November 23 to 25, 2004 in Dakar. The program relies on the Association for the Development of Energy in Africa, which will be created shortly. (author)

  12. Radon in elementary schools in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, S.; Mahjoubi, H.; Al-Azmi, D.; Ben Salah, R.

    2010-01-01

    Indoor radon measurements were carried out in 30 elementary schools in Tunis, the capital city of Tunisia, during the winter months of December 2008 to early March 2009. Two classrooms, one each from ground floor and first floor were chosen from each school making a total of 60 classrooms. In some of the classrooms, two detectors (open and closed) were used to measure the concentrations of radon as well as radon and its progeny to allow the calculations of the equilibrium factors. Nuclear track detectors type LR-115 (Kodalpha) were used for the measurements. The results show that the radon concentration levels are low in the range of 6-169 Bq m-3 with a mean value of 26.9 Bq m-3. The annual effective dose was found to vary between 0.025-0.715 mSv y-1 for teachers while the range for pupils was from 0.019-0.525 mSv y-1. These values are within the ICRP recommended values. (authors)

  13. Social Security and Fighting Poverty in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Khemili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.

  14. Health system challenges of NCDs in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Tlili, Faten; Skhiri, Afef; Zaman, Shahaduz; Phillimore, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present a qualitative 'situation analysis' of the healthcare system in Tunisia, as it applies to management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. A primary concern was the institutional capacity to manage non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Research took place during 2010 (analysis of official documents, semi-structured interviews with key informants, and case studies in four clinics). Walt and Gilson's framework (1994) for policy analysis was used: content, actors, context, and process. Problems of integration and coordination have compounded funding pressures. Despite its importance in Tunisian healthcare, primary health is ill-equipped to manage NCDs. With limited funds, and no referral or health information system, staff morale in the public sector was low. Private healthcare has been the main development filling the void. This study highlights major gaps in the implementation of a comprehensive approach to NCDs, which is an urgent task across the region. In strategic planning, research on the health system is vital; but the capacity within Ministries of Health to use research has first to be built, with a commitment to grounding policy change in evidence.

  15. Rehabilitation of El Yahoudia dumping site, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaïri, M; Ferchichi, M; Ismaïl, A; Jenayeh, M; Hammami, H

    2004-01-01

    As in all developing countries, cities in Tunisia face serious problems of environmental pollution caused mainly by the inadequate and inefficient final disposal of their generated solid wastes. The Tunisian government launched a development program including the construction of landfills in the main cities and the closure of the contaminated sites issued from solid wastes landrising practice. The project of the Henchir El Yahoudia landfill restoration is the first experience in this programme. It has been suggested to convert the site to a green park and to implement an ornamental plant nursery. The whole surface of the landfill is approximately 100 ha from which 30 ha have been already transformed to an urban recreational area and the remaining 70 ha have to be characterized for the project extension. A field investigation by boring was conducted in order to define the geological and the hydrogeological conditions, the vertical and horizontal wastes layer extension, content and degree of decomposition and the composition and quantities of leachate and landfill gas. Representative samples of waste, soil, groundwater and leachate were collected for laboratory analyses. Several of these borings were converted to piezometers to define the flow regime in the site. The results showed that the biogas (CH4, H2S, and CO2), leachate and waste, distribution in the site is mainly affected by the temporal variation of the site operating method. The underlying fissured clay layer facilitated leachate infiltration into the groundwater where high BOD, COD and nitrogen concentrations were registered.

  16. Assessing North American multimodel ensemble (NMME) seasonal forecast skill to assist in the early warning of hydrometeorological extremes over East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, Jason B.; Hoell. Andrew,; Funk, Chris; Robertson, Franklin R.; Kirtmann, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The skill of North American multimodel ensemble (NMME) seasonal forecasts in East Africa (EA), which encompasses one of the most food and water insecure areas of the world, is evaluated using deterministic, categorical, and probabilistic evaluation methods. The skill is estimated for all three primary growing seasons: March–May (MAM), July–September (JAS), and October–December (OND). It is found that the precipitation forecast skill in this region is generally limited and statistically significant over only a small part of the domain. In the case of MAM (JAS) [OND] season it exceeds the skill of climatological forecasts in parts of equatorial EA (Northern Ethiopia) [equatorial EA] for up to 2 (5) [5] months lead. Temperature forecast skill is generally much higher than precipitation forecast skill (in terms of deterministic and probabilistic skill scores) and statistically significant over a majority of the region. Over the region as a whole, temperature forecasts also exhibit greater reliability than the precipitation forecasts. The NMME ensemble forecasts are found to be more skillful and reliable than the forecast from any individual model. The results also demonstrate that for some seasons (e.g. JAS), the predictability of precipitation signals varies and is higher during certain climate events (e.g. ENSO). Finally, potential room for improvement in forecast skill is identified in some models by comparing homogeneous predictability in individual NMME models with their respective forecast skill.

  17. Compliance with the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women in Mafikeng local municipality, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbhenyane, Xikombiso; Cherane, Matodzi

    2017-09-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is recognized as one of the major nutritional deficiencies in women and children in developing countries. Daily iron supplementation for pregnant women is recommended in many countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors that contribute to compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant woman in Mafikeng local municipality, North West Province, South Africa. A mixed method of descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional design was used. Ten clinics were used as a sample frame where 57 pregnant women and 10 health workers were purposefully and conveniently selected. Quantitative techniques were used to collect data on attendance, consumption and nutrition knowledge using the self-reported questionnaire by pregnant women, and structured interview for health workers. Qualitative design was used to conduct in - depth focus-group discussions to gather information on compliance to the consumption of supplements by pregnant women. The findings of the study revealed good antenatal clinic attendance, availability of supplements and 93% compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements. High compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women was reported, and this should be reinforced.

  18. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Prevalence and risk factors meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Nesrine S; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Farag, Mohamed K

    2017-01-01

    Obesity rates are rising globally, but there is evidence that young people in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are at particularly high risk. We systematically searched the literature to map the MENA region for prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, and examine the underlying risk factors and adverse effects associated with obesity in this region. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood) OR adolescence) AND obesity) AND (MENA or each country) AND ("last five years" [PDat]). Studies demonstrated an increasing prevalence of obesity among many countries in the MENA region, especially in the Gulf area. Notably, in Kuwait, prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 25.6% and 34.8% among young males and 20.8% and 20.5% among females. A meta-analysis revealed that physical inactivity, increased screen time, and higher social status were risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood and adolescent obesity is a major challenge facing countries of the MENA region. Further research is needed to fully investigate the role of nutrition and other specific risk factors and evaluate various interventions to manage this pervasive and growing health problem.

  19. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large.

  20. The impact of human activities in africa,the north and south pole regions on global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    a way that goals could be achieved without necessarily causing problems to the world climate. 4. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) should check and control the Ocean Pollutions caused as a result of the degreasing activities of the "QUAY APRONS" currently going on at the various African Sea Ports in order to protect the Ocean pollution with chemicals that can make the World's ice to be melting. 5. The International Meteorological Organization should open its offices within each region of the six continents in order to have a closer monitoring of human activities that can influence the world's climate. 6. Organizing seminars, Conferences and Workshops on a regular basis by the United Nations and other related organizations can help in the areas of public enlightenment and the education of the rural populace who are also great contributors to the situation. 7. The UN should use its capacity to discourage the importation of fairly used refrigerators, Air-conditioners and propellants to Africa and at the same time assist in the subsidy of the newer ones coming to Africa, so that the average African can afford buying them I believe that if the above listed suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will help in reducing these challenges threatening the entire world. Thanks for listening.

  1. Indoor and outdoor PM10 levels at schools located near mine dumps in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusumuzi Nkosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in South Africa have investigated the exposure of asthmatic learners to indoor and outdoor air pollution at schools. This study compared outdoor PM10 and SO2 exposure levels in exposed (1–2 km from gold mine dumps and unexposed schools (5 km or more from gold mine dumps. It also examined exposure of asthmatic children to indoor respirable dust at exposed and unexposed schools. Methods The study was conducted between 1 and 31 October 2012 in five schools from exposed and five from unexposed communities. Outdoor PM10 and SO2 levels were measured for 8-h at each school. Ten asthmatic learners were randomly selected from each school for 8-h personal respirable dust sampling during school hours. Results The level of outdoor PM10 for exposed was 16.42 vs. 11.47 mg.m−3 for the unexposed communities (p < 0.001. The outdoor SO2 for exposed was 0.02 ppb vs. 0.01 ppb for unexposed communities (p < 0.001. Indoor respirable dust in the classroom differed significantly between exposed (0.17 mg.m−3 vs. unexposed (0.01 mg.m−3 children with asthma at each school (p < 0.001. Conclusion The significant differences between exposed and unexposed schools could reveal a serious potential health hazard for school children, although they were within the South African Air Quality Standards’ set by the Department of Environmental Affairs. The indoor respirable dust levels in exposed schools could have an impact on children with asthma, as they were significantly higher than the unexposed schools, although there are no published standards for environmental exposure for children with asthma.

  2. Groundwater evolution in the Continental Intercalaire aquifer of southern Algeria and Tunisia: trace element and isotopic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, W.M.; Guendouz, A.H.; Mamou, A.; Moulla, A.; Shand, P.; Zouari, K.

    2003-01-01

    The geochemical processes taking place along an 800 km flow line in the non-carbonate Continental Intercalaire aquifer (CI) aquifer in North Africa are described using chemical (major and trace element) and isotopic indicators. The aquifer is hydraulically continuous from the Atlas Mountains in Algeria to the Chotts of Tunisia and the geochemical evidence corroborates this. The highest discharge temperature is 73 deg. C but silica geothermometry indicates a maximum temperature of 94 deg. C at depth. Chloride concentrations increase from 200 to 800 mg l -1 and the Br/Cl ratios confirm the dissolution of non-marine evaporites or interstitial waters as the main source of salinity. Fluoride concentrations are low and are likely to be derived from rainfall, recording oscillations in source. Radiocarbon ages, except near outcrop, are at or near detection limits and the δ 18 O and δ 2 H values indicate a cooler recharge regime with rainfall having lower primary evaporation than today. This is shown by the fact that mean isotope ratios of CI waters are around 3 per mille lighter than the present-day weighted mean value for rain. Major ion ratios and most trace elements indicate that despite the complex structure and stratigraphy, uniform evolution with continuous water-rock interaction takes place along the flow lines, which are only disturbed near the Tunisian Chotts by groundwater converging from additional flow lines. The ageing of the water can also be followed by the smooth increase in several indicator elements such as Li, K and Mn which are least affected by solubility controls. Similarly the influence of marine facies in the Tunisian sector may be recognised by the changing Mg/Ca and higher Br/Cl as well as trace element indicators. The groundwaters are oxidising up to 300 km from outcrop (dissolved O 2 has persisted for at least 20 ka) and within this zone the concentrations of several elements forming oxy-anions, such as U and Cr, increase and NO 3 remains

  3. Evaluation of the Performance of Multiple Drought Indices for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Jedd, T.; Svoboda, M.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The recent and frequent drought events in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) create an urgent need for scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers to improve the understanding of drought in order to mitigate its effects. It is well documented that drought is not caused by meteorological or hydrological conditions alone; social, economic, and political governance factors play a large part in whether the components in a water supply system are balanced. In the MENA region, for example, agricultural production can place a significant burden on water supply systems. Understanding the connection between drought and agricultural production is an important first step in developing a sound drought monitoring and mitigation system that links physical indicators with on-the-ground impacts. Drought affect crop yield, livestock health, and water resources availability, among others. A clear depiction of drought onset, duration and severity is essential to provide valuable information to adapt and mitigate drought impact. Therefore, it is important that to be able to connect and evaluate scientific drought data and informational products with societal impact data to more effectively initiate mitigation actions. This approach will further the development of drought maps that are tailored and responsive to immediate and specific societal needs for a region or country. Within the context of developing and evaluating drought impacts maps for the MENA region, this analysis investigates the use of different drought indices and indicators including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, land surface temperature (LST), and Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) for their ability to characterize historic drought events in Tunisia. Evaluation of a "drought map" product is conducted using data at the county level including crop yield, precipitation, in-country interviews with drought monitoring experts and agricultural

  4. Technical and Political Assessment of Peaceful Nuclear Power Program Prospects in North Africa and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windsor, Lindsay K.; Kessler, Carol E.

    2007-09-11

    An exceptional number of Middle Eastern and North African nations have recently expressed interest in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Many of these countries have explored nuclear research in limited ways in the past, but the current focused interest and application of resources towards developing nuclear-generated electricity and nuclear-powered desalination plants is unprecedented. Consequently, questions arise in response to this emerging trend: What instigated this interest? To what end(s) will a nuclear program be applied? Does the country have adequate technical, political, legislative, nonproliferation, and safety infrastructure required for the capability desired? If so, what are the next steps for a country in preparation for a future nuclear program? And if not, what collaboration efforts are possible with the United States or others? This report provides information on the capabilities and interests of 13 countries in the region in nuclear energy programs in light of safety, nonproliferation and security concerns. It also provides information useful for determining potential for offering technical collaboration, financial aid, and/or political support.

  5. A sero-epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in the north-eastern Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mtshali

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey to determine the incidence of parasites in cattle (n = 386 was conducted in the north eastern Free State between August 1999 and July 2000. Giemsa-stained blood smears were negative for blood parasites. A total of 94 % of the cattle were sero-positive for Babesia bigemina by indirect fluorescent antibody test while 87 % were sero-positive for Anaplasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The observation of negative blood smears but high incidence of positive serological results for Anaplasma and Babesia for the same group of cattle indicates that this area is endemic for these diseases but with a stable disease situation. All the animals were sero-negative for B. bovis and this is probably because the tick vector (Boophilus microplus which transmits the disease is not present in the Free State Province. Two tick species belonging to the family Ixodidae were found on cattle, namely Boophilus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. In the present study significant differences in seasonal burdens of B. decoloratus occurred, with the highest infestations recorded from February to June. The presence of R. evertsi evertsi throughout the year without any or with small fluctuations in winter months was observed, with a peak from February to May

  6. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  7. A new species of Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Ribera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Loxosceles, L. mrazig sp. n., found in Tunisia is described and illustrated. The male bulb shows a high degree of morphological similarity to that of L. gaucho from Brazil, but the proportions of the palpal segments and the general colouration of the body reveal significant differences between the two species. A distance analysis of the sequences of the mitochondrial gene cox1 reveals that the specimen from Tunisia shows high genetic distance from L. gaucho (more than 20%. The American species L. gaucho and L. laeta form a sister group to the Mediterranean representatives (L. rufescens and the Tunisian specimen.

  8. Steppic environments at the end of the upper pleistocene in southern Tunisia (Oued el Akarit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Annik; Guerin, Claude; Levy, Alain; Riser, Jean; Rognon, Pierre

    The cross section of the Oued el Akarit, 25 km North of Gabès, is of considerable importance for the paleoenvironmental reconstitution of South Tunisia at the end of the Upper Pleistocene. Grey or black silts and clays and greenish gray sands which overlap them, contain many paleontological remains: rodents, birds and Rhinoceros bones, Gasteropods, Foraminifera, Ostracoda and pollen. All these sedimentological, faunistic or botanical indications allow to consider that this area, between approximatively 35,000 and 22,000 yr. B.P., belonged to the steppe domaine. But this steppe was probably more dense and more diversified than the present-day steppe which receives 170 mm of rain (annual average). This conclusion is in good agreement with the other paleoenvironmental data from the Chott Djerid, the Matmata plateau or the Gulf of Gabès cores, areas situated at about 100 km to the West, the South or the East of the Oued el Akarit.

  9. Managing natural resources: Win-win solutions improve livelihoods ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... Greywater, greenhouses increase food production in Tunisia. In North Africa and the Middle East, rapid urban expansion is stressing local water sources. View moreGreywater, greenhouses increase food production in Tunisia ...

  10. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  11. Basin geodynamics and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic deposits of Southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Hadouth, Suhail; Bouaziz, Samir; Lathuilière, Bernard; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2016-05-01

    Aims of this paper are to propose a geodynamic and sequential framework for the late Triassic and early Jurassic of and south Tunisia and to evidence the impact of local tectonics on the stratigraphic architecture. Facies of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic of Southern Tunisia have been interpreted in terms of depositional environments. A sequential framework and correlation schemes are proposed for outcrops and subsurface transects. Nineteen middle frequency sequences inserted in three and a half low frequency transgression/regression cycles were evidenced. Despite some datation uncertainties and the unknown durations of Lower Jurassic cycles, middle frequency sequences appear to be controlled by eustasy. In contrast the tectonics acted as an important control on low frequency cycles. The Carnian flooding was certainly favored by the last stages of a rifting episode which started during the Permian. The regression accompanied by the formation of stacked angular unconformities and the deposition of lowstand deposits during the late Carnian and Norian occured during the uplift and tilting of the northern basin margins. The transpressional activity of the Jeffara fault system generated the uplift of the Tebaga of Medenine high from the late Carnian and led to the Rhaetian regional angular Sidi Stout Unconformity. Facies analysis and well-log correlations permitted to evidence that Rhaetian to Lower Jurassic Messaoudi dolomites correspond to brecciated dolomites present on the Sidi Stout unconformity in the North Dahar area. The Early-cimmerian compressional event is a possible origin for the global uplift of the northern African margin and Western Europe during the late Carnian and the Norian. During the Rhaetian and the early Jurassic a new episode of normal faulting occured during the third low frequency flooding. This tectonosedimentary evolution ranges within the general geodynamic framework of the north Gondwana margin controlled by the opening of both

  12. Africa's Mining Sector Development: An Industry Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... major mining destination for mining companies from Europe, North America, China, and of course South Africa. ... interest in Africa, because the continent is clearly a significant potential source of raw ...

  13. Pilanesberg National Park, North West Province, South Africa: Uniting economic development with ecological design – A history, 1960s to 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Carruthers

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1970s, a ground-breaking project began in the Pilanesberg district in what is now the North West Province of South Africa to create a wildlife conservation and eco-tourism venture from degraded marginal farmland in an aesthetically attractive extinct volcanic crater. The establishment of this national park was innovative in a number of respects, including a partnership between landscape and ecological designers, local community development and participation, regional tourist satisfaction, trophy hunting, environmental education, ecological restoration, and wildlife conservation and management. This paper briefly explored the park’s early history, explaining its landscape, its early peopling and historical land use. The narrative then concentrated on the first five years of the park’s existence, from its inception in 1977, under the aegis of Agricor, Bophuthatswana’s rural development agency, to 1984, when responsibility for the park was given over to Bophuthatswana National Parks, a parastatal agency, and a new era began. The article contended that 1984 is an appropriate date on which to conclude the early history of the Pilanesberg National Park (PNP because it was then that the experimental phase of the park ended: its infrastructure was sufficiently developed to offer a satisfactory visitor experience, the management plan was revised, its bureaucratic structures were consolidated and an attitude survey amongst the local community was undertaken. Embedding the originating period of the PNP in its historical, political and socio-economic context, the paper foregrounded those elements in the park’s beginnings that were new in the southern African protected area arena. Thus, elements that relate to socio-politics, landscape and ecological design and restoration, and early relations with neighbouring communities were emphasised. This paper has been written by an historian and is therefore conceptual and historical, conforming

  14. The long-term durability of low alkali cements. Evidence from new natural analog sites in Europe and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W. Russell; Laine, Heini M.; Khoury, Hani

    2015-01-01

    The long-term durability of low alkali cements is of interest where they are under consideration as repository tunnel and exploration borehole seals and plugs. It is essential to have an appropriate understanding of their longevity to inform decisions on their potential use in a repository environment. Archaelogical analogues of low alkali cement have been studied for some time. Thomassin and Rassineux (1992), for example, reviewed some of the literature on Gallo-Roman cement-based materials and noted that one of the most impressive examples is the 1700 year old Roman mortar used in Hadrian's Wall (UK) which still contains substantial amounts of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate) compounds. These mortars were studied specifically with the behaviour of an ILW repository in mind (Jull and Lees 1990). However, plugs and seals will generally be required to be durable for longer than the few thousand years which can be accessed via archaeological analogues, so it is essential to turn to natural systems for evidence of longer term durability. To date, there have been no reported studies on natural low alkali cements. In principle, however, such cements should exist and the Bituminous Marl Formation, which hosts the natural OPC cements in Jordan (Pitty and Alexander, 2011), is a likely source. This Formation constitutes a widespread terrain which stretches from Syria in the north, through Israel and Jordan to Saudi Arabia in the south. The natural cement was formed by the combustion of organic rich limestones, a process which continues today. In Syria and northern Jordan, for example, the Formation is punctured by Late Oligocene to Quaternary volcanics so sites which include pozzolanic ash mixed with the Bituminous Marl exist and, on combustion, should produce natural low alkali cements. A site in northern Jordan is currently under investigation for evidence of long-term fresh groundwater/low alkali cement interaction and the preliminary results of the study will be

  15. The long-term durability of low alkali cements. Evidence from new natural analog sites in Europe and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W. Russell [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Laine, Heini M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Khoury, Hani [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Geology

    2015-07-01

    The long-term durability of low alkali cements is of interest where they are under consideration as repository tunnel and exploration borehole seals and plugs. It is essential to have an appropriate understanding of their longevity to inform decisions on their potential use in a repository environment. Archaelogical analogues of low alkali cement have been studied for some time. Thomassin and Rassineux (1992), for example, reviewed some of the literature on Gallo-Roman cement-based materials and noted that one of the most impressive examples is the 1700 year old Roman mortar used in Hadrian's Wall (UK) which still contains substantial amounts of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate) compounds. These mortars were studied specifically with the behaviour of an ILW repository in mind (Jull and Lees 1990). However, plugs and seals will generally be required to be durable for longer than the few thousand years which can be accessed via archaeological analogues, so it is essential to turn to natural systems for evidence of longer term durability. To date, there have been no reported studies on natural low alkali cements. In principle, however, such cements should exist and the Bituminous Marl Formation, which hosts the natural OPC cements in Jordan (Pitty and Alexander, 2011), is a likely source. This Formation constitutes a widespread terrain which stretches from Syria in the north, through Israel and Jordan to Saudi Arabia in the south. The natural cement was formed by the combustion of organic rich limestones, a process which continues today. In Syria and northern Jordan, for example, the Formation is punctured by Late Oligocene to Quaternary volcanics so sites which include pozzolanic ash mixed with the Bituminous Marl exist and, on combustion, should produce natural low alkali cements. A site in northern Jordan is currently under investigation for evidence of long-term fresh groundwater/low alkali cement interaction and the preliminary results of the study will be

  16. South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

  17. Predictors of smoking initiation among schoolchildren in Tunisia: a 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify predictors of smoking initiation among non smoking Tunisian school children; and to propose efficient antismoking strategies in order to prevent smoking initiation. Methods: It was a cohort study surveying prospectively for four years pupils attending schools in Sousse city in Tunisia. 441 non smoking ...

  18. Vulvar cancer in Tunisia: Epidemiological and clinicopathological features multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kehila, MD

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Vulvar cancer in Tunisia is a rare disease, occurs mostly in elderly women, and is diagnosed at advanced stages. Our findings emphasize that a greater effort should be made to facilitate early diagnosis, as treatment in earlier stages is less extensive and potentially curative.

  19. Popular Islam in Tunisia : a regional cults analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, Kees

    1990-01-01

    This study is about cults in northwestern Tunisia. A cult is defined as a religious grouping which exhibits several distinctive characteristics: the number of participants is limited, exclusivism is absent, the beliefs and practices are biased on one or several specific supernatural beings, and it

  20. α-Thalassaemia in Tunisia: some epidemiological and molecular data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of the present work is to acquire further data concerning -thalassaemia prevalence and molecular defects spectrum in Tunisia, by collecting and studying several kinds of samples carrying -thalassaemia. The first survey conducted on 529 cord blood samples using cellulose acetate electrophoresis, have ...

  1. The end-Cretaceous in the southwestern Tethys (Elles, Tunisia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Galbrun, Bruno; Gardin, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    An integrated study of magnetic mass susceptibility (MS), bulk stable isotopes and calcareous nannofossil paleoecological changes is undertaken on the late Maastrichtian of the Elles section, Tunisia, spanning the last ca. 1 Myr of the Cretaceous. A cyclostratigraphic analysis reveals the presenc...

  2. Constitutional Reform and Emergency Powers in Egypt and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    Legal mechanisms governing the state of emergency can play an important role in authoritarian rule and post-revolutionary transition periods. Egypt has experienced the terror of a regime empowered by emergency law. In Tunisia, emergency law was not so much an issue before but rather after the

  3. Radiological Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers used in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemli, Khaoula

    2010-01-01

    The need of control of natural radioactivity in the environment and the radiological impact of the use of chemical fertilizers has led us in this work to measure the natural radioactivity of the phosphate fertilizers in Tunisia. The distribution of various radionuclides during their manufacturing process of fertilizers is also part of this work.

  4. The case for developing publicly-accessible datasets for health services research in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of publicly-accessible datasets comprised a significant opportunity for health services research to evolve into a science that supports health policy making and evaluation, proper inter- and intra-organizational decisions and optimal clinical interventions. This paper investigated the role of publicly-accessible datasets in the enhancement of health care systems in the developed world and highlighted the importance of their wide existence and use in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. Discussion A search was conducted to explore the availability of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region. Although datasets were found in most countries in the region, those were limited in terms of their relevance, quality and public-accessibility. With rare exceptions, publicly-accessible datasets - as present in the developed world - were absent. Based on this, we proposed a gradual approach and a set of recommendations to promote the development and use of publicly-accessible datasets in the region. These recommendations target potential actions by governments, researchers, policy makers and international organizations. Summary We argue that the limited number of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region represents a lost opportunity for the evidence-based advancement of health systems in the region. The availability and use of publicly-accessible datasets would encourage policy makers in this region to base their decisions on solid representative data and not on estimates or small-scale studies; researchers would be able to exercise their expertise in a meaningful manner to both, policy makers and the public. The population of the MENA countries would exercise the right to benefit from locally- or regionally-based studies, versus imported and in 'best cases' customized ones. Furthermore, on a macro scale, the availability of regionally comparable publicly-accessible datasets would allow for the

  5. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  6. Molecular assessment of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) infections in wild canids and rodents from north Africa, with implications for transmission dynamics across taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P; Alvares, Francisco; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Brito, José C; Leite, João V; Harris, D James

    2014-10-01

    Parasites play a major role in ecosystems, and understanding of host-parasite interactions is important for predicting parasite transmission dynamics and epidemiology. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution, diversity, and impact of parasites in wildlife, especially from remote areas. Hepatozoon is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that is transmitted by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors. However, alternative modes of transmission have been identified such as trophic transmission. Using the 18S rRNA gene as a marker, we provide an assessment of Hepatozoon prevalence in six wild canid and two rodent species collected between 2003 and 2012 from remote areas in North Africa. By combining this with other predator-prey systems in a phylogenetic framework, we investigate Hepatozoon transmission dynamics in distinct host taxa. Prevalence was high overall among host species (African jerboa Jaculus jaculus [17/47, 36%], greater Egyptian jerboa Jaculus orientalis [5/7, 71%], side-striped jackal Canis adustus [1/2, 50%], golden jackal Canis aureus [6/32, 18%], pale fox Vulpes pallida [14/28, 50%], Rüppell's fox Vulpes rueppellii [6/11, 55%], red fox Vulpes vulpes [8/16, 50%], and fennec fox Vulpes zerda [7/11, 42%]). Phylogenetic analysis showed further evidence of occasional transmission of Hepatozoon lineages from prey to canid predators, which seems to occur less frequently than in other predator-prey systems such as between snakes and lizards. Due to the complex nature of the Hepatozoon lifecycle (heteroxenous and vector-borne), future studies on these wild host species need to clarify the dynamics of alternative modes of Hepatozoon transmission and identify reservoir and definitive hosts in natural populations. We also detected putative Babesia spp. (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) infections in two canid species from this region, V. pallida (1/28) and V. zerda (1/11).

  7. Gender inequalities in excess adiposity and anaemia combine in a large double burden of malnutrition gap detrimental to women in an urban area in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Gartner, Agnès; Ben Gharbia, Houda; Delpeuch, Francis

    2016-06-01

    The nutrition transition has exacerbated the gender gap in health in the Middle East and North Africa region as the increase in excess adiposity has been much higher among women than men. This is not exclusive of the persistence of anaemia, generally also more prevalent among women. We assessed the magnitude and sociodemographic factors associated with gender inequality vis-à-vis the double burden of excess adiposity and anaemia. Cross-sectional study, stratified two-stage cluster sample. BMI (=weight/height2) ≥25·0 kg/m2 defined overweight and BMI≥30·0 kg/m2 obesity. Anaemia was defined as Hb Gender inequalities vis-à-vis the within-subject coexistence of excess adiposity and anaemia were assessed by women v. men relative prevalence ratios (RPR). Their variation with sociodemographic characteristics used models including gender × covariate interactions. Greater Tunis area in 2009-2010. Adults aged 20-49 years (women, n 1689; men, n 930). Gender inequalities in excess adiposity were high (e.g. overweight: women 64·9 % v. men 48·4 %; RPR=2·1; 95 % CI 1·6, 2·7) and much higher for anaemia (women 38·0 % v. men 7·2 %; RPR=8·2; 95 % CI 5·5, 12·4). They were striking for overweight and anaemia (women 24·1 % v. men 3·4 %; RPR=16·2; 95 % CI 10·3, 25·4). Gender inequalities in overweight adjusted for covariates increased with age but decreased with professional activity and household wealth score; gender inequality in anaemia or overweight and anaemia was more uniformly distributed. Women were much more at risk than men, from both over- and undernutrition perspectives. Both the underlying gender-related and sex-linked biological determinants of this remarkable double burden of malnutrition inequality must be addressed to promote gender equity in health.

  8. Role of dust direct radiative effect on the tropical rainbelt over Middle East and North Africa: A high resolution AGCM study

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2015-04-25

    To investigate the influence of direct radiative effect of dust on the tropical summer rainbelt across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the present study utilizes the high resolution capability of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM),the High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Ensembles of Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP)-style simulations have been conducted with and without dust radiative impacts, to differentiate the influence of dust on the tropical rainbelt. The analysis focuses on summer season. The results highlight the role of dust induced responses in global and regional scale circulations in determining the strength and the latitudinal extent of the tropical rainbelt. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and West African Monsoon (WAM) circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rainbelt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Importantly, the summer precipitation over the semi-arid strip south of Sahara, including Sahel, increases up to 20%. As this region is characterized by the “Sahel drought" , the predicted precipitation sensitivity to the dust loading over this region has a wide-range of socioeconomic implications. Overall, the study demonstrates the extreme importance of incorporating dust radiative effects and the corresponding circulation responses at various scales, in the simulations and future projections of this region\\'s climate.

  9. Leadership, job satisfaction and intention to leave among registered nurses in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia S. Sojane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nurse leadership of a hospital is identified as the single most important aspect of the practice environment that impacts nurse outcomes. When nurses are satisfied with their jobs, they tend to remain with their employers and become more productive in their workplaces. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between leadership, job satisfaction and intentions to leave among registered nurses (RNs working in hospitals in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The population (N = 680 with the sample (n = 204 included RNs in medical–surgical units in both private and public hospitals in the two provinces. Data were collected using the RN4CAST questionnaire. Results: RNs were satisfied with the items pertaining to leadership except for praise and recognition (55.7%. They also indicated high levels of overall job satisfaction (70.5% but were dissatisfied with wages (50%, study leave (40.9% and opportunities for advancement (40.1%. Furthermore, 46.1% of the RNs intended to leave their current hospitals. The results indicated a relationship between leadership and job satisfaction (r = 0.47; p = 0.00 and between intention to leave and job satisfaction (d = 0.50. Conclusion: The nurse managers played a significant role influencing RN’s level of job satisfaction, while job satisfaction was highly correlated with intention to leave. The nurse leadership can improve job satisfaction by giving praise and recognition to the RNs for jobs well done, and RNs should be afforded the opportunity to advance their careers through further studies. Keywords: Leadership,  job satisfaction, intention to leave, Nurse

  10. Effects of habitat composition on the use of resources by the red fox in a semi arid environment of North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Arte, Graziella L.; Leonardi, Giovanni

    2005-09-01

    The red fox Vulpes vulpes is considered an opportunistic predator able to avoid prey shortages by exploiting a wide range of available food resources. However, as predicted by the Resources Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH), the distribution of other key resources such as suitable areas for dens can affect fox populations. Furthermore, in insularity conditions, resources are spatially limited and their availability is greatly influenced by territory sizes and the feeding habits of predators. In this paper we report the spatial use and foraging habits of foxes in three habitats (grassland, cultivation and suburban) of a sub-arid island off north Africa in relation to habitat composition and food availability. We found that diet composition in a gross sense did not differ significantly among habitats, with insects comprising > 48% and fruits 25% of the total prey items. Grasslands offered temporary clumped food resources (e.g. birds) that induced foxes to increase their territory sizes and to enlarge their diet range during prey shortages. Inversely, in cultivated and suburban areas, the main prey (insects) were more evenly distributed, especially in olive groves which constitute the most extensive form of cultivation on the island. In large areas covered by olive trees, the high availability of Coleoptera spp. significantly reduced core areas used by foxes and also distances among dens. Palm groves were patchy on the island but contained high densities of Orthoptera spp. and date fruits which represent alternative food sources. Thus, these patches are attractive foraging places, but a modification of the perimeter of fox territories was necessary for their exploitation. Our study confirmed that in this arid environment, habitat composition per se affected a generalist predator less than the dispersion of its main prey. In addition, the patchy distribution of resources can assume a role in the spacing and feeding behaviours of foxes only in relation to clumped alternative

  11. Recent changes in continentality and aridity conditions over the Middle East and North Africa region, and their association with circulation patterns

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2016-05-30

    A long-term (1960-2013) assessment of the variability of continentality and aridity conditions over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region was undertaken. Monthly gridded temperature and precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) (TS3.22 version) were used to compute the Johansson Continentality Index (JCI) and the Marsz Oceanity Index (MOI). In addition, the De Martonne index and the Pinna index were employed to assess recent changes in aridity conditions. All indices revealed a statistically significant increase in continental influences over the region, particularly in the Nile Basin and the Fertile Crescent. For aridity, the results suggested a generally statistically insignificant increase, with the most rapid changes occurring over the most humid regions (i.e. the Ethiopian Highlands and the Fertile Crescent). In order to explain the observed changes in the continentality and aridity conditions, we assessed the relationship between aridity and continentality indices and a wide range of large-scale circulation patterns. Results indicate that the spatial variability of continentality (as well as aridity) was closely coupled with the Atlantic modes of variability, e.g. the Eastern Atlantic pattern and the Atlantic Meridional Mode, compared to those of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. The results of this work highlight change processes in 2 important climate features in one of the hottest regions on Earth. Improving our understanding of the spatio-temporal characteristics of climate continentality and aridity has implications for a diversity of socio-political, economic, hydrological, and ecological activities in the MENA region.

  12. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the GD 2 locality of the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave deposits, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, Andy I R; Adams, Justin W; Kuykendall, Kevin L; Shaw, John

    2006-12-01

    Speleological, paleomagnetic, mineral magnetic, and biochronological analyses have been undertaken at the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave, North West Province, South Africa. Two fossiliferous but stratigraphically separate sequences, GD2 and GD1/3, which were once part of a large cavern system, have been identified. Although some comparative paleomagnetic samples were taken from the GD 1, 3, and 4 localities that are currently under investigation, the research presented here focuses on the fossil-rich, in situ deposits at locality GD 2, excavated by E.S. Vrba in 1979. The GD 2 deposits are dominated by normal-polarity calcified clastic deposits that are sandwiched between clastic-free flowstone speleothems. The lower flowstone has a sharp contact with the red siltstone deposits and is of reversed polarity. The capping flowstone shows a change from normal to reversed polarity, thereby preserving a polarity reversal. While the paleomagnetic work indicates that the GD 2 fossil material was deposited during a normal-polarity period, the shortness of the sequence made matching of the magnetostratigraphy to the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) impossible without the aid of biochronology. While lacking multiple time-sensitive taxa, the recovery of specimens attributable to Stage III Metridiochoerus andrewsi is consistent with a deposition date between 1.9 and 1.5 Ma. A comparison of the magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS therefore suggests that the fauna-bearing siltstone of GD 2 date to the Olduvai normal-polarity event, which occurred between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma, and that the reversal from normal to reversed polarity identified in the capping flowstone dates to 1.78 Ma. The main faunal layers therefore date to slightly older than 1.78 Ma. Deposits from the GD 1 locality are dominated by reversed directions of magnetization, which show that this deposit is not of the same age as the faunal layers from the GD 2 locality.

  13. Leadership, job satisfaction and intention to leave among registered nurses in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojane, Jeremia S; Klopper, Hester C; Coetzee, Siedine K

    2016-01-01

    The nurse leadership of a hospital is identified as the single most important aspect of the practice environment that impacts nurse outcomes. When nurses are satisfied with their jobs, they tend to remain with their employers and become more productive in their workplaces. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between leadership, job satisfaction and intentions to leave among registered nurses (RNs) working in hospitals in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The population (N = 680) with the sample (n = 204) included RNs in medical–surgical units in both private and public hospitals in the two provinces. Data were collected using the RN4CAST questionnaire. RNs were satisfied with the items pertaining to leadership except for praise and recognition (55.7%). They also indicated high levels of overall job satisfaction (70.5%) but were dissatisfied with wages (50%), study leave (40.9%) and opportunities for advancement (40.1%). Furthermore, 46.1% of the RNs intended to leave their current hospitals. The results indicated a relationship between leadership and job satisfaction (r = 0.47; p = 0.00) and between intention to leave and job satisfaction (d = 0.50). The nurse managers played a significant role influencing RN’s level of job satisfaction, while job satisfaction was highly correlated with intention to leave. The nurse leadership can improve job satisfaction by giving praise and recognition to the RNs for jobs well done, and RNs should be afforded the opportunity to advance their careers through further studies.

  14. Recent changes in continentality and aridity conditions over the Middle East and North Africa region, and their association with circulation patterns

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Robaa, Sayed M.; Lopez-Moreno, Juan I.

    2016-01-01

    A long-term (1960-2013) assessment of the variability of continentality and aridity conditions over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region was undertaken. Monthly gridded temperature and precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) (TS3.22 version) were used to compute the Johansson Continentality Index (JCI) and the Marsz Oceanity Index (MOI). In addition, the De Martonne index and the Pinna index were employed to assess recent changes in aridity conditions. All indices revealed a statistically significant increase in continental influences over the region, particularly in the Nile Basin and the Fertile Crescent. For aridity, the results suggested a generally statistically insignificant increase, with the most rapid changes occurring over the most humid regions (i.e. the Ethiopian Highlands and the Fertile Crescent). In order to explain the observed changes in the continentality and aridity conditions, we assessed the relationship between aridity and continentality indices and a wide range of large-scale circulation patterns. Results indicate that the spatial variability of continentality (as well as aridity) was closely coupled with the Atlantic modes of variability, e.g. the Eastern Atlantic pattern and the Atlantic Meridional Mode, compared to those of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. The results of this work highlight change processes in 2 important climate features in one of the hottest regions on Earth. Improving our understanding of the spatio-temporal characteristics of climate continentality and aridity has implications for a diversity of socio-political, economic, hydrological, and ecological activities in the MENA region.

  15. Genotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates from Different Sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Njie Ateba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003 and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I–VIII were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91% between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  16. Genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from different sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba, Collins Njie; Mbewe, Moses

    2014-05-30

    In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v) agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003) and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I-VIII) were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91%) between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  17. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Middle East and North Africa: Results of Global Burden of Diseases Study from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Farnaz; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILDs) are major causes of death and disability in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, they have different patterns in countries with various geographical, cultural, and socio-economic status. We aimed to compare the burden of GILDs in Iran with its neighboring countries using the results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study in 2010. METHODS Classic metrics of GBD have been used including: age-standardized rates (ASRs) of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY). All countries neighboring Iran have been selected. In addition, all other countries classified in the MENA region were included. Five major groups of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases were studied including: infections of gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal and pancreatobilliary cancers, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS The overall burden of GILDs is highest in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. Diarrheal diseases have been replaced by gastrointestinal cancers and cirrhosis in most countries in the region. However, in a number of countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, and Yemen, communicable GILDs are still among top causes of mortality and morbidity in addition to non-communicable GILDs and cancers. These countries are experiencing the double burden. In Iran, burden caused by cancers of stomach and esophagus are considerably higher than other countries. Diseases that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings have not been captured by GBD. CONCLUSION Improving the infrastructure of health care system including cancer registries and electronic recording of outpatient care is a necessity for better surveillance of GILDs in MENA. In contrast to expensive treatment, prevention of most GILDs is feasible and inexpensive. The health care systems in the region can be strengthened for

  18. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  19. Unique nest architecture in the North African osmiine bee Hoplitis (Hoplitis mucida (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The osmiine bee species Hoplitis mucida is considered to consist of two subspecies with H. mucida mucida (Dours, 1873 ranging from northwestern Africa to Israel and Jordan and H. mucida stecki (Frey-Gessner, 1908 occurring in southwestern Europe and Sicily. The discovery of nests of H. mucida in Morocco and Tunisia revealed striking differences in the nesting biology of the two subspecies. In North Africa, females construct fully exposed, cake-like nests of mud on the flat surface of rocks and stones containing 8–12 vertically oriented brood cells, rendering these nests unique among osmiine bees regarding both nesting site and nest architecture. In contrast, in Europe females build their few-celled mud nests inside small rock cavities. This discrepancy in the nesting biology is paralleled by considerable morphological differences between the two subspecies suggestive of a long geographical isolation. Due to these biological and morphological differences, we propose to elevate the European subspecies H. mucida stecki to species rank.

  20. Evaluating the MSG satellite Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate for extreme rainfall monitoring over northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Dhib

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and evaluation of extreme precipitation is important for water resources and flood risk management, soil and land degradation, and other environmental issues. Due to the high potential threat to local infrastructure, such as buildings, roads and power supplies, heavy precipitation can have an important social and economic impact on society. At present, satellite derived precipitation estimates are becoming more readily available. This paper aims to investigate the potential use of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate (MPE for extreme rainfall assessment in Tunisia. The MSGMPE data combine microwave rain rate estimations with SEVIRI thermal infrared channel data, using an EUMETSAT production chain in near real time mode. The MPE data can therefore be used in a now-casting mode, and are potentially useful for extreme weather early warning and monitoring. Daily precipitation observed across an in situ gauge network in the north of Tunisia were used during the period 2007–2009 for validation of the MPE extreme event data. As a first test of the MSGMPE product's performance, very light to moderate rainfall classes, occurring between January and October 2007, were evaluated. Extreme rainfall events were then selected, using a threshold criterion for large rainfall depth (>50 mm/day occurring at least at one ground station. Spatial interpolation methods were applied to generate rainfall maps for the drier summer season (from May to October and the wet winter season (from November to April. Interpolated gauge rainfall maps were then compared to MSGMPE data available from the EUMETSAT UMARF archive or from the GEONETCast direct dissemination system. The summation of the MPE data at 5 and/or 15 min time intervals over a 24 h period, provided a basis for comparison. The MSGMPE product was not very effective in the detection of very light and light rain events. Better results were obtained for the slightly

  1. Biological control against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in oases and in packing houses in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhouibi, M.H.; Cheikh, T.; Cherni, M.; Ben Moussa, I.; Hawlitsky, N.; Zaaraoui, H.; Krisaane, T.

    2000-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is abundant in the Mediterranean countries. It attacks various dry fruit in cultures or in stored products, notably pomegranate, Punica granatum L.; date palm, Phoenis dactylifera L. plantations; citrus, Citrus spp., apricot, Prunus armeniaca L. and pistachios, Pistachio vera. We can find E. ceratoniae in the north as well as in the south of Tunisia, especially in central zones and Saharan areas where caterpillar infestations can reach 90% of pomegranate fruit and 20% of dates (Dhouibi 1991). To reduce this damage, several control methods have been experimented. Chemical control is the most effective means of control against pests. However, against this species, insecticides seem to be difficult and randomly used, due to the endophytic behaviour of the pyralid and the position of the fruit on the pomegranate tree. Moreover, this method has very ominous repercussions on biological cadence. Besides, it is necessary to look for other control means to allow the preservation of the ecosystem. In Tunisia, several efforts have been directed at biological control, by using local parasitoids and through usage of the bio-insecticides mainly Bacillus thuringiensis (Dhouibi 1992, 1994, Dhouibi and Jemmasi 1993). In order to substitute the chemical control and to strengthen the integrated control, other possibilities can be envisaged, for example, the genetic method or the autocidal control, that is, based on mass rearing and the substerile male releases into the natural population. For the purpose, it provokes the sterility to ulterior generations and evaluates the impact of irradiation on the different biological parameters of emerged adults from treated nymphs and their competitiveness. Dhouibi and Omran (1995) and Dhouibi and Tijani (1996) have studied the mass rearing of the carob moth pyralid on an artificial diet and the effect of different irradiation doses, especially a substerilising dose, on E. ceratoniae pupae

  2. Biological control against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in oases and in packing houses in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhouibi, M H; Cheikh, T; Cherni, M; Ben Moussa, I [Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, Tunis Mahrajene (Tunisia); Hawlitsky, N [INRA Versaille (France); Zaaraoui, H; Krisaane, T [Groupement Interprofessionnel de Dattes de Toseur (Tunisia)

    2000-07-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is abundant in the Mediterranean countries. It attacks various dry fruit in cultures or in stored products, notably pomegranate, Punica granatum L.; date palm, Phoenis dactylifera L. plantations; citrus, Citrus spp., apricot, Prunus armeniaca L. and pistachios, Pistachio vera. We can find E. ceratoniae in the north as well as in the south of Tunisia, especially in central zones and Saharan areas where caterpillar infestations can reach 90% of pomegranate fruit and 20% of dates (Dhouibi 1991). To reduce this damage, several control methods have been experimented. Chemical control is the most effective means of control against pests. However, against this species, insecticides seem to be difficult and randomly used, due to the endophytic behaviour of the pyralid and the position of the fruit on the pomegranate tree. Moreover, this method has very ominous repercussions on biological cadence. Besides, it is necessary to look for other control means to allow the preservation of the ecosystem. In Tunisia, several efforts have been directed at biological control, by using local parasitoids and through usage of the bio-insecticides mainly Bacillus thuringiensis (Dhouibi 1992, 1994, Dhouibi and Jemmasi 1993). In order to substitute the chemical control and to strengthen the integrated control, other possibilities can be envisaged, for example, the genetic method or the autocidal control, that is, based on mass rearing and the substerile male releases into the natural population. For the purpose, it provokes the sterility to ulterior generations and evaluates the impact of irradiation on the different biological parameters of emerged adults from treated nymphs and their competitiveness. Dhouibi and Omran (1995) and Dhouibi and Tijani (1996) have studied the mass rearing of the carob moth pyralid on an artificial diet and the effect of different irradiation doses, especially a substerilising dose, on E. ceratoniae pupae.

  3. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  4. GRACE-Based Analysis of Total Water Storage Trends and Groundwater Fluctuations in the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and Tindouf Aquifer in Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, K. A.; Milewski, A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal water management practices and strategies, in arid and semi-arid environments, are often hindered by a lack of quantitative and qualitative understanding of hydrological processes. Moreover, progressive overexploitation of groundwater resources to meet agricultural, industrial, and domestic requirements is drawing concern over the sustainability of such exhaustive abstraction levels, especially in environments where groundwater is a major source of water. NASA's GRACE (gravity recovery and climate change experiment) mission, since March 2002, has advanced the understanding of hydrological events, especially groundwater depletion, through integrated measurements and modeling of terrestrial water mass. In this study, GLDAS variables (rainfall rate, evapotranspiration rate, average soil moisture), and TRMM 3B42.V7A precipitation satellite data, were used in combination with 95 GRACE-generated gravitational anomalies maps, to quantify total water storage change (TWSC) and groundwater storage change (GWSC) from January 2003 to December 2010 (excluding June 2003), in the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and Tindouf Aquifer System in northwestern Africa. Separately processed and computed GRACE products by JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA), CSR (Center of Space Research, UT Austin), and GFZ (German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam), were used to determine which GRACE dataset(s) best reflect total water storage and ground water changes in northwest Africa. First-order estimates of annual TWSC for NWSAS (JPL: +5.297 BCM; CSR: -5.33 BCM; GFZ: -9.96 BCM) and Tindouf Aquifer System (JPL: +1.217 BCM; CSR: +0.203 BCM; GFZ: +1.019 BCM), were computed using zonal averaging over a span of eight years. Preliminary findings of annual GWSC for NWSAS (JPL: +2.45 BCM; CSR: -2.278 BCM; GFZ: -6.913 BCM) and Tindouf Aquifer System (JPL: +1.108 BCM; CSR: +0.094 BCM; GFZ: +0.910 BCM), were calculating using a water budget approach, parameterized by GLDAS

  5. Hidden Dragon, Crouching Lion: How China’s Advance in Africa is Underestimated and Africa’s Potential Underappreciated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    cocoa exports.126 During President John Atta Mills’s state visit to China in September 2010, an agreement was signed with Chinese financial institu...China surpassed the United States in 2010, according to the International Energy Agency [IEA]; in 2000, its energy consumption was half that of the...Egypt, wine from South Africa, cocoa beans from Ghana, coffee from Uganda, olive oil from Tunisia, and sesame from Ethiopia and Senegal have become

  6. Performance evaluation of four type-specific commercial assays for detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 antibodies in a Middle East and North Africa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldisi, Rana S; Elsidiq, Malaz S; Dargham, Soha R; Sahara, Afifah S; Al-Absi, Enas S; Nofal, Mariam Y; Mohammed, Layla I; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2018-03-22

    The number of diagnostic assays for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) antibodies has increased over the years. However, their performance characteristics could vary among global populations. To investigate performance of two commercial ELISA kits, HerpeSelect ® 1 ELISA and Euroimmun Anti-HSV-1 (gC1) ELISA (IgG); and two commercial immunoblot (IB)/Western blot (WB) assays, HerpeSelect ® 1 and 2 Immunoblot IgG, and Euroimmun Anti-HSV-1/HSV-2 gG2 Euroline-WB (IgG/IgM); in detecting HSV-1 antibodies in a Middle East and North Africa (MENA) population. Blood specimens were collected from blood donors in Doha, Qatar, June 2013-2016. Twenty specimens were randomly selected from 10 MENA nationalities (Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen; total = 200), and tested for HSV-1 antibodies. Across all six comparisons between assays, positive percent agreement ranged between 95.7% (95% CI: 91.4-98.3%) and 100.0% (95% CI: 97.8-100.0%). Negative percent agreement ranged between 86.2% (95% CI: 68.3-96.1%) and 96.2% (95% CI: 80.4-99.9%). Overall percent agreement ranged between 95.7% (95% CI: 91.7-97.8%) and 99.4% (95% CI: 96.7-99.9%). Cohen's kappa statistic ranged between 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73-0.95) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-1.00). Compared against IB/WB, HerpeSelect ® and Euroimmun had sensitivities and specificities >96% and >86%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were >97% and >83%, respectively. The assays showed excellent concordance with one another, and with a high kappa statistic. The ELISA kits demonstrated robust diagnostic performance compared to the IB/WB assays. These findings support the assays' utility in clinical diagnosis and research in MENA populations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An overview of monitoring and reduction strategies for health and climate change related emissions in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Rana Alaa; Kumar, Prashant; El-Gendy, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    This review assesses the current state of air pollution in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Emission types and sources in the region are identified and quantified to understand the monitoring, legislative and reduction needs through a systematic review of available literature. It is found that both health (e.g., particulate matter, PM; and heavy metals) and climate change (e.g., carbon dioxide and methane) emissions are increasing with the time. Regarding health emissions, over 99% of the MENA population is exposed to PM levels that exceed the standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The dominant source of climate change emissions is the energy sector contributing ∼38% of CO2 emissions, followed by the transport sector at ∼25%. Numerous studies have been carried out on air pollution in the region, however, there is a lack of comprehensive regional studies that would provide a holistic assessment. Most countries have air quality monitoring systems in place, however, the data is not effectively evaluated to devise pollution reduction strategies. Moreover, comprehensive emission inventories for the individual countries in the region are also lacking. The legislative and regulatory systems in MENA region follow the standards set by international environmental entities such as the WHO and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency but their effective reinforcement remains a concern. It is concluded that the opportunities for emission reduction and control could be best implemented in the road transportation sector using innovative technologies. One of the potential ways forward is to channel finance flows from fossil fuel subsidies to upgrade road transport with public transportation systems such as buses and trains, as suggested by a 'high shift' scenario for MENA region. Furthermore, emission control programs and technologies are more effective when sponsored and implemented by the private sector; the success of Saudi Aramco in supporting

  8. Association between dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljefree, Najlaa; Ahmed, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence related to the association of dietary pattern with coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, and the associated risk factors among adults in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. A systematic review of published articles between January 1990 and March 2015 was conducted using Pro-Quest Public Health, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The term 'dietary pattern' refers to data derived from dietary pattern analyses and individual food component analyses. The search identified 15 studies. The available data in the MENA region showed that Western dietary pattern has been predominant among adults with fewer adherences to the traditional diet, such as the Mediterranean diet. The Western dietary pattern was found to be associated with an increased risk of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), body mass index (BMI), and hypertension. The Mediterranean diet, labelled in two studies as 'the traditional Lebanese diet', was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the risk of diabetes, while one study found no association between the Mediterranean diet and MetS. Two randomised controlled trials conducted in Iran demonstrated the effect of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) in reducing metabolic risk among patients with diabetes and MetS. Likewise, the consumption of dairy products was associated with decreased blood pressure and WC, while the intake of whole grains was associated with reduced WC. In addition, the high consumption of black tea was found to be associated with decreased serum lipids. The intake of fish, vegetable oils, and tea had a protective effect on CHD, whereas the intake of full-fat yoghurt and hydrogenated fats was associated with an increased risk of CHD. There appears to be a significant association of Western dietary pattern with the increased risk of CHD, strokes, and associated risk factors among adults in the MENA region. Conversely, increased adherence to Mediterranean

  9. Distribution of body mass index among subjects with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: data from the BREATHE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koniski ML

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Louise Koniski,1 Hocine Salhi,2 Aïcha Lahlou,3 Nauman Rashid,4 Abdelkader El Hasnaoui4 1Respiratory Division, Lebanese American University Medical Center – Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Foxymed, Paris, France; 3MS Health, Rabat, Morocco; 4GlaxoSmithKline, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Background: Data describing the potential relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and body mass index (BMI are limited within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. Objective: To evaluate the distribution of BMI among subjects with COPD in the general population of the MENA region. Methods: This study was a subanalysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of ten countries in the MENA region and Pakistan. The study population consisted of subjects screened for COPD who documented their weight and height. A COPD questionnaire was administered to subjects who screened positively for COPD in order to collect data on patient characteristics, symptom severity, management and burden of disease, comorbidities, and health care resource utilization and data allowing calculation of the BMI. The COPD Assessment Test (CAT was administered to those screened positively for COPD to collect data on the impact of respiratory symptoms. Results: Nine hundred and ninety-six subjects with COPD, who completed the detailed COPD questionnaire and documented their weight and height, were included in this analysis. The mean BMI was 27.7±5.7 kg/m2. The proportion of COPD patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is significantly higher than the proportion with a BMI <25 kg/m2 (64.6% [n=643] vs 35.4% [n=353], respectively; P<0.0001. There were no significant differences between the distribution of BMI, ages, sex, COPD symptoms, exacerbations, CAT scores, COPD-associated health care resource consumption, and GOLD severity groups. However, the occurrence of comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular

  10. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a National Sample of Adolescent Population in the Middle East and North Africa: The CASPIAN III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Khashayar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different combinations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS risk factors among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. Methods. The study sample, obtained as part of the third study of the school-based surveillance system entitled CASPIAN III, was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged from 10 to 18 years. The prevalence of different components of MetS was studied and their discriminative value was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results. The study participants consisted of 5738 students (2875 girls with mean age of 14.7±2.4 years living in 23 provinces in Iran; 17.4% of participants were underweight and 17.7% were overweight or obese. Based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for the adolescent age group, 24.2% of participants had one risk factor, 8.0% had two, 2.1% had three, and 0.3% had all the four components of MetS. Low HDL-C was the most common component (43.2% among the overweight/obese versus 34.9% of the normal-weight participants, whereas high blood pressure was the least common component. The prevalence of MetS was 15.4% in the overweight/obese participants, the corresponding figure was 1.8% for the normal-weight students, and 2.5% in the whole population studied. Overweight/obese subjects had a 9.68 increased odds of (95% CI: 6.65–14.09 the MetS compared to their normal-weight counterparts. For all the three risk factors, AUC ranged between 0.84 and 0.88, 0.83 and 0.87, and 0.86 and 0.89 in waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and BMI for boys and between 0.78 and 0.97, 0.67 and 0.93, and 0.82 and 0.96 for girls, respectively. Conclusion. The findings from this study provide alarming evidence-based data on the considerable prevalence of obesity, MetS, and CVD risk factors in the adolescent age group. These results are confirmatory

  11. Epidemiology and integrated management of persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses of legume and cereal crops in West Asia and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G

    2009-05-01

    Cool-season food legumes (faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea) and cereals (bread and durum wheat and barley) are the most important and widely cultivated crops in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), where they are the main source of carbohydrates and protein for the majority of the population. Persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses pose a significant limitation to legume and cereal production worldwide. Surveys conducted in many countries in WANA during the last three decades established that the most important of these viruses are: Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV: genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae), Bean leafroll virus (BLRV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect legume crops, and Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect cereal crops. Loss in yield caused by these viruses is usually high when infection occurs early in the growing season. Many aphid vector species for the above-mentioned viruses are reported to be prevalent in the WANA region. In addition, in this region many wild species (annual or perennial) were found infected with these viruses and may play an important role in their ecology and spread. Fast spread of these diseases was always associated with high aphid vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved by combining several control measures, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most appropriate control methods. Over the last three decades barley and wheat genotypes resistant to BYDV, faba bean genotypes resistant to BLRV, and

  12. Association between dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa Aljefree

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper reviews the evidence related to the association of dietary pattern with coronary heart disease (CHD, strokes, and the associated risk factors among adults in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. Methods: A systematic review of published articles between January 1990 and March 2015 was conducted using Pro-Quest Public Health, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The term ‘dietary pattern’ refers to data derived from dietary pattern analyses and individual food component analyses. Results: The search identified 15 studies. The available data in the MENA region showed that Western dietary pattern has been predominant among adults with fewer adherences to the traditional diet, such as the Mediterranean diet. The Western dietary pattern was found to be associated with an increased risk of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS, body mass index (BMI, and hypertension. The Mediterranean diet, labelled in two studies as ‘the traditional Lebanese diet’, was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC, and the risk of diabetes, while one study found no association between the Mediterranean diet and MetS. Two randomised controlled trials conducted in Iran demonstrated the effect of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH in reducing metabolic risk among patients with diabetes and MetS. Likewise, the consumption of dairy products was associated with decreased blood pressure and WC, while the intake of whole grains was associated with reduced WC. In addition, the high consumption of black tea was found to be associated with decreased serum lipids. The intake of fish, vegetable oils, and tea had a protective effect on CHD, whereas the intake of full-fat yoghurt and hydrogenated fats was associated with an increased risk of CHD. Conclusion: There appears to be a significant association of Western dietary pattern with the increased risk of CHD, strokes, and associated risk factors among adults in

  13. Capital Mobility: An application of Saving-Investment Link for Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Dahalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the degree of capital mobility in Tunisia for 1970 to 2009 period, using Feldstein and Horioka (1980 method of savings and investment comovement. We apply ARDL bound test to assess comovement between savings and investment; and to compute the savings retention ratio with FMOLS and DOLS as complements. The results reveal low capital mobility, in contrary to Maminingi (1997 who note perfect capital immobility in Tunisia. Hence, efforts should be made by authorities in Tunisia to evolve policies that will mobilize international capital into Tunisia

  14. Middle East and North Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada's international development efforts. Here are a ... With a four-year research grant from IDRC (1998–2002),. Charrouf ... On the global stage, the World Health Organization ... Morocco's e-Mtiaz prize for electronic administration in. 2006 ...

  15. Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Modest expansion of the coastal plain off Morocco and more extensive expansion off Tunisia would have similarly provided potential refugia for human groups during glacial periods. Other refugia in the African interior included the Ethiopian Highlands and the East African lakes; however, most of these regions probably had more diffuse barriers connected by river valley corridors. The earliest yet reported occurrence of symbolic artifacts from both North Africa and the SCP coastal caves of South Africa suggest that human populations in these areas were under shared selection pressures to adapt to increasing population densities associated with the transition from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 to 5, 135 to 130 thousand years ago. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the coastal plains of South Africa and North Africa contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records.

  16. A New Generation of Uprisings – from Tunisia to Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kurnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The uprising in Tunisia, the occupation of public squares in Spain, the Occupy Wall Street movement, the global uprising on 15 October 2011 and the recent widespread demonstrations in Slovenia can be understood as the new generation of uprisings following the eruption of financial crisis. Those multitudinal expressions of indignation and quests for real democracy are expressions of the irreversible crisis of neoliberalism and representative democracy. From an examination of the defining traits of uprisings from Tunisia to Slovenia, one can define basic theoretical and practical dilemmas in the new ways of doing political encounters. These include the relationship between the social and political dimensions of uprisings, the relationship between heterogeneity and forms of political organization, how resistance against financialization prefigures emerging forms of direct democracy, how emerging movements address the issue of direct democracy and minority rights, and what theoretical practices can prevent the attenuation of the discourse of uprisings and enable the free production of enunciations.

  17. Tunisia : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Projet. Les États arabes enregistrent certains des niveaux les plus élevés de conflit armé et de dépenses militaires au monde. Sujet: Gender. Région: Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Tunisia. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 1,114,700.00. Lutter contre la radicalisation des jeunes en Tunisie au moyen de ...

  18. Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities of Cirsium scabrum from Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramla Sahli; Céline Rivière; Cédric Dufloer; Claire Beaufay; Christel Neut; Joanne Bero; Thierry Hennebelle; Vincent Roumy; Riadh Ksouri; Joelle Quetin-Leclercq; Sevser Sahpaz

    2017-01-01

    Several Cirsium species are known for their uses in traditional medicine and consequently are studied for their phytochemical content and their biological activities. In the framework of a previous study conducted on eight extremophile plants from Tunisia, we highlighted that the crude methanolic extract of C. scabrum, a not investigated thistle, showed moderate but quite selective cytotoxic activity against the cancerous cell line J774 compared to the noncancerous cell line WI38 (IC50 = 11.5...

  19. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  20. Wage gap between men and women in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeddi, Hela; Malouche, Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating wage differences between males and females in Tunisia by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, a technical that isolates wage gap due to characteristics, from wage gap due to discrimination against women. The data used in the analysis is obtained from the Tunisian Population and Employment Survey 2005. It is estimated that, the gender wage gap is about 19% and the results ascertain that the gender wage gap is mostly attributed to discrimination, especially t...

  1. The United States and Tunisia: A Foreign Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    headquarters to Tunis from Cairo following the signing of the Egypt- Israel peace treaty, and when the Palestine Liberation Organization .- set up its... Israel [Ref. 201. Such a message serves only to reinforce the appeal of Populist Islam. It is probable that the Islamic movement will, if well...THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT~ Tunisia has been a consistent supporter of the rights of Palestina * Arabs, but the Bourguibist idea of how Palestinians

  2. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma NAJAR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan, the North-Western region (Kef and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%, Cap Bon (14% and Bizerte (35%, in randomly collected samples from these three locations.Among the different BYDVs identified, BYDV-PAV (64% was the most common followed by BYDV-MAV (16% and CYDV-RPV (3%. The coat protein gene sequences of six isolates collected from different regions shared >98% pairwise similarity. In comparisons with other BYDV sequences from around the world, the Tunisian sequences shared greatest homology with isolates 109 and ASL1 from the United States of America and Germany (≈97%, and <90% with all other isolate sequences available in public databases.

  3. Genetic characterization of Anaplasma marginale strains from Tunisia using single and multiple gene typing reveals novel variants with an extensive genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Ben Asker, Alaa; Belkahia, Hanène; Ghribi, Raoua; Selmi, Rachid; Messadi, Lilia

    2018-05-12

    Anaplasma marginale, which is responsible for bovine anaplasmosis in tropical and subtropical regions, is a tick-borne obligatory intraerythrocytic bacterium of cattle and wild ruminants. In Tunisia, information about the genetic diversity and the phylogeny of A. marginale strains are limited to the msp4 gene analysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate A. marginale isolates infecting 16 cattle located in different bioclimatic areas of northern Tunisia with single gene analysis and multilocus sequence typing methods on the basis of seven partial genes (dnaA, ftsZ, groEL, lipA, secY, recA and sucB). The single gene analysis confirmed the presence of different and novel heterogenic A. marginale strains infecting cattle from the north of Tunisia. The concatenated sequence analysis showed a phylogeographical resolution at the global level and that most of the Tunisian sequence types (STs) formed a separate cluster from a South African isolate and from all New World isolates and strains. By combining the characteristics of each single locus with those of the multi-loci scheme, these results provide a more detailed understanding on the diversity and the evolution of Tunisian A. marginale strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Fondements du discours propagandiste arabe de la Grande-Bretagne au Maghreb pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1939-1943 The Foundations of British Arabic Propaganda Speech in North Africa during World War II (1939-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Cherif

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Second World War’s ramifications and the landing of the Anglo-Americans in North Africa (Torch brought out the antagonism between the powers of the Axis and the Allies. Apart from the military war, a second war including more horrible and complex elements than weapons had been declared by the different rival camps: the propaganda in the Arabic language initiated at the beginning by Germany and Italy and soon developed by Great Britain too (from 1939. It was an efficient and fearsome weapon to control the spirit of the Arab people’s opinion in general, especially that of the Maghrebians, who were often hostile to the British and French colonial policies in their regions. Certainly, radio programmes were preponderant as they were easily accessible but newspapers and leaflets were also used a lot in this psychological war. The subtleties and the impact of this British propaganda will be the subject of research. This article explains the mechanism, the structures, the aims and finally the impact of British propaganda in the Arabic language in North Africa between September 1939 and May 1943.

  5. Evidence for an east-west regional gravity trend in northern Tunisia: Insight into the structural evolution of northern Tunisian Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallouli, Chokri; Mogren, Saad; Mickus, Kevin; Turki, Mohamed Moncef

    2013-11-01

    The Atlas orogeny in northern Algeria and Tunisia led to the destruction of Tethys oceanic lithosphere and cumulated in a collision of microplates rifted off the European margin with the North African continental margin. The location of the boundary between African plate and Kabylian microplate is expressed in northern Algeria by a crustal wedge with double vergence of thrust sheets, whereas in northern Tunisia the geologic environment is more complex and the location of the plate boundary is ambiguous. In this study, we analyzed gravity data to constrain the crustal structure along the northern margin of Tunisia. The analysis includes a separation of regional and residual gravity anomalies and the application of gradient operators to locate density contrast boundaries. The horizontal gradient magnitude and directional gradient highlight a prominent regional E-W gravity gradient in the northern Tunisian Atlas interpreted as a deep fault (active since at least the Early Mesozoic) having a variable kinematic activity depending on the tectonic regime in the region. The main E-W gravity gradient separates two blocks having different gravitational and seismic responses. The southern block has numerous gravity lineaments trending in different directions implying several density variations within the crust, whereas the northern block shows a long-wavelength negative gravity anomaly with a few lineaments. Taking into account the geologic context of the Western Mediterranean region, we consider the E-W prominent feature as the boundary between African plate and Kabylian microplate in northern Tunisia that rifted off Europe. This hypothesis fits most previous geological and geophysical studies and has an important impact on the petroleum and mineral resource prospection as these two blocks were separated by an ocean and they did not belong to the same margin.

  6. Building Oncofertility Core Competency in Developing Countries: Experience From Egypt, Tunisia, Brazil, Peru, and Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Salama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Little is known about oncofertility practice in developing countries that usually suffer from a shortage of health services, especially those related to cancer care. Materials and Methods: To learn more about oncofertility practice in developing countries, we generated a survey to explore the barriers and opportunities associated with oncofertility practice in five developing countries from Africa and Latin America within our Oncofertility Consortium Global Partners Network. Responses from Egypt, Tunisia, Brazil, Peru, and Panama were collected, reviewed, and discussed. Results: Common barriers were identified by each country, including financial barriers (lack of insurance coverage and high out-of-pocket costs for patients, lack of awareness among providers and patients, cultural and religious constraints, and lack of funding to help to support oncofertility programs. Conclusion: Despite barriers to care, many opportunities exist to grow the field of oncofertility in these five developing countries. It is important to continue to engage stakeholders in developing countries and use powerful networks in the United States and other developed countries to aid in the acceptance of oncofertility on a global level.

  7. Transitional Justice as Elite Justice? Compromise Justice and Transition in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher; Pannwitz, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects upon the ways in which transitional justice debates and processes impacted Tunisia's transition. It explores key questions such as what demands for justice emerged in the aftermath of the Tunisian revolution? Did Tunisia's transitional justice process reflect these demands?

  8. Assessment of TRMM Products and Their Influence on Hydrologic Models within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; El Kadiri, R.; Durham, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing datasets have been increasingly employed as an ancillary source of essential hydrologic measurements used for the modeling of hydrologic fluxes. Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological forcing parameter in hydrological investigations and land surface modeling, yet it is largely unknown or misused in water budgets and hydrologic models. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite products are widely being used by the scientific community due to the general spatial and temporal paucity of precipitation data in many parts of world and particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This research utilized a two-fold approach towards understanding the accuracy of satellite-based rainfall and its application in hydrologic models First, we evaluated the uncertainty, accuracy, and precision of various rainfall satellite products (i.e. TRMM 3B42 V6, TRMM 3B42 V7, TRMM 3B42 V7a and TRMM 3B42 RT) in comparison to in situ gauge data from more than 150 rain gauges in Morocco and across the MENA region. Our analyses extend over many parts of the MENA region in order to assess the effect that different climatic regimes and topographic characteristics have on each TRMM product. Secondly, we analyzed and compared the hydrologic fluxes produced from different modeling inputs for several watersheds within the MENA region. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrologic models have been developed for the Oum Er Rbia (Morocco), Asyuti (Egypt), and the Sakarya (Turkey) watersheds. SWAT models produced for each watershed include, one model for each of the four satellite TRMM product (STBM-V6, STBM-V7, STBM-V7a, and STBM-RT) and one model for rain gauge based model (RGBM). Findings indicate the best correlation between field-based and satellite-based rainfall measurements is the TRMM V7a (Pearson coefficient: 0.875) product, followed by TRMM V7 (Pearson coefficient: 0.84), then TRMM V6 (Pearson coefficient: 0

  9. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  10. Food shopping transition: socio-economic characteristics and motivations associated with use of supermarkets in a North African urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Traissac, Pierre; Bricas, Nicolas; Maire, Bernard; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; El Ati, Jalila; Delpeuch, Francis

    2010-09-01

    In the context of the nutrition transition and associated changes in the food retail sector, to examine the socio-economic characteristics and motivations of shoppers using different retail formats (large supermarkets (LSM), medium-sized supermarkets (MSM) or traditional outlets) in Tunisia. Cross-sectional survey (2006). Socio-economic status, type of food retailer and motivations data were collected during house visits. Associations between socio-economic factors and type of retailer were assessed by multinomial regression; correspondence analysis was used to analyse declared motivations. Peri-urban area around Tunis, Tunisia, North Africa. Clustered random sample of 724 households. One-third of the households used LSM, two-thirds used either type of supermarket, but less than 5 % used supermarkets only. Those who shopped for food at supermarkets were of higher socio-economic status; those who used LSM were much wealthier, more often had a steady income or owned a credit card, while MSM users were more urban and had a higher level of education. Most households still frequently used traditional outlets, mostly their neighbourhood grocer. Reasons given for shopping at the different retailers were most markedly leisure for LSM, while for the neighbourhood grocer the reasons were fidelity, proximity and availability of credit (the latter even more for lower-income customers). The results pertain to the transition in food shopping practices in a south Mediterranean country; they should be considered in the context of growing inequalities in health linked to the nutritional transition, as they differentiate use and motivations for the choice of supermarkets v. traditional food retailers according to socio-economic status.

  11. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. Results The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%. G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%. G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  12. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Hanane; Ogilvie, Isla; El Khoury, Antoine C; Duan, Yinghui; Goetghebeur, Mireille M

    2011-01-07

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen), North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) and Turkey. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%). G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%). G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  13. The genetic impact of the Lake Chad Basin population in North Africa as documented by mitochondrial diversity and internal variation of the L3e5 haplogroup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podgorná, E.; Soares, P.; Pereira, L.; Černý, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 6 (2013), s. 513-523 ISSN 0003-4800 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Africa * mtDNA * migration * Holocene Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2013

  14. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  15. Mapping Croplands in Morocco and Tunisia using MAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, K.; Purcell, B.; Tetrault, R. L.; Wasko, C.

    2017-12-01

    Morocco and Tunisia are both net-wheat importing countries, which experience fluctuations in production due to drought. Knowledge of food supply is critical for the local governments' understanding of food security and to re-assure the population regarding food availability. Tunisia was the epicenter for the event known as the "Arab Spring." Although the Arab Spring had several societal components, chronic uncertainty in the governments' reliability raised concerns about food supply and food availability despite the government's policy responses. Due to its importance for geopolitical as well as market opportunity reasons, in March and April of 2017, analysts from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) traveled to Morocco and Tunisia to conduct crop assessment. Fieldwork data collection is necessary for us as crop analysts to use our convergence of evidence approach, which includes ground information, satellite imagery, meteorological information and reports from our offices abroad. During this trip, analysts used the new mobile application from the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) called MAGE to collect fieldwork data for crop classification. Using the several thousand training data collected through the mobile application and by leveraging satellite data within Google Earth Engine, an in-season crop mask was created. The final product was delivered to the team just a few days after returning to USDA Washington and was used in the first wheat production estimate of the season released May 10, 2017. The final product helps analysts determine an experimental in-season area estimation and to focus our other remote sensing tools and products on our areas of interest. The US Department of Agriculture's International Production Assessment Division is responsible for publishing monthly production, area and yield estimates for 17 commodities in over 150 countries.

  16. Detection of hepatitis A in shellfish in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitouni, Moncef

    2008-01-01

    Our study was aimed at developing a method of extraction and concentration of hepatitis A. We used two methods T1 and T2 described previously in the literature. 23 samples shellfish from different area of Tunisia were included in this study. Technique T2 based only on glycine revealed the highest yield. The reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction was performed in this study in order to investigate HAV in our samples. The results of molecular analyses of shellfish showed that 8.6% of the samples were contaminated. (Author)

  17. Decolonizing Bioethics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola Kazeem; Macaulay-Adeyelure, O C

    2016-01-01

    The global spread of bioethics from its North-American and European provenance to non-Western societies is currently raising some concerns. Part of the concern has to do with whether or not the exportation of bioethics in its full Western sense to developing non-Western states is an instance of ethical imperialism or bioethical neocolonialism. This paper attempts an exploration of this debate in the context of bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather than conceding that bioethics has a colonial agenda in Africa, this paper defends the position that the current bioethics trend in sub-Saharan Africa is an unintended imperialistic project. It argues that its colonizing character is not entirely a product of the Western programmed goals of training and institution building; rather, it is a structural consequence of many receptive African minds and institutions. Though bioethics in Africa is turning out as a colonizing project, one serious implication of such trend, if unchecked urgently, is that bioethics' invaluable relevance to Africa is being incapacitated. This paper, therefore, attempts a decolonizing trajectory of bioethics in Africa. Contrary to the pretense of 'African bioethics,' which some African scholars are now defending, this paper through the logic of decolonization makes case for 'bioethics in Africa'. In such logic, the principle of existential needs is prioritized over the principle of identity and authenticity that define African voice in bioethics.

  18. Hydrodynamic framework of Saharan Triassic aquifers in South Tunisia and Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhia, H. Ben; Chiarelli, A.

    The main characteristics of the lower Triassic in the Saharan part of Tunisia are presented. This first study of the aquifer is made possible because of data available from numerous petroleum wells that exist in the region. The results show that the reservoir is of importance for either geothermal energy recovering or human water needs; especially since its salinity lies in the range 2 g/l to 60 g/l. Along the Tunisian-Llibyan frontier, because of its pressure and salinity (<3 g/l), the aquifer can be used for regional needs. The study also shows that the salinity gradient (SE-NW) increases orthogonally to the runoff direction (SW-NE). This phenomenon was unexpected and it is necessary to consider the aquifer in its regional North African framework and to include its Algerian part to understand it; when the salinity and potentiometric maps include both countries, a regional pattern is evident. Furthermore, a correspondence is noted between the salinity variations and the percentage of detritic elements in the reservoir. Salinity increases toward the NW, while the detritic elements decrease in that direction. Zones with salt content lower than 5 g/l seem to be related to good reservoirs and shales, that are rich in sands, and carbonates. The aquifer water supply is primarily linked to gravity flow and secondarily to compaction flow.

  19. Determination of Linke turbidity factor from solar radiation measurement in northern Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Masmoudi, M.; Medhioub, K.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation of solar radiation through a real atmosphere versus that through a clean dry atmosphere gives an indication of the atmospheric turbidity. Study of atmospheric turbidity is important in meteorology, climatology and for monitoring of atmospheric pollution. The Linke turbidity factor refers to the whole spectrum, that is, overall spectrally integrated attenuation, which includes presence of gaseous water vapour and aerosols. In this work, a procedure for calculation of Linke turbidity factor is adopted using pyrheliometric measurements in a coastal tourist location in Tunisia (Sidi Bou Said), during three summer months (June, July and August 1999). Real diurnal and monthly variations of the T L turbidity factor are found in the three studied months, with a maximum in August afternoon and a minimum in July morning. The increase of T L is an indication for increasing atmospheric turbidity level (pollution). The correlation between atmospheric turbidity and the local weather conditions shows that this increase is essentially due to the heavy water vapour content of maritime air masses, carried by the north-eastern winds prevalent during the afternoon. A second pollution source is the dust content of the continental air masses carried by western and southern winds prevalent in the morning. Next to this can be added the influence of traffic at rush hours and during the afternoon of summer holidays. (Author)

  20. The Elephants in the Room: Sex, HIV, and LGBT Populations in MENA. Intersectionality in Lebanon; Comment on “Improving the Quality and Quantity of HIV Data in the Middle East and North Africa: Key Challenges and Ways Forward”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Kaplan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to this insightful editorial, we wish to provide commentary that seeks to highlight recent successes and illuminate the often unspoken hurdles at the intersections of culture, politics, and taboo. We focus on sexual transmission and draw examples from Lebanon, where the pursuit of data in quality and quantity is teaching us lessons about the way forward and where we are experiencing many of the challenges referenced in the editorial such as discrepancies between national statistics and rates derived via research as well as the impact of protracted political conflict and displacement. Two important points were raised in the editorial about HIV in Middle East and North Africa (MENA that we would like to expand further: (1 The epidemic is largely driven by drug-related and sexual behavior among key populations; and (2 Several key populations continue to be criminalized and excluded from surveillance programs.

  1. Knowledge, perceptions and practices of pharmacovigilance amongst community and hospital pharmacists in a selected district of North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Joubert

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The majority of pharmacists are familiar with the concept of PV, but less than half reported any ADR. They are willing to participate in PV processes but are unsure what their exact role playing should be. More than half indicated that they would like to see improvements to the current PV system in South Africa. The majority are prepared to undergo further education to improve their PV knowledge.

  2. Adhuc Tacfarinas: the causes of the Tiberian war in North Africa (AD ca. 15-24) and the impact of the conflict on Roman imperial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    During the reign of Tiberius successive governors of Africa Proconsularis struggled to suppress a serious revolt by a number of semi-nomadic tribes led by Tacfarinas. The conflict can only be explained convincingly as an indigenous act of negative negotiation of the Roman administrative encroachment on tribal territory. An in-depth analysis of the literary, epigraphic and archaeological evidence, as well as modern migration patterns, indicates that the rebellion should be perceived as the out...

  3. New records of Trichoptera in reference Mediterranean-climate rivers of the Iberian Peninsula and north of Africa: taxonomical, faunistical and ecological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bonada, N.; Zamora-Muñoz, C.; El Alami, M.; Múrria, C.; Prat, N.

    2008-01-01

    Trichoptera is a very rich order in the Western Mediterranean, but knowledge of caddisflies in the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa is still not complete. We present records of caddisflies collected in 114 sites of the Mediterranean climate region of the Iberian Peninsula and the western Rif. We also provide notes on ecological aspects and taxonomical remarks on some species. Atotal of 86 species were identified and 8 species extended their distribution range. Considering the four differ...

  4. ‘For the tyrant shall be no more’: Reflections on and lessons from ‘The Arab Spring’ in North Africa, the Middle East and the Civil Rights and anti-apartheid struggles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The revolutionary events sweeping North Africa and the Middle East, called the ‘Arab Spring’, are of great historic significance. They challenge not only political and social realities in those countries; they confront us, the spectators to these momentous events with serious questions about our own political, cultural and theological perceptions, concepts and prejudices. This article probes, from a Black Liberation theology point of view, these events at several levels: (1 what are the connections between the ‘Arab Spring’ and the two other historic movements for social change, the Civil Rights struggle in the United States of America, and the antiapartheid struggle in South Africa; (2 what lessons are to be learnt from these events?; (3 the article revisits the question of M.M. Thomas, in terms of whether God is at work in events of social upheaval and revolutionary change, and if so, ‘how?’; and (4 what is the meaning and consequences of international, and more importantly, inter-religious solidarity with the people of those regions? The article discusses the meaning, complexity and efficacy of nonviolence and choices for violence or nonviolence in such situations of conflict and the questions these raise for theological reflection, prophetic action and Christian integrity.

  5. State and prospects of food irradiation in tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tunisia is a country with a high vocational agricultural orientation. It continues to promote production and gives incentives to construct storage and processing installations in order to meet the food demand of the growing population. This policy is part of a global development program aimed at reaching a food security system. This system is based not only on increasing production but also on the improvement of the storage and processing capacities existing in the country, whether modern or traditional, taking in consideration the food commodities and the region concerned. Food preservation by irradiation is an alternative to improve and reinforce our food security system, since it is considered as a way to protect commodities from spoilages and also to promote shelf life and improve hygienic qualities. The products which are concerned by decreasing losses are mainly potatoes, onions garlic, dates, nuts, etc. Hygiene improvement will concern poultry products for our growing tourist business. And, shelf extension concerns our exports of sea product to the european community. Within this scope the government of tunisia has submitted a proposal to install a pilot unit to carry out preliminary work toward the introduction of an industrial unit. The international atomic energy agency has accepted the proposal and is looking for funds for the implementation. The government has recently pledged 60.000 tunisian dinars to do the required engineering studies of the unit. 4 tabs

  6. State and prospects of food irradiation in tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoub, A [Dept., de la Technologie Alimentaire Ecole Superieure des Industries Alimentaires 58, Ave. Alain Savary, 1003 Tunis, (Tunisia)

    1995-10-01

    Tunisia is a country with a high vocational agricultural orientation. It continues to promote production and gives incentives to construct storage and processing installations in order to meet the food demand of the growing population. This policy is part of a global development program aimed at reaching a food security system. This system is based not only on increasing production but also on the improvement of the storage and processing capacities existing in the country, whether modern or traditional, taking in consideration the food commodities and the region concerned. Food preservation by irradiation is an alternative to improve and reinforce our food security system, since it is considered as a way to protect commodities from spoilages and also to promote shelf life and improve hygienic qualities. The products which are concerned by decreasing losses are mainly potatoes, onions garlic, dates, nuts, etc. Hygiene improvement will concern poultry products for our growing tourist business. And, shelf extension concerns our exports of sea product to the european community. Within this scope the government of tunisia has submitted a proposal to install a pilot unit to carry out preliminary work toward the introduction of an industrial unit. The international atomic energy agency has accepted the proposal and is looking for funds for the implementation. The government has recently pledged 60.000 tunisian dinars to do the required engineering studies of the unit. 4 tabs.

  7. LANDSAT M. S. S. IMAGE MOSAIC OF TUNISIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell-Thomas, J. C.; ,

    1984-01-01

    The Landsat mosaic of Tunisia funded by USAID for the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Soils Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia, was completed by the USGS in September 1983. It is a mixed mosaic associating digital corrections and enhancements to manual mosaicking and corresponding to the Tunisian request for high resolution and the limited available funds. The scenes were processed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, resampling the data geodesically corrected to fit the Universal Transverse Mercator projection using control points from topographic maps at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales available in the U. S. The mosaicking was done in the Eastern Mapping Center under the supervision of the Graphic Arts System Section. The three black and white mosaics were made at the 1:1,000,000 scale and various products generated. They included color film positives at 1:2,000,000 and 1:4,000,000 scales reproducible in the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Tunis and corresponding color prints as well as tricolor prints at various scales from 1:500,000 to 1:2,000,000.

  8. Molecular diagnosis of Rickettsia infection in patients from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; Sellami, Hanene; Elleuch, Emna; Hattab, Zouhour; Ammari, Lamia; Khalfaoui, Moncef; Souissi, Jihed; Harrabi, Hejer; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Letaief, Amel; Bouattour, Ali; Znazen, Abir

    2016-07-01

    Diagnosis of rickettsioses had largely benefited from the development of molecular techniques. Unfortunately, in Tunisia, despite the large number of rickettsial cases registered every year, the Rickettsia species remain unidentified. In this study, we aimed to detect the Rickettsia species in clinical samples using molecular tests. A study was established to analyze skin biopsies, cutaneous swabs, and cerebrospinal fluid samples taken from clinically suspected patients to have rickettsial infection. Two molecular techniques were used to detect Rickettsia DNA: quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and reverse line blot test (RLB). An analysis of the RLB hybridization assay results revealed the presence of Rickettsia DNA in skin biopsies (40.6%) and swabs (46.7%). Rickettsia conorii was the most prevalent identified species among tested samples. Other species of interest include Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia massiliae. Using qPCR positivity rates in skin biopsies was 63.7% against 80% in swabs. R. conorii was the most frequently detected species, followed by R. typhi. The agreement between the two techniques was 68.6% (kappa=0.33). Molecular tests, especially using specific probes qPCR, allow for a rapid, better and confident diagnosis in clinical practice. They improve the survey of Mediterranean spotted fever which is considered to be the most important rickettsial infection in humans in Tunisia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Situation of cancerology in tunisia 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ayed, Farhat

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a worldwide problem. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 12.4 million of new cancer cases and 7.6 million of deaths have been registered worldwide, during 2012-2013. The trend is still rising. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), report that by 2030 there will be between 20 and 25 million cases of cancer, and 13 to 16 million of annual deaths due to cancer. Cancer remains the second cause of deaths in developed countries after cardiovascular diseases. This situation is beginning to be observed in emerging countries. Three main factors are advanced to explain the development of cancer: The population aging, the adoption of western lifestyle (bad eating habits, physical inactivity, obesity ...) and tobacco. In our country, the number of new cases of cancers per year is estimated to be 10300 (5900 for males and 4400 for females). The crude incidence rate for all localities is about 117.9 / 100 000, for male and 87.6 / 100,000, for females. We list the main achievements registered until now: The first program planed for the cancer was performed in the city of Jerba, in August 1995. The second cancer plan was done in 1995-1998, in Carthage. In December 1996, a cancer plan was established for the period between 2006 and 2010. About the cancer registration: three population-based cancer registries were set up (in the North, Sfax and Sousse). Regarding infrastructure, we count in the public sector: The Salah Azaiez Instiute of cancer (SAI), in Tunis, the two cancer centers (in Sousse and Sfax), the four units of oncological medicine (Jendouba, Gafsa, Gabes, Kairouan). Projects concerning radio and chemotherapy units are currently in progress, in Ariana, and two units of oncological medicine, in Beja and Monastir. In the private sector, three clinics are mentioned: 02 clinics are already active, the third is under construction and 04 clinics for radiotherapy (02 in Tunis and 02 in Sfax). There is a clear reduction in the time of

  10. Pharmacogenetic landscape of Metabolic Syndrome components drug response in Tunisia and comparison with worldwide populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jmel, Haifa; Romdhane, Lilia; Ben Halima, Yosra; Hechmi, Meriem; Naouali, Chokri; Dallali, Hamza; Hamdi, Yosr; Shan, Jingxuan; Abid, Abdelmajid; Jamoussi, Henda; Trabelsi, Sameh; Chouchane, Lotfi; Luiselli, Donata; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2018-01-01

    Genetic variation is an important determinant affecting either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Several studies have highlighted the importance of ethnicity in influencing drug response variability that should be considered during drug development. Our objective is to characterize the genetic variability of some pharmacogenes involved in the response to drugs used for the treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in Tunisia and to compare our results to the worldwide populations. A set of 135 Tunisians was genotyped using the Affymetrix Chip 6.0 genotyping array. Variants located in 24 Very Important Pharmacogenes (VIP) involved in MetS drug response were extracted from the genotyping data. Analysis of variant distribution in Tunisian population compared to 20 worldwide populations publicly available was performed using R software packages. Common variants between Tunisians and the 20 investigated populations were extracted from genotyping data. Multidimensional screening showed that Tunisian population is clustered with North African and European populations. The greatest divergence was observed with the African and Asian population. In addition, we performed Inter-ethnic comparison based on the genotype frequencies of five VIP biomarkers. The genotype frequencies of the biomarkers rs3846662, rs1045642, rs7294 and rs12255372 located respectively in HMGCR, ABCB1, VKORC1 and TCF7L2 are similar between Tunisian, Tuscan (TSI) and European (CEU). The genotype frequency of the variant rs776746 located in CYP3A5 gene is similar between Tunisian and African populations and different from CEU and TSI. The present study shows that the genetic make up of the Tunisian population is relatively complex in regard to pharmacogenes and reflects previous historical events. It is important to consider this ethnic difference in drug prescription in order to optimize drug response to avoid serious adverse drug reactions. Taking into account similarities with

  11. Pharmacogenetic landscape of Metabolic Syndrome components drug response in Tunisia and comparison with worldwide populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jmel, Haifa; Romdhane, Lilia; Ben Halima, Yosra; Hechmi, Meriem; Naouali, Chokri; Dallali, Hamza; Hamdi, Yosr; Shan, Jingxuan; Abid, Abdelmajid; Jamoussi, Henda; Trabelsi, Sameh; Chouchane, Lotfi; Luiselli, Donata; Abdelhak, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    Genetic variation is an important determinant affecting either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Several studies have highlighted the importance of ethnicity in influencing drug response variability that should be considered during drug development. Our objective is to characterize the genetic variability of some pharmacogenes involved in the response to drugs used for the treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in Tunisia and to compare our results to the worldwide populations. A set of 135 Tunisians was genotyped using the Affymetrix Chip 6.0 genotyping array. Variants located in 24 Very Important Pharmacogenes (VIP) involved in MetS drug response were extracted from the genotyping data. Analysis of variant distribution in Tunisian population compared to 20 worldwide populations publicly available was performed using R software packages. Common variants between Tunisians and the 20 investigated populations were extracted from genotyping data. Multidimensional screening showed that Tunisian population is clustered with North African and European populations. The greatest divergence was observed with the African and Asian population. In addition, we performed Inter-ethnic comparison based on the genotype frequencies of five VIP biomarkers. The genotype frequencies of the biomarkers rs3846662, rs1045642, rs7294 and rs12255372 located respectively in HMGCR, ABCB1, VKORC1 and TCF7L2 are similar between Tunisian, Tuscan (TSI) and European (CEU). The genotype frequency of the variant rs776746 located in CYP3A5 gene is similar between Tunisian and African populations and different from CEU and TSI. The present study shows that the genetic make up of the Tunisian population is relatively complex in regard to pharmacogenes and reflects previous historical events. It is important to consider this ethnic difference in drug prescription in order to optimize drug response to avoid serious adverse drug reactions. Taking into account similarities with

  12. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater resources in El Hicha region, Gabes, southern Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hamouda, M.F.; Ben Kraiem, H.; Mahjoub, A.; Labidi, B.; Ghoudi, R.; Hamrouni, H.; Nasr, H.; Zouari, K.; Froehlich, K.; Sajjad, M.I.; Garcia-Agudo, E.

    2002-01-01

    The groundwater study area is located in the southern part of Tunisia at some kilometers from the Mediterranean Sea, about 35 km north of the town Gabes. It extends over 300 km 2 and is bounded by the Gulf of Gabes in the East, El Hamma in the West and Skhira in the North. This region is characterized by a semi-arid climate with an average annual rainfall of about 180 mm and a potential evaporation of 2130 mm per year. The groundwater resources of the region are represented by four hydrogeological units: the Continental Intercalaire, the Sfax Aquifer, the Jeffara Aquifer and the shallow aquifer of El Hicha. The dug wells and boreholes used for groundwater abstraction in this region reach depths between a few meters and about 170m. The upper zone of 50m depths is formed by sandy clay and gypsum, and the lower zone of 50 to 70m depths consists of sandy layers. The salinity measured in groundwater samples from this area is rather high; the values range between 5 and 7g/l. Since the water will be used to grow salt-tolerant plants, it is important to know the origin of the groundwater (to assess its availability) and the source(s) of its salinity. To this end, groundwater samples for isotope and chemical analysis were taken from 6 dug wells, 6 boreholes (one of them is an artesian well), a spring and a drainage canal. Each site was sampled in March, June, July, September and December 1999. During these sampling campaigns, in-situ measurements of temperature and electrolytic conductivity were carried out

  13. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  14. The Importance of Developing Cultural Competence in Working with Families of Students with Disabilities from the Middle East, North Africa, and Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Soraya; Murawski, Wendy; Moradian, Zaniar

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the importance of developing cultural competencies when working with families who come from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. Using a mixed methods study, the experiences of 125 families from Middle Eastern, North African, and Southwest Asian (MENASWA) descent who have children in the U.S. Special…

  15. Decolonizing Bioethics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay-Adeyelure, O.C.

    2017-01-01

    The global spread of bioethics from its North-American and European provenance to non-Western societies is currently raising some concerns. Part of the concern has to do with whether or not the exportation of bioethics in its full Western sense to developing non-Western states is an instance of ethical imperialism or bioethical neocolonialism. This paper attempts an exploration of this debate in the context of bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather than conceding that bioethics has a colonial agenda in Africa, this paper defends the position that the current bioethics trend in sub-Saharan Africa is an unintended imperialistic project. It argues that its colonizing character is not entirely a product of the Western programmed goals of training and institution building; rather, it is a structural consequence of many receptive African minds and institutions. Though bioethics in Africa is turning out as a colonizing project, one serious implication of such trend, if unchecked urgently, is that bioethics’ invaluable relevance to Africa is being incapacitated. This paper, therefore, attempts a decolonizing trajectory of bioethics in Africa. Contrary to the pretense of ‘African bioethics,’ which some African scholars are now defending, this paper through the logic of decolonization makes case for ‘bioethics in Africa’. In such logic, the principle of existential needs is prioritized over the principle of identity and authenticity that define African voice in bioethics. PMID:28344985

  16. Creating Programs for Africa's Urban Youth : The Challenge of Marginalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sommers, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Urban youth constitute the vanguard of Africa's twinned demographic transformations. Sub-Saharan Africa's youth population growth rate is the highest of any world region (North Africa's rate is also high). In addition, Africa's urban growth rate is the world's highest. Taken together, the need to provide adequate, effective support for urban youth is critical to fostering Africa's development – and its political, social and economic stability. This article is designed to help address this nee...

  17. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means. ... The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein ... Maintaining cow performance under hot conditions requires the adoption of ...

  18. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  19. The influence of gender on the primary care management of diabetes in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Alberti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender differences in access to high quality care for chronic illnesses have been suggested yet little work in this potentially vital area of health care inequality has been undertaken in Africa. We explored the influence of patient gender on the care of people with diabetes within a multi-method, national study of diabetes management in primary care in Tunisia. Methods:Methodologies used were quantitative (nationwide randomized study of 2160 medical records and qualitative (participant observation, focus groups and interviews of patients and health care professionals Results:Differences in patient characteristics, treatments prescribed, process and outcome data and access to care variables were demonstrated. The most striking disparity found was the high female to male ratio of patients attending for diabetes care (61.1%. A number of possible explanations for this emerged: Men were thought to under-attend for practical, financial and behavioural reasons whereas women were thought to have increased morbidity and potentially over-attend for social and psychological reasons. Conclusion:We have demonstrated a number of disparities in the care of men and women with diabetes in Tunisian primary care. In particular, a dual but related problem emerges from the data: more women than men attend for diabetes care and yet women do not get the same level of risk factor control as men. A number of local explanations for these disparities have emerged, which inform our analysis of the impact of gendered beliefs on diabetes care. Strategies to address these disparities will require a careful consideration of local beliefs and practices.

  20. The Albian oceanic anoxic events record in central and northern Tunisia: Geochemical data and paleotectonic controls

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa , Zina; Affouri , Hassene; Rigane , Adel; Jacob , Jérémy

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The Albian organic-rich successions of the lower part of the Fahdene Formation (Albian to Cenomanian, Tunisia) were studied using sedimentology (analysis of carbonate contents and observation of thin sections), bulk organic geochemistry (Rock-Eval pyrolysis), and molecular biomarker distributions. The selected outcrops cover different structural domains from western central Tunisia (Jebel Hamra) to the Diapir zone or the Tunisian Trough (Koudiat Berkouchia, Jebel Ghazo...

  1. First report of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rhouma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and overripe olive fruits (cv. Meski, Manzanilla and Picholine showing circular spots 1 to 10 mm in diameter, slightly depressed and reddish-brown in color, were collected from local markets and orchards located in the regions of Takelsa, Zarzis and Rgueb in Tunisia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from symptomatic fruits and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. This is the first report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of olives in Tunisia.

  2. A Mainly Circum-Mediterranean Origin for West Eurasian and North African mtDNAs in Puerto Rico with Strong Contributions from the Canary Islands and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zabala, Héctor J; Nieves-Colón, María A; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan C

    2017-04-01

    Maternal lineages of West Eurasian and North African origin account for 11.5% of total mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Rico. Historical sources suggest that this ancestry arrived mostly from European migrations that took place during the four centuries of the Spanish colonization of Puerto Rico. This study analyzed 101 mitochondrial control region sequences and diagnostic coding region variants from a sample set randomly and systematically selected using a census-based sampling frame to be representative of the Puerto Rican population, with the goal of defining West Eurasian-North African maternal clades and estimating their possible geographical origin. Median-joining haplotype networks were constructed using hypervariable regions 1 and 2 sequences from various reference populations in search of shared haplotypes. A posterior probability analysis was performed to estimate the percentage of possible origins across wide geographic regions for the entire sample set and for the most common haplogroups on the island. Principal component analyses were conducted to place the Puerto Rican mtDNA set within the variation present among all reference populations. Our study shows that up to 38% of West Eurasian and North African mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Rico most likely migrated from the Canary Islands. However, most of those haplotypes had previously migrated to the Canary Islands from elsewhere, and there are substantial contributions from various populations across the circum-Mediterranean region and from West African populations related to the modern Wolof and Serer peoples from Senegal and the nomad Fulani who extend up to Cameroon. In conclusion, the West Eurasian mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Ricans is geographically diverse. However, haplotype diversity seems to be low, and frequencies have been shaped by population bottlenecks, migration waves, and random genetic drift. Consequently, approximately 47% of mtDNAs of West Eurasian and North African ancestry

  3. From Farms to Markets: Gram-Negative Bacteria Resistant to Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Fruits and Vegetables in a Region of North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mesbah Zekar, Ferielle; Granier, Sophie A.; Marault, Muriel; Yaici, Lydia; Gassilloud, Benoit; Manceau, Charles; Touati, Abdelaziz; Millemann, Yves

    2017-01-01

    The role of food in human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing food safety issue. The contribution of fruits and vegetables eaten raw to this exposure is still unclear. The evaluation of contamination levels of fruits, vegetables and the agricultural environment by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Gram-negative bacteria was performed by analyzing 491 samples of fruits and vegetables collected from 5 markets and 7 farms in Bejaia area, north-eastern Mediterra...

  4. Study of polonium-210 in tobacco in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahali, Saifeddine

    2014-01-01

    Polonium-210 is a radio-isotopes natural α emitter, it cans be found in tobacco with a significant range. The high activity of 210 Po in tobacco and cigarettes causes the absorption of a high dose of alpha radiation that caused probably lung cancer, the objective of this study is to estimate the activity of 210 Po in tobacco matrix. Thirteen samples of cigarettes consumed in tunisia were experimented to determine the activity of this radionuclide. The PIPS, a silicon semiconductor, is used as on α spectrometry detector for the detection of 210 Po in all of our samples. The final results showed a high radioactivity of 210 Po from 11.77 to 25.31 mBq/g. We conclude that the effective annual average is estimated at 106.53 μSv / year.

  5. Prevalence of canine parvovirus infection in Grand Tunis, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Tagorti

    2018-03-01

    Results: The overall prevalence of CPV-2 was 32.14% (n=54/168. A total number of 54 young dogs, aging 1 to 7 months, of American Staffordshire terrier, German shepherd, Rottweiler and Spaniel breeds were affected. There was no sex predisposition and German shepherd was the over-represented breed (n=33/54; 61.11%. The prevalence of clinical cases below the three months old was 70.37% (n=38/54 with autumn (n=27/54; 50% as the most common season of infection. Furthermore, the study showed that 87.04% (n=47/54 of CPV-2 unvaccinated young dogs were positive. Conclusion: This work was a new descriptive study concerning canine parvovirus infection in the Grand Tunis; further studies are required to better characterize the epidemiology of CPV-2 infection in Tunisia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 93-97

  6. Auditing the quality of immunization data in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kouni Chahed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To carry out a data quality audit for the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring in Kasserine governorate in Tunisia, where immunization coverage rates more than 100%, negative dropout and conflicting coverage rates had been reported. Methods: In a randomly selected sample of 12 primary health care facilities in 2 districts all files used to record immunization data were checked to verify the accuracy of the reported 3rd dose of diphtheriatetanus-pertussis vaccine during a calendar year. Results: The results found frequent overreporting or under-reporting of doses being administrated in all health facilities. The regional verification factor was estimated as 85% and quality index was 55%. Conclusions: Data quality audit provides a effective tool for self-assessment implementation and developing a critical analysis of the quality of routine immunization data at all levels of health service.

  7. Celestial Navigation in the USA, Fiji, and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2015-05-01

    Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.

  8. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa. It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  10. Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie R. Gotze

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Mapungubwe National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park should become a major component of a Transfrontier National Park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to identify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ib land type of the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 48 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ib land type. All relevé data were imported into a TURBOVEG database, after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently, Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. Two plant communities and several subcommunities and variants were identified and described from the phytosociological table.

  11. South Africa prepares for democracy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    -apartheid movement both inside the country and in exile ... Malaria - Africa's silent tsunami ... The search for an HIV vaccine is shifting from labs in North America and Europe, to include a greater number of African institutions.

  12. Christianity in Africa: a historical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson A Fatokun

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa, this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christianity elsewhere. Moreover, Christianity in Africa can be found almost everywhere on the continent and indigenous varieties of the tradition developed which allowed it to become as part of Africa as African traditional religions.

  13. An assessment of the HIV/TB knowledge and skills of home-based carers working in the North West province in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Justin G; Letsoalo, Mabjala R; Chirowodza, Admire C

    2017-04-19

    Home-based carers (HBCs) play a critical role in ensuring the success of the primary health care re-engineering strategy in South Africa. Their role includes ensuring improved access to and delivery of primary health care at the household level, and better co-ordination and improved linkages between community and health facilities for HIV/TB services. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, skills, challenges and training needs of HBCs involved in HIV/TB care in one sub-district in the North-West province of South Africa. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which 157 HBCs were interviewed to assess their knowledge and skills regarding HIV and TB. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS statistical software and thematic analysis respectively. One hundred and forty-four (92%) of the interviewees were female and 13 (8%) were male. The median age of the participants was 35 years (interquartile range (IQR): 22-27). The median score for knowledge of both HIV and TB questions was 66% (IQR: 57-75). In general, HIV knowledge scores were higher than TB knowledge scores (73% versus 66%). A significant association was found between knowledge scores and formal training (p worked. HBCs also reported facing various challenges in their jobs related to stigma and the social contexts in which they work. The study showed that the overall knowledge of HBCs was limited, given the skills required and the services they provide. Given the increasing role of HBCs in various health initiatives, targeted interventions are required to support and improve their competencies and service provision.

  14. Diagnostic evaluation of the Community Earth System Model in simulating mineral dust emission with insight into large-scale dust storm mobilization in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Sagar Prasad; Yang, Zong-Liang; Lawrence, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Large amounts of mineral dust are injected into the atmosphere during dust storms, which are common in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where most of the global dust hotspots are located. In this work, we present simulations of dust emission using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2.2 (CESM 1.2.2) and evaluate how well it captures the spatio-temporal characteristics of dust emission in the MENA region with a focus on large-scale dust storm mobilization. We explicitly focus our analysis on the model's two major input parameters that affect the vertical mass flux of dust-surface winds and the soil erodibility factor. We analyze dust emissions in simulations with both prognostic CESM winds and with CESM winds that are nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis values. Simulations with three existing erodibility maps and a new observation-based erodibility map are also conducted. We compare the simulated results with MODIS satellite data, MACC reanalysis data, AERONET station data, and CALIPSO 3-d aerosol profile data. The dust emission simulated by CESM, when driven by nudged reanalysis winds, compares reasonably well with observations on daily to monthly time scales despite CESM being a global General Circulation Model. However, considerable bias exists around known high dust source locations in northwest/northeast Africa and over the Arabian Peninsula where recurring large-scale dust storms are common. The new observation-based erodibility map, which can represent anthropogenic dust sources that are not directly represented by existing erodibility maps, shows improved performance in terms of the simulated dust optical depth (DOD) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) compared to existing erodibility maps although the performance of different erodibility maps varies by region.

  15. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Africa in a Global Political Economy of Symbolic Goods d. Graham Harrison, University of Sheffield - Images and Representations of Africa: Old, New and Beyond e. Claire Mercer, London School of Economics and Political Science - The Privatisation of Aid? f. Dan Brockington, University of Manchester...

  16. Subsurface Permian reef complexes of southern Tunisia: Shelf carbonate setting and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Adel; Haddad, Sofiene; Mannaî-Tayech, Beya

    2017-05-01

    2-D seismic reflection sections, borehole data as well as published and unpublished data have been investigated to reconstruct the paleogeography of southern Tunisia during Middle to Late Permian times. Paleogeographical reconstruction based on the integration of petroleum well data and 2-D seismic facies interpretation shows three main depositional areas with very contrasting sedimentary pile. These are 1) a subsiding basin; 2) an outer shelf carbonate, and 3) an inner shelf carbonate. Based on typical electric responses of reef buildups to seismic wave, we shall urge that during Middle Permian times, the outer carbonate shelf was subject of reef barrier development. Lithology evidences from core samples show that reef framework correspond mainly to fossiliferous limestone and dolomite. The WNW-ESE recognized reef barrier led between latitudes 33° 10‧ 00″N and 33° 20‧ 00″N. The Tebaga of Medenine outcrop constitutes the northern-edge of this barrier. Westward it may be extended to Bir Soltane area whereas its extension eastward is still to be determined. Biogenic buildups took place preferentially over faulted Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic paleohighs resulting likely from the Hercynian orogeny. The subsiding basin is located north of Tebaga of Medenine outcrop where Upper Permian sedimentary sequence is made entirely of 4000 m deep marine green silty shale facies. These are ascribed to unorganized and chaotic reflectors. Inner carbonate shelf facies succession corresponds to a typical interbedding of shallow marine carbonate deposits, shale, dolomite, and anhydrite inducing parallel-layered of strong amplitude and good continuity reflectors. Also within the inner carbonate shelf patch reef or reef pinnacles have been identified based on their seismic signature particularly their low vertical development as compared to reef complexes. Southward, towards Sidi Toui area, the Upper Permian depositional sequence thins out and bears witness of land

  17. Integrated geophysical study of the Triassic salt bodies' geometry and evolution in central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiez, Hajer; Amri, Dorra Tanfous; Gabtni, Hakim; Bedir, Mourad; Soussi, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive study, integrating gravity, magnetic and seismic reflection data, has been used to resolve the complex Triassic salt body geometry and evolution in central Tunisia. Regional seismic lines across the study area show a detachment level in the Upper Triassic evaporites, associated with chaotic seismic facies below the Souinia, Majoura, and Mezzouna structures. The Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous seismic horizons display pinching-outs and onlapping around these structures. A stack-velocity section confirms the existence of a high-velocity body beneath the Souinia Mountain. Regional gravity and magnetic profiles in this area were elaborated from ETAP (the Tunisian Firm of Petroleum Activities) measure stations. These profiles were plotted following the same layout from the west (Souinia) to the east (Mezzouna), across the Majoura and Kharrouba mountains. They highlight associated gravity and magnetic negative anomalies. These gravity and magnetic data coupled to the reflection seismic data demonstrate that, in the Souinia, Majoura, and El Hafey zones, the Triassic salt reaches a salt pillow and a salt-dome stage, without piercing the cover. These stages are expressed by moderately low gravity anomalies. On the other hand, in the Mezzouna area (part of the North-South Axis), the Triassic salt had pierced its cover during the Upper Cretaceous and the Tertiary, reaching a more advanced stage as a salt diapir and salt wall. These stages express important low gravity and magnetic anomalies. These results confirm the model of Tanfous et al. (2005) of halokinetic movements by fault intrusions inducing, from the west to the east, structures at different stages of salt pillow, salt dome, and salt diapir.

  18. Estimate of biomass and carbon pools in disturbed and undisturbed oak forests in Tunisia