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Sample records for tunable monochromatic x-ray

  1. Analysis of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic X-ray sources in imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maximillian; Lim, Sara; Nahar, Sultana; Orban, Christopher; Pradhan, Anil

    2017-04-01

    We studied biomedical imaging and therapeutic applications of recently developed quasi-monochromatic and monochromatic X-ray sources. Using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4, we found that the quasi-monochromatic 65 keV Gaussian X-ray spectrum created by inverse Compton scattering with relatavistic electron beams were capable of producing better image contrast with less radiation compared to conventional 120 kV broadband CT scans. We also explored possible experimental detection of theoretically predicted K α resonance fluorescence in high-Z elements using the European Synchrotron Research Facility with a tungsten (Z = 74) target. In addition, we studied a newly developed quasi-monochromatic source generated by converting broadband X-rays to monochromatic K α and β X-rays with a zirconium target (Z = 40). We will further study how these K α and K β dominated spectra can be implemented in conjunction with nanoparticles for targeted therapy. Acknowledgement: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, OH.

  2. Mass attenuation coefficients in the range 3.8⩽E⩽11 keV, K fluorescence yield and Kβ/Kα relative X-ray emission rate for Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn measured with a tunable monochromatic X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Lépy, M.-C.

    2010-08-01

    This work presents new measurements of mass attenuation coefficients in the range 3.8⩽E⩽11 keV, K-absorption jump-ratios, Kα and Kβ fluorescence yields for Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. We use the experimental facility SOLEX, a tunable monochromatic X-ray source combined with an energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The results are compared with theoretical values as well as with other experimental data and show a relatively good agreement. However, the derived K-jump-ratios appear larger than those widely used in the XCOM database. The Kα and Kβ fluorescence yields and the corresponding relative emission rates Kβ/Kα are also derived, which was made possible by the use of energy-dispersive detectors with good spectral resolution.

  3. Three-dimensional monochromatic x-ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsuneo; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tokumori, Kenji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Nishimura, Ktsuyuki; Uyama, Chikao

    1995-08-01

    In this paper, we describe a 3D computed tomography (3D CT) using monochromatic x-rays generated by synchrotron radiation, which performs a direct reconstruction of 3D volume image of an object from its cone-beam projections. For the develpment of 3D CT, scanning orbit of x-ray source to obtain complete 3D information about an object and corresponding 3D image reconstruction algorithm are considered. Computer simulation studies demonstrate the validities of proposed scanning method and reconstruction algorithm. A prototype experimental system of 3D CT was constructed. Basic phantom examinations and specific material CT image by energy subtraction obtained in this experimental system are shown.

  4. Monochromatic X-ray probing of a superdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Romanova, V.M.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Dyakin, V.A.; Pikuz, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    Investigation results are presented of the superdense plasma of an exploding wire by means of a new scheme of X-ray monochromatic probing. The scheme permits not only to obtain the shadow images of bright plasma objects in separate spectral lines with a high spatial resolution but and to lower requirements to a radiation source. Experimental results confirm existence of a small-dense plasma coronae, appeared during the initial stage of a discharge through a wire, and a dense core, existing at the pinch axis in the discharge process. 13 refs.; 3 figs

  5. High resolution, monochromatic x-ray topography capability at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, K. D., E-mail: kdf1@cornell.edu; Pauling, A.; Brown, Z. [CHESS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jones, R. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Tarun, A.; Misra, D. S. [IIa Technologies (Singapore); Jupitz, S. [St. Mary’s College of Maryland, St. Mary’s City, MD (United States); Sagan, D. C. [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-07-27

    CHESS has a monochromatic x-ray topography capability serving continually expanding user interest. The setup consists of a beam expanding monochromator, 6-circle diffactometer, and CHESS designed CMOS camera with real time sample-alignment capability. This provides rocking curve mapping with angle resolution as small as 2 µradians, spatial resolution to 3 microns, and field of view up to 7mm. Thus far the capability has been applied for: improving CVD-diamond growth, evaluating perfection of ultra-thin diamond membranes, correlating performance of diamond-based electronics with crystal defect structure, and defect analysis of single crystal silicon carbide. This paper describes our topography system, explains its capabilities, and presents experimental results from several applications.

  6. High resolution, monochromatic x-ray topography capability at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, K. D.; Pauling, A.; Brown, Z.; Jones, R.; Tarun, A.; Misra, D. S.; Jupitz, S.; Sagan, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    CHESS has a monochromatic x-ray topography capability serving continually expanding user interest. The setup consists of a beam expanding monochromator, 6-circle diffactometer, and CHESS designed CMOS camera with real time sample-alignment capability. This provides rocking curve mapping with angle resolution as small as 2 µradians, spatial resolution to 3 microns, and field of view up to 7mm. Thus far the capability has been applied for: improving CVD-diamond growth, evaluating perfection of ultra-thin diamond membranes, correlating performance of diamond-based electronics with crystal defect structure, and defect analysis of single crystal silicon carbide. This paper describes our topography system, explains its capabilities, and presents experimental results from several applications.

  7. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Jeon, Insu

    2014-09-01

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  8. Tunable Soft X-Ray Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, Jonathan; Gandhi, Punut; Gu, X.-W.; Fawley, William M.; Reinsch, Matthia; Penn, Gregory; Kim, K.-J.; Lindberg, Ryan; Zholents, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a tunable soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) photon source is presented and studied numerically. The concept is based on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), wherein two modulator-chicane sections impose high harmonic structure with much greater efficacy as compared to conventional high harmonic FELs that use only one modulator-chicane section. The idea proposed here is to replace the external laser power sources in the EEHG modulators with FEL oscillators, and to combine the bunching of the beam with the production of radiation. Tunability is accomplished by adjusting the magnetic chicanes while the two oscillators remain at a fixed frequency. This scheme eliminates the need to develop coherent sources with the requisite power, pulse length, and stability requirements by exploiting the MHz bunch repetition rates of FEL continuous wave (CW) sources driven by superconducting (SC) linacs. We present time-dependent GINGER simulation results for an EEHG scheme with an oscillator modulator at 43 nm employing 50percent reflective dielectric mirrors and a second modulator employing an external, 215-nm drive laser. Peak output of order 300 MW is obtained at 2.7 nm, corresponding to the 80th harmonic of 215 nm. An alternative single-cavity echo-oscillator scheme based on a 13.4 nm oscillator is investigated with time-independent simulations that a 180-MW peak power at final wavelength of 1.12 nm. Three alternate configurations that use separate bunches to produce the radiation for EEHG microbunching are also presented. Our results show that oscillator-based soft x-ray FELs driven by CWSC linacs are extremely attractive because of their potential to produce tunable radiation at high average power together with excellent longitudinal coherence and narrow spectral bandwidth.

  9. Tunable Soft X-Ray Oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan; Gandhi, Punut; Gu, X-W; Fawley, William M; Reinsch, Matthia; Penn, Gregory; Kim, K-J; Lindberg, Ryan; Zholents, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    A concept for a tunable soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) photon source is presented and studied numerically. The concept is based on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), wherein two modulator-chicane sections impose high harmonic structure with much greater efficacy as compared to conventional high harmonic FELs that use only one modulator-chicane section. The idea proposed here is to replace the external laser power sources in the EEHG modulators with FEL oscillators, and to combine the bunching of the beam with the production of radiation. Tunability is accomplished by adjusting the magnetic chicanes while the two oscillators remain at a fixed frequency. This scheme eliminates the need to develop coherent sources with the requisite power, pulse length, and stability requirements by exploiting the MHz bunch repetition rates of FEL continuous wave (CW) sources driven by superconducting (SC) linacs. We present time-dependent GINGER simulation results for an EEHG scheme with an oscillator modulator at 43 nm employing 50percent reflective dielectric mirrors and a second modulator employing an external, 215-nm drive laser. Peak output of order 300 MW is obtained at 2.7 nm, corresponding to the 80th harmonic of 215 nm. An alternative single-cavity echo-oscillator scheme based on a 13.4 nm oscillator is investigated with time-independent simulations that a 180-MW peak power at final wavelength of 1.12 nm. Three alternate configurations that use separate bunches to produce the radiation for EEHG microbunching are also presented. Our results show that oscillator-based soft x-ray FELs driven by CWSC linacs are extremely attractive because of their potential to produce tunable radiation at high average power together with excellent longitudinal coherence and narrow spectral bandwidth.

