WorldWideScience

Sample records for tungsten alloy powder

  1. Self-passivating bulk tungsten-based alloys manufactured by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Lindig, S.; Koch, F.; Iturriza, I.; García-Rosales, C.

    2011-12-01

    Self-passivating tungsten-based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, which is at present the main candidate material for the first wall armour of future fusion reactors. WC10Si10 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) in a Planetary mill and subsequent hot isostatic pressing (HIP), achieving densities above 95%. Different MA conditions were studied. After MA under optimized conditions, a core with heterogeneous microstructure was found in larger powder particles, resulting in the presence of some large W grains after HIP. Nevertheless, the obtained microstructure is significantly refined compared to previous work. First MA trials were also performed on the Si-free system WCr12Ti2.5. In this case a very homogeneous structure inside the powder particles was obtained, and a majority ternary metastable bcc phase was found, indicating that almost complete alloying occurred. Therefore, a very fine and homogeneous microstructure can be expected after HIP in future work.

  2. Powder metallurgical processing of self-passivating tungsten alloys for fusion first wall application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Iturriza, I. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Walter, M.; Gaganidze, E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lindig, S.; Koch, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C., E-mail: cgrosales@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, presently the main candidate material for first wall armour of future fusion reactors. In case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress, a protective oxide scale will be formed on the surface of W avoiding the formation of volatile and radioactive WO{sub 3}. Bulk WCr12Ti2.5 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and their properties compared to bulk WCr10Si10 alloys from previous work. The MA parameters were adjusted to obtain the best balance between lowest possible amount of contaminants and effective alloying of the elemental powders. After HIP, a density >99% is achieved for the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy and a very fine and homogeneous microstructure with grains in the submicron range is obtained. Unlike the WCr10Si10 material, no intergranular ODS phase inhibiting grain growth was detected. The thermal and mechanical properties of the WCr10Si10 material are dominated by the silicide (W,Cr){sub 5}Si{sub 3}; it shows a sharp ductile-to brittle transition in the range 1273–1323 K. The thermal conductivity of the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy is close to 50 W/mK in the temperature range of operation; it exhibits significantly higher strength and lower DBTT – around 1170 K – than the WCr10Si10 material.

  3. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of tungsten slugs.

  4. Processing and alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.

    1993-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys are two-phase metal matrix composites with a unique combination of density, strength, and ductility. They are processed by liquid-phase sintering of mixed elemental powders. The final microstructure consists of a contiguous network of nearly pure tungsten grains embedded in a matrix of a ductile W-Ni-Fe alloy. Due to the unique property combination of the material, they are used extensively as kinetic energy penetrators, radiation shields. counterbalances, and a number of other applications in the defense industry. The properties of these alloys are extremely sensitive to the processing conditions. Porosity levels as low as 1% can drastically degrade the properties of these alloys. During processing, care must be taken to reduce or prevent incomplete densification, hydrogen embrittlement, impurity segregation to the grain boundaries, solidification shrinkage induced porosity, and in situ formation of pores due to the sintering atmosphere. This paper will discuss some of the key processing issues for obtaining tungsten heavy alloys with good properties. High strength tungsten heavy alloys are usually fabricated by swaging and aging the conventional as-sintered material. The influence of this on the shear localization tendency of a W-Ni-Co alloy will also be demonstrated. Recent developments have shown that the addition of certain refractory metals partially replacing tungsten can significantly improve the strength of the conventional heavy alloys. This development becomes significant due to the recent interest in near net shaping techniques such as powder injection moldings. The role of suitable alloying additions to the classic W-Ni-Fe based heavy alloys and their processing techniques will also be discussed in this paper

  5. High-energy, high-rate consolidation of tungsten and tungsten-based composite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunathan, S.K.; Persad, C.; Bourell, D.L.; Marcus, H.L. (Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1991-01-20

    Tungsten and tungsten-based heavy alloys are well known for their superior mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. However, unalloyed tungsten is difficult to consolidate owing to its very high melting temperature (3683 K). The additions of small amounts of low-melting elements such as iron, nickel, cobalt and copper, facilitate the powder processing of dense heavy alloys at moderate temperatures. Energetic high-current pulses have been used recently for powder consolidation. In this paper, the use of a homopolar generator as a power source to consolidate selected tungsten and tungsten-based alloys is examined. Various materials were consolidated including unalloyed tungsten, W-Nb, W-Ni, and tungsten heavy alloy with boron carbide. The effect of process parameters such as pressure and specific energy input on the consolidation of different alloy systems is described in terms of microstructure and property relationships. (orig.).

  6. Evaluation of mechanically alloyed Cu-based powders as filler alloy for brazing tungsten to a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Prado, J.; Sánchez, M.; Ureña, A.

    2017-07-01

    80Cu-20Ti powders were evaluated for their use as filler alloy for high temperature brazing of tungsten to a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (Eurofer), and its application for the first wall of the DEMO fusion reactor. The use of alloyed powders has not been widely considered for brazing purposes and could improve the operational brazeability of the studied system due to its narrower melting range, determined by DTA analysis, which enhances the spreading capabilities of the filler. Ti contained in the filler composition acts as an activator element, reacting and forming several interfacial layers at the Eurofer-braze, which enhances the wettability properties and chemical interaction at the brazing interface. Brazing thermal cycle also activated the diffusion phenomena, which mainly affected to the Eurofer alloying elements causing in it a softening band of approximately 400 μm of thickness. However, this softening effect did not degrade the shear strength of the brazed joints (94 ± 23 MPa), because failure during testing was always located at the tungsten-braze interface.

  7. Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1994-10-01

    Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer (μM) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 μm W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 μm W powder blends; 10μm W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W

  8. Two component tungsten powder injection molding – An effective mass production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Steffen; Commin, Lorelei; Mueller, Marcus; Piotter, Volker; Weingaertner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten and tungsten-alloys are presently considered to be the most promising materials for plasma facing components for future fusion power plants. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) divertor design concept for the future DEMO power plant is based on modular He-cooled finger units and the development of suitable mass production methods for such parts was needed. A time and cost effective near-net-shape forming process with the advantage of shape complexity, material utilization and high final density is Powder Injection Molding (PIM). This process allows also the joining of two different materials e.g. tungsten with a doped tungsten alloy, without brazing. The complete technological process of 2-Component powder injection molding for tungsten materials and its application on producing real DEMO divertor parts, characterization results of the finished parts e.g. microstructure, hardness, density and joining zone quality are discussed in this contribution

  9. The shielding against radiation produced by powder metallurgy with tungsten copper alloy applied on transport equipment for radio-pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cione, Francisco C.; Sene, Frank F.; Souza, Armando C. de; Betini, Evandro G.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Rizzuto, Marcia A.

    2015-01-01

    Safety is mandatory on medicine radiopharmaceutical transportation and dependent on radiation shielding material. The focus of the present work is to minimize the use of harmful materials as lead and depleted uranium usually used in packages transportation. The tungsten-copper composite obtained by powder metallurgy (PM) is non-toxic. In powder metallurgy the density and the porosity of the compacted parts depends basically upon particle size distribution of each component, mixture, compacting pressure and sintering temperature cycle. The tungsten-copper composite, when used for shielding charged particles, X-rays, gamma photons or other photons of lower energy require proper interpretation of the radiation transport phenomena. The radioactive energy reduction varies according to the porosity and density of the materials used as shielding. The main factor for radiation attenuation is the cross section value for tungsten. The motivation research factor is an optimization of the tungsten and cooper composition in order to achieve the best linear absorption coefficient given by equation I (x) = I 0 e (-ux) . Experiments were conducted to quantify the effective radiation shielding properties of tungsten-copper composite produced by PM, varying the cooper amount in the composite. The studied compositions were 15%, 20% and 25% copper in mass. The Compaction pressure was 270 MPa and the sintering atmosphere was in 1.1 atm in N 2 +H 2 . The sintering temperature was 980 deg C for 2 h. The linear absorption coefficient factor was similar either for the green and the sintered compacts, due the amount of porosity did not affect the radiation attenuation. Thus the sintered was meant for size reduction and mechanical properties enhancement. (author)

  10. Physical and Mechanical Properties of W-Ni-Fe-Co Metal Foam Modified by Titanium Tungsten Carbide Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, A. N.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Afanas'eva, S. A.; Belov, N. N.; Biryukov, Yu. A.; Burkin, V. V.; D'yachkovskii, A. S.; Rogaev, K. S.; Skosyrskii, A. B.; Yugov, N. T.

    2018-02-01

    The paper studies physical and mechanical properties of tungsten-nickel-iron-cobalt metal foam alloyed with titanium tungsten carbide. Test specimens are obtained by the liquid phase sintering of powder materials, including those containing tungsten nanopowders. High porosity metal foams are prepared through varying the porosity of powder specimens and the content of filling material. The penetration capability of cylinder projectiles made of new alloys is explored in this paper. It is shown that their penetration depth exceeds that of the prototype with relevant weight and size, made of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy, other factors being equal.

  11. Micro-powder injection moulding of tungsten; Prozessentwicklung fuer das Mikro-Pulverspritzgiessen von Wolfram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeep, B.

    2007-12-15

    For He-cooled Divertors as integral components of future fusion power plants, about 300000 complex shaped tungsten components are to be fabricated. Tungsten is the favoured material because of its excellent properties (high melting point, high hardness, high sputtering resistance, high thermal conductivity). However, the material's properties cause major problems for large scale production of complex shaped components. Due to the resistance of tungsten to mechanical machining, new fabrication technologies have to be developed. Powder injection moulding as a well established shaping technology for a large scale production of complex or even micro structured parts might be a suitable method to produce tungsten components for fusion applications but is not yet commercially available. The present thesis is dealing with the development of a powder injection moulding process for micro structured tungsten components. To develop a suitable feedstock, the powder particle properties, the binder formulation and the solid load were optimised. To meet the requirements for a replication of micro patterned cavities, a special target was to define the smallest powder particle size applicable for micro-powder injection moulding. To investigate the injection moulding performance of the developed feedstocks, experiments were successfully carried out applying diverse cavities with structural details in micro dimension. For debinding of the green bodies, a combination of solvent debinding and thermal debinding has been adopted for injection moulded tungsten components. To develop a suitable debinding strategy, a variation of the solvent debinding time, the heating rate and the binder formulation was performed. For investigating the thermal consolidation behaviour of tungsten components, sinter experiments were carried out applying tungsten powders suitable for micro-powder injection moulding. First mechanical tests of the sintered samples showed promising material properties such

  12. Classification of tungsten powder by fluidization method and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Khan-Guan'.

    1989-01-01

    Search for accessible in practice, the technological method to increase the level of control of the granulometric composition of tungsten powder and to increase quality of products and to prepare new materials is carried out. It is shown that the method of fluidization is effective and accessible in practice for tungsten powder (and other refractory metals and compounds) classification, that increases the level of control of the granulometric composition of the powder and thus - its quality, and that improves control of properties of tungsten and other refractory metal products

  13. Effect of composition on the high rate dynamic behaviour of tungsten heavy alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Kesemen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten heavy alloys are currently used as kinetic energy penetrators in military applications due to their high density and superior mechanical properties. In the literature, quasi-static properties of different tungsten heavy alloys based on W-Ni-Cu and W-Ni-Fe ternary systems are well documented and presented. However, comparison of the dynamic behaviour of these alloys in terms of the correlation between quasi-static mechanical characterization and dynamical properties is lacking. In the present study, dynamic properties of tungsten heavy alloys having different binder phase compositions (90W-7Ni-3Cu and 90W-8Ni-2Fe at different projectile velocities were investigated. The examined and tested alloys were produced through the conventional powder metallurgy route of mixing, cold compaction and sintering. Mechanical characterization of these alloys was performed. In the ballistic tests, cylindrical tungsten heavy alloys with L/D ratio of 3 were impacted to hardened steel target at different projectile velocities. After the ballistic tests, deformation characteristics of test specimens during dynamic loading were evaluated by comparing the change of length and diameter of the specimens versus kinetic energy densities. The study concluded that 90W-8Ni-2Fe alloy has better perforation characteristics than 90W-7Ni-3Cu alloy.

  14. Advanced smart tungsten alloys for a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Tan, X.; Schmitz, J.; Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.

    2017-06-01

    The severe particle, radiation and neutron environment in a future fusion power plant requires the development of advanced plasma-facing materials. At the same time, the highest level of safety needs to be ensured. The so-called loss-of-coolant accident combined with air ingress in the vacuum vessel represents a severe safety challenge. In the absence of a coolant the temperature of the tungsten first wall may reach 1200 °C. At such a temperature, the neutron-activated radioactive tungsten forms volatile oxide which can be mobilized into atmosphere. Smart tungsten alloys are being developed to address this safety issue. Smart alloys should combine an acceptable plasma performance with the suppressed oxidation during an accident. New thin film tungsten-chromium-yttrium smart alloys feature an impressive 105 fold suppression of oxidation compared to that of pure tungsten at temperatures of up to 1000 °C. Oxidation behavior at temperatures up to 1200 °C, and reactivity of alloys in humid atmosphere along with a manufacturing of reactor-relevant bulk samples, impose an additional challenge in smart alloy development. First exposures of smart alloys in steady-state deuterium plasma were made. Smart tungsten-chroimium-titanium alloys demonstrated a sputtering resistance which is similar to that of pure tungsten. Expected preferential sputtering of alloying elements by plasma ions was confirmed experimentally. The subsequent isothermal oxidation of exposed samples did not reveal any influence of plasma exposure on the passivation of alloys.

  15. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Moore, B.T.

    1988-12-01

    The behaviour of four high-density sintered tungsten alloys has been evluated and compared with that of pure tungsten. Rates of corrosion during the cyclic humidity and the salt mist tests were ascertained from weight loss measurements. Insight into the corrosion mechanism was gained from the nature of the corrosion products and an examination of the corroded surfaces. In the tests, the alloy 95% W, 2.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe was the most corrosion resistant. The data showed that copper as an alloying element accelerates corrosion of tungsten alloys. Both attack on the tungsten particles and the binder phase were observed together with tungsten grain loss. 6 refs., 3 tabs.,

  16. Oxidation behaviour of silicon-free tungsten alloys for use as the first wall material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, F.; Brinkmann, J.; Lindig, S.; Mishra, T. P.; Linsmeier, Ch

    2011-12-01

    The use of self-passivating tungsten alloys as armour material of the first wall of a fusion power reactor may be advantageous concerning safety issues. In earlier studies good performance of the system W-Cr-Si was demonstrated. Thin films of such alloys showed a strongly reduced oxidation rate compared to pure tungsten. However, the formation of brittle tungsten silicides may be disadvantageous for the powder metallurgical production of bulk W-Cr-Si alloys if a good workability is needed. This paper shows the results of screening tests to identify suitable silicon-free alloys with distinguished self-passivation and a potentially good workability. Of all the tested systems W-Cr-Ti alloys showed the most promising results. The oxidation rate was even lower than the one of W-Cr-Si alloys, the reduction factor was about four orders of magnitude compared to pure tungsten. This performance could be conserved even if the content of alloying elements was reduced.

  17. Oxidation behaviour of silicon-free tungsten alloys for use as the first wall material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F; Brinkmann, J; Lindig, S; Mishra, T P; Linsmeier, Ch

    2011-01-01

    The use of self-passivating tungsten alloys as armour material of the first wall of a fusion power reactor may be advantageous concerning safety issues. In earlier studies good performance of the system W-Cr-Si was demonstrated. Thin films of such alloys showed a strongly reduced oxidation rate compared to pure tungsten. However, the formation of brittle tungsten silicides may be disadvantageous for the powder metallurgical production of bulk W-Cr-Si alloys if a good workability is needed. This paper shows the results of screening tests to identify suitable silicon-free alloys with distinguished self-passivation and a potentially good workability. Of all the tested systems W-Cr-Ti alloys showed the most promising results. The oxidation rate was even lower than the one of W-Cr-Si alloys, the reduction factor was about four orders of magnitude compared to pure tungsten. This performance could be conserved even if the content of alloying elements was reduced.

  18. Defect Control of the WC Hardmetal by Mixing Recycled WC Nano Powder and Tungsten Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Man Gyu; Shin, Mi Kyung; Kim, Deug Joong; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2018-03-01

    Tungsten metal powder was added to recycled WC nano powder to control the macro and micro defects of WC hardmetal. The macro and micro defects caused by the excess carbon in the recycled WC powder were markedly removed after the addition of tungsten metal powder ranging from 2 to 6 wt%. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals also increased due to the removal of defects after adding the tungsten metal powder. The density and hardness of WC hardmetals with the addition of W metal powder ranged from 8 to 12 wt% increased linearly as the W metal powder content increased due to the formation of a new (Co- and W-rich WC) composition. The surface morphology of the WC hardmetals was observed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, and a quantitative elemental analysis was conducted via X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals were respectively measured using an analytical balance and a Vikers hardness tester. The effect on the defects in the recycled WC hardmetals through the addition of the tungsten metal powder was discussed in detail.

  19. Defect Control of the WC Hardmetal by Mixing Recycled WC Nano Powder and Tungsten Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Man Gyu; Shin, Mi Kyung; Kim, Deug Joong; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten metal powder was added to recycled WC nano powder to control the macro and micro defects of WC hardmetal. The macro and micro defects caused by the excess carbon in the recycled WC powder were markedly removed after the addition of tungsten metal powder ranging from 2 to 6 wt%. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals also increased due to the removal of defects after adding the tungsten metal powder. The density and hardness of WC hardmetals with the addition of W metal powder ranged from 8 to 12 wt% increased linearly as the W metal powder content increased due to the formation of a new (Co- and W-rich WC) composition. The surface morphology of the WC hardmetals was observed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, and a quantitative elemental analysis was conducted via X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals were respectively measured using an analytical balance and a Vikers hardness tester. The effect on the defects in the recycled WC hardmetals through the addition of the tungsten metal powder was discussed in detail.

  20. Studies on Mechanical Alloying of Copper-Tungsten Carbide Composite for Spot Welding Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhailawati, H.; Jamaludin, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    This article presents a study on the properties and performance of copper-based composite reinforced with recycled tungsten carbide powder as spot welding electrode. The copper-tungsten carbide composite electrode was prepared by mechanical alloying and powder forging before being machined into truncated cone-face geometry. The welding operation was conducted on galvanized steel using a pedestal-type spot welding machine. Composites with higher density and electrical conductivity were obtained after mechanical alloying for shorter time. In contrast, a higher hardness is shown in the composite, which was mechanically alloyed to longer time. The strength of the welded steel coupon was found to increase with decreasing milling time due to an increase in density and electrical conductivity. The wear behavior of the composite revealed that the deformation of the spot weld electrode increased with increasing milling time.

  1. Deuterium retention in tungsten and tungsten-tantalum alloys exposed to high-flux deuterium plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachuk, Y.; Hoen, M. H. J. 't; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Uytdenhouwen, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2012-01-01

    A direct comparison of deuterium retention in samples of tungsten and two grades of tungsten-tantalum alloys-W-1% Ta and W-5% Ta, exposed to deuterium plasmas (ion flux similar to 10(24) m(-2) s(-1), ion energy at the biased target similar to 50 eV) at the plasma generator Pilot-PSI was performed

  2. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; McDonald, I.G.; Moore, B.T.; Silva, V.M.

    1988-10-01

    The corrosion behaviour of four tungsten alloys has been evaluated through weight loss measurements after total immersion in both distilled water insight into the mechanism of corrosion was afforded by an examination of the and 5% sodium chloride solutions. Some insight the mechanism of corrosion was afforded by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy and through an analysis of the corrosion products. Pure tungsten and all the alloys studied underwent corrosion during the tests, and in each case the rare of corrosion in sodium chloride solution was markedly less than that in distilled water. A 95% W, 3.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe alloy was found to be the most corrosion resistant of the alloys under the experimental conditions. Examination of the data shows that for each of the tests, copper as an alloying element accelerates corrosion of tungsten alloys. 9 refs., 7 tabs., 12 figs

  3. Volatility from copper and tungsten alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolik, G.R.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Piet, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accident scenarios for fusion power plants present the potential for release and transport of activated constituents volatilized from first wall and structural materials. The extent of possible mobilization and transport of these activated species, many of which are ''oxidation driven'', is being addressed by the Fusion Safety Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report presents experimental measurements of volatilization from a copper alloy in air and steam and from a tungsten alloy in air. The major elements released included zinc from the copper alloy and rhenium and tungsten from the tungsten alloy. Volatilization rates of several constituents of these alloys over temperatures ranging from 400 to 1200 degree C are presented. These values represent release rates recommended for use in accident assessment calculations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Mechanical properties of molybdenum alloyed liquid phase-sintered tungsten-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P.B.; German, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tungsten-based composites are fabricated from mixed elemental powders using liquid phase sintering, usually with a nickel-iron matrix. During sintering, the tungsten undergoes grain growth, leading to microstructure coarsening that lowers strength but increases ductility. Often the desire is to increase strength at the sacrifice of ductility, and historically, this has been performed by postsintering deformation. There has been considerable research on alloying to adjust the as-sintered mechanical properties to match those of swaged alloys. Prior reports cover many additions, seemingly including much of the periodic table. Unfortunately, many of the modified alloys proved disappointing, largely due to degraded strength at the tungsten-matrix interface. Of these modified alloys, the molybdenum-containing systems exhibit a promising combination of properties, cost, and processing ease. For example, the 82W-8Mo-7Ni-3Fe alloy gives a yield strength that is 34% higher than the equivalent 90W-7Ni-3Fe alloy (from 535 to 715 MPa) but with a 33% decrease in fracture elongation (from 30 to 20% elongation). This article reports on experiments geared to promoting improved properties in the W-Mo-Ni-Fe alloys. However, unlike the prior research which maintained a constant Ni + Fe content and varied the W:Mo ratio, this study considers the Mo:(Ni + Fe) ratio effect for 82, 90, and 93 wt pct W

  5. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  6. Development and characterization of powder metallurgically produced discontinuous tungsten fiber reinforced tungsten composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Riesch, J.; Sistla, S.; Almanstötter, J.; Jasper, B.; Terra, A.; Höschen, T.; Gietl, H.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.; Linsmeier, Ch; Broeckmann, C.

    2017-12-01

    In future fusion reactors, tungsten is the prime candidate material for the plasma facing components. Nevertheless, tungsten is prone to develop cracks due to its intrinsic brittleness—a major concern under the extreme conditions of fusion environment. To overcome this drawback, tungsten fiber reinforced tungsten (Wf/W) composites are being developed. These composite materials rely on an extrinsic toughing principle, similar to those in ceramic matrix composite, using internal energy dissipation mechanisms, such as crack bridging and fiber pull-out, during crack propagation. This can help Wf/W to facilitate a pseudo-ductile behavior and allows an elevated damage resilience compared to pure W. For pseudo-ductility mechanisms to occur, the interface between the fiber and matrix is crucial. Recent developments in the area of powder-metallurgical Wf/W are presented. Two consolidation methods are compared. Field assisted sintering technology and hot isostatic pressing are chosen to manufacture the Wf/W composites. Initial mechanical tests and microstructural analyses are performed on the Wf/W composites with a 30% fiber volume fraction. The samples produced by both processes can give pseudo-ductile behavior at room temperature.

  7. Effect of heat treatment on Fe-B-Si-Nb alloy powder prepared by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Estevam Coelho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on crystallization behavior of Fe73.5B15Si10Nb1.5 alloy powder prepared by mechanical alloying was studied. The powder samples were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA and for different milling times (1, 5, 25, 70 and 100 hours. Crystalline powders of iron, boron, silicon and niobium were sealed with tungsten carbide balls in a cylindrical vial under nitrogen atmosphere. The ball-to-powder weight ratio was 20 to 1. A Fritsch Pulverizette 5 planetary ball mill was used for MA the powders at room temperature and at 250 rpm. To study the microstructural evolution, a small amount of powder was collected after different milling times and examined by X-ray diffraction, using CuKalpha radiation (lambda = 0.15418 nm. The crystallization behavior was studied by differential thermal analysis, from 25 up to 1000 °C at a heating rate of 25 °C min-1.

  8. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, L.D.

    1982-03-25

    The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  9. Microstructural development of tungsten and tungsten-rhenium alloys due to neutron irradiation in HFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makoto; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Nogami, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Akira; Tanaka, Teruya

    2014-12-01

    The microstructural development of pure tungsten (W) and tungsten-rhenium (Re) alloys due to neutron irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA, was investigated in this work. The irradiation conditions were ∼1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 500 and 800 °C. After the neutron irradiation, microstructural observations were performed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Large amounts of precipitates identified as sigma- and chi-phases were observed in not only the W-Re alloys but also in the pure W after the neutron irradiation. The precipitates observed in the pure W were coarse and larger than those in the W-Re alloys. This was considered to be caused by the transmutation products of W and Re, namely, Re and osmium (Os), respectively, under irradiation in the HFIR with a higher contents of thermal neutron flux.

  10. High temperature high strength molybdenum and molybdenum-tungsten Ti-Zr-Hf-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, R.; Tinzl, J.

    1989-01-01

    TZM containing 0,5 % titanium, 0,08 % zirconium and 0,01-0,04 % carbon still is the most important molybdenum alloy. During the last years Zr-Hf-C and Hf-C containing alloys have been successfully developed and are in use at prominent consumers. Composition of Zr-Hf-C containing alloys could be optimized considering fabricability, low temperature ductility and required high temperature strength. Thermomechanical processes determine properties of semifinished and final products and are discussed in detail for the powder metallurgical way of production. Mechanical properties for short time and long term application of ZHM alloys are presented and discussed in comparison to the base metal and existing molybdenum based alloys. Demand for higher strength at usual temperature and higher working temperature not achievable with molybdenum base alloys led to the development of Zr-Hf-C and Hf-C dispersion strengthened molybdenum-tungsten alloys. Mechanical data of alloys are presented and advantages and disadvantages discussed in comparison to molybdenum based alloys. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  11. Simple process to fabricate nitride alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang-Soo; Kim, Jong Hun; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mono-nitride (UN) is considered as a fuel material [1] for accident-tolerant fuel to compensate for the loss of fissile fuel material caused by adopting a thickened cladding such as SiC composites. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. Among them, a direct nitriding process of metal is more attractive because it has advantages in the mass production of high-purity powders and the reusing of expensive 15 N 2 gas. However, since metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots, it has a drawback in the fabrication of fine powders. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has a centrifugal atomisation technique to fabricate uranium and uranium alloy powders. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate nitride fuel powders directly from uranium metal alloy powders. Spherical powder and flake of uranium metal alloys were fabricated using a centrifugal atomisation method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating the metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. The phase and morphology evolutions of powders were investigated during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also part of the present work. KAERI has developed the centrifugal rotating disk atomisation process to fabricate spherical uranium metal alloy powders which are used as advanced fuel materials for research reactors. The rotating disk atomisation system involves the tasks of melting, atomising, and collecting. A nozzle in the bottom of melting crucible introduces melt at the center of a spinning disk. The centrifugal force carries the melt to the edge of the disk and throws the melt off the edge. Size and shape of droplets can be controlled by changing the nozzle size, the disk diameter and disk speed independently or simultaneously. By adjusting the processing parameters of the centrifugal atomiser, a spherical and flake shape

  12. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.; Hodges, Nikolas J., E-mail: n.hodges@bham.ac.uk

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  13. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Bombaci, S.A.; Garrard, W.N.C.; Moore, B.T.; Smith, B.S.

    1988-12-01

    The corrosion behaviour of tungsten and high-density tungsten alloys (W ≥ 90 weight %) has been examined electrochemically through anodic polarization measurements, instantaneous corrosion rate measurements, galvanic coupling, and surface potential mapping. In the anodic polarization tests, pure tungsten and the four alloys studied underwent transitions from an active state to a state where any further increase in potential produced no further increase in current. The presence of chloride ions increased corrosion rates. Predictions of likely trends in corrosion rates from the above electrochemical tests were not in complete agreement with those obtained by the long-term immersion tests. Similarly, a consistent prediction of the likely nature of the corrosion products that would result from long-term immersion testing was not obtained from the above studies. Predictions about which alloys would be susceptible to a crevice effect were in agreement with the immersion testing results, namely those alloys not containing Cu would be the most susceptible. Some insight into the nature of the corrosion mechanism is afforded by the work on galvanic coupling and surface potential mapping. This supported the view that galvanic corrosion plays a part in the corrosion process. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 19 figs

  14. Thermal outgassing studies on machinable tungsten and TZM molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Nielsen, R.W.; Li, Y.; Ryding, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Machinable tungsten and molybdenum alloys are extensively used as safety shutters and optical slits at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) front ends. These materials may present a vacuum problem because of their porosity. Also, an environmentally hazard-free cleaning procedure has to be developed for these materials. We have chosen specially heat-treated machinable tungsten with a density of 18 g/cm 3 for safety shutters and TZM (a molybdenum alloy containing 0.5% titanium and ∼0.1% zirconium) for optical slits. Thermal outgassing tests have been performed for a machinable tungsten set with a total surface area of 4500 cm 2 and a 2.8 x 4.6 x 32.6 cm 3 piece of TZM. A cleaning procedure using alkaline detergent ultrasonic washes and vacuum furnace baking was used before outgassing measurements. Outgassing rates 10 hours after initial pump down at room temperature are 1.6 x 10 -10 Torr·l·s -1 ·cm -2 for machinable tungsten and 6.0 x 10 -10 Torr·l·s -1 ·cm -2 for TZM. The outgassing rates 24 hours after an in situ bake at 160 degrees C for two days decreased to 2.2 x 10 -12 Torr·l·s -1 ·cm -2 for machinable tungsten and 2.2 x 10 -11 Torr·l·s -1 · -2 for TZM. Optical studies confirmed that the TZM sample is more porous than the machinable tungsten sample. Further studies of a denser TZM sample show that the outgassing rate decreases as the porosity decreases. The outgassing rate 24 hours after a 48-h bake at 160 degree C reached 7.4 x 10 -12 Torr·l·s -1 ·cm -2 for the denser TZM sample

  15. Neutron irradiation effects on the microstructural development of tungsten and tungsten alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Fukuda, Makoto; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Nogami, Shuhei

    2016-04-01

    Data on the microstructural development of tungsten (W) and tungsten rhenium (Re) alloys were obtained after neutron irradiation at 400-800 °C in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), the experimental fast test reactor Joyo, and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for irradiation damage levels in the range of 0.09-1.54 displacement per atom (dpa). Microstructural observations showed that a small amount of Re (3-5%) in W-Re alloys is effective in suppressing void formation. In W-Re alloys with Re concentrations greater than 10%, acicular precipitates are the primary structural defects. In the HFIR-irradiated specimen, in which a large amount of Re was expected to be produced by the nuclear transmutation of W to Re because of the reactor's high thermal neutron flux, voids were not observed even in pure W. The synergistic effects of displacement damage and solid transmutation elements on microstructural development are discussed, and the microstructural development of tungsten materials utilized in fusion reactors is predicted.

  16. Flow behaviour of a heat treated tungsten heavy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Jiten; Sarkar, R.; Rao, G. Appa; Sankaranarayana, M.; Nandy, T.K.; Pabi, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An Arrhenius type of constitutive equation is proposed for the investigated alloy. ► Peierl's controlled dislocation motion is observed at low temperature. ► Transition from Peierl's to forest controlled mechanism is observed at 673 K. ► At room temperature predominantly tungsten grain, cleavage fracture is observed. ► At elevated temperature predominantly intergranular fracture is observed. - Abstract: Flow behaviour of a tungsten heavy alloy was studied in the strain rate-temperature range of 10 −5 –1/s and 298–973 K, respectively. It was observed in this study that the dislocation motion in tungsten heavy alloy was controlled by a Peierl's mechanism at low temperatures (up to 573 K). This was confirmed by the magnitude of apparent activation volume and apparent activation enthalpy as well as TEM observations. Apparent activation enthalpy in the Peierls regime, determined by several methods, was found to vary in between 22 and 37 kJ/mol. An Arrhenius type of constitutive equation was also proposed in the Peierls controlled regime for predicting flow stress as a function of temperature and strain rate. Transition temperature of rate controlling mechanism—from Peierl's mechanism to forest mechanism—was determined from the strain rate sensitivity and apparent activation volume estimation at several temperatures. The transition temperature was found to be about 673 K.

  17. Analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented compact tungsten carbides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, K. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: codl@sci.muni.cz; Stankova, A. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Haekkaenen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. BOX 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Otruba, V.; Kanicky, V. [Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2007-12-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the direct analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented tungsten carbides. The aim of this work was to examine the possibility of quantitative determination of the niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt. The investigated samples were in the form of pellets, pressed with and without binder (powdered silver) and in the form of cemented tungsten carbides. The pellets were prepared by pressing the powdered material in a hydraulic press. Cemented tungsten carbides were embedded in resin for easier manipulation. Several lasers and detection systems were utilized. The Nd:YAG laser working at a basic wavelength of 1064 nm and fourth-harmonic frequency of 266 nm with a gated photomultiplier or ICCD detector HORIBA JY was used for the determination of niobium which was chosen as a model element. Different types of surrounding gases (air, He, Ar) were investigated for analysis. The ICCD detector DICAM PRO with Mechelle 7500 spectrometer with ArF laser (193 nm) and KrF laser (248 nm) were employed for the determination of niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt in samples under air atmosphere. Good calibration curves were obtained for Nb, Ti, and Ta (coefficients of determination r{sup 2} > 0.96). Acceptable calibration curves were acquired for the determination of cobalt (coefficient of determination r{sup 2} = 0.7994) but only for the cemented samples. In the case of powdered carbide precursors, the calibration for cobalt was found to be problematic.

  18. Mechanical alloying of Hf and Fe powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Zelis, L.; Crespo, E.; Creus, M.; Damonte, L.C.; Sanchez, F.H.; Punte, G.

    1994-01-01

    Pure crystalline Hf and Fe powders were mixed and milled under an argon atmosphere. The evolution of the system with milling time was followed with Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that in the first stages an amorphous Fe-rich alloy was gradually formed together with a solid solution of Hf in Fe beyond the solubility limit. (orig.)

  19. Structure and hardness of a hard metal alloy prepared with a WC powder synthesized at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.A. da [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: francineac@yahoo.com; Medeiros, F.F.P. de [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Silva, A.G.P. da [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, U.U. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Filgueira, M. [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Souza, C.P. de [Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Reatores, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-06-25

    The structure and hardness of a WC-10 wt% Co alloy prepared with an experimental WC powder are compared with those of another alloy of the same composition produced under the same conditions and prepared with a commercial WC powder. The experimental WC powder was synthesized by a gas-solid reaction between APT and methane at low temperature and the commercial WC powder was conventionally produced by a solid-solid reaction between tungsten and carbon black. WC-10 wt% Co alloys with the two powders were prepared under the same conditions of milling and sintering. The structure of the sample prepared with the experimental WC powder is homogeneous and coarse grained. The structure of the sample prepared with the commercial powder is heterogeneous. Furthermore the size and shape of the WC grains are significantly different.

  20. Study on the RF inductively coupled plasma spheroidization of refractory W and W-Ta alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenfan, YU; Xin, ZHOU; Dianzheng, WANG; Neuyen VAN, LINH; Wei, LIU

    2018-01-01

    Spherical powders with good flowability and high stacking density are mandatory for powder bed additive manufacturing. Nevertheless, the preparation of spherical refractory tungsten and tungsten alloy powders is a formidable task. In this paper, spherical refractory metal powders processed by high-energy stir ball milling and RF inductively coupled plasma were investigated. By utilizing the technical route, pure spherical tungsten powders were prepared successfully, the flowability increased from 10.7 s/50 g to 5.5 s/50 g and apparent density increased from 6.916 g cm‑3 to 11.041 g cm‑3. Alloying element tantalum can reduce the tendency to micro-crack during tungsten laser melting and rapid solidification process. Spherical W-6Ta (%wt) powders were prepared in this way, homogeneous dispersion of tantalum in a tungsten matrix occurred but a small amount of flake-like shape particles appeared after high-energy stir ball milling. The flake-like shape particles can hardly be spheroidized in subsequent RF inductively coupled plasma process, might result from the unique suspended state of flaky particles under complex electric and magnetic fields as well as plasma-particle heat exchange was different under various turbulence models. As a result, the flake-like shape particles cannot pass through the high-temperature area of thermal plasma torch and cannot be spheroidized properly.

  1. Evaluation of the feasibility of joining titanium alloy to heavymet tungsten alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Information is presented on a program to select and evaluate methods of brazing and/or explosively welding Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy to Heavymet, a tungsten-base metal containing up to about 20% alloying elements (nickel, copper, etc.) to improve its ductility and other mechanical properties. Designs permitting the reliable production of joints between these base metals were of interest too. While this investigation was primarily concerned with an engineering study of the problems associated with joining these base metals in the required configuration, limited experimental studies were conducted also. The joining methods are reviewed individually. Recommendations for developing a viable titanium-tungsten joining procedure are discussed

  2. Potential irradiation of Cu alloys and tungsten samples in DONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, F.; Palermo, I.; Laces, S.; Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.

    2017-12-01

    Tungsten and Cu alloys are currently proposed as reference candidate material for ITER and DEMO first wall and divertor. Tungsten is proposed for its high fusion temperature and CuCrZr alloys for their high thermal conductivity together with good mechanical properties. However its behaviour under the extreme irradiation conditions as expected in ITER or DEMO fusion reactors is still unknown. Due to the determinant role of H and He played in the material behaviour any irradiation experiment must take into account the amount of these gases produced during the irradiation in Fusion reactors with high-energy neutrons. DONES (DEMO oriented neutron source) has been conceived as a simplified IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) like plant to provide in a reduced time scale and with a reduced budget—both compared to IFMIF—the basic information on materials damage. The objective of DONES-IFMIF in its first stage will be to test structural materials under similar neutron irradiation nuclear fusion conditions as expected in fusion reactors. These tests will be carried out with specimens irradiated in the so called high flux test module (HFTM). The objective of this paper is to assess on the potential use of DONES to irradiate copper (Cu) alloys and tungsten (W) in the HFTM together with reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel like for example EUROFER (9%-Cr-steel). The presence of Cu alloys or W specimens may have an effect in the irradiation parameters of the EUROFER samples placed also in the HFTM and in the samples of the creep fatigue test module (CFTM). McDeLicious code is used for neutron transport calculations. Damage dose rate and H and He production are analysed in the different locations and compared with the irradiation conditions in first wall and divertor in fusion machines.

  3. Powder metallurgy of turbine disc alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingesten, N.G. (Dep. of Engineering Metals)

    1981-03-01

    The first part embraced a study of carbide precipitated in IN 100 and astrology powders. The powder was heat treated at temperatures between 950/sup 0/C and 1150/sup 0/C. After aging at 950-1100/sup 0/C the MC-carbides formed during atomization were replaced by M/sub 23/C/sub 6/-carbides. After 1150/sup 0/C treatments the MC carbides were present again. Precipitation comparable with that obtained in HIP:ed specimens was not observed at free particle surfaces. However, powder particles which had agglomerated during atomization often exhibited considerable precipitation at contiguous surfaces. Obviously, contact between the particles must occur if coarse precipitation at particle surfaces is to develop. Reduced PPB-precipitation was obtained by pre-heat- treatment of powder before compaction. It is suggested that the carbon otherwise available for PPB-precipitation forms carbides in the interior of the powder particles. The aim of the second part was to ..gamma..-strengthen a Co-based super-alloy (Co-15Cr-3Mo-5Ti). Here the Ti-addition gives a coherent and ordered ..gamma..-phase Co/sub 3/Ti. However, upon ageing the alloy is unstable in order to increase the stability modifications of the alloy were prepared by: leaving out the Mo-content, adding 10 % Ni and by decreasing the Ti-content to 4.2 %. In addition, the effect of enhanced grain size and of deformation was investigated. Significant reduction of the transformation rate was only obtained by decresing the Ti-content while deformation of the alloy greatly increased the transformation rate.(author).

  4. Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed Ali, Samar Reda; Hussein, Abdel Hamid Ahmed; Nofal, Adel Abdel Menam Saleh; Hasseb Elnaby, Salah Elden Ibrahim; Elgazzar, Haytham Abdelrafea; Sabour, Hassan Abdel

    2017-10-15

    Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC) and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resistance of the titanium alloy. The goal was to create a uniform distribution of hard WC particles that is crack-free and nonporous to enhance the wear resistance of such alloy. This was achieved by changing the laser cladding parameters to reach the optimum conditions for favorable mechanical properties. The laser cladding samples were subjected to thorough microstructure examinations, microhardness and abrasion tests. Phase identification was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained results revealed that the best clad layers were achieved at a specific heat input value of 59.5 J·mm -2 . An increase by more than three folds in the microhardness values of the clad layers was achieved and the wear resistance was improved by values reaching 400 times.

  5. Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Reda Al-Sayed Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resistance of the titanium alloy. The goal was to create a uniform distribution of hard WC particles that is crack-free and nonporous to enhance the wear resistance of such alloy. This was achieved by changing the laser cladding parameters to reach the optimum conditions for favorable mechanical properties. The laser cladding samples were subjected to thorough microstructure examinations, microhardness and abrasion tests. Phase identification was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The obtained results revealed that the best clad layers were achieved at a specific heat input value of 59.5 J·mm−2. An increase by more than three folds in the microhardness values of the clad layers was achieved and the wear resistance was improved by values reaching 400 times.

  6. Durability of adhesive bonds to uranium alloys, tungsten, tantalum, and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    Long-term durability of epoxy bonds to alloys of uranium (U-Nb and Mulberry), nickel-plated uranium, thorium, tungsten, tantalum, tantalum--10 percent tungsten, and aluminum was evaluated. Significant strengths remain after ten years of aging; however, there is some evidence of bond deterioration with uranium alloys and thorium stored in ambient laboratory air

  7. Thermal conduction and linear expansion of sintered rhenium and tungsten-rhenium alloys at a temperature up to 1000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyak, N.Z.; Belyaev, R.A.; Vavilov, Yu.V.; Vinogradov, Yu.G.; Serykh, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Preparation technology (by powder metallurgy methods) of sintered rhenium and tungsten-rhenium VR-5, VR-10, and VR-20 alloys is described. Thermal conduction of rhenium and VR-20 alloy has been measured in the temperature range from 300 to 1000 K. The value obtained turned out to be considerably less than those published elsewhere, this testifies to the great thermal contact resistance between the material grains. Also measured is the mean linear expansion coefficient for the mentioned above materials in the same temperature range. Linear expansion increases with rhenium content increase

  8. Mechanical alloying and sitering of TI - 10WT.% MG powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A Ti-10wt.%Mg powder alloy has been produced by mechanical alloying. Elemental powders of Ti and Mg were ball milled in a Zoz-Simoloyer CM01 for 16 and 20 hours under argon. Mechanical alloying was followed by XRD, SEM and particle size analysis...

  9. Effect of alloying addition and microstructural parameters on mechanical properties of 93% tungsten heavy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Kiran, U., E-mail: uravikiran@gmail.com [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Panchal, A.; Sankaranarayana, M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nageswara Rao, G.V.S. [National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506004 (India); Nandy, T.K. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India)

    2015-07-29

    Liquid phase sintering, heat treatment and swaging studies on three tungsten heavy alloys, 93W–4.9Ni–2.1Fe (wt%), 93W–4.2Ni–1.2Fe–1.6Co (wt%) and 93W–4.9Ni–1.9Fe–0.2Re (wt%) were carried out in detail with respect to microstructure, tensile and impact properties. All the alloys were sintered and swaged to 40% deformation. The results indicate that Re addition reduces the grain size of the alloy compared to W–Ni–Fe and W-Ni-Fe-Co alloys. W–Ni–Fe–Re alloy shows superior tensile properties in heat treated condition as compared to W–Ni–Fe and W–Ni–Fe–Co alloys. SEM study of fractured specimens clearly indicates that the failure in case of W–Ni–Fe–Re was due to transgranular cleavage of tungsten grains and W–W de-cohesion. W–Ni–Fe and W–Ni–Fe–Co alloys also failed by mixed mode failure. However, in these cases, ductile dimples corresponding the failure of the matrix phase was rarely seen. Thermo-mechanical processing resulted in significant changes in mechanical properties. While W–Ni–Fe–Re alloy showed the highest tensile strength (1380 MPa), W–Ni–Fe–Co exhibited the highest elongation (12%) to failure. A detailed analysis involving microstructure, mechanical properties and failure behavior was undertaken in order to understand the property trends.

  10. Development and Testing of Dispersion-Strengthened Tungsten Alloys via Spark Plasma Sinterin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eric; Madden, Nathan; Smith, Charles; Krogstad, Jessica; Allain, Jean Paul

    2017-10-01

    Tungsten (W) is a common plasma-facing component (PFC) material in the divertor region of tokamak fusion devices due to its high melting point and high sputter threshold. However, W is intrinsically brittle and is further embrittled under neutron irradiation, and the low recrystallization temperature pose complications in fusion environments. More ductile W alloys, such as dispersion-strengthened tungsten are being developed. In this work, W samples are processed via spark plasma sintering (SPS) with TiC, ZrC, and TaC dispersoids alloyed from 0.5 to 10 weight %. SPS is a powder compaction technique that provides high pressure and heating rates via electrical current, allowing for a lower final temperature and hold time for compaction. Initial testing of material properties, smicrostructure, and composition of specimens will be presented. Deuterium and helium irradiations have been performed in IGNIS, a multi-functional, in-situ irradiation and characterization facility at the University of Illinois. High-flux, low-energy exposures at the Magnum-PSI facility at DIFFER exposed samples to a D fluence of 1×1026 cm-2 and He fluence of 1x1025-1x1026 cm-2 at temperatures of 300-1000 C. In-situ chemistry changes via XPS and ex-situ morphology changes via SEM will be studied. Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-SC0014267.

  11. Mechanical properties of tungsten alloys with Y2O3 and titanium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, M.V.; Martin, A.; Pastor, J.Y.; LLorca, J.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this research the mechanical behaviour of pure tungsten (W) and its alloys (2 wt.% Ti-0.47 wt.% Y 2 O 3 and 4 wt.% Ti-0.5 wt.% Y 2 O 3 ) is compared. These tungsten alloys, have been obtained by powder metallurgy. The yield strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been studied in the temperature interval of 25 deg. C to 1000 deg. C. The results have shown that the addition of Ti substantially improves the bending strength and toughness of W, but it also dramatically increases the DBTT. On the other hand, the addition of 0.5% Y 2 O 3 , is enough to improve noticeably the oxidation behaviour at the higher temperatures. The grain size, fractography and microstructure are studied in these materials. Titanium is a good grain growth inhibitor and effective precursor of liquid phase in HIP. The simultaneous presence of Y 2 O 3 and Ti permits to obtain materials with low pores presence.

  12. Process for fabricating articles of tungsten--nickel--iron alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcutt, W.G. Jr.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A high density W--Ni--Fe alloy of composition 85 to 96 percent by weight W and the remainder Ni and Fe in a wt. ratio of 5:5 to 8:2 having enhanced mechanical properties is prepared by compacting the mixed powders, sintering the compact in reducing atmosphere to near theoretical density followed by further sintering at a temperature where a liquid phase is present, vacuum annealing, and cold working to achieve high uniform hardness. 7 claims

  13. Biological responses of isolated macrophages to cobalt metal and tungsten carbide-cobalt powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lison, D; Lauwerys, R

    1991-10-01

    A previous study from this laboratory, using morphological and biochemical (LDH release) parameters, has shown that tungsten carbide-cobalt dust exhibits a greater cytotoxicity toward isolated macrophages than cobalt metal powder alone. The present study extends this comparison by examining additional biological parameters. Glucose uptake and superoxide anion production by isolated macrophages were significantly more depressed by the tungsten carbide-cobalt mixture (WC-Co) than by cobalt alone (Co) while pure tungsten carbide (WC) had no effect or even stimulated the cells. For glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and cell-associated plasminogen activator (PA) activities, no difference between Co and WC-Co dusts was observed. These observations add further evidence to our previous findings regarding the different biological reactivity of cobalt metal alone or mixed with tungsten carbide.

  14. Smart tungsten alloys as a material for the first wall of a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Unterberg, B.; Coenen, J. W.; Du, H.; Mayer, J.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Calvo, A.; Ordas, N.

    2017-06-01

    Tungsten is currently deemed as a promising plasma-facing material (PFM) for the future power plant DEMO. In the case of an accident, air can get into contact with PFMs during the air ingress. The temperature of PFMs can rise up to 1200 °C due to nuclear decay heat in the case of damaged coolant supply. Heated neutron-activated tungsten forms a volatile radioactive oxide which can be mobilized into the atmosphere. New self-passivating ‘smart’ alloys can adjust their properties to the environment. During plasma operation the preferential sputtering of lighter alloying elements will leave an almost pure tungsten surface facing the plasma. During an accident the alloying elements in the bulk are forming oxides thus protecting tungsten from mobilization. Good plasma performance and the suppression of oxidation are required for smart alloys. Bulk tungsten (W)-chroimum (Cr)-titanium (Ti) alloys were exposed together with pure tungsten (W) samples to the steady-state deuterium plasma under identical conditions in the linear plasma device PSI 2. The temperature of the samples was ~576 °C-715 °C, the energy of impinging ions was 210 eV matching well the conditions expected at the first wall of DEMO. Weight loss measurements demonstrated similar mass decrease of smart alloys and pure tungsten samples. The oxidation of exposed samples has proven no effect of plasma exposure on the oxidation resistance. The W-Cr-Ti alloy demonstrated advantageous 3-fold lower mass gain due to oxidation than that of pure tungsten. New yttrium (Y)-containing thin film systems are demonstrating superior performance in comparison to that of W-Cr-Ti systems and of pure W. The oxidation rate constant of W-Cr-Y thin film is 105 times less than that of pure tungsten. However, the detected reactivity of the bulk smart alloy in humid atmosphere is calling for a further improvement.

  15. New oxidation-resistant tungsten alloys for use in the nuclear fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Tan, X.; Schmitz, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Mao, Y.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.; Bram, M.

    2017-12-01

    Smart tungsten-based alloys are under development as plasma-facing components for a future fusion power plant. Smart alloys are planned to adjust their properties depending on environmental conditions: acting as a sputter-resistant plasma-facing material during plasma operation and suppressing the sublimation of radioactive tungsten oxide in case of an accident on the power plant. New smart alloys containing yttrium are presently in the focus of research. Thin film smart alloys are featuring an remarkable 105-fold suppression of mass increase due to an oxidation as compared to that of pure tungsten at 1000 °C. Newly developed bulk smart tungsten alloys feature even better oxidation resistance compared to that of thin films. First plasma test of smart alloys under DEMO-relevant conditions revealed the same mass removal as for pure tungsten due to sputtering by plasma ions. Exposed smart alloy samples demonstrate the superior oxidation performance as compared to tungsten-chromium-titanium systems developed earlier.

  16. Sintering of titanium alloy by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosme, C.R.M. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Henriques, V.A.R.; Cairo, C.A.A.; Taddei, E.B. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Titanium alloys are suitable for biomaterial applications, considering its biocompatibility and low elastic modulus compared to steel. Bone resorption in this case can be reduced by load sharing between the implant and natural bone.Starting powders were obtained by hydride method, carried out under positive hydrogen pressure at 500 deg C for titanium and 800 deg C for Nb, Zr and Ta powders. After reaching the nominal temperature, the material was held for 3h, with subsequent cooling to room temperature and milling of the friable hydride. Samples were produce by mixing of initial metallic powders followed by and cold isostatic pressing. Subsequent densification by sintering was performed at temperature range between 900 and 1700 deg C. Characterization was carried out with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and microhardness measurements. Microstructural examinations revealed higher amount of &⧣946;-phase for higher sintering temperature and dissolution of Ta and NB particles. In vitro tests revealed low cytotoxicity of sintered samples. (author)

  17. TiNi shape memory alloy coated with tungsten : A novel approach for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Huafang; Zheng, Yufeng; Pei, Y. T.; de Hosson, Jeff

    This study explores the use of DC magnetron sputtering tungsten thin films for surface modification of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) targeting for biomedical applications. SEM, AFM and automatic contact angle meter instrument were used to determine the surface characteristics of the tungsten thin

  18. Tungsten determination in heat resistant nickel-base-alloys by the method of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorczyk, S.; Wycislik, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of atomic absorption was developed. It allows for the tungsten to be determined in heatresistant nickel-base-alloys within the range 0.01 to 7%. It consists in precipitating tungsten acid in the presence of alkaloids with its following decomposition by hydrofluoric acid in the teflon bomb. (author)

  19. Tungsten-nanodiamond composite powders produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, D., E-mail: daniela.nunes@ist.utl.pt [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Livramento, V. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Mardolcar, U.V. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Ciencias Moleculares e Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    The major challenge in producing tungsten-nanodiamond composites by ball milling lies in successfully dispersing carbon nanoparticles in the metallic matrix while keeping carbide formation at a minimum. Processing windows for carbide minimization have been established through systematic variation of the nanodiamond fraction, milling energy and milling time. Materials characterization has been carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness testing. Nanostructured matrices with homogeneously dispersed particles that preserved the diamond structure have been produced. Differential thermal analysis has been used to evaluate the composites thermal stability.

  20. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  1. Microstructure and Aging of Powder-Metallurgy Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of thermal responses and aging behaviors of three new aluminum alloys. Alloys produced from rapidly solidified powders and contain 3.20 to 5.15 percent copper, 0.24 to 1.73 percent magnesium, 0.08 to 0.92 percent iron, and smaller amounts of manganese, nickel, titanium, silicon, and zinc. Peak hardness achieved at lower aging temperatures than with standard ingot-metallurgy alloys. Alloys of interest for automobile, aircraft, and aerospace applications.

  2. Emerging Applications Using Magnesium Alloy Powders: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv; Madan, Deepak

    The use of powder metallurgy offers a potential processing route based on tailored compositions and unique microstructures to achieve high performance in magnesium alloys. This paper highlights recent advances in the production, qualification, and characterization of gas atomized AZ91E, WE43 and Elektron21 alloy powders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to understand the bulk and surface structure of the atomized powder. The potential for using these magnesium alloy powders for emerging applications involves establishing compatibility with viable consolidation processes such as cold spray, laser assisted deposition, forging and extrusion. This study summarizes the preliminary results for various ongoing investigations using WE43 powder as an example. Results show that powder metallurgy processed WE43 results in comparable properties to those obtained from cast and wrought and offers potential for improvement.

  3. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of Ni-Mo alloy powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Pavlović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloy powders from ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride containing electrolytes of different Ni/Mo ions concentration ratios was investigated by polarization measurements. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of electrodeposited Ni-Mo alloy powders were investigated using DSC, TGA, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. EDS results showed that powder composition depends on Ni/Mo ions concentration ratio, as well as on the position where the EDS analysis was performed. As-deposited alloy powders were nanocrystalline showing no XRD peaks with undefined morphology (SEM. After recrystallization for 2 h in N2 atmosphere at 600°C the presence of NiMoO4 phase was identified in the powder electrodeposited from chloride electrolyte at the Ni/Mo ions concentration ratio 1/3, with well defined crystalline powder particles.

  4. Impact of Sodium Tungstate and Tungsten Alloys on the Growth of Selected Microorganisms with Environmental Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    TUNGSTEN ALLOYS ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED MICROORGANISMS WITH ENVIROMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE 5a. Contract Number: 5b. Grant Number: 5c. Program Element...either of these effects would be an issue in environmental settings is unclear. The water-soluble components of both alloys inhibited bacterial

  5. Synthesis of high purity tungsten nanoparticles from tungsten heavy alloy scrap by selective precipitation and reduction route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, S.S. Kalyan, E-mail: kalyanchem03@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, P.K.; Vimala, J.; Shanker, B.; Ghosal, P.; Durai, L.

    2016-09-05

    In this paper we report synthesis of tungsten nanoparticles of high purity >99.7 wt% from heavy alloy scrap using a novel chemical route of selective precipitation and reduction. The effect of Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) polymer on controlling the particle size is established through FTIR spectra and corroborated with TEM images, wherein the average size decreased form 210 to 45 nm with increasing PVP content from zero to 2 g under different experimental conditions. This process is economical as raw material is a scrap and the efficiency of the reaction is >95%. - Highlights: • Tungsten nanoparticles were synthesized from tungsten heavy alloy scrap. • A novel chemical route of precipitation and reduction with Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) polymer as stabilizer is reported. • The average size decreased form 210 to 45 nm with increasing PVP content from zero to 2 g. • High pure tungsten nanoparticles of >99.7% purity could be synthesized using this route. • Efficiency of the reaction is >95%.

  6. Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1978-01-01

    There is no substitute for tungsten in its main field of application so that the demand will not decrease, but there is a need for further important applications. If small variations are left out of account, a small but steady increase in the annual tungsten consumption can be expected. The amount of tungsten available will increase due to the exploritation of new deposits and the extension of existing mines. This tendency will probably be increased by the world-wide prospection. It is hard to make an assessment of the amount of tungsten are obtained in the People's Republic of china, the purchases of Eastern countries in the West, and the sales policy of the USA; pice forecasts are therefore hard to make. A rather interesting subject with regard to the tungsten cycle as a whole is the reprocessing of tungsten-containing wastes. (orig.) [de

  7. Toxic and transcriptional responses of PC12 cells to soluble tungsten alloy surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that metals have a role in the etiology of diverse neurological diseases. This study used PC12 cells as an in vitro model to examine the toxicity of tungsten alloys that have important military applications. Initially, the relative concentrations of tungsten (W, nickel (Ni, and cobalt (Co mobilized from pellets of a weapons-grade tungsten alloy incubated in physiologically relevant solutions were determined. Dosing solutions of soluble metal salts that were equivalent in ratio to those mobilized from these alloy pellets were used to treat nerve growth factor (NGF differentiated PC12 cells. Treatments consisted of single (W, Ni or Co, paired (W/Ni, W/Co or Ni/Co or complete (W/Ni/Co metal exposures for 24 h followed by measurement of cytotoxicity, viability, and microarray analysis to examine their impact on survival and viability, global gene expression, and biological processes. Gene expression changed dramatically with addition of NGF. Addition of Ni or Co either singly or in combination further impacted gene expression. An observed additive effect of Ni and Co on gene expression was unaffected by the addition of W. The work showed that tungsten, as found in this tungsten alloy, had minimal relative toxicity as compared to the other alloy components when used either alone or in combination.

  8. Tissue distribution patterns of solubilized metals from internalized tungsten alloy in the F344 rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernieda B. Vergara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique physical and chemical properties, tungsten has been increasingly utilized in a variety of civilian and military applications. This expanded use also raises the risk of human exposure through internalization by various routes. In most cases the toxicological and carcinogenic properties of these tungsten-based compounds are not known nor are the dissolution biokinetics and ultimate fate of the associated metals. Using a laboratory rodent model system designed to assess the health effects of embedded metals, and a tungsten alloy comprised of tungsten (91.1%, nickel (6.0%, and cobalt (2.9%, we investigated the tissue distribution patterns of the metals over a six month period. Despite its perceived insolubility, tungsten rapidly solubilized from the implanted metal fragments, as did nickel and cobalt. All three metals distributed systemically over time with extremely elevated levels of all three metals found in kidney, liver, and spleen. Unexpectedly, tungsten was found to cross the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers and localize in those tissues. These results, along with recent reports suggesting that tungsten is a tumor promoter, raises serious concerns as to the long-term health effects of exposure to tungsten and tungsten-based compounds.

  9. Production of titanium alloy powders by vacuum fusion-centrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decours, Jacques; Devillard, Jacques; Sainfort, G.

    1975-01-01

    This work presents a method of preparing powdered TA6V and TA6Z5D alloys by fusion-centrifugation under electron bombardment. An industrial capacity apparatus for the production of metallic powders is described and the characteristics of the powders obtained are presented. Solid parts were shaped by sintering and drawing at temperatures between 850 and 1100 deg C. The structure and mechanical properties of the cold densified products before and after heat treatment are compared [fr

  10. Study of neutron induced outgassing from tungsten alloy for ATLAS FCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, C; Cheplakov, A P; Golikov, V; Golubyh, S M; Kulagin, E; Kukhtin, V; Luschikov, V

    1999-01-01

    The use of sintered tungsten alloy slugs as absorber in the ATLAS Forward Calorimeter (FCAL) raised concern that it could possibly poison the liquid argon during the detector operation in the hard radiation environment expected at LHC. A vacuum container filled with tungsten slugs was exposed to the fast neutron fluence of 1.5$\\cdot$10$^{16}$~n~cm$^{-2}$ at the IBR-30 reactor of JINR, Dubna. The residual gas pressure was analysed. The study was completed by mass spectrometer measurements. An upper limit value of 0.1~ppm was determined for the pollution of liquid argon in FCAL due to outgassing from tungsten slugs under irradiation.

  11. Durability of adhesive bonds to uranium alloys, tungsten, tantalum, and thorium. [U--Nb; Ta--10 percent W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, F. G.

    1975-06-14

    Long-term durability of epoxy bonds to alloys of uranium (U-Nb and Mulberry), nickel-plated uranium, thorium, tungsten, tantalum, tantalum--10 percent tungsten, and aluminum was evaluated. Significant strengths remain after ten years of aging; however, there is some evidence of bond deterioration with uranium alloys and thorium stored in ambient laboratory air.

  12. The influence of tungsten alloying on the mechanical properties of tantalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdin, W.H.; Lassila, D.H.; LeBlanc, M.M.; Shields, A.L.

    1994-02-03

    In mechanical tests of tantalum-tungsten alloys with nominal tungsten contents between 0 and 10 wt % for strain rates between 0.000016 and 6800s{sup {minus}1} and temperatures between 77 and 400 K, the addition of tungsten noticeably reduces the strain-rate dependence of the flow stress of tantalum near yield. It also subtly alters the strain-rate behavior of the work hardening, making it more like that of copper, an fcc metal. These effects are reflected in the limiting strains for uniform plastic deformation calculated from our flow curves. For unalloyed tantalum, the instability strain appears to drop dramatically for strain rates in excess of approximately 0.005s{sup {minus}1}, whereas for tungsten bearing alloys, it remains unchanged or increases slightly. Tungsten alloys may therefore be preferable to unalloyed tantalum in applications that demand substantial ductility at high rates of strain. We briefly discuss possible mechanisms for plastic flow in tantalum and how they might be affected by tungsten additions to produce the effects we observe.

  13. Spark plasma sintering of commercial and development titanium alloy powders

    OpenAIRE

    Weston, N.S.; Derguti, F.; Tudball, A.; Jackson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging lower cost titanium metal powder produced via an electrolytic method has been fully consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) generating microstructures comparable to those observed in Ti–6Al–4V PM product. This is the first time powder from an alternative titanium extraction method has been processed via SPS and it is benchmarked with commercial alloys (CP–Ti, Ti–6Al–4V, and Ti–5Al–5V–5Mo–3Cr). The effect of powder feedstock size, morphology, and alloy chemistry on the consoli...

  14. Densification behavior of aluminum alloy powder mixed with zirconia powder inclusion under cold compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Hyun Seok; Lee, Sung Chul; Kim, Ki Tae

    2002-01-01

    Densification behavior of composite powders was investigated during cold compaction. Experimental data were obtained for aluminum alloy powder mixed with zirconia powder inclusion under triaxial compression. The cap model with constraint factors was implemented into a finite element program(ABAQUS) to simulate compaction responses of composite powders during cold compaction. Finite element results were compared with experimental data for densification behavior of composite powders under cold isostatic pressing and die compaction. The agreements between experimental data and finite element calculations from the cap model with constraint factors were good

  15. Similarities and Differences in Mechanical Alloying Processes of V-Si-B and Mo-Si-B Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Krüger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available V-Si-B and Mo-Si-B alloys are currently the focus of materials research due to their excellent high temperature capabilities. To optimize the mechanical alloying (MA process for these materials, we compare microstructures, morphology and particles size as well as hardness evolution during the milling process for the model alloys V-9Si-13B and Mo-9Si-8B. A variation of the rotational speed of the planetary ball mill and the type of grinding materials is therefore investigated. These modifications result in different impact energies during ball-powder-wall collisions, which are quantitatively described in this comparative study. Processing with tungsten carbide vials and balls provides slightly improved impact energies compared to vials and balls made of steel. However, contamination of the mechanically alloyed powders with flaked particles of tungsten carbide is unavoidable. In the case of using steel grinding materials, Fe contaminations are also detectable, which are solved in the V and Mo solid solution phases, respectively. Typical mechanisms that occur during the MA process such as fracturing and comminution are analyzed using the comminution rate KP. In both alloys, the welding processes are more pronounced compared to the fracturing processes.

  16. In vitro profiling of epigenetic modifications underlying heavy metal toxicity of tungsten-alloy and its components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Ranjana; Xu, Xiufen; Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Olsen, Cara; Mears, David; Caretti, Giuseppina; Galdzicki, Zygmunt

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten-alloy has carcinogenic potential as demonstrated by cancer development in rats with intramuscular implanted tungsten-alloy pellets. This suggests a potential involvement of epigenetic events previously implicated as environmental triggers of cancer. Here, we tested metal induced cytotoxicity and epigenetic modifications including H3 acetylation, H3-Ser10 phosphorylation and H3-K4 trimethylation. We exposed human embryonic kidney (HEK293), human neuroepithelioma (SKNMC), and mouse myoblast (C2C12) cultures for 1-day and hippocampal primary neuronal cultures for 1-week to 50-200 μg/ml of tungsten-alloy (91% tungsten/6% nickel/3% cobalt), tungsten, nickel, and cobalt. We also examined the potential role of intracellular calcium in metal mediated histone modifications by addition of calcium channel blockers/chelators to the metal solutions. Tungsten and its alloy showed cytotoxicity at concentrations > 50 μg/ml, while we found significant toxicity with cobalt and nickel for most tested concentrations. Diverse cell-specific toxic effects were observed, with C2C12 being relatively resistant to tungsten-alloy mediated toxic impact. Tungsten-alloy, but not tungsten, caused almost complete dephosphorylation of H3-Ser10 in C2C12 and hippocampal primary neuronal cultures with H3-hypoacetylation in C2C12. Dramatic H3-Ser10 dephosphorylation was found in all cobalt treated cultures with a decrease in H3 pan-acetylation in C2C12, SKNMC and HEK293. Trimethylation of H3-K4 was not affected. Both tungsten-alloy and cobalt mediated H3-Ser10 dephosphorylation were reversed with BAPTA-AM, highlighting the role of intracellular calcium, confirmed with 2-photon calcium imaging. In summary, our results for the first time reveal epigenetic modifications triggered by tungsten-alloy exposure in C2C12 and hippocampal primary neuronal cultures suggesting the underlying synergistic effects of tungsten, nickel and cobalt mediated by changes in intracellular calcium homeostasis and

  17. Mechanical properties of tungsten alloys with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and titanium additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, M.V., E-mail: mariavega.aguirre@upm.es [Departamento de Tecnologias Especiales Aplicadas a la Aeronautica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.U.I.T. Aeronautica, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martin, A.; Pastor, J.Y. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); LLorca, J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileno de Estudios Avanzados en Materiales (Instituto IMDEA-Materiales), Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    In this research the mechanical behaviour of pure tungsten (W) and its alloys (2 wt.% Ti-0.47 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 4 wt.% Ti-0.5 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is compared. These tungsten alloys, have been obtained by powder metallurgy. The yield strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been studied in the temperature interval of 25 deg. C to 1000 deg. C. The results have shown that the addition of Ti substantially improves the bending strength and toughness of W, but it also dramatically increases the DBTT. On the other hand, the addition of 0.5% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is enough to improve noticeably the oxidation behaviour at the higher temperatures. The grain size, fractography and microstructure are studied in these materials. Titanium is a good grain growth inhibitor and effective precursor of liquid phase in HIP. The simultaneous presence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ti permits to obtain materials with low pores presence.

  18. Hafnium- and Titanium-Coated Tungsten Powders for Kinetic Energy Penetrators, Phase 1, SBIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    the kinetics of its formation would be rather slow at the temperatures of interest due to the refractory nature of both hafnium and tungsten. With...0015/3). 6. T.B. Massalski, Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams (ASM, Metals Park, OH, 1986). 7. D.T. Vier, "Thermal and Other Properties of Refractories ...produces a strain rate of 1 x 105 in the test sample. This strain rate deposits )a. 3e she.r sb’ain energy in the test sample. ABAQUS , a finite

  19. Thermal Plasma Spheroidization of High-Nitrogen Stainless Steel Powder Alloys Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, Nikolay G.; Popovich, Anatoly A.; Wang, QingSheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on the treatment of Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys, synthesized by the mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental powders in the flow of a thermal plasma. Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys were prepared by MA in the attritor under an argon atmosphere. For spheroidization of Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys, the TekSphero 15 plant manufactured by Tekna Plasma Systems Inc was used. The studies have shown the possibility of obtaining Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen spherical powders steel alloys from the powder obtained by MA. According to the results of a series of experiments, it was found that the results of plasma spheroidization of powders essentially depend on the size of the fraction due to some difference in the particle shape and flowability, and on the gas regime of the plasma torch. It is established that during the plasma spheroidization process, some of the nitrogen leaves the alloy. The loss rate of nitrogen depends on the size of the initial particles.

  20. Powder Metallurgy Processing of a WxTaTiVCr High-Entropy Alloy and Its Derivative Alloys for Fusion Material Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Owais Ahmed; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2017-05-16

    The W x TaTiVCr high-entropy alloy with 32at.% of tungsten (W) and its derivative alloys with 42 to 90at.% of W with in-situ TiC were prepared via the mixing of elemental W, Ta, Ti, V and Cr powders followed by spark plasma sintering for the development of reduced-activation alloys for fusion plasma-facing materials. Characterization of the sintered samples revealed a BCC lattice and a multi-phase structure. The selected-area diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of TiC in the high-entropy alloy and its derivative alloys. It revealed the development of C15 (cubic) Laves phases as well in alloys with 71 to 90at.% W. A mechanical examination of the samples revealed a more than twofold improvement in the hardness and strength due to solid-solution strengthening and dispersion strengthening. This study explored the potential of powder metallurgy processing for the fabrication of a high-entropy alloy and other derived compositions with enhanced hardness and strength.

  1. Fabrication of tungsten composite parts by direct HIP of powders in solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandet, F.; Palacio, M.; Boncoeur, M.

    1985-01-01

    Tungsten composites of the type W = 95%, Ni = 3.5% Fe = 1.5%, which are usually produced by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by liquid phase natural sintering, are obtained here by direct hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of powders in solid phase. This method which is more reliable than the traditional process allows the production of large-sized parts while considerably reducing the required quantity of powder. The product fabrication by HIP is described as well as the results of the final material's character. Although the density of the product is similar to that of the commercial product, the mechanical properties in traction, and especially elongation, are weaker. Several hypotheses are suggested to explain this fall in ductility

  2. Peculiarities of compaction during sintering of high-disperse tungsten powder porous bodies depending on heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermenko, L.A.; Get'man, O.I.; Rakitin, S.P.; Skorokhod, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    A fall in the activity of tungsten powder obtained by reduction at a final temperature of 950 deg C and annealed before pressing at 1700 deg C and above is shown to be due to a decrease in the inner porosity of the particles, their contraction and rounding-off rather than to their enlargement in the maximum value of porous channel contractions in a pressed part ans its behaviour during sintering. A preliminary heat treatment of tungsten powders obtained by reduction at a final temperature of 700 deg C, has a non-monotonic effect on their activity in sintering. Formation of a new porous structure is found responsible for the behaviour of a porous body in sintering for tungsten powders during short-term (tau 30 s) shrinkage- free sintering of pressed parts, namely: an increase in the maximum values of porous channel contractions. A correction is established between volume shrinkage and the maximum value of contractions in enhanced capillaries [ru

  3. Optimization of a Wcl6 CVD System to Coat UO2 Powder with Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belancik, Grace A.; Barnes, Marvin W.; Mireles, Omar; Hickman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve deep space exploration via Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing W-UO2 CERMET fuel elements, with focus on fabrication, testing, and process optimization. A risk of fuel loss is present due to the CTE mismatch between tungsten and UO2 in the W-60vol%UO2 fuel element, leading to high thermal stresses. This fuel loss can be reduced by coating the spherical UO2 particles with tungsten via H2/WCl6 reduction in a fluidized bed CVD system. Since the latest incarnation of the inverted reactor was completed, various minor modifications to the system design were completed, including an inverted frit sublimer. In order to optimize the parameters to achieve the desired tungsten coating thickness, a number of trials using surrogate HfO2 powder were performed. The furnace temperature was varied between 930 C and 1000degC, and the sublimer temperature was varied between 140 C and 200 C. Each trial lasted 73-82 minutes, with one lasting 205 minutes. A total of 13 trials were performed over the course of three months, two of which were re-coatings of previous trials. The powder samples were weighed before and after coating to roughly determine mass gain, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) data was also obtained. Initial mass results indicated that the rate of layer deposition was lower than desired in all of the trials. SEM confirmed that while a uniform coating was obtained, the average coating thickness was 9.1% of the goal. The two re-coating trials did increase the thickness of the tungsten layer, but only to an average 14.3% of the goal. Therefore, the number of CVD runs required to fully coat one batch of material with the current configuration is not feasible for high production rates. Therefore, the system will be modified to operate with a negative pressure environment. This will allow for better gas mixing and more efficient heating of the substrate material, yielding greater tungsten coating per trial.

  4. Mechanical alloying nanotechnology, materials science and powder metallurgy

    CERN Document Server

    El-Eskandarany, M Sherif

    2015-01-01

    This book is a detailed introduction to mechanical alloying, offering guidelines on the necessary equipment and facilities needed to carry out the process and giving a fundamental background to the reactions taking place. El-Eskandarany, a leading authority on mechanical alloying, discusses the mechanism of powder consolidations using different powder compaction processes. A new chapter will also be included on thermal, mechanically-induced and electrical discharge-assisted mechanical milling. Fully updated to cover recent developments in the field, this second edition also introduces new a

  5. Effect of mixing on the rheology and particle characteristics of tungsten-based powder injection molding feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suri, Pavan; Atre, Sundar V.; German, Randall M.; Souza, Jupiter P. de

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of mixing technique and particle characteristics on the rheology and agglomerate dispersion of tungsten-based powder injection molding (PIM) feedstock. Experiments were conducted with as-received (agglomerated) and rod-milled (deagglomerated) tungsten powder mixed in a paraffin wax-polypropylene binder. Increase in the mixing shear rate decreased the agglomerate size of the agglomerated tungsten powder, decreased the viscosity, and improved the flow stability of the feedstock, interpreted as increased homogeneity of the feedstock. Higher solids volume fraction, lower mixing torques, and improved homogeneity were observed with deagglomerated tungsten powder, emphasizing the importance of particle characteristics and mixing procedures in the PIM process. Hydrodynamic stress due to mixing and the cohesive strength of the tungsten agglomerate were calculated to understand the mechanism of deagglomeration and quantify the effect of mixing. It was concluded that deagglomeration occurs due to a combination of rupture and erosion with the local hydrodynamic stresses exceeding the cohesive strength of the agglomerate

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Thermoelectric Fe2VAl Alloy Powders by Mechanical Alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hyo

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of elemental Fe50V25Al25 powders has been subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) at room temperature to prepare the Heusler Fe2VAl thermoelectric alloy. Fe2VAI alloy with a grain size of 90 nm can be obtained by MA of Fe50V25Al25 powders for 60 h and subsequently annealed at 700 degrees C. Consolidation of the MA powders was performed in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) machine using graphite dies up to 900-1000 degrees C under 60 MPa. The shrinkage of consolidated samples during SPS was significant at about 400 degrees C. X-ray diffraction data shows that the SPS compact from 60 h MA powders consolidated up to 900 degrees C consists of only nanocrystalline Fe2VAl alloy with a grain size of 200 nm.

  7. ELM elimination with Li powder injection in EAST discharges using the tungsten upper divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, R.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Tritz, K.; Zuo, G. Z.; Xu, W.; Huang, M.; Meng, X. C.; Canik, J. M.; Diallo, A.; Lunsford, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Osborne, T. H.; Gong, X. Z.; Wang, Y. F.; Li, Y. Y.; EAST team

    2018-02-01

    We report the first successful use of lithium (Li) to eliminate edge-localized modes (ELMs) with tungsten divertor plasma-facing components in the EAST device. Li powder injected into the scrape-off layer of the tungsten upper divertor successfully eliminated ELMs for 3–5 s in EAST. The ELM elimination became progressively more effective in consecutive discharges at constant lithium delivery rates, and the divertor D α baseline emission was reduced, both signatures of improved wall conditioning. A modest decrease in stored energy and normalized energy confinement was also observed, but the confinement relative to H98 remained well above 1, extending the previous ELM elimination results via Li injection into the lower carbon divertor in EAST (Hu et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 055001). These results can be compared with recent observations with lithium pellets in ASDEX-Upgrade that failed to mitigate ELMs (Lang et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 016030), highlighting one comparative advantage of continuous powder injection for real-time ELM elimination.

  8. Gamma stability and powder formation of UMo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.B.V.; Andrade, D.A.; Angelo, G.; Belchior Junior, A.; Torres, W.M.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Angelo, E.

    2015-01-01

    A study of the hydrogen embrittlement as well as a research on the relation between gamma decomposition and powder formation of uranium molybdenum alloys were previously presented. In this study a comparison regarding the hypo-eutectoid and hyper-eutectoid molybdenum additions is presented. Gamma uranium molybdenum alloys have been considered as the fuel phase in plate type fuel elements for material and test reactors (MTR). Regarding their usage as a dispersion phase in aluminum matrix, it is necessary to convert the as cast structure into powder, and one of the techniques considered for this purpose is the hydration-dehydration (HDH). This paper shows that, under specific conditions of heating and cooling, γ-UMo fragmentation may occur with non-reactive or reactive mechanisms. Following the production of the alloys by induction melting, samples of the alloys were thermally treated under a constant flow of hydrogen. It was observed that, even without a massive hydration-dehydration process, the alloys fragmented under specific conditions of thermal treatment, during the thermal shock phase of the experiments. Also, there is a relation between absorption and the rate of gamma decomposition or the gamma phase stability of the alloy and this phenomenon can be related to the eutectoid transformation temperature. This study was carried out to search for a new method for the production of powders and for the evaluation of important physical parameter such as the eutectoid transformation temperature, as an alternative to the existing ones. (author)

  9. Two-dimensional model of laser alloying of binary alloy powder with interval of melting temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyzeva, A. G.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.

    2017-10-01

    The paper contains two-dimensional model of laser beam melting of powders from binary alloy. The model takes into consideration the melting of alloy in some temperature interval between solidus and liquidus temperatures. The external source corresponds to laser beam with energy density distributed by Gauss law. The source moves along the treated surface according to given trajectory. The model allows investigating the temperature distribution and thickness of powder layer depending on technological parameters.

  10. Experimental and numerical simulations of ELM-like transient damage behaviors to different grade tungsten and tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Lian, Youyun; Chen, Lei; Chen, Zhenkui; Chen, Jiming; Duan, Xuru; Fan, Jinlian; Song, Jiupeng

    2015-01-01

    Transient heat loads, such as plasma disruptions and ELMs, could induce plastic deformations, cracking, melting, even fatigue cracks and creep of tungsten (W) surface. A high purity W, CVD-W coating, TiC dispersion strengthened and K doped tungsten alloys were tested in a 60 kW electron-beam facility by simulating the transient load events under different base temperatures. It was found that CVD-W, W-TiC and W-K alloys have higher crack thresholds than high purity W, meanwhile CVD-W is more sensitive to the crack disappearing at elevated base temperatures. On the other hand, repetitive pulse loading like ELMs can induce serious network cracks even the power density was quite lower than the crack threshold determined by a single shot. The ABAQUS code was used to simulate the crack behaviors of ITER grade pure W by a single shot and a FE-SAFE code was adopted to estimate the fatigue life under ELMs-like loads. A good agreement with experiment results was found

  11. Peculiarities of phase transformation in Ni3Fe powder alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzhdin, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ordering process in sintered powder alloy Ni 3 Fe by normal and high temperatures was studied. Thermal stresses connected with porosity level of material effect on transformation peculiarities. The changes of electric conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus during transformation were studied. The analysis of this changes was made

  12. Processing and production of molybdenum and tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagel, W.C.; Shields, J.A. Jr.; Tuominen, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The technological means to produce and process Mo and W alloys are summarized because for many Mo and W alloy systems the mechanical properties can be optimized only by thermomechanical processing requiring production and processing capabilities that are not widely available. First, the producers of commercial Mo and W alloys are presented along with currently available product forms. Second, currently disclosed standard capabilities of producers and processors in the United States are presented. 56 references, 13 figures, 9 tables

  13. Production of titanium alloys for medical implants by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, V.A.R. [Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena, Lorena SP (Brazil); Silva, C.R.M. da [Div. de Materiais, CTA-IAE-AMR, Sao Jose dos Campos SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Titanium alloys are expected to be much more widely used for implant materials in the medical and dental fields because of their superior biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and specific strength compared with other metallic implant materials. Vanadium free alloys like Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-5Al-2,5Fe have been recently developed for biomedical use. More recently vanadium and aluminum free alloys composed of non-toxic elements like Nb, Ta, Zr and so on with lower modulus have been started to be developed. The {beta} type alloys like Ti-15Mo are now the main target for medical materials. A blended elemental titanium powder metallurgy process has been developed to offer low cost products. The process employs hydride-dehydride (HDH) powders and near-net shape techniques. In this work, the influence of the processing parameters and chemical composition of the elementary powders on the final microstructure was investigated. The alloys were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers microhardness measurements, chemical analysis and density. The results indicate that the samples presented high densification, homogeneous chemical composition and coherent microstructures. The process parameters were defined aiming to reduce the interstitial pick-up (O, N) and to avoid the grain growth. (orig.)

  14. Development of smart self-passivating tungsten alloys as passive safety measure for future fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Tobias; Litnovsky, Andrey; Brinkmann, Jens; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, 42425 Juelich (Germany); Koch, Freimut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Due to its high melting point, low tritium retention and low erosion yield tungsten is a candidate material for the first wall of a future fusion reactor. In case of a so-called loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) wall temperatures of about 1200 C are predicted due to nuclear decay heat. The worst case scenario of the LOCA accompanied with air and water ingress, would lead to formation of highly volatile and radioactive tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}). A solution for this issue could be smart self-passivating tungsten alloys, which may prevent the formation of WO{sub 3}. Presently, ternary material systems with chromium and titanium are well characterized and show the best performance. In this contribution we show first results of new yttrium containing W-Cr-Y alloys produced by magnetron sputtering. These alloys are supposed to show oxidation rates similar to those of W-Cr-Ti, but with a higher content of W. First experiments of the new Ti-free alloy show an oxidation rate of k{sub p}=4.7.10{sup -6} mg{sup 2} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about four orders of magnitude lower compared to those of pure W at 800 C. Experimental results and simulations of evaporated material in the case of LOCAs are presented.

  15. Advances in the Development of a WCl6 CVD System for Coating UO2 Powders with Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Tieman, Alyssa; Broadway, Jeramie; Hickman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrated viability and utilization of: a) Fluidized powder bed. b) WCl6 CVD process. c) Coated spherical particles with tungsten. The highly corrosive nature of the WCl6 solid reagent limits material of construction. Indications that identifying optimized process variables with require substantial effort and will likely vary with changes in fuel requirements.

  16. Structure and corrosion resistance of nickel coatings containing tungsten and silicon powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popczyk, Magdalena; Budniok, Antoni; Lagiewka, Eugeniusz

    2007-01-01

    Ni + W + Si coatings were prepared by nickel deposition from a bath containing a suspension of tungsten and silicon powders. These coatings were obtained at galvanostatic conditions, at the current density of j dep = - 0.100 A cm -2 and at the temperature of 338 K. For determination of the influence of phase composition and surface morphology of these coatings on changes in the corrosion resistance, these coatings were modified in an argon atmosphere by thermal treatment at 1373 K during 1 h. A scanning electron microscope was used for surface morphology characterization of the coatings. The chemical composition of the coatings was determined by EDS and phase composition investigations were conducted by X-ray diffraction. It was found that the as-deposited coatings consist of a three-phase structure, i.e., nickel, tungsten and silicon. The phase composition for the Ni + W + Si coatings after thermal treatment is markedly different. The main peaks corresponding to Ni and W coexist with the new phases: NiW, NiWSi and a solid solution of W in Ni. Electrochemical corrosion resistance investigations were carried out in 5 M KOH, using potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. On the basis of these investigations it was found that the Ni + W + Si coatings after thermal treatment are more corrosion resistant in alkaline solution than the as-deposited coatings. The reasons for this are a reduction in the amount of free nickel and tungsten, the presence of new phases (in particular polymetallic silicides), and a decrease of the active surface area of the coatings after thermal treatment

  17. Fabrication of TiNi powder by mechanical alloying and shape memory characteristics of the sintered alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terayama, Akira; Kyogoku, Hideki; Komatsu, Shinichiro; Sakamura, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication condition of TiNi alloy powder by mechanical alloying and shape memory characteristics of the sintered alloy. The effect of mechanical alloying condition on the characteristics of mechanically alloyed powder (MA powder) was investigated. Also, the difference in sintering behavior between the MA powder and the elementally mixed powders by V-blender and the shape memory characteristics of the sintered alloys were also examined. The MA powder was fabricated by milling using a planetary ball mill in a rotational speed between 200 and 500 min -1 for various milling times in an atmosphere of Ar gas. These two of powders prepared in different processes were sintered using a pulse-current pressure sintering equipment at various sintering temperatures. The powder agglomerated and its particle size became larger with an increase in milling time. The mixture of Ti and Ni powders changed into an amorphous state by processing for 3.6 ks over 300 min -1 . The sintered alloy of the MA powder showed more uniform phase of TiNi than that of the elementally mixed powders sintered in a same manner, however, the former showed a lower density than the latter due to a larger particle size of the MA powder of before-sintering. It was found from the measurement of the transformation temperature of the sintered alloy of the MA powder using DSC that the alloy has shape memory characteristics, and the transformation temperatures of the alloy are higher than those of the alloy of the elementally mixed powders due to waste of Ni powder. (author)

  18. Effect of electrolysis conditions on the composition of electrolytic tungsten-rhenium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yur'ev, B.P.; Terent'eva, N.I.

    1976-01-01

    For investigation of deposition of tungsten-rhenium electrolytic alloys and elucidation of the dependence on the electrolysis conditions, an ammonium sulfate-citric acid electrolyte was used, containing definite amounts of sodium tungstate, potassium perrhenate, ammonium sulfate, and citric acid. The alloys were deposited on flat platinum or tantalum cathodes, with platinum gauze as the anode. The influence of the cathodic current density, tmeperature, solution pH, ammonium sulfate, and citric acid cotents, and the ratio of the tungsten and rhenium concentrations (at a constant total content of the two metals) on current efficiency and on the composition of the electrolytic alloy were studied. The total and partial polarization curves were also investigated in relation to the electrolysis conditions. The alloys were investigated by chemical analysis and by the x-ray structure and metallographic methods. The results showed the existence of a linear dependence of log ([W])/[Re]) all on the potential and log Dsub(c), (Dsub(c)=current density) and of an analogous relation between the ratios of the component concentrations in the alloy and solution, with different values of the proportionality factor at ([W]/[Re]) all bigger than 0.035 and smaller than 0.035. The optimal electrolysis conditions corresponding to formation of the best-quality W-Re alloy coatings were determined

  19. Superplasticity in powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.S.; Bieler, T.R.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Superplasticity in powder metallurgy Al alloys and composites has been reviewed through a detailed analysis. The stress-strain curves can be put into 4 categories: classical well-behaved type, continuous strain hardening type, continuous strain softening type and complex type. The origin of these different types of is discussed. The microstructural features of the processed material and the role of strain have been reviewed. The role of increasing misorientation of low angle boundaries to high angle boundaries by lattice dislocation absorption is examined. Threshold stresses have been determined and analyzed. The parametric dependencies for superplastic flow in modified conventional aluminum alloys, mechanically alloyed alloys and Al alloy matrix composites is determined to elucidate the superplastic mechanism at high strain rates. The role of incipient melting has been analyzed. A stress exponent of 2, an activation energy equal to that for grain boundary diffusion and a grain size dependence of 2 generally describes superplastic flow in modified conventional Al alloys and mechanically alloyed alloys. The present results agree well with the predictions of grain boundary sliding models. This suggests that the mechanism of high strain rate superplasticity in the above-mentioned alloys is similar to conventional superplasticity. The shift of optimum superplastic strain rates to higher values is a consequence of microstructural refinement. The parametric dependencies for superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of superplasticity in aluminum alloy matrix composites, however, is different. A true activation energy of 313 kJ/mol best describes the composites having SiC reinforcements. The role of shape of the reinforcement (particle or whisker) and processing history is addressed. The analysis suggests that the mechanism for superplasticity in composites is interface diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding

  20. HVOF and HVAF Coatings of Agglomerated Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Powders for Water Droplet Erosion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasi, F.; Mahdipoor, M. S.; Dolatabadi, A.; Medraj, M.; Moreau, C.

    2016-12-01

    Water droplet erosion (WDE) is a phenomenon caused by impingement of water droplets of several hundred microns to a few millimeters diameter at velocities of hundreds of meters per second on the edges and surfaces of the parts used in such services. The solution to this problem is sought especially for the moving compressor blades in gas turbines and those operating at the low-pressure end of steam turbines. Thermal-sprayed tungsten carbide-based coatings have been the focus of many studies and are industrially accepted for a multitude of wear and erosion resistance applications. In the present work, the microstructure, phase analysis and mechanical properties (micro-hardness and fracture toughness) of WC-Co coatings are studied in relation with their influence on the WDE resistance of such coatings. The coatings are deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) processes. The agglomerated tungsten carbide-cobalt powders were in either sintered or non-sintered conditions. The WDE tests were performed using 0.4 mm water droplets at 300 m/s impact velocity. The study shows promising results for this cermet as WDE-resistant coating when the coating can reach its optimum quality using the right thermal spray process and parameters.

  1. New alloying systems for ferrous powder metallurgy precision parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danninger H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the common alloy elements for sintered steels have been Cu and Ni. With increasing requirements towards mechanical properties, and also as a consequence of soaring prices especially for these two metals, other alloy elements have also become more and more attractive for sintered steels, which make the steels however more tricky to process through PM. Here, the chances and risks of using in particular Cr and Mn alloy steels are discussed, considering the different alloying techniques viable in powder metallurgy, and it is shown that there are specific requirements in particular for sintering process. The critical importance of chemical reactions between the metal and the atmosphere is described, and it is shown that not only O2 and H2O but also H2 and even N2 can critically affect sintering and microstructural homogenization.

  2. Diode Laser Surface Alloying of Armor Steel with Tungsten Carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Janicki D.; Górka J.; Kwaśny W.; Gołombek K.; Kondracki M.; Żuk M.

    2017-01-01

    Metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layers reinforced by WC were fabricated on armor steel ARMOX 500T plates via a laser surface alloying process. The microstructure of the layers was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  3. Study of structure and residual stresses in cold rotary swaged tungsten heavy alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunčická, L.; Kocich, R.; Hervoches, Charles; Macháčková, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 705, č. 9 (2017), s. 25-31 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Tungsten heavy alloy * residual stresses * neutron scattering * electron microscopy * work hardening Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  4. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    OpenAIRE

    NAKASHIMA, Hitoshi; UTSUNOMIYA, Akihiro; FUJII, Nobuyuki; OKUNO, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema. The extent of the hazard of UVR varies depending on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the levels of UVR that are present under various conditions. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the hazard of UVR emitted in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of aluminum alloys. The degree of hazard of UVR is measured by the effective irradiance defined in...

  5. Mechanical alloying of powder materials by ultrasonic milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordyuk, B N; Prokopenko, G I

    2004-04-01

    An ultrasonic grinding mill was designed. It permits to carry out simultaneously intensive ultrasonic, mechanical and cavitation treatments of powder materials that in turn leads to sharp acceleration of diffusion, mass-transfer processes and solid phase reactions due to crystallite size and structure changing. It was shown that meta-stable non-equilibrium solid solution (Cu+Ni+Fe, Fe+C), and crystalline structure transformed (Fe(4)N: fcc-hcp transformation) powders could be obtained for the much shorter time in compare with traditional mechanical alloying in planetary ball mill.

  6. Studies of microstructural imperfections of powdered Zirconium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P.S.; Sarkar, A.; Mukherjee, P.; Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharya, M.; Barat, P.

    2010-01-01

    Different model based approaches of X-ray diffraction line profile analysis have been applied on the heavily deformed zirconium-based alloys in the powdered form to characterize the microstructural parameters like domain size, microstrain and dislocation density. In characterizing the microstructure of the material, these methods are complimentary to each other. Though the parameters obtained by different techniques are differently defined and thus not necessarily comparable, the values of domain size and microstrain obtained from the different techniques show similar trends.

  7. Plasma spraying of Fe-Cr-Al alloy powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Leitner, J.; Kolman, Blahoslav Jan; Písačka, Jan; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2008), s. 17-25 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fe-Cr-Al alloy powder * plasma spraying * oxidation * vaporization * composition changes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2007

  8. Diode Laser Surface Alloying of Armor Steel with Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicki D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composite (MMC surface layers reinforced by WC were fabricated on armor steel ARMOX 500T plates via a laser surface alloying process. The microstructure of the layers was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  9. Powder-Derived High-Conductivity Coatings for Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    2003-01-01

    Makers of high-thermal-flux engines prefer copper alloys as combustion chamber liners, owing to a need to maximize heat dissipation. Since engine environments are strongly oxidizing in nature and copper alloys generally have inadequate resistance to oxidation, the liners need coatings for thermal and environmental protection; however, coatings must be chosen with great care in order to avoid significant impairment of thermal conductivity. Powder-derived chromia- and alumina- forming alloys are being studied under NASA's programs for advanced reusable launch vehicles to succeed the space shuttle fleet. NiCrAlY and Cu-Cr compositions optimized for high thermal conductivity have been tested for static and cyclic oxidation, and for susceptibility to blanching - a mode of degradation arising from oxidation-reduction cycling. The results indicate that the decision to coat the liners or not, and which coating/composition to use, depends strongly on the specific oxidative degradation mode that prevails under service conditions.

  10. Thermal reaction of SiC films with tungsten and tungsten-rhenium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, J.; Le Petitcorps, Y. [Univ Bordeaux 1, Lab Composites Thermostruct, CNRS-SAFRAN-CEA-UB1, UMR 5801, F-33600 Pessac, (France); Roger, J.; Audubert, F. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DEC/SPUA/LTEC, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Solid-state reactions between SiC films and W-xRe (x = 0, 5 and 25 at%) substrates on thermal annealing between 1673 K and 1873 K for various durations have been investigated. SiC coatings were deposited on metallic wires by hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) from a gas mixture of tetramethyl-silane (TMS) and hydrogen at 1373 K under normal pressure. The interface zones were characterized using scanning electron and optical microscopies, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe microanalysis. All analyses reveal that SiC reacts with substrates. Various metal silicides and carbides were formed in layered reaction and the presence of these phases was confirmed by electron probe microanalysis. The effects of rhenium on the reactivity were established by the determination of growth kinetics deducted from the thicknesses of reaction zones as a function of annealing time. It has been found that an increase in the diffusion kinetics and activation energy with the quantity of rhenium in the tungsten wire. (authors)

  11. Rapid additive manufacturing of MR compatible multipinhole collimators with selective laser melting of tungsten powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Karel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas; Van Holen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    The construction of complex collimators with a high number of oblique pinholes is very labor intensive, expensive or is sometimes impossible with the current available techniques (drilling, milling or electric discharge machining). All these techniques are subtractive: one starts from solid plates and the material at the position of the pinholes is removed. The authors used a novel technique for collimator construction, called metal additive manufacturing. This process starts with a solid piece of tungsten on which a first layer of tungsten powder is melted. Each subsequent layer is then melted on the previous layer. This melting is done by selective laser melting at the locations where the CAD design file defines solid material. A complex collimator with 20 loftholes with 500 μm diameter pinhole opening was designed and produced (16 mm thick and 70 × 52 mm(2) transverse size). The density was determined, the production accuracy was measured (GOM ATOS II Triple Scan, Nikon AZ100M microscope, Olympus IMT200 microscope). Point source measurements were done by mounting the collimator on a SPECT detector. Because there is increasing interest in dual-modality SPECT-MR imaging, the collimator was also positioned in a 7T MRI scanner (Bruker Pharmascan). A uniform phantom was acquired using T1, T2, and T2* sequences to check for artifacts or distortion of the phantom images due to the collimator presence. Additionally, three tungsten sample pieces (250, 500, and 750 μm thick) were produced. The density, attenuation (140 keV beam), and uniformity (GE eXplore Locus SP micro-CT) of these samples were measured. The density of the collimator was equal to 17.31 ± 0.10 g∕cm(3) (89.92% of pure tungsten). The production accuracy ranges from -260 to +650 μm. The aperture positions have a mean deviation of 5 μm, the maximum deviation was 174 μm and the minimum deviation was -122 μm. The mean aperture diameter is 464 ± 19 μm. The calculated and measured sensitivity and

  12. In vivo corrosion, tumor outcome, and microarray gene expression for two types of muscle-implanted tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.E.; Roszell, L.E.; Murr, L.E.; Ramirez, D.A.; Demaree, J.D.; Klotz, B.R.; Rosencrance, A.B.; Dennis, W.E.; Bao, W.; Perkins, E.J.; Dillman, J.F.; Bannon, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten alloys are composed of tungsten microparticles embedded in a solid matrix of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. To understand the toxicology of these alloys, male F344 rats were intramuscularly implanted with pellets of tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, or pure tungsten, with tantalum pellets as a negative control. Between 6 and 12 months, aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas formed around tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets, while those of tungsten/nickel/iron or pure tungsten did not cause cancers. Electron microscopy showed a progressive corrosion of the matrix phase of tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets over 6 months, accompanied by high urinary concentrations of nickel and cobalt. In contrast, non-carcinogenic tungsten/nickel/iron pellets were minimally corroded and urinary metals were low; these pellets having developed a surface oxide layer in vivo that may have restricted the mobilization of carcinogenic nickel. Microarray analysis of tumors revealed large changes in gene expression compared with normal muscle, with biological processes involving the cell cycle significantly up‐regulated and those involved with muscle development and differentiation significantly down‐regulated. Top KEGG pathways disrupted were adherens junction, p53 signaling, and the cell cycle. Chromosomal enrichment analysis of genes showed a highly significant impact at cytoband 7q22 (chromosome 7) which included mouse double minute (MDM2) and cyclin‐dependant kinase (CDK4) as well as other genes associated with human sarcomas. In conclusion, the tumorigenic potential of implanted tungsten alloys is related to mobilization of carcinogenic metals nickel and cobalt from corroding pellets, while gene expression changes in the consequent tumors are similar to radiation induced animal sarcomas as well as sporadic human sarcomas. -- Highlights: ► Tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, and pure tungsten were studied. ► Male Fischer rats implanted with

  13. In vivo corrosion, tumor outcome, and microarray gene expression for two types of muscle-implanted tungsten alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, B.E. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, B434 Mulberry Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5609 (United States); Roszell, L.E. [U.S. Army Institute of Public Health, 5158 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010‐5403 (United States); Murr, L.E.; Ramirez, D.A. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Demaree, J.D. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, B434 Mulberry Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5609 (United States); Klotz, B.R. [Dynamic Science Inc., Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005‐5609 (United States); Rosencrance, A.B.; Dennis, W.E. [U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, Department of Chemistry, Ft. Detrick, MD 21702‐5010 (United States); Bao, W. [SAS Institute, Inc. SAS Campus Drive, Cary, NC 27513 (United States); Perkins, E.J. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 3909 Hall Ferry Road, Vicksburg MS 39180 (United States); Dillman, J.F. [U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010‐5400 (United States); Bannon, D.I., E-mail: desmond.bannon@us.army.mil [U.S. Army Institute of Public Health, 5158 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010‐5403 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Tungsten alloys are composed of tungsten microparticles embedded in a solid matrix of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. To understand the toxicology of these alloys, male F344 rats were intramuscularly implanted with pellets of tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, or pure tungsten, with tantalum pellets as a negative control. Between 6 and 12 months, aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas formed around tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets, while those of tungsten/nickel/iron or pure tungsten did not cause cancers. Electron microscopy showed a progressive corrosion of the matrix phase of tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets over 6 months, accompanied by high urinary concentrations of nickel and cobalt. In contrast, non-carcinogenic tungsten/nickel/iron pellets were minimally corroded and urinary metals were low; these pellets having developed a surface oxide layer in vivo that may have restricted the mobilization of carcinogenic nickel. Microarray analysis of tumors revealed large changes in gene expression compared with normal muscle, with biological processes involving the cell cycle significantly up‐regulated and those involved with muscle development and differentiation significantly down‐regulated. Top KEGG pathways disrupted were adherens junction, p53 signaling, and the cell cycle. Chromosomal enrichment analysis of genes showed a highly significant impact at cytoband 7q22 (chromosome 7) which included mouse double minute (MDM2) and cyclin‐dependant kinase (CDK4) as well as other genes associated with human sarcomas. In conclusion, the tumorigenic potential of implanted tungsten alloys is related to mobilization of carcinogenic metals nickel and cobalt from corroding pellets, while gene expression changes in the consequent tumors are similar to radiation induced animal sarcomas as well as sporadic human sarcomas. -- Highlights: ► Tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, and pure tungsten were studied. ► Male Fischer rats implanted with

  14. Interfaces between Model Co-W-C Alloys with Various Carbon Contents and Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Konyashin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interfaces between alloys simulating binders in WC-Co cemented carbides and tungsten carbide were examined on the micro-, nano-, and atomic-scale. The precipitation of fine WC grains and η-phase occurs at the interface of the alloy with the low carbon content. The precipitation of such grains almost does not occur in the alloy with the medium-low carbon content and does not take place in the alloy with the high carbon content. The formation of Co nanoparticles in the binder alloy with the medium-low carbon content was established. Interfaces in the alloy with the medium-low carbon content characterized by complete wetting with respect to WC and with the high carbon content characterized by incomplete wetting were examined at an atomic scale. The absence of any additional phases or carbon segregations at both of the interfaces was established. Thus, the phenomenon of incomplete wetting of WC by liquid binders with high carbon contents is presumably related to special features of the Co-based binder alloys oversaturated with carbon at sintering temperatures.

  15. Interfaces between Model Co-W-C Alloys with Various Carbon Contents and Tungsten Carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyashin, Igor; Zaitsev, Alexander; Meledin, Alexander; Mayer, Joachim; Loginov, Pavel; Levashov, Evgeny; Ries, Bernd

    2018-03-09

    Interfaces between alloys simulating binders in WC-Co cemented carbides and tungsten carbide were examined on the micro-, nano-, and atomic-scale. The precipitation of fine WC grains and η-phase occurs at the interface of the alloy with the low carbon content. The precipitation of such grains almost does not occur in the alloy with the medium-low carbon content and does not take place in the alloy with the high carbon content. The formation of Co nanoparticles in the binder alloy with the medium-low carbon content was established. Interfaces in the alloy with the medium-low carbon content characterized by complete wetting with respect to WC and with the high carbon content characterized by incomplete wetting were examined at an atomic scale. The absence of any additional phases or carbon segregations at both of the interfaces was established. Thus, the phenomenon of incomplete wetting of WC by liquid binders with high carbon contents is presumably related to special features of the Co-based binder alloys oversaturated with carbon at sintering temperatures.

  16. Interfaces between Model Co-W-C Alloys with Various Carbon Contents and Tungsten Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyashin, Igor; Zaitsev, Alexander; Mayer, Joachim; Loginov, Pavel; Levashov, Evgeny; Ries, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Interfaces between alloys simulating binders in WC-Co cemented carbides and tungsten carbide were examined on the micro-, nano-, and atomic-scale. The precipitation of fine WC grains and η-phase occurs at the interface of the alloy with the low carbon content. The precipitation of such grains almost does not occur in the alloy with the medium-low carbon content and does not take place in the alloy with the high carbon content. The formation of Co nanoparticles in the binder alloy with the medium-low carbon content was established. Interfaces in the alloy with the medium-low carbon content characterized by complete wetting with respect to WC and with the high carbon content characterized by incomplete wetting were examined at an atomic scale. The absence of any additional phases or carbon segregations at both of the interfaces was established. Thus, the phenomenon of incomplete wetting of WC by liquid binders with high carbon contents is presumably related to special features of the Co-based binder alloys oversaturated with carbon at sintering temperatures. PMID:29522437

  17. In-situ field-ion microscope study of the recovery behavior of heavy metal ion-irradiated tungsten, tungsten (rhenium) alloys and molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, C.H.

    1977-06-01

    Three field ion microscope (FIM) experiments were carried out to study the annealing behavior of heavy ion irradiated tungsten, tungsten (rhenium) alloys and molybdenum. The first experiment dealt with the stage I long-range migration of tungsten self interstitial atoms (SIAs) in high purity tungsten of resistivity ratio, R = 24,000 (R = rho 300 /rho 4 . 2 , where rho 300 and rho 4 . 2 are the room temperature and 0 0 C resistivities). The FIM specimens were irradiated in situ at 18 K with 30 keV W + ions to an average dose of 5 x 10 12 ions cm -2 and subsequently examined by the pulsed-field evaporation technique. The second experiment dealt with the phenomenon of impurity atom trapping of SIAs during long-range migration. It was shown that rhenium atoms in a tungsten matrix tend to capture tungsten SIAs and remain bound up to temperatures as high as 390 K. The final experiment was concerned with the low temperature annealing kinetics of irradiated molybdenum. High purity molybdenum of resistivity ratio R = 5700 was irradiated at 10 K with 30 keV Mo + ions to a dose of approximately 5 x 10 12 ions cm -2 . The results indicated that the electric field has only a minimal effect on the SIA annealing kinetics. This tends to strengthen the contention that the molybdenum SIA becomes mobile at 32 K

  18. Titanium nitride deposition in titanium implant alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, V.A.R.; Cairo, C.A.A.; Faria, J.; Lemos, T.G.; Galvani, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is an extremely hard material, often used as a coating on titanium alloy, steel, carbide, and aluminum components to improve wear resistance. Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) is a form of deposition in which a target anode is bombarded with an electron beam given off by a charged tungsten filament under high vacuum, producing a thin film in a substrate. In this work are presented results of TiN deposition in targets and substrates of Ti (C.P.) and Ti- 13 Nb- 13 Zr obtained by powder metallurgy. Samples were produced by mixing of hydride metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering between 900°C up to 1400 °C, in vacuum. The deposition was carried out under nitrogen atmosphere. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. It was shown that the samples were sintered to high densities and presented homogeneous microstructure, with ideal characteristics for an adequate deposition and adherence. The film layer presented a continuous structure with 15μm. (author)

  19. Comparative study of the acute lung toxicity of pure cobalt powder and cobalt-tungsten carbide mixture in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, G; Lison, D; Maldague, P; Lauwerys, R

    1992-01-01

    Alveolitis progressing to lung fibrosis has been reported in workers exposed to cobalt containing dust (e.g., tungsten carbide-cobalt mixture as produced by the hard metal industry) but rarely following exposure to pure cobalt dust (e.g., in cobalt-producing factories). We have previously demonstrated that tungsten carbide-cobalt mixture is more toxic toward rat alveolar macrophages in vitro than pure cobalt metal powder. The present study was undertaken to compare in female rats the acute pulmonary response (lung weight, lung histology, cellular and biochemical analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and mortality) following the intratracheal instillation of pure cobalt (Co) particles (median particle size, d50:4 microns), pure tungsten carbide (WC) particles (d50:2 microns), tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) powder (d50:2 microns; cobalt 6.3%, tungsten 84%, carbon 5.4%) and crystalline silica (d50 less than 5 micron) used as pneumotoxic reference material. WC alone (15.67 mg/100 g body wt) behaves as an inert dust producing only a mild accumulation of macrophages in the alveolar duct walls. Co alone (1.0 mg/100 g) only causes a moderate inflammatory response. An identical amount of Co given as WC-Co mixture (16.67 mg/100 g; corresponding to 1.0 mg Co/100 g) produces a severe alveolitis and fatal pulmonary edema. Cellular and biochemical characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected 24 hr after the intratracheal instillation of WC (1.0 mg/100 g) or Co (0.06 mg/100 g) are not significantly different from those of control animals instilled with sterile saline. On the contrary, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid changes following administration of the WC-Co mixture (1.0 mg/100 g; corresponding to 0.06 mg Co/100 g) are very similar to those induced by crystalline silica (1.0 mg/100 g). The amount of cobalt excreted in urine is significantly higher when the animals are exposed to WC-Co powder as compared to an equivalent amount of pure cobalt particles

  20. A first-principles model for anomalous segregation in dilute ternary tungsten-rhenium-vacancy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, J. S.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Kurzydłowski, K. J.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of segregation in dilute alloys under irradiation is a highly unusual phenomenon that has recently attracted attention, stimulated by the interest in the fundamental properties of alloys as well as by their applications. The fact that solute atoms segregate in alloys that, according to equilibrium thermodynamics, should exhibit full solubility, has significant practical implications, as the formation of precipitates strongly affects physical and mechanical properties of alloys. A lattice Hamiltonian, generalizing the so-called ‘ABV’ Ising model and including collective many-body inter-atomic interactions, has been developed to treat rhenium solute atoms and vacancies in tungsten as components of a ternary alloy. The phase stability of W-Re-vacancy alloys is assessed using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and cluster expansion (CE) simulations. The accuracy of CE parametrization is evaluated against the DFT data, and the cross-validation error is found to be less than 4.2 meV/atom. The free energy of W-Re-vacancy ternary alloys is computed as a function of temperature using quasi-canonical Monte Carlo simulations, using effective two, three and four-body interactions. In the low rhenium concentration range (chemical Re-W and Re-vacancy interactions and short-range order parameters. DFT calculations show that rhenium-vacancy binding energies can be as high as 1.5 eV if the rhenium/vacancy ratio is in the range from 2.4 to 6.6. The predicted Re clustering agrees with experimental observations of precipitation in self-ion irradiated W-2 % Re alloys and neutron-irradiated alloys containing 1.4 at. % Re.

  1. Shape distortion and dimensional precision in tungsten heavy alloy liquid phase sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuwen Yi; German, R.M.; Lu, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Microstructure effects on densification and shape distortion in liquid phase sintering of tungsten heavy alloy were investigated. Microstructure parameters such as the solid volume fraction, dihedral angle, initial porosity, and pore size were varied to measure densification and distortion behavior during LPS using W-Ni-Cu alloys. Green compacts were formed using ethylene-bis-stearamide as a pore-forming agent with the amount of polymer controlling the initial porosity. Different initial pore sizes were generated by varying the polymer particle size. Dihedral angle was varied by changing the Ni:Cu ratio in the alloys. Finally, the solid volume fraction was adjusted via the tungsten content. Distortion was quantified using profiles determined with a coordinate measuring machine to calculate a distortion parameter. Sintering results showed that solid volume fraction and dihedral angle are the dominant factors on densification and distortion during liquid phase sintering. Distortion decreases with increasing solid volume fraction and dihedral angle, while initial porosity and pore size have no observable effect on distortion at nearly full densification. Various strategies emerge to improve distortion control in liquid phase sintering. (author)

  2. Review of the Methods for Production of Spherical Ti and Ti Alloy Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Spherical titanium alloy powder is an important raw material for near-net-shape fabrication via a powder metallurgy (PM) manufacturing route, as well as feedstock for powder injection molding, and additive manufacturing (AM). Nevertheless, the cost of Ti powder including spherical Ti alloy has been a major hurdle that prevented PM Ti from being adopted for a wide range of applications. Especially with the increasing importance of powder-bed based AM technologies, the demand for spherical Ti powder has brought renewed attention on properties and cost, as well as on powder-producing processes. The performance of Ti components manufactured from powder has a strong dependence on the quality of powder, and it is therefore crucial to understand the properties and production methods of powder. This article aims to provide a cursory review of the basic techniques of commercial and emerging methods for making spherical Ti powder. The advantages as well as limitations of different methods are discussed.

  3. Heat-Resistance of the Powder Cobalt Alloys Reinforced by Niobium or Titanium Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherepova, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of heat-resistance of powder cobalt alloys at 1100 °C were investigated. These alloys were developed for the protection of workers banding shelves GTE blades from wear. The alloys were prepared by hot pressing powders of cobalt, chromium, aluminum, iron and niobium or titanium carbides. The values of heat resistance alloys containing carbides between 30 and 70% (vol. depend on the type made of carbide alloys: alloys with titanium carbide superior in heat-resistant alloy of niobium carbide. The most significant factor affecting on the heat-resistant alloys, is porosity: with its increase the parameters decline regardless of the type and content of carbide. The optimum composition of powder heat resisting alloys of titanium carbide with a melting point above 1300 °C were determined for use in the aircraft engine.

  4. The Effect of Tungsten and Niobium on the Stress Relaxation Rates of Disk Alloy CH98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2003-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickel-base superalloy disks with 1300 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, CH98, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines and is being studied in NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. For large disks, residual stresses generated during quenching from solution heat treatment are often reduced by a stabilization heat treatment, in which the disk is heated to 1500 to 1600 F for several hours followed by a static air cool. The reduction in residual stress levels lessens distortion during machining of disks. However, previous work on CH98 has indicated that stabilization treatments decrease creep capability. Additions of the refractory elements tungsten and niobium improve tensile and creep properties after stabilization, while maintaining good crack growth resistance at elevated temperatures. As the additions of refractory elements increase creep capability, they might also effect stress relaxation rates and therefore the reduction in residual stress levels obtained for a given stabilization treatment. To answer this question, the stress relaxation rates of CH98 with and without tungsten and niobium additions are compared in this paper for temperatures and times generally employed in stabilization treatments on modern disk alloys.

  5. Effect of process control agent (PCA) on the characteristics of mechanically alloyed Ti-Mg powders [Journal article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available the milling media. The fracturing process exposes new surfaces over which atomic diffusion occurs, leading to alloying. Mechanical alloying has been applied to titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg) powders in order to produce Ti-Mg alloy powders. Ti-Mg alloys.... The powder mixture was made from elemental titanium powder (~99.5% purity) and elemental magnesium powder (~99.5% purity). The sizes of the powder particles were less than 45 ?m for Ti and less than 75 ?m for Mg. The particles of the Ti powder were...

  6. Production of a low young modulus titanium alloy by powder metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Dalcy Roberto dos; Henriques,Vinicius André Rodrigues; Cairo,Carlos Alberto Alves; Pereira,Marcelo dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    Titanium alloys have several advantages over ferrous and non-ferrous metallic materials, such as high strengthto-weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. A blended elemental titanium powder metallurgy process has been developed to offer low cost commercial products. The process employs hydride-dehydride (HDH) powders as raw material. In this work, results of the Ti-35Nb alloy sintering are presented. This alloy due to its lower modulus of elasticity and high biocompatibility is a prom...

  7. Quantifying the properties of low-cost powder metallurgy titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E.M.; Gordo, E.

    2017-01-01

    The extensive industrial employment of titanium is hindered by its high production costs where reduction of these costs can be achieved using cheap alloying elements and appropriate alternative processing techniques. In this work the feasibility of the production of low-cost titanium alloys is addressed by adding steel to pure titanium and processing the alloys by powder metallurgy. In particular, a spherical 4140 LCH steel powder commonly used in metal injection moulding is blended with irregular hydride-dehydride Ti. The new low-cost alloys are cold uniaxially pressed and sintered under high vacuum and show comparable properties to other wrought-equivalent and powder metallurgy titanium alloys. Differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that Ti can tolerate the employment of iron as primary alloying element without forming detrimental TiFe-based intermetallic phases. Thus, the newly designed α+β alloys could be used for cheaper non-critical components.

  8. Microstructure of rapidly solidified Nb-based pre-alloyed powders for additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yueling; Jia, Lina, E-mail: jialina@buaa.edu.cn; Kong, Bin; Zhang, Shengnan; Zhang, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hu

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Sphere shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by PREP. • An oxide layer with a thickness of 9.39 nm was generated on the powder surface. • The main phases of the pre-alloyed powders were Nbss and Cr{sub 2}Nb. • SDAS increased and microhardness decreased with the increase of powder size. • Microstructure of powders evolved into large grains from dendrite structures after HT. - Abstract: For powder-based additive manufacturing, sphere-shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP). The microstructure, surface oxidation and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders were systematically investigated. Results showed that the main phases were Nb solid solution (Nbss) and Cr{sub 2}Nb. The Cr{sub 2}Nb phases were further determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fine dendrite structures were observed in the as-fabricated pre-alloyed powders, which transformed to large grains after heat treatment (HT) at 1450 °C for 3 h. With the increase of powder size, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) increased and the microhardness (HV) decreased. A clean powder surface free of oxide particles was obtained by PREP and an oxide layer with 9.39 nm in thickness was generated on the powder surface. Compared with Cr- and Nb-oxides, more Ti-oxides were formed on outmost powder surface with a higher content of Ti (up to 47.86 at.%). The differences upon the microstructure and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders with different sizes were discussed.

  9. Powder metallurgy processing of high strength turbine disk alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Using vacuum-atomized AF2-1DA and Mar-M432 powders, full-scale gas turbine engine disks were fabricated by hot isostatically pressing (HIP) billets which were then isothermally forged using the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft GATORIZING forging process. While a sound forging was produced in the AF2-1DA, a container leak had occurred in the Mar-M432 billet during HIP. This resulted in billet cracking during forging. In-process control procedures were developed to identify such leaks. The AF2-1DA forging was heat treated and metallographic and mechanical property evaluation was performed. Mechanical properties exceeded those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability turbine disk alloys presently used.

  10. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Otruba, Vitezslav [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: viktork@chemi.muni.cz

    2006-05-15

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm{sup 3}) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between {+-} 3% and {+-} 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed

  11. Ultrasonic characterization of microstructure in powder metal alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Ahlberg, L. A.; Fertig, K.

    1986-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave propagation characteristics were measured for IN-100, a powder metallurgy alloy used for aircraft engine components. This material was as a model system for testing the feasibility of characterizing the microstructure of a variety of inhomogeneous media including powder metals, ceramics, castings and components. The data were obtained for a frequency range from about 2 to 20 MHz and were statistically averaged over numerous volume elements of the samples. Micrographical examination provided size and number distributions for grain and pore structure. The results showed that the predominant source for the ultrasonic attenuation and backscatter was a dense (approx. 100/cubic mm) distribution of small micropores (approx. 10 micron radius). Two samples with different micropore densities were studied in detail to test the feasibility of calculating from observed microstructural parameters the frequency dependence of the microstructural backscatter in the regime for which the wavelength is much larger than the size of the individual scattering centers. Excellent agreement was found between predicted and observed values so as to demonstrate the feasibility of solving the forward problem. The results suggest a way towards the nondestructive detection and characterization of anomalous distributions of micropores when conventional ultrasonic imaging is difficult. The findings are potentially significant toward the application of the early detection of porosity during the materials fabrication process and after manufacturing of potential sites for stress induced void coalescence leading to crack initiation and subsequent failure.

  12. Two-Zone Microstructures in Al-18Si Alloy Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, J. E.; Bogno, A.-A.; Henein, H.

    2018-02-01

    Hypereutectic Al-18 wt pct Si alloy is widely used in automotive industry as a wear-resistant alloy for engine components. However, in the last few years, this traditional composition is being considered for processing by different rapid solidification methods. Positive points include its low thermal expansion and uniform distribution of surface oxides. Nevertheless, the microstructural aspects of Al-Si powders of 18 wt pct Si are still need to be addressed, such as, the eutectic Si morphology, size, and distribution generated by different process conditions during rapid solidification. Based on a detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructures of rapid solidified Al-18 wt pct Si in this work, solidification conditions that yield specific Si morphologies, Si spacing, and thermal cooling conditions are outlined. The focus is determining the solidification conditions that will yield a specified shape of eutectic Si. It is shown that Si morphology is dependent on a combination of growth velocity (based on modified JH model) and temperature gradient. Furthermore, the highest hardness is achieved with globular morphologies of Si. The processing conditions required to achieve these properties are outlined.

  13. The effect of Co alloying content on the kinetics of reaction zone growth in tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Tien, J. K.; Caulfield, T.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    A Co-free modified superalloy similar in composition to Waspaloy is investigated in an effort to understand the effect of Co on reaction zone growth kinetics and verify the chemistry dependence of reaction zone growth in the matrix of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composites. The values of the parabolic rate constant, characterizing the kinetics of reaction zone growth, for the Waspaloy matrix and the C-free alloy as well as five other alloys from a previous study confirm the dependence of reaction zone growth kinetics on cobalt content of the matrix. The Co-free alloy composite exhibits the slowest reaction zone growth among all tungsten fiber reinforced composites studied to date.

  14. Production of titanium alloys for advanced aerospace systems by powder metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Vinicius André Rodrigues; Campos, Pedro Paulo de; Cairo, Carlos Alberto Alves; Bressiani, José Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Titanium alloys parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high specific strength at both room temperature and moderately elevated temperature, in addition to excellent corrosion resistance. Despite these features, use of titanium alloys in engines and airframes is limited by cost. The alloys processing by powder metallurgy eases the obtainment of parts with complex geometry. In this work, results of the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys pro...

  15. A process for electrodeposition of layers of niobium, vanadium, molybdenum or tungsten, or of their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diepers, H.; Schmidt, O.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement is proposed for the process for electrodeposition of layers of niobium, vanadium, molybdenum or tungsten or of their alloys from molten-salt electrolytes (fluorid melts) which is to increase the quality of layers in order to obtain regular thickness and smooth surfaces. According to the invention, a pre-separation is executed on an auxiliary cathode before the (preheated) cathode is immersed. The cathode is only charged for separation after the adjustment of a constant anode potential. It is an advantage that the auxiliary cathode is mechanically and electrically connected with the cathode. As an electrolyte, a mixture of niobium fluorides and a eustetic mixture of potassium fluorides, sodium fluorides and lithium fluorides are particularly suitable for the electrodeposition of niobium. (UWI) [de

  16. Microstructural and Mechanical Study of Inconel 625 – Tungsten Carbide Composite Coatings Obtained by Powder Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huebner J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the investigation of fine (~0.54 μm tungsten carbide particles effect on structural and mechanical properties of laser cladded Inconel 625-WC composite. Three powder mixtures with different Inconel 625 – WC weight ratio (10, 20 and 30 weight % of WC were prepared. Coatings were made using following process parameters: laser beam diameter ø ≈ 500 μm, powder feeder rotation speed – 7 m/min, scanning velocity – 10 m/min, laser power – 220 W changed to 320 W, distance between tracks – 1 mm changed to 0.8 mm. Microstructure and hardness were investigated. Coatings produced by laser cladding were crack and pore free, chemically and structurally homogenous. High cooling rate during cladding process resulted in fine microstructure of material. Hardness improved with addition of WC from 396.3 ±10.5 HV for pure Inconel 625, to 469.9 ±24.9 HV for 30 weight % of WC. Tungsten carbide dissolved in Inconel 625 which allowed formation of intergranular eutectic that contains TCP phases.

  17. Fabrication of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders by ball milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Nam, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ti-Ni and Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders have been fabricated by ball milling method, and then alloying behavior and transformation behavior were investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. As milled Ti-Ni powders fabricated with milling time less than 20 hrs was a mixture of pure elemental Ti and Ni, and therefore it was unable to obtain alloy powders because the combustion reaction between Ti and Ni occurred during heat treatment. Since those fabricated with milling time more than 20 hrs was a mixture of Ti-rich and Ni-rich Ti-Ni solid solution, however, it was possible to obtain alloy powders without the combustion reaction during heat treatment. Clear exothermic and endothermic peaks appeared in the cooling and heating curves, respectively in DSC curves of 20 hrs and 30 hrs milled Ti-Ni powders. On the other hand, in DSC curves of 1 hr, 10 hrs, 50 hrs and 100 hrs, the thermal peaks were almost discernible. The most optimum ball milling time for fabricating Ti-Ni alloy powders was 30 hrs. Ti-40Ni-10Cu(at%) alloy powders were fabricated successfully by ball milling conditions with rotating speed of 100 rpm and milling time of 30 hrs. (author)

  18. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Li

    Full Text Available Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20–110 μm. With the decrease of particle size, a transformation from typical dendrite solidification structure to fine cell microstructure occurs. The surface of the spheroidized powder is coated by a layer of oxides consisting mainly of TiO2 and Nb2O5. Probabilities of sinter-neck formation and particle coalescence increases with increasing sintering temperature. Porous skeleton with relatively homogeneous pore distribution and open pore channel is formed after vacuum sintering at 1700 °C, and the porosity is 32%. The sintering kinetic analysis indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism during sintering process. Keywords: Powder metallurgy, Nb-Ti based alloy, Porous material, Mechanical alloying, Plasma spheroidizing, Solidification microstructure

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Grain Boundary Segregation and Embrittlement in Tungsten for Mechanistic Design of Alloys for Coal Fired Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jian; Tomar, Vikas; Zhou, Naixie; Lee, Hongsuk

    2013-06-30

    Based on a recent discovery of premelting-like grain boundary segregation in refractory metals occurring at high temperatures and/or high alloying levels, this project investigated grain boundary segregation and embrittlement in tungsten (W) based alloys. Specifically, new interfacial thermodynamic models have been developed and quantified to predict high-temperature grain boundary segregation in the W-Ni binary alloy and W-Ni-Fe, W-Ni-Ti, W-Ni-Co, W-Ni-Cr, W-Ni-Zr and W-Ni-Nb ternary alloys. The thermodynamic modeling results have been experimentally validated for selected systems. Furthermore, multiscale modeling has been conducted at continuum, atomistic and quantum-mechanical levels to link grain boundary segregation with embrittlement. In summary, this 3-year project has successfully developed a theoretical framework in combination with a multiscale modeling strategy for predicting grain boundary segregation and embrittlement in W based alloys.

  20. Microstructure of rapidly solidified Nb-based pre-alloyed powders for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueling; Jia, Lina; Kong, Bin; Zhang, Shengnan; Zhang, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hu

    2017-07-01

    For powder-based additive manufacturing, sphere-shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP). The microstructure, surface oxidation and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders were systematically investigated. Results showed that the main phases were Nb solid solution (Nbss) and Cr2Nb. The Cr2Nb phases were further determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fine dendrite structures were observed in the as-fabricated pre-alloyed powders, which transformed to large grains after heat treatment (HT) at 1450 °C for 3 h. With the increase of powder size, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) increased and the microhardness (HV) decreased. A clean powder surface free of oxide particles was obtained by PREP and an oxide layer with 9.39 nm in thickness was generated on the powder surface. Compared with Cr- and Nb-oxides, more Ti-oxides were formed on outmost powder surface with a higher content of Ti (up to 47.86 at.%). The differences upon the microstructure and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders with different sizes were discussed.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Al-20 at. % Cu Powders Produced by Mechanical Alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molka Ben Makhlouf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical alloying is a powder processing technique used to process materials farther from equilibrium state. This technique is mainly used to process difficult-to-alloy materials in which the solid solubility is limited and to process materials where nonequilibrium phases cannot be produced at room temperature through conventional processing techniques. This work deals with the microstructural properties of the Al-20 at. % Cu alloy prepared by high-energy ball milling of elemental aluminum and copper powders. The ball milling of powders was carried out in a planetary mill in order to obtain a nanostructured Al-20 at. % Cu alloy. The obtained powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The structural modifications at different stages of the ball milling are investigated with X-ray diffraction. Several microstructure parameters such as the crystallite sizes, microstrains and lattice parameters are determined.

  2. Creep laws for refractory tungsten alloys between 900 and 1100 oC under low stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallet, D.; Dhers, J.; Levoy, R.; Polcik, P.

    2001-01-01

    Refractory metals and alloys with melting point above 2500 o C, are commonly used at temperature well above 1000 o C. Very few creep data exist at low temperature and low stress. In the present work, we studied the micro-creep deformation and the structure stability of different W and W alloys, W-B, W-La 2 O 3 , W-K, W-Re, in the temperature range 900-1100 o C and stress range 10-50 MPa, up to 500 hours. A Norton type law has been established for those materials. Stress exponents around 1.0 have been obtained. Activation energies have been determined, and are much lower than self diffusion energies for all materials tested. The main mechanism involved has been identified as Harper-Dorn creep, implying some dislocation rearrangement. The dopants are classified according to their efficiency in creep reduction and boron at 100 ppm has been found to be the most efficient, whereas at 10 ppm, it degrades the behavior of stress relieved tungsten. Furthermore, we have found that the addition of some elements may have an efficient effect as recrystallization inhibitor. (author)

  3. Hazard of ultraviolet radiation emitted in gas tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emitted during arc welding frequently causes keratoconjunctivitis and erythema. The extent of the hazard of UVR varies depending on the welding method and conditions. Therefore, it is important to identify the levels of UVR that are present under various conditions. In this study, we experimentally evaluated the hazard of UVR emitted in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of aluminum alloys. The degree of hazard of UVR is measured by the effective irradiance defined in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guidelines. The effective irradiances measured in this study are in the range 0.10-0.91 mW/cm(2) at a distance of 500 mm from the welding arc. The maximum allowable exposure times corresponding to these levels are only 3.3-33 s/day. This demonstrates that unprotected exposure to UVR emitted by GTAW of aluminum alloys is quite hazardous in practice. In addition, we found the following properties of the hazard of UVR. (1) It is more hazardous at higher welding currents than at lower welding currents. (2) It is more hazardous when magnesium is included in the welding materials than when it is not. (3) The hazard depends on the direction of emission from the arc.

  4. Exploration on Wire Discharge Machining Added Powder for Metal-Based Diamond Grinding Wheel on Wire EDM Dressing and Truing of Grinding Tungsten Carbide Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, H. M.; Yang, L. D.; Lin, Y. C.; Lin, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of material removal rate and abrasive grain protrusion on the metal-based diamond grinding wheel were studied to find the optimal parameters for adding powder and wire discharge. In addition, this kind of electric discharge method to add powder on the metal-based diamond grinding wheel on line after dressing and truing will be applied on tungsten carbide to study the grinding material removal rate, grinding wheel wear, surface roughness, and surface micro-hardness.

  5. Powder-metallurgy preparation of NiTi shape-memory alloy using mechanical alloying and spark-plasma sintering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Moravec, H.; Vojtěch, V.; Knaislová, A.; Školáková, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2017), s. 141-144 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03044S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : mechanical alloying * spark plasma sintering * NiTi * shape memory alloy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering ; Materials engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313900224_Powder-metallurgy_preparation_of_NiTi_shape-memory_alloy_using_mechanical_alloying_and_spark-plasma_sintering

  6. Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Continuous and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded alloy 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, A.; Manikandan, M.

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigates the microstructure and mechanical properties of joints fabricated by Continuous and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded alloy 600. Welding was done by autogenous mode. The macro examination was carried out to evaluate the welding defects in the weld joints. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were performed to assess the microstructural changes in the fusion zone. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was carried to evaluate the microsegregation of alloying elements in the fusion zone. The tensile test was conducted to assess the strength of the weld joints. The results show that no welding defects were observed in the fusion zones of Continuous and Pulsed current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. The refined microstructure was found in the pulsed current compared to continuous current mode. Microsegregation was not noticed in the weld grain boundary of continuous and pulsed current mode. The pulsed current shows improved mechanical properties compared to the continuous current mode.

  7. Structure and phase transformation behavior of electroless Ni-P alloys containing tin and tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaraju, J.N.; Jahan, S. Millath; Jain, Anjana; Rajam, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    Autocatalytic ternary Ni-Sn-P, Ni-W-P and quaternary Ni-W-Sn-P films were prepared using alkaline citrate-based baths and compared with binary Ni-P coatings. Energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) showed that binary Ni-P deposit contained 11.3 wt.% of phosphorus. Codeposition of tungsten in Ni-P matrix resulted in ternary Ni-W-P with 5 wt.% P and 7.8 wt.% of tungsten. Incorporation of tin led to ternary Ni-Sn-P deposit containing 0.4 wt.% Sn and 10.3 wt.% P. Presence of both sodium tungstate and sodium stannate in the basic bath had resulted in quaternary coating with 6.9 wt.% W, traces of Sn and 6.4 wt.% P. X-ray diffraction patterns of all the deposits revealed a single, broad peak which showed the nanocrystalline nature of the deposits. For the first time in related literature, the presence of a metastable phase Ni 12 P 5 in ternary deposits is reported in the present study. Metallographic cross-sections of all the deposits revealed the banded/lamellar structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the deposits showed smooth nodules for ternary deposits, but coarse and well-defined nodules for quaternary deposits. DSC studies of phase transformation behavior of the ternary Ni-Sn-P deposit revealed a single sharp exothermic peak at 365 o C. However, ternary Ni-W-P and quaternary Ni-W-Sn-P deposits exhibited a low temperature peak at 300 o C, a split type high temperature peak at 405 and 440 o C and a very high temperature peak at 550 o C. Higher activation energy values were obtained for W-based alloy deposits. Presence of W and Sn has helped to retain high microhardness values even at higher temperatures indicating an improved thermal stability

  8. Laser alloying of AI with mixed Ni, Ti and SiC powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4.4kW Rofin Sinar Nd:YAG laser to improve the surface hardness. Alloying was carried out by depositing Ni, Ti and SiC powders of different weight ratios on the aluminum substrate. The aim...

  9. Laser alloying of Al with mixed Ni, Ti and SiC powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4.4kW Rofin Sinar Nd:YAG laser to improve the surface hardness. Alloying was carried out by depositing Ni, Ti and SiC powders of different weight ratios on the aluminium substrate. The aim...

  10. Tungsten silicide contacts to polycrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Bain, M.F.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Baine, P.; Armstrong, B.M.; Gamble, H.S.; McNeill, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon-germanium alloy layers will be employed in the source-drain engineering of future MOS transistors. The use of this technology offers advantages in reducing series resistance and decreasing junction depth resulting in reduction in punch-through and SCE problems. The contact resistance of metal or metal silicides to the raised source-drain material is a serious issue at sub-micron dimensions and must be minimised. In this work, tungsten silicide produced by chemical vapour deposition has been investigated as a contact metallization scheme to both boron and phosphorus doped polycrystalline Si 1- x Ge x , with 0 ≤x ≤ 0.3. Cross bridge Kelvin resistor (CKBR) structures were fabricated incorporating CVD WSi 2 and polycrystalline SiGe. Tungsten silicide contacts to control polysilicon CKBR structures have been shown to be of high quality with specific contact resistance ρ c values 3 x 10 -7 ohm cm 2 and 6 x 10 -7 ohm cm 2 obtained to boron and phosphorus implanted samples respectively. The SiGe CKBR structures show that the inclusion of Ge yields a reduction in ρ c for both dopant types. The boron doped SiGe exhibits a reduction in ρ c from 3 x 10 -7 to 5 x 10 -8 ohm cm 2 as Ge fraction is increased from 0 to 0.3. The reduction in ρ c has been shown to be due to (i) the lowering of the tungsten silicide Schottky barrier height to p-type SiGe resulting from the energy band gap reduction, and (ii) increased activation of the implanted boron with increased Ge fraction. The phosphorus implanted samples show less sensitivity of ρ c to Ge fraction with a lowest value in this work of 3 x 10 -7 ohm cm 2 for a Ge fraction of 0.3. The reduction in specific contact resistance to the phosphorus implanted samples has been shown to be due to increased dopant activation alone

  11. Effects of Tungsten Addition on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Fe-3.5B Alloy in Liquid Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tungsten addition on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Fe-3.5B alloys in a liquid zinc bath at 520 °C were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron probe micro-analysis. The microstructure evolution in different alloys is analyzed and discussed using an extrapolated Fe-B-W ternary phase diagram. Experimental results show that there are three kinds of borides, the reticular (Fe, W2B, the rod-like (Fe, W3B and flower-like FeWB. The addition of tungsten can refine the microstructure and improve the stability of the reticular borides. Besides, it is beneficial to the formation of the metastable (Fe, W3B phase. The resultant Fe-3.5B-11W (wt % alloy possesses excellent corrosion resistance to liquid zinc. When tungsten content exceeds 11 wt %, the formed flower-like FeWB phase destroys the integrity of the reticular borides and results in the deterioration of the corrosion resistance. Also, the corrosion failure resulting from the spalling of borides due to the initiation of micro-cracks in the grain boundary of borides is discussed in this paper.

  12. Production of High-Purity Anhydrous Nickel(II Perrhenate for Tungsten-Based Sintered Heavy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Leszczyńska-Sejda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the production of high-purity anhydrous nickel(II perrhenate. The method comprises sorption of nickel(II ions from aqueous nickel(II nitrate solutions, using strongly acidic C160 cation exchange resin, and subsequent elution of sorbed nickel(II ions using concentrated perrhenic acid solutions. After the neutralization of the resulting rhenium-nickel solutions, hydrated nickel(II perrhenate is then separated and then dried at 160 °C to obtain the anhydrous form. The resulting compound is reduced in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia in order to produce a Re-Ni alloy powder. This study provides information on the selected properties of the resulting Re-Ni powder. This powder was used as a starting material for the production of 77W-20Re-3Ni heavy alloys. Microstructure examination results and selected properties of the produced sintered heavy alloys were compared to sintered alloys produced using elemental W, Re, and Ni powders. This study showed that the application of anhydrous nickel(II perrhenate in the production of 77W-20Re-3Ni results in better properties of the sintered alloys compared to those made from elemental powders.

  13. Analysis of the Influence of Starting Materials and Processing Conditions on the Properties of W/Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre-Meléndez, Isabel; Arévalo, Cristina; Perez-Soriano, Eva M.; Neubauer, Erich; Rubio-Escudero, Cristina; Kitzmantel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a study of the influence of the starting materials and the processing time used to develop W/Cu alloys is carried out. Regarding powder metallurgy as a promising fabrication route, the difficulties in producing W/Cu alloys motivated us to investigate the influential factors on the final properties of the most industrially demanding alloys: 85-W/15-Cu, 80-W/20-Cu, and 75-W/25-Cu alloys. Two different tungsten powders with large variation among their particle size—fine (Wf) and coarse (Wc) powders—were used for the preparation of W/Cu alloys. Three weight ratios of fine and coarse (Wf:Wc) tungsten particles were analyzed. These powders were labelled as “tungsten bimodal powders”. The powder blends were consolidated by rapid sinter pressing (RSP) at 900 °C and 150 MPa, and were thus sintered and compacted simultaneously. The elemental powders and W/Cu alloys were studied by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal conductivity, hardness, and densification were measured. Results showed that the synthesis of W/Cu using bimodal tungsten powders significantly affects the final alloy properties. The higher the tungsten content, the more noticeable the effect of the bimodal powder. The best bimodal W powder was the blend with 10 wt % of fine tungsten particles (10-Wf:90-Wc). These specimens present good values of densification and hardness, and higher values of thermal conductivity than other bimodal mixtures. PMID:28772502

  14. Fabrication of high-alloy powders consisting of spherical particles from ultradispersed components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhin, A. V.; Fadeev, A. A.; Sinayskiy, M. A.; Alekseev, N. V.; Tsvetkov, Yu. V.; Arzhatkina, O. A.

    2017-07-01

    It is shown that powders of a model high alloy consisting of spherical particles 25-50 μm in size can be synthesized from a starting ultradispersed powder, which is made of a mixture of the alloy components and is fabricated by the magnesiothermal reduction of metal chlorides in the potassium chloride melt. The synthesis includes the stages of microgranulation of an ultradispersed powder, heat treatment of microgranules, classification of the microgranules with the separation of microgranule fraction of 25-50 μm, spheroidization of the separated fraction in a thermal plasma flow, and classification with the separation of a fraction of micro- and submicrometer-sized particles.

  15. Fabrication of metallic alloy powder (Ni{sub 3}Fe) from Fe–77Ni scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Inseok [ES Materials Research Center, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Shun-Myung [Extractive Metallurgy Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Deajeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-An [Department of Environmental Engineering, Silla University, Busan 46958 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Jei-Pil, E-mail: jpwang@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated at an oxygen partial pressure of 0.2 atm and temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 900 °C. The corresponding oxidation rate increased with increasing temperature and obeyed the parabolic rate law, as evidenced by its linear proportionality to the temperature. In addition, surface morphologies, cross-sectional views, compositions, structural properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Diffusion through either the spinel structure or the NiO layer, which were both present in the alloy during oxidation at elevated temperatures, was deemed the rate-limiting step of the reaction. The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was obtained using ball-milling and sieving processes. In fact, 15 h of milling yielded a recovery ratio of 97%. Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reduced to an alloy powder of Ni{sub 3}Fe and reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C. - Highlights: • The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated. • The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap. • Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reclaimed. • Reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C.

  16. Influence of Milling Media on the Mechanical Alloyed W-0.5 wt.% Ti Powder Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Jahangiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of milling atmosphere and mechanical alloying (MA duration on the effective lattice parameter, crystallite size, lattice strain, and amorphization rate of the W-0.5 wt.% Ti powders were investigated. W-0.5 wt.% Ti powders were mechanically alloyed (MA’d for 10 h and 20 h in a high energy ball mill. Moreover, morphology of the powders for various MA was analyzed using SEM microscopy. Their powder density was also measured by helium pycnometer. The dry milled agglomerated powders have spherical particle, while wet milled powders have layered morphology. Milling media and increasing of milling time significantly reduce the crystallite size. The smallest crystallite size is 4.93 nm which belonged to the dry milled powders measured by Lorentzian method after 20 hours’ MA. However, after 20 hours, MA’d powders show the biggest crystallite size, as big as 57.07 nm, measured with the same method in ethanol.

  17. Forming of titanium and titanium alloy miniature-cylinders by electrical-field activated powder sintering and forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkipli Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As demands on miniature products increase significantly, a rapid process and production system for high-throughput, highly flexible and cost-efficient volume production of miniaturised components made from a wide range of materials is needed. A novel and electrical-field-activated sintering and forming process shows the potential to produce solid parts from powder material without any binder. Using titanium (Ti and titanium alloy (90Ti10Sn powder material, several processing parameters have been investigated, such as pressure, heating rate, heating temperature and holding time, which helped to contribute to the optimum result. In this study, using graphite dies, graphite punches and tungsten carbide punches, solid samples were produced, having a cylinder shape of Ø4.00 mm × 4.00 mm. Several properties of the solid Ti and 90Ti10Sn samples, such as density, hardness and the microstructures, were examined, and these showed that good results have been obtained.

  18. Characterization and Cytotoxic Assessment of Ballistic Aerosol Particulates for Tungsten Alloy Penetrators into Steel Target Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Schuster

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM which included energy-dispersive (X-ray spectrometry (EDS. Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549, a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified.

  19. Characterization and Cytotoxic Assessment of Ballistic Aerosol Particulates for Tungsten Alloy Penetrators into Steel Target Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Brenda I.; Murr, Lawrence E.; Suro, Raquel M.; Gaytan, Sara M.; Ramirez, Diana A.; Garza, Kristine M.; Schuster, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co) perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) which included energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS). Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549), a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates) collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate) mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified. PMID:20948926

  20. Comparison of SPS Processing Behavior between As Atomized and Cryomilled Aluminum Alloy 5083 Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Frank; McWilliams, Brandon; Sietins, Jennifer; Giri, Anit; Cho, Kyu

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum 5083 powder, both as atomized and cryomilled, was consolidated via spark plasma sintering (SPS). This study quantified and compared the effects of heating an aluminum alloy powder directly through Joule heating vs indirectly through thermal conduction from the die during SPS processing. When consolidated under the same processing conditions, the cryomilled powders showed faster heating rates and densification than the as atomized powder. It was also possible to process the cryomilled powder in a non-conductive die but not the as atomized powder. This could be ascribed to an improvement in electrical conductivity of the powder due to the break up and redistribution of surface oxides after cryomilling. The changes in behavior as a result of cryomilling and/or changing die material led to samples with different fracture morphologies and increased hardness values.

  1. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    2017-10-10

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  2. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    2017-12-05

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  3. Experimental investigations of visco-plastic properties of the aluminium and tungsten alloys used in KE projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magier M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of studies on dynamic behaviour of construction materials at high strain rates is to determine the variation of mechanical properties (strength, plasticity in function of the strain rate and temperature. On the basis of results of dynamic tests on the properties of constructional materials the constitutive models are formulated to create numerical codes applied to solve constructional problems with computer simulation methods. In the case of military applications connected with the phenomena of gunshot and terminal ballistics it’s particularly important to develop a model of strength and armour penetration with KE projectile founded on reliable results of dynamic experiments and constituting the base for further analyses and optimization of projectile designs in order to achieve required penetration depth. Static and dynamic results of strength investigations of the EN AW-7012 aluminium alloy (sabot and tungsten alloy (penetrator are discussed in this paper. Static testing was carried out with the INSTRON testing machine. Dynamic tests have been conducted using the split Hopkinson pressure bars technique at strain rates up to 1,2 ⋅ 104s−1 (for aluminium alloy and 6 ⋅ 103s−1 (for tungsten alloy.

  4. Experimental investigations of visco-plastic properties of the aluminium and tungsten alloys used in KE projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszka, L.; Magier, M.

    2012-08-01

    The main aim of studies on dynamic behaviour of construction materials at high strain rates is to determine the variation of mechanical properties (strength, plasticity) in function of the strain rate and temperature. On the basis of results of dynamic tests on the properties of constructional materials the constitutive models are formulated to create numerical codes applied to solve constructional problems with computer simulation methods. In the case of military applications connected with the phenomena of gunshot and terminal ballistics it's particularly important to develop a model of strength and armour penetration with KE projectile founded on reliable results of dynamic experiments and constituting the base for further analyses and optimization of projectile designs in order to achieve required penetration depth. Static and dynamic results of strength investigations of the EN AW-7012 aluminium alloy (sabot) and tungsten alloy (penetrator) are discussed in this paper. Static testing was carried out with the INSTRON testing machine. Dynamic tests have been conducted using the split Hopkinson pressure bars technique at strain rates up to 1,2 ṡ 104s-1 (for aluminium alloy) and 6 ṡ 103s-1 (for tungsten alloy).

  5. Properties of WZ21 (%wt) alloy processed by a powder metallurgy route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2015-06-01

    Microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of WZ21 (%wt) alloy prepared by a powder metallurgy route from rapidly solidified powders have been studied. Results were compared to those of the same alloy prepared through a conventional route of casting and extrusion. The microstructure of the extruded ingot consisted of α-Mg grains and Mg3Zn3Y2 (W-phase) and LPSO-phase particles located at grain boundaries. Moreover, stacking faults were also observed within α-Mg grains. The alloy processed by the powder metallurgy route exhibited a more homogeneous and finer microstructure, with a grain size of 2 μm. In this case W-phase and Mg24Y5 phase were identified, but not the LPSO-phase. The microstructural refinement induced by the use of rapidly solidified powders strengthened the alloy at room temperature and promoted superplasticity at higher strain rates. Corrosion behaviour in PBS medium evidenced certain physical barrier effect of the almost continuous arrangements of second phases aligned along the extrusion direction in conventionally processed WZ21 alloy, with a stable tendency around 7 mm/year. On the other hand, powder metallurgy processing promoted significant pitting corrosion, inducing accelerated corrosion rate during prolonged immersion times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Powder metallurgical low-modulus Ti-Mg alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Luo, Tao; Song, Min; Wu, Hong; Xiao, Jian; Tan, Yanni; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Bing; Niu, Xinrui; Hu, Rong; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Mg alloys were prepared using combined techniques of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The alloys mainly consist of super saturations of Mg in Ti matrix, and some laminar structured Ti- and Mg-rich phases. The PM Ti-Mg alloys contain a homogeneous mixtures of nanocrystalline Mg and Ti phases. The novel microstructures result in unconventional mechanical and biological properties. It has been shown that the PM Ti-Mg alloys have a much lower compression modulus (36-50GPa) compared to other Ti alloys, but still remain a very high compressive strength (1500-1800MPa). In addition, the PM Ti-Mg alloys show good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Mg can dissolve in the simulated body fluids, and induce the formation of the calcium phosphate layer. The compression modulus of PM Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the amount of Mg, while the bioactivity increases. Although the corrosion resistance of Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the content of Mg, the alloys still show good stability in simulated body fluid under electrochemical conditions. The indirect and direct cytotoxicity results show that PM Ti-Mg alloys have a good biocompatibility to NIH-3T3 cells. Therefore, the PM Ti-Mg alloys are promising candidates in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Passivation and alloying element retention in gas atomized powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidloff, Andrew J.; Rieken, Joel R.; Anderson, Iver E.

    2017-12-05

    A method for gas atomization of a titanium alloy, nickel alloy, or other alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3)-forming alloy wherein the atomized particles are exposed as they solidify and cool in a very short time to multiple gaseous reactive agents for the in-situ formation of a passivation reaction film on the atomized particles wherein the reaction film retains a precursor halogen alloying element that is subsequently introduced into a microstructure formed by subsequent thermally processing of the atomized particles to improve oxidation resistance.

  8. Development of bonding techniques between tungsten and copper alloy for plasma facing components by HIP method (2). Bonding between tungsten and DS-copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Eto, Motokuni; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Akiba, Masato

    2000-02-01

    Recently, W (tungsten)-alloys are considered as plasma facing material (PFM) for ITER because of these many favorable properties such as high melting point (3655 K), relatively high thermal conductivity and higher resistivity for plasma sputtering. On the other hand, Cu-alloys, especially DS (dispersion strengthened)-Cu, are proposed as heat sink materials because of its high thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties at high temperature. Plasma facing components (PFC) are designed as the duplex structure where W armor tiles are bonded with Cu-alloy heat sink. Then, we started the bonding technology development by hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond W with Cu-alloys because of its many advantages. Until now, it was reported that we could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and OFHC-Cu and the tensile strength was similar with HIP treated OFHC-Cu. In this experiments, bonding tests of W and DS-Cu with insert material were performed. As insert material, OFHC-Cu was used with different thickness. Bonding conditions were selected as 1273 K x 2 hours x 147 MPa. Bonding tests with 0.3 to 1.8 mm thickness OFHC-Cu were successfully bonded but with 0.1 mm thickness was not bonded. From the results of tensile tests, the tensile strength of the specimens with 0.3 and 0.5 mm thickness were decreased at elevated temperature. It was shown that over 1.0 mm thickness OFHC-Cu insert may be needed and the tensile strength were a little higher than that of HIP treated OFHC-Cu. (author)

  9. Study of soft magnetic iron cobalt based alloys processed by powder injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Aline; Lozano, Jaime A.; Machado, Ricardo; Escobar, Jairo A.; Wendhausen, Paulo A.P.

    2008-01-01

    As a near net shape process, powder injection molding (PIM) opens new possibilities to process Fe-Co alloys for magnetic applications. Due to the fact that PIM does not involve plastic deformation of the material during processing, we envisioned the possibility of eliminating vanadium (V), which is generally added to Fe-Co alloys to improve the ductility in order to enable its further shaping by conventional processes such as forging and cold rolling. In our investigation we have found out two main futures related to the elimination of V, which lead to a cost-benefit gain in manufacturing small magnetic components where high-saturation induction is needed at low frequencies. Firstly, the elimination of V enables the achievement of much better magnetic properties when alloys are processed by PIM. Secondly, a lower sintering temperature can be used when the alloy is processed starting with elemental Fe and Co powders without the addition of V

  10. Electrodeposition mechanism and corrosion behavior of multilayer nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allahyarzadeh, M.H.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour

    2017-01-01

    Multilayer nickel-tungsten coatings were deposited on carbon steel using the pulse reverse current technique. Nickel-tungsten layered structure coatings were developed using the continuous and alternative variation of pulse duty cycle at two specific and fixed values. In these coatings, the multi...

  11. Development of simultaneous wire feeding mechanism for nano alloy powder synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kotov, Yury A.; Samatov, Oleg M.; Beketov, Igor V.; Azarkevich, Evgeny I.; Muzarkaev, Aidar M.

    2002-12-01

    In accordance with the Local Lab project, it was necessary to design a mechanism for simultaneous feed of two wires to the explosion chamber and consider the possibility of developing a model for selection of wire parameters. The goal of the work is to explore the possibility of producing powdered mixtures, alloys and intermetallic compounds by a simultaneous electric explosion of two wires made of different metals. A mechanism providing a synchronous feed of two wires to the explosion chamber and their simultaneous electric explosion extends considerably the capabilities of the electric explosion method in production of nanopowders. In this work, we developed simultaneous wire feeding mechanism for alloy nano powders successfully

  12. Electro-deposition metallic tungsten coatings in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt on copper based alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.H., E-mail: dreamerhong77@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Y.C.; Liu, Q.Z.; Li, X.L.; Jiang, F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tungsten coating (>1 mm) was obtained by electro-deposition method in molten salt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different thickness tungsten coatings were obtained by using different durations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good performance of coating was obtained when pulse parameters were modulated. - Abstract: The tungsten coating was prepared by electro-deposition technique on copper alloy substrate in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt. The coating's surface and cross-section morphologies as well as its impurities were investigated by XPS, SEM and line analysis. Various plating durations were investigated in order to obtain an optimal coating's thickness. The results demonstrated that the electro-deposited coating was compact, voidless, crackless and free from impurities. The tungsten coating's maximum Vickers hardness was measured to be 520 HV. The tungsten coating's minimum oxygen content was determined to be 0.018 wt%. Its maximum thickness was measured to be 1043.67 {mu}m when the duration of electrolysis was set to 100 h. The result of this study has demonstrated the feasibility of having thicker tungsten coatings on copper alloy substrates. These electrodeposited tungsten coatings can be potentially implemented as reliable armour for the medium heat flux plasma facing component (PFC).

  13. Development of bonding techniques between tungsten and copper alloy for plasma facing components by HIP method. 1. Bonding between tungsten and oxygen free copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Eto, Motokuni; Akiba, Masato

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, it has been considered that W (tungsten) is one of candidate materials for armor tiles of plasma facing components, like first wall or divertor, of fusion reactor. On the other hand, oxygen free high thermal conductivity (OFHC)-copper is proposed as heat sink materials behind the plasma facing materials because of its high thermal conductivity. However, plasma facing components are exposed to cyclic high heat load and heavily irradiated by 14 MeV neutron. Under these conditions, many unfavorable effects, for instance, thermal stresses of bonding interface, irradiation damage and He atom production by nuclear transmutation, will be decreased bonding strength between W and Cu alloys. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to make plasma facing components which can resist them. Then, we started the bonding technology development by hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond W with Cu alloys. In this experiments, to optimize HIP bonding conditions, four point bending were performed for each bonded conditions at temperature from R.T. to 873 K and we could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and OFHC-Cu as 1273 K x 2 hours x 147 MPa. To evaluate bonding strength of the specimen bonded at these conditions, tensile tests were also performed at same temperature range. The tensile strength was similar with OFHC-Cu which were treated at same conditions. (author)

  14. Production of Dense Compact Billet From Ti-Alloy Powder Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-06

    reservations arise from the observation [8] that sintering can decrease the relative 5 density due to the low meltng temperature of aluminium . Analysis of...Characterization The research utilised a hydride -dehydride (HDH), pre-alloyed Ti-6Al-4V powder supplied by Phelly Materials (U.S.A.) Inc., with a chemical...Fig. 5b show the existence of cracks in larger particles due to comminution of brittle hydride as part of the HDH powder processing method. (a

  15. Fatigue crack growth resistance of gas tungsten arc, electron beam and friction stir welded joints of AA2219 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malarvizhi, S.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    AA2219 aluminium alloy square butt joints without filler metal addition were fabricated using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), electron beam welding (EBW) and friction stir welding (FSW) processes. The effect of three welding processes on fatigue crack growth behaviour is reported in this paper. Transverse tensile properties of the welded joints were evaluated. Microstructure analysis was also carried out using optical and electron microscopes. It was found that the FSW joints are exhibiting superior fatigue crack growth resistance compared to EBW and GTAW joints. This was mainly due to the formation of very fine, dynamically recrystallised grains and uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the weld region.

  16. Metallurgical characterization of pulsed current gas tungsten arc, friction stir and laser beam welded AZ31B magnesium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the influences of welding processes such as friction stir welding (FSW), laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) on mechanical and metallurgical properties of AZ31B magnesium alloy. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction technique were used to evaluate the metallurgical characteristics of welded joints. LBW joints exhibited superior tensile properties compared to FSW and PCGTAW joints due to the formation of finer grains in weld region, higher fusion zone hardness, the absence of heat affected zone, presence of uniformly distributed finer precipitates in weld region.

  17. Dual-Alloy Disks are Formed by Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.; Miner, R. V.; Kortovich, C. S.; Marder, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    High-performance disks have widely varying properties from hub to rim. Dual property disk is fabricated using two nickel-base alloys, AF-115 for rim and Rene 95 for hub. Dual-alloy fabrication may find applications in automobiles, earth-moving equipment, and energy conversion systems as well as aircraft powerplants. There is potential for such applications as shafts, gears, and blades.

  18. Study of the mechanism responsible for the elective toxicity of tungsten carbide-cobalt powder toward macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lison, D; Lauwerys, R

    1992-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that tungsten carbide-cobalt powder (WC-Co) is more toxic toward murine macrophages in vitro than pure cobalt metal particles and that the cellular uptake of cobalt is enhanced when the metal is present in the form of WC-Co mixture. The present study was undertaken to assess the possible mechanism(s) of this interaction. We found that solubilization of cobalt in the extracellular milieu was increased in the presence of WC. This phenomenon, however, is not the critical factor explaining the greater toxicity of the WC-Co mixture since increasing the amount of solubilized cobalt in the extracellular medium in the absence of WC did not result in increased toxicity. Moreover, the amount of cobalt solubilized from a toxic dose of WC-Co was insufficient to affect by itself macrophage viability. A toxic effect was only observed when the WC-Co mixture came directly in contact with the cells. The elective toxicity of WC-Co can also not be explained by stimulation of phagocytosis of cobalt metal particles due to the simultaneous presence of other particles (WC) in the extracellular fluid since stimulation of phagocytosis by latex beads or zymosan particles did not amplify the toxicity of cobalt metal particles. These results indicate that the toxicity of the WC-Co mixture does not simply result from an enhanced bioavailability of its cobalt component. This suggests that hard metal dust behaves as a specific toxic entity.

  19. Nano-particle precipitation in mechanically alloyed and annealed precursor powders of legacy PM2000 ODS alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl, E-mail: k.dawson@liverpool.ac.uk [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Haigh, Sarah J. [School of Materials, Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tatlock, Gordon J.; Jones, Andy R. [Centre for Materials and Structures, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nano-particle formation identified in Plansee PM2000 ODS alloy powders. • Y–Al–O nano-particles observed after annealing at 923 K for 5 h. • Particle diameter ≈2 nm and N{sub V} > 10{sup 23} m{sup −3} over annealing range 1123–1223 K. • Particles dissolved at, and reprecipitated behind, recrystallisation fronts. - Abstract: The early stages of nano-particulate formation in mechanically alloyed and annealed, precursor powders used to manufacture the legacy commercial oxide dispersion strengthened alloy PM2000, formerly produced by Plansee GmbH, have been investigated. Powders were analysed in both the as-mechanically-alloyed condition and after annealing over the temperature range 923–1423 K. The nucleation and growth of coherent nano-particles in the partially recovered, fine grained, ferritic matrix of powders annealed at temperatures as low as 923 K has been confirmed. Powders annealed for 1 h at temperatures of 1123 K and 1223 K were partially recrystallised and contained high number densities (N{sub V} > 10{sup 23} m{sup −3}) of coherent 2 nm yttrium–aluminium–oxygen rich nano-particles. The identification of particle free zones in recrystallised grains, adjacent to recrystallising interfaces, plus the identical orientation relationships between nano-particles and the matrices in both unrecrystallised and recrystallised grains, indicates that the Y–Al–O nano-particles, first formed in fine grained regions, are dissolved during recrystallisation and re-precipitated subsequently in recrystallised grains.

  20. The structure-property relationships of powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prichard, Paul D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-02-23

    Iron-aluminum alloys have been extensively evaluated as semi-continuous product such as sheet and bar, but have not been evaluated by net shape P/M processing techniques such as metal injection molding. The alloy compositions of iron-aluminum alloys have been optimized for room temperature ductility, but have limited high temperature strength. Hot extruded powder alloys in the Fe-Al-Si system have developed impressive mechanical properties, but the effects of sintering on mechanical properties have not been explored. This investigation evaluated three powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys: Fe-15Al, Fe-15Al-2.8Si, Fe-15Al-5Si (atomic %). The powder alloys were produced with a high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) process to obtain a high fraction of metal injection molding (MIM) quality powder (D84 < 32 μm). The powders were consolidated either by P/M hot extrusion or by vacuum sintering. The extruded materials were near full density with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 50 μm. The vacuum sintering conditions produced samples with density ranging from 87% to 99% of theoretical density, with an average grain size ranging from 26 μm to 104 μm. Mechanical property testing was conducted on both extruded and sintered material using a small punch test. Tensile tests were conducted on extruded bar for comparison with the punch test data. Punch tests were conducted from 25 to 550 C to determine the yield strength, and fracture energy for each alloy as a function of processing condition. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was observed to increase with an increasing silicon content. The Fe-15Al-2.8Si alloy was selected for more extensive testing due to the combination of high temperature strength and low temperature toughness due to the two phase α + DO3 structure. This investigation provided a framework for understanding the effects of silicon in powder processing and mechanical property behavior of Fe-Al-Si alloys.

  1. Research on Semisolid Microstructural Evolution of 2024 Aluminum Alloy Prepared by Powder Thixoforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pubo Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel method, powder thixoforming, for net-shape forming of the particle-reinforced Aluminum matrix composites in semi-solid state has been proposed based on powder metallurgy combining with thixoforming technology. The microstructural evolution and phase transformations have been investigated during partial remelting of the 2024 bulk alloy, prepared by cold pressing of atomized alloy powders to clarify the mechanisms of how the consolidated powders evolve into small and spheroidal primary particles available for thixoforming. The effect of heating temperature on the resulting semisolid microstructure has also been discussed. The results indicate that the microstructural evolution includes three stages—the initial rapid coarsening of the fine grains within the powders, the formation of continuous liquid layer on the primary particle surface (the original powder, and the final coarsening—that result from the phase transformations of θ→α, α→L, and α→L and L→α, respectively. The coarsening rate of the primary particles is low, and one original powder always evolves into one spheroidal particle with a continuous liquid layer surface. Properly raising the heating temperature is beneficial for obtaining an ideal semisolid microstructure.

  2. An investigation of wear behaviors of different Monel alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esgin, U.; Özyürek, D. [Karabük University, Technology Faculty, Department of Manufacturing Engineering / Karabuk (Turkey); Kaya, H., E-mail: hasan.kaya@kocaeli.edu.tr [Kocaeli University, Asim Kocabiyik Vocational School of Higher Education, Department of Machine / Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    In the present study, wear behaviors of Monel 400, Monel 404, Monel R-405 and Monel K-500 alloys produced by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) method were investigated. These compounds prepared from elemental powders were cold-pressed (600 MPa) and then, sintered at 1150°C for 2 hours and cooled down to the room temperature in furnace environment. Monel alloys produced by the P/M method were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM+EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness and density measurements. In wear tests, standard pin-on-disk type device was used. Specimens produced within four different Monel Alloys were tested under 1ms{sup −1} sliding speed, under three different loads (20N, 30N and 40N) and five different sliding distances (400-2000 m). The results show that Monel Alloys have γ matrix and that Al{sub 0,9}Ni{sub 4,22} intermetallic phase was formed in the structure. Also, the highest hardness value was measured with the Monel K-500 alloy. In wear tests, the maximum weight loss according to the sliding distance, was observed in Monel 400 and Monel 404 alloys while the minimum weight loss was achieved by the Monel K-500 alloy.

  3. Prediction of heating rate controlled viscous flow activation energy during spark plasma sintering of amorphous alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Tanaji; Harimkar, Sandip P.

    2017-07-01

    The viscous flow behavior of Fe-based amorphous alloy powder during isochronal spark plasma sintering was analyzed under the integrated theoretical background of the Arrhenius and directional structural relaxation models. A relationship between viscous flow activation energy and heating rate was derived. An extension of the pertinent analysis to Ti-based amorphous alloys confirmed the broad applicability of such a relationship for predicting the activation energy for sintering below the glass transition temperature (T g) of the amorphous alloy powders.

  4. Microstructure, mechanical behavior and biocompatibility of powder metallurgy Nb-Ti-Ta alloys as biomedical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Chang, Lin; Liu, Hairong; Li, Yongsheng; Yang, Hailin; Ruan, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    Microstructures, mechanical properties, apatite-forming ability and in vitro experiments were studied for Nb-25Ti-xTa (x=10, 15, 20, 25, 35at.%) alloys fabricated by powder metallurgy. It is confirmed that the alloys could achieve a relative density over 80%. Meanwhile, the increase in Ta content enhances the tensile strength, elastic modulus and hardness of the as-sintered alloys. When increasing the sintering temperatures, the microstructure became more homogeneous for β phase, resulting in a decrease in the modulus and strength. Moreover, the alloys showed a good biocompatibility due to the absence of cytotoxic elements, and were suitable for apatite formation and cell adhesion. In conclusion, Nb-25Ti-xTa alloys are potentially useful in biomedical applications with their mechanical and biological properties being evaluated in this work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison Study on Additive Manufacturing (AM) and Powder Metallurgy (PM) AlSi10Mg Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Moon, S. K.; Yao, X.; Bi, G.; Shen, J.; Umeda, J.; Kondoh, K.

    2018-02-01

    The microstructural and mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg alloys fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM) and powder metallurgy (PM) routes were investigated and compared. The microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy assisted with electron-dispersive spectroscopy. The crystalline features were studied by x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Room-temperature tensile tests and Vickers hardness measurements were performed to characterize the mechanical properties. It was found that the AM alloy had coarser Al grains but much finer Si precipitates compared with the PM alloy. Consequently, the AM alloy showed more than 100% increment in strength and hardness compared with the PM alloy due to the presence of ultrafine forms of Si, while exhibiting moderate ductility.

  6. Comparative evaluation of the in vitro micronucleus test and the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay for the detection of DNA damaging agents: genotoxic effects of cobalt powder, tungsten carbide and cobalt-tungsten carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Goethem, F; Lison, D; Kirsch-Volders, M

    1997-08-01

    Although it is well known that micronuclei may arise from either DNA breakage leading to acentric chromosome fragments or from chromosome/chromatid lagging in anaphase, the ratio between the amount of DNA breakage induced and the frequency of micronuclei expressed in the following interphase is unclear. With the development of the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay, which measures single strand and/or double strand breaks in a cell by cell approach, it is new possible to address this question at the cellular level. We therefore compared the genotoxic potential of pure cobalt powder (Co) and a cobalt-containing alloy, cobalt-tungsten carbide (WC-Co), involved in specific lung disorders, in parallel with the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay (comet assay) and the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (MN) test, both carried out in vitro on isolated human leukocytes. The comet assay indicated that the WC-Co mixture produced a higher level of DNA damage than Co alone; WC alone was not able to induce a dose-dependent DNA breakage effect as was seen for Co and WC-Co. Results from the MN test confirmed these observations. It was clear that the clastogenic property of Co-containing dust is significantly enhanced when the Co metal is mixed with WC and suggested that their physicochemical characteristics may act as one of the important parameters responsible for the increased incidence of lung cancers observed in the population of hard metal workers. In agreement with data obtained in the same laboratory on liposoluble chemicals (PCBs and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons) and from the literature, the results indicate that both the comet assay and the micronucleus test were able to detect differences in the genotoxic potential of the compounds studied. Although the micronucleus test seemed to be less sensitive to assess a synergistic DNA damaging potential of the mixture involved, it detects chromosomal aberrations (chromosome/genome mutations

  7. Fe-Mn-Si master alloy steel by powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zongyin; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2004-01-28

    Fe-Mn-Si master alloy powders were produced by three methods: milling, atomising, and a combination of atomisation and milling. The effects of sintering temperature, time and atmosphere on the properties of sintered steels with these Fe-Mn-Si master alloy powders were studied. The density of the compacts increases with sintering temperature and time. The ultimate tensile strength and hardness increases with sintering temperature and time mainly due to increasing amounts of bainite and martensite after cooling. Elongation is initially raised with sintering temperature and time probably due to improved bonding between powder particles. The compacts with the milled and atomised-milled master alloy showed about the same mechanical properties. On the other hand, the steel with the atomised powder gave lower strength and elongation in both hydrogen and argon-5% hydrogen. Small dimensional changes have been obtained in the steels with milled and atomised-milled Fe-Mn-Si master alloys sintered at 1200 deg. C. It was shown that transient liquid phase sintering accelerates the sintering process, which leads to improved mechanical properties.

  8. High frequency magnetic properties of Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy powder cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.K. [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea); Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Kim, Yoon B.; Jee, K.K. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Choi, G.B. [R and D Center, Changsung Corporation, Incheon (Korea)

    2007-12-15

    Toroidal shape Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy powder cores were prepared from the melt spun Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 15.5}B{sub 7} ribbons by cold pressing using silicon and phenol resin as an insulating material, respectively. The effect of the insulating materials and their content on the high-frequency magnetic properties of the compacted cores were investigated. The Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy powder cores using phenol resin exhibit stable permeability over 1 MHz, showing excellent high-frequency characteristics. The core loss was reduced significantly and the dc-bias property was improved by using phenol resin. Uniform and good insulation by phenol resin leads to the excellent high-frequency characteristics of the cores. Silicon resin as an insulating material was also effective in improving the high frequency characteristics of the Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy powder cores. However, an appropriate coating process for silicon resin should be applied in order to achieve more improved high frequency characteristics of the nanocrystalline alloy powder cores by controlling the thickness of coated layer. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Microstructural and electrical investigation of Cu-Ni-Cr alloys obtained by powder metallurgy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrio, Juan A.G.; Carvalhal, M.A.; Ayabe, L.M.; Monteiro, W.A., E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM/CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, L.C.E. da; Silva Junior, R.V., E-mail: fisica.cch@mackenzie.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work, using the powder metallurgy process, is to synthesize metallic alloys with high mechanical strength and high electric conductivity, after melting optimizing and thermal treatments. The Cu-Ni-Cr (wt%) alloys are characterized in their mechanical and electrical properties as well as the obtained microstructure. Through the process of powder metallurgy, contacts and structural parts can be obtained. The alloys elements are added to copper with the intention to improve their strength, ductility and thermal stability, without causing considerable damages in their form, electrical and thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. The metallic powders were mixed for a suitable time and then they were pressed in a cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa). Afterwards, the specimens were sintered in temperatures varying from 700 up to 800 deg C under vacuum. At last, the samples were homogenized at 550 deg C under vacuum, for special times. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, densification parameter, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. The alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, X-rays powder diffraction, electrical conductivity and Vickers hardness. (author)

  10. Compacting the powder of Al-Cr-Mn Alloy with SPS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pala, Zdeněk; Novák, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2015), s. 129-132 ISSN 1580-2949 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : aluminium alloy * intermetallics * powder metalurgy * spark-plasma sintering Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2015 http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit151/kubatik.pdf

  11. Laser alloying of Al with Ti and Ni based powders to improve wear resistance and hardness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available /s and 0.012m/s scanning speeds • The was no sufficient melting and infusion of the powder into the substrate obtained at high laser scanning speed • The thickness of the alloyed layer was ~0.52mm Results © CSIR 2008 www...

  12. Evaluation of microstructure and phase relations in a powder processed Ti-44Al-12Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.G.; Reddy, R.G.; Wu, J.; Holthus, J.

    1995-01-01

    Titanium aluminides based on the ordered face-centered tetragonal γTiAl phase possess attractive properties, such as low density, high melting point, good elevated temperature strength, modulus retention, and oxidation resistance, making these alloys potential high-temperature structural materials. These alloys can be processed by both ingot metallurgy and powder metallurgy routes. In the present study, three variations of the powder metallurgy route were studied to process a Ti-44Al-12Nb (at.%) alloy: (a) cold pressing followed by reaction sintering (CP process); (b) cold pressing, vacuum hot pressing, and then sintering (HP process); and (c) arc melting, hydride-dehydride process to make the alloy powder, cold isostatic pressing, and then sintering (AM process). Microstructural and phase relations were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The phases identified were Ti 3 Al and TiAl; an additional Nb 2 Al phase was observed in the HP sample. The microstructures of CP and HP processed samples are porous and chemically inhomogeneous whereas the AM processed sample revealed fine equiaxed microstructure. This refinement of the microstructure is attributed to the fine, homogeneous powder produced by the hydride-dehydride process and the high compaction pressures

  13. Early stages of the mechanical alloying of TiC–TiN powder mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, Giovanna; Musu, Elodia; Delogu, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The present work focuses on the alloying behavior of TiC–TiN powder mixtures submitted to mechanical processing by ball milling. Accurate X-ray diffraction analyses indicate a progressive modification of the unit cell parameters of the TiC and TiN phases, suggesting the formation of TiC- and TiN-rich solid solutions with an increasingly larger content of solutes. Once the discrete character of the mechanical treatment is taken into due account, the smooth change of the unit cell parameters can be explained by a sequence of mutual dissolution stages related to individual collisions. At each collision, the average chemical composition of small amounts of TiC- and TiN-rich phases changes discontinuously. The discontinuous changes can be tentatively ascribed to local mass transport processes activated by the mechanical deformation of powders at collisions. -- Highlights: ► Mechanically processed TiC–TiN powder mixtures form two solid solutions. ► An analytical model was developed to describe the mechanical alloying kinetics. ► The amount of powder alloyed at collision was indirectly estimated. ► A few nanomoles of material participate in the alloying process at each collision. ► The chemical composition of the solid solutions was shown to change discontinuously.

  14. Mechanical properties of modified low cobalt powder metallurgy Udimet 700 type alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, Fredric H.

    1989-01-01

    Eight superalloys derived from Udimet 700 were prepared by powder metallurgy, hot isostatically pressed, heat treated and their tensile and creep rupture properties determined. Several of these alloys displayed properties superior to those of Udimet 700 similarly prepared, in one case exceeding the creep rupture life tenfold. Filter clogging by extracted gamma prime, its measurement and significance are discussed in an appendix.

  15. Dissimilar Joining of Stainless Steel and 5083 Aluminum Alloy Sheets by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding-Brazing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheepu, Muralimohan; Srinivas, B.; Abhishek, Nalluri; Ramachandraiah, T.; Karna, Sivaji; Venkateswarlu, D.; Alapati, Suresh; Che, Woo Seong

    2018-03-01

    The dissimilar joining using gas tungsten arc welding - brazing of 304 stainless steel to 5083 Al alloy had been conducted with the addition of Al-Cu eutectic filler metal. The interface microstructure formation between filler metal and substrates, and spreading of the filler metal were studied. The interface microstructure between filler metal and aluminum alloy characterized that the formation of pores and elongated grains with the initiation of micro cracks. The spreading of the liquid braze filler on stainless steel side packed the edges and appeared as convex shape, whereas a concave shape has been formed on aluminum side. The major compounds formed at the fusion zone interface were determined by using X-ray diffraction techniques and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The micro hardness at the weld interfaces found to be higher than the substrates owing to the presence of Fe2Al5 and CuAl2 intermetallic compounds. The maximum tensile strength of the weld joints was about 95 MPa, and the tensile fracture occurred at heat affected zone on weak material of the aluminum side and/or at stainless steel/weld seam interface along intermetallic layer. The interface formation and its effect on mechanical properties of the welds during gas tungsten arc welding-brazing has been discussed.

  16. Ultrasonic evaluation of the morphological characteristics of metallic powders in the context of mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barguet, L; Pezerat, C; Bentahar, M; El Guerjouma, R; Tournat, V

    2015-07-01

    An ultrasonic method is proposed to characterize the morphological (geometrical) aspects of powders through the elastic modulus dependence of their packing on the factors of polydispersity, coordination number and particle shape. During the mechanical alloying process, the variation in geometrical characteristics of powders provides critical information. Ultrasonic parameters are shown to be sensitive not only to the average contact number per bead (i.e. the coordination number) but also to characteristics of the bead size distribution, when given the same sample preparation and confining pressure. These parameters, in turn, are sensitive to both the granular medium polydispersity and particle shapes. A non-monotonic behavior of the ultrasonic velocity (and of the derived compressional wave modulus) is observed throughout the alloying process, which thus offers possibilities for powder structure monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microstructure and microanalysis studies of copper-nickel-tin alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Masson, T.J.; Vitor, E.; Abreu, C.D.; Marques, I.M., E-mail: fisica.cch@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Silva, L.C.E. da, E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the microstructural development in samples of Cu-Ni-Sn alloys (weight %) obtained by powder metallurgy (P/M). The powders were mixed for 1/2 hour. After this, they were pressed, in a cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa). In the next step the specimens were sintered at temperatures varying from 650 up to 780 deg C under vacuum. Secondly, the samples were homogenized at 500 deg C for several special times. The alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity and Vickers hardness. X-rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, densification parameter, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  18. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S., E-mail: fisica.cch@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM/CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, L.C.E. da; Buso, S.J., E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  19. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  20. Wear Resistant Thermal Sprayed Composite Coatings Based on Iron Self-Fluxing Alloy and Recycled Cermet Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki SARJAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal spray and WC-Co based coatings are widely used in areas subjected to abrasive wear. Commercial  cermet thermal spray powders for HVOF are relatively expensive. Therefore applying these powders in cost-sensitive areas like mining and agriculture are hindered. Nowadays, the use of cheap iron based self-fluxing alloy powders for thermal spray is limited. The aim of this research was to study properties of composite powders based on self-fluxing alloys and recycled cermets and to examine the properties of thermally sprayed (HVOF coatings from composite powders based on iron self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders (Cr3C2-Ni and WC-Co. To estimate the properties of  recycled cermet powders, the sieving analysis, laser granulometry and morphology were conducted. For deposition of coatings High Velocity Oxy-Fuel spray was used. The structure and composition of powders and coatings were estimated by SEM and XRD methods. Abrasive wear performance of coatings was determined and compared with wear resistance of coatings from commercial powders. The wear resistance of thermal sprayed coatings from self-fluxing alloy and recycled cermet powders at abrasion is comparable with wear resistance of coatings from commercial expensive spray powders and may be an alternative in tribological applications in cost-sensitive areas.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1338

  1. The synthesis and characterization of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy by powder metallurgy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annur, Dhyah; Franciska, P.L.; Erryani, Aprilia; Amal, M. Ikhlasul; Kartika, Ika, E-mail: pepeng2000@yahoo.com [Research center for Metallurgy and Material, Indonesian Institute of Science (Indonesia); Sitorus, Lyandra S. [Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Known for its biodegradation and biocompatible properties, magnesium alloys have gained many interests to be researched as implant material. In this study, Mg-3Zn-1Ca, Mg-29Zn-1Ca, and Mg-53Zn-4.3Ca (in wt%) were synthesized by means of powder metallurgy method. The compression strength and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy were thoroughly examined. The microstructures of the alloy were characterized using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscope, and also X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion resistance were evaluated using electrochemical analysis. The result indicated that Mg- Zn- Ca alloy could be synthesized using powder metallurgy method. This study showed that Mg-29Zn-1Ca would make the highest mechanical strength up to 159.81 MPa. Strengthening mechanism can be explained by precipitation hardening and grain refinement mechanism. Phase analysis had shown the formation of α Mg, MgO, and intermetallic phases: Mg2Zn11 and also Ca2Mg6Zn3. However, when the composition of Zn reach 53% weight, the mechanical strength will be decreasing. In addition, all of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy studied here had better corrosion resistance (Ecorr around -1.4 VSCE) than previous study of Mg. This study indicated that Mg- 29Zn- 1Ca alloy can be further analyzed to be a biodegradable implant material.

  2. Relationship of Powder Feedstock Variability to Microstructure and Defects in Selective Laser Melted Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. M.; Kloesel, M. F.; Sudbrack, C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Powder-bed additive manufacturing processes use fine powders to build parts layer by layer. For selective laser melted (SLM) Alloy 718, the powders that are available off-the-shelf are in the 10-45 or 15-45 micron size range. A comprehensive investigation of sixteen powders from these typical ranges and two off-nominal-sized powders is underway to gain insight into the impact of feedstock on processing, durability and performance of 718 SLM space-flight hardware. This talk emphasizes an aspect of this work: the impact of powder variability on the microstructure and defects observed in the as-fabricated and full heated material, where lab-scale components were built using vendor recommended parameters. These typical powders exhibit variation in composition, percentage of fines, roughness, morphology and particle size distribution. How these differences relate to the melt-pool size, porosity, grain structure, precipitate distributions, and inclusion content will be presented and discussed in context of build quality and powder acceptance.

  3. High temperature mechanical properties of Ti-47Al-2Cr (at %) alloy produced using powder compact forging of a mechanically milled powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadakuduru, V N; Zhang, D L; Cao, P; Gabbitas, B, E-mail: vnn1@students.waikato.ac.nz [Waikato Centre for Advanced Materials (WaiCAM), Department of Engineering, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-08-15

    Ultrafine grained (UFG) Ti-47Al-2Cr (at %) alloy was prepared using a combination of high energy ball milling of a mixture of elemental powders to produce a Ti/Al/Cr composite powder and forging of compacts of this composite powder. The microstucture of the powder forged alloy was found to be dependent on the initial condition of the powder. The alloy produced by this method has demonstrated good formability, both in tensile and compression testings at elevated temperatures. A ductility of 80-165% in tension has been observed, while in a compression plastic strain of {approx} 50% was found to be easily achievable, without causing cracking. The deformation behaviour of the particular alloy in tension and compression at elevated temperature has been discussed in detail. The results from the present investigation indicate that UFG Ti-47Al-2Cr (at %) alloy produced using powder compact forging has good formability, and is suitable precursor for near-net shaping using thermomechanical processes such as forging and superplastic forming.

  4. Evaluation of Sintering Behavior of Premix Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Rudianto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintering of light aluminium alloys powder has been investigated as a way to substitute steels in automotive and aerospace industries. Premix Al-5.5Zn-2.5Mg-0.5Cu composite powder called Alumix 431D was analyzed in this research. Sintering was carried out under ultra high purity nitrogen gas and before reaching sintering temperature, green samples were delubricated at 400°C for 30 min. The powder possesses high sinterability by reaching 96% relative density at 580°C sintering temperature. Formation of liquid phase seems to support achieving high sintering density. Optimum mechanical properties also were obtained under those conditions. T6 heat treatment was done to improve the mechanical properties by formation of precipitation strengthening, and MgZn2 appears to be dominant strengthening precipitate. X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and SEM-EDS were used to characterize powder, and sintered and heat treated samples.

  5. Fabrication of Fe-Cr-Mo powder metallurgy steel via a mechanical-alloying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyoung; Jeong, Gowoon; Kang, Singon; Lee, Seok-Jae; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we employed a mechanical-alloying process to manufacture low-alloy CrL and CrM steel powders that have similar specifications to their water-atomized counterparts. X-ray diffraction showed that Mo and Cr are alloyed in Fe after four cycles of planetary milling for 1 h at 150 RPM with 15-min pauses between the cycles (designated as P2C4 process). Furthermore, the measured powder size was found to be similar to that of the water-atomized counterparts according to both scanning electron microscope images and laser particle size analysis. The samples were sintered at 1120 °C, after which the P2C4-milled CrL showed similar hardness to that of water-atomized CrL, whereas the P2C4-milled CrM showed about 45% lower hardness than that of its water-atomized counterpart. Water-atomized CrM consists of a well-developed lathtype microstructure (bainite or martensite), while a higher fraction of polygonal ferrite is observed in P2C4-milled CrM. This phase difference causes the reduction of hardness in the P2C4-milled CrM, implying that the phase transformation behavior of specimens produced via powder metallurgy is influenced by the powder fabrication method.

  6. Application of focused ion beam to atom probe tomography specimen preparation from mechanically alloyed powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Pyuck-Pa; Al-Kassab, Tala'at; Kwon, Young-Soon; Kim, Ji-Soon; Kirchheim, Reiner

    2007-10-01

    Focused ion-beam milling has been applied to prepare needle-shaped atom probe tomography specimens from mechanically alloyed powders without the use of embedding media. The lift-out technique known from transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation was modified to cut micron-sized square cross-sectional blanks out of single powder particles. A sequence of rectangular cuts and annular milling showed the highest efficiency for sharpening the blanks to tips. First atom probe results on a Fe95Cu5 powder mechanically alloyed in a high-energy planetary ball mill for 20 h have been obtained. Concentration profiles taken from this powder sample showed that the Cu distribution is inhomogeneous on a nanoscale and that the mechanical alloying process has not been completed yet. In addition, small clusters of oxygen, stemming from the ball milling process, have been detected. Annular milling with 30 keV Ga ions and beam currents >or=50 pA was found to cause the formation of an amorphous surface layer, whereas no structural changes could be observed for beam currents

  7. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nikel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) seamless pipe and tube

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nikel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) seamless pipe and tube

  8. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

  9. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) rod, bar, and wire

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) rod, bar, and wire

  10. Surface chemical state of Ti powders and its alloys: Effect of storage conditions and alloy composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryha, Eduard, E-mail: hryha@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE - 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Shvab, Ruslan [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE - 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Bram, Martin; Bitzer, Martin [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Materials Synthesis and Processing (IEK-1), D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Nyborg, Lars [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE - 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Powder particles of Ti, NiTi and Ti6Al4V are covered by homogeneous Ti-oxide layer. • Thickness of the Ti-oxide layer is in the range of 2.9 to 4.2 nm in as-atomized state. • Exposure to the air results in immediate oxide thickness increase of up to 30%. • Oxide thickness increase of only 15% during storage for 8 years. • High passivation of the Ti, NiTi and Ti6Al4V powder surface by Ti-oxide layer. - Abstract: High affinity of titanium to oxygen in combination with the high surface area of the powder results in tremendous powder reactivity and almost inevitable presence of passivation oxide film on the powder surface. Oxide film is formed during the short exposure of the powder to the environment at even a trace amount of oxygen. Hence, surface state of the powder determines its usefulness for powder metallurgy processing. Present study is focused on the evaluation of the surface oxide state of the Ti, NiTi and Ti6Al4V powders in as-atomized state and after storage under air or Ar for up to eight years. Powder surface oxide state was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR SEM). Results indicate that powder in as-atomized state is covered by homogeneous Ti-oxide layer with the thickness of ∼2.9 nm for Ti, ∼3.2 nm and ∼4.2 nm in case of Ti6Al4V and NiTi powders, respectively. Exposure to the air results in oxide growth of about 30% in case of Ti and only about 10% in case of NiTi and Ti6Al4V. After the storage under the dry air for two years oxide growth of only about 3-4% was detected in case of both, Ti and NiTi powders. NiTi powder, stored under the dry air for eight years, indicates oxide thickness of about 5.3 nm, which is about 30% thicker in comparison with the as-atomized powder. Oxide thickness increase of only ∼15% during the storage for eight years in comparison with the powder, shortly exposed to the air after manufacturing, was detected. Results indicate a

  11. Effects of carbon and hafnium concentrations in wrought powder-metallurgy superalloys based on NASA 2B-11 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A candidate alloy for advanced-temperature turbine engine disks, and four modifications of that alloy with various C and Hf concentrations were produced as cross-rolled disks from prealloyed powder that was hot isostatically compacted. The mechanical properties, microstructures, and phase relations of the alloys are discussed in terms of their C and Hf concentrations. A low-C and high-Hf modification of IIB-11 had the best balance of mechanical properties for service below about 750 C. Because of their finer grain sizes, none of the powder-metallurgy alloys produced had the high-temperature rupture strength of conventionally cast and wrought IIB-11.

  12. High-velocity oxyfuel reactive spraying of mechanically alloyed Ni-Ti-C powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlock, A. J.; Sadeghian, Z.; McCartney, D. G.; Shipway, P. H.

    2005-03-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in producing cermet coatings with nanoscale carbide grains in the size range 50 to 500 nm. In this article, the production of nanoscale TiC grains in a Ni-based alloy matrix by reactive high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) spraying of metastable Ni-Ti-C powder is reported. Mechanical alloying of a Ni(Cr) prealloyed powder and Ti and C elemental powders was performed in a planar-type ball mill, and materials were characterized in detail using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron micros-copy (SEM). Phase changes were correlated with milling time and other processing conditions. Results show that, by the selection of appropriate conditions, a metastable Ni-Ti-C powder could be obtained with the nominal composition 50wt.%Ni-40wt.%Ti-10wt.%C. Following sieving and classification, powder was produced with a particle size range of -38 to 8 µm, which is suitable for HVOF spraying. Coatings, approximately 250 µm thick, were deposited by HVOF spraying onto mild steel substrates, and the microstructures formed were investigated. XRD showed that a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction had occurred in the powder particles during spraying and that the principal phases present in the coating were TiC and a Ni-rich solid solution; small quantities of NiTi, TiO2, and NiTiO3 were also present. SEM revealed that the coatings had a characteristic, splatlike morphology and that TiC formed as a nanoscale dispersion, with a size range of ˜50 to 200 nm, within solidified splats. The microstructures of these reactively sprayed Ni-TiC coatings are briefly compared with those observed in HVOF-sprayed coatings deposited using prereacted SHS powder.

  13. Novel Method for Making Biomedical Segregation-Free Ti-30Ta Alloy Spherical Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sun, Pei; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Ti-Ta alloys offer a good combination of high strength and low modulus among Ti-based alloys, and are ideal for biomedical applications. However, making Ti-Ta alloys has always been challenging because they tend to suffer from compositional segregation during melting due to the large difference between the melting points of Ti and Ta. This article describes a novel process for making spherical Ti-30Ta alloy powder through a unique powder metallurgy technique, namely the granulation-sintering-deoxygenation process. The results indicate that the compositional segregation problem can be overcome using this process technology. Combined with use of a deoxygenation process, the critical interstitial element, oxygen, can be controlled to < 400 ppm for powder with particle size < 75 µm. The destabilization effect of Ta on Ti-O solid solutions, and the resulting improved deoxygenation process for Ti-Ta, are discussed, as well as the phase composition and microstructure of the powders.

  14. Novel Method for Making Biomedical Segregation-Free Ti-30Ta Alloy Spherical Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sun, Pei; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Ti-Ta alloys offer a good combination of high strength and low modulus among Ti-based alloys, and are ideal for biomedical applications. However, making Ti-Ta alloys has always been challenging because they tend to suffer from compositional segregation during melting due to the large difference between the melting points of Ti and Ta. This article describes a novel process for making spherical Ti-30Ta alloy powder through a unique powder metallurgy technique, namely the granulation-sintering-deoxygenation process. The results indicate that the compositional segregation problem can be overcome using this process technology. Combined with use of a deoxygenation process, the critical interstitial element, oxygen, can be controlled to < 400 ppm for powder with particle size < 75 µm. The destabilization effect of Ta on Ti-O solid solutions, and the resulting improved deoxygenation process for Ti-Ta, are discussed, as well as the phase composition and microstructure of the powders.

  15. Laser fusion-brazing of aluminum alloy to galvanized steel with pure Al filler powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Jiang, Shichun; Shi, Yan; Kuang, Yulin; Huang, Genzhe; Zhang, Hong

    2015-03-01

    The fusion-brazing connection of the dissimilar metal 5052 aluminum alloy/ST07Z steel was achieved by using the Nd:YAG laser with pure Al filler powder, and the effects of the laser power and powder feeding speed on the formation and mechanical properties of the resultant joints were investigated. The experimental results show that melting-brazing connection of 5052 aluminum alloy/galvanized steel can be successfully achieved, and the zinc plating layer has played the role of flux, assuring the brazing properties. The intermetallic compound layer was generated on the welded brazing interface. The joint exhibited a shear strength of 174 N/mm if the thickness of the intermetallic layer at the interface is about 6-7 μm.

  16. U-8 wt %Mo and 7 wt %Mo alloys powder obtained by an hydride-de hydride process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balart, Silvia N.; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Granovsky, Marta S.; Gribaudo, Luis M. J.; Hermida, Jorge D.; Ovejero, Jose; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.; Vicente, Eduardo E.

    2000-01-01

    Uranium-molybdenum alloys are been tested as a component in high-density LEU dispersion fuels with very good performances. These alloys need to be transformed to powder due to the manufacturing requirements of the fuels. One method to convert ductile alloys into powder is the hydride-de hydride process, which takes advantage of the ability of the U-α phase to transform to UH 3 : a brittle and relatively low-density compound. U-Mo alloys around 7 and 8 wt % Mo were melted and heat treated at different temperature ranges in order to partially convert γ -phase to α -phase. Subsequent hydriding transforms this α -phase to UH 3 . The volume change associated to the hydride formation embrittled the material which ends up in a powdered alloy. Results of the optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction during different steps of the process are shown. (author)

  17. Controlling corrosion rate of Magnesium alloy using powder mixed electrical discharge machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, M. A.; Rani, A. M. A.; Saad, N. M.; Littlefair, G.; Aliyu, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Biomedical implant can be divided into permanent and temporary employment. The duration of a temporary implant applied to children and adult is different due to different bone healing rate among the children and adult. Magnesium and its alloys are compatible for the biodegradable implanting application. Nevertheless, it is difficult to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloy to suit the application on both the children and adult. Powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PM-EDM) method, a modified EDM process, has high capability to improve the EDM process efficiency and machined surface quality. The objective of this paper is to establish a formula to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloy using the PM-EDM method. The different corrosion rate of machined surface is hypothesized to be obtained by having different combinations of PM-EDM operation inputs. PM-EDM experiments are conducted using an opened-loop PM-EDM system and the in-vitro corrosion tests are carried out on the machined surface of each specimen. There are four operation inputs investigated in this study which are zinc powder concentration, peak current, pulse on-time and pulse off-time. The results indicate that zinc powder concentration is significantly affecting the response with 2 g/l of zinc powder concentration obtaining the lowest corrosion rate. The high localized temperature at the cutting zone in spark erosion process causes some of the zinc particles get deposited on the machined surface, hence improving the surface characteristics. The suspended zinc particles in the dielectric fluid have also improve the sparking efficiency and the uniformity of sparks distribution. From the statistical analysis, a formula was developed to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy within the range from 0.000183 mm/year to 0.001528 mm/year.

  18. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of powder metallurgy CoCrNi medium entropy alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravčík, I.; Čížek, Jan; Kováčová, Z.; Nejezchlebová, J.; Kitzmantel, M.; Neubauer, E.; Kuběna, Ivo; Horník, Vít; Dlouhý, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 701, July (2017), s. 370-380 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : tensile test * mechanical alloying * plasticity * mechanical characterization * powder metallurgy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (UFM-A) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering ; Materials engineering (UFM-A) Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921509317308535

  19. Study and development of solid fluxes for gas tungsten arc welding applied to titanium and its alloys and stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, N.

    2000-06-01

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding uses an electric arc between the refractory tungsten electrode and the plates to be welded under an argon shielding gas. As a result, the joint quality is excellent, no pollution nor defects are to be feared, consequently this process is used in nuclear, aeronautic, chemical and food industries. Despite of this good qualities, GTAW is limited because of, on the one side, a poor penetrating weld pool and, on the other side, a week productivity rate. Indeed, up to 3 mm thick plates, machining and filler metal is needed. Multiple runs increase the defect's risks, the manufactory time and increase the deformations and the heat affected zone. The goal of this study is to break through this limits without any device investment. Active GTA welding (or ATIG) is a new technique with GTA device and an activating flux to be spread on the upper plate before welding. The arc, by plasma electrochemical equilibrium modifications, and the pool with the inner connective flows inversion, allow 7 mm thick joints in one run without edges machining or filler metal for both stainless steel and titanium alloys. This manuscript describes the development of these fluxes, highlights the several phenomena and presents the possibilities of this new process. This work, in collaboration with B.S.L. industries, leads to two flux formulations (stainless steel and titanium alloys) now in a commercial phase with CASTOLIN S.A. Moreover, B.S.L.industries produces a pressure device (nitrate column) with the ATIG process using more than 2800 ATIG welds. (author)

  20. Influence of a tungsten metal conditioner on the adhesion and residual stress of porcelain bonded to cobalt-chromium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Stephanie; Li, Kai Chun; Waddell, J Neil; Prior, David J; Jansen van Vuuren, Ludwig; Swain, Michael V

    2014-09-01

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) metal ceramic restorations are known to be more susceptible to cracking and interfacial failures. This is partially related to their high potential for oxidation compared with restorations made with high noble alloys. One approach that may improve their compatibility is the use of bonding agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a tungsten metal conditioner on the adhesion and residual stress of porcelain bonded to a cobalt-chromium alloy. Eighty-one metal-porcelain bilayered specimens were manufactured and tested with a 4-point bend for adhesion and with Vickers indentation for residual stress determination. The strain energy release rate for adhesion energy and indentation residual stress was evaluated for specimens layered with and without tungsten (W) metal conditioner. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry were performed to identify fracture behavior and chemical and phase compositions. The average strain energy release rate of the specimen group tested without the W metal conditioner was significantly higher (P<.05) (44.70 J/m(2)) than that of the group with the W metal conditioner (28.65 J/m(2)). The average residual stress of the specimen group with (0.1 MPa) and without (1.61 MPa) the W metal conditioner did not differ significantly. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis enabled the modes of failure to be determined and indicated the mechanisms by which the W metal conditioner influenced the bond. The W metal conditioner used in this study significantly lowered the strain energy release rate of the porcelain-cobalt-chromium interface and did not have a significant influence on the residual stress state of the porcelain. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Advanced Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Tungsten Heavy Alloy for Penetrator Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Soon H; Ryu, Ho J; Cha, Seung I; Kim, Hee Y; Kim, Kyung T; Lee, Kyong H; Mo, Chan B

    2005-01-01

    The effects of fabrication process parameters, including conditions for powder preparation, sintering, cyclic heat-treatment, swaging, and annealing processes, on microstructures and static/dynamic...

  2. Particle size evolution in non-adhered ductile powders during mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Paz, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales y Metalurgica, UAEH (Mexico); Robles-Hernandez, F.C.; Hernandez-Silva, D.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Dept. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE - Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The interaction among events as deformation, cold-welding and fracture, occurring during the mechanical milling of powders is unclear and controversial. We believe that the understanding of such interaction can be deduced from particle size evolution studies. It is well known that the elemental ductile powders adhere to the milling media. However when some of these powders are combined to form an alloy by milling, the adherence phenomenon is not observed. Systems which include ductile powders, such as, Cu-15at.%Al, Co-68at.%Al and Ni-25at.%Al were processed with not adherence to the milling media, thus allowing to follow up the particle size evolution during the complete milling process. The particle size was measured by the sedimentation-photometry technique. Those results were supported by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed a high proportion near 95% in number of particles of submicrometric size at early milling times for the three systems. However its particle size evolution for each system was different. Such findings can be important to understand some mechanisms as the grain size refinement, the alloy formation and the microstructural evolution. In the studied systems, the particle size measurements are presented based on volume or mass, area, line and number of the particles. The particle size results based on volume and line or number of the particles can give an idea of the evolution of the biggest particles and the finest ones respectively during the milling. Also the behavior of the complete particle system can be deduced from the results based in the area of the particles. Results of particle size as well as observations by microscopy helped to suggest the particle size and shape evolution of the studied systems. Such findings were employed to previously propose a grain size refinement mechanism for ductile powder systems non-adherent to the milling media during the mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  3. Structure and properties of titanium surface layers after electron beam alloying with powder mixtures containing carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenivtseva, O.G.; Bataev, I.A.; Golkovskii, M.G.; Bataev, A.A.; Samoilenko, V.V.; Plotnikova, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Wear resistant coatings up to 2 mm thick were clad on titanium by an electron beam in air. • The microhardness of the alloys was increased from 2 to 8 GPa due to the formation of TiC particles. • Alloying of titanium increased the abrasive wear resistance of the alloy by a factor of 9.3. - Abstract: The structure and tribological properties of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) samples after non-vacuum electron beam surface alloying with carbon were studied. Two types of powders were used to introduce carbon in surface layer of cp-Ti: titanium carbide (TiC) and mixture of pure titanium and graphite (“Ti + C”). Single layer and multilayer coatings were studied. Application of electron beam for alloying provided cladding rate of 4.5 m 2 /h. The thickness of the clad coatings was 1.6–2.0 mm. The main phases received after “Ti + C” powder cladding were α-titanium, TiC, and retained graphite. In the samples obtained by cladding of TiC, graphite was not observed. A factor determining the microhardness and tribological properties of the cladded layer was the volume fraction of TiC. Maximum coating microhardness of 8 GPa was obtained by cladding of single layer of TiC powder or two layers of the “Ti + C” mixture. Two types of tests were carried out to evaluate the wear resistance of the samples. In friction tests against loose abrasive particles, the wear rate of the best samples was 9.3 times lower than that of cp-Ti. In wear tests using fixed abrasive particles, the relative wear resistance of the best samples was 2.3 times higher than that of cp-Ti.

  4. Manufacturing and testing of self-passivating tungsten alloys of different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calvo

    2016-12-01

    Bulk W-15Cr, W-10Cr-2Ti and W-12Cr-0.5Y alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying followed by can encapsulation and HIP. This route resulted in fully dense materials with nano-structured grains. The ability of Ti and especially of Y to inhibit grain growth was observed in the W-10Cr-2Ti and W-12Cr-0.5Y alloys. Besides, Y formed Y-rich oxide nano-precipitates at the grain boundaries, and is thus expected to improve the mechanical behaviour of the Y-containing alloy. Isothermal oxidation tests at 800 ºC (1073K and oxidation tests under accident-like conditions revealed that the W-12Cr-0.5Y alloy exhibits the best oxidation behaviour of all alloys, especially in the accident-like scenario. Preliminary HHF tests performed at GLADIS indicated that the W-10Cr-2Ti alloy is able to withstand power densities of 2 MW/m2 without significant damage of the bulk structure. Thermo-shock tests at JUDITH-1 to simulate mitigated disruptions resulted in chipping of part of the surface of the as-HIPed W-10Cr-2Ti alloy. An additional thermal treatment at 1600 °C (1873K improves the thermo-shock resistance of the W-10Cr-2Ti alloy since only crack formation is observed.

  5. Synthesis, structure and properties of nickel-iron-tungsten alloy electrodeposits - Part II: Effect of microstructure on hardness, electrical and magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured nickel-iron-tungsten alloys were produced by electrodeposition from an ammoniacal citrate bath. The tungsten content of the alloy ranged from 0.8 wt.% to 11 wt.%, and the crystal grain size of the FCC phase of the solid solution of iron and tungsten in nickel was between 14 nm and 3.3 nm. The amorphous phase content of the alloy increases with decreasing crystal grain size. As the amorphous phase content increases, the magnetization, electrical conductivity and hardness of the alloy decrease. Annealing the alloy to crystallization temperature results in structural relaxation during which the alloy undergoes short-range ordering in conjunction with decreases in the density of chaotically distributed dislocations and internal microstrain level, which increases the exchange integral value, the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, the mean free path of electrons, the ordering and the mean size of cluster in the sliding plane and results in more uniform orientation of dipole moments of certain nanoparticles. These changes: a increase the mobility of magnetic domain walls, facilitate the orientation of domains in the external magnetic field and cause an increase in magnetization; b cause a decrease in electrical resistance, and c impede the sliding of grain boundaries and increase the hardness of the alloy. Annealing the alloys at temperatures above 400ºC results in amorphous phase crystallization and larger crystal grains of the FCC phase, along with a decrease in the density of chaotically distributed dislocations and a decrease in internal microstrain level. The formation of larger crystal grains reduces the hardness of the alloy, decreases its specific electrical resistance and impedes both the orientation of certain magnetic domains and the shift of walls of already oriented domains, thus inducing a decrease in magnetization. The heat released during the milling of Ni87.3Fe11.3W1.4 alloy with FCC-phase crystal grains 8

  6. Specific Adaptation of Gas Atomization Processing for Al-Based Alloy Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Siemon, John [Alcoa, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The initial three atomization attempts resulted in “freeze-outs” within the pour tubes in the pilot-scale system and yielded no powder. Re-evaluation of the alloy liquidus temperatures and melting characteristics, in collaboration with Alcoa, showed further superheat to be necessary to allow the liquid metal to flow through the pour tube to the atomization nozzle. A subsequent smaller run on the experimental atomization system verified these parameters and was successful, as were all successive runs on the larger pilot scale system. One alloy composition froze-out part way through the atomization on both pilot scale runs. SEM images showed needle formation and phase segregations within the microstructure. Analysis of the pour tube freeze-out microstructures showed that large needles formed within the pour tube during the atomization experiment, which eventually blocked the melt stream. Alcoa verified the needle formation in this alloy using theoretical modeling of phase solidification. Sufficient powder of this composition was still generated to allow powder characterization and additive manufacturing trials at Alcoa.

  7. Production of a low young modulus titanium alloy by powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalcy Roberto dos Santos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys have several advantages over ferrous and non-ferrous metallic materials, such as high strengthto-weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. A blended elemental titanium powder metallurgy process has been developed to offer low cost commercial products. The process employs hydride-dehydride (HDH powders as raw material. In this work, results of the Ti-35Nb alloy sintering are presented. This alloy due to its lower modulus of elasticity and high biocompatibility is a promising candidate for aerospace and medical use. Samples were produced by mixing of initial metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by isochronal sintering between 900 up to 1600 °C, in vacuum. Sintering behavior was studied by means of microscopy and density. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. Samples sintered at high temperatures display a fine plate-like alpha structure and intergranular beta. A few remaining pores are still found and density above 90% for specimens sintered in temperatures over 1500 °C is reached.

  8. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of gamma-prime particles in a gamma matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest gamma-prime particles, and had the lowest gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650 gamma C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760 C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the gamma-prime particle size distribution and the gamma-gamma-prime mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  9. Production of titanium alloys for advanced aerospace systems by powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius André Rodrigues Henriques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high specific strength at both room temperature and moderately elevated temperature, in addition to excellent corrosion resistance. Despite these features, use of titanium alloys in engines and airframes is limited by cost. The alloys processing by powder metallurgy eases the obtainment of parts with complex geometry. In this work, results of the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys production are presented. Samples were produced by mixing of initial metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering between 900 up to 1500 °C, in vacuum. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. It was shown that the samples were sintered to high densities and presented homogeneous microstructure from the elements dissolution with low interstitial pick-up.

  10. Feasibility study of the production of biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzoni, L; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2015-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are characterized by an exceptional combination of properties like high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility which makes them suitable materials for biomedical prosthesis and devices. The wrought Ti-6Al-4V alloy is generally favored in comparison to other metallic biomaterials due to its relatively low elastic modulus and it has been long used to obtain products for biomedical applications. In this work an alternative route to fabricate biomedical implants made out of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated. Specifically, the feasibility of the conventional powder metallurgy route of cold uniaxial pressing and sintering is addressed by considering two types of powders (i.e. blended elemental and prealloyed). The characterization of physical properties, chemical analysis, mechanical behavior and microstructural analysis is carried out in-depth and the properties are correlated among them. On the base of the results found, the produced alloys are promising materials for biomedical applications as well as cheaper surgical devices and tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ti-Mg alloy powder synthesis via mechanochemical reduction of TiO2 by elemental magnesium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushove, T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the preliminary results of an investigation on the synthesis of a Ti-Mg alloy powder through mechanochemical processing of TiO2 and Mg powders. TiO2 was mixed with elemental Mg according to a nominal stoichiometric composition...

  12. Dynamic Multi-Axial Loading Response and Constitutive/Damage Modeling of Titanium and Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-24

    Tungsten and Refractory Metals, McLean, VA, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, p. 489. Cheng, J., Nemat-Nasser, S., 2000. A model for...Congress on Tungsten and Refractory Metals, McLean, VA, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, p. 489. Chichili, D. R., Ramesh, K. T...constants were incorporated into the ABAQUS /explicit FE code to predict the tensile response of the alloys. They concluded that the ZA model was unable to

  13. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzoni, L; Ruiz-Navas, E M; Gordo, E

    2017-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys are common biomedical materials owing to their combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Powder metallurgy (PM) techniques can be used to fabricate biomaterials with tailored properties because changing the processing parameters, such as the sintering temperature, products with different level of porosity and mechanical performances can be obtained. This study addresses the production of the biomedical Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy by means of the master alloy addition variant of the PM blending elemental approach. The sintering parameters investigated guarantee that the complete diffusion of the alloying elements and the homogenization of the microstructure is achieved. The sintering of the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy induces a total shrinkage between 7.4% and 10.7% and the level of porosity decreases from 6.2% to 4.7% with the increment of the sintering temperature. Vickers hardness (280-300 HV30) and tensile properties (different combination of strength and elongation around 900MPa and 3%) are achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Copper alloys with improved properties: standard ingot metallurgy vs. powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan T. Jovanović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three copper-based alloys: two composites reinforced with Al2O3 particles and processed through powder metallurgy (P/M route, i.e. by internal oxidation (Cu-2.5Al composite and by mechanical alloying (Cu-4.7Al2O3 and Cu-0.4Cr-0.08Zr alloy produced by ingot metallurgy (vacuum melting and casting were the object of this investigation. Light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with electron X-ray spectrometer (EDS were used for microstructural characterization. Microhardness and electrical conductivity were also measured. Compared to composite materials, Cu-0.4Cr-0.08Zr alloy possesses highest electrical conductivity in the range from 20 to 800 ℃, whereas the lowest conductivity shows composite Cu-2.5Al processed by internal oxidation. In spite to somewhat lower electrical conductivity (probably due to inadequate density, Cu-2.5Al composite exhibits thermal stability enabling its application at much higher temperatures than materials processed by mechanical alloying or by vacuum melting and casting.

  15. Neutron powder thermo-diffraction in mechanically alloyed Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} invar alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorria, Pedro, E-mail: pgorria@uniovi.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda. Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007, Asturias (Spain); Martinez-Blanco, David [Unidad de Magnetometria, SCT' s, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda. Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007, Asturias (Spain); Smith, Ronald I. [ISIS Facility, RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-16

    Nanostructured Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} alloy has been obtained using high-energy ball milling for 35 h of milling time, Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} MA-35 h. The initial as-milled Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} MA-35 h powders are inhomogeneous, showing a majority phase with a face-centred cubic (fcc) crystal structure [88(2)%] and a minority phase with body-centred cubic (bcc) crystal structure [7(2)%]. The evolution of the microstructure with temperature between 300 K and 1100 K has been followed by means of in situ neutron powder thermo-diffraction experiments. The room temperature values for the mean crystalline size and the mechanical-induced microstrain of the fcc phase in the as-milled sample are {approx}10 nm and {approx}0.7%, respectively. Moreover, after heating the Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} MA-35 h powders up to 1100 K, an increase of around 65 K in the Curie temperature respect to that of the commercial coarse-grained alloy of the same composition is observed. The latter together with the observed temperature dependence of the lattice parameter suggests that the Fe{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} MA-35 h sample subjected to the heating process exhibits invar behaviour. On heating up to 1100 K thermal relaxation of the microstructure occurs giving rise to grain growth above 100 nm, nearly vanishing values for the maximum strain, and the transformation of the bcc phase into the fcc one above 800 K, being the latter stable in subsequent heating-cooling processes.

  16. Study and methods of analysis of mechanically alloyed Cu-Mo powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins, 3363 Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ceaguilar@uda.cl; Ordonez, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins, 3363 Santiago (Chile); Marin, J. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN, Amunategui 95, Santiago (Chile); Castro, F. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Guipuzcoa, CEIT, Po de Manuel de Lardizabal, 15 (Bo de Ibaeta), 20.018 Donostia, San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Av. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins, 3363 Santiago (Chile)

    2007-08-25

    The microstructural evolution during mechanical alloying of Cu and Mo was studied. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the milling time on the formation of the solid solution of molybdenum in copper, employing variable amounts of Mo (1 and 8 at.%). The milling was performed under an inert argon atmosphere in a SPEX 8000D mill. Milling times of 4, 8, 25, 50, 75 and 100 h were used keeping a constant ball to powder ratio of 10-1. The effects of milling parameters such as milling time and composition on the synthesis and structure of Cu-Mo powders were investigated using XRD, nanohardness, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and TEM. The results show that the grain size and particle size of powders decrease with increasing milling time. Grain size in samples with 8 at.% Mo approached a minimum value of 20 nm after 50 h, and in samples with 1 at.% Mo, 30 nm after 75 h of milling. Nanohardness shows a maximum about 4 GPa for the alloy with 8 at.% of Mo and 100 h of milling. The measured crystallite size by TEM is in good agreement with the value calculated by XRD. Thermal analyses (DSC) showed the temperature intervals where the dynamic recrystallization would take place. According to these results this phenomenon would happen near 350 deg. C.

  17. The Role of the Component Metals in the Toxicity of Military-Grade Tungsten Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy A. Emond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten-based composites have been recommended as a suitable replacement for depleted uranium. Unfortunately, one of these mixtures composed of tungsten (W, nickel (Ni and cobalt (Co induced rhabdomyosarcomas when implanted into the leg muscle of laboratory rats and mice to simulate a shrapnel wound. The question arose as to whether the neoplastic effect of the mixture could be solely attributed to one or more of the metal components. To investigate this possibility, pellets with one or two of the component metals replaced with an identical amount of the biologically-inert metal tantalum (Ta were manufactured and implanted into the quadriceps of B6C3F1 mice. The mice were followed for two years to assess potential adverse health effects. Implantation with WTa, CoTa or WNiTa resulted in decreased survival, but not to the level reported for WNiCo. Sarcomas in the implanted muscle were found in 20% of the CoTa-implanted mice and 5% of the WTa- and WCoTa-implanted rats and mice, far below the 80% reported for WNiCo-implanted mice. The data obtained from this study suggested that no single metal is solely responsible for the neoplastic effects of WNiCo and that a synergistic effect of the three metals in tumor development was likely.

  18. Mechanical behavior of tantalum and tantalum-tungsten alloys: texture gradients and macro/micro-response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassila, D.H.; Schwartz, A.J.; LeBlanc, M.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wright, S.I. [TexSEM Labs., Provo, UT (United States)

    1996-11-30

    We have examined the mechanical response of unalloyed Ta and Ta-W alloy annealed plates over a wide range of loadings. It was observed in general that Ta exhibits nonuniform mechanical behavior, for example, hourglassing of compression samples and multiple instabilities during tensile deformation. In contrast, the Ta-W alloys do not exhibit any unusual nonuniform behavior. This work presents data revealing the spatial distribution of texture in Ta and Ta-W alloys. Significant variations in texture both through the thickness and from one area of the plate to another were found to be characteristic of Ta. The dominant feature of the texture variations was found to be enhanced <111> crystal direction fractions at the center of the plate, with a decreasing fraction near the surface. We find that the variation in texture in the Ta-W alloys is substantially less than that seen in Ta with primarily a <100> cube texture throughout. This study suggest that the texture gradients are responsible for the nonuniform mechanical response of Ta and that the uniform behavior of the Ta-W alloys is a consequence of the absence of texture gradients.

  19. Brazing molybdenum and tungsten for high temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Turner, W.C.; Hoffman, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to develop vacuum brazes for molybdenum and tungsten which can be used in seal joint applications up to 1870 K (1597 C, 2907 F). Joints were attempted in molybdenum, tungsten and tungsten--molybdenum. The braze materials included: Ti--10Cr powder, Ti--30V wire, Ti--65V wire, V wire, Ni electroplate, MoB--50MoC powder mixture, V--50Mo powder mixture, Mo--15MoB 2 powder mixture and Mo--49V--15MoB 2 powder mixture. Braze temperature ranged from 1900 K (1627 C, 2961 F) to 2530 K, (2257 C, 4095 F), and leak-tight joints were made with all braze materials except Ti--10Cr. After heat treatments up to 1870 K (1597 C, 2907 F) Kirkendall voiding was found to cause leakage of some of the joints made with only substitutional alloying elements. However, adding base metal powders to the braze or narrowing the root opening eliminated this problem. Kirkendall voiding was not a problem when interstitial elements were a major ingredient in the braze material. Shear testing of Ti--65V, V, MoB--50MoC and V--50Mo brazed molybdenum at 1670 K (1397 C, 2547 F) indicated strengths equal to or better than the base metal. Ti--65V, V--50Mo and MoB--50MoC brazed joints were exposed to basalt at 1670 K (1397 C, 2547 F) for 3 h without developing leaks

  20. On the microstructure of tungsten disulfide films alloyed with carbon and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossa, A. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao, Instituto Politecnico da Guarda, Guarda (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [ICEMS, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Engenharia Mecnica-GEMS, Polo II - Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030201, Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: albano.cavaleiro@dem.uc.pt; Carvalho, N.J.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Materials Science Centre and Netherlands Institute for Metals Research, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Kooi, B.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Materials Science Centre and Netherlands Institute for Metals Research, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Hosson, J.Th.M. de [Department of Applied Physics, Materials Science Centre and Netherlands Institute for Metals Research, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-07-22

    This work aimed at studying the effect of a Ti interlayer and the alloying with carbon and nitrogen of W-S-C(N) films on the mechanical and tribological properties. The W-S-C and W-S-N films were deposited by r.f. magnetron reactive sputtering with CH{sub 4} or N{sub 2} as reactive gases and analysed by high resolution electron microscopy techniques. The hardness showed an improvement with the addition of the alloying element, which was attributed to the densification of the morphology, the decrease of the grain size, and the precipitation of new phases harder than WS{sub 2}. The formation of either TiC or TiN at the interface between the Ti interlayer and the W-S-C(N) films promoted the enhancement of adhesion in the alloyed films. These improvements led to an enhanced tribological behaviour, in particularly the lowering of the wear coefficients.

  1. Gas atomized precursor alloy powder for oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieken, Joel [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-12-13

    Gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was employed as a simplified method for producing precursor powders for oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic stainless steels (e.g., Fe-Cr-Y-(Ti,Hf)-O), departing from the conventional mechanical alloying (MA) process. During GARS processing a reactive atomization gas (i.e., Ar-O2) was used to oxidize the powder surfaces during primary break-up and rapid solidification of the molten alloy. This resulted in envelopment of the powders by an ultra-thin (t < 150 nm) metastable Cr-enriched oxide layer that was used as a vehicle for solid-state transport of O into the consolidated microstructure. In an attempt to better understand the kinetics of this GARS reaction, theoretical cooling curves for the atomized droplets were calculated and used to establish an oxidation model for this process. Subsequent elevated temperature heat treatments, which were derived from Rhines pack measurements using an internal oxidation model, were used to promote thermodynamically driven O exchange reactions between trapped films of the initial Cr-enriched surface oxide and internal Y-enriched intermetallic precipitates. This novel microstructural evolution process resulted in the successful formation of nano-metric Y-enriched dispersoids, as confirmed using high energy X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), equivalent to conventional ODS alloys from MA powders. The thermal stability of these Y-enriched dispersoids was evaluated using high temperature (1200°C) annealing treatments ranging from 2.5 to 1,000 hrs of exposure. In a further departure from current ODS practice, replacing Ti with additions of Hf appeared to improve the Y-enriched dispersoid thermal stability by means of crystal structure modification. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the dispersoids was found to depend strongly on the original rapidly solidified microstructure. To exploit this, ODS microstructures were engineered from

  2. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G.; Martinez F, E.; Zoz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  3. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Martinez F, E. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Cerrada de Cecati s/n, Col. Santa Catarina Azcapotzalco, 02250 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Zoz, H., E-mail: israelbaez@gmail.co [Zoz GmbH, D-57482, Wenden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  4. Laser assisted cold spraying of aluminium alloy powder on stainless steel substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Information Warfare and Security, Denver, USA 25-26 March 2013 LASER ASSISTED COLD SPRAYING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY POWDER ON STAINLESS STEEL SUBSTRATE M. Tlotleng1, 2; E.O. Olakanmi2; C. Meacock; Sisa Pityana1, 3; E.T. Akinlabi2...; M. Shukla2; and M. Doyoyo2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, P.O.Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa 2Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology...

  5. Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  6. Effect of Dislocation Mechanisms during Extrusion of Nanostructured Aluminum Powder Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, A. M.; Peres, M. M.; Kiminami, C. S.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    Nanostructured Al-3.0Fe-0.42Cu-0.37Mn powder alloy was deformed by extrusion over a temperature range of 375 °C to 425 °C, a ram speed range of 1 to 30 mm/s, and an extrusion rate of 10:1. Flow stresses and strain rates were calculated from the experimental ram pressures and speeds. The stress-strain-rate-temperature relationship in the extrusion of the nanostructured alloy was found to be similar to that in hot-worked conventional materials. The extrusion, torsion, compression, and creep data of nanostructured and conventional materials, extending over ten orders of magnitude of strain rate and over two orders of magnitude of stress, were correlated by a hyperbolic-sine constitutive equation, because the power and exponential laws lose linearity at high and low stresses, respectively. The hyperbolic-sine equation is widely used to correlate the hot-working behavior of conventional materials. It was concluded that the hot working of nanostructured powders is a thermally activated process in which the rate-controlling mechanism is the climb of edge dislocations. Microstructural changes in the consolidated alloys as a function of the extrusion conditions were investigated. An analysis was made of the dislocation behavior in very small grains of nanostructured metal by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and we identified a dislocation structure and the different ways it appears in 40- to 100-nm Al-alloy grains. We also discuss the thermally activated propagation of dislocations and their interactions with shear bands/grain boundaries (SBs/GBs), and dislocation loops. Microstructural features including low-angle GBs, high-angle GBs, and equilibrium GBs and subgrain boundaries were observed. Dislocation structures under a deformation condition were studied to investigate the microstructural evolutions, which revealed some unique microstructural features such as dislocation tangle zones (DTZs) and dense-dislocation walls (DDWs), and the recovery process is

  7. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500 C to 600 C) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: (1) Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion - Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment - Extrusion database on DU metal - Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys - Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys - Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals (2) Low-temperature sintering of U alloys - Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment - Sintering database on DU metal - Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys - Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich outlining the

  8. Compressive Deformation Behavior of Open-Cell Cu-Zn-Al Alloy Foam Made Through P/M Route Using Mechanically Alloyed Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, Ajay Kumar; Mondal, D. P.; Kumar, Rajeev; Prasanth, N.; Dasgupta, R.

    2018-02-01

    Cu-Zn-Al foams of varying porosity fractions using mechanical alloyed powder have been made through powder metallurgy route. Here, NH4 (HCO3) was used as a space holder. Mechanically alloyed Cu-Zn-Al is made using a planetary ball mill taking the ratio of Cu/Zn/Al = 70:25:5 (by weight ratio). The ball/powder ratios were varied in the four ranges 10:1, 15:1, 20:1, and 25:1. Green compacts of milled powder and space holder samples were sintered at three stages at three different temperatures 350, 550, and 850 °C for 1 h at each stage. The crystalline size and particle size as a function of ball/powder ratios were examined. The compressive deformation responses of foams are varied with relative density and the ball/powder ratio. The plateau stress and energy absorption of these foams increase with an increase in relative density but decreases with increase in ball/powder ratio, even though crystalline size decreases. This has further been explained on the basis of particle morphology as a function of ball/powder ratio.

  9. Research on Zr50Al15-xNi10Cu25Yx amorphous alloys prepared by mechanical alloying with commercial pure element powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Woyun; Ouyang Xueqiong; Luo Zhiwei; Li Jing; Lu Anxian

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous Zr 50 Al 15-x Ni 10 Cu 25 Y x alloy powders were fabricated by mechanical alloying at low vacuum with commercial pure element powders. The effects on glass forming ability of Al partial substituted by Y in Zr 50 Al 15 Ni 10 Cu 25 and thermal stability of Si 3 N 4 powders addition were investigated. The as-milled powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that partial substitution of Al can improve the glass forming ability of Zr 50 Al 15 Ni 10 Cu 25 alloy. Minor Si 3 N 4 additions raise the crystallization activation energy of the amorphous phase and thus improve its thermal stability. -- Research Highlights: → ZrAlNiCu amorphous alloys can be synthesized by MA in low cost. → Appropriate amount of Al substituted by Y in ZrAlNiCu alloy can improve its glass forming ability. → A second phase particle addition helps to improve the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix.

  10. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  11. Experimental investigation of the behaviour of tungsten and molybdenum alloys at high strain-rate and temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Scapin, Martina; Carra, Federico; Peroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction in recent years of new, extremely energetic particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) gives impulse to the development and testing of refractory metals and alloys based on molybdenum and tungsten to be used as structural materials. In this perspective, in this work the experimental results of a tests campaign on Inermet® IT180 and pure Molybdenum (sintered by two different producers) are presented. The investigation of the mechanical behaviour was performed in tension varying the strain-rates, the temperatures and both of them. Overall six orders of magnitude in strain-rate (between 10−3 and 103 s−1) were covered, starting from quasi-static up to high dynamic loading conditions. The high strain-rate tests were performed using a direct Hopkinson Bar setup. Both in quasi-static and high strain-rate conditions, the heating of the specimens was obtained with an induction coil system, controlled in feedback loop, based on measurements from thermocouples directly welded on...

  12. Application of stress relaxation testing in evaluation of creep strength of a tungsten-alloyed 10% Cr cast steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavender Rao, G.; Gupta, O.P.; Pradhan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Uniaxial isothermal stress relaxation tests (SRT) were performed on a tungsten-alloyed 10% Cr cast steel (G-X12Cr Mo W V Nb N 10 1 1) at temperatures of 580, 600 and 620 o C and initial strain levels of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8%. Inelastic strain rates for different stresses were estimated from the stress versus time data generated from the tests. Conventional creep tests were also conducted on the same material at 580, 600 and 620 o C and at different stress levels. The strain rate data estimated from SRT were compared with minimum creep rates derived from the creep tests; the strain rates estimated from SRT with 0.8% initial strain level are in better agreement than those estimated from SRT with 0.2 and 0.5% initial strain levels. In order to ascertain the technique, stress relaxation behaviour was estimated from creep test data and compared with the stress relaxation curves obtained from SRT at corresponding temperatures. The stress relaxation curves obtained from SRT with 0.8% initial strain level are in good agreement with the stress relaxation curves estimated from the creep tests. It is concluded that the stress relaxation test with initial strain level of 0.8% could be considered as an appropriate short-term test technique for estimation of creep strength of newly developed materials.

  13. Microstructure formation in partially melted zone during gas tungsten arc welding of AZ91 Mg cast alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Tianping; Chen, Zhan W.; Gao Wei

    2008-01-01

    During gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of AZ91 Mg cast alloy, constitutional liquid forms locally in the original interdendritic regions in the partially melted zone (PMZ). The PMZ re-solidification behaviour has not been well understood. In this study, the gradual change of the re-solidification microstructure within PMZ from base metal side to weld metal side was characterised. High cooling rate experiments using Gleeble thermal simulator were also conducted to understand the morphological change of the α-Mg/β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase interface formed during re-solidification after partial melting. It was found that the original partially divorced eutectic structure has become a more regular eutectic phase in most of the PMZ, although close to the fusion boundary the re-solidified eutectic is again a divorced one. Proceeding the eutectic re-solidification, if the degree of partial melting is sufficiently high, α-Mg re-solidified with a cellular growth, resulting in a serrated interface between α-Mg and α-Mg/β-Mg 17 Al 12 in the weld sample and between α-Mg and β-Mg 17 Al 12 (fully divorced eutectic) in Gleeble samples. The morphological changes affected by the peak temperature and cooling rate are also explained

  14. Experimental investigation of the behaviour of tungsten and molybdenum alloys at high strain-rate and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction in recent years of new, extremely energetic particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC gives impulse to the development and testing of refractory metals and alloys based on molybdenum and tungsten to be used as structural materials. In this perspective, in this work the experimental results of a tests campaign on Inermet®  IT180 and pure Molybdenum (sintered by two different producers are presented. The investigation of the mechanical behaviour was performed in tension varying the strain-rates, the temperatures and both of them. Overall six orders of magnitude in strain-rate (between 10−3 and 103 s−1 were covered, starting from quasi-static up to high dynamic loading conditions. The high strain-rate tests were performed using a direct Hopkinson Bar setup. Both in quasi-static and high strain-rate conditions, the heating of the specimens was obtained with an induction coil system, controlled in feedback loop, based on measurements from thermocouples directly welded on the specimen. The temperature range varied between 25 and 1000°C. The experimental data were, finally, used to extract the parameters of the Zerilli-Armstrong model used to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of the investigated materials.

  15. On the microstructure of tungsten disulfide films alloyed with carbon and nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nossa, A; Cavaleiro, A; Carvalho, NJM; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2005-01-01

    This work aimed at studying the effect of a Ti interlayer and the alloying with carbon and nitrogen of W-S-C(N) films on the mechanical and tribological proper-ties. The W-S-C and W-S-N films were deposited by r.f. magnetron reactive sputtering with CH4 or N-2 as reactive gases and analysed by high

  16. Morphological characterization of tungsten trioxide nano powders synthesized by Sol-Gel modified Pechini's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, Leila; Jafari, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Sol-gel modified Pechini's method was used to prepare WO 3 nano powders using dicarboxylic acid and polyethylene glycol as the chelating agent and polymeric source, respectively. WO 3 powders were first prepared by calcination of resin precursor at 550 deg C under various initial concentrations of metal ion (12.5-50 mmol), acid (125-500 mmol), a complexing agent (32-262 mmol), and polyethylene glycol (1-16.5 mmol) in the air atmosphere. The products were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results revealed that the WO 3 nano powders prepared with different amounts of chelating agent and polyethylene glycol, crystallized in monoclinic phase. The nano powders were impurity-free due to the presence of the complexing agent and polyethylene glycol as carbon sources. Morphological evolution indicated that the nano powders evolved from rod-like to regular and spherical shapes, depending on complexing agent and polyethylene glycol amounts. Nano powders with an average particle size of approximately 58 nm and a narrow size distribution were obtained. (author)

  17. Morphological characterization of tungsten trioxide nano powders synthesized by Sol-Gel modified Pechini's method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Leila; Jafari, Hassan, E-mail: jafari_h@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Sol-gel modified Pechini's method was used to prepare WO{sub 3} nano powders using dicarboxylic acid and polyethylene glycol as the chelating agent and polymeric source, respectively. WO{sub 3} powders were first prepared by calcination of resin precursor at 550 deg C under various initial concentrations of metal ion (12.5-50 mmol), acid (125-500 mmol), a complexing agent (32-262 mmol), and polyethylene glycol (1-16.5 mmol) in the air atmosphere. The products were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results revealed that the WO{sub 3} nano powders prepared with different amounts of chelating agent and polyethylene glycol, crystallized in monoclinic phase. The nano powders were impurity-free due to the presence of the complexing agent and polyethylene glycol as carbon sources. Morphological evolution indicated that the nano powders evolved from rod-like to regular and spherical shapes, depending on complexing agent and polyethylene glycol amounts. Nano powders with an average particle size of approximately 58 nm and a narrow size distribution were obtained. (author)

  18. Electrical conductivity and microstructure by Rietveld refinement of doped Cu-Ni powder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fambrini, A.S.; Monteiro, W.A.; Orrego, R.M.M.; Marques, I.M.; Carrio, Juan A.G., E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br, E-mail: iara_m_@hotmail.com [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM/CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades. Dept. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study of microstructural and electrical properties of polycrystalline material from two different Cu-Ni alloys: Cu-Ni-Pt and Cu-Ni-Al. The first one of them was produced in electric furnace with voltaic arc and the other was produced by powder metallurgy. The microstructure of the samples was studied by optical microscopy, Vickers micro hardness and x rays powder diffraction. Their electrical conductivity was measured with a milliohmmeter Agilent (HP) 4338B. Refinements of the crystalline structure of the samples were performed by the Rietveld method, using the refinement program GSAS. The refinement results and Fourier differences calculations indicate that the copper matrix structure presents not significant distortions by the used amounts of the other metal atoms. In both cases a sequence of thermo mechanical treatments was developed with the intention of increasing the hardness maintaining the electrical conductivity of the alloys. The refinements also allowed a study of the dependence of the micro-structure and the thermo mechanical treatments of the samples. (author)

  19. Phase transformations of mechanically alloyed Fe-Cr-P-C powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensebaa, N. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et de Spectroscopie des Solides, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba, Algerie (Algeria); Alleg, S. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et de Spectroscopie des Solides, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba, Algerie (Algeria); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense - UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, Faculte des Sciences 72085, Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: greneche@univ-lemans.fr

    2005-05-03

    Fe{sub 77}Cr{sub 4}P{sub 8}C{sub 11} alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental Fe, Cr, P and C (graphite) powders in a planetary ball mill type Fritsch P7 under argon atmosphere. Morphological changes, microstructural and structural evolutions during ball milling were followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectrometry (MS) as a function of the milling time. The crystallite size refinement against the milling time is accompanied by an increase of the atomic level strain. After 6 h of milling, the dissolution of phosphorous into the {alpha}-Fe matrix is evidenced by the formation of a small amount ({approx}4%) of the paramagnetic Fe{sub 2}P phase as revealed by Moessbauer spectrometry. The complete mixing of all the elemental powders at the atomic level is achieved at 12 h of milling and results, after 24 h, in an amorphous matrix where nanocrystalline phosphides and carbides with nearly equal crystallite sizes are embedded. Further milling time up to 190 h gives rise to the formation of both the orthorhombic and the hexagonal (FeCr){sub 7}C{sub 3} carbide as well as the superparamagnetic {epsilon}'-Fe{sub 2.2}C carbide through the recrystallisation of the amorphous phase.

  20. Effect of reduced cobalt contents on hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy U-700 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of reducing the cobalt content of prealloyed powders of UDIMET 700 (U-700) alloys to 12.7, 8.6, 4.3, and 0% was examined. The powders were hot isostatically pressed into billets, which were given heat treatments appropriate for turbine disks, namely partial solutioning at temperatures below the gamma prime solvus and four step aging treatments. Chemical analyses, metallographic examinations, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the materials. Minor effects on gamma prime content and on room temperature and 650 C tensile properties were observed. Creep rupture lives at 650 C reached a maximum at the 8.4% concentration, while at 760 C a maximum in life was reached at the 4.3% cobalt level. Minimum creep rates increased with decreasing cobalt content at both test temperatures. Extended exposures at 760 and 815 C resulted in decreased tensile strengths and rupture lives for all alloys. Evidence of sigma phase formation was also found.

  1. A new dental powder from nanocrystalline melt-spun Ag-Sn-Cu alloy ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do-Minh, N.; Le-Thi, C.; Nguyen-Anh, S.

    2003-01-01

    A new non-gamma-two dental powder has been developed from nanocrystalline melt-spun Ag-Sn-Cu alloy ribbons. The amalgam made from this powder exhibits excellent properties for dental filling. The nanocrystalline microstructure was found for the first time in as-spun and heat treated Ag(27-28)Sn(9-32) Cu alloy ribbons, using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. As-spun ribbons exhibited a multi-phase microstructure with preferred existence of β (Ag 4 Sn) phase formed during rapid solidification (RS) due to supersaturating of copper (Cu) atoms and homogenous nanostructure with subgrain size of about (40-50) nm, which seems to be developed during RS process and can be caused by eutectic reaction of the Ag 3 Sn/Ag 4 Sn-Cu 3 Sn system. In heat treated ribbons the clustering of Cu atoms was always favored and stable in an ageing temperature and time interval determined by Cu content. The heat treatment led to essential changes of subgrain morphology, resulted in the appearance of large-angle boundaries with fine Cu 3 Sn precipitates and forming typical recrystallization twins. Such a microstructure variation in melt-spun ribbons could eventually yield enhanced technological, clinical and physical properties of the dental products, controlled by the ADA Specification N deg 1 and reported before. Thus, using the rapid solidification technique a new non-gamma-two dental material of high quality, nanocrystalline ribbon powder, can be produced. Copyright (2003) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  2. Artificial neural network modeling of mechanical alloying process for synthesizing of metal matrix nanocomposite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashtbayazi, M.R.; Shokuhfar, A.; Simchi, A.

    2007-01-01

    An artificial neural network model was developed for modeling of the effects of mechanical alloying parameters including milling time, milling speed and ball to powder weight ratio on the characteristics of Al-8 vol%SiC nanocomposite powders. The crystallite size and lattice strain of the aluminum matrix were considered for modeling. This nanostructured nanocomposite powder was synthesized by utilizing planetary high energy ball mill and the required data for training were collected from the experimental results. The characteristics of the particles were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Two types of neural network architecture, i.e. multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF), were used. The steepest descent along with variable learning rate back-propagation algorithm known as a heuristic technique was utilized for training the MLP network. It was found that MLP network yields better results compared to RBF network, giving an acceptable mapping between the network responses and the target data with a high correlation coefficients. The response surfaces between the response variables, i.e. crystallite size, lattice strain of the aluminum matrix and the processing parameters are presented. The procedure modeling can be used for optimization of the MA process for synthesizing of nanostructured metal matrix nanocomposites

  3. Electron spectroscopy studies of surface In-Ag alloy formation on the tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukaluk, A.; Trzcinski, M.; Okulewicz, K.

    2008-01-01

    XPS and UPS investigations of ultrathin films of In/Ag and Ag/In, deposited onto the W(1 1 0) surface in the ultrahigh vacuum conditions have been performed. Indium and silver films were formed by 'in-situ' evaporation on W(1 1 0) substrate. XPS and UPS studies have been performed by means of SCIENTA ESCA200 instrument. The changes of In4d core-level and Ag4d valence band emissions with increasing Ag and In coverage were monitored to observe the energy shift and shape of the spin-orbit doublet of In4d and Ag4d lines in the Ag/In/W and In/Ag/W systems. UPS (HeI and HeII) measurements were supported by XPS AlK α measurements of In3d and W4p levels, as well as by investigations of Ag3d levels. XPS and UPS data allowed to evaluate the coverage and make conclusions concerning intermixing and surface alloying in the In/Ag/W and Ag/In/W systems. W(1 1 0) substrate can be cleaned after each deposition by thermal desorption and no alloying in the In/W and Ag/W systems is observed

  4. Combining thermodynamic modeling and 3D printing of elemental powder blends for high-throughput investigation of high-entropy alloys – Towards rapid alloy screening and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, Christian; Tang, Florian; Wilms, Markus B.; Weisheit, Andreas; Hallstedt, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    High-entropy alloys have gained high interest of both academia and industry in recent years due to their excellent properties and large variety of possible alloy systems. However, so far prediction of phase constitution and stability is based on empirical rules that can only be applied to selected alloy systems. In the current study, we introduce a methodology that enables high-throughput theoretical and experimental alloy screening and design. As a basis for thorough thermodynamic calculations, a new database was compiled for the Co–Cr–Fe–Mn–Ni system and used for Calphad and Scheil simulations. For bulk sample production, laser metal deposition (LMD) of an elemental powder blend was applied to build up the equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi Cantor alloy as a first demonstrator. This production approach allows high flexibility in varying the chemical composition and, thus, renders itself suitable for high-throughput alloy production. The microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of the material processed were characterized using optical microscopy, EBSD, EDX, XRD, hardness and compression testing. The LMD-produced alloy revealed full density, strongly reduced segregation compared to conventionally cast material, pronounced texture, and excellent mechanical properties. Phase constitution and elemental distribution were correctly predicted by simulations. The applicability of the introduced methodology to high-entropy alloys and extension to compositionally complex alloys is discussed.

  5. Tungsten-microdiamond composites for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livramento, V.; Nunes, D.; Correia, J.B.; Carvalho, P.A.; Mardolcar, U.; Mateus, R.; Hanada, K.; Shohoji, N.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Alves, E.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten is considered as one of promising candidate materials for plasma facing component in nuclear fusion reactors due to its resistance to sputtering and high melting point. High thermal conductivity is also a prerequisite for plasma facing components under the unique service environment of fusion reactor characterised by the massive heat load, especially in the divertor area. The feasibility of mechanical alloying of nanodiamond and tungsten, and the consolidation of the composite powders with Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was previously demonstrated. In the present research we report on the use of microdiamond instead of nanodiamond in such composites. Microdiamond is more favourable than nanodiamond in view of phonon transport performance leading to better thermal conductivity. However, there is a trade off between densification and thermal conductivity as the SPS temperature increases tungsten carbide formation from microdiamond is accelerated inevitably while the consolidation density would rise.

  6. Depositing laser-generated nanoparticles on powders for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersed strengthened alloy parts via laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, René; Wilms, Markus B.; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Weisheit, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Henrich Schleifenbaum, Johannes; Gökce, Bilal

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel route for the adsorption of pulsed laser-dispersed nanoparticles onto metal powders in aqueous solution without using any binders or surfactants. By electrostatic interaction, we deposit Y2O3 nanoparticles onto iron-chromium based powders and obtain a high dispersion of nano-sized particles on the metallic powders. Within the additively manufactured component, we show that the particle spacing of the oxide inclusion can be adjusted by the initial mass fraction of the adsorbed Y2O3 particles on the micropowder. Thus, our procedure constitutes a robust route for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys via oxide nanoparticles supported on steel micropowders.

  7. The influence of structural changes on electrical and magnetic characteristics of amorphous powder of the nixmoy alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribić-Zelenović Lenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel and molybdenum alloy powder was electrodeposited on a titanium cathode from a NiSO4⋅7H2O and (NH46 Mo7O24⋅4H2O ammonium solution. The desired chemical composition, structure, size and shape of particles in the powder samples were achieved by an appropriate choice of electrolysis parameters (current density, composition and temperature of the solution, cathode material and electrolysis duration. Metal coatings form in the current density range 15 mA cm-2powders form. The chemical composition of powder samples depends on the current density of electrodeposition. The molybdenum content in the powder increases with the increase of current density (in the low current density range, while in the higher current density range the molybdenum content in the alloy decreases with the increase of the current density of deposition. Smaller sized particles form at higher current density. X-ray analysis, differential scanning calorimetric and measurements of the temperature dependence of electric resistance and magnetic permeability of the powder samples were all used to establish a predominantly amorphous structure of the powder samples formed at the current density of j≥70mA cm-2. The crystalline particle content in the powder samples increases with the decrease of the current density of deposition. Powder heating causes structural changes. The process of thermal stabilization of nickel and molybdenum amorphous powders takes place in the temperature interval from 463K to 573K and causes a decrease in electrical resistance and increase in magnetic permeability. The crystallization temperature depends on the value of current density of powder electrodeposition. Powder formed at j=180 mA cm-2 begins to crystallize at 573K, while the powder deposited at j=50 mA cm-2 begins to crystallize at 673K. Crystallization of the powder causes a decrease in electric resistivity and magnetic

  8. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical

  9. Advanced Mechanical Properties of a Powder Metallurgy Ti-Al-N Alloy Doped with Ultrahigh Nitrogen Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J.; Chen, B.; Umeda, J.; Kondoh, K.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys are recognized for their attractive properties. However, high-performance Ti alloys are often alloyed with rare or noble-metal elements. In the present study, Ti alloys doped with only ubiquitous elements were produced via powder metallurgy. The experimental results showed that pure Ti with 1.5 wt.% AlN incorporated exhibited excellent tensile properties, superior to similarly extruded Ti-6Al-4V. Further analysis revealed that its remarkably advanced strength could primarily be attributed to nitrogen solid-solution strengthening, accounting for nearly 80% of the strength increase of the material. In addition, despite the ultrahigh nitrogen concentration up to 0.809 wt.%, the Ti-1.5AlN sample showed elongation to failure of 10%. This result exceeds the well-known limitation for nitrogen (over 0.45 wt.%) that causes embrittlement of Ti alloys.

  10. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of biodegradable powder metallourgical Fe-2 wt% X (X = Pd, Ag and C) alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Stehlíková, K.; Michalcová, A.; Msallamová, Š.; Vojtěch, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 181, Sep (2016), 501–511 ISSN 0254-0584 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : biomaterials * powder metallurgy * alloys * electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.084, year: 2016

  11. Evaluation of alloying effect on the formation of Ni-Fe nanosized powders by pulsed wire discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gyu-Hyeon; Lee, Gwang-Yeob; Kim, Hyeon-Ah; Lee, A-Young; Oh, Hye-Ryeong; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Do-Hyang; Lee, Min-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesizing Ni-Fe alloy nano-powder employing Ni-plating layer of Fe wire by PWD process. • The mean particle size is decreased with increasing the charging voltage affecting to the super heating factor (K). • The mean particle size of PWD Ni-Fe nanosized powder is accordance with applied voltage. • Uniformity of mean particel size can be controlled by adjusting charging voltage and super heating factor (K). - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of varying the explosion time and charging voltage of pulsed wire discharge (PWD) on the mean particle size, dispersibility and alloying reliability of powders produced from pure Ni and Ni-plated Fe wires. It was found that with increasing charging voltage, the mean particle size of Ni powders is reduced from 40.11 ± 0.23 to 25.63 ± 0.07 nm, which is attributed to a change in the extent of super heating with particle size. Nanosized powders of Ni-Fe alloy with a mean particle size between 25.91 ± 0.24 and 26.30 ± 0.26 nm were also successfully fabricated and found to consist of particles with a γ-(Ni/Fe) core and FeO shell. The reliability for the optimization of processing parameters to control particle sizes is also evaluated.

  12. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Powdered Quasicrystalline Al94Fe3Cr3 Alloy Consolidated by Quasi-Hydrostatic Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra I. Yurkova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quasicrystalline Al-based alloys belong to the class of the state-of-the-art metal materials for the application in light engineering constructions, primarily in aviation and the motor transport industry. These materials are commonly made in the form of powders, which is due to the high productivity of powder metallurgy methods. Therefore, the powder consolidation methods are of great importance in the production of products, which is associated with certain difficulties, and consequently, they should be chosen considering not only the quasicrystals’ propensity to brittle fracture but also the metastable nature of the quasicrystalline phases. Certain possibilities in this direction are provided by the quasi-hydrostatic compression method, which can provide a non-trivial combination of strength and ductility properties of materials. Objective. The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of high pressure under quasi-hydrostatic compression on the formation of structure, phase composition and mechanical properties of the quasicrystalline Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy. Methods. 40 μm Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy quasicrystalline powder was fabricated by water-atomisation technique. Consolidation of quasicrystalline powder was performed by quasi-hydrostatic compression technique in high-pressure cells at room temperature at a pressure of 2.5, 4, and 6 hPa. Structure, phase composition and mechanical characteristics of Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction andmicromechanical tests. Results. Using the phase X-ray analysis and SEM, the content of the quasicrystalline icosahedral phase (i-phase in the Al94Fe3Cr3 alloy structure was completely preserved after its consolidation at different pressures (2.5, 4, and 6 hPa under quasi-hydrostatic compression at room temperature. Despite the high pressure applied in the consolidation process, the morphology of quasicrystalline phase particles located in the a

  13. Impact tests of the tungsten coated stainless steels prepared by using magnetron sputtering with ion beam mixing or electron beam alloying treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Zhan, Chang-Yong; Yang, Bin; Wu, Jian-Chun

    2013-05-01

    Tungsten films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) with ion beam mixing (IBM) or electron beam alloying (EBA) treatment. The ductile-brittle transition behaviors of the specimens were investigated by means of instrumented Charpy impact test at a series of temperature, and SEM was used to observe the morphology of the cross section. Impact tests show that different treatment methods with W films do not have much influence on crack initiation, while EBA treatment with W films can more effectively prevent crack propagation, namely improve the impact toughness of SS than using IBM treatment. The reason that caused this difference was discussed.

  14. Synthesis of nanometric refractory alloys powders in the Mo−Nb−W system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kentheswaran, Vasuki; Dine, Sarah [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM, CNRS UPR 3407, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Vrel, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.vrel@lspm.cnrs.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM, CNRS UPR 3407, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Couzinié, Jean-Philippe [ICMPE, Université Paris Est, UMR 7182, CNRS, UPEC, 94320 Thiais (France); Dirras, Guy [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM, CNRS UPR 3407, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2016-09-15

    Nanometric powders of stoichiometric compositions in the Mo−Nb, Mo−W, Nb−W binary systems and in the Mo−Nb−W ternary system were produced by highly exothermic reactions using Mechanically Induced Chemical Reaction (MICR), Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) and Mechanically Activated Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (MASHS), through the reduction of their oxides by magnesium, with sodium chloride used as a reaction moderator. Results demonstrate the possibility to obtain high purity nanostructured products in the 20–150 nm range, with an average equivalent diameter, from specific surface measurements, of 44 nm. However, in Nb containing samples, the main BCC phase always comes with one or more secondary phases, for which further developments are necessary in order either to avoid its formation or to find a way to eliminate it. - Highlights: • Nanometric refractory powders in the Mo−Nb−W system have been synthesized. • Three high-energy processes (SHS, MASHS, milling) have been compared. • Process parameters can be adjusted to yield homogeneous alloys in the nanoscale.

  15. The formation mechanism of mechanically alloyed Fe-20 at% Al powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, F., E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Universite 20 Aout 1955, BP 26, Route d' El-Hadaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Otmani, A. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Universite 20 Aout 1955, BP 26, Route d' El-Hadaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Djekoun, A. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et Spectroscopie des Solides, LM2S, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12 Annaba 23000 (Algeria); Greneche, J.M. [LUNAM, Universite du Maine, Institut des Molecules et Materiaux du Mans, UMR CNRS 6283, 72085 Le Mans (France)

    2013-01-15

    The formation mechanism of the mechanically alloyed Fe-20 at% Al, from elemental Fe and Al powders, has been investigated. The experimental results indicate the formation of a nanocrystalline bcc {alpha}-Fe(Al) solid solution with a lattice parameter close to a{sub {alpha}-Fe(Al)}=0.2890 nm, where each Fe atom is surrounded by (6Fe+2Al) in the first coordination sphere. The reaction mechanism of MA process seems to be controlled by a diffusion phenomenon. Aluminum particles undergo an important refinement to the nanometer scale and then they stick on Fe particles of large sizes. A large number of clear Al/Fe interface areas were generated. The short diffusion path and the presence of high concentration of defects accelerated the solid state reaction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nanocrystalline bcc {alpha}-Fe(Al) solid solution is formed from elemental Fe and Al powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction mechanism of MA process seems to be controlled by a diffusion phenomenon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each Fe atom is surrounded by (6Fe+2Al) in the first coordination sphere.

  16. Microstructure, cytotoxicity and corrosion of powder-metallurgical iron alloys for biodegradable bone replacement materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Bernd; Sievers, Birte; Utzschneider, Sandra; Mueller, Peter; Jansson, Volkmar [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Muenchen (Germany); Roessler, Sophie; Nies, Berthold [InnoTERE GmbH, Tatzberg 47, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Stephani, Guenter; Kieback, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Quadbeck, Peter, E-mail: peter.quadbeck@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden Branch Lab, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Up to now biodegradable bone implants with the ability of bearing high loads for the temporary replacement of bones or as osteosynthesis material are not available. Iron and iron based alloys have been identified as appropriate materials, since they combine high strength at medium corrosion rates. Thus, the aim of the present study is the development of a degradable iron based alloy with the perspective of using them as matrix material of cellular structures with biomechanical tailored properties. A powder metallurgical approach has been used to manufacture Fe-C, Fe-0.6P, Fe-1.6P, Fe-B and Fe-Ag samples, which have been tested with respect to their microstructure, their cytotoxicity, and their degradation rate. In order to determine the cytotoxicity of the material a monolayer culture of fibroblast and a perfusion chamber system has been chosen, which was recommended by the ISO 10993-5:1999 for biological testing of medical devices. It has been found, that in particular phosphorus features beneficial properties, since density and thus the strength of the material are increased. No corrosion inhibiting effects of phosphorus on the degradation rate have been found.

  17. Effect of composition and heat treatment on the phase formation of mechanically alloyed Cr-B and Mo-B powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H M; Hu, C J; Pai, K Y

    2009-01-01

    Blended elemental Cr-B and Mo-B powders in atomic ratio of 67:33, 50:50, and 20:80 were subjected to mechanical alloying up to 60 h and subsequent heat treatment to investigate effect of composition and heat treatment on the phase formation of Cr-B and Mo-B powders. It was studied by X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. Mechanical alloying these powder mixtures for 60 h leads essentially to a amorphous structure except for the Mo 20 B 80 powder, which creates a partially amorphous MoB 4 structure. Annealing at lower temperatures relieves the strains cumulative in the milled powders and creates no new phase. The structures obtained after annealing the milled powders at higher temperature vary and depend on the overall composition of the powder mixtures. Annealing the milled Mo-B powders having greater Mo content ends up with a dissociation reaction at higher temperature.

  18. Study of post-weld heat treatment cracking of Nickel base super alloy (Udimet 520) in gas tungsten arc welding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokabi, A. H.; Nematzadeh, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanism and the cause and the ways for eliminating the decrease of post-weld heat treatment cracking in welding of Nickel base super alloy (Udimet 520) in gas tungsten arc welding method has been studied. For this study, X-ray diffraction machine and quantometery has been used. Increasing of Al, Ti percentage and residual stress are the main causes of cracking post-weld heat treatment. The results from quantometery tests demonstrate that decreasing tendency to post-weld heat treatment cracking is due to the decrease of Al, Ti percentage of welding. Result of X-ray diffraction tests show the tendency toward increasing of post-weld heat treatment cracking for existing of strenghed residual stresses. Finally, it is illustrated that alloy welding Udimet 520 in Ti G method is not sensitive to post-weld heat treatment cracking

  19. Influence of thermo-mechanical processing on the microstructure of Cu-based shape memory alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.P.; Ibarra, A.; Iza-Mendia, A.; Recarte, V.; Perez-Landazabal, J.I.; San Juan, J.; No, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys processed by powder metallurgy show very good thermo-mechanical properties, much better than those found in alloys produced by conventional casting. In this paper, we present the microstructural characterisation of these powder metallurgy alloys in order to find the microscopic mechanisms, linked to the powder metallurgy processing method, which are indeed responsible of such good thermo-mechanical behaviour. Electron microscopy studies [scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)] show that powder metallurgy processing creates a sub-grain structure characterised by the presence of low angle sub-boundaries. These sub-boundaries are found to be lying on {1 1 0} and {1 1 2} lattice planes and are composed by an arrangement of superdislocations. These sub-boundaries may improve ductility in two ways: acting as a sink of dislocations which promotes plastic deformation and decreasing stress concentration at grain boundaries. Moreover, since sub-boundaries act as weak obstacles for the movement of martensite plates, the improvement on ductility is accomplished by an adequate thermo-mechanical behaviour

  20. Development of heat resistant Pb-free joints by TLPS process of Ag and Sn-Bi-Ag alloy powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuma I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TLPS (Transient Liquid Phase Sintering process is a candidate method of heat-resistant bonding, which makes use of the reaction between low-melting temperature powder of Sn-Bi base alloys and reactive powder of Ag. During heat treatment above the melting temperature of a Sn-Bi base alloy, the molten Sn-Bi reacts rapidly with solid Ag particles, which results in the formation of heat-resistant intermetallic compound (IMC. In this study, the TLPS properties between Sn-17Bi-1Ag (at.% powder with its liquidus temperature of 200°C and pure Ag powder were investigated. During differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurement, an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction occurred, which correspond to the formation of the e-Ag3Sn IMC phase and the melting of the Sn-17Bi-1Ag alloy, respectively. After the overall measurement, the obtained reactant consists of the Ag3Sn-IMC and Bi-rich phases, both of which start melting above 250°C, with a small amount of the residual Sn-Bi eutectic phase. These results suggest that the TLPS process can be applied for Pb-free heatresistant bonding.

  1. Friction stir surfacing of cast A356 aluminium–silicon alloy with boron carbide and molybdenum disulphide powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Srinivasu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Good castability and high strength properties of Al–Si alloys are useful in defence applications like torpedoes, manufacture of Missile bodies, and parts of automobile such as engine cylinders and pistons. Poor wear resistance of the alloys is major limitation for their use. Friction stir processing (FSP is a recognized surfacing technique as it overcomes the problems of fusion route surface modification methods. Keeping in view of the requirement of improving wear resistance of cast aluminium–silicon alloy, friction stir processing was attempted for surface modification with boron carbide (B4C and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 powders. Metallography, micro compositional analysis, hardness and pin-on-disc wear testing were used for characterizing the surface composite coating. Microscopic study revealed breaking of coarse silicon needles and uniformly distributed carbides in the A356 alloy matrix after FSP. Improvement and uniformity in hardness was obtained in surface composite layer. Higher wear resistance was achieved in friction stir processed coating with carbide powders. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 powder was found to improve wear resistance of the base metal significantly.

  2. Diffusion of liquid uranium into foils of tantalum metal and tantalum-10 wt% tungsten alloy up to 1350/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznietz, M.; Livne, Z.; Cotler, C.; Erez, G.

    1988-05-01

    Immersion experiments have been performed to investigate the diffusion of liquid uranium into 0.3 mm thick foils of tantalum metal and tantalum-10wt% tungsten alloy in the temperature range of 1160/sup 0/C to 1350/sup 0/C, for reaction times up to 20 h, in zirconia crucibles. The orginal and uranium-reacted foils have been studied microscopically (SEM-EDAX) and a multilayer structure is revealed in the reacted foils. Layers identified for tantalum immersed in uranium: Uranium-tantalum (U/Ta approx. = 1), precipitated columnar tantalum (< 1wt% U), inner uranium, and inner tantalum (with grown grains and uranium along grain boundaries). Layers identified for Ta-10wt% W alloy immersed in uranium: Uranium-tantalum (U/Ta approx. = 1, 0.3wt% W), precipitated tantalum (< 1wt% U, down to 1-2wt% W), and inner Escher-type grains of tantalum-tungsten (up to 18wt% W) and of uranium (< 2wt% Ta, < 0.4wt% W). A mechanism for the multilayer formation and the intrusion of liquid uranium into the solid foils is proposed and substantiated.

  3. Towards Production of Additive Manufacturing Grade Metallic Powders on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    indigenous manufacturing, cold spray technology, manufacturing at the point of need, battle damage repair 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...empty brass cartridge casings, medical waste, used batteries, used steel belted off-road tires, etc. [2]). Such an effort should be focused to offer a...this process could produce metallic powder of the following alloys: titanium, high strength steel , tungsten, nickel-base alloys, tool steels

  4. Microstructure of bonding zones in laser-clad Ni-alloy-based composite coatings reinforced with various ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Y.T.; Ouyang, J.H.; Lei, T.C.

    1996-01-01

    Microstructure of the bonding zones (BZs) between laser-clad Ni-alloy-based composite coatings and steel substrates was studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. Observations indicate that for pure Ni-alloy coating the laser parameters selected for good interface fusion have no effect on the microstructure of the BZ except for its thickness. However, the addition of ceramic particles (TiN, SiC, or ZrO 2 ) to the Ni alloy varies the compositional or constitutional undercooling of the melt near the solid/liquid interface and consequently leads to the observed changes of microstructure of the BZs. For TiN/Ni-alloy coating the morphology of γ-Ni solid solution in the BZ changes from dendritic to planar form with increasing scanning speed. A colony structure of eutectic is found in the BZ of SiC/Ni-alloy coating in which complete dissolution of SiC particles takes place during laser cladding. The immiscible melting of ZrO 2 and Ni-alloy powders induces the stratification of ZrO 2 /Ni-alloy coating which consists of a pure ZrO 2 layer fin the upper region and a BZ composed mainly of γ-Ni dendrites adjacent to the substrate. All the BZs studied in this investigation have good metallurgical characteristics between the coatings and the substrates

  5. Hard magnetic properties of bulk and powder (Pr,R)-Fe-B-Cu(R=Tb,Dy) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, A.G.; Ermolenko, A.S.; Belozerov, Ye.V.; Gaviko, V.S.; Puzanova, T.Z. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Metallov; Gabay, A.M.; Kim, A.S. [YBM Magnex Inc., Newtown PA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The effect of mechanical grinding on hard magnetic properties of (Pr{sub 1-x}R{sub x}){sub y}Fe{sub 94.8-y-z}B{sub 5.2}Cu{sub z} have been investigated for x=0-0.3, y=13-20, z=0-1.5. Additions of Tb were found to be more effective to improve coercivity of ground powders, whereas those of Dy were more effective to improve coercivity of annealed cast alloys. The obtained anisotropic hard magnetic powders may be used for polymer-bonded magnets. (orig.)

  6. Study on the formation of cubic texture in Ni-7 at.% W alloy substrates by powder metallurgy routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Suo, HongLi; Zhu, YongHua

    2009-01-01

    One of the main challenges for coated conductor applications is to produce sharp cubic textured alloy substrates with high strength and low magnetism. In this work, the cubic textured Ni–7 at.% W substrates were prepared from different powder metallurgy ingots by rolling-assisted biaxially textured...... substrate processing. The fabrication processes of cubic texture in the Ni–7 at.% W tapes by two powder metallurgy routes are described in detail. Through the optimized process, full width at half maximum values of 6.7° and 5.0° were obtained, as estimated by X-ray (1 1 1) phi scan and (2 0 0) rocking curve...

  7. Preparation method of tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of tungsten carbide in powder form from tungsten oxide powder in which the tungsten oxide is heated to 800-1,050 0 C, preferably to 850 0 C, and is reduced by the addition of carbon monoxide. The partial pressure of the CO 2 then formed must be kept below a necessary equilibrium value for the formation of the carbide. The waste gas (with max. 20 Vol% CO 2 ) is hardly reduced and is recycled in the circuit. (UWI) [de

  8. Study on effects of powder and flake chemistry and morphology on the properties of Al-Cu-Mg-X-X-X powder metallurgy advanced aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschter, P. J.; Lederich, R. J.; Oneal, J. E.; Pao, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of alloy chemistry and particulate morphology on consolidation behavior and consolidated product properties in rapid solidification processed, powder-metallurgical Al-3Li-1.5Cu-1Mg-0.5Co-0.2Zr and Al-4.4Cu-1.5Mg-Fe-Ni-0.2Zr extrusions and forgings were studied. Microstructures and mechanical properties of both alloys are largely unaffected by particulate production method (vacuum atomization, ultrasonic atomization, or twin-roller quenching) and by particulate solidification rates between 1000 and 100,000 K/s. Consolidation processing by canning, cold compaction, degassing, and hot extrusion is sufficient to yield mechanical properties in the non-Li-containing alloy extrusions which are similar to those of 7075-Al, but ductilities and fracture toughnesses are inferior owing to poor interparticle bonding caused by lack of a vacuum-hot-pressing step during consolidation. Mechanical properties of extrusions are superior to those of forgings owing to the stronger textures produced by the more severe hot working during extrusion. The effects on mechanical properties of dispersoid size and volume fraction, substructural refinement, solid solution strengthening by Mg, and precipitate size and distribution are elucidated for both alloy types.

  9. Formation of solid solution during mutual diffusion of tungsten and molybdenum in the process of sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, A.A.; Bulat, I.B.; Voronin, Yu.V.; Fedoseev, G.K.; Karasev, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    A process of a solid solution homogenization during sintering of W-15Mo and W-5Mo alloys is studied by the methods of density measurements, analysis of the X-ray lines physical broadening and determination of crystalline lattice constant. Study of the process of solid solution formation under conditions of powder composite sintering is shown to be conducted with account of peculiarities of tungsten and molybdenum mutual diffusion in the investigated temperature range of concentrations

  10. Thermal stability and creep behaviour of MgNiYCe-rich mischmetal alloys processed by a powder metallurgy route

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peréz, P.; Milička, Karel; Badia, J. M.; Garcés, G.; Antoranz, J. M.; Gonzáles, S.; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Adeva, P.

    289-292, - (2009), s. 127-136 ISSN 1012-0386. [DIMAT 2008, International Conference on Diffusion in Materials /7./. Lanzarote, Canary Islands, 28.10.2008-31.10.2008] Grant - others:Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia (ES) MAT2006-11731-C02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : magnesium alloys * powder metallurgy * microstructure * thermal stability * creep Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  11. Studying the compactibility of the VT22 high-strength alloy powder obtained by the PREP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, D. I.; Berezin, I. M.; Nesterenko, A. V.; Zalazinsky, A. G.; Vichuzhanin, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    Compression curves are plotted for VT22 high-strength alloy powder under conditions of uniaxial compression at room temperature. The density of the compacted briquette at the loading and unloading stages is determined. It is demonstrated that strong interparticle bonds are formed in the area of the action of shear deformation. The results are supposed to be used to identify the flow model of the material studied and to perform the subsequent numerical modeling of the compaction process.

  12. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 C. The precipitation of the Al6Mn- and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ~ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al3Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al6Mn and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al3Sc-phase and the Al 6Mn-phase precipitation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  13. The effect of process control agent on the structure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline mechanically alloyed Fe–45% Ni powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheisari, Kh.; Javadpour, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline Fe-45 wt% Ni alloy powders were prepared by mechanical alloying via high-energy ball milling. The effect of adding stearic acid as a process control agent (PCA) on the particle size, structure and magnetic properties of Fe-45 wt% Ni alloy powders have been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The results show that the addition of 1 wt% PCA causes fine uniform spherical powder particles of the fcc γ-(Fe, Ni) phase to be formed after 48 h milling time. It is also found that crystallite size, lattice strain and content of γ-(Fe, Ni) phase are three of the most important variables that are significantly affected by PCA content and can influence the magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Different amount of stearic acid as a PCA was used during milling. • Particle size and crystallite size decrease with increasing PCA content. • The addition of 1 wt% PCA leads to a good combination of structure and magnetic properties

  14. Metal release from stainless steel powders and massive sheets--comparison and implication for risk assessment of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Mazinanian, Neda; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2013-02-01

    Industries that place metal and alloy products on the market are required to demonstrate that they are safe for all intended uses, and that any risks to humans, animals or the environment are adequately controlled. This requires reliable and robust in vitro test procedures. The aim of this study is to compare the release of alloy constituents from stainless steel powders of different grades (focus on AISI 316L) and production routes into synthetic body fluids with the release of the same metals from massive sheets in relation to material and surface characteristics. The comparison is justified by the fact that the difference between massive surfaces and powders from a metal release/dissolution and surface perspective is not clearly elucidated within current legislations. Powders and abraded and aged (24 h) massive sheets were exposed to synthetic solutions of relevance for biological settings and human exposure routes, for periods of up to one week. Concentrations of released iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese in solution were measured, and the effect of solution pH, acidity, complexation capacity, and proteins elucidated in relation to surface oxide composition and its properties. Implications for risk assessments based on in vitro metal release data from alloys are elucidated.

  15. Specific Adaptation of Gas Atomization Processing for Al-Based Alloy Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Siemon, John [Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The charge for each gas atomization experiment was provided by Alcoa and consisted of cast blocks cut into 1 inch by 1 inch square rods of the chosen aluminum alloys. The atmosphere in the melting chamber and connected atomization system was evacuated with a mechanical pump prior to backfilling with ultrahigh purity (UHP grade) Ar. The melt was contained in a bottom tapped alumina crucible with an alumina stopper rod to seal the exit while heating to a pouring temperature of 1000 – 1400°C. When the desired superheat was reached, the stopper rod was lifted and melt flowed through pour tube and was atomized with Ar from a 45-22-052-409 gas atomization nozzle (or atomization die), having a jet apex angle of 45 degrees with 22 cylindrical gas jets (each with diameter of 1.32 mm or 0.052 inches) arrayed around the axis of a 10.4 mm central bore. The Ar atomization gas supply regulator pressure was set to produce nozzle manifold pressures for the series of runs at pressures of 250-650 psi. Secondary gas halos of Ar+O2 and He also were added to the interior of the spray chamber at various downstream locations for additional cooling of the atomized droplets, surface passivation, and to prevent coalescence of the resulting powder.

  16. Dwell Notch Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Yamada, Y.; Ghosn, L. J.; Jayaraman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern dwell notch low cycle fatigue (NLCF) behavior of a powder metallurgy (P/M) ME3 disk superalloy. The emphasis was placed on the environmentally driven mechanisms which may embrittle the highly stressed notch surface regions and reduce NLCF life. In conjunction with the environmentally driven notch surface degradation processes, the visco-plastic driven mechanisms which can significantly change the notch root stresses were also considered. Dwell notch low cycle fatigue testing was performed in air and vacuum on a ME3 P/M disk alloy specimens heat treated using either a fast or a slow cooling rate from the solutioning treatment. It was shown that dwells at the minimum stress typically produced a greater life debit than the dwells applied at the maximum stress, especially for the slow cooled heat treatment. Two different environmentally driven failure mechanisms were identified as the root cause of early crack initiation in the min dwell tests. Both of these failure mechanisms produced mostly a transgranular crack initiation failure mode and yet still resulted in low NLCF fatigue lives. The lack of stress relaxation during the min dwell tests produced higher notch root stresses which caused early crack initiation and premature failure when combined with the environmentally driven surface degradation mechanisms. The importance of environmental degradation mechanisms was further highlighted by vacuum dwell NLCF tests which resulted in considerably longer NLCF lives, especially for the min dwell tests.

  17. On tungsten technologies and qualification for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J. van der; Hegeman, H.; Wouters, O.; Luzginova, N.; Jonker, B.; Van der Marck, S.; Opschoor, J.; Wang, J.; Dowling, G.; Stuivenga, M.; Carton, E.

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten alloys are considered prime candidates for the in-vessel components directly facing the plasma. For example, in the HEMJ helium cooled divertor design tiles may be operated at temperatures up to 1700 deg. C, supported by a structure partially consisting of tungsten at temperatures from 600 to 1000 deg. C, and connected to a HT steel structure. The tungsten armoured primary wall is operated at 500-900 deg. C. Irradiation doses will be few tens dpa at minimum, but FPR requirements for plants availability will stretch these targets. Recently injection moulding technology was developed for pure tungsten and representative parts were manufactured for ITER monobloc divertors and DEMO HEMJ thimbles. The major advantages for this technology are the efficient use of material feedstock/resources and the intrinsic possibility to produce near-finished product, avoiding machining processes that are costly and may introduce surface defects deteriorating the component in service performance. It is well suited for mass-manufacturing of components as well known in e.g. lighting industries. To further qualify this material technology various specimen types were produced with processing parameters identical to the components, and tested successfully, showing the high potential for implementation in (fusion) devices. Furthermore, the engineering approach can clearly be tailored away from conventional design and manufacturing technologies based on bulk materials. The technology is suitable for shaping of new W-alloys and W-ODS variants as well. Basically this technology allows a particular qualification trajectory. There is no need to produce large batches of material during the material development and optimization stage. For the verification of irradiation behaviour in the specific neutron spectra, there is a further attractive feature to use e.g. isotope tailored powders to adjust to available irradiation facilities like MTR's. In addition the ingrowth of transmutation

  18. Synthesis and characterization of NiAl-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite powder by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvari, S.Z. [Department of Materials Engineering, Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karimzadeh_f@cc.iut.ac.ir; Enayati, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-05-27

    The synthesis and characterization of NiAl-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite powders containing different amount of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (20 and 40 vol.% of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated. Al, Ni and NiO subjected to high-energy ball milling in a planetary ball mill. The structural changes of powder particles during mechanical alloying were studied by X-ray diffractometery and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical alloying of NiO and Al powder mixture corresponding to the stiochiometric reaction 3NiO + 5Al resulted in the formation of NiAl-40 vol.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} after 0.5 h with rapidly mode. The crystallite size of NiAl and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were 35 and 60 nm, respectively. The formation of NiAl-20 vol.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} took place after 30 h of milling of NiO-34 wt% Al-41 wt% Ni powder mixture. For this composition exothermic reaction with high rate did not occur during the milling process.

  19. Effects of Sc and Zr on mechanical property and microstructure of tungsten inert gas and friction stir welded aerospace high strength Al–Zn–Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ying; Peng, Bing; Xu, Guofu; Pan, Qinglin; Yin, Zhimin; Ye, Rui; Wang, Yingjun; Lu, Liying

    2015-01-01

    New aerospace high strength Al–Zn–Mg and Al–Zn–Mg–0.25Sc–0.10Zr (wt%) alloys were welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) process using a new Al–6.0Mg–0.25Sc–0.10Zr (wt%) filler material, and friction stir welding (FSW) process, respectively. Mechanical property and microstructure of the welded joints were investigated comparatively by tensile tests and microscopy methods. The results show that Sc and Zr can improve the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of Al–Zn–Mg alloy by 59 MPa (23.3%) and 16 MPa (4.0%) in TIG welded joints, and by 77 MPa (23.8%) and 54 MPa (11.9%) in FSW welded joints, respectively. The ultimate tensile strength and elongation of new Al–Zn–Mg–Sc–Zr alloy FSW welded joint are 506±4 MPa and 6.34±0.2%, respectively, showing superior post welded performance. Mechanical property of welded joint is mainly controlled by its “weakest microstructural zone”. TIG welded Al–Zn–Mg and Al–Zn–Mg–Sc–Zr alloys reinforced with weld bead both failed at fusion boundaries. Secondary Al 3 Sc x Zr 1−x particles originally present in parent alloy coarsen during TIG welding process, but they can restrain the grain growth and recrystallization here, thus improving welding performance. For two FSW welded joints, fracture occurred in weld nugget zone. Secondary Al 3 Sc x Zr 1−x nano-particles almost can keep unchangeable size (20–40 nm) across the entire FSW welded joint, and thus provide effective Orowan strengthening, grain boundary strengthening and substructure strengthening to strengthen FSW joints. The positive effect from Sc and Zr additions into base metals can be better preserved by FSW process than by TIG welding process

  20. Functionalization of Biomedical Ti6Al4V via In Situ Alloying by Cu during Laser Powder Bed Fusion Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakhmalev, Pavel; Yadroitsev, Igor; Yadroitsava, Ina; de Smidt, Olga

    2017-10-03

    The modern medical industry successfully utilizes Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) to manufacture complex custom implants. Ti6Al4V is one of the most commonly used biocompatible alloys. In surgery practice, infection at the bone-implant interface is one of the key reasons for implant failure. Therefore, advanced implants with biocompatibility and antibacterial properties are required. Modification of Ti alloy with Cu, which in small concentrations is a proven non-toxic antibacterial agent, is an attractive way to manufacture implants with embedded antibacterial functionality. The possibility of achieving alloying in situ, during manufacturing, is a unique option of the LPBF technology. It provides unique opportunities to manufacture customized implant shapes and design new alloys. Nevertheless, optimal process parameters need to be established for the in situ alloyed materials to form dense parts with required mechanical properties. This research is dedicated to an investigation of Ti6Al4V (ELI)-1 at % Cu material, manufactured by LPBF from a mixture of Ti6Al4V (ELI) and pure Cu powders. The effect of process parameters on surface roughness, chemical composition and distribution of Cu was investigated. Chemical homogeneity was discussed in relation to differences in the viscosity and density of molten Cu and Ti6Al4V. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of as-built 3D samples were analyzed and discussed. Pilot antibacterial functionalization testing of Ti6Al4V (ELI) in situ alloyed with 1 at % Cu showed promising results and notable reduction in the growth of pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Functionalization of Biomedical Ti6Al4V via In Situ Alloying by Cu during Laser Powder Bed Fusion Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Krakhmalev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern medical industry successfully utilizes Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF to manufacture complex custom implants. Ti6Al4V is one of the most commonly used biocompatible alloys. In surgery practice, infection at the bone–implant interface is one of the key reasons for implant failure. Therefore, advanced implants with biocompatibility and antibacterial properties are required. Modification of Ti alloy with Cu, which in small concentrations is a proven non-toxic antibacterial agent, is an attractive way to manufacture implants with embedded antibacterial functionality. The possibility of achieving alloying in situ, during manufacturing, is a unique option of the LPBF technology. It provides unique opportunities to manufacture customized implant shapes and design new alloys. Nevertheless, optimal process parameters need to be established for the in situ alloyed materials to form dense parts with required mechanical properties. This research is dedicated to an investigation of Ti6Al4V (ELI-1 at % Cu material, manufactured by LPBF from a mixture of Ti6Al4V (ELI and pure Cu powders. The effect of process parameters on surface roughness, chemical composition and distribution of Cu was investigated. Chemical homogeneity was discussed in relation to differences in the viscosity and density of molten Cu and Ti6Al4V. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior of as-built 3D samples were analyzed and discussed. Pilot antibacterial functionalization testing of Ti6Al4V (ELI in situ alloyed with 1 at % Cu showed promising results and notable reduction in the growth of pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Gas tungsten arc welding assisted hybrid friction stir welding of dissimilar materials Al6061-T6 aluminum alloy and STS304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, HanSur; Bang, HeeSeon; Jeon, GeunHong; Oh, IkHyun; Ro, ChanSeung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► GTAW assisted hybrid friction stir welding (HFSW) has been carried out for dissimilar butt joint. ► Mechanical strength of dissimilar butt joint by HFSW and FSW has been investigated and compared. ► Microstructure of dissimilar butt joint by HFSW and FSW has been investigated and compared. -- Abstract: The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential for using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) assisted hybrid friction stir welding (HFSW) process to join a stainless steel alloy (STS304) to an aluminum alloy (Al6061) in order to improve the weld strength. The difference in mechanical and microstructural characteristics of dissimilar joint by friction stir welding (FSW) and HFSW has been investigated and compared. Transverse tensile strength of approximately 93% of the aluminum alloy (Al6061) base metal tensile strength is obtained with HFSW, which is higher than the tensile strength of FSW welds. This may be due to the enhanced material plastic flow and partial annealing effect in dissimilar materials due to preheating of stainless steel surface by GTAW, resulting in significantly increased elongation of welds. The results indicate that HFSW that integrates GTAW preheating to FSW is advantageous in joining dissimilar combinations compared to conventional FSW.

  3. Correlation between corrosion resistance properties and thermal cycles experienced by gas tungsten arc welding and laser beam welding Alloy 690 butt weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H T; Wu, J L

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the correlation between the thermal cycles experienced by Alloy 690 weldments fabricated using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and laser beam welding (LBW) processes, and their corresponding corrosion resistance properties. The corrosion resistance of the weldments is evaluated using a U-bend stress corrosion test in which the specimens are immersed in a boiling, acid solution for 240 h. The experimental results reveal that the LBW inputs significantly less heat to the weldment than the GTAW, and therefore yields a far faster cooling rate. Moreover, the corrosion tests show that in the GTAW specimen, intergranular corrosion (IGC) occurs in both the fusion zone (FZ) and the heat affected zone (HAZ). By contrast, the LBW specimen shows no obvious signs of IGC.

  4. Controlling fundamentals in high-energy high-rate pulsed power materials processing of powdered tungsten, titanium aluminides, and copper-graphite composites. Final technical report, 1 Jun 87-31 Aug 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H.L.; Bourell, D.L.; Eliezer, Z.; Weldon, W.F.

    1990-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the controlling fundamentals in the high-energy high-rate (1 MJ in 1s) processing of metal powders. This processing utilizes a large electrical current pulse to heat a pressurized powder mass. The current pulse was provided by a homopolar generator. Simple short cylindrical shapes were consolidated so as to minimize tooling costs. Powders were subjected to current densities of 5 kA/cm2 to 25 kA/cm2 under applied pressures ranging from 70 MPa to 500 MPa. Disks with diameters of 25 mm to 70 mm, and thicknesses of 1 mm to 10 mm were consolidated. Densities of 75% to 99% of theoretical values were obtained in powder consolidates of tungsten, titanium aluminides, copper-graphite, and other metal-ceramic composites. Extensive microstructural characterization was performed to follow the changes occuring in the shape and microstructure of the various powders. The processing science has at its foundation the control of the duration of elevated temperature exposure during powder consolidation.

  5. Effect Of DyMn Alloy-Powder Addition On Microstructure And Magnetic Properties Of NdFeB Sintered Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M.-W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Micostructural change and corresponding effect on coercivity of a NdFeB sintered magnet mixed with small amount of DyMn powder was investigated. In the sintered magnet mixed with the DyMn alloy-powder Dy-rich shell was formed at outer layer of the main grains, while Mn was mostly concentrated at Nd-rich triple junction phase (TJP, lowering melting temperature of the Nd-rich phase that eventually improved the microstructural characteristics of the gain boundary phase. The coercivity of a magnet increased more than 3.5 kOe by the mixing of the DyMn alloy-powder.

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of a Low Magnetic Zr-1Mo Alloy by Powder Bed Fusion Using a Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohao Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A low magnetic Zr-1Mo alloy was fabricated by a powder bed fusion (PBF process using a fiber laser. The microstructure, surface morphology, and pore distribution of the as-built Zr-1Mo alloy were observed. Its magnetic susceptibility and Vickers hardness were evaluated by magnetic susceptibility balance and a microindentation tester, respectively. The as-built Zr-1Mo alloy mainly consisted of an α′ phase with an acicular structure. From the processing maps of the surface morphology and pore distribution, open pores on the top surface due to the lack of fusion corresponded to grid-like distributed pores, and large pores corresponded to balling particles on the top surface. The Vickers hardness was influenced by the oxygen and nitrogen contents rather than the porosity. The magnetic susceptibilities of the as-built Zr-1Mo alloy still were one-third those of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb, thus PBF can be applicable to the fabrication process for the low magnetic Zr-1Mo alloy.

  7. Structure and Properties of VT6 Alloy Obtained by Layered Selective Sintering of a Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresov, A. D.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Petrikova, E. A.; Koval, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper is focused on a clarification and analysis of the regularities of formation of the structure and properties of samples of the titanium-based alloy VT6, obtained by methods of conventional metallurgy and formed by layered selective electron-beam sintering in vacuum (using the Arcam A2X (3D printer) system (Arcam, Sweden)) of VT6 titanium powder with particle size 40-100 μm. Additional modification of the samples was realized by irradiating the surface with an intense pulsed electron beam (15 keV, 45 J/cm2, 200 μs, 10 pulses, 0.3 s-1, 3.5·10-2 Pa). It is shown that the action of a pulsed electron beam on the surface of samples formed by layered selective electron-beam sintering leads to a significant reduction in the porosity of the surface layer of the material and formation in the surface layer of a polycrystalline structure (grain size 15-60 μm) with a substructure in the form of crystallization cells (cell size 0.5-1.2 μm). Electron-beam processing of samples prepared by methods of conventional metallurgy for the indicated electron-beam parameters leads to the formation in the surface layer of a polycrystalline structure (grain size 50-800 μm) with a laminar intragrain substructure. Mechanical tests, performed by stretching flat samples, showed that the highest combination of mechanical strength and plasticity is possessed by samples obtained by layered selective electron-beam sintering with subsequent irradiation by an intense pulsed electron beam.

  8. Effect of heat treatment on microstructures and mechanical properties of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy rod prepared by powder compact extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Gabbitas, Brian

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, Ti-6Al-4V alloy rods were manufactured by the powder compact extrusion of a powder mixture of hydride-dehydride (HDH) titanium powder, elemental aluminum powder and master alloy powder. Extrusions were carried out at 1300°C and with a holding time of 5 min in an argon atmosphere. The effects of different heat treatments (HT1: 960°C/1 h, water quenching, HT2: 960°C/1 h, water quenching + 500°C/6 h, air cooling, HT3: 850°C/2 h, furnace cooling to 540°C, then air cooling) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-extruded Ti-6Al-4V alloy rods were investigated. The results showed that a homogeneous microstructure, composed of a lamellar structure with a grain size range of 40-60 μm, was produced by powder compact extrusion of a powder mixture. The mechanical properties achieved were an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1254 MPa, a yield strength (YS) of 1216 MPa and 8% ductility. After quenching at 960°C and with a holding time of 1 h, the UTS and YS of the heat treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy rod were increased to 1324 MPa and 1290 MPa, and the ductility was increased to 12%. After HT2, the UTS and YS of the heat treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy rod were significantly increased to 1436 MPa and 1400 MPa, but the ductility decreased to 4%. After HT3, the mechanical properties of the heat treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy rod were slightly decreased to give a UTS of 1213 MPa and a YS of 1180 MPa, with an increase in ductility to 11%. The microstructural changes of as-extruded Ti-6Al-4V alloy rods were also investigated for the different heat treatments.

  9. Microstructural Evolution of AlCoCrFeNiSi High-Entropy Alloy Powder during Mechanical Alloying and Its Coating Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lihui; Fu, Ming; Xiong, Wei

    2018-02-23

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are promising structural materials due to their excellent comprehensive performances. The use of mechanically alloyed powders to deposit HEA coatings through atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is an effective approach that can broaden the application areas of the HEAs. In this paper, a ductility-brittleness AlCoCrFeNiSi system was chosen as an object of study, and the detailed evolution of the surface morphology, particle size distribution, and microstructure of the powder during mechanical alloying was investigated. An AlCoCrFeNiSi HEA coating was deposited using powder milled for 10 h, which can be used as an ideal feedstock for APS. The surface morphology, microstructure, microhardness, and wear behavior of the coating at room temperature were investigated. The results showed that as the milling time increased, the particle size first increased, and then decreased. At the milling time of 10 h, simple body-centered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic (FCC) solid solution phases were formed. After spraying, the lamellar structure inside a single particle disappeared. An ordered BCC phase was detected, and the diffraction peaks of the Si element also disappeared, which indicates that phase transformation occurred during plasma spraying. A transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that nanometer crystalline grains with a grain size of about 30 nm existed in the APS coating. For the coating, an average microhardness of 612 ± 41 HV was obtained. Adhesive wear, tribo-oxidation wear, and slight abrasion wear took place during the wear test. The coating showed good wear resistance, with a volume wear rate of 0.38 ± 0.08 × 10 -4 mm³·N -1 ·m -1 , which makes it a promising coating for use in abrasive environments.

  10. Microstructural Evolution of AlCoCrFeNiSi High-Entropy Alloy Powder during Mechanical Alloying and Its Coating Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Tian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy alloys (HEAs are promising structural materials due to their excellent comprehensive performances. The use of mechanically alloyed powders to deposit HEA coatings through atmospheric plasma spraying (APS is an effective approach that can broaden the application areas of the HEAs. In this paper, a ductility–brittleness AlCoCrFeNiSi system was chosen as an object of study, and the detailed evolution of the surface morphology, particle size distribution, and microstructure of the powder during mechanical alloying was investigated. An AlCoCrFeNiSi HEA coating was deposited using powder milled for 10 h, which can be used as an ideal feedstock for APS. The surface morphology, microstructure, microhardness, and wear behavior of the coating at room temperature were investigated. The results showed that as the milling time increased, the particle size first increased, and then decreased. At the milling time of 10 h, simple body-centered cubic (BCC and face-centered cubic (FCC solid solution phases were formed. After spraying, the lamellar structure inside a single particle disappeared. An ordered BCC phase was detected, and the diffraction peaks of the Si element also disappeared, which indicates that phase transformation occurred during plasma spraying. A transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that nanometer crystalline grains with a grain size of about 30 nm existed in the APS coating. For the coating, an average microhardness of 612 ± 41 HV was obtained. Adhesive wear, tribo-oxidation wear, and slight abrasion wear took place during the wear test. The coating showed good wear resistance, with a volume wear rate of 0.38 ± 0.08 × 10−4 mm3·N−1·m−1, which makes it a promising coating for use in abrasive environments.

  11. 27Al, 63Cu NMR spectroscopy and electrical transport in Heusler Cu-Mn-Al alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadutov, V. M.; Perekos, A. O.; Kokorin, V. V.; Trachevskii, V. V.; Konoplyuk, S. M.; Vashchuk, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    The ultrafine powder of the Heusler Cu-13,1Mn-12,6Al (wt.%) alloy produced by electrical spark dispersion (ESD) in ethanol and the pellets prepared by pressing of the powders and aged in various gas environment (air, Ar, vacuum) were studied by XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic and electric transport methods. The constituent phases were identified as b.c.c. α-Cu-Mn-Al, f.c.c. γ-Cu-Mn-Al, Cu2MnAl, and oxides. The sizes of the coherently scattering domains (CSD) and the saturation magnetizations were in the range of 4-90 nm and 0-1.5 Am2/kg, respectively. 27Al and 63Cu NMR spectra of the powders and pellets have shown hyperfine structure caused by contributions from atomic nuclei of the constituent phases. The aging of pellets in different gas environments had effect on their phase composition but no effect on dispersion of the phases. In contrast to the as-cast alloy, electrical resistance of the pellets evidenced semiconducting behavior at elevated temperatures due to the presence of metal oxides formed on the surfaces of nanoparticles.

  12. Evolution of structure, microstructure and hyperfine properties of nanocrystalline Fe50Co50 powders prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkouche, K.; Guittoum, A.; Boukherroub, N.; Souami, N.

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured Fe 50 Co 50 powders were prepared by mechanical alloying of Fe and Co elements in a vario-planetary high-energy ball mill. The structural properties, morphology changes and local iron environment variations were investigated as a function of milling time (in the 0-200 h range) by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The complete formation of bcc Fe 50 Co 50 solid solution is observed after 100 h milling. As the milling time increases from 0 to 200 h, the lattice parameter decreases from 0.28655 nm for pure Fe to 0.28523 nm, the grain size decreases from 150 to 14 nm, while the meal level of strain increases from 0.0069% to 1.36%. The powder particle morphology at different stages of formation was observed by SEM. The parameters derived from the Moessbauer spectra confirm the beginning of the formation of Fe 50 Co 50 phase at 43 h of milling. After 200 h of milling the average hyperfine magnetic field of 35 T suggests that a disordered bcc Fe-Co solid solution is formed. - Highlights: → Nanostructured Fe 50 Co 50 powders were successfully prepared by mechanical alloying process. → Final average grain size value achieved after 200 h of milling was 14 nm. → For the longest milling time the majority of particle grains observed by SEM exhibits a round shape with small diameter.

  13. Fabrication and Properties of Porous NiTi Alloy by Gel-Casting with TiH2 Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohua, Duan; Yasong, Zhang; Dezhi, Wang; Yingrui, Zhao; Chunge, Xie

    2017-10-01

    Porous NiTi alloys exhibit excellent properties for biomedical applications, but the existing processing techniques are expensive and difficult. In this study, gel-casting, a near-net-shape technique, is used to prepare porous NiTi from a slurry containing MAM as a monomer, Ni and TiH2 powders as raw materials. The properties of the slurries and the sintered samples were characterized. The porous NiTi alloys with a porosity of 40-46% were fabricated by gel-casting a slurry with an ammonium citrate content of 1 wt.%, MAM concentration of 15-20 wt.%, and a solid loading of 42-45 vol.%, followed by sintering at temperatures from 1000-1050 °C for 2 h. The resulting alloys had compressive strengths of 100-200 MPa and elastic moduli of 13-17 GPa. The use of TiH2 powder in the aqueous gel system prevented the formation of TiO2 and TiC phases and helped to form the NiTi phase. This indicates that gel-casting is a promising technology for the fabrication of porous implants with complex shapes at low cost.

  14. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  15. Microstructure evolution and thermal stability of an Fe-based amorphous alloy powder and thermally sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chokethawai, K.; McCartney, D.G.; Shipway, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying has been used to produce coatings of an Fe-18.9%Cr-16.1%B-4.0%C-2.8%Si-2.4%Mo-1.9%Mn-1.7%W (in at.%) alloy from a commercially available powder (Nanosteel SHS7170). X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the powder, as-sprayed coatings and annealed coatings which had been heated to temperatures in the range of 550-925 deg. C for times ranging from 60 to 3900 min. Microhardness changes of the coatings were also measured as a function of annealing time and temperature. The powder was found to comprise amorphous and crystalline particles; the former had a maximum diameter of around 22 μm. The coating was composed of splat like regions, arising from rapid solidification of fully molten powder, and near-spherical regions from partially melted powder which had a largely retained its microstructure. The amorphous fraction of the coating was around 50% compared with 18% for the powder. The enthalpies and activation energies for crystallization of the amorphous phase were determined. Crystallization occurred in a two stage process leading to the formation of α-Fe (bcc), Fe 1.1 Cr 0.9 B 0.9 and M 23 C 6 phases. DSC measurements showed that the first stage occurred at 650 deg. C. Annealing the coating gave a hardening response which depended on temperature and time. The as-sprayed coating had a hardness of 9.2 GPa and peak hardnesses of 12.5 and 11.8 GPa were obtained at 650 and 750 deg. C, respectively. With longer annealing times hardness decreased rapidly from the peak.

  16. Properties of nanocrystalline Fe75Si15M10 (M-Cr and Al) powders prepared by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, M P C; Perumal, A; Srinivasan, A; Pandey, Brajesh; Verma, H C

    2008-08-01

    We report the structural and magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline Fe75Si15M10 (M-Al and Cr) powders prepared by mechanical alloying. The milling process produced a non-equilibrium solid solutions of bcc alpha-Fe(Si,Cr) and alpha-Fe(Si,Al). The average dislocation density increases and the average crystallite size decreases with increasing milling time. Magnetic property studies show that the coercivity of the sample increases and magnetization of the sample decreases with increasing milling time. The evolution of a non-equilibrium solid solution and the resulting magnetic properties of nanocrystalline powders are explained on the basis of Neel theory and modified random anisotropy model proposed by Shen et al.

  17. Qualification of Ti6Al4V ELI Alloy Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadroitsev, I.; Krakhmalev, P.; Yadroitsava, I.; Du Plessis, A.

    2018-03-01

    Rectangular Ti6Al4V extralow interstitials (ELI) samples were manufactured by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) in vertical and horizontal orientations relative to the build platform and subjected to various heat treatments. Detailed analyses of porosity, microstructure, residual stress, tensile properties, fatigue, and fracture surfaces were performed based on x-ray micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction methods. The types of fracture and the tensile fracture mechanisms of the LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI alloy were also studied. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the corresponding mechanical properties were compared against standard specifications for conventional Ti6Al4V alloy for use in surgical implant applications. Conclusions regarding the mechanical properties and heat treatment of LPBF Ti6Al4V ELI for biomedical applications are made.

  18. Positron annihilation characterization of Fe-Y2O3 composite powder after mechanical alloying and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Fe-1 wt% Y2O3 composite powders were mechanically alloyed for 12 hr and then heat-treated at 1050 degrees C for 1 hr. Positron annihilation lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening measurements are in qualitative agreement with X-ray diffraction studies, indicating that in the as-mixed Fe-1Y2O3 composite, up to approximately equal to 70% of the annihilations occur at vacancy clusters; a small fraction annihilates in its matrix. In the case of mechanically alloyed composite, up to approximately equal to 60% of the positrons annihilate at vacancy clusters. Some annihilations also occur in dislocations. In the heat-treated Fe-1Y2O3, positrons primarily annihilate at yttria precipitates, while a small fraction annihilates in the matrix.

  19. Effect of autoclave heat treatments on the mechanical properties of the prealloyed powder cobalt-base alloy HS-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ashbrook, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The cobalt-base alloy HS-31 was atomized into powder and then consolidated by extrusion or by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in an autoclave over a range of temperatures spanning the solidus, approximately 2340 F. Extrusions were subsequently autoclaved at the same conditions. Extrusions autoclaved at 2420 F had a life of 300 hours at 1200 F and 30 hours at 1800 F at stresses that result in a 10-hour life with cast HS-31. Superior stress rupture lives of autoclaved material are probably related to the solidification structure at the grain boundaries as well as to the increased grain size.

  20. Gleeble Testing of Tungsten Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    length of the sample. Density measurements were also taken before and after testing using Archimedes principle . Samples were also tested at room...commonly seen in body centered cubic (BCC) metals and can be attributed to dislocation mobility theories (8). The basic principles are that the...processing of nano-tungsten and nano-tungsten alloys to achieve superior strength, ductility, and fracture toughness for room temperature applications

  1. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al–Sc–Zr and Al–Mn–Sc–Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlach, M.; Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.; Kekule, T.; Kudrnova, H.; Danis, S.; Gemma, R.; Ocenasek, V.; Malek, J.; Tanprayoon, D.; Neubert, V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 °C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al 3 Sc and/or Al 3 (Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 °C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al 3 Sc and/or Al 3 (Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 °C. The precipitation of the Al 6 Mn- and/or Al 6 (Mn,Fe) particles of a size ∼ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 °C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al 3 Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al 6 Mn and/or Al 6 (Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al 3 Sc-phase and the Al 6 Mn-phase precipitation. - Highlights: • The Mn, Sc and Zr additions to Al totally suppresses recrystallization at 550 °C. • The Sc,Zr-containing particle precipitation is slightly facilitated by

  2. Effect of mechanical milling on the microstructure of tungsten under He{sup +} irradiation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiao-Yue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Li, Ping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); National–Local Joint Engineering Research Centre of Nonferrous Metals and Processing Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Luo, Lai-Ma, E-mail: luolaima@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); National–Local Joint Engineering Research Centre of Nonferrous Metals and Processing Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, Hong-Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zan, Xiang; Zhu, Xiao-Yong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); National–Local Joint Engineering Research Centre of Nonferrous Metals and Processing Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Luo, Guang-Nan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); National–Local Joint Engineering Research Centre of Nonferrous Metals and Processing Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-11-15

    “Pure” W was prepared through a powder metallurgy route by using hard alloy (WC–Co) milling tank and balls to mill WO{sub 3} powder, reducing with high purity H{sub 2}, and sintering with spark plasma sintering technique. XRD, SEM, and TEM were used to characterize the phase and phase structures. Results showed that the cobalt tungsten carbide (Co{sub 3}W{sub 10}C{sub 3.4}) phase was induced from the milling tank and balls. After the “pure” W bulk was exposed to helium ions for 2 h, the cobalt tungsten carbide phase was found to be surrounded by the lattice distortion phase of W, which showed high irradiation resistance.

  3. Comparison of the mechanically alloyed (V,W)C and (V,W)C-co powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolokang, AS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available in XRD patterns because they were of extremely fine grain size.As a result of the loss ofVandWthrough oxidation, free carbonwas also found in the final powder. The lattice parameter of the (V,W)C powder increased with milling time up to a maximum...

  4. Nanostructuring of Aluminum Alloy Powders by Cryogenic Attrition with Hydrogen-Free Process Control Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    powder was added for runs of 8, 16, or 24 h. After cryogenic attrition, the powder and LN2 slurry was collected in a stainless steel bucket. The mill was...not show line broadening such as lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) or, as in this report, cerium(IV) oxide ( CeO2 , or ceria). To determine the full width at

  5. Powder metallurgy preparation of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals using mechanical alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Vystrčil, J.; Hendrych, R.; Kříž, J.; Mlynár, J.; Vojtěch, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, September (2014), s. 131-137 ISSN 0966-9795 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nanostructure intermetallics * Ternary alloys systems * Mechanical alloying and milling * Sintering * Diffraction Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966979514001198#

  6. Progress of HDDR NdFeB powders modulated by the diffusion of low melting point elements and their alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Meng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR process is the main technique for the fabrication of anisotropic NdFeB magnetic powder.But the intrinsic coercivity (HC of HDDR magnetic powder is low.The addition of heavy rare earth element Dy could improve its HC.It was found that the added Dy is mainly distributed in the grain boundary of HDDR magnets,which regulates grain boundary phase and increases the thickness of grain boundary to improve the anisotropy field (HA and HC of the magnets.However,Dy becomes scarcer and more expensive,which limits the practical application of HDDR magnets.To reduce the dependence on heavy rare earth elements and cost,researchers replaced the heavy rare earth element Dy by low melting point elements and their alloys through grain boundary diffusion technique.During diffusion process low melting point metal exists as liquid phase that increases the diffusion coefficient of diffusion medium as well as its contact area with grain boundary phases of HDDR magnets,and benefits its diffusion along grain boundaries and regulation of grain boundary phase.The modified grain boundary in magnets improve HC.This review paper focuses on the research progress in improving HC of HDDR NdFeB magnets by low melting point elements and their alloys.

  7. Structural, microstructural and Mössbauer studies of nanocrystalline Fe100-x Alx powders elaborated by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkouche K.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Fe100-xAlx powders (x= 25, 30, 34 and 40 at % were prepared by the mechanical alloying process using a vario-planetary high-energy ball mill for a milling time of 35 h. The formation and physical properties of the alloys were investigated as a function of Al content by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray and Mössbauer spectroscopy. For all Fe100-xAlx samples, the complete formation of bcc phase was observed after 35 h of milling. As Al content increases, the lattice parameter increases, whereas the grain size decreases from 106 to 12 nm. The powder particle morphology for different compositions was observed by SEM. The Mössbauer spectra were adjusted with a singlet line and a sextet containing two components. The singlet was attributed to the formation of paramagnetic A2 disordered structure rich with Al. About the sextet, the first component indicated the formation of Fe clusters/ Fe-rich phases; however, the second component is characteristic of disordered ferromagnetic phase.

  8. Data on processing of Ti-25Nb-25Zr β-titanium alloys via powder metallurgy route: Methodology, microstructure and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, D; Dirras, G; Hocini, A; Tingaud, D; Ameyama, K; Langlois, P; Vrel, D; Trzaska, Z

    2018-04-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Cyclic Shear behavior of conventional and harmonic structure-designed Ti-25Nb-25Zr β-titanium alloy: Back-stress hardening and twinning inhibition" (Dirras et al., 2017) [1]. The datasheet describes the methods used to fabricate two β-titanium alloys having conventional microstructure and so-called harmonic structure (HS) design via a powder metallurgy route, namely the spark plasma sintering (SPS) route. The data show the as-processed unconsolidated powder microstructures as well as the post-SPS ones. The data illustrate the mechanical response under cyclic shear loading of consolidated alloy specimens. The data show how electron back scattering diffraction(EBSD) method is used to clearly identify induced deformation features in the case of the conventional alloy.

  9. A new titanium based alloy Ti–27Nb–13Zr produced by powder metallurgy with biomimetic coating for use as a biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Marcio W.D., E-mail: mwdmendes@ipen.com; Ágreda, Carola G.; Bressiani, Ana H.A.; Bressiani, José C.

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical applications due to their excellent properties such as high strength, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Titanium alloys with alloying elements such as Nb and Zr are biocompatible and have Young's modulus close to that of human bone. To increase the bioactivity of titanium alloy surfaces is used chemical treatment with NaOH followed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The purpose of this study was to produce the alloy Ti–27Nb–13Zr with low Young's modulus by powder metallurgy using powders produced by the HDH process. The formation of biomimetic coatings on samples immersed in SBF for 3, 7, 11 and 15 days was evaluated. Characterization of the coating was performed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and scanning electron microscope. The microstructure and composition of the alloy were determined using SEM and XRD, while the mechanical properties were evaluated by determining the elastic modulus and the Vickers microhardness. The sintered alloys were composed of α and β phases, equiaxed grains and with density around 97.8% of its theoretical density. The Vickers microhardness and elasticity modulus of the alloy were determined and their values indicate that this alloy can be used as a biomaterial. Analysis of the coating revealed the presence of calcium phosphate layers on samples immersed for > 3 days in the SBF solution. - Highlights: • The alloy is classified as α + β and the milling time influences the formation of these phases. • Dissolution of Nb is related to the mechanical properties of the alloy. • It's possible to form apatite on all samples immersed in SBF from 3 days. • The alloy can be used in orthopedic applications or in dental applications.

  10. Effect of electrical discharge machining on uranium-0. 75 titanium and tungsten-3. 5 nickel-1. 5 iron alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. C.

    1976-06-01

    It was found that U--0.75 Ti alloy cracked if the EDM parameters were out of control, and precipitation of carbides adjacent to the EDM surface took place during subsequent solution quenching. Cracks form in the ''recast'' layer when solution-quenched U--0.75 Ti alloy undergoes EDM, and the cracks propagated during subsequent nickel plating. If the recast layer was removed prior to nickel plating, only a slight loss in strength resulted, compared to conventional machining. W--3.5 Ni--1.5 Fe alloy also sustained some surface damage during EDM and also experienced a small loss in strength compared to conventionally machined material. 12 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Phase Transformation Behavior of Oxide Particles Formed in Mechanically Alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ga Eon; Choi, Jung-Sun; Noh, Sanghoon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Do [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The phase transformation behavior of the oxides formed in mechanically alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is investigated. Non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides with sizes of less than 300 nm are observed in the mechanically alloyed powder. The diffusion and redistribution reactions of the elements in these oxides during heating of the powder above 800 ℃ were observed, and these reactions result in the formation of a Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase after heating at 1050 ℃. Thus, it is considered that the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and some Fe powder are formed from the non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides after the mechanical alloying process, and a considerable energy accumulated during the mechanical alloying process leads to a phase transformation of the Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides to Y{sub α}Fe{sub β}O{sub γ}-type phase during heating.

  12. Effect of process control agent on the porous structure and mechanical properties of a biomedical Ti-Sn-Nb alloy produced by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, A; Hodgson, P D; Wen, C E

    2010-04-01

    The influence of different amounts and types of process control agent (PCA), i.e., stearic acid and ethylene bis-stearamide, on the porous structure and mechanical properties of a biomedical Ti-16Sn-4Nb (wt.%) alloy was investigated. Alloy synthesis was performed on elemental metal powders using high-energy ball milling for 5h. Results indicated that varying the PCA content during ball milling led to a drastic change in morphology and particle-size distribution of the ball-milled powders. Porous titanium alloy samples sintered from the powders ball milled with the addition of various amounts of PCA also revealed different pore morphology and porosity. The Vickers hardness of the sintered titanium alloy samples exhibited a considerable increase with increasing PCA content. Moreover, the addition of larger amounts of PCA in the powder mixture resulted in a significant increase in the elastic modulus and peak stress for the sintered porous titanium alloy samples under compression. It should also be mentioned that the addition of PCA introduced contamination (mainly carbon and oxygen) into the sintered porous product. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of milling duration on the evolution of shape memory properties in a powder processed Cu-Al-Ni-Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mohit; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Shafeeq, Muhamed M.; Modi, Om P.; Prasad, Braj K. [CSIR - Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India)

    2013-09-15

    The present work describes the effect of milling duration on the properties of a powder metallurgy processed Cu-Al-Ni-Ti shape memory alloy employing mechanical alloying. Powder mixtures milled for different durations were sintered in order to investigate the formation of solid solution and evolution of martensitic structure. The idea was to optimize the duration of milling (mechanical alloying) to obtain chemical homogeneity as well as shape memory properties in the processed material without undergoing extensive post homogenization treatment. The martensitic structure was noted to evolve in the powder mix milled for at least 16 hrs, whereas complete transformation to martensite occurred after milling for 40 hrs. Interestingly, the dissolution of alloying elements (to form the {beta} phase prior to the formation of martensite) was noted to complete partially only during mechanical alloying for 40 hrs and remaining during subsequent sintering for 1 hr. The hot pressed compacts of the powders milled for 40 hrs were chemically homogeneous and consisted of fully martensite phase, which is essential for the realization of shape memory properties. They also revealed almost 100% shape recovery at the applied pre-strain levels of 1 and 2%. (orig.)

  14. Influence of hydroxyapatite coating thickness and powder particle size on corrosion performance of MA8M magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonmez, S.; Aksakal, B.; Dikici, B.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is the primary concern in biomedical applications. Micron and nano-scale hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated successfully on MA8M magnesium alloy substrates by using a sol–gel deposition. In this study, the effects of coating thicknesses and HA powder particle sizes on the adhesion strength and corrosion behavior were investigated. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed in a Ringer solution. The coatings before and after corrosion tests were characterized by adhesion tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The micro-scale-HA coated Mg substrates were more corrosion resistant than the nano-scale-HA coatings. The anodic activity of the micro-scale-HA coatings increased with increased coating thickness and the corrosion resistance of Mg substrates decreased. Corrosion susceptibilities of the nano-scale-HA coated samples were affected inversely. The coated film provided good barrier characteristics and achieved good corrosion protection for Mg substrates when compared to substrates without coatings. For micro-scale-HA coatings, anodic and cathodic activities were more intense for thicker films. When HA coatings are compared to nano-scale HA coatings, the micro-scale-HA coatings produced better current density values. Overall, as shown in Fig. 1, the best corrosion behavior of the Mg alloys was achieved using micro-scale HA powders at 30 μm coating thickness. - Highlights: • Nano and micro-scale-HA coatings provided good anti-corrosion performance compared to the uncoated ones. • The micro-scale-HA coated Mg substrates were more corrosion resistant than the nano-scale-HA coatings. • The best corrosion behavior was achieved for the micro-scale HA powders at 30 μm coating thickness. • Anodic activity decrease and cathodic activity increase with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: To improve the corrosion resistance of MA8M magnesium alloy, sol

  15. Phase evolution, mechanical and corrosion behavior of Fe(100-x) Ni(x) alloys synthesized by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neera; Parkash, Om; Kumar, Devendra

    2018-03-01

    In the present investigation, Fe(100-x) Ni(x) alloys (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) were synthesized through the evolution of γ-taenite and α-kamacite phases by powder metallurgy route using commercially available Fe and Ni powders. Mechanically mixed powders of Fe and Ni were compacted at room temperature and sintered at three different temperatures 1000, 1200 and 1250 °C for 1 h. Both Ni concentration and sintering temperature have shown a strong impact on the phase formation, tribological and electrochemical behavior. Micro structural study has shown the formation of taenite (γ-Fe,Ni) and kamacite (α-Fe,Ni) phases in the sintered specimens. An increase in Ni fraction resulted in formation of more taenite which reduces hardness and wear resistance of specimens. Increasing the sintering temperature decreased the defect concentration with enhanced taenite formation, aiding to higher densification. Taenite formed completely in Fe50Ni50 after sintering at 1250 °C. Tribological test revealed the maximum wear resistance for Fe70Ni30 specimen due to the presence of both kamacite and taenite in significant proportions. The formation of taenite as well as the decrease in defect concentration improves the corrosion resistance of the specimens significantly in 1M HCl solution. A maximum corrosion protection efficiency of around ∼87% was achieved in acidic medium for Fe50Ni50, sintered at 1250 °C.

  16. Porosity, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Parts Fabricated by Powder Compact Forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mingtu; Zhang, Deliang; Liang, Jiamiao; Gabbitas, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy powders produced using a hydrogenation-dehydrogenation process and a gas atomization process, respectively, were rapidly consolidated into near-net-shaped parts by powder compact forging. The porosity, microstructure, and tensile mechanical properties of specimens cut from regions at different distances from the side surfaces of the forged parts were examined. The regions near the side surfaces contained a fraction of pores due to the circumferential tensile strain arising during the powder compact forging process, and the porosity level decreased rapidly to zero with increasing the distance from the side surface. The forged parts had a fully lamellar structure with the α + β colony sizes and α lamella thickness changing little with the distance from the side surface. The specimens cut from the regions near the side surfaces had a lower yield strength and tensile strength. The correlation of porosity with the yield strength of the specimens suggested that the reduction of load bearing areas due to the porosity and unbonded or weakly bonded interparticle boundaries was not the only reason for the lower strength, and the stress concentration at the pores and associated with their geometry also played an important role in this. It is likely that the effect of stress concentration on yield strength reduction of the forged part increases with oxygen content. The Hall-Petch relationship of the yield strength and the average α lamella thickness suggested that the strength of the fully dense and fully consolidated forged parts was increased by oxygen solution strengthening.

  17. Synthesis of Al₂Ca Dispersoids by Powder Metallurgy Using a Mg-Al Alloy and CaO Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Junji; Umeda, Junko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2017-06-28

    The elemental mixture of Mg-6 wt %Al-1 wt %Zn-0.3 wt %Mn (AZ61B) alloy powder and CaO particles was consolidated by an equal-channel angular bulk mechanical alloying (ECABMA) process to form a composite precursor. Subsequently, the precursor was subjected to a heat treatment to synthesize fine Al₂Ca particles via a solid-state reaction between the Mg-Al matrix and CaO additives. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and electron probe micro-analysis on the precursor indicated that 4.7-at % Al atoms formed a supersaturated solid solution in the α-Mg matrix. Transmission electron microscopy-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses on the AZ61B composite precursor with 10-vol % CaO particles obtained by heat treatment confirmed that CaO additives were thermally decomposed in the Mg-Al alloy, and the solid-soluted Ca atoms diffused along the α-Mg grain boundaries. Al atoms also diffused to the grain boundaries because of attraction to the Ca atoms resulting from a strong reactivity between Al and Ca. As a result, needle-like (Mg,Al)₂Ca intermetallics were formed as intermediate precipitates in the initial reaction stage during the heat treatment. Finally, the precipitates were transformed into spherical Al₂Ca particles by the substitution of Al atoms for Mg atoms in (Mg,Al)₂Ca after a long heat treatment.

  18. Sintered FeCuRe Alloys Produced from Commercially Available Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiecka-Jamrozek J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the mechanical properties of materials fabricated from commercially available powders designed for use as a metal matrix of diamond-impregnated composites. The powders with the catalogue numbers CSA and CSA800 produced in China were tested under laboratory conditions. The specimens were fabricated in a graphite mould using hot pressing. The materials were analysed for density, porosity, hardness and static tensile strength. A scanning electron microscope (SEM was employed to observe the microstructure and fracture surfaces of the specimens. The experimental data was used to determine how the chemical composition of the powders and the process parameters affected the microstructure and properties of the materials. The properties of the sintered materials produced from the Chinese powders were compared with the properties reported for specimens fabricated from cobalt powder (Co SMS. Even though the hot pressed CSA and CSA800 powders had inferior mechanical properties to their cobalt analogue, they seem well-suited for general-purpose diamond-impregnated tools with less demanding applications.

  19. Extraction Factor Of Tungsten Sources From Tungsten Scraps By Zinc Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition promoting factors and extraction process of tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders in the zinc decomposition process of tungsten scraps which are composed mostly of tungsten carbide and cobalt were evaluated. Zinc volatility was suppressed by the enclosed graphite crucible and zinc volatilization pressure was produced in the reaction graphite crucible inside an electric furnace for ZDP (Zinc Decomposition Process. Decomposition reaction was done for 2hours at 650°, which 100% decomposed the tungsten scraps that were over 30 mm thick. Decomposed scraps were pulverized under 75μm and were composed of tungsten carbide and cobalt identified by the XRD (X-ray Diffraction. To produce the WC(Tungsten Carbide powder directly from decomposed scraps, pulverized powders were reacted with hydrochloric acid to remove the cobalt binder. Also to produce the tungstic acid, pulverized powders were reacted with aqua regia to remove the cobalt binder and oxidize the tungsten carbide. Tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders were identified by XRD and chemical composition analysis.

  20. Effect of post-weld aging treatment on mechanical properties of Tungsten Inert Gas welded low thickness 7075 aluminium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmar, M.; Hadji, M.; Sahraoui, T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The effects of post-weld aging treatment on the properties of joints is studied. → The post-weld aging treatment increases the tensile strength of TIG welded joints. → The strengthening is due to a balance of dissolution, reversion and precipitation. → Simple post-weld aging at 140 o C enhances the properties of the welded joints. -- Abstract: This paper reports the influence of post-weld aging treatment on the microstructure, tensile strength, hardness and Charpy impact energy of weld joints low thickness 7075 T6 aluminium alloy welded by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG). Hot cracking occurs in aluminium welds when high levels of thermal stress and solidification shrinkage are present while the weld is undergoing various degrees of solidification. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit microstructure modifications because of the thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results in low weld mechanical properties and low resistance to hot cracking. It has been observed that the mechanical properties are very sensitive to microstructure of weld metal. Simple post-weld aging treatment at 140 o C applied to the joints is found to be beneficial to enhance the mechanical properties of the welded joints. Correlations between microstructures and mechanical properties were discussed.

  1. Semisolid Microstructural Evolution during Partial Remelting of a Bulk Alloy Prepared by Cold Pressing of the Ti-Al-2024Al Powder Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Qin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method, powder thixoforming, has been proposed to fabricate an in situ Al3Tip/2024Al composite. During partial remelting, the microstructural evolution of the bulk alloy prepared by cold pressing of the Ti, Al, 2024Al powder mixture was investigated, and the formation mechanism of the Al3Ti particles produced by the reaction between the Ti powder and the Al alloy melt is also discussed in detail. The results indicate that the microstructural evolution of the 2024 alloy matrix can be divided into three stages: a rapid coarsening of the powder grains; a formation of primary α-Al particles surrounded with a continuous liquid film; and a slight coarsening of the primary α-Al particles. Simultaneously, a reaction layer of Al3Ti can be formed on the Ti powder surface when the bulk is heated for 10 min at 640 °C The thickness (X of the reaction layer increases with the time according to the parabolic law of \\(X = -0.43t^{2} + 4.21t + 0.17\\. The stress generated in the reaction layer due to the volume dilatation can be calculated by using the equationσ \\(\\sigma_{Al_{3}Ti} = -\\frac{ E_{Al_{3}Ti} }{6(1-v{Al_{3}Ti}} \\frac{ t^{3}_{Al_{3}Ti} }{t_{Ti}} \\left(\\frac{1}{R} - \\frac{1}{R_{0}} \\right \\. Comparing the obtained data with the results of the drip experiment, the reaction rate for the Ti powder and Al powder mixture is greater than that for the Ti plate and Al alloy mixture, respectively.

  2. Microstructure of Precipitation Hardenable Powder Metallurgical Ni Alloys Containing 35 to 45 pct Cr and 3.5 to 6 pct Nb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based alloys with high Cr contents are not only known for their excellent high temperature and hot corrosion resistance, but are also known for poor mechanical properties and difficult workability. Powder metallurgical (PM) manufacturing of alloys may overcome several of the shortcomings...... encountered in materials manufacturing involving solidification. In the present work, six PM Ni-based alloys containing 35 to 45 wt pct Cr and 3.5 to 6 wt pct Nb were produced and compacted via hot isostatic pressing. Samples were heat treated for up to 1656 hours at either 923 K or 973 K (650 °C or 700 °C......), and the microstructures and mechanical properties were quantified and compared to thermodynamic calculations. For the majority of the investigated alloys, the high Cr and Nb contents caused development of primary populations of globular α-Cr and δ (Ni3Nb). Transmission electron microscopy of selected alloys confirmed...

  3. Application of rapid solidification powder metallurgy processing to prepare Cu–Al–Ni high temperature shape memory alloy strips with high strength and high ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajpai, S.K., E-mail: vajpaisk@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India); Dube, R.K., E-mail: rkd@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sangal, S., E-mail: sangals@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2013-05-15

    Cu–Al–Ni high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) strips were successfully prepared from rapid solidified water atomized Cu–Al–Ni pre-alloyed powders via hot densification rolling of unsheathed sintered powder preforms. Finished heat-treated Cu–Al–Ni alloy strips had fine-grained structure, average grain size approximately 16 μm, and exhibited a combination of high strength and high ductility. It has been demonstrated that the redistribution of nano-sized alumina particles, present on the surface as well as inside the starting water atomized Cu–Al–Ni pre-alloyed powder particles, due to plastic deformation of starting powder particles during hot densification rolling resulted in the fine grained microstructure in the finished SMA strips. The finished SMA strips were almost fully martensitic in nature, consisting of a mixture of β{sub 1}{sup ′} and γ{sub 1}{sup ′} martensite. The average fracture strength and fracture strain of the finished SMA strips were 810 MPa and 12%, respectively, and the fractured specimens exhibited primarily micro-void coalescence type ductile nature of fracture. Finished Cu–Al–Ni SMA strips exhibited high characteristic transformation temperatures and an almost 100% one-way shape recovery was obtained in the specimens up to 4% applied deformation pre-strain. The retained two-way shape memory recovery increased with increasing applied training pre-strain, achieving a maximum value of 16.25% at 5% applied training pre-strain.

  4. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt % were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD, Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  5. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5–2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni3Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo2C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall–Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process. PMID:28772747

  6. The Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructural Characteristics and Strengthening Mechanisms of NiMo-SiC Alloys Prepared via Powder Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Muránsky, Ondrej; Zhu, Hanliang; Thorogood, Gordon J; Avdeev, Maxim; Huang, Hefei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-04-06

    A new generation of alloys, which rely on a combination of various strengthening mechanisms, has been developed for application in molten salt nuclear reactors. In the current study, a battery of dispersion and precipitation-strengthened (DPS) NiMo-based alloys containing varying amounts of SiC (0.5-2.5 wt %) were prepared from Ni-Mo-SiC powder mixture via a mechanical alloying (MA) route followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and rapid cooling. Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were employed in the characterization of the microstructural properties of these in-house prepared NiMo-SiC DPS alloys. The study showed that uniformly-dispersed SiC particles provide dispersion strengthening, the precipitation of nano-scale Ni₃Si particles provides precipitation strengthening, and the solid-solution of Mo in the Ni matrix provides solid-solution strengthening. It was further shown that the milling time has significant effects on the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. Increased milling time seems to limit the grain growth of the NiMo matrix by producing well-dispersed Mo₂C particles during sintering. The amount of grain boundaries greatly increases the Hall-Petch strengthening, resulting in significantly higher strength in the case of 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloys compared with the 8-h-milled alloys. However, it was also shown that the total elongation is considerably reduced in the 48-h-milled NiMo-SiC DPS alloy due to high porosity. The porosity is a result of cold welding of the powder mixture during the extended milling process.

  7. Interdiffusion behavior of tungsten or rhenium and group 5 and 6 elements and alloys of the periodic table. Part 2A: Appendices A-G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    Arc cast W, CVD, W, CVD Re, and powder metallurgy Re materials were hot isostatically pressure welded to ten different refractory metals and alloys and thermally aged at 10 to the minus 8th power torr at 1200 C, 1500 C, 1630 C, 1800 C, and 2000 C for 100 hours to 2000 hours. Electron beam microprobe analysis was used to characterize the interdiffusion zone width of each couple system as a function of age time and temperature. Each system was least squares fitted to the equation: In (delta X sq/t) = B/T + A, where delta X is net interdiffusion zone width, t is age time, and T is age temperature. Detailed descriptions of experimental and analytical procedures utilized in conducting the experimental program are provided. For Vol. 1, see N74-34046.

  8. Al and Mg Alloys for Aerospace Applications Using Rapid Solidification and Powder Metallurgy Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-28

    position of the Mg2Si liquidus, then a slight change in the eutectic composition is expected, and has been estimated to be = 1%Si. If, on the other hand ...the 10 wt.% Gd alloys were excellent. The alloys retained on average 91% of their room temperature yield and ultimate strenght at 200"C. The ductility...the other hand , results from the introduction of the same shear displacement on every second (001) plane. The resulting tetragonal unit cells have a c/a

  9. Dental amalgam - the effect of the technology of alloy powder preparation on the corrosion behaviour and the release of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joska, L.; Bystriansky, J.; Novak, P. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Institute of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2003-03-01

    Dental amalgams are based on a broad spectrum of materials differing in their chemical composition, metallurgical treatment, and in the way the initial alloys powders are prepared. In addition to their chemical composition, amalgams based on various powders differ in both their microstructure and the amount of mercury needed for preparation. All these facts may affect electrochemical processes occurring during their interaction with oral fluids, and also mercury release. While verifying the effect of the technology used for the preparation of the high-copper ternary alloy powder on the properties of resulting amalgams, this study aimed at the mechanism of their interaction with a model saliva solution as well as mercury release was included. Measurements were done in a model saliva solution using standard electrochemical methods and exposition measurements. The interaction of individual types of amalgams with artificial saliva did not reveal any significant differences. The free corrosion potential of all these amalgams in an aerated solution settled in the range of values in which tin oxidation, resulting in a layer of insoluble corrosion products, turned out to be the dominant anodic process. The rate of mercury release was the lowest for amalgams based on a gas-atomized alloy. The highest rate of mercury release, and also its dependence on time, was exhibited by lathe-cut powder based amalgam. In addition to different volume fraction of the Ag-Hg phase and the level of its tin alloying, this different behaviour may be explained by differences in the rate at which a layer of tin corrosion products acting as a barrier to mercury release is formed. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Dentalamalgame basieren auf einem breitem Spektrum von Werkstoffen, die sich in ihrer chemischen Zusammensetzung, der metallurgischen Behandlung und der Art, wie die Ausgangslegierungspulver hergestellt werden, unterscheiden. Zusaetzlich zu ihrer chemischen

  10. Powder metallurgy and mechanical alloying effects on the formation of thermally induced martensite in an FeMnSiCrNi SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricop Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By ingot metallurgy (IM, melting, alloying and casting, powder metallurgy (PM, using as-blended elemental powders and mechanical alloying (MA of 50 % of particle volume, three types of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy (SMA specimens were fabricated, respectively. After specimen thickness reduction by hot rolling, solution treatments were applied, at 973 and 1273 K, to thermally induce martensite. The resulting specimens were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, in order to reveal the presence of ε (hexagonal close-packed, hcp and α’ (body centred cubic, bcc thermally induced martensites. The reversion of thermally induced martensites, to γ (face centred cubic, fcc austenite, during heating, was confirmed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, which emphasized marked increases of storage modulus and obvious internal friction maxima on DMA thermograms. The results proved that the increase of porosity degree, after PM processing, increased internal friction, while MA enhanced crystallinity degree.

  11. Evaluation of HEBM Mechanical Alloying of Al2O3— 356/7075 Powder Mixture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Composite Powders with Ti-Al In- termetallics Reinforcement,? Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2008, pp. 191-196. [5] E. M. Ruiz-Navas, et al., ?One Step Production of Alu- minium Matrix Composite...

  12. Powder Metallurgy Preparation of Co-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Novák, P.; Mlynár, J.; Vojtěch, D.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Málek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2015), s. 597-601 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials (ISPMA) /13./. Prague, 31.08.2014-04.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : powder metallurgy * mechanical properties * biomedical applications Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  13. Studies on in situ magnetic alignment of bonded anisotropic Nd-Fe-B alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nlebedim, I.C.; Ucar, Huseyin; Hatter, Christine B.; McCallum, R.W.; McCall, Scott K.; Kramer, M.J.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2017-01-01

    Considerations for achieving high degree of alignment in polymer bonded permanent magnets are presented via the results of a study on in situ magnetic alignment of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet powders. Contributions from effect of the alignment temperature, alignment magnetic field and the properties of the polymer on the hard magnetic properties of the bonded magnet were considered. The thermo-rheological properties of the polymer and the response of the magnet powders to the applied magnetic field indicate that hard magnetic properties were optimized at an alignment temperature just above the melting temperature of the EVA co-polymer. This agrees with an observed correlation between the change in magnetization due to improved magnetic alignment of the anisotropic powders and the change in viscosity of the binder. Manufacturing cost can be minimized by identifying optimum alignment temperatures and magnetic field strengths. - Highlights: • Optimum alignment of anisotropic magnet powders can enable high performance bonded magnets. • The viscoelastic state of polymer binders determines the dominating coercivity mechanism. • The minimum deviation in coercivity and remanence, with magnetic field, can occur at different temperatures. • Melting characteristics of polymer binders and the change in magnetization during alignment can be correlated.

  14. Studies on in situ magnetic alignment of bonded anisotropic Nd-Fe-B alloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nlebedim, I.C. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ucar, Huseyin; Hatter, Christine B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); McCallum, R.W. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McCall, Scott K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kramer, M.J. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Paranthaman, M. Parans [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Considerations for achieving high degree of alignment in polymer bonded permanent magnets are presented via the results of a study on in situ magnetic alignment of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet powders. Contributions from effect of the alignment temperature, alignment magnetic field and the properties of the polymer on the hard magnetic properties of the bonded magnet were considered. The thermo-rheological properties of the polymer and the response of the magnet powders to the applied magnetic field indicate that hard magnetic properties were optimized at an alignment temperature just above the melting temperature of the EVA co-polymer. This agrees with an observed correlation between the change in magnetization due to improved magnetic alignment of the anisotropic powders and the change in viscosity of the binder. Manufacturing cost can be minimized by identifying optimum alignment temperatures and magnetic field strengths. - Highlights: • Optimum alignment of anisotropic magnet powders can enable high performance bonded magnets. • The viscoelastic state of polymer binders determines the dominating coercivity mechanism. • The minimum deviation in coercivity and remanence, with magnetic field, can occur at different temperatures. • Melting characteristics of polymer binders and the change in magnetization during alignment can be correlated.

  15. Laser alloying of Al with mixed Ti and Ni powders to improve surface properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is used in industry for various applications due to its low cost, light weight and excellent workability, but lacks wear resistance and hardness. Laser alloying is used to improve surface properties such as hardness and wear resistance...

  16. Preparation of ferritic 17%Cr ODS steel by mechanical alloying from prealloyed steel powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadraba, Hynek; Husák, Roman; Kuběna, Ivo; Bureš, R.; Fáberová, M.; Strečková, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2014), s. 222-227 ISSN 1335-8987 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25246S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ODS steel * mechanical alloying * hot rolling Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  17. Plasma transferred arc surface alloying of Cr-Ni-Mo powders on compacted graphite iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Jijun; Pan, Chunxu; Lu, Liulin; Huang, Qiwen; Cao, Huatang

    2016-01-01

    A Cr-Ni-Mo overlayer was deposited on the surface of compacted graphite iron (CGI) by the plasma transferred arc (PTA) alloying technique. The microstructure of Cr-Ni-Mo overlayer was characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive

  18. Laser surface alloying of aluminum (AA1200) with Ni and SiC Powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available . The dissociated C reacted with Al to form Al4C3. The addition of Ni resulted in the formation of the Al3Ni phase. A hardness increase of approximately four times that of aluminum AA1200 was achieved in the alloyed layer....

  19. The effect of ion flux on plasma-induced modification and deuterium retention in tungsten and tungsten–tantalum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayachuk, Y., E-mail: yevhen.zayachuk@materials.ox.ac.uk [SCK-CEN, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, St. Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Manhard, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hoen, M.H.J. ' t [FOM Institute DIFFER, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jacob, W. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Aviation Academy, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Weesperzijde 190, 1097 DZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Oost, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, St. Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of deuterium retention in W and W–Ta alloy that were exposed to first-wall relevant low flux (∼10{sup 20} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) deuterium plasma in the ECR plasma generator PlaQ. Subsequent analysis included surface imaging by optical microscopy, deuterium depth profiling by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and measurements of deuterium content by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). It was found that under investigated exposure conditions the deuterium content was higher in W–Ta alloy than in W. Combined with the previously reported results showing that under high-flux (∼10{sup 24} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) retention is higher in W instead, this gives rise to a peculiar flux effect – dependence of relative retention between different materials on exposure flux. We interpret this effect as evidence that at different flux ranges different populations of trapping sites determine the retention, namely pre-existing microstructural traps at low-flux exposure and plasma-induced ones at high-flux exposure.

  20. Histomorphologic evaluation of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys processed via powder metallurgy. A study in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottino, M.C.; Coelho, P.G.; Yoshimoto, M.; Koenig, B.; Henriques, V.A.R.; Bressiani, A.H.A.; Bressiani, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the in-vivo evaluation of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy implants obtained by the hydride route via powder metallurgy. The cylindrical implants were processed at different sintering and holding times. The implants' were characterized for density, microstructure (SEM), crystalline phases (XRD), and bulk (EDS) and surface composition (XPS). The implants were then sterilized and surgically placed in the central region of the rabbit's tibiae. Two double fluorescent markers were applied at 2 and 3 weeks, and 6 and 7 weeks after implantation. After an 8-week healing period, the implants were retrieved, non-decalcified section processed, and evaluated by electron, UV light (fluorescent labeling), and light microscopy (toluidine blue). BSE-SEM showed close contact between bone and implants. Fluorescent labeling assessment showed high bone activity levels at regions close to the implant surface. Toluidine blue staining revealed regions comprising osteoblasts at regions of newly forming/formed bone close to the implant surface. The results obtained in this study support biocompatible and osseoconductive properties of Ti-13Nb-13Zr processed through the hydride powder route

  1. Histomorphologic evaluation of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys processed via powder metallurgy. A study in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottino, M.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, BEC 254 1530 3rd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35294 (United States); Coelho, P.G. [Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University, College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, Room 804S, New York, NY, 10100 (United States)], E-mail: pgcoelho@nyu.edu; Yoshimoto, M. [Materials Science and Technology Center, Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-000 (Brazil); Koenig, B. [Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (ICB-USP) Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Henriques, V.A.R. [Materials Division (AMR/IAE), CTA Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, 12228-904 (Brazil); Bressiani, A.H.A.; Bressiani, J.C. [Materials Science and Technology Center, Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2008-03-10

    This study presents the in-vivo evaluation of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy implants obtained by the hydride route via powder metallurgy. The cylindrical implants were processed at different sintering and holding times. The implants' were characterized for density, microstructure (SEM), crystalline phases (XRD), and bulk (EDS) and surface composition (XPS). The implants were then sterilized and surgically placed in the central region of the rabbit's tibiae. Two double fluorescent markers were applied at 2 and 3 weeks, and 6 and 7 weeks after implantation. After an 8-week healing period, the implants were retrieved, non-decalcified section processed, and evaluated by electron, UV light (fluorescent labeling), and light microscopy (toluidine blue). BSE-SEM showed close contact between bone and implants. Fluorescent labeling assessment showed high bone activity levels at regions close to the implant surface. Toluidine blue staining revealed regions comprising osteoblasts at regions of newly forming/formed bone close to the implant surface. The results obtained in this study support biocompatible and osseoconductive properties of Ti-13Nb-13Zr processed through the hydride powder route.

  2. Effect of high energy milling time of the aluminum bronze alloy obtained by powder metallurgy with niobium carbide addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Alexandre Nogueira Ottoboni; Silva, Aline da; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto; Melo, Mirian de Lourdes Noronha Motta; Rodrigues, Geovani; Silva, Gilbert, E-mail: aottoboni@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The aluminum bronze alloy is part of a class of highly reliable materials due to high mechanical strength and corrosion resistance being used in the aerospace and shipbuilding industry. It's machined to produce parts and after its use cycle, it's discarded, but third process is considered expensive and besides not being correct for environment reasons. Thus, reusing this material through the powder metallurgy (PM) route is considered advantageous. The aluminum bronze chips were submitted to high energy ball milling process with 3% of niobium carbide (NbC) addition. The NbC is a metal-ceramic composite with a ductile-brittle behaviour. It was analyzed the morphology of powders by scanning electron microscopy as well as particle size it was determined. X ray diffraction identified the phases and the influence of milling time in the diffractogram patterns. Results indicates that milling time and NbC addition improves the milling efficiency significantly and being possible to obtain nanoparticles. (author)

  3. Mechanical alloying in Fe2O3-MO (M: Zn, Ni, Cu, Mg) systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gerward, Leif; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical alloying processes in four Fe2O3MO (M: Zn, Ni, Cu, Mg) systems by high-energy ball milling from simple oxide powder mixtures in both open and closed tungsten carbide containers have been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Mechanisms for the formation......-energy ball milling under the conditions used here. The dominant alloying mechanism depends on the interdiffusion at relatively low temperatures. The experimental results may also be explained by the crystal structures of the reactants and the ferrites....

  4. A Comparative Study on Permanent Mold Cast and Powder Thixoforming 6061 Aluminum Alloy and Sicp/6061Al Composite: Microstructures and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezheng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical characterization of 10 vol% SiC particles (SiCp reinforced 6061 Al-based composite fabricated by powder thixoforming (PTF was investigated in comparison with the PTF and permanent mold cast (PMC 6061 monolithic alloys. The results reveal that the microstructure of the PMC alloy consists of coarse and equiaxed α dendrites and interdendritic net-like eutectic phases. However, the microstructure of the PTF composite, similar to that of the PTF alloy, consists of near-spheroidal primary particles and intergranular secondarily solidified structures except SiCp, which are distributed in the secondarily solidified structures. The eutectics amount in the PTF materials is distinctly lower than that in the PMC alloy, and the microstructures of the former materials are quite compact while that of the latter alloy is porous. Therefore, the PTF alloy shows better tensile properties than the PMC alloy. Owing to the existence of the SiC reinforcing particles, the PTF composite attains an ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of 230 MPa and 128 MPa, representing an enhancement of 27.8% and 29.3% than those (180 MPa and 99 MPa of the PTF alloy. A modified model based on three strengthening mechanisms was proposed to calculate the yield strength of the PTF composite. The obtained theoretical results were quite consistent with the experimental data.

  5. Adsorption capacity of water-oxidized lanthanum-doped aluminum alloy powder

    OpenAIRE

    RYABINA A.; SHEVCHENKO V.; ESELEVICH D.

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of nitrogen onto the surface of lanthanum-doped ultrafine aluminum (UFA) powder was studied before and after aqueous oxidation under relative adsorbate (Pa/Po) pressures from 0 to 1 using low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method in a volumetric static vacuum facility. The adsorption isotherms are considered for their compliance with the isotherms in the classification of S. Brunauer, L. Deming, U. Deming and E. Teller. The obtained results confirm that treatment of REM-contai...

  6. Microstructure and physical properties of mechanically alloyed Fe-Mo powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Zábranský, Karel; Turek, Ilja; Buršík, Jiří; Jančík, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 477, - (2009), s. 55-61 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2111; GA ČR GD106/05/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Nanostructured materials * Mechanical alloying * Microstructure * Magnetic measurements * Mössbauer spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2009

  7. Comparison of the microstructure and phase stability of as-cast, CAD/CAM and powder metallurgy manufactured Co-Cr dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Chun; Prior, David J; Waddell, J Neil; Swain, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the different microstructures produced by CC, PM and as-cast techniques for Co-Cr alloys and their phase stability following porcelain firings. Three bi-layer porcelain veneered Co-Cr specimens and one monolithic Co-Cr specimen of each alloy group [cast, powder metallurgy (PM), CAD/CAM (CC)] were manufactured and analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Specimens were treated to incremental numbers of porcelain firings (control 0, 5, 15) with crystallographic data, grain size and chemical composition subsequently obtained and analyzed. EBSD datasets of the cast alloy indicated large grains >200 μm whereas PM and CC alloy consisted of mean arithmetic grain sizes of 29.6 μm and 19.2 μm respectively. XRD and EBSD results both indicated the highest increase in hcp content (>13vol%) for cast Co-Cr alloy after treatment with porcelain firing while PM and CC indicated alloy after porcelain firing. The depth of this layer increased with porcelain firings for as-cast and PM but no significant increase (p>.05) was observed in CC. EDS line scans indicated an increase in Cr content at the alloy surface after porcelain firing treatment for all three alloys. PM and CC produced alloy had superior fcc phase stability after porcelain firings compared to a traditional cast alloy. It is recommended that PM and CC alloys be used for porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis detects metabolic disturbances in rat urine on acute exposure to heavy metal tungsten alloy based metals salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ritu; Rana, Poonam; Gupta, Mamta; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Srivastava, Shatakshi; Roy, Raja; Khushu, Subash

    2014-03-25

    Heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) have been found to be safer alternatives for making military munitions. Recently, some studies demonstrating the toxic potential of HMTAs have raised concern over the safety issues, and further propose that HMTAs exposure may lead to physiological disturbances as well. To look for the systemic effect of acute toxicity of HMTA based metals salt, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopic profiling of rat urine was carried out. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered (intraperitoneal) low and high dose of mixture of HMTA based metals salt and NMR spectroscopy was carried out in urine samples collected at 8, 24, 72 and 120 h post dosing (p.d.). Serum biochemical parameters and liver histopathology were also conducted. The (1)H NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate analysis techniques to show the time- and dose-dependent biochemical variations in post HMTA based metals salt exposure. Urine metabolomic analysis showed changes associated with energy metabolism, amino acids, N-methyl nicotinamide, membrane and gut flora metabolites. Multivariate analysis showed maximum variation with best classification of control and treated groups at 24h p.d. At the end of the study, for the low dose group most of the changes at metabolite level reverted to control except for the energy metabolites; whereas, in the high dose group some of the changes still persisted. The observations were well correlated with histopathological and serum biochemical parameters. Further, metabolic pathway analysis clarified that amongst all the metabolic pathways analysed, tricarboxylic acid cycle was most affected at all the time points indicating a switchover in energy metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic. These results suggest that exposure of rats to acute doses of HMTA based metals salt disrupts physiological metabolism with moderate injury to the liver, which might indirectly result from heavy metals induced oxidative stress. Copyright

  9. Structure of deuteride of a null matrix Ti-Mo alloy studied by complementation of neutron and X-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, E.; Yuan, X.Z.; Liu, S.; Guo, L.P.; Sun, K.

    2006-01-01

    The detailed structural information of the deuteride of a null matrix Ti-Mo alloy containing 33 at.% of Mo is studied by complementation of the neutron and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The deuteride containing ∼1.8 deuterium atoms per alloy atom forms a titanium δ-hydride type of structure with deuterium atoms in the tetrahedral interstitial sites. The line broadening analysis of the deuteride phase suggests that the deuterization of the alloy causes strong lattice deformation effects, and the micro-strain is likely to be dislocation induced. In comparison with the deformation of the host Ti-Mo alloy matrix lattice, a relaxation effect is observed for the deformation of the interstitial deuterium sublattice

  10. Microstructure evolution and thermal stability of nanostructured Fe50Al30(Ni70Zr30)10B10 powders produced by mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekri, A.; Khitouni, M.; Escoda, L.; Suñol, J. J.; Dammak, M.; Greneche, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The mixtures of Fe, Al, Ni, Zr and B elemental powders with nominal composition Fe50Al30(Ni70Zr30)10B10 were mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill. The structural and morphological changes during high energy mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The final product of the mechanical alloying process was nanocrystalline iron reach bcc-Fe(Al, Ni, Zr, B) solid solution with a mean crystallite size in the range of a few nanometers. From the Mössbauer spectrometry results, the magnetic hyperfine field was found to decrease with the progressive mixing of the elemental powders at the atomic scale. This decrease emanates mainly from the presence of Al, Zr, Ni and B atomic species as first nearest neighbors of Fe probe. The thermal stability of the as-milled powders was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. At early stages of milling, the exothermic peaks observed at higher temperatures correspond to the reaction between the mixed powder elements, while at intermediate stages they are related to the structural transformation associated with the crystallite growth.

  11. The Effect of pH on Slurry Erosion-Corrosion of Tungsten Carbide Overlays Alloyed with Ru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwalani, Ndivhuwo B.; van der Merwe, Josias W.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Ru additions to WC-Fe overlays when exposed to low pH slurry erosion conditions. These overlays were applied through Plasma Transferred Arc, and the original bulk Ru powder concentrations varied from 0.5 to 5 wt.%. A slurry jet impingement erosion-corrosion test rig was used to evaluate wear, and electrochemical measurements were performed to characterize the corrosion properties. The slurry mixtures contained silica sand and synthetic mine water. The pH was varied between 3 and 6.5 for the slurry erosion tests and lowered further for the corrosion characterization. Samples were examined optically and with a scanning electron microscope using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the phases present. For the slurry erosion-corrosion results at the pH of 6.5, addition of Ru did not show a decrease in erosion-corrosion rates. However, when the pH was decreased to 3, by the addition of HCl, Ru improved the resistance. From the electrochemistry, it was also clear that Ru additions improved the corrosion resistance, but more than 1 wt.% Ru was required. At very low pH levels, the presence of Ru was not able to prevent corrosion.

  12. The Effect of pH on Slurry Erosion-Corrosion of Tungsten Carbide Overlays Alloyed with Ru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwalani, Ndivhuwo B.; van der Merwe, Josias W.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Ru additions to WC-Fe overlays when exposed to low pH slurry erosion conditions. These overlays were applied through Plasma Transferred Arc, and the original bulk Ru powder concentrations varied from 0.5 to 5 wt.%. A slurry jet impingement erosion-corrosion test rig was used to evaluate wear, and electrochemical measurements were performed to characterize the corrosion properties. The slurry mixtures contained silica sand and synthetic mine water. The pH was varied between 3 and 6.5 for the slurry erosion tests and lowered further for the corrosion characterization. Samples were examined optically and with a scanning electron microscope using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the phases present. For the slurry erosion-corrosion results at the pH of 6.5, addition of Ru did not show a decrease in erosion-corrosion rates. However, when the pH was decreased to 3, by the addition of HCl, Ru improved the resistance. From the electrochemistry, it was also clear that Ru additions improved the corrosion resistance, but more than 1 wt.% Ru was required. At very low pH levels, the presence of Ru was not able to prevent corrosion.

  13. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu

  14. Effect of Sintering Atmosphere and Solution Treatment on Density, Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Duplex Stainless Steels Developed from Pre-alloyed Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Arun Prasad; Mahendran, Sudhahar; Ramajayam, Mariappan; Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Chinnaraj, Raj Kumar

    2017-10-01

    In this research, Powder Metallurgy (P/M) of Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) of different compositions were prepared through pre-alloyed powders and elemental powders with and without addition of copper. The powder mix was developed by pot mill for 12 h to obtain the homogeneous mixture of pre-alloyed powder with elemental compositions. Cylindrical green compacts with the dimensions of 30 mm diameter and 12 mm height were compacted through universal testing machine at a pressure level of 560 ± 10 MPa. These green compacts were sintered at 1350 °C for 2 h in hydrogen and argon atmospheres. Some of the sintered stainless steel preforms were solution treated at 1050 °C followed by water quenching. The sintered as well as solution treated samples were analysed by metallography examination, Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of mechanical properties. Ferrite content of sintered and solution treated DSS were measured by Fischer Ferritoscope. It is inferred that the hydrogen sintered DSS depicted better density (94% theoretical density) and tensile strength (695 MPa) than the argon sintered steels. Similarly the microstructure of solution treated DSS revealed existence of more volume of ferrite grains than its sintered condition. Solution treated hydrogen sintered DSS A (50 wt% 316L + 50 wt% 430L) exhibited higher tensile strength of 716 MPa and elongation of 17%, which are 10-13% increment than the sintered stainless steels.

  15. Effect of C and milling parameters on the synthesis of WC powders by mechanical alloying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolokang, S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials xxx (2009) xxx–xxx Contents lists availabl Int. Journal of Refractory Metal ls ARTICLE IN PRESS E-mail address: abolokang@csir.co.za (S. Bolokang). avoided [1]. Although MA can produce a non-equilibrium, super....09.006 s & Hard Materials xxx (2009) xxx–xxx Fig. 3 shows a decrease in powder crystallite size with increas- ing milling times. After 12 h milling time, 11 nm WC crystallite size was obtained. Fig. 2. XRD pattern for the production of WC from interrupted high...

  16. Sintering of powders obtained by mechanical alloying of Cu-1.2 Al w%, Cu-2.3 Ti w% and Cu-2.7 V w%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, C; Sepulveda, A; Zuniga, A; Donoso, E; Palma, R

    2008-01-01

    This work studies the effect of compacting pressure, temperature and sintering time on density and microstructure after sintering mechanically alloyed powders of Cu-1.2 Al w%, Cu- 2.3 Ti w% and Cu-2.7 V w%. The alloys were manufactured from elementary powders of Cu, Ti, Al and V, by reactive milling. The powders were compacted and sintered under reducer atmosphere. For each alloy, the final density and resulting microstructure of 8 different compacting and sintering conditions were studied, where the following parameters were considered: (1) Compacting pressure (200 MPa and 400 MPa), (2) Sintering temperature (850 o C and 950 o C), (3) Sintering time (1h and 4h). Adjustments were made using lineal regression to describe the effect of the variation of pressure, temperature and time on the density of the materials obtained, and the morphology of the residual porosity was described by observation under an optic microscope. The final maximum density obtained was, in ascending order: Cu-V, 66% of the theoretical density, TD; Cu-Ti, 65% TD and Cu-Al, 77% TD. The reactive milling process produced flake-shaped particles, hardened by deformation, which made the alloys have a final density that was much less than the sintered pure copper (density 87% TD). This is because the hardened powder resists deformation during compacting, which creates less points of contact between particles, slows down sintering, and yields a lower density. The alloying element influenced the size of the particle obtained during the milling, which is attributed to the different milling mediums (toluene for Ti and V, methanol for Al) and to the different hardness of each ceramic when forming in the copper during milling. The bigger the particle size, the greater the green density, the lesser the densification, and the greater the final density, in accordance with the theory. For the three alloys, the increased compacting pressure gives greater green density, greater densification and a final greater

  17. Powder Injection Molding for mass production of He-cooled divertor parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, S.; Norajitra, P.; Piotter, V.; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.-J.

    2011-01-01

    A He-cooled divertor for future fusion power plants has been developed at KIT. Tungsten and tungsten alloys are presently considered the most promising materials for functional and structural divertor components. The advantages of tungsten materials lie, e.g. in the high melting point, and low activation, the disadvantages are high hardness and brittleness. The machinig of tungsten, e.g. milling, is very complex and cost-intensive. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) is a method for cost effective mass production of near-net-shape parts with high precision. The complete W-PIM process route is outlined and, results of product examination discussed. A binary tungsten powder feedstock with a grain size distribution in the range 0.7-1.7 μm FSSS, and a solid load of 50 vol.% was developed. After heat treatment, the successfully finished samples showed promising results, i.e. 97.6% theoretical density, a grain size of approximately 5 μm, and a hardness of 457 HV0.1.

  18. Alloying and microstructural changes in platinum–titanium milled and annealed powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maweja, Kasonde; Phasha, M.J.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) SE-SEM micrographs of PtTi martensite formed in powder milled for short time annealed at 1500 °C and quenched in helium gas flow (b) BSE-SEM of structure formed after slow cooling. Highlights: ► A disordered metastable FCC Pt(Ti) solid solution was formed after longer milling period. ► HCP Ti crystals were first deformed and then the atoms were dissolved in strained FCC Pt lattices. ► Longer milling time suppressed the occurrence of martensitic transformation after annealing. ► Martensite phase was formed in products that went through a short milling time then annealed and quenched. ► The width of the martensite features formed was smaller at higher cooling rates. - Abstract: Equiatomic platinum–titanium powder mixtures were processed by high energy ball milling under argon atmosphere and sintered under vacuum. Evolution of the crystal structures and microstructures of the products formed were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques, respectively. The HCP crystals of Ti were first deformed and then a disordered metastable FCC Pt(Ti) solid solution was formed during milling due to semi-coherency of FCC lattices. A nanostructured Pt(Ti) product was formed after long milling time, which contained 44–47 at.% Ti and 53–56 at.% Pt. An ordered PtTi intermetallic was formed by annealing the metastable Pt(Ti) at temperature above 1300 °C. The crystal structure and microstructure of the TiPt phase depended on the milling time, annealing temperature and the cooling rate. The B19 PtTi plate martensite was formed after annealing at 1500 °C and quenching at a cooling rate of 23 °C/min to 200 °C/min for short time milled products. The width of martensite features was smaller at high cooling rate. In PtTi products milled for longer time, no martensitic transformation was observed on cooling the annealed samples. Small amounts of Pt 5 Ti 3 were formed in the powders milled for 16 h or more, followed by annealing at 1500 °C and furnace

  19. Development of an alternative route for recycling AA2050 aluminum alloy by powder metallurgy; Desenvolvimento de uma rota alternativa para reciclagem da liga de aluminio AA2050 via metalurgia do po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guido, V.; Oliveira, A.C. de; Travessa, D.N.; Cardoso, K.R., E-mail: vane.guid@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents an alternative solid state route to recycling AA2050 aeronautical aluminium alloy chips. The first stage in the recycling process, reported in this work, is the obtainment of the alloy powder by high energy ball milling to subsequent cold pressing and hot extrusion. The process started with the cleaning of chips with the aim of contaminant removing from machining process and transport, followed by the high energy ball milling to result in the AA2050 alloy powder. The powder obtained was characterized by laser size particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (DRX) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results show the feasibility of obtaining a powder having appropriate particle size and chemical composition in accordance with the specification for alloy. (author)

  20. STRUCTURE, PHASE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF GAS-THERMAL COVERINGS OF MECHANICALLY ALLOYED THERMOREACTING COMPOSITE POWDERS OF NICKEL-ALUMINIUM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented results show that coverings from mechanically alloyed thermoreacting powders of system «nickel–aluminum» are nonequilibrium multiphase systems which basis represents solid solution of aluminum in nickel. It has the microcrystalline type of structure which is characterized by an advanced surface of borders of the grains and subgrains stabilized by nanodimensional inclusions of oxides and alyuminid. These coverings surpass by 1,2–1,6 times analogs in durability, hardness and wear resistance.

  1. Properties of Mechanically Alloyed W-Ti Materials with Dual Phase Particle Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Lukáč

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available W alloys are currently widely studied materials for their potential application in future fusion reactors. In the presented study, we report on the preparation and properties of mechanically alloyed W-Ti powders compacted by pulsed electric current sintering. Four different powder compositions of W-(3%–7%Ti with Hf or HfC were prepared. The alloys’ structure contains only high-melting-point phases, namely the W-Ti matrix, complex carbide (Ti,W,HfC and HfO2 particle dispersion; Ti in the form of a separate phase is not present. The bending strength of the alloys depends on the amount of Ti added. The addition of 3 wt. % Ti led to an increase whereas 7 wt. % Ti led to a major decrease in strength when compared to unalloyed tungsten sintered at similar conditions. The addition of Ti significantly lowered the room-temperature thermal conductivity of all prepared materials. However, unlike pure tungsten, the conductivity of the prepared alloys increased with the temperature. Thus, the thermal conductivity of the alloys at 1300 °C approached the value of the unalloyed tungsten.

  2. Interdiffusion behavior of tungsten or rhenium and group 5 and 6 elements and alloys of the periodic table, part 1. [at dissimilar metal joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    Arc cast W, CVD W, CVD Re, and powder metallurgy Re materials were hot isostatically pressure welded to ten different refractory metals and alloys (Cb, Cb-1Zr, Ta, Ta-10W, T-111, ASTAR-811C, W-25Re, Mo-50Re, W-30Re-20Mo, ect.) and thermally aged at 10 to the minus 8th power torr at 1200, 1500, 1630, 1800, and 2000 C for 100 to 2000 hours. Electron beam microprobe analysis was used to characterize the interdiffusion zone width of each couple system as a function of age time and temperature. Extrapolations of interdiffusion zone thickness to 10,000 hours were made. Classic interdiffusion analysis was performed for several of the systems by Boltzmann-Matano analysis. A method of inhibiting Kirkendall voids from forming during thermal ageing of dissimilar metal junctions was devised and experimentally demonstrated. An electron beam weld study of Cb-1Zr to Re and W-25Re demonstrated the limited acceptability of these welds.

  3. Microstructural characterization of stress-induced martensites evolved at low temperature in deformed powders of Fe-Mn-C alloys by the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, P.; De, M.; Kajiwara, S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study considers X-ray characterization of the microstructures of deformation-induced martensites of Fe-Mn-C alloy powders of grain size ∼50 μm (hand-filed) having compositions 5.6, 5.8 and 6.0 Mn and 1.0 C (mass%). The cold-worked powders were further subjected to transformation at low temperatures close to M s and the evolved phases were again characterized microstructurally. The methodology applied for characterization involves Rietveld's whole X-ray profile fitting technique adopting the most recently developed software, MAUD (Materials Analysis Using Diffraction) which incorporates Popa model for crystallite (domain) size and microstrain (root mean square, r.m.s.) and preferred orientation of the crystallites. The analysis also considers lattice defect-related features of the microstructure viz. stacking, twin, compound fault probabilities and dislocation density value. The cold-worked powders (hand-filed at room temperature) revealed the highest degree of transformation with 47, 43 and 42% volume fractions of martensites with increasing Mn concentration which for the bulk state of the same alloys transformed at low temperatures are 36, 40 and 47%. The same deformed alloy powders when subjected to low temperature transformation, evolved a maximum of 60, 68 and 62% volume fractions of martensites at 170, 175 and 190 K. The analysis reveals the occurrence of a high propensity of stacking faults in the deformed austenites (10 -2 -10 -3 ) and high values of dislocation densities (10 12 -10 13 cm -2 ) in the austenite and martensitic phases which assist in the formation of such a high concentration of martensites in the low temperature-treated deformed powder samples

  4. Development of solid-state joining technology of dissimilar metals using amorphous metastable alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Ku; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Jin Ju; Lee, Jeong Gu; Kim, Gwang Ho; Hong, Sung Mo; Lee, Jong Geuk; Kim, Kyoung Ho

    2007-04-01

    Many nuclear components such as nozzles, steam generator, pipes, condensers, and heat exchangers require a realization of the reliable and high-performance joining or welding between the dissimilar metals or alloys, despite the fact that their melting points, thermal expansion coefficients and physical properties are quite different from each other. The conventional arc welding processes (SMAW, TIG), however, which is currently used as a welding process for NPP components, have not met the requirements of obtaining a reliable and high-quality dissimilar joints, as demonstrated from a number of the previously reported accidents or material failures in the welded joints. This originates from the various weaknesses of the arc welding processes (more than 1700 .deg. C) such as high residual stresses which is sensitive to SCC, porous or deformed joint structures, a formation of grain-coarsened HAZ and an induced degradation of the base metals in the vicinity of the joint. Moreover, they are not applicable to a joining of the dissimilar metals when their melting point or mechanical/physical properties are quite different. In this research, the low-temperature joining (700 .deg. C - 800 .deg. C) and simultaneously strong diffusion bonding technologies between the dissimilar Ti and Cu metals have been developed for the applications to the dissimilar joints of various nuclear tube components

  5. Dense Pure Tungsten Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianzheng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing using tungsten, a brittle material, is difficult because of its high melting point, thermal conductivity, and oxidation tendency. In this study, pure tungsten parts with densities of up to 18.53 g/cm3 (i.e., 96.0% of the theoretical density were fabricated by selective laser melting. In order to minimize balling effects, the raw polyhedral tungsten powders underwent a spheroidization process before laser consolidation. Compared with polyhedral powders, the spherical powders showed increased laser absorptivity and packing density, which helped in the formation of a continuous molten track and promoted densification.

  6. Characterization of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monge, M.A.; Auger, M.A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R. [Universidad Carlos 3, Dept. de Fisica, Madrid (Spain); Bolzoni, L.; Gordo, E. [Universidad Carlos 3, Dept. de Ciencias de Materiales, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is considered as a candidate material for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a future fusion power reactor because of its refractory characteristics, low tritium retention and low sputtering yielding. However, its use in PFCs requires the development of a tungsten material that, in addition to these properties, maintains good mechanical properties after a prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Sintering would be the most suitable method to produce tungsten materials for these applications if their recrystallization temperature is high enough and the grain growth is restrained. Usual sintering conditions for tungsten requires very high temperatures that induces a coarse grained structure in the sintered material, and a low recrystallization temperature in the hot worked material. This causes the failure of its mechanical properties. The combined addition of a sintering activator, which lowers the sintering temperature and favors the densification, and an insoluble oxide that produces a dispersion strengthening and grain growth inhibition, may result in a tungsten material with improved mechanical characteristics. Cu, Ni and Fe are the most used activators to produce tungsten heavy alloys but they may be no recommendable for PFCs. The present work assesses the possibility of using jointly Ti as sintering activator and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles as strengthening dispersoids in tungsten. Pure tungsten and tungsten alloys having 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, x wt % Ti and 0.5 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}+ x wt % Ti have been prepared by powder metallurgy; 0{<=}x{<=}4%. Elemental powders were blended or ball milled, canned, out-gassed and finally consolidated by a two-stage HIP process under a pressure of 200 MPa. The first stage was performed at 1523 K for 2 h, and after un-canning, the second HIP at 1973 K for 30 min. It is found that Ti addition favors the densification attaining a fully dense material, while pure W and W-0.5Y{sub 2

  7. DUCTILE-PHASE TOUGHENED TUNGSTEN FOR PLASMA-FACING MATERIALS IN FUSION REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, Charles H.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Overman, Nicole R.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Stevens, Erica L.; Wagner, Karla B.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Odette, G Robert; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Cunningham, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Tungsten (W) and W-alloys are the leading candidates for plasma-facing components in nuclear fusion reactor designs because of their high melting point, strength retention at high temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and low sputtering yield. However, tungsten is brittle and does not exhibit the required fracture toughness for licensing in nuclear applications. A promising approach to increasing fracture toughness of W-alloys is by ductile-phase toughening (DPT). In this method, a ductile phase is included in a brittle matrix to prevent on inhibit crack propagation by crack blunting, crack bridging, crack deflection, and crack branching. Model examples of DPT tungsten are explored in this study, including W-Cu and W-Ni-Fe powder product composites. Three-point and four-point notched and/or pre-cracked bend samples were tested at several strain rates and temperatures to help understand deformation, cracking, and toughening in these materials. Data from these tests are used for developing and calibrating crack-bridging models. Finite element damage mechanics models are introduced as a modeling method that appears to capture the complexity of crack growth in these materials.

  8. Developments toward the use of tungsten as armour material in plasma facing components promoted by Euratom-CEA Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R.; Missiaen, J.M.; Brustolin, P.

    2006-01-01

    Tungsten is increasingly considered as a prime candidate armour material facing the plasma in fusion experiments (ASDEX, JET, ITER). This material is, however, a challenge for the engineers due to its brittleness at room temperature. Its bonding to structural or cooled substrates is a critical issue. The Euratom-CEA Association promotes the development of evolutionary techniques aiming to produce high performance assemblies between tungsten and various substrates. These are 1) functionally graded tungsten to copper, 2) direct electron beam welding of tungsten to Mo-alloy TZM and 3) the characterisation of tungsten coatings deposited on carbon fibre composite by high energy deposition processes. 1) A functionally graded material eliminates the singular point which weakens the heterogeneous assembly, reducing the stresses and allowing a better behaviour. The sintering of submicronic W-Cu powders is investigated. The green shape is processed from W-CuO powder, which is reduced by a hydrogen flow. The compaction and sintering of layers of various compositions (10 to 30 % Cu) produces an assembly (density of ∼ 94%) with a good cohesion. However, the gradient is not effectively controlled, because of the migration of melt copper during the sintering. Future work aims to improve the process by using spark or microwave assisted sintering. 2) Electron beam welding of Mo-alloy TZM is investigated, to produce high temperature components required by radiation cooled PFCs. They require only mechanical properties and no vacuum sealing. The driving line is to use simple tungsten shapes to reduce the milling cost. In spite of low weldable properties of the refractory alloys, a good bonding up to a depth of 5 mm is obtained. Hardness measurements show that the melt area and the heat affected zone are harder than TZM, the weakest materials at 230 Hv. Quench tests in water from up to 2000 o C are done without apparent crack formation. 3) Finally, characterisation techniques are

  9. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  10. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  11. Study of the microstructural and mechanical properties of titanium-niobium-zirconium based alloys processed with hydrogen and powder metallurgy for use in dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvaizem, Jose Helio

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen has been used as pulverization agent in alloys based on rare earth and transition metals due to its extremely high diffusion rate even on low temperatures. Such materials are used on hydrogen storage dispositives, generation of electricity or magnetic fields, and are produced by a process which the first step is the transformation of the alloy in fine powder by miling. Besides those, hydrogenium is also being used to obtain alloys based on titanium - niobium - zirconium in the pulverization. Powder metallurgy is utilized on the production of these alloys, making it possible to obtain structures with porous surface as result, requirement for its application as biomaterials. Other advantages of powder metallurgy usage include better surface finish and better microstructural homogeneity. In this work samples were prepared in the Ti-13Nb-13Zr composition. The hydrogenation was performed at 700 degree C, 600 degree C, and 500 degree C for titanium, niobium and zirconium respectively. After hydrogenation, the milling stage was carried out on high energy planetary ball milling with 200rpm during 90 minutes, and also in conventional ball milling for 30 hours. Samples were pressed in uniaxial press, followed by isostatic cold press, and then sintered at 1150 degree C for 7-13 hours. Microstructural properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction. Mechanical and structural properties determined were density, microhardness and moduli of elasticity. The sample sintered at 1150 degree C for 7h, hydrogenated using 10.000 mbar and produced by milling on high energy planetary ball milling presented the best mechanical properties and microstructural homogeneity. (author)

  12. Phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties of porous Ti-Nb-Zr alloys prepared by a two-step foaming powder metallurgy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, X; Chu, C L; Zheng, Y Y

    2014-06-01

    Porous Ti-Nb-Zr alloys with different porosities from 6.06 to 62.8% are prepared by a two-step foaming powder metallurgy method using TiH2, Nb, and Zr powders together with 0 to 50wt% of NH4HCO3. The effects of the amounts of Nb and Zr as well as the sintering temperature (1473 to 1673K) on their phase composition, porosity, morphology, and mechanical characteristics are investigated. By controlling the porosity, Nb and Zr concentrations as well as the sintering temperature, porous Ti-Nb-Zr alloys with different mechanical properties can be obtained, for example, the hardness between 290 and 63HV, the compressive strength between 1530.5 and 73.4MPa, and the elastic modulus between 10.8 and 1.2GPa. The mechanical properties of the sintered porous Ti-Nb-Zr alloys can be tailored to match different requirements for the human bones and are thus potentially useful in the hard tissue implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High Purity Tungsten Spherical Particle Preparation From WC-Co Spent Hard Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was recycled to obtain high purity spherical tungsten powder by a combined hydrometallurgy and physical metallurgy pathway. Selective leaching of tungsten element from hard metal scrap occurs at solid / liquid interface and therefore enlargement of effective surface area is advantageous. Linear oxidation behavior of Tungsten carbide-cobalt and the oxidized scrap is friable to be pulverized by milling process. In this regard, isothermally oxidized Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was mechanically broken into particles and then tungsten trioxide particle was recovered by hydrometallurgical method. Recovered tungsten trioxide was reduced to tungsten particle in a hydrogen environment. After that, tungsten particle was melted and solidified to make a spherical one by RF (Ratio Frequency thermal plasma process. Well spherical tungsten micro-particle was successfully obtained from spent scrap. In addition to the morphological change, thermal plasma process showed an advantage for the purification of feedstock particle.

  14. Microstructural characterization and formation of α′ martensite phase in Ti–6Al–4V alloy butt joints produced by friction stir and gas tungsten arc welding processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaily, M.; Nooshin Mortazavi, S.; Todehfalah, P.; Rashidi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A fusion (GTAW) and a solid state method (FSW) are used to weld Ti–6Al–4V alloy. ► Optimal parameters yielding defects-free weldments are identified. ► A very careful microstructural quantification of the FSW and GTAW weldments are performed. ► α′ Martensite formed only in FSWed samples and avoided in GTAWed samples. ► FSW process produced joints with considerably smaller HAZ and higher hardness values. - Abstract: The obtained microstructures of a Ti–6Al–4V alloy welded by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Friction Stir Welding (FSW) were investigated and evaluated quantitatively. In the GTAW method, the effect of current was examined so that the samples were subjected to various currents between 90 and 120 A. In the FSW process, samples were welded by different rotational speeds (450–850 rpm). Non-destructive tests including Visual and Radiography Tests (VT and RT) were used to identify defect-free samples. The microstructural studies by electron microscopes revealed formation of different phases in the weld area of the samples welded via mentioned methods. The recorded peak temperatures in the weld regions compared favorably with the expectations about the evolved microstructures. A bi-modal microstructure was just obtained in the FSWed sample with a peak temperature below β transus temperature (T < 995 °C). α′ martensite phase, which is an acicular and strengthening phase in this alloy, was only observed in FSWed specimens

  15. [Measurement of casting shrinkage with U-type tungsten die (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, A; Nakamura, K; Seki, S; Kakuta, K; Kawashima, J

    1980-04-01

    A simple method was developed for the accurate measurement of casting shrinkage using a U-type tungsten die. A wax pattern was prepared on the die and both were invested together in phosphate bonded investment. Cobalt-chromium alloy, Regalloy shot 2, was cast and its shrinkage was calculated from the distance of the gap created between the die and the cast piece. In order to evaluate the effects of some manipulative variables on the cast shrinkage value of the alloy, mold temperature, kind of liquid for the investment and powder/liquid ratio were varied and shrinkage values were obtained. The results showed that the shrinkage value was not affected by the kind of liquid and the power/liquid ratio, but significantly decreased as the mold temperature raised up to 600 degree C. However, this effect was eliminated by means of substractive correction of the thermal expansion of the tungsten die. Thus, the casting shrinkage of the cobalt-chromium alloy, Regalloy shot 2, was calculated to be 2.08 +/- 0.02%. The casting shrinkage of pure gold was also measured with the same procedure. The casting shrinkage was calculated to be 1.73 +/- 0.04% and highly consistent with the value (1.74%) reported by R. Earnshaw. This suggested that the developed method was sufficiently effective for the accurate measurement of casting shrinkage.

  16. In situ elaboration of a binary Ti–26Nb alloy by selective laser melting of elemental titanium and niobium mixed powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux LEM3 (UMR CNRS 7239), Université de Lorraine, Ile de Saulcy, F-57045 Metz (France); Joguet, D. [Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Matériaux, les Procédés et les Surfaces LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort Montbéliard, Sevenans, 90010 Belfort (France); Robin, G. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux LEM3 (UMR CNRS 7239), Université de Lorraine, Ile de Saulcy, F-57045 Metz (France); Peltier, L. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux LEM3 (UMR CNRS 7239), Ecole Nationale Supérieure d' Arts et Métiers, F-57078 Metz (France); Laheurte, P. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux LEM3 (UMR CNRS 7239), Université de Lorraine, Ile de Saulcy, F-57045 Metz (France)

    2016-05-01

    Ti–Nb alloys are excellent candidates for biomedical applications such as implantology and joint replacement because of their very low elastic modulus, their excellent biocompatibility and their high strength. A low elastic modulus, close to that of the cortical bone minimizes the stress shielding effect that appears subsequent to the insertion of an implant. The objective of this study is to investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties of a Ti–Nb alloy elaborated by selective laser melting on powder bed of a mixture of Ti and Nb elemental powders (26 at.%). The influence of operating parameters on porosity of manufactured samples and on efficacy of dissolving Nb particles in Ti was studied. The results obtained by optical microscopy, SEM analysis and X-ray microtomography show that the laser energy has a significant effect on the compactness and homogeneity of the manufactured parts. Homogeneous and compact samples were obtained for high energy levels. Microstructure of these samples has been further characterized. Their mechanical properties were assessed by ultrasonic measures and the Young's modulus found is close to that of classically elaborated Ti–26Nb ingot. - Highlights: • Biomimetic implants can be provided from additive manufacturing with Ti–Nb. • We made parts in a Ti–Nb alloy elaborated in situ from a mixture of elemental powders. • Process parameters have a significant impact on homogeneity and compactness. • Non-columnar elongated beta-grains are stacked with an orientation {001}<100 >. • Low Young's modulus is achieved by this texture.

  17. Data on the densification during sintering of binder jet printed samples made from water- and gas-atomized alloy 625 powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mostafaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Binder jet printing (BJP is a metal additive manufacturing method that manufactures parts with complex geometry by depositing powder layer-by-layer, selectively joining particles in each layer with a polymeric binder and finally curing the binder. After the printing process, the parts still in the powder bed must be sintered to achieve full densification (A. Mostafaei, Y. Behnamian, Y.L. Krimer, E.L. Stevens, J.L. Luo, M. Chmielus, 2016; A. Mostafaei, E. Stevens, E. Hughes, S. Biery, C. Hilla, M. Chmielus, 2016; A. Mostafaei, Y. Behnamian, Y.L. Krimer, E.L. Stevens, J.L. Luo, M. Chmielus, 2016 [1–3]. The collected data presents the characterization of the as-received gas- and water-atomized alloy 625 powders, BJP processing parameters and density of the sintered samples. The effect of sintering temperatures on the microstructure and the relative density of binder jet printed parts made from differently atomized nickel-based superalloy 625 powders are briefly compared in this paper. Detailed data can be found in the original published papers by authors in (A. Mostafaei, J. Toman, E.L. Stevens, E.T. Hughes, Y.L. Krimer, M. Chmielus, 2017 [4].

  18. Self-standing silicon-carbon nanotube/graphene by a scalable in situ approach from low-cost Al-Si alloy powder for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongyan; Han, Kai; Jiang, Heng; Wang, Jingwen; Liu, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Silicon/carbon (Si/C) composite shows great potential to replace graphite as lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode owing to its high theoretical capacity. Exploring low-cost scalable approach for synthesizing Si/C composites with excellent electrochemical performance is critical for practical application of Si/C anodes. In this study, we rationally applied a scalable in situ approach to produce Si-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) composite via acid etching of commercial inexpensive micro-sized Al-Si alloy powder and CNT mixture. In the Si-CNT composite, ∼10 nm Si particles were uniformly deposited on the CNT surface. After combining with graphene sheets, a flexible self-standing Si-CNT/graphene paper was fabricated with three-dimensional (3D) sandwich-like structure. The in situ presence of CNT during acid-etching process shows remarkable two advantages: providing deposition sites for Si atoms to restrain agglomeration of Si nanoparticles after Al removal from Al-Si alloy powder, increasing the cross-layer conductivity of the paper anode to provide excellent conductive contact sites for each Si nanoparticles. When used as binder-free anode for LIBs without any further treatment, in situ addition of CNT especially plays important role to improve the initial electrochemical activity of Si nanoparticles synthesized from low-cost Al-Si alloy powder, thus resulting in about twice higher capacity than Si/G paper anode. The self-standing Si-CNT/graphene paper anode exhibited a high specific capacity of 1100 mAh g-1 even after 100 cycles at 200 mA g-1 current density with a Coulombic efficiency of >99%. It also showed remarkable rate capability improvement compared to Si/G paper without CNT. The present work demonstrates a low-cost scalable in situ approach from commercial micro-sized Al-Si alloy powder for Si-based composites with specific nanostructure. The Si-CNT/graphene paper is a promising anode candidate with high capacity and cycling stability for LIBs, especially for the

  19. Application of Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction in Optimization of the Production of NiTi Alloy by Powder Metallurgy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Školáková, A.; Vojtěch, V.; Knaislová, A.; Pokorný, P.; Moravec, H.; Kopeček, Jaromír; Karlík, M.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2014), s. 387-392 ISSN 1213-2489. [Mezinárodní konference „Mikroskopie a nedestruktivní zkoušení materiálů/3./. Litoměřice, 22.10.2014-24.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03044S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : powder metallurgy * NiTi, * mechanical alloying * reactive sintering Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) http://journal.strojirenskatechnologie.cz/templates/obalky_casopis/XIV_2014-3.pdf

  20. Observation of the Structure of Tungsten Films Prepared by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Weiliang; Yu, Lei; Li, Yujie; Guo, Shuangquan

    2013-09-01

    The tungsten films with ultra microstructure on CuCrZr alloy and China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel have been prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were produced by pyrolysing the tungsten hexacarbonyl at air or argon atmosphere. When formed at or below 400 °C, they were poorly crystalized and the films showed low quality in thickness, density, bonding performance etc. While above this temperature, the properties of tungsten films have been improved, all the films consist of tungsten in the β-W. And β-W can change into α-W after heat treatment. As in other variations of pyrolysis, oxygen and carbon were observed. When filled with argon, the oxygen and carbon content would reduce apparently. Tungsten films prepared by MOCVD have stable chemical composition and microstructure. Besides, the properties of films on CuCrZr alloy are better than that on CLAM steel.

  1. Sustained release vancomycin-coated titanium alloy using a novel electrostatic dry powder coating technique may be a potential strategy to reduce implant-related infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Yang, Yi; Lu, Junren; Wang, Chenzhong; Xie, Youtao; Zheng, Xuebin; Yao, Zhenjun; Zhang, Chi

    2017-07-24

    In order to tackle the implant-related infection, a novel way was developed in this study to coat vancomycin particles mixed with controlled release coating materials onto the surface of titanium alloy by using an electrostatic dry powder coating technique. To characterize this sustained release antibacterial coating, surface morphology, in vitro and in vivo drug release were sequentially evaluated. In vitro cytotoxicity was tested by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and cytological changes were observed by inverted microscope. The antibacterial properties against MRSA, including a bacterial growth inhibition assay and a colony-counting test by spread plate method were performed. Results indicated that the vancomycin-coated sample was biocompatible for Human osteoblast cell line MG-63 and displayed effective antibacterial ability against MRSA. The coating film was revealed uniform by scanning electron microscopy. Both the in vitro and in vivo drug release kinetics showed an initially high release rate, followed by an extended period of sustained drug release over 7 days. These results suggest that with good biocompatibility and antibacterial ability, the sustained release antibacterial coating of titanium alloy using our novel electrostatic dry powder coating process may provide a promising candidate for the treatment of orthopedic implant-related infection.

  2. In situ elaboration of a binary Ti-26Nb alloy by selective laser melting of elemental titanium and niobium mixed powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Joguet, D; Robin, G; Peltier, L; Laheurte, P

    2016-05-01

    Ti-Nb alloys are excellent candidates for biomedical applications such as implantology and joint replacement because of their very low elastic modulus, their excellent biocompatibility and their high strength. A low elastic modulus, close to that of the cortical bone minimizes the stress shielding effect that appears subsequent to the insertion of an implant. The objective of this study is to investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties of a Ti-Nb alloy elaborated by selective laser melting on powder bed of a mixture of Ti and Nb elemental powders (26 at.%). The influence of operating parameters on porosity of manufactured samples and on efficacy of dissolving Nb particles in Ti was studied. The results obtained by optical microscopy, SEM analysis and X-ray microtomography show that the laser energy has a significant effect on the compactness and homogeneity of the manufactured parts. Homogeneous and compact samples were obtained for high energy levels. Microstructure of these samples has been further characterized. Their mechanical properties were assessed by ultrasonic measures and the Young's modulus found is close to that of classically elaborated Ti-26 Nbingot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of thermoelectric performance for (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloys from cutting waste powders to bulks with high figure of merit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xi'an; Cai, Xin zhi; Han, Xue wu; Zhang, Cheng cheng

    2016-01-01

    Bi 2 Te 3 based cutting waste powders from cutting wafers were firstly selected as raw materials to prepare p-type Bi 2 Te 3 based thermoelectric (TE) materials. Through washing, reducing, composition correction, smelting and resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process, p-type (Bi,Sb) 2 Te 3 alloy bulks with different nominal stoichiometries were successfully obtained. The evolution of microstructure and TE performance for (Bi,Sb) 2 Te 3 alloys were investigated in detail. All evidences confirmed that most of contaminants from line cutting process such as cutting fluid and oxides of Bi, Sb or Te could be removed by washing, reducing and smelting process used in this work. The carrier content and corresponding TE properties could be adjusted effectively by appropriate composition correction treatment. At lastly, a bulk with a nominal stoichiometry of Bi 0.44 Sb 1.56 Te 3 was obtained and its' dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was about 1.16 at 90 °C. The ZT values of Bi 0.36 Sb 1.64 Te 3 and Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 alloy bulks could also reach 0.98 and 1.08, respectively. Different from the conventional recycling technology such as hydrometallurgy extraction methods, the separation and extraction of beneficial elements such as Bi, Sb and Te did not need to be performed and the Bi 2 Te 3 based bulks with high TE properties could be directly obtained from the cutting waste powders. In addition, the recycling technology introduced here was green and more suitable for practical industrial application. It can improve material utilization and lower raw material costs of manufacturers. - Graphical abstract: Three kinds of typical morphologies for the fractographs: typical lamellar structure, agglomerated submicron-sized granules and dispersed cubic particles from the initial cutting waste powders. - Highlights: • Bi 2 Te 3 based wastes were directly selected as raw materials for TE alloys. • Contaminants from cutting fluid and oxides could be effectively removed.

  4. Elaboration, physical and electrochemical characterizations of CO tolerant PEMFC anode materials. Study of platinum-molybdenum and platinum-tungsten alloys and composites; Elaborations et caracterisations electrochimiques et physiques de materiaux d'anode de PEMFC peu sensibles a l'empoisonnement par CO: etude d'alliages et de composites a base de platine-molybdene et de platine-tungstene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrelade, E.

    2005-06-15

    PEMFC development is hindered by the CO poisoning ability of the anode platinum catalyst. It has been previously shown that the oxidation potential of carbon monoxide adsorbed on the platinum atoms can be lowered using specific Pt based catalysts, either metallic alloys or composites. The objective is then to realize a catalyst for which the CO oxidation is compatible with the working potential of a PEMFC anode. In our approach, to enhance the CO tolerance of platinum based catalyst supported on carbon, we studied platinum-tungsten and platinum-molybdenum alloys and platinum-metal oxide materials (Pt-WO{sub x} and Pt-MoO{sub x}). The platinum based alloys demonstrate a small effect of the second metal towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The platinum composites show a better tolerance to carbon monoxide. Electrochemical studies on both Pt-MoO{sub x} and Pt-WO{sub x} demonstrate the ability of the metal-oxides to promote the ability of Pt to oxidize CO at low potentials. However, chrono-amperometric tests reveal a bigger influence of the tungsten oxide. Complex chemistry reactions on the molybdenum oxide surface make it more difficult to observe. (author)

  5. Effect of pressing temperature on the wear resistance of a Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy produced by hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somunkiran, Ilyas [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.; Balin, Ahmet [Siirt Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Vocational High School

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy was produced at different pressing temperatures by using hot pressing technique and abrasive wear behaviors of the produced specimens were examined. Produced specimens were exposed to abrasive wear experiment using block on disc wear test device by applying a load of 50 N with 100-mesh SiC abrasive paper. Each specimen was investigated at 25, 50, 75 and 100 m. At the end of the experiment, abrasive wear results of the specimens were determined by calculating their mass losses. Microstructural properties of the specimens which were produced at different pressing temperatures were investigated by optical and SEM examinations and their wear resistances were examined by abrasive wear experiments. Consequently, it was observed that in Co-based Cr-Mo powder alloy produced by hot pressing technique; as sintering temperature increased, size of neck formations between the powder grains increased, porosity decreased and abrasive wear resistance increased. [German] In diesem Beitrag zugrunde liegenden Studie wurde eine Co-basierte Cr-Mo-Legierung mittels Heisspressens hergestellt und der Abrasivverschleisswiderstand dieser Proben untersucht. Die hergestellten Proben wurden dem Abrasivverschleissversuch durch einen Block-Scheibe-Versuchsaufbau unterzogen, wobei eine Kraft von 50 N mit einem SiC-Papier (100 mesh) verwendet wurde. Jede Probe wurde ueber eine Distanz von 25, 50, 75 und 100 m untersucht. Am Ende der jeweiligen Experimente wurden die Abrasivverschleissergebnisse ermittelt, indem die Massenverluste berechnet wurden. Die mikrostrukturellen Eigenschaften der Proben, die bei verschiedenen Presstemperaturen hergestellt wurden, wurden mittels optischer und Rasterelektronenmikroskopie bestimmt und ihr Verschleisswiderstand anhand der Verschleissversuche ermittelt. Schliesslich wurde beobachtet, dass bei steigender Sintertemperatur der heissgespressten Co-basierten Cr-Mo-Pulverlegierung die Groesse der Einschnuerungen zwischen den

  6. Evolution of thermoelectric performance for (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloys from cutting waste powders to bulks with high figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xi‧an; Cai, Xin zhi; Han, Xue wu; Zhang, Cheng cheng; Rong, Zhen zhou; Yang, Fan; Li, Guang qiang

    2016-01-01

    Bi2Te3 based cutting waste powders from cutting wafers were firstly selected as raw materials to prepare p-type Bi2Te3 based thermoelectric (TE) materials. Through washing, reducing, composition correction, smelting and resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process, p-type (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloy bulks with different nominal stoichiometries were successfully obtained. The evolution of microstructure and TE performance for (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloys were investigated in detail. All evidences confirmed that most of contaminants from line cutting process such as cutting fluid and oxides of Bi, Sb or Te could be removed by washing, reducing and smelting process used in this work. The carrier content and corresponding TE properties could be adjusted effectively by appropriate composition correction treatment. At lastly, a bulk with a nominal stoichiometry of Bi0.44Sb1.56Te3 was obtained and its' dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was about 1.16 at 90 °C. The ZT values of Bi0.36Sb1.64Te3 and Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 alloy bulks could also reach 0.98 and 1.08, respectively. Different from the conventional recycling technology such as hydrometallurgy extraction methods, the separation and extraction of beneficial elements such as Bi, Sb and Te did not need to be performed and the Bi2Te3 based bulks with high TE properties could be directly obtained from the cutting waste powders. In addition, the recycling technology introduced here was green and more suitable for practical industrial application. It can improve material utilization and lower raw material costs of manufacturers.

  7. A study of Al-Mo powder processing as a possible way to corrosion resistent aluminum-alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Corrêa Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Elementary Al and Mo powder mixtures have been processed by high energy ball milling up to milling times of 100 hours. The shift of the pitting potential and the X ray analysis of green milled samples showed that part of the Mo has formed a supersaturated solid solution of Mo in Al. Elementary Mo powder, however, was still present after 100 hours of milling. Sintering led to the formation of the intermetallic Al12Mo phase.

  8. Ultrasonic ranking of toughness of tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation measurements to rank tungsten carbide alloys according to their fracture toughness was demonstrated. Six samples of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) were examined. These varied in cobalt content from approximately 2 to 16 weight percent. The toughness generally increased with increasing cobalt content. Toughness was first determined by the Palmqvist and short rod fracture toughness tests. Subsequently, ultrasonic attenuation measurements were correlated with both these mechanical test methods. It is shown that there is a strong increase in ultrasonic attenuation corresponding to increased toughness of the WC-Co alloys. A correlation between attenuation and toughness exists for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies. However, the best correlation for the WC-Co alloys occurs when the attenuation coefficient measured in the vicinity of 100 megahertz is compared with toughness as determined by the Palmqvist technique.

  9. Using precipitated Cr on the surface of Cu-Cr alloy powders as catalyst synthesizing CNTs/Cu composite powders by water-assisted CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Honglei; Liu, Ping; Chen, Xiaohong; Bi, Liming; Zhang, Ke; Liu, Xinkuan; Li, Wei; Ma, Fengcang

    2018-02-01

    Given that the conventional catalyst is easily soluble in the matrix to result in the poor performance of the CNTs/Cu composite materials, the Cr nano-particles precipitated on the surface of Cu-Cr particles are first used as catalysts to prepare the CNTs/Cu composite powders by means of water-assisted chemical vapor deposition in situ synthesis. The results show that the morphological difference of the precipitated Cr nano-particle is obvious with the change of solution and aging treatment, and the morphology, length and diameter of the synthetic CNTs are also different. The catalyst of Cr nano-particle has the best morphology and the synthesized CNTs had a good wettability with Cu particles when the Cu-Cr composite powders was solution-treated at 1023 K for 60 min and then was aged at 723 K for 120 min. The length, diameter, yield and purity of the synthesized CNTs can be also affected by the moisture content in the reaction gas. It is the most suitable for the growth of CNTs when the moisture content is 0.4%, and the high purity and defect-free CNTs with the smooth pipe wall, a diameter of 20 ˜ 30 nm and a length of up to 1800 nm can be obtained. The yield of CNTs with the moisture content of 0.4% reached to 138%, which was increased by 119% to compare with that without moisture. In this paper, a feasible technology was offered for the preparation of high performance CNTs/Cu composites.

  10. Characterization of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monge, M.A.; Auger, M.A.; Leguey, T.; Ortega, Y.; Bolzoni, L.; Gordo, E.; Pareja, R.

    2009-01-01

    W and W alloys containing 0.5 wt% Y 2 O 3 , x wt% Ti and (x wt% Ti + 0.5 wt% Y 2 O 3 ) have been prepared, x = 2 or 4. Elemental powders were blended or ball milled, canned, degassed and finally consolidated by a two-stage HIP process under a pressure of 195 MPa. It is found that Ti addition favours the densification attaining a fully dense material. XRD, SEM and EDX analyses of the material with Ti addition reveal the formation of a microstructure consisting of tungsten particles embedded in a W-Ti matrix. The microhardness of these materials increased noticeably with the titanium content.

  11. Microstructures, Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivities of W-0.5 wt.%TiC Alloys Prepared via Ball Milling and Wet Chemical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shaoting; Yan, Qingzhi; Sun, Ningbo; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Ge, Changchun

    2017-10-01

    Two kinds of W-0.5 wt.%TiC alloys were prepared, one by ball milling and the other by the wet chemical method. For comparison, pure tungsten powders were chemically prepared and sintered by the same process. The microstructures, mechanical properties and thermal conductivities of the prepared samples were characterized. It has been found that the wet chemical method resulted in finer sizes and more uniform distribution of TiC particles in the sintered tungsten matrix than the ball milling method. The W-TiC alloy prepared by the wet chemical method achieved the highest bending strength (1065.72 MPa) among the samples. Further, it also exhibited obviously higher thermal conductivities in the temperature range of room temperature to 600°C than did the W-TiC alloy prepared by ball milling, but the differences in their thermal conductivities could be ignored in the range of 600-800°C.

  12. Effect of dielectric fluid with surfactant and graphite powder on Electrical Discharge Machining of titanium alloy using Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murahari Kolli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Taguchi method was employed to optimize the surfactant and graphite powder concentration in dielectric fluid for the machining of Ti-6Al-4V using Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM. The process parameters such as discharge current, surfactant concentration and powder concentration were changed to explore their effects on Material Removal Rate (MRR, Surface Roughness (SR, Tool wear rate (TWR and Recast Layer Thickness (RLT. Detailed analysis of structural features of machined surface was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM to observe the influence of surfactant and graphite powder on the machining process. It was observed from the experimental results that the graphite powder and surfactant added dielectric fluid significantly improved the MRR, reduces the SR, TWR and RLT at various conditions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and F-test of experimental data values related to the important process parameters of EDM revealed that discharge current and surfactant concentration has more percentage of contribution on the MRR and TWR whereas the SR, and RLT were found to be affected greatly by the discharge current and graphite powder concentration.

  13. Effect of electrical discharge machining on uranium-0.75 titanium and tungsten-3.5 nickel-1.5 iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-06-01

    It was found that U--0.75 Ti alloy cracked if the EDM parameters were out of control, and precipitation of carbides adjacent to the EDM surface took place during subsequent solution quenching. Cracks form in the ''recast'' layer when solution-quenched U--0.75 Ti alloy undergoes EDM, and the cracks propagated during subsequent nickel plating. If the recast layer was removed prior to nickel plating, only a slight loss in strength resulted, compared to conventional machining. W--3.5 Ni--1.5 Fe alloy also sustained some surface damage during EDM and also experienced a small loss in strength compared to conventionally machined material. 12 figures, 4 tables

  14. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  15. Enhanced ductility of Mg–3Al–1Zn alloy reinforced with short length multi-walled carbon nanotubes using a powder metallurgy method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rashad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mg–3Al–1Zn–CNTs composites, with different weight fractions (0.25–1.0 wt% of carbon nanotubes (CNTs were successfully fabricated via a powder metallurgy method. The processing parameters were adopted in such a way to have uniform dispersion of short length CNTs without any damage, as well as refined and dissolved β phases structures throughout the composite matrix. The composite exhibited impressive increase in microhardness (about +23% and tensile failure strain value (about +98% without significant compromise in tensile strength, compared to the un-reinforced Mg–3Al–1Zn alloy. The synthesized composites can be used in automotive and aerospace industries due to their low density and high specific strength.

  16. Self-Consolidation and Surface Modification of Mechanical Alloyed Ti-25.0 at.% Al Powder Mixture by Using an Electro-Discharge Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang S.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharges using a capacitance of 450 μF at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kJ input energies were applied in a N2 atmosphere to obtain the mechanical alloyed Ti3Al powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti3Al was obtained as short as 160 μsec by the Electrical discharge. At the same time, the surface has been modified into the form of Ti and Al nitrides due to the diffusion process of nitrogen to the surface. The input energy was found to be the most important parameter to affect the formation of a solid core and surface chemistry of the compact.

  17. Structural and microstructural study of nanostructured Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 40}Ni{sub 10} powders produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, F., E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, Universite de Skikda, B.P.26 Skikda (Algeria); Otmani, A. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, Universite de Skikda, B.P.26 Skikda (Algeria); Djekoun, A. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et Spectroscopie des Solide, Universite de Annaba, B.P.12 Annaba (Algeria); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087 Universite du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France)

    2011-08-15

    A nanostructured Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 40}Ni{sub 10} mixture was prepared by mechanical alloying of elemental Fe, Al and Ni powders in a planetary ball mill. Structural and microstructural changes during the milling process were followed by X-ray diffraction technique. The patterns so obtained were analyzed using the Maud program. An ordered B2 FeAl phase is formed after 1 h of milling. The observed lattice expansion is related to the production of antisite defects; Fe{sub Al} and Al{sub Fe}. During the intermediate stages of milling, the mechanical alloying process gives rise to a mixture of two BCC {alpha}{sub i}-Fe(Al,Ni) (i = 1,2) structures with the same crystallite size but different lattice parameters, microstrains and proportions. The BCC {alpha}{sub 2}-Fe(Al,Ni) disappeared after 4 h, only the B2 FeAl and BCC {alpha}{sub 1}-Fe(Al,Ni) solid solution persist over prolonged milling times. - Research highlights: {yields} Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 40}Ni{sub 10} was prepared by MA from Fe, Al and Ni powders in a planetary ball mill. {yields} B2 FeAl is formed after 1 h of MA. Lattice expansion is related to Fe{sub Al} and Al{sub Fe} defects. {yields} MA gives rise to 2 BCC structures with the same L but different a, <{sigma}{sup 2}>{sup 1/2} and %.

  18. Evidence of magnetic dipolar interaction in micrometric powders of the Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} system: Melted alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Alcazar, G.A., E-mail: gpgeperez@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, Apdo. 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Zamora, L.E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, Apdo. 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Tabares, J.A.; Piamba, J.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Gonzalez, J.M. [Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, Apdo. 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Greneche, J.M. [LUNAM, Universite du Maine, Institut des Molecules et Materiaux du Mans, UMR CNRS 6283, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France); Martinez, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Romero, J.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Marco, J.F. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Powders of melted disordered Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} alloy were separated at different mean particle sizes as well as magnetically and structurally characterized. All the samples are BCC and show the same nanostructure. Particles larger than 250 {mu}m showed a lamellar shape compared to smaller particles, which exhibited a more regular form. All the samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature and showed reentrant spin-glass (RSG) and superparamagnetic (SP)-like behaviors between 30 and 60 K and 265 and > 280 K, respectively, as a function of frequency and particle size. The freezing temperature increases with increasing particle size while the blocking one decreases with particle size. The origin of these magnetic phenomena relies in the internal disordered character of samples and the competitive interaction of Fe and Mn atoms. The increase of their critical freezing temperature with increasing mean particle size is due to the increase of the magnetic dipolar interaction between the magnetic moment of each particle with the field produced by the other magnetic moments of their surrounding particles. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of particle size in microsized powders of Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} melted disordered alloy is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dipolar magnetic interaction between particles exists and this changes with the particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For all the particle sizes the reentrant spin- glass and the superparamagnetic-like phases exist. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RSG and SP critical temperatures increase with increasing the dipolar magnetic interaction (the mean particle size).

  19. The evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of sintered sub-micron WC-Co powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Izan Izura; Mohd Asri Selamat; Noraizham Mohamad Diah; Talib Ria Jaafar

    2007-01-01

    A cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) is widely used for a variety of machining, cutting, drilling and other applications. The properties of this tungsten heavy alloy are sensitive to processing and degraded by residual porosity. The sequence of high end powder metallurgy process include mixing, compacting and followed by multi-atmosphere sintering of green compact were analyzed. The sub micron (<1.0 μm) and less than 10.0 μm of WC powders are sintered with a metal binder 6% Co to provide pore-free part. The powder compacts were sintered at temperatures cycle in the range of 1200 degree Celsius-1550 degree Celsius in nitrogen-based sintering atmosphere. To date, however there have been few reported studies in the literature that the best sintering was carried out via liquid phase sintering in vacuum at approximately 1500 degree Celsius. from this study we found that in order to attain high mechanical properties, a fine grain size of powder is necessary. Therefore, the attention of this work is to develop and produce wear resistant component with better properties or comparable to the commercial ones. (author)

  20. Effect of process control agent (PCA) on the characteristics of mechanically alloyed Ti-Mg powders [Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of a study to determine the effect of process control agent (PCA) on the characteristics of Ti-Mg powders during milling. It has been shown that a 2% increase in PCA content leads to up to a 40% increase in yield...

  1. POWDER-GAS DISCHARGE, FORMED AT MELTING OF ALUMINIUM CASTING ALLOYS IN INDUCTION CRUCIBLE FURNACE IAT- 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Rumjantseva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The carried out analysis of powder-gas discharge shows that volumes and composition of the forming dust are determined by composition of recycled material, type of lubrication for machines under high pressure, quality of recycled material preparation and technology of refining processing.

  2. Powder Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer1,2 in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull3,4 in the United States of America. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the, first period, until the- mid-1940's. applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, cerarffics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated5. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish6 and by Langford and Loudr7. By 1980 there were probably 10000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation8-10. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments11.

  3. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  4. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  5. Incorporation of tungsten metal fibers in a metal and ceramic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brozek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten fibers have high tensile strength but a poor oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. Using this first characteristic and to prevent oxidation of tungsten coated composite materials in which the primary requirement: reinforcement against destruction or deformation, was studied on tungsten fibers and tungsten wires which were coated by applying the metal and ceramic powders via plasma spraying device in plasma generator WSP®. Deposition took place in an atmosphere of Ar + 7 % H2, sufficient to reduce the oxidized trace amounts of tungsten.

  6. Low temperature study of micrometric powder of melted Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Ligia E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Perez Alcazar, G.A., E-mail: gpgeperez@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Tabares, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Romero, J.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Martinez, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, J.M. [Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Palomares, F.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Marco, J.F. [Instituto de Quimica-Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, c/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    Melted Fe{sub 50}Mn{sub 10}Al{sub 40} alloy powder with particle size less than 40 {mu}m was characterized at room temperature by XRD, SEM and XPS; and at low temperatures by Moessbauer spectrometry, ac susceptibility, and magnetization analysis. The results show that the sample is BCC ferromagnetic but with a big contribution of paramagnetic sites, and presents super-paramagnetic and re-entrant spin-glass phases with critical temperatures of 265 and 35 K, respectively. The presence of the different phases detected is due to the disordered character of the sample and the competitive magnetic interactions. The obtained values of the saturation magnetization and the coercive field as a function of temperature present a behavior which indicates a ferromagnetic phase. However, the behavior of the FC curve and that of the coercive field as a function of temperature suggest that the dipolar magnetic interaction between particles contributes to the internal magnetic field in the same way as was reported for nanoparticulate powders.

  7. Selective Laser Sintering And Melting Of Pristine Titanium And Titanium Ti6Al4V Alloy Powders And Selection Of Chemical Environment For Etching Of Such Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigations described in this article is to present a selective laser sintering and melting technology to fabricate metallic scaffolds made of pristine titanium and titanium Ti6Al4V alloy powders. Titanium scaffolds with different properties and structure were manufactured with this technique using appropriate conditions, notably laser power and laser beam size. The purpose of such elements is to replace the missing pieces of bones, mainly cranial and facial bones in the implantation treatment process. All the samples for the investigations were designed in CAD/CAM (3D MARCARM ENGINEERING AutoFab (Software for Manufacturing Applications software suitably integrated with an SLS/SLM system. Cube-shaped test samples dimensioned 10×10×10 mm were designed for the investigations using a hexagon-shaped base cell. The so designed 3D models were transferred to the machine software and the actual rapid manufacturing process was commenced. The samples produced according to the laser sintering technology were subjected to chemical processing consisting of etching the scaffolds’ surface in different chemical mediums. Etching was carried out to remove the loosely bound powder from the surface of scaffolds, which might detach from their surface during implantation treatment and travel elsewhere in an organism. The scaffolds created were subjected to micro- and spectroscopic examinations

  8. The effect of annealing temperature on the properties of powder metallurgy processed Ti-35Nb-2Zr-0.5O alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málek, Jaroslav; Hnilica, František; Veselý, Jaroslav; Smola, Bohumil; Medlín, Rostislav

    2017-11-01

    Ti-35Nb-2Zr-0.5O (wt%) alloy was prepared via a powder metallurgy process (cold isostatic pressing of blended elemental powders and subsequent sintering) with the primary aim of using it as a material for bio-applications. Sintered specimens were swaged and subsequently the influence of annealing temperature on the mechanical and structural properties was studied. Specimens were annealed at 800, 850, 900, 950, and 1000°C for 0.5h and water quenched. Significant changes in microstructure (i.e. precipitate dissolution or grain coarsening) were observed in relation to increasing annealing temperature. In correlation with those changes, the mechanical properties were also studied. The ultimate tensile strength increased from 925MPa (specimen annealed at 800°C) to 990MPa (900°C). Also the elongation increased from ~ 13% (800°C) to more than 20% (900, 950, and 1000°C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Alloying Elements on the Formation of Core-Shell-Structured Reinforcing Particles during Heating of Al–Ti Powder Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tijun; Gao, Min; Tong, Yunqi

    2018-01-01

    To prepare core-shell-structured Ti@compound particle (Ti@compoundp) reinforced Al matrix composite via powder thixoforming, the effects of alloying elements, such as Si, Cu, Mg, and Zn, on the reaction between Ti powders and Al melt, and the microstructure of the resulting reinforcements were investigated during heating of powder compacts at 993 K (720 °C). Simultaneously, the situations of the reinforcing particles in the corresponding semisolid compacts were also studied. Both thermodynamic analysis and experiment results all indicate that Si participated in the reaction and promoted the formation of Al–Ti–Si ternary compounds, while Cu, Mg, and Zn did not take part in the reaction and facilitated Al3Ti phase to form to different degrees. The first-formed Al–Ti–Si ternary compound was τ1 phase, and then it gradually transformed into (Al,Si)3Ti phase. The proportion and existing time of τ1 phase all increased as the Si content increased. In contrast, Mg had the largest, Cu had the least, and Si and Zn had an equivalent middle effect on accelerating the reaction. The thicker the reaction shell was, the larger the stress generated in the shell was, and thus the looser the shell microstructure was. The stress generated in (Al,Si)3Ti phase was larger than that in τ1 phase, but smaller than that in Al3Ti phase. So, the shells in the Al–Ti–Si system were more compact than those in the other systems, and Si element was beneficial to obtain thick and compact compound shells. Most of the above results were consistent to those in the semisolid state ones except the product phase constituents in the Al–Ti–Mg system and the reaction rate in the Al–Ti–Zn system. More importantly, the desirable core-shell structured Ti@compoundp was only achieved in the semisolid Al–Ti–Si system. PMID:29342946

  10. Effects of Alloying Elements on the Formation of Core-Shell-Structured Reinforcing Particles during Heating of Al-Ti Powder Compacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tijun; Gao, Min; Tong, Yunqi

    2018-01-15

    To prepare core-shell-structured Ti@compound particle (Ti@compound p ) reinforced Al matrix composite via powder thixoforming, the effects of alloying elements, such as Si, Cu, Mg, and Zn, on the reaction between Ti powders and Al melt, and the microstructure of the resulting reinforcements were investigated during heating of powder compacts at 993 K (720 °C). Simultaneously, the situations of the reinforcing particles in the corresponding semisolid compacts were also studied. Both thermodynamic analysis and experiment results all indicate that Si participated in the reaction and promoted the formation of Al-Ti-Si ternary compounds, while Cu, Mg, and Zn did not take part in the reaction and facilitated Al₃Ti phase to form to different degrees. The first-formed Al-Ti-Si ternary compound was τ1 phase, and then it gradually transformed into (Al,Si)₃Ti phase. The proportion and existing time of τ1 phase all increased as the Si content increased. In contrast, Mg had the largest, Cu had the least, and Si and Zn had an equivalent middle effect on accelerating the reaction. The thicker the reaction shell was, the larger the stress generated in the shell was, and thus the looser the shell microstructure was. The stress generated in (Al,Si)₃Ti phase was larger than that in τ1 phase, but smaller than that in Al₃Ti phase. So, the shells in the Al-Ti-Si system were more compact than those in the other systems, and Si element was beneficial to obtain thick and compact compound shells. Most of the above results were consistent to those in the semisolid state ones except the product phase constituents in the Al-Ti-Mg system and the reaction rate in the Al-Ti-Zn system. More importantly, the desirable core-shell structured Ti@compound p was only achieved in the semisolid Al-Ti-Si system.

  11. The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on precipitation strengthened Cu40Zn brass using powder metallurgy and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shufeng; Imai, Hisashi; Atsumi, Haruhiko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi; Kojima, Akimichi; Kosaka, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Motoi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Alloying elements Ti and Sn are proposed as additives in 60/40 brass. ► Super-saturated Ti in powder creates high chemical potential for precipitation. ► Ti is readily segregated in primary particle boundaries in BS40–1.0Ti. ► Sn was proposed as an additive to inhibit segregation of Ti in BS40–1.0Ti. ► The introduction of Sn to BS40–1.0Ti brass effectively impedes Ti segregation. - Abstract: The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on the microstructural and mechanical properties of 60/40 brass were studied by powder metallurgy processing. The super-saturated solid solution of Ti creates a high precipitation reaction chemical potential in water-atomized BS40-1.0Ti brass powder. Consequently, BS40–1.0Ti brass was remarkably strengthened by the addition of Ti. However, Ti readily segregated in the primary particle boundaries at elevated temperatures, which detrimentally affected the mechanical properties of BS40–1.0Ti brass. Accordingly, Sn was proposed as an additive to BS40–0.6Sn1.0Ti to inhibit the segregation of Ti. Consequently, the Ti precipitate was retained in the form of CuSn 3 Ti 5 in the interior of grains and grain boundaries rather than in the primary particle boundaries. This result demonstrates that the addition of Sn can effectively hinder Ti segregation in the primary particle boundaries. Sn addition produced significant grain refinement and mechanical strengthening effects in BS40–0.6Sn1.0Ti brass. As a result, outstanding strengthening effects were observed for BS40–0.6Sn1.0Ti sintered at 600 °C, which exhibited a yield strength of 315 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 598 MPa, and a Vickers micro-hardness of 216 Hv. These values represent increases of 27.5%, 20.1% and 45.6%, over those of extruded BS40–1.0Ti brass.

  12. Development of a TiAl Alloy by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couret, Alain; Voisin, Thomas; Thomas, Marc; Monchoux, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a consolidated powder metallurgy process for which the powder sintering is achieved through an applied electric current. The present article aims to describe the method we employed to develop a TiAl-based alloy adjusted for this SPS process. Owing to its enhanced mechanical properties, this alloy was found to fully match the industrial specifications for the aeronautic and automotive industries, which require a high strength at high temperature and a reasonably good ductility at room temperature. A step-by-step method was followed for this alloy development. Starting from a basic study on the as-SPSed GE alloy (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb) in which the influence of the microstructure was studied, the microstructure-alloy composition relationships were then investigated to increase the mechanical properties. As a result of this study, we concluded that tungsten had to be the major alloying element to improve the resistance at high temperature and a careful addition of boron would serve the properties at room temperature. Thus, we developed the IRIS alloy (Ti-48Al-2W-0.08B). Its microstructure and mechanical properties are described here.

  13. Bulk nanocrystalline Al85Ni10La5 alloy fabricated by spark plasma sintering of atomized amorphous powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.T.; Hono, K.; Vierke, J.; Wollgarten, M.; Banhart, J.

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous Al 85 Ni 10 La 5 powders were consolidated to cylindrical samples by spark plasma sintering (SPS), and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. When the powders were consolidated below the crystallization temperature, an amorphous phase was retained in the consolidated sample. Sintering above the crystallization temperature caused full crystallization. The Vickers hardness of the amorphous-containing sample was about 350 HV in the as-sintered state and increased up to 450 HV by a subsequent heat treatment just below the crystallization temperature. The highest hardness was achieved in a nanocrystalline microstructure. Compression tests revealed the brittle nature of the consolidated samples although the fracture and yield strength was higher than 1 GPa. The brittleness is due to the low relative density of the amorphous-containing samples and the presence of a large amount of intermetallic compounds in the fully crystallized sample

  14. Fracture behaviour of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys obtained by powder metallurgy; Comportamiento a fractura de aleaciones pulvimetalurgicas de Cu-Al-Ni con efecto memoria de forma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P. P.; Perez-Saez, R. B.; Recarte, V.; San Juan, J.M.; Ruano, O. A.; No, M. L.

    2001-07-01

    Polycrystalline Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys have been scarcely employed for technological applications due to their high brittleness. The development of a new elaboration technique based on powder metallurgy has recently overcome this problem, through the improvement of the ductility of the produced alloys without affecting its shape memory properties. The fracture behaviour of an alloy obtained using the elaboration technique has been studied by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy and mechanical testing. The results show a ductile fracture with a maximum strain close to 13%, which is the best fracture behaviour obtained for Cu-Al-Ni polycrystals. The microstructure of such alloys ha been studied by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy, showing a poligonyzed structure in which martensite plated passing through the subboundaries easily. (Author) 19 refs.

  15. Tungsten and refractory metals 3, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.; Dowding, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Tungsten and Refractory Metals was held in Greater Washington DC at the McLean Hilton, McLean Virginia, on November 15--16, 1995. This meeting was the third in a series of conferences held in the Washington DC area. The first meeting was in 1992 and was entitled ''International Conference on Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys.'' In 1994, the scope of the meeting was expanded to include other refractory metals such as molybdenum, iridium, rhenium, tantalum and niobium. The tremendous success of that meeting was the primary motivation for this Conference. The broader scope (the inclusion of other refractory metals and alloys) of the Conference was kept intact for this meeting. In fact, it was felt that the developments in the technology of these materials required a common forum for the interchange of current research information. The papers presented in this meeting examined the rapid advancements in the technology of refractory metals, with special emphasis on the processing, structure, and properties. Among the properties there was emphasis on both quasi-static and dynamic rates. Another topic that received considerable interest was the area of refractory carbides and tungsten-copper composites. One day of concurrent session was necessary to accommodate all of the presentations

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Ni-Mo filler brazing alloy for Mo-W joining for microwave tube technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ferrer Sene

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A brazing process based on Ni-Mo alloy was developed to join porous tungsten cathode bottom and dense molybdenum cathode body for microwave tubes manufacture. The Ni-Mo alloy was obtained by mixing and milling powders in the eutectic composition, and applied on the surface of the components. The brazing was made at 1400 °C by using induction heating in hydrogen for 5 minutes. Alumina surfaces were coated with the binder and analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence. The brazed samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Stress-strain tests were performed to determine the mechanical behavior of the joining. The quality of the brazing was evaluated by assuring the presence of a "meniscus" formed by the Ni-Mo alloy on the border of the tungsten and molybdenum joint, the absence of microstructural defects in the interface between the tungsten and molybdenum alloys, and the adhesion of the brazed components.

  17. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  18. Low temperature processing of tungsten-fibre high-strength composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semrau, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A tungsten nickel/iron compound with a high tungsten content up to over 90 percent by volume of tungsten and an ideal distribution of the nickel-iron multilayer-matrix avoiding tungsten - tungsten interfaces, has been processed without the use of any sintering process and thus resulted in avoiding temperatures of above 700 o C during the entire manufacturing process. An electrochemical coating of coarse tungsten powder with alternating layers of nickel and iron and a forging process at temperatures not exceeding 650 o C resulted in a high strength compound, which easily could be altered into a tungsten fiber compound with a fiber-length to fiber-diameter ratio of more than 10 3 . From the viewpoint of the metallurgist, easier handling systems are obtained when both a liquid phase and high temperatures with their risks for grain structures and grain boundaries are lacking. (author)

  19. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  20. Evaluation of Electron-Emission Behavior for Detecting Carbon in Tungsten and Phenium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, James

    1963-01-01

    ... behavior of rehenium-carbon and tungsten-carbon alloys was determined. It is shown that the presence of a very small amount of carbon on the surface of rhenium produces an easily detectable increase in the emission current...

  1. Textbook tests with tungsten

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Warmbein

    2010-01-01

    CERN's linear collider detector group joins forces with CALICE in building the world's first tungsten hadronic calorimeter.   Hadronic calorimeter prototype made of tungsten for the linear collider detector being equipped with CALICE scintillators. In a hall for test beam experiments at CERN, next to the CLOUD climate experiment and an irradiation facility, sits a detector prototype that is in many ways a first. It's the first ever hadronic sandwich calorimeter (HCal) prototype made of tungsten. It's the first prototype for a detector for the Compact Linear Collider Study CLIC, developed by the linear collider detector R&D group (LCD group) at CERN. And it's the first piece of hardware that results directly from the cooperation between CLIC and ILC detector study groups. Now its makers are keen to see first particle showers in their detector. The tungsten calorimeter has just moved from a workshop at CERN, where it was assembled from finely polished tungsten squares and triangles, into the ...

  2. The Static and Fatigue Behavior of AlSiMg Alloy Plain, Notched, and Diamond Lattice Specimens Fabricated by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Soul

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of engineered lattice structures has recently gained momentum due to the development of novel additive manufacturing techniques. Interest in lattice structures resides not only in the possibility of obtaining efficient lightweight materials, but also in the functionality of pre-designed architectured structures for specific applications, such as biomimetic implants, chemical catalyzers, and heat transfer devices. The mechanical behaviour of lattice structures depends not only the composition of the base material, but also on the type and size of the unit cells, as well as on the material microstructure resulting from a specific fabrication procedure. The present work focuses on the static and fatigue behavior of diamond cell lattice structures fabricated from an AlSiMg alloy by laser powder bed fusion technology. In particular, the specimens were fabricated with three different orientations of lattice cells—[001], [011], [111]—and subjected to static tensile testing and force-controlled pull–pull fatigue testing up to 1 × 107 cycles. In parallel, the mechanical behavior of dense tensile plain and notched specimens was also studied and compared to that of their lattice counterparts. Results showed a significant effect of the cell orientation on the fatigue lives: specimens oriented at [001] were ~30% more fatigue-resistant than specimens oriented at [011] and [111].

  3. Microstructure and wear resistance of laser cladded composite coatings prepared from pre-alloyed WC-NiCrMo powder with different laser spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Guolong; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Qunli; Liu, Rong

    2018-05-01

    The distribution of WC particles in laser cladded composite coatings can significantly affect the wear resistance of the coatings under aggressive environments. In this study, pre-alloyed WC-NiCrMo powder is deposited on SS316L via laser cladding with circular spot and wide-band spot, respectively. The microstructure and WC distribution of the coatings are investigated with optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear behavior of the coatings is investigated under dry sliding-wear test. The experimental results show that the partially dissolved WC particles are uniformly distributed in both coatings produced with circular spot and wide-band spot, respectively, and the microstructures consist of WC and M23C6 carbides and γ-(Ni, Fe) solid solution matrix. However, due to Fe dilution, the two coatings have different microstructural characteristics, resulting in different hardness and wear resistance. The wide-band spot laser prepared coating shows better performance than the circular spot laser prepared coating.

  4. Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718 Powders onto AISI 4140 Alloy Steel Substrates: Interface Bond and Fracture Failure Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoyeol; Cong, Weilong; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Liu, Zhichao

    2017-03-25

    As a prospective candidate material for surface coating and repair applications, nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) was deposited on American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 4140 alloy steel substrate by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to investigate the compatibility between two dissimilar materials with a focus on interface bonding and fracture behavior of the hybrid specimens. The results show that the interface between the two dissimilar materials exhibits good metallurgical bonding. Through the tensile test, all the fractures occurred in the as-deposited IN718 section rather than the interface or the substrate, implying that the as-deposited interlayer bond strength is weaker than the interfacial bond strength. From the fractography using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS), three major factors affecting the tensile fracture failure of the as-deposited part are (i) metallurgical defects such as incompletely melted powder particles, lack-of-fusion porosity, and micropores; (ii) elemental segregation and Laves phase, and (iii) oxide formation. The fracture failure mechanism is a combination of all these factors which are detrimental to the mechanical properties and structural integrity by causing premature fracture failure of the as-deposited IN718.

  5. The Strengthening of Weight Heavy Alloys During Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaczorowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of W-Ni-Co-Fe experimental alloy, with chemical composition assuring a possibility of producing Ni-basedsupersaturated solid solution are presented. The alloy was prepared from tungsten, nickel, cobalt and iron powders which were first mixedthen melted in a ceramic crucible where they slowly solidified in hydrogen atmosphere. Next specimens were cut from the casting andheated at a temperature 950oC. After solution treatment the specimens were water quenched and then aged for 20 h at a temperature 300oC.The specimens were subjected to microhardness measurements and structure investigations. The latter included both conventionalmetallography and SEM observations. Moreover, for some specimens X-ray diffractometry studies and TEM investigations wereconducted. It was concluded that quenching lead to an increase of tungsten concentration in nickel matrix which was confirmed by Nilattice parameter increase. Aging of supersaturated solid solution caused strengthening of the Ni-based matrix, which was proved byhardness measurements. The TEM observation did not yield explicit proofs that the precipitation process could be responsible forstrengthening of the alloy.

  6. Solid-state flow, mechanical alloying, and melt-related phenomena for [001] single-crystal tungsten ballistic rod penetrators interacting with steel targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizana, Carlos

    This research program consists of a detailed microstructural investigation of in-target, single-crystal [001], clad (with Inconel 718) and unclad, W long-rod, ballistic penetrators. The rods were shot into rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel targets approximately 76 mm in thickness at impact velocities ranging from 1100 m/s to 1350 m/s. A comprehensive microstructural overview of the penetration process was obtained from this investigation. Solid-state flow/erosion, solid-state target/rod mixing as well as influencing factors such as strain rate, penetration performance, cladding interference and the interaction between target and projectile were emphasized. Some of the microstructural features observed, including deformation twins, cleaving, adiabatic shear bands and DRX support an overall solid-state penetration process. Furthermore they provide for a unifying perspective for the applicability of the hydrodynamic paradigm (DOP ≈ l∘rp/rt ) and earlier mechanistic erosion approaches. DRX and grain growth within adiabatic shear bands observed at specific high strain/strain-rate zones within the rods suggest that the projectile erodes by means of these microstructures in a solid-state form. This erosion process contributes to the performance of the rod by either allowing optimum flow of rod material which would increase penetration depth, or by maximizing rod material consumption which would reduce it. Since flow and/or erosion are also necessary in the target for perforation to occur, it is not surprising that the erosion process in the target was observed to mirror the one in the projectile. That is both target and projectile developed erosion zones with DRX facilitating the extreme deformation via dense overlapping shear band formation. Mechanical alloying and/or mixing of the target (steel) and rod (W, or W-Inconel 718) was also observed and investigated. Selective etching techniques as well as energy-dispersive x-ray mapping revealed unambiguous evidence of

  7. Superhard Rhenium/Tungsten Diboride Solid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Andrew T; Turner, Christopher L; Lei, Jialin; Mohammadi, Reza; Tolbert, Sarah H; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-11-02

    Rhenium diboride (ReB 2 ), containing corrugated layers of covalently bonded boron, is a superhard metallic compound with a microhardness reaching as high as 40.5 GPa (under an applied load of 0.49 N). Tungsten diboride (WB 2 ), which takes a structural hybrid between that of ReB 2 and AlB 2 , where half of the boron layers are planar (as in AlB 2 ) and half are corrugated (as in ReB 2 ), has been shown not to be superhard. Here, we demonstrate that the ReB 2 -type structure can be maintained for solid solutions of tungsten in ReB 2 with tungsten content up to a surprisingly large limit of nearly 50 atom %. The lattice parameters for the solid solutions linearly increase along both the a- and c-axes with increasing tungsten content, as evaluated by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. From micro- and nanoindentation hardness testing, all of the compositions within the range of 0-48 atom % W are superhard, and the bulk modulus of the 48 atom % solid solution is nearly identical to that of pure ReB 2 . These results further indicate that ReB 2 -structured compounds are superhard, as has been predicted from first-principles calculations, and may warrant further studies into additional solid solutions or ternary compounds taking this structure type.

  8. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-01-01

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  9. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Scott O' Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  10. Microstructural features and properties of the nano-crystalline SiC/BN(C) composite ceramic prepared from the mechanically alloyed SiBCN powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengfei; Jia Dechang; Yang Zhihua; Duan Xiaoming; Zhou Yu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► As-milled SiBCN powder consists of spherical agglomerates, 6.5 ± 5.4 μm in size. ► Hot pressed SiC/BN(C) ceramic consists of nano β-SiC, α-SiC and BN(C). ► Turbostratic BN(C) is composed of t-carbon, t-BN and B-doped t-carbon layers. ► BN(C) retards grain growth and is responsible for the fine grains. ► The temperature and pressure greatly affect the ceramic density and properties. - Abstract: Nano SiC/BN(C) ceramic was prepared from the mechanically-alloyed amorphous SiBCN powder, hot pressed at 1900 °C under 80 MPa in the nitrogen atmosphere for 30 min. The microstructures and the properties of the prepared ceramic were carefully studied by XRD, TEM (SAED, HRTEM and EFTEM), EELS and property testing. Results show that the ceramic consists of β-SiC, α-SiC and BN(C). SiC has an average grain size of about 78.2 ± 32.4 nm, most of which have numerous stacking faults. BN(C) has small size, no fixed shape and turbostratic structure with heterogeneously distributed t-carbon layers, t-BN layers and B-doped t-carbon layers. It has uniform distribution in the ceramic, retarding the atomic diffusion and being responsible for the fine grains. The ceramic has room-temperature density, flexural strength, Young’s modulus and fracture toughness of 2.6 g/cm 3 , 331.1 MPa, 139.4 GPa and 2.8 MPa m 1/2 , respectively. The detailed investigation of the hot-pressed SiC/BN(C) ceramic is helpful for the further study of this material and other ceramics, targeted for the high-temperature applications.

  11. Comparative evaluation of tungsten inert gas and laser beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the bead-on-plate welds were made on AA5083-H321 alloy plates using both tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and laser beam (LB) welding processes to study the enhancement of mechanical properties such as weld yield strength and hardness. The low heat input of laser beam welding effectively reduced the ...

  12. Comparative evaluation of tungsten inert gas and laser beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, the bead-on-plate welds were made on AA5083-H321 alloy plates using both tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and laser beam (LB) welding pro- cesses to study the enhancement of mechanical properties such as weld yield strength and hardness. The low heat input of laser beam welding effectively ...

  13. Methods for production of aluminium powders and their application fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopienko, V.G.; Kiselev, V.P.; Zobnina, N.S. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij i Proektnyj Inst. Alyuminievoj, magnievoj i ehlektrodnoj promyshlennosti (USSR))

    1984-12-01

    Different types of powder products made of alluminium and its alloys (powder, fine powders, granules and pastes) as well as their basic physicochemical properties are briefly characterized. The principle methods for alluminium powder production are outlined: physicochemical methods, the melt spraying by compressed gas being the mostly developed among them, and physico-mechanical ones. Main application spheres for powder productions of aluminium and its alloys are reported in short.

  14. Synthesis, Consolidation and Characterization of Sol-gel Derived Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, O [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel (SG) derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO3) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g·cm-3 or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy.

  15. Computer simulations for thorium doped tungsten crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, Bernd

    2009-07-17

    Tungsten has the highest melting point among all metals in the periodic table of elements. Furthermore, its equilibrium vapor pressure is by far the lowest at the temperature given. Thoria, ThO{sub 2}, as a particle dopant, results in a high temperature creep resistant material. Moreover, thorium covered tungsten surfaces show a drastically reduced electronic work function. This results in a tremendous reduction of tip temperatures of cathodes in discharge lamps, and, therefore, in dramatically reduced tungsten vapor pressures. Thorium sublimates at temperatures below those of a typical operating cathode. For proper operation, a diffusional flow of thorium atoms towards the surface has to be maintained. This atomic flux responds very sensitively on the local microstructure, as grain boundaries as well as dislocation cores offer ''short circuit paths'' for thorium atoms. In this work, we address some open issues of thoriated tungsten. A molecular dynamics scheme (MD) is used to derive static as well as dynamic material properties which have their common origin in the atomistic behavior of tungsten and thorium atoms. The interatomic interactions between thorium and tungsten atoms are described within the embedded atom model (EAM). So far, in literature no W-Th interaction potentials on this basis are described. As there is no alloying system known between thorium and tungsten, we have determined material data for the fitting of these potentials using ab-initio methods. This is accomplished using the full potential augmented plane wave method (FLAPW), to get hypothetical, i.e. not occurring in nature, ''alloy'' data of W-Th. In order to circumvent the limitations of classical (NVE) MD schemes, we eventually couple our model systems to external heat baths or volume reservoirs (NVT, NPT). For the NPT ensemble, we implemented a generalization of the variable cell method in combination with the Langevin piston, which results in a

  16. Computer simulations for thorium doped tungsten crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten has the highest melting point among all metals in the periodic table of elements. Furthermore, its equilibrium vapor pressure is by far the lowest at the temperature given. Thoria, ThO 2 , as a particle dopant, results in a high temperature creep resistant material. Moreover, thorium covered tungsten surfaces show a drastically reduced electronic work function. This results in a tremendous reduction of tip temperatures of cathodes in discharge lamps, and, therefore, in dramatically reduced tungsten vapor pressures. Thorium sublimates at temperatures below those of a typical operating cathode. For proper operation, a diffusional flow of thorium atoms towards the surface has to be maintained. This atomic flux responds very sensitively on the local microstructure, as grain boundaries as well as dislocation cores offer ''short circuit paths'' for thorium atoms. In this work, we address some open issues of thoriated tungsten. A molecular dynamics scheme (MD) is used to derive static as well as dynamic material properties which have their common origin in the atomistic behavior of tungsten and thorium atoms. The interatomic interactions between thorium and tungsten atoms are described within the embedded atom model (EAM). So far, in literature no W-Th interaction potentials on this basis are described. As there is no alloying system known between thorium and tungsten, we have determined material data for the fitting of these potentials using ab-initio methods. This is accomplished using the full potential augmented plane wave method (FLAPW), to get hypothetical, i.e. not occurring in nature, ''alloy'' data of W-Th. In order to circumvent the limitations of classical (NVE) MD schemes, we eventually couple our model systems to external heat baths or volume reservoirs (NVT, NPT). For the NPT ensemble, we implemented a generalization of the variable cell method in combination with the Langevin piston, which results in a set of Langevin equations, i.e. stochastic

  17. Directed light fabrication of refractory metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.; Dickerson, P.G.; Nemec, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report covers deposition of refractory pure metals and alloys using the Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process and represents progress in depositing these materials through September 1998. In extending the DLF process technology to refractory metals for producing fully dense, structurally sound deposits, several problems have become evident. (1) Control of porosity in DLF-deposited refractory metal is difficult because of gases, apparently present in commercially purchased refractory metal powder starting materials. (2) The radiant heat from the molten pool during deposition melts the DLF powder feed nozzle. (3) The high reflectivity of molten refractory metals, at the Nd-YAG laser wavelength (1.06microm), produces damaging back reflections to the optical train and fiber optic delivery system that can terminate DLF processing. (4) The current limits on the maximum available laser power to prevent back reflection damage limit the parameter range available for densification of refractory metals. The work to date concentrated on niobium, W-25Re, and spherodized tungsten. Niobium samples, made from hydride-dehydride powder, had minimal gas porosity and the deposition parameters were optimized; however, test plates were not made at this time. W-25Re samples, containing sodium and potassium from a precipitation process, were made and porosity was a problem for all samples although minimized with some process parameters. Deposits made from potassium reduced tungsten that was plasma spherodized were made with minimized porosity. Results of this work indicate that further gas analysis of starting powders and de-gassing of starting powders and/or gas removal during deposition of refractory metals is required

  18. Particle size effect on microwave absorbing of La0.67Ba0.33Mn0.94Ti0.06O3 powders prepared by mechanical alloying with the assistance of ultrasonic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saptari, Sitti Ahmiatri; Manaf, Azwar; Kurniawan, Budhy

    2016-01-01

    Doped manganites have attracted substantial interest due to their unique chemical and physics properties, which makes it possible to be used for microwave absorbing materials. In this paper we report synthesizes and characterization of La 0.67 Ba 0.33 Mn 0.94 Ti 0.06 O 3 powders prepared by mechanical alloying with the assistance of a high power ultrasonic treatment. After solid state reaction, the presence of single phase was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Refinement results showed that samples are single phase with monoclinic structure. It was found that powder materials derived from mechanical alloying results in large variation in the particle size. A significant improvement was obtained upon subjecting the mechanically milled powder materials to an ultrasonication treatment for a relatively short period of time. As determined by particle size analyzer (PSA), the mean particle size gradually decreased from the original size of 5.02 µm to 0.36 µm. Magnetic properties were characterized by VSM, and hysteresis loops results showed that samples are soft magnetic. It was found that when the mean particle size decreases, saturation was increases and coersitivity was decreases. Microwave absorption properties were investigated in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz using vector network analyzer. An optimal reflection loss of 24.44 dB is reached at 11.4 GHz.

  19. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  20. Solidification and Microstructural Characterization on Atomized Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şadi KARAGÖZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Powders produced by atomization techniques are commonly used in many industrial applications due to their many advantages such as homogeneous microstructure, low contamination and production of desired size range. In this study, the solidification of some ferrous and non-ferrous based alloy powders were considered and microstrucural characterization of all powder was carried out.

  1. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  2. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  3. Characterization and amorphous phase formation of mechanically alloyed Co{sub 60}Fe{sub 5}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 25}B{sub 5} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avar, Baris, E-mail: barisavar@beun.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Bulent Ecevit University, Incivez, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Ozcan, Sadan [SNTG Lab., Department of Physics Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-25

    In this work, the multicomponent Co{sub 60}Fe{sub 5}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 25}B{sub 5} (at.%) alloy powders were synthesized from commercially available pure elemental powders by using a mechanical alloying (MA) process under argon gas atmosphere. The changes in structural, morphological, thermal and magnetic properties of the processed powders during MA were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the amorphization occurred after 3.5 h of milling, and the amorphous phase was stable up to 580 °C, where crystallization occurred. The SEM observations indicated that different morphologies were obtained during the MA stages. In addition, the EDX mapping confirmed the uniform distribution of elemental content. Magnetic results indicated that all the samples exhibited soft-ferromagnetic behavior. The evolution of the saturation magnetization (Ms), the coercivity (Hc) and the squareness ratio (Ms/Mr) during milling process were discussed with respect to microstructural changes. The influence of the annealing on magnetic hysteresis was also studied. The Ms, Hc and Ms/Mr values of about 53.4 emu/g, 7.6 Oe and 0.01, respectively was obtained after 7 h of milling. - Highlights: • MA method was used to obtain amorphous phase in the multicomponent Co{sub 60}Fe{sub 5}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 25}B{sub 5} alloy. • Complete amorphization was feasible after 3.5 h of milling. • The amorphous phase was thermally stable up to 580 °C. • Different morphologies were obtained during the MA stages. • The magnetic properties were related to the microstructural changes.

  4. Development and fabrication aspects regarding tungsten components for a He-cooled divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, W.; Holstein, N.; Konys, J.

    2005-01-01

    Under the EU framework of power plant conceptual study (PPCS), a modular He-cooled divertor concept is investigated, which is projected to remove high heat loads of up to 15 MW/m 2 . This design is based on a modular arrangement of cooling fingers consisting of a tile acting as sacrificial layer, a thimble through-flowed by high pressurized He and special micro-structured components for enhanced heat transfer. The success of this design is strongly correlated to the availability of special tungsten alloys and for the pin/slot option efficient micro-structuring of W or W-1% La 2 O 3 arrays. An evaluation of shaping technologies for array manufacturing under consideration of applicability, degree of development status, expected effectiveness and economy was performed and the most promising methods were tested. Based on the today's knowledge, electrical discharge machining (EDM) and laser etching (LE) allow the shaping of slot arrays; however, an impact on microstructure was detected. Technologies like powder injection moulding (PIM) or electro-chemically assisted machining processes (ECM) need further development and testing to be applied as reliable fabrication processes in structuring of W-alloys

  5. Characterization of a Cobalt-Tungsten Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Holt, Tobias; Caspersen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A ferritic steel interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell must be coated in order to prevent chromium evaporation from the steel substrate. The Technical University of Denmark and Topsoe Fuel Cell have developed an interconnect coating based on a cobalt-tungsten alloy. The purpose of the coating...... for 300 h at 800 °C. The coating was characterized with Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy (GDOES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The oxidation properties were evaluated by measuring weight change of coated samples of Crofer 22 H and Crofer 22 APU as a function...

  6. Point Defect Calculations in Tungsten

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilowicz, Ronald

    1968-01-01

    .... The vacancy migration energy for tungsten was calculated. The calculated value of 1.73 electron volts, together with experimental data, suggests that vacancies migrate in stage III recovery in tungsten...

  7. Effects of Process Conditions on the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminium Wrought Alloy EN AW-2219 (AlCu6Mn Additively Manufactured by Laser Beam Melting in Powder Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cornelius Hermann Karg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing is especially suitable for complex-shaped 3D parts with integrated and optimized functionality realized by filigree geometries. Such designs benefit from low safety factors in mechanical layout. This demands ductile materials that reduce stress peaks by predictable plastic deformation instead of failure. Al–Cu wrought alloys are established materials meeting this requirement. Additionally, they provide high specific strengths. As the designation “Wrought Alloys” implies, they are intended for manufacturing by hot or cold working. When cast or welded, they are prone to solidification cracks. Al–Si fillers can alleviate this, but impair ductility. Being closely related to welding, Laser Beam Melting in Powder Bed (LBM of Al–Cu wrought alloys like EN AW-2219 can be considered challenging. In LBM of aluminium alloys, only easily-weldable Al–Si casting alloys have succeeded commercially today. This article discusses the influences of boundary conditions during LBM of EN AW-2219 on sample porosity and tensile test results, supported by metallographic microsections and fractography. Load direction was varied relative to LBM build-up direction. T6 heat treatment was applied to half of the samples. Pronounced anisotropy was observed. Remarkably, elongation at break of T6 specimens loaded along the build-up direction exceeded the values from literature for conventionally manufactured EN AW-2219 by a factor of two.

  8. Features of simultaneous discharge of tungsten with nickel and cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.L.; Krivtsov, A.K.; Pavel'eva, L.A.; Zajtsev, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    Specific features of the kinetics of electrolytic codeposition of tungsten alloys with nickel and cobalt were investigated. Experiments were conducted with ammonia-citrate electrolytes having the following composition in g/1: (1)CoSO 4 x7H 2 O-60, Na 2 WO 4 x2H 2 O -70, citric acid-60, NH 4 OH to pH=6-7; (2) NiSO 4 x7H 2 O - from 1 to 20, Na 2 WO 4 x2H 2 O-50, citric acid-66, NH 4 OH, to pH=6-7. Dependences of tungsten content in the alloy on the concentration of citric acid and current densities are investigated. It is shown that intermediate tungsten oxides of lower oxidation degrees can be formed in the electrolyte. Experimental proofs are obtained of tungsten discharge into the alloy with cobalt and nickel from citrate solutions through the film of intermediate compounds, which forms in the near-cathode space

  9. Finite element modeling and numerical simulation of sintered tungsten components under hydrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamen, B.; Song, J.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J.-C.

    2013-05-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a suitable technology for manufacturing of complex shapes with tungsten powders and has a great potential in many applications. Sintering is one of the most important steps in Powder Injection Molding process. The sintering behaviour of tungsten injection moulded components, under pure hydrogen atmosphere at temperature up to 1700°C using fine 0.4μm and coarse powders 7.0 μm, is investigated by means of the beam bending and dilatometric tests in the Setaram{copyright, serif} analyser. To simulate the shrinkage and shape distortion of tungsten injection moulded components during the sintering process using finite element methods, viscoplastic constitutive law is implemented in ABAQUS software as user subroutine UMAT and incorporated with the identified parameters. Comparison between the numerical simulations results and experimental ones, in term of shrinkages and sintered densities, shows good agreement between the two.

  10. Tungsten versus depleted uranium for armour-piercing penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have been widely used in the production of armour-piercing (AP) penetrators for defense purposes for the past 40 years. In recent years, however, depleted uranium (DU) has also been utilised for this application. Both materials exhibit high density and strength, two properties necessary for kinetic-energy projectiles to penetrate armour on tanks and other vehicles. The facts, however, support the view that tungsten can and should be utilised as the primary material for most armour-defeating ordnance applications. (author)

  11. Tool life of ceramic wedges during precise turning of tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legutko Stanislaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties, application and machinability of tungsten and its alloys have been demonstrated. The comparison of the tool life and wear of the wedges made of SiAlON and whisker ceramics during the precise turning at different cutting parameters have been presented. The CNC lathe DMG CTX 310 Ecoline and tungsten of 99.7 % purity were used during the experiments. Only the wedge of whisker ceramics has proved to be sufficiently suitable and only for relatively low cutting speeds.

  12. Carcinogenicity of Embedded Tungsten Alloys in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    then as needed postoperatively. At various times postimplantation or when moribund, mice were euthanized by isoflurane overdose . Two-Year...food and drinking water. Uranium, as found in nature, is slightly radioactive and consists pre- dominantly of three isotopes, 234U, 235U, and 238U...production of kinetic- energy armor-penetrating muni- tions. The first widespread use of these munitions was in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. DU

  13. Environmental Effects of Tungsten and Tantalum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    soil textures which range from loamy sand to muck. (US Air Force, 1995) Lakeland soils are classified as thermic , Typic Quartzipsamments. Figure...replica of surface topography. The aquifer is recharged annually by precipitation in excess of evaporation , Vecchioli et al. (1990), on the basis of base... Evaporation (PE) Index (unitless) fcr = fraction of soil surface that is crusted (unitless) A = area. In Equation 5.4, the factor (8.76xlOŘA) is

  14. Electrocatalysis on tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of electrocatalysis, the importance of the equilibrium rest potential and its standardization on polished WC-electrodes, the influence of oxygen in the catalysts upon the oxidation of hydrogen, and the attained results of the hydrogen oxidation on tungsten carbide are treated. (HK) [de

  15. Gas tungsten arc welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  16. Characteristics of W-20Cu nano-crystallite composites fabricated by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengtao; Wu, Yucheng; Wang, Tugen; Ren, Rong

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, the microstructure and properties characteristics of W-20Cu nano-crystallite composites were investigated. Characterization techniques like XRD and SEM have been used to study the crystallite size of W-Cu powder obtained by mechanical alloying. As well as, the effect of milling time on the microstructure and properties of W-20Cu composites was discussed. The results show that with increasing milling time, the crystallite size of W-Cu composite powder decreased and kept steady at last, and the crystallite size of W(Cu) solid solution was 6.6 nm for milling 20 h. The microstructure of W-20Cu composites became homogeneous and tungsten crystallite size became fine. The relative density and bending strength of W-20Cu composites increased. The value of thermal conductivity peaked when milling time was 20 h.

  17. Production of nanocrystalline metal powders via combustion reaction synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, John G.; Weil, Kenneth Scott; Lavender, Curt A.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2017-10-31

    Nanocrystalline metal powders comprising tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium and/or niobium can be synthesized using a combustion reaction. Methods for synthesizing the nanocrystalline metal powders are characterized by forming a combustion synthesis solution by dissolving in water an oxidizer, a fuel, and a base-soluble, ammonium precursor of tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, or niobium in amounts that yield a stoichiometric burn when combusted. The combustion synthesis solution is then heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove water and to initiate a self-sustaining combustion reaction. The resulting powder can be subsequently reduced to metal form by heating in a reducing gas environment.

  18. The Synthesis of Nanostructured WC-Based Hardmetals Using Mechanical Alloying and Their Direct Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al-Aqeeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide- (WC- based hardmetals or cemented carbides represent an important class of materials used in a wide range of industrial applications which primarily include cutting/drilling tools and wear resistant components. The introduction and processing of nanostructured WC-based cemented carbides and their subsequent consolidation to produce dense components have been the subject of several investigations. One of the attractive means of producing this class of materials is by mechanical alloying technique. However, one of the challenging issues in obtaining the right end-product is the possible loss of the nanocrystallite sizes due to the undesirable grain growth during powder sintering step. Many research groups have engaged in multiple projects aiming at exploring the right path of consolidating the nanostructured WC-based powders without substantially loosing the attained nanostructure. The present paper highlights some key issues related to powder synthesis and sintering of WC-based nanostructured materials using mechanical alloying. The path of directly consolidating the powders using nonconventional consolidation techniques will be addressed and some light will be shed on the advantageous use of such techniques. Cobalt-bonded hardmetals will be principally covered in this work along with an additional exposure of the use of other binders in the WC-based hardmetals.

  19. Tungsten tetraboride, an inexpensive superhard material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Lech, Andrew T.; Xie, Miao; Weaver, Beth E.; Yeung, Michael T.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten tetraboride (WB4) is an interesting candidate as a less expensive member of the growing group of superhard transition metal borides. WB4 was successfully synthesized by arc melting from the elements. Characterization using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) indicates that the as-synthesized material is phase pure. The zero-pressure bulk modulus, as measured by high-pressure X-ray diffraction for WB4, is 339 GPa. Mechanical testing using microindentation gives a Vickers hardness of 43.3 ± 2.9 GPa under an applied load of 0.49 N. Various ratios of rhenium were added to WB4 in an attempt to increase hardness. With the addition of 1 at.% Re, the Vickers hardness increased to approximately 50 GPa at 0.49 N. Powders of tungsten tetraboride with and without 1 at.% Re addition are thermally stable up to approximately 400 °C in air as measured by thermal gravimetric analysis. PMID:21690363

  20. Study and development of solid fluxes for gas tungsten arc welding applied to titanium and its alloys and stainless steels; Etude et developpement des flux solides en vue d'application en soudage ATIG applique au titane et ses alliages ainsi qu'aux aciers inoxydables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, N

    2000-06-15

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding uses an electric arc between the refractory tungsten electrode and the plates to be welded under an argon shielding gas. As a result, the joint quality is excellent, no pollution nor defects are to be feared, consequently this process is used in nuclear, aeronautic, chemical and food industries. Despite of this good qualities, GTAW is limited because of, on the one side, a poor penetrating weld pool and, on the other side, a week productivity rate. Indeed, up to 3 mm thick plates, machining and filler metal is needed. Multiple runs increase the defect's risks, the manufactory time and increase the deformations and the heat affected zone. The goal of this study is to break through this limits without any device investment. Active GTA welding (or ATIG) is a new technique with GTA device and an activating flux to be spread on the upper plate before welding. The arc, by plasma electrochemical equilibrium modifications, and the pool with the inner connective flows inversion, allow 7 mm thick joints in one run without edges machining or filler metal for both stainless steel and titanium alloys. This manuscript describes the development of these fluxes, highlights the several phenomena and presents the possibilities of this new process. This work, in collaboration with B.S.L. industries, leads to two flux formulations (stainless steel and titanium alloys) now in a commercial phase with CASTOLIN S.A. Moreover, B.S.L.industries produces a pressure device (nitrate column) with the ATIG process using more than 2800 ATIG welds. (author)

  1. Influence of steam-based pre-treatment using acidic chemistries on the adhesion performance of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    treatment prior toapplication of the powder coating. A focussed ion beam technique was used to examine the cross section of the powder coating, interface adhesion, and fracture morphology after the boiling test and interface indentation method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the fracture......In this study, the adhesion of a commercially applied powder coating on a steam treated AA6060 surface withpure steam and steam with citric and phosphoric acid chemistries has been investigated. Contact angle,roughness, and nanoscale pull off forces were determined as a function of the steam...

  2. Impact toughness of laser alloyed aluminium AA1200 alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4kW Nd:YAG laser and impact resistance of the alloys was investigated. The alloying powders were a mixture of Ni, Ti and SiC in different proportions. Surfaces reinforced...

  3. Characterization of novel W alloys produced by HIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monge, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)], E-mail: mmonge@fis.uc3m.es; Auger, M.A.; Leguey, T.; Ortega, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Bolzoni, L.; Gordo, E. [Departamento de Ciencias de Materiales, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    W and W alloys containing 0.5 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, x wt% Ti and (x wt% Ti + 0.5 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been prepared, x = 2 or 4. Elemental powders were blended or ball milled, canned, degassed and finally consolidated by a two-stage HIP process under a pressure of 195 MPa. It is found that Ti addition favours the densification attaining a fully dense material. XRD, SEM and EDX analyses of the material with Ti addition reveal the formation of a microstructure consisting of tungsten particles embedded in a W-Ti matrix. The microhardness of these materials increased noticeably with the titanium content.

  4. Fabrication of Tungsten-UO 2 Hexagonal-Celled Fuel-Element Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, R.R.; Cover, P.W.; Gripshover, P.J.; Wilson, W.J.

    1964-12-04

    The gas-pressure-bonding process is being evaluated as a means of fabricating tungsten-UO 2 hexagonal-celled fuel geometries. A two-part study was initiated to optimize the fuel materials and to develp the required fixturing and loading techniques. Production of fueled tungsten-coated UO 2 particles in in progress so that geometries embodying coated particles or coated particles plus fine tungsten powder can be evaluated. Tests to data have shown the rquirement for a pretreatment in which a gaseous oxide phase is removed. Initial loading and fixturing procedures were proven satisfactory by the fabrication of a 19-cylindrical-hole hexagonal-type composite.

  5. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  6. Selective formation of tungsten nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bien Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a process for fabricating self-aligned tungsten (W nanowires with polycrystalline silicon core. Tungsten nanowires as thin as 10 nm were formed by utilizing polysilicon sidewall transfer technology followed by selective deposition of tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD using WF6 as the precursor. With selective CVD, the process is self-limiting whereby the tungsten formation is confined to the polysilicon regions; hence, the nanowires are formed without the need for lithography or for additional processing. The fabricated tungsten nanowires were observed to be perfectly aligned, showing 100% selectivity to polysilicon and can be made to be electrically isolated from one another. The electrical conductivity of the nanowires was characterized to determine the effect of its physical dimensions. The conductivity for the tungsten nanowires were found to be 40% higher when compared to doped polysilicon nanowires of similar dimensions.

  7. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz

  8. Genotoxic Changes to Rodent Cells Exposed in Vitro to Tungsten, Nickel, Cobalt and Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bardack

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten-based materials have been proposed as replacements for depleted uranium in armor-penetrating munitions and for lead in small-arms ammunition. A recent report demonstrated that a military-grade composition of tungsten, nickel, and cobalt induced a highly-aggressive, metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into the leg muscle of laboratory rats to simulate a shrapnel wound. The early genetic changes occurring in response to embedded metal fragments are not known. In this study, we utilized two cultured rodent myoblast cell lines, exposed to soluble tungsten alloys and the individual metals comprising the alloys, to study the genotoxic effects. By profiling cell transcriptomes using microarray, we found slight, yet distinct and unique, gene expression changes in rat myoblast cells after 24 h metal exposure, and several genes were identified that correlate with impending adverse consequences of ongoing exposure to weapons-grade tungsten alloy. These changes were not as apparent in the mouse myoblast cell line. This indicates a potential species difference in the cellular response to tungsten alloy, a hypothesis supported by current findings with in vivo model systems. Studies examining genotoxic-associated gene expression changes in cells from longer exposure times are warranted.

  9. Hypervelocity impact of tungsten cubes on spaced armour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandel, Pradeep S; Sood, Dharmanshu; Kumar, Rajeev; Sharma, Prince; Sewak, Bhupinder; Bhardwaj, Vikas; Athwal, Manoj; Mangla, Vikas; Biswas, Ipsita; Singh, Manjit

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental observations and simulation studies of damage potential of tungsten alloy cubes on relatively thin mild steel spaced armour target plates in the velocity regime 1300 – 4000 ms −1 using Two Stage Light Gas Gun technique. The cubes of size 9.5 mm and 12 mm having mass 15 g and 30 g respectively were made to impact normally on three target plates of size 300 mm × 300 mm of thickness 4, 4 and 10 mm at 100 mm distance apart. Flash radiography has been used to image the projectile-target interaction in the nitrogen environment at 300 mbar vacuum at room temperature. The results reveal clear perforation by 9.5 mm cube in all the three target plates up to impact velocity of about 2000 m/s. While 12 mm cube can perforate the spaced armour upto impact velocity of 4000 m/s. This shows that 9.5mm tungsten alloy cube is not effective beyond 2000 m/s while 12 mm tungsten alloy cube can defeat the spaced armour upto 4000 m/s. The simulation studies have been carried out using Autodyn 3D nonlinear code using Lagrange solver at velocities 1200 – 4000 m/s. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  10. Direct laser metal deposition of WC/Co/Cr powder by means of the functionally graded materials strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelastro, A.; Campanelli, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    One of the many applications of direct laser metal deposition (DLMD) is the realization of multilayer thick coatings having particular mechanical characteristics, such as high hardness. The objective of this work was to obtain a thick, very hard and wear resistant coating, containing a high percentage of tungsten carbide (WC), on an AISI 304 stainless steel substrate. In order to achieve this result, a tungsten carbide-cobalt-chrome (WC/Co/Cr) powder was processed by the DLMD method. WC/Co/Cr is a composite widely used as a wear-resistant material for cutting tools, molds, coatings and other severe applications. Because of its high hardness, poor ductility and low thermal expansion coefficient, depositing this material directly on the stainless steel substrate is very difficult. In order to overcome this problem, the strategy of functionally graded materials (FGM) was used. Colmonoy 227-F nickel alloy was chosen for this purpose in order to generate a mixture with the WC/Co/Cr powder. Four different materials were deposited, layer by layer, by mixing Colmonoy 227-F with an increasing amount of WC/Co/Cr powders, until obtaining a thick surface coating with a maximum amount of WC of 77.4 wt%. For each powder mixture, a mathematical model was applied to calculate optimal values of translation speed and overlap percentages. A metallographic examination was performed in order to detect macro- and micro-structures of the different materials. Finally, Vickers micro-hardness was measured at various locations along the transverse section to appreciate the gradual increase of the FGM hardness, starting from the substrate and culminating at the top surface of the last deposited material.

  11. Unique opportunities in powder injection molding of refractory and hard materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a relatively new manufacturing process for the creation of complicated net-shapes outside the range usually possible via powder metallurgy technologies. This new process is now in production at more than 550 sites around the world. Although a small industry, PIM will soon pass $1 billion dollars (USA) in annual sales. This presentation overviews the PIM process, some of the new developments and some of the successes that have occurred with both refractory metals and hard metals. Example applications are seen in medical and dental devices, industrial components, wristwatches, jet engines, firearms, automotive components, and even hand tools. To help establish the novel growth opportunities, PIM is compared to other fabrication routes to better understand the design features arising with this new approach, providing a compelling case for substantial opportunities in the refractory and hard materials. Illustrations are provided of several components in production. New opportunities abound for the technology, since it eliminates the shape complexity barrier associated with die compaction and the cost of machining associated with complicated or dimensionally precise components. Further, a relative cost advantage exists for refractory and hard materials because PIM can use the same powders at the same prices as employed in alternative processes. Future successes will occur by early identification of candidate materials and designs. Early examples include tungsten heavy alloy components now reaching production rates of six million per month. (author)

  12. On the effect of TiC particles on the tensile properties and on the intrinsic two way effect of NiTi shape memory alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, K.; Voggenreiter, H.; Eggeler, G.

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigates the tensile properties of a nickel titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) with and without TiC-particles. It discusses the effect of the addition of particles on the mechanical behavior in tension and studies the intrinsic two way effect (ε 2W ) after thermomechanical training. Special emphasis is placed on the stability of ε 2W after subsequent thermal cycling. The results are discussed on the basis of an analysis of the thermomechanical data and microstructural results. The present study shows that the PM route can produce NiTi SMAs with tensile properties which match those of materials produced by classical ingot metallurgy. Adding TiC particles to NiTi SMAs alters the phase transition temperatures (PTTs) and affects the SMA performance. Adding more than ten volume percent TiC particles results in early and brittle rupture during tensile loading. (orig.)

  13. Gasochromic property of dehydrogenation-catalyst loaded tungsten trioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki; Igarashi, Hidetoshi; Isozumi, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Shunya; Aritani, Hirofumi; Yoshikawa, Masahito

    2013-02-01

    The gasochromic property of dehydrogenation-catalyst loaded tungsten trioxide (M/WO3) powders was examined in exposure to gaseous cyclohexane under different kinds and contents of catalysts, catalyst temperatures, and cyclohexane concentrations. The change in the intensity of visible lights reflected from the M/WO3 powders was in situ obtained using a portable visible-light spectrometer associating with the analysis of dehydrogenation products when M/WO3 powders were exposed to cyclohexane gas. The catalyst of Pt was a catalyst initiating dehydrogenation and change of reflected light intensity at lower temperatures in comparison with the catalysts of Pd and Rh. Among 0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt% Pt/WO3 powders, 0.5 wt% Pt/WO3 powders demonstrated large change of reflected 640-nm lights, 5.4%, to visually detect their coloration at lower temperatures. The heating of 0.5 wt% Pt/WO3 powders at temperatures higher than 130 °C was required to visually detect cyclohexane at a concentration of 1 vol%, lower than the combustion lower limit (1.3 vol%). The quantitative analysis of hydrogen species such as hydrogen atoms and ions absorbed in 0.1-1 wt% Pt/WO3 powders demonstrated that Pt/WO3 powders would absorb the same amount of hydrogen species independent of loaded-Pt contents.

  14. Impact strength of sintered astaloy CrM powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazior, J.; Ploszczak, J.; Nykiel, M.; Pieczonka, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper results of a series of impact tests on sintered Astaloy CrM powders alloys modified by boron are presented and discussed. Boron in different forms, i.e. as elemental boron powder, boron carbide B 4 C powder or mixture of boron and carbon elemental powders, was used in different weight percentage to activate sintering of Astaloy CrM powder and to increase hardenability, with aim of increasing impact strength in view of structural applications. (author)

  15. The microstructures of ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, G.M.K.; Ranganathan, S.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomenon of ordering in substitutional alloys confers special properties on them by introducing various types of structures and structural defects. Some of the important structural defects (translational and rotational antiphase boundaries, dissociated antiphase boundaries and superdislocations) and their observation by various microscopical methods, with particular emphasis on the applications of the electron microscope are described with illustrations drawn from the studies on nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten alloys. (M.G.B.)

  16. Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

  17. Prospects for the Development of Innovative Technology of Supersonic Gas-Powder Surfacing Coatings from Alloys of the System Ni-Cr-B-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Mikhail V.; Kiselev, Vadim S.; Shevtsov, Yuri O.; Radchenko, Tatyana B.

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the research and development of technological recommendations of supersonic gas-powder surfacing, an example of the practical use of the developed technology is given. Market research indicates that demand for these products is stable due to the growing quality requirements of components and parts produced by the largest machine-building enterprises of Russia.

  18. Self diffusion in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundy, J.N.; Rothman, S.J.; Lam, N.Q.; Nowicki, L.J.; Hoff, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The lack of understanding of self-diffusion in Group VI metals together with the wide scatter in the measured values of tungsten self-diffusion has prompted the present measurements to be made over a wide temperature range (1/2Tsub(m) to Tsub(m)). The diffusion coefficients have been measured in the temperature range 1430-2630 0 C. The present measurements show non-linear Arrhenius behavior but a reliable two-exponential fit of the data should await further measurements. (Auth.)

  19. Gas tungsten arc welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable grinder, co-axial with the electrode, is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds. The specification also discloses means for loading of the cladding with fuel pellets and for placement of reflectors, gas capsules and end caps. Gravity feed conveyor and inerting means are also described. (author)

  20. Sinterable powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanghi, J.S.; Kasprzyk, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of sinterable powders and methods of producing sintered products using such powders. The powders consist of (a) a particulate ceramic material, e.g. SiC, having specified particle size and surface area; (b) a carbon source material, e.g. sugar or a phenol-formaldehyde resin; and (c) a residue from a solution of H 3 BO 3 , B 2 O 3 , or mixtures of these as sintering aid. (U.K.)