  10. Monochromatic x-rays for low-dose digital mammography: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Kwon, Young Man; Choi, Byoung-Jung; Son, Hyun Hwa; Ryu, Cheol Woo; Chon, Kwon Su; Park, Seong Hoon; Juhng, Sun Kwan

    2012-12-01

    The feasibility of using monochromatic x-ray imaging generated from an x-ray tube and a multilayer reflector for digital mammography with a low radiation dose was examined. A multilayer mirror was designed to select the x-ray peak with an energy of 21.5 keV generated from an x-ray tube with a tungsten target and was fabricated by the ion-beam sputtering deposition system. Monochromatic x-ray images were obtained from an experimental digital mammography setup with a scanning stage. The performance of the system was evaluated using a breast phantom, a spectrometer, and a radiation dosimeter. We measured the contrast-to-noise ratio and performed the 10% modulation function test to determine image quality and resolution. The monochromatic beam from the multilayer reflector had a full-width-at-half-maximum of 0.9 keV at 21.5 keV, and the reflectivity was 0.70, which was 90% of the designed value. The polychromatic and monochromatic x-rays showed radiation doses of 0.497 and 0.0415 mGy, respectively. The monochromatic x-ray image shows fibers, calcifications, and masses more clearly than the polychromatic x-ray images do. The image contrast of the monochromatic x-rays was 1.85 times higher than that of the polychromatic x-rays. The experimental mammography setup had a spatial resolution of 7 lp/mm with both x-rays. Monochromatic x-rays generated using a multilayer mirror may be a useful diagnostic tool for breast examination by providing high contrast imaging with a low radiation dose.

  11. Energy-angle correlation correction algorithm for monochromatic computed tomography based on Thomson scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhijun; Du, Yingchao; Huang, Wenhui; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2017-12-01

    The necessity for compact and relatively low cost x-ray sources with monochromaticity, continuous tunability of x-ray energy, high spatial coherence, straightforward polarization control, and high brightness has led to the rapid development of Thomson scattering x-ray sources. To meet the requirement of in-situ monochromatic computed tomography (CT) for large-scale and/or high-attenuation materials based on this type of x-ray source, there is an increasing demand for effective algorithms to correct the energy-angle correlation. In this paper, we take advantage of the parametrization of the x-ray attenuation coefficient to resolve this problem. The linear attenuation coefficient of a material can be decomposed into a linear combination of the energy-dependent photoelectric and Compton cross-sections in the keV energy regime without K-edge discontinuities, and the line integrals of the decomposition coefficients of the above two parts can be determined by performing two spectrally different measurements. After that, the line integral of the linear attenuation coefficient of an imaging object at a certain interested energy can be derived through the above parametrization formula, and monochromatic CT can be reconstructed at this energy using traditional reconstruction methods, e.g., filtered back projection or algebraic reconstruction technique. Not only can monochromatic CT be realized, but also the distributions of the effective atomic number and electron density of the imaging object can be retrieved at the expense of dual-energy CT scan. Simulation results validate our proposal and will be shown in this paper. Our results will further expand the scope of application for Thomson scattering x-ray sources.

  12. Characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode are presented. Electrons from a laser-produced aluminium plasma were accelerated towards a conical point tip titanium anode to generate K-shell x-ray radiation.

  13. Construction of x-ray Kβ filters to monochromatize the radiation of a conventional x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.V.B.; Oliveira, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of Zr and Nb Kβ filters to produce monochromatic radiation of a conventional X-ray Mo-tube (λK a = 0.7107 A) is described. Disks of NB and Zr, 6.4 mm in diameter and 0.03 to 0.06 mm thick, were prepared. The filters performance was tested by means of NaCl powder difraction patterns. (author) [pt

  14. X-ray topography under conditions of monochromatic spherical wave diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristov, V.V.; Polovinkina, V.I.; Ibhikawa, Tetsuya; Kiduta, Seishi.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray topographic scheme was developed in which there is a large distance between the X-ray source and the specimen. A monochromatic X-ray beam with an angular divergence 6 x 10 - 5 rad obtained by double successive diffraction in the (n 1 , +n 2 ) setting was used. This scheme enables diffraction focusing of a weakly absorbed wave field onto the exit surface of the crystal to be performed. Topographs of a wedge-shaped silicon crystal were obtained. Interference effects such as focusing, anomalous and ordinary Pendelloesung effects peculiar to X-ray spherical wave diffraction were observed in the topographs with high resolution. (author)

  15. Computed tomography for light materials using a monochromatic X-ray beam produced by parametric X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y., E-mail: yahayak@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Hayakawa, K.; Inagaki, M. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Kaneda, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Nakao, K.; Nogami, K. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Sakae, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Sakai, T.; Sato, I. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba 305-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Computed tomography (CT) for light materials such as soft biological tissues was performed using a monochromatic X-ray beam provided by a parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) source at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) of Nihon University. Using a high-efficiency flat panel detector (FPD), each projection image for CT was taken with exposure times of 5 or 10 s, and 60–360 projection images in each run were obtained with total measurement time of 5 min to 1 h. CT images were obtained from the projection images using the conventional calculation method. The typical tomograms obtained had sharp outlines, which are likely attributable to the propagation-based phase contrast.

  16. Three-dimensional monochromatic x-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsuneo; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tokumori, Kenji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Uyama, Chikao

    1998-08-01

    We describe a technique of 3D computed tomography (3D CT) using monochromatic x rays generated by synchrotron radiation, which performs a direct reconstruction of a 3D volume image of an object from its cone-beam projections. For the development, we propose a practical scanning orbit of the x-ray source to obtain complete 3D information on an object, and its corresponding 3D image reconstruction algorithm. The validity and usefulness of the proposed scanning orbit and reconstruction algorithm were confirmed by computer simulation studies. Based on these investigations, we have developed a prototype 3D monochromatic x-ray CT using synchrotron radiation, which provides exact 3D reconstruction and material-selective imaging by using the K-edge energy subtraction technique.

  17. Application Research of Quasi-monochromatic X-ray Machine Replacing 241Am Radioactive Source in Thickness Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Hui1;XIAO Xue-fu2;HOU Yue-xin3;ZHAO Jing1;JIAN Li-min1

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the research of BS-03 thickness detector, a self-designed quasi-monochromatic (50-60 keV X-ray machine was studied as a substitution to Am-241 low energy photon source(1.11×109 Bq)The range of output current, the attenuation of X rays through the steel plate, the aluminum plate, and the organic glass plate and stability of quasi-monochromatic X-ray machine was tested. The result showed that quasi-monochromatic X-ray machine could be an applicable replacement of Am-241 radioactive source.

  18. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser [1,2]. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 Angstrom, R=200mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3 endash 4 μm. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6 endash 7 μm spatial resolution. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 A, R=200 mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3-4 μm. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6-7 μm spatial resolution

  20. High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an improved x-ray imaging system based on spherically curve crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 Angstrom, R=200 mm) has been used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the x-ray optical system is 1.7 μm in selected places and 2 - 3 μm over a larger area. Time-resolved backlit monochromatic images of polystyrene planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 2.5 μm in selected places and 5 μm over the focal spot of the Nike laser. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  1. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation monochromatized by multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, R.; Wobrauschek, P.; Ladisich, W.; Streli, C.; Aiginger, H.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.

    1995-01-01

    To achieve lowest detection limits in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) synchrotron radiation has been monochromatized by a multilayer structure to obtain a relative broad energy band compared to Bragg single crystals for an efficient excitation. The energy has been set to 14 keV, 17.5 keV, 31 keV and about 55 keV. Detection limits of 20 fg and 150 fg have been achieved for Sr and Cd, respectively. ((orig.))

  2. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomer, Chris, E-mail: chris.bloomer@diamond.ac.uk; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  3. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomer, Chris; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  4. A quasi-monochromatic X-rays source for art painting pigments investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertin, F.; Franconieri, A.; Gambaccini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Chiozzi, S. [University of Ferrara, Department of Physics and INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Moro, D. [University of Padova, Department of Physics, Padova (Italy); LNL - INFN, Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    Monochromatic X-ray sources can be used for several applications, like in medicine or in studying our cultural heritage. We are investigating imaging systems based on a tuneable energy band X-ray source, to obtain an element mapping of painting layers using the K-edge technique. The narrow energy band beams are obtained with conventional X-ray source via Bragg diffraction on a mosaic crystal; such an analysis has been performed at different diffraction angles, tuning the energy to investigate spectra of interest from the artistic point of view, like zinc and copper. In this paper the characteristics of the system in terms of fluence rate are reported, and first results of this technique on canvas samples and painting are presented. (orig.)

  5. Micron-CT using quasi-monochromatic x-rays produced in micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.

    2009-01-01

    In ion-atom collision, characteristic X-rays are intensively produced and can be considered as a monochromatic X-ray source. We apply this feature to X-ray CT. By using micro-beams, cross sectional images can be provided with a spatial resolution of about 1 μm. On the basis of this idea, we developed a micron-CT consisting of a micro-beam system and an X-ray CCD camera. A tube holding samples was rotated by a stepping motor and the transmission images of the sample were taken with characteristic K-X-rays of Ti (4.558 keV) produced by 3 MeV proton micro-beams. After image reconstruction, images of cross sections of small objects were obtained with a spatial resolution of 3 μm. Using an absorption edge, we can identify an element in a sample. It is expected that our micron-CT can provide cross sectional images of in-vivo cellular samples and can be applied to a wide range of researches in biology and medicine. (author)

  6. Multiple energy computed tomography with monochromatic x rays from the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Nachaliel, E.; Garrett, R.F.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.; Moulin, H.R.; Oversluizen, T.; Rarback, H.M.; Rivers, M.; Spanne, P.; Thompson, A.C.; Zeman, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used monochromatic x rays from the X17 superconducting wiggler beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, for dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (CT) of a 27 mm-diameter phantom containing solutions of different KOH concentrations in cylindrical holes of 5-mm diameter. The CT configuration was a fixed horizontal fan-shaped beam of 1.5 mm height and 30 mm width, and a subject rotating around a vertical axis. The transmitted x rays were detected by a linear-array Si(Li) detector with 120 elements of 0.25 mm width each. We used a two-crystal Bragg-Bragg fixed-exit monochromator with Si crystals. Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) CT data were taken at 20 and 38 keV. The reconstructed phantom images show the potential of the system for quantitative CT

  7. Imaging-therapy computed tomography with quasi-monochromatic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, Gregor; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Ruediger; Weinmann, Hanns-Joachim; Gerlach, Martin; Cibik, Levent; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Rabe, Johannis; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wedell, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Computed tomography (CT) is a widespread and highly precise technique working in the energy range around 50-100 keV. For radiotherapy, however, the MeV energy range enables a better dose distribution. This gap between diagnosis and therapy can be overcome by the use of a modified CT machine in combination with heavy elements targeted to the tumour and used as photoelectric radiation enhancer. Materials and methods: The experimental setup consists of an X-ray optical module mounted at the exit of the X-ray tube of a clinical CT. The module converts the standard fan-shaped beam into a high intensity, monochromatized and focused beam. The radiation was characterized using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation and gel dosimetry. The photoelectric radiation enhancement for different elements was calculated and experimentally verified. Results: The X-ray optical module filters selectively the energy of the tungsten Kα-emission line (59.3 keV) with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 5 keV and focused the radiation onto a focal spot which coincides with the isocentre of the gantry. This results in a steep dose gradient at the centre of rotation qualified for locoregional radiation therapy. The photon energy of the quasi-monochromatic radiation agrees with the energy range of maximal photoelectric dose enhancement for gadolinium and iodine. Conclusion: An additional X-ray optical module optimized for targeted therapy and photoelectric dose enhancement allows the combination of diagnosis and radiotherapy on a clinical CT

  8. Imaging-therapy computed tomography with quasi-monochromatic X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregor; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Ruediger; Weinmann, Hanns-Joachim; Gerlach, Martin; Cibik, Levent; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Rabe, Johannis; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wedell, Reiner; Luedemann, Lutz; Wust, Peter; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2008-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a widespread and highly precise technique working in the energy range around 50-100 keV. For radiotherapy, however, the MeV energy range enables a better dose distribution. This gap between diagnosis and therapy can be overcome by the use of a modified CT machine in combination with heavy elements targeted to the tumour and used as photoelectric radiation enhancer. The experimental setup consists of an X-ray optical module mounted at the exit of the X-ray tube of a clinical CT. The module converts the standard fan-shaped beam into a high intensity, monochromatized and focused beam. The radiation was characterized using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation and gel dosimetry. The photoelectric radiation enhancement for different elements was calculated and experimentally verified. The X-ray optical module filters selectively the energy of the tungsten K alpha-emission line (59.3 keV) with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 5 keV and focused the radiation onto a focal spot which coincides with the isocentre of the gantry. This results in a steep dose gradient at the centre of rotation qualified for locoregional radiation therapy. The photon energy of the quasi-monochromatic radiation agrees with the energy range of maximal photoelectric dose enhancement for gadolinium and iodine. An additional X-ray optical module optimized for targeted therapy and photoelectric dose enhancement allows the combination of diagnosis and radiotherapy on a clinical CT.

  9. Imaging-therapy computed tomography with quasi-monochromatic X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Contrast Media Research, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: gregor.jost@bayerhealthcare.com; Golfier, Sven [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Contrast Media Research, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: sven.golfier@bayerhealthcare.com; Lawaczeck, Ruediger [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Contrast Media Research, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: ruediger.lawaczeck@bayerhealthcare.com; Weinmann, Hanns-Joachim [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Contrast Media Research, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: hanns-joachim.weinmann@bayerhealthcare.com; Gerlach, Martin [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: martin.gerlach@ptb.de; Cibik, Levent [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: levent.cibik@ptb.de; Krumrey, Michael [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: michael.krumrey@ptb.de; Fratzscher, Daniel [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Fratzscher@ifg-adlershof.de; Rabe, Johannis [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Rabe@ifg-adlershof.de; Arkadiev, Vladimir [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Arkadiev@ifg-adlershof.de; Haschke, Michael [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Haschke@ifg-adlershof.de; Langhoff, Norbert [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Langhoff@ifg-adlershof.de; Wedell, Reiner [Institut fuer angewandte Photonik e.V., Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: wedell-iap@ifg-adlershof.de (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Introduction: Computed tomography (CT) is a widespread and highly precise technique working in the energy range around 50-100 keV. For radiotherapy, however, the MeV energy range enables a better dose distribution. This gap between diagnosis and therapy can be overcome by the use of a modified CT machine in combination with heavy elements targeted to the tumour and used as photoelectric radiation enhancer. Materials and methods: The experimental setup consists of an X-ray optical module mounted at the exit of the X-ray tube of a clinical CT. The module converts the standard fan-shaped beam into a high intensity, monochromatized and focused beam. The radiation was characterized using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation and gel dosimetry. The photoelectric radiation enhancement for different elements was calculated and experimentally verified. Results: The X-ray optical module filters selectively the energy of the tungsten K{alpha}-emission line (59.3 keV) with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 5 keV and focused the radiation onto a focal spot which coincides with the isocentre of the gantry. This results in a steep dose gradient at the centre of rotation qualified for locoregional radiation therapy. The photon energy of the quasi-monochromatic radiation agrees with the energy range of maximal photoelectric dose enhancement for gadolinium and iodine. Conclusion: An additional X-ray optical module optimized for targeted therapy and photoelectric dose enhancement allows the combination of diagnosis and radiotherapy on a clinical CT.

  10. A tunable x-ray microprobe using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Giauque, R.D.; Chapman, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-08-01

    We describe an x-ray microprobe using multilayer mirrors. Previously, we had demonstrated a Kirkpatrick-Baez type focusing system working at both 8 and 10 keV and successfully applied it to a variety of applications, including the determination of elemental contents in fluid inclusions. In this paper, we show that the usable excitation energy for this microprobe is not restricted to between 8 and 10 keV, and furthermore, it can be simply tuned in operation. A 10-keV x-ray fluorescence microprobe can be used to measure the concentration of the elements form potassium (Z = 19) to zinc (Z = 30) using K x-ray lines, and from cadmium (Z = 48) to erbium (Z = 68) using L x-ray lines. There are a number of geologically important elements in the gap between gallium (Z = 31) and silver(Z = 47) and also with Z > 68. In order to cover this range, a higher excitation energy is required. On the other hand, for samples that contain major elements with absorption edges lower than the excitation energy, it would be hard to detect other mirror elements because of the strong signal from the major elements and the background they produce. In this case, a tunable x-ray source can be used to avoid the excitation of the major elements. We demonstrate that, with the existing setup, it is possible to tune the excitation energy from 6 keV to 14 keV, in this range, the intensity does not decrease by more than one order of magnitude. As an illustration, a geological sample was examined by using two different excitation energy range as well as the possibility of improving the intensity. 11 refs., 5 figs

  11. Curved crystal x-ray optics for monochromatic imaging with a clinical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingölbali, Ayhan; MacDonald, C A

    2009-04-01

    Monochromatic x-ray imaging has been shown to increase contrast and reduce dose relative to conventional broadband imaging. However, clinical sources with very narrow energy bandwidth tend to have limited intensity and field of view. In this study, focused fan beam monochromatic radiation was obtained using doubly curved monochromator crystals. While these optics have been in use for microanalysis at synchrotron facilities for some time, this work is the first investigation of the potential application of curved crystal optics to clinical sources for medical imaging. The optics could be used with a variety of clinical sources for monochromatic slot scan imaging. The intensity was assessed and the resolution of the focused beam was measured using a knife-edge technique. A simulation model was developed and comparisons to the measured resolution were performed to verify the accuracy of the simulation to predict resolution for different conventional sources. A simple geometrical calculation was also developed. The measured, simulated, and calculated resolutions agreed well. Adequate resolution and intensity for mammography were predicted for appropriate source/optic combinations.

  12. Performance study of monochromatic synchrotron X-ray computed tomography using a linear array detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazama, Masahiro; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Akiba, Masahiro; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Akatsuka, Takao

    1997-09-01

    Monochromatic x-ray computed tomography (CT) using synchrotron radiation (SR) is being developed for detection of non-radioactive contrast materials at low concentration for application in clinical diagnosis. A new SR-CT system with improved contrast resolution, was constructed using a linear array detector which provides wide dynamic ranges and a double monochromator. The performance of this system was evaluated in a phantom and a rat model of brain ischemia. This system consists of a silicon (111) double crystal monochromator, an x-ray shutter, an ionization chamber, x-ray slits, a scanning table for the target organ, and an x-ray linear array detector. The research was carried out at the BLNE-5A bending magnet beam line of the Tristan Accumulation Ring in KEK, Japan. In this experiment, the reconstructed image of the spatial-resolution phantom clearly showed the 1 mm holes. At 1 mm slice thickness, the above K-edge image of the phantom showed contrast resolution at the concentration of 200 {mu}g/ml iodine-based contrast materials whereas the K-edge energy subtraction image showed contrast resolution at the concentration of 500 {mu}g/ml contrast materials. The cerebral arteries filled with iodine microspheres were clearly revealed, and the ischemic regions at the right temporal lobe and frontal lobe were depicted as non-vascular regions. The measured minimal detectable concentration of iodine on the above K-edge image is about 6 times higher than the expected value of 35.3 {mu}g/ml because of the high dark current of this detector. Thus, the use of a CCD detector which is cooled by liquid nitrogen to improve the dynamic range of the detector, is being under construction. (author)

  13. Conceptual Design of Dielectric Accelerating Structures for Intense Neutron and Monochromatic X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanovsky, Anatoly

    2004-12-01

    Bright compact photon sources, which utilize electron beam interaction with periodic structures, may benefit a broad range of medical, industrial and scientific applications. A class of dielectric-loaded periodic structures for hard and soft X-ray production has been proposed that would provide a high accelerating gradient when excited by an external RF and/or primary electron beam. Target-distributed accelerators (TDA), in which an additional electric field compensates for lost beam energy in internal targets, have been shown to provide the necessary means to drive a high flux subcritical reactor (HFSR) for nuclear waste transmutation. The TDA may also be suitable for positron and nuclear isomer production, X-ray lithography and monochromatic computer tomography. One of the early assumptions of the theory of dielectric wake-field acceleration was that, in electrodynamics, the vector potential was proportional to the scalar potential. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of TDA design aspects including the wave model of observed phenomena, a layered compound separated by a Van der Waals gap and a compact energy source based on fission electric cells (FEC) with a multistage collector. The FEC is a high-voltage power source that directly converts the kinetic energy of the fission fragments into electrical potential of about 2MV.

  14. Note: Diagnosing femtosecond laser-solid interactions with monochromatic Kα imager and x-ray pinhole camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X. X.; Li, Y. T.; Liu, F.; Du, F.; Wang, S. J.; Chen, L. M.; Zhang, L.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Ma, J. L.; Wei, Z. Y.; Liu, B. C.; Zhang, J.

    2011-01-01

    An x-ray pinhole camera and a monochromatic K α imager are used to measure the interactions of intense femtosecond laser pulses with Cu foil targets. The two diagnostics give different features in the spot size and the laser energy scaling, which are resulted from different physical processes. Under our experimental conditons, the K α emission is mainly excited by the fast electrons transporting inside the cold bulk target. In contrast, the x-ray pinhole signals are dominated by the broadband thermal x-ray emission from the hot plasma at the front target surface.

  15. Multiple energy computed tomography for neuroradiology with monochromatic x-rays from the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Garrett, R.F.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Berman, L.E.; Chapman, L.D.; Gmuer, N.F.; Lazarz, N.M.; Moulin, H.R.; Oversluizen, T.; Slatkin, D.N.; Stojanoff, V.; Volkow, N.D.; Zeman, H.D.; Luke, P.N.; Thompson, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Monochromatic and tunable 33--100 keV x-rays from the X17 superconducting wiggler of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) will be used for computed tomography (CT) of the human head and neck. The CT configuration will be one of a fixed horizontal fan-shaped beam and a seated rotating subject. The system, which is under development, will employ a two-crystal monochromator with an energy bandwidth of about 0.1%, and high-purity germanium linear array detector with 0.5 mm element width and 200 mm total width. Narrow energy bands not only eliminate beam hardening but are ideal for carrying out the following dial-energy methods: (a) dual-photon absorptiometry CT, that provides separate images of the low-Z and the intermediate-Z elements; and (b) K-edge subtraction CT of iodine and perhaps of heavier contrast elements. As a result, the system should provide ∼10-fold improvement in image contrast resolution and in quantitative precision over conventional CT. A prototype system for a 45 mm subject diameter will be ready in 1991, which will be used for studies with phantoms and small animals. The human imaging system will have a field of view of 200 mm. The in-plane spatial resolution in both systems will be 0.5 mm FWHM. 34 refs., 6 figs

  16. X-ray imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Fluorescent and phase-contrast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-05-01

    To obtain the high sensitive x-ray images of biomedical object, new x-ray imaging techniques using fluorescent x-ray and phase-contrast x-ray are being developed in Japan. Fluorescent x-ray CT can detect very small amounts of specific elements in the order of ppm at one pixel, whereas phase-contrast x-ray imaging with interferometer can detect minute differences of biological object. Here, our recent experimental results are presented. (author)

  17. Incoherent-scatter computed tomography with monochromatic synchrotron x ray: feasibility of multi-CT imaging system for simultaneous measurement-of fluorescent and incoherent scatter x rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, T.; Akiba, M.; Takeda, T.; Kazama, M.; Hoshino, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Akatsuka, T.; Itai, Y.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new system of incoherent scatter computed tomography (ISCT) using monochromatic synchrotron X rays, and we discuss its potential to be used in in vivo imaging for medical use. The system operates on the basis of computed tomography (CT) of the first generation. The reconstruction method for ISCT uses the least squares method with singular value decomposition. The research was carried out at the BLNE-5A bending magnet beam line of the Tristan Accumulation Ring in KEK, Japan. An acrylic cylindrical phantom of 20-mm diameter containing a cross-shaped channel was imaged. The channel was filled with a diluted iodine solution with a concentration of 200 /spl mu/gI/ml. Spectra obtained with the system's high purity germanium (HPGe) detector separated the incoherent X-ray line from the other notable peaks, i.e., the iK/sub /spl alpha// and K/sub /spl beta/1/ X-ray fluorescent lines and the coherent scattering peak. CT images were reconstructed from projections generated by integrating the counts In the energy window centering around the incoherent scattering peak and whose width was approximately 2 keV. The reconstruction routine employed an X-ray attenuation correction algorithm. The resulting image showed more homogeneity than one without the attenuation correction.

  18. Thickness determination of thin solid films by angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using monochromatized synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W.; Drotbohm, P.; Rothe, J.; Hormes, J.; Ottermann, C. R.; Bange, K.

    1995-05-01

    Thickness measurements by the method of angle-resolved, self-ratio X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (AR/SR/XFS) have been carried out on thin solid films using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at the Bonn storage ring ELSA. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized by means of a double-crystal monochromator and fluorescence radiation was detected by a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The results for sample systems consisting of Au on Si, Cr on SiO2 and TiO2 on alkali-free glass are very satisfactory and agree well with results obtained by other methods.

  19. Studies for the development of a micro-focus monochromatic x-ray source with making use of a highly charged heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshiyasu, Nobuo; Nakayama, Ryo; Watanabe, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for a micro-focus monochromatic X-ray source using a focused highly charged ion beam colliding with a solid surface. When highly charged ion approaches a surface, many electrons are captured into the ion and the so-called hollow atom is produced. The hollow atom will decay by emitting X-rays before and after hitting the surface. Such X-rays do not contain any contribution from bremsstrahlung, so that monochromatic X-rays can be obtained by using proper filters. For the first step of realizing the proposed scheme, an ion focusing system with a glass capillary has been developed. In order to study the monochromaticity of the emission, X-ray spectra from hollow atoms produced in the collisions between highly charged heavy ions and several surfaces have been observed. (author)

  20. Observation of Intravascular Changes of Superabsorbent Polymer Microsphere (SAP-MS) with Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Daigo; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sone, Teruki; Kobatake, Makito; Tamada, Tsutomu; Umetani, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the intravascular transformation behavior of superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) in vivo macroscopically by using monochromatic X-ray imaging and to quantitatively compare the expansion rate of SAP-MS among different kinds of mixtures. Fifteen rabbits were used for our study and transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed for their auricular arteries using monochromatic X-ray imaging. We used three kinds of SAP-MS (particle diameter 100-150 μm) mixture as embolic spherical particles: SAP-MS(H) absorbed with sodium meglumine ioxaglate (Hexabrix 320), SAP-MS(V) absorbed with isosmolar contrast medium (Visipaque 270), and SAP-MS(S) absorbed with 0.9% sodium saline. The initial volume of SAP-MS particles just after TAE and its final volume 10 minutes after TAE in the vessel were measured to calculate the expansion rate (ER) (n = 30). Intravascular behavior of SAP-MS particles was clearly observed in real time at monochromatic X-ray imaging. Averaged initial volumes of SAP-MS (H) (1.24 x 10 7 μm 3 ) were significantly smaller (p 7 μm 3 ) and SAP-MS (S) (5.85 x 10 7 μm 3 ). Averaged final volumes of SAP-MS (H) were significantly larger than averaged initial volumes (4.41 x 10 7 μm 3 vs. 1.24 x 10 7 μm 3 ; p < 0.0001, ER = 3.55). There were no significant difference between averaged final volumes and averaged initial volumes of SAP-MS (V) and SAP-MS (S). SAP-MS (H), which first travels distally, reaches to small arteries, and then expands to adapt to the vessel lumen, is an effective particle as an embolic agent, causing effective embolization.

  1. Performance of computed tomography for contrast agent concentration measurements with monochromatic x-ray beams: comparison of K-edge versus temporal subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleaume, H.; Charvet, A.M.; Corde, S.; Esteve, F.; Le Bas, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the performance of monochromatic computed tomography for the quantification of contrast agent concentrations. Two subtraction methods (K-edge subtraction and temporal subtraction) were evaluated and compared theoretically and experimentally in terms of detection limit, precision and accuracy. Measurements were performed using synchrotron x-rays with Lucite phantoms (10 cm and 17.5 cm in diameter) containing iodine or gadolinium solutions ranging from 50 μg ml -1 to 5 mg ml -1 . The experiments were carried out using monochromators developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) medical beamline. The phantoms were imaged either above and below the contrast agent K-edge, or before and after the addition of the contrast agent. Both methods gave comparable performance for phantoms less than 10 cm in diameter. For large phantoms, equivalent to a human head, the temporal subtraction is more suitable for detecting elements such as iodine, keeping a reasonable x-ray dose delivered to the phantom. A good agreement was obtained between analytical calculations, simulations and measurements. The beam harmonic content was taken into account in the simulations. It explains the performance degradation with high contrast agent concentrations. The temporal subtraction technique has the advantage of energy tunability and is well suited for imaging elements, such as iodine or gadolinium, in highly absorbing samples. For technical reasons, the K-edge method is preferable when the imaged organ is moving since the two measurements can be performed simultaneously, which is mandatory for obtaining a good subtraction. (author)

  2. Monochromatic computed tomography of the human brain using synchrotron x rays: Technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachaliel, E.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Garrett, R.F.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.; Gmuer, N.F.; Lazarz, N.M.; Moulin, H.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Rarback, H.; Stefan, P.M.; Spanne, P.; Luke, P.N.; Pehl, R.; Thompson, A.C.; Miller, M.

    1991-01-01

    A monochromatic computed tomography (CT) scanner is being developed at the X17 superconducting wiggler beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, to image the human head and neck. The system configuration is one of a horizontal fan beam and an upright seated rotating subject. The purpose of the project are to demonstrate improvement in the image contrast and in the image quantitative accuracy that can be obtained in monochromatic CT and to apply the system to specific clinical research programs in neuroradiology. This paper describes the first phantom studies carried out with a prototype system, using the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) method at energies of 20 and 39 Kev. The results show that improvements in image contrast and quantitative accuracy are possible with monochromatic DPA CT. Estimates of the clinical performance of the planned CT system are made on the basis of these initial results

  3. Damage to adenosine-triphosphate induced by monochromatic X rays around the K shell absorption edge of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ritsuko; Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Takakura, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Katsumi

    1992-01-01

    Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) is well known to have an important role in the energy metabolism in biological systems. The purpose of this study is to clarify the radiation effects on ATP specific to inner shell ionization. ATP, in concentrated aqueous solution, was irradiated with monochromatic X rays having energies of the resonance absorption peak of the phosphorus K shell, 2.153 keV, and slightly below and above the peak, 2.145 keV and 2.160 keV, selected from synchrotron radiation. Adenine, Adenosine 5'monophosphate (5'AMP) and Adenosine 5'diphosphate (5'ADP) were obtained as radioproducts by the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). G values of these products were calculated on the basis of the absorbed energy. When the ATP solution of 0.282 mol/l was irradiated with 2.160 keV X rays which can ionize the K shell of phosphorus, G values of Adenine, 5'AMP and 5'ADP were estimated to be 1.4, 0.40 and 0.46, respectively. These values were respectively 1.3, 2.9 and 3.8 times higher than those obtained upon irradiation with 2.146 keV X rays which cannot ionize the K shell of phosphorus. These energy dependent enhancements may reflect the difference in energy absorption processes, especially the Auger cascade in phosphorus may be suspected to play an important role in these enhancements

  4. Scheme for Generation highly monochromatic X-Rays from a baseline XFEL undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-03-01

    One goal of XFEL facilities is the production of narrow bandwidth X-ray radiation. The self-seeding scheme was proposed to obtain a bandwidth narrower than that achievable with conventional X-ray SASE FELs. A self-seeded FEL is composed of two undulators separated by a monochromator and an electron beam bypass that must compensate for the path delay of X-rays in the monochromator. This leads to a long bypass, with a length in the order of 40-60 m, which requires modifications of the baseline undulator configuration. As an attempt to get around this obstacle, together with a study of the self-seeding scheme for the European XFEL, here we propose a novel technique based on a pulse doubler concept. Using a crystal monochromator installed within a short magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator, it is possible to decrease the bandwidth of the radiation well beyond the XFEL design down to 10 -5 . The magnetic chicane can be installed without any perturbation of the XFEL focusing structure, and does not interfere with the baseline mode of operation. We present a feasibility study and we make exemplifications with the parameters of the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  5. Imaging of exploding wire plasmas by high-luminosity monochromatic X-ray backlighting using an X-pinch radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikuz, S A; Shelkovenko, T A; Romanova, V M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst.; Hammer, D A [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T A [VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation). Multicharged Ions Spectral Data Center

    1997-12-31

    A new diagnostic method for dense plasmas, monochromatic x-ray backlighting, is described. In this method, shadow images of a bright, dense plasma can be obtained with high spatial resolution using monochromatic radiation from a separate plasma, permitting a major reduction in the required backlighting source power. The object plasma is imaged utilizing spherically bent mica crystals as the x-ray optical elements. Images of test objects obtained using x-ray radiation having different photon energies are presented. Shadow images of exploding Al wire plasmas in the ls{sup 2}-1s3p line radiation of He-like Al XII are also shown. Spatial resolution as fine as 4 {mu}m is demonstrated. The scheme described is useful for backlighting extended high density plasmas, and could be a less costly alternative to using X-ray lasers for such purposes. (author). 7 figs., 10 refs.

  6. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Downer, M. C.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a 0 ∼ 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic “denting” of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75–200 KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (∼6 × 10 −12 ) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements

  7. Development and characterization of a tunable ultrafast X-ray source via inverse-Compton-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort, nearly monochromatic hard X-ray pulses enrich the understanding of the dynamics and function of matter, e.g., the motion of atomic structures associated with ultrafast phase transitions, structural dynamics and (bio)chemical reactions. Inverse Compton backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright X-ray pulses which can be used in a pump-probe experiment, but also for the investigation of the electron beam dynamics at the interaction point. The focus of this PhD work lies on the detailed understanding of the kinematics during the interaction of the relativistic electron bunch and the laser pulse in order to quantify the influence of various experiment parameters on the emitted X-ray radiation. The experiment was conducted at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources using the ELBE superconducting linear accelerator and the DRACO Ti:sapphire laser system. The combination of both these state-of-the-art apparatuses guaranteed the control and stability of the interacting beam parameters throughout the measurement. The emitted X-ray spectra were detected with a pixelated detector of 1024 by 256 elements (each 26μm by 26μm) to achieve an unprecedented spatial and energy resolution for a full characterization of the emitted spectrum to reveal parameter influences and correlations of both interacting beams. In this work the influence of the electron beam energy, electron beam emittance, the laser bandwidth and the energy-anglecorrelation on the spectra of the backscattered X-rays is quantified. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to ab-initio 3D simulations enabled, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard X-ray source PHOENIX (Photon electron collider for Narrow bandwidth Intense X-rays) and potential all optical gamma-ray sources. The results

  8. A zone plate soft x-ray microscope using monochromatized undulator radiation at the beamline NE1B of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Kagoshima, Y.; Miyahara, T.; Ando, M.; Aoki, S.; Anderson, E.; Attwood, D.; Kern, D.

    1995-01-01

    A soft x-ray microscope has been developed at the beamline NE1B of the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR). It makes use of undulator radiation as its source and a zone plate with the outermost zone width of 50 nm as its imaging element. It has two main features. First, the undulator radiation is monochromatized by a grazing incidence grating monochromator to match to the monochromaticity requirement of the zone plate. Second, a visible light prefocus unit consisting of two objectives has been designed and installed in the x-ray microscope. The x-ray optical system of the microscope can be adjusted easily, quickly, and precisely by using this unit. The microscope can resolve 55-nm lines and spaces in a zone plate test pattern

  9. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ˜6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ˜10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  10. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application

  11. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T; Mancini, R C; Mayes, D; Tommasini, R; Florido, R

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  12. Relative efficiency calibration between two silicon drift detectors performed with a monochromatized X-ray generator over the 0.1-1.5 keV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, S.; Boubault, F.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we present the first X-ray calibration performed over the 0.1-1.5 keV spectral range by means of a soft X-ray Manson source and the monochromator SYMPAX. This monochromator, based on a classical Rowland geometry, presents the novelty to be able to board simultaneously two detectors and move them under vacuum in front of the exit slit of the monochromatizing stage. This provides the great advantage to perform radiometric measurements of the monochromatic X-ray photon flux with one reference detector while calibrating another X-ray detector. To achieve this, at least one secondary standard must be operated with SYMPAX. This paper presents thereby an efficiency transfer experiment between a secondary standard silicon drift detector (SDD), previously calibrated on BESSY II synchrotron Facility, and another one ("unknown" SDD), devoted to be used permanently with SYMPAX. The associated calibration process is described as well as corresponding results. Comparison with calibrated measurements performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) Radiometric Laboratory shows a very good agreement between the secondary standard and the unknown SDD.

  13. The use of Co2+ for crystallization and structure determination, using a conventional monochromatic X-ray source, of flax rust avirulence protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunčar, Gregor; Wang, Ching-I A.; Forwood, Jade K.; Teh, Trazel; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kobe, Boštjan

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated that anomalous diffraction based on the signal from a cobalt ion measured on a conventional monochromatic X-ray source can be used to determine the structure of a protein with a novel fold (M. lini avirulence protein AvrL567-A). The approach could be applicable to many metal-binding proteins, particularly when synchrotron radiation is not readily available. Metal-binding sites are ubiquitous in proteins and can be readily utilized for phasing. It is shown that a protein crystal structure can be solved using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction based on the anomalous signal of a cobalt ion measured on a conventional monochromatic X-ray source. The unique absorption edge of cobalt (1.61 Å) is compatible with the Cu Kα wavelength (1.54 Å) commonly available in macromolecular crystallography laboratories. This approach was applied to the determination of the structure of Melampsora lini avirulence protein AvrL567-A, a protein with a novel fold from the fungal pathogen flax rust that induces plant disease resistance in flax plants. This approach using cobalt ions may be applicable to all cobalt-binding proteins and may be advantageous when synchrotron radiation is not readily available

  14. Fluorescence-type Monochromatic X-ray Beam-position Monitor with High-spatial Resolution for the NSLS-II Beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Phil S.; Siddons, D. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We developed a fluorescence-type monochromatic X-ray beam-position monitor (X-BPM) with high-spatial resolution for end-station experiments at the initial project beamlines of the NSLS-II. We designed a ring array of multi-segmented Si PIN-junction photodiodes to use as a position sensor. Further, we integrated a low-noise charge-preamplification HERMES4 ASIC chip into an electronic readout system for photon-counting application. A series of precision measurements to characterize electronically the Si-photodiode sensor and the ASIC chip demonstrated that the inherent noise from the detector system is sufficiently low to meet our stringent requirements. Using a Gaussian beam, we parametrically modeled the optimum working distance to ensure the detector's best performance. Based upon the results from the parametric modeling, prototypes of the next versions of the X-BPM are being developed. In this paper, we describe the methodology for developing the new compact monochromatic X-ray BPM, including its instrumentation, detector modeling, and future plan.

  15. Optimization of ion-optics system for x-ray quasi-monochromatic source on the basis of electrostatic accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Vershynskyi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion-optics system with two doublets of electrostatic quadrupole lenses for X-ray quasimonochromatic source was selected. Two variants of lens excitation for stigmatic focusing with two and four independent power supplies are considered. It is shown that using of four independent power supplies leads to improvement of focused ion beam parameters at converter.

  16. Rapid determination of trace phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, bromine and iodine by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with monochromatic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, Tatsushi; Morita, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Tadashi; Nakahara, Taketoshi

    1998-01-01

    A useful and rapid procedure is described for the determination of trace phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, bromine, and iodine by means of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF) with monochromatic excitations. Using monochromatic excitations, the detection limits for phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine (Cr-Kα, 5.41 keV), bromine (Mo-Kα, 17.44 keV), and iodine (W-continuum, 40 keV) were found to be 4.6, 1.7, 0.7, 0.09 and 0.5 μg g -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviations in five replicate measurements were 0.9-1.3%. The proposed method was applied to the direct determination of sulfur in the NIST Residual Fuel Oil, and others. The results obtained by the proposed method were in good agreement with the certified values. Bromine in a seawater sample, as well as iodine and bromine in a brine sample were determined by the proposed method. The obtained results were in good agreement with those obtained by ion chromatography. (author)

  17. Monochromatic x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical targets using high-energy, picoseconds LFEX laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hiroshi; Fujioka, S.; Lee, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Shigemori, K.; Nagatomo, H.; Nishimura, H.; Sunahara, A.; Theobald, W.; Perez, F.; Patel, P. K.; Beg, F. N.

    2015-11-01

    Formation of a high density fusion fuel is essential in both conventional and advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) schemes for the self-sustaining fusion process. In cone-guided Fast Ignition (FI), a metal cone is attached to a spherical target to maintain the path for the injection of an intense short-pulse ignition laser from blow-off plasma created when nanoseconds compression lasers drive the target. We have measured a temporal evolution of a compressed deuterated carbon (CD) sphere using 4.5 keV K-alpha radiography with the Kilo-Joule, picosecond LFEX laser at the Institute of Laser Engineering. A 200 μm CD sphere attached to the tip of a Au cone was directly driven by 9 Gekko XII beams with 300 J/beam in a 1.3 ns Gaussian pulse. The LFEX laser irradiated on a Ti foil to generate 4.51 Ti K-alpha x-ray. By varying the delay between the compression and backlighter lasers, the measured radiograph images show an increase of the areal density of the imploded target. The detail of the quantitative analyses to infer the areal density and comparisons to hydrodynamics simulations will be presented. This work was performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS13KUGK072). H.S. was supported by the UNR's International Activities Grant program.

  18. Pleiades: A Sub-picosecond Tunable X-ray Source at the LLNL Electron Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, Dennis; Springer, Paul; Le Sage, Greg; Crane, John; Ditmire, Todd; Cowan, Tom; Anderson, Scott G.; Rosenzweig, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The use of ultra fast laser pulses to generate very high brightness, ultra short (fs to ps) pulses of x-rays is a topic of great interest to the x-ray user community. In principle, femto-second-scale pump-probe experiments can be used to temporally resolve structural dynamics of materials on the time scale of atomic motion. The development of sub-ps x-ray pulses will make possible a wide range of materials and plasma physics studies with unprecedented time resolution. A current project at LLNL will provide such a novel x-ray source based on Thomson scattering of high power, short laser pulses with a high peak brightness, relativistic electron bunch. The system is based on a 5 mm-mrad normalized emittance photo-injector, a 100 MeV electron RF linac, and a 300 mJ, 35 fs solid-state laser system. The Thomson x-ray source produces ultra fast pulses with x-ray energies capable of probing into high-Z metals, and a high flux per pulse enabling single shot experiments. The system will also operate at a high repetition rate (∼ 10 Hz). (authors)

  19. Development of a Novel Tunable X-Ray Source for the RPI-LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danon, Y.; Block, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of a three year effort to develop a parametric x-ray (PXR) source. The emphasis of this research was to demonstrate production of high yield monoenergetic x-rays. Production of PXR is accomplished by placing a crystal in a relativistic electron beam. The process was first demonstrated in 1985 in Russia. Numerous papers were written about the characteristics of PXR from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The advantage of PXR over other monoenergetic x-ray sources is that it is produced at large angle relative to the electron beam and at high intensity. None of the previous work described in the literature capitalized on this effect to study what is required in order to generate an effective monoenergetic x-ray source that can be used for practical applications. The work summarized here describes the process done in order to optimize the PXR production process by selecting an appropriate crystal and the optimal conditions. The research focused on production of 18 keV x-rays which are suitable for mammography however the results are not limited to this application or energy range. We are the first group to demonstrate x-ray imaging using PXR. Such sources can improve current medical imaging modalities. More research is required in order to design a prototype of a compact source

  20. Development of a Novel Tunable X-Ray Source for the RPI-LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Danon; R.C. Block

    2004-11-30

    This document summarizes the results of a three year effort to develop a parametric x-ray (PXR) source. The emphasis of this research was to demonstrate production of high yield monoenergetic x-rays. Production of PXR is accomplished by placing a crystal in a relativistic electron beam. The process was first demonstrated in 1985 in Russia. Numerous papers were written about the characteristics of PXR from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The advantage of PXR over other monoenergetic x-ray sources is that it is produced at large angle relative to the electron beam and at high intensity. None of the previous work described in the literature capitalized on this effect to study what is required in order to generate an effective monoenergetic x-ray source that can be used for practical applications. The work summarized here describes the process done in order to optimize the PXR production process by selecting an appropriate crystal and the optimal conditions. The research focused on production of 18 keV x-rays which are suitable for mammography however the results are not limited to this application or energy range. We are the first group to demonstrate x-ray imaging using PXR. Such sources can improve current medical imaging modalities. More research is required in order to design a prototype of a compact source.

  1. Ultrabright multikilovolt coherent tunable x-ray source at λ ∼ 2.71-2.93 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Alex B; Song Xiangyang; Frigeni, Fabrizio; Koshman, Yevgeniya; Dai Yang; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K

    2003-01-01

    Detailed molecular structural information of the living state is of enormous significance to the medical and biological communities. Since hydrated biologically active structures are small delicate complex three-dimensional (3D) entities, it is essential to have molecular scale spatial resolution, high contrast, distortionless, direct 3D modalities of visualization of naturally functioning specimens in order to faithfully reveal their full molecular architectures. An x-ray holographic microscope equipped with an x-ray laser as the illuminator would be uniquely capable of providing these images. A quantitative interlocking concordance of physical evidence, that includes (a) the observation of strong enhancement of selected spectral components of several Xe q+ hollow-atom transition arrays (q = 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37) radiated axially from confined plasma channels, (b) the measurement of line narrowing that is spectrally correlated with the amplified transitions, (c) evidence for spectral hole-burning in the spontaneous emission, a manifestation of saturated amplification, that corresponds spectrally with the amplified lines, and (d) the detection of an intense narrow (δθ x ∼ 0.2 mrad) directed beam of radiation, (1) experimentally demonstrates in the λ ∼ 2.71-2.93 A range (h-bar ω x ∼ = 4230-4570 eV) the operation of a new concept capable of producing the ideal conditions for amplification of multikilovolt x-rays and (2) proves the feasibility of a compact x-ray illuminator that can cost-effectively achieve the mission of biological x-ray microholography. The measurements also (α) establish the property of tunability in the quantum energy over a substantial fraction of the spectral region exhibiting amplification (Δ h-bar ω x ∼ 345 eV) and (β) demonstrate the coherence of the x-ray output through the observation of a canonical spatial mode pattern. An analysis of the physical scaling revealed by these results indicates that the capability of the x-ray

  2. Classical and ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and other ICF-relevant plasma flows diagnosed with monochromatic x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y; Metzler, N; Karasik, M; Velikovich, A L; Zalesak, S T; Schmitt, A J; Serlin, V; Weaver, J; Obenschain, S P; Gardner, J H

    2008-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy density physics (HEDP), the most important manifestations of the hydrodynamic instabilities and other mixing processes involve lateral motion of the accelerated plasmas. In order to understand the experimental observations and to advance the numerical simulation codes to the point of predictive capability, it is critically important to accurately diagnose the motion of the dense plasma mass. The most advanced diagnostic technique recently developed for this purpose is the monochromatic x-ray imaging that combines large field of view with high contrast, high spatial resolution and large throughput, ensuring high temporal resolution at large magnification. Its application made it possible for the experimentalists to observe for the first time important hydrodynamic effects that trigger compressible turbulent mixing in laser targets, such as ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, feedout, interaction of an RM-unstable interface with shock and rarefaction waves. It also helped to substantially improve the accuracy of diagnosing many other important plasma flows, ranging from laser-produced jets to electromagnetically driven wires in a Z-pinch, and to test various methods suggested for mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We will review the results obtained with the aid of this technique in ICF-HEDP studies at the Naval Research Laboratory and the prospects of its future applications.

  3. Tunable coherent radiation at soft X-ray wavelengths: Generation and interferometric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosfjord, Kristine Marie

    2004-01-01

    The availability of high power, spectrally and spatially coherent soft x-rays (SXR) would facilitate a wide variety of experiments as this energy region covers the primary resonances of many magnetic and biological materials. Specifically, there are the carbon and oxygen K-edges that are critical for biological imaging in the water window and the L-edges of iron, nickel, and cobalt for which imaging and scattering studies can be performed. A new coherent soft X-ray branchline at the Advanced Light Source has begun operation (beamline 12.0.2). Using the third harmonic from an 8 cm period undulator, this branch delivers coherent soft x-rays with photon energies ranging from 200eV to 1keV. This branchline is composed of two sub-branches one at 14X demagnification and the other 8X demagnification. The former is optimized for use at 500eV and the latter at 800eV. Here the expected power from the third harmonic of this undulator and the beamline design and characterization is presented. The characterization includes measurements on available photon flux as well as a series of double pinhole experiments to determine the coherence factor with respect to transverse distance. The first high quality Airy patterns at SXR wavelengths are created with this new beamline. The operation of this new beamline allows for interferometry to be performed in the SXR region. Here an interferometric experiment designed to directly determine the index of refraction of a material under test is performed. Measurements are first made in the EUV region using an established beamline (beamline12.0.1) to measure silicon, ruthenium and tantalum silicon nitride. This work is then extended to the SXR region using beamline 12.0.2 to test chromium and vanadium

  4. Tunable coherent radiation at soft X-ray wavelengths: Generation and interferometric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosfjord, Kristine Marie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The availability of high power, spectrally and spatially coherent soft x-rays (SXR) would facilitate a wide variety of experiments as this energy region covers the primary resonances of many magnetic and biological materials. Specifically, there are the carbon and oxygen K-edges that are critical for biological imaging in the water window and the L-edges of iron, nickel, and cobalt for which imaging and scattering studies can be performed. A new coherent soft X-ray branchline at the Advanced Light Source has begun operation (beamline 12.0.2). Using the third harmonic from an 8 cm period undulator, this branch delivers coherent soft x-rays with photon energies ranging from 200eV to 1keV. This branchline is composed of two sub-branches one at 14X demagnification and the other 8X demagnification. The former is optimized for use at 500eV and the latter at 800eV. Here the expected power from the third harmonic of this undulator and the beamline design and characterization is presented. The characterization includes measurements on available photon flux as well as a series of double pinhole experiments to determine the coherence factor with respect to transverse distance. The first high quality Airy patterns at SXR wavelengths are created with this new beamline. The operation of this new beamline allows for interferometry to be performed in the SXR region. Here an interferometric experiment designed to directly determine the index of refraction of a material under test is performed. Measurements are first made in the EUV region using an established beamline (beamline12.0.1) to measure silicon, ruthenium and tantalum silicon nitride. This work is then extended to the SXR region using beamline 12.0.2 to test chromium and vanadium.

  5. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  6. Combined tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and monochromatic radiation thermometry in ammonium dinitramide-based thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Ou, Dongbin; Chen, Lianzhong; Li, Fei; Yu, Xilong

    2018-02-01

    Nonintrusive temperature measurements for a real ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based thruster by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and monochromatic radiation thermometry are proposed. The ADN-based thruster represents a promising future space propulsion employing green, nontoxic propellant. Temperature measurements in the chamber enable quantitative thermal analysis for the thruster, providing access to evaluate thermal properties of the thruster and optimize thruster design. A laser-based sensor measures temperature of combustion gas in the chamber, while a monochromatic thermometry system based on thermal radiation is utilized to monitor inner wall temperature in the chamber. Additional temperature measurements of the outer wall temperature are conducted on the injector, catalyst bed, and combustion chamber of the thruster by using thermocouple, respectively. An experimental ADN thruster is redesigned with optimizing catalyst bed length of 14 mm and steady-state firing tests are conducted under various feed pressures over the range from 5 to 12 bar at a typical ignition temperature of 200°C. A threshold of feed pressure higher than 8 bar is required for the thruster's normal operation and upstream movement of the heat release zone is revealed in the combustion chamber out of temperature evolution in the chamber.

  7. One-dimensional cuts through multidimensional potential-energy surfaces by tunable x rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Sebastian; da Cruz, Vinícius Vaz; Gel'mukhanov, Faris; Ertan, Emelie; Ignatova, Nina; Polyutov, Sergey; Couto, Rafael C.; Fondell, Mattis; Dantz, Marcus; Kennedy, Brian; Schmitt, Thorsten; Pietzsch, Annette; Odelius, Michael; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    The concept of the potential-energy surface (PES) and directional reaction coordinates is the backbone of our description of chemical reaction mechanisms. Although the eigenenergies of the nuclear Hamiltonian uniquely link a PES to its spectrum, this information is in general experimentally inaccessible in large polyatomic systems. This is due to (near) degenerate rovibrational levels across the parameter space of all degrees of freedom, which effectively forms a pseudospectrum given by the centers of gravity of groups of close-lying vibrational levels. We show here that resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) constitutes an ideal probe for revealing one-dimensional cuts through the ground-state PES of molecular systems, even far away from the equilibrium geometry, where the independent-mode picture is broken. We strictly link the center of gravity of close-lying vibrational peaks in RIXS to a pseudospectrum which is shown to coincide with the eigenvalues of an effective one-dimensional Hamiltonian along the propagation coordinate of the core-excited wave packet. This concept, combined with directional and site selectivity of the core-excited states, allows us to experimentally extract cuts through the ground-state PES along three complementary directions for the showcase H2O molecule.

  8. Preparation of a rhodium catalyst from rhodium trichloride on a flat, conducting alumina support studied with static secondary ion mass spectrometry and monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, H.J.; Oetelaar, van den L.C.A.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    A Rh catalyst was prepd. by electrostatic adsorption of RhCl3-derived species in aq. soln. on a model support, consisting of a 4-5 mm thick layer of Al oxide on an Al foil. The conversion of the Rh precursor species into metallic Rh was studied by monochromatic XPS and static SIMS. Freshly prepd.

  9. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-01

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin

  10. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troussel, Ph., E-mail: philippe.troussel@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Dennetiere, D. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’orme des Merisiers, 91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Maroni, R. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S. [Xenocs SA, 19, rue François Blumet, F-38360 Sassenage (France); Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-11

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  11. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-12-01

    The "Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives" (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  12. Monochromatic computed microtomography using laboratory and synchrotron sources and X-ray fluorescence analysis for comprehensive analysis of structural changes in bones1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzmakov, Alexey; Chukalina, Marina; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Gulimova, Victoriya; Saveliev, Sergey; Tereschenko, Elena; Seregin, Alexey; Senin, Roman; Zolotov, Denis; Prun, Victor; Shaefer, Gerald; Asadchikov, Victor

    2015-01-01

    A combination of X-ray tomography at different wavelengths and X-ray fluorescence analysis was applied in the study of two types of bone tissue changes: prolonged presence in microgravity conditions and age-related bone growth. The proximal tail vertebrae of geckos were selected for investigation because they do not bear the supporting load in locomotion, which allows them to be considered as an independent indicator of gravitational influence. For the vertebrae of geckos no significant differences were revealed in the elemental composition of the flight samples and the synchronous control samples. In addition, the gecko bone tissue samples from the jaw apparatus, spine and shoulder girdle were measured. The dynamics of structural changes in the bone tissue growth was studied using samples of a human fetal hand. The hands of human fetuses of 11–15 weeks were studied. Autonomous zones of calcium accumulation were found not only in individual fingers but in each of the investigated phalanges. The results obtained are discussed. PMID:26089762

  13. Monochromatic computed microtomography using laboratory and synchrotron sources and X-ray fluorescence analysis for comprehensive analysis of structural changes in bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzmakov, Alexey; Chukalina, Marina; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Gulimova, Victoriya; Saveliev, Sergey; Tereschenko, Elena; Seregin, Alexey; Senin, Roman; Zolotov, Denis; Prun, Victor; Shaefer, Gerald; Asadchikov, Victor

    2015-06-01

    A combination of X-ray tomography at different wavelengths and X-ray fluorescence analysis was applied in the study of two types of bone tissue changes: prolonged presence in microgravity conditions and age-related bone growth. The proximal tail vertebrae of geckos were selected for investigation because they do not bear the supporting load in locomotion, which allows them to be considered as an independent indicator of gravitational influence. For the vertebrae of geckos no significant differences were revealed in the elemental composition of the flight samples and the synchronous control samples. In addition, the gecko bone tissue samples from the jaw apparatus, spine and shoulder girdle were measured. The dynamics of structural changes in the bone tissue growth was studied using samples of a human fetal hand. The hands of human fetuses of 11-15 weeks were studied. Autonomous zones of calcium accumulation were found not only in individual fingers but in each of the investigated phalanges. The results obtained are discussed.

  14. Variation in yield ratios of fragment ions and of ion-pairs from CF2Cl2 following monochromatic soft X-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, I.H.; Saito, N.; Bozek, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fragment ions produced from CF 2 Cl 2 have been measured from 44 to 1200eV using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and monochromatized synchrotron radiation. Positively charged ion pairs from this molecule were observed in the inner-shell excitation regions using a Selected photoion-photoion coincidence technique. Obtained yield ratios of fragment ions indicate that the atomic chlorine ion, Cl + , has the greatest intensity at all photon energies above 60eV and exhibits a steep increase at the Cl L 2,3 -edges. Some fragment ions, in particular CF 2 + , have a clear intensity increase at the transitions of inner-shell electrons to unoccupied molecular orbitals. The ion pair F + - Cl + exhibits the highest yield at most photon energies, and some of the branching ratios for ion-pair production changed significantly near the Cl L 2,3 -edges. (author)

  15. Development of low-energy X-ray spectrometry at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepy, M.C.; Plagnard, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of the French Metrology Institute, the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel performs accurate characterization of semiconductor detectors that are in use in a number of applications. Their efficiency calibration, energy resolution and the detailed shape of their response function are parameters of interest for accurate processing of low-energy X-ray spectra to be applied to elements identification and fundamental research studies. The tools specifically developed for low-energy detectors calibration and characterization are described, from the use of radioactivity standard to the development of a tunable monochromatic X-ray source. (Author)

  16. X-Band Linac Beam-Line for Medical Compton Scattering X-Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji; Yamamoto, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10~80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U. Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard ( 10-80

  17. Depth of interaction and bias voltage depenence of the spectral response in a pixellated CdTe detector operating in time-over-threshold mode subjected to monochromatic X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjdh, E.; Fröjdh, C.; Gimenez, E. N.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Norlin, B.; O'Shea, V.; Stewart, G.; Wilhelm, H.; Modh Zain, R.; Thungström, G.

    2012-03-01

    High stopping power is one of the most important figures of merit for X-ray detectors. CdTe is a promising material but suffers from: material defects, non-ideal charge transport and long range X-ray fluorescence. Those factors reduce the image quality and deteriorate spectral information. In this project we used a monochromatic pencil beam collimated through a 20μm pinhole to measure the detector spectral response in dependance on the depth of interaction. The sensor was a 1mm thick CdTe detector with a pixel pitch of 110μm, bump bonded to a Timepix readout chip operating in Time-Over-Threshold mode. The measurements were carried out at the Extreme Conditions beamline I15 of the Diamond Light Source. The beam was entering the sensor at an angle of \\texttildelow20 degrees to the surface and then passed through \\texttildelow25 pixels before leaving through the bottom of the sensor. The photon energy was tuned to 77keV giving a variation in the beam intensity of about three orders of magnitude along the beam path. Spectra in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode were recorded showing each individual interaction. The bias voltage was varied between -30V and -300V to investigate how the electric field affected the spectral information. For this setup it is worth noticing the large impact of fluorescence. At -300V the photo peak and escape peak are of similar height. For high bias voltages the spectra remains clear throughout the whole depth but for lower voltages as -50V, only the bottom part of the sensor carries spectral information. This is an effect of the low hole mobility and the longer range the electrons have to travel in a low field.

  18. Electron slicing for the generation of tunable femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free electron laser and slice diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Di Mitri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental results of femtosecond slicing an ultrarelativistic, high brightness electron beam with a collimator. In contrast to some qualitative considerations reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.92.074801, we first demonstrate that the collimation process preserves the slice beam quality, in agreement with our theoretical expectations, and that the collimation is compatible with the operation of a linear accelerator in terms of beam transport, radiation dose, and collimator heating. Accordingly, the collimated beam can be used for the generation of stable femtosecond soft x-ray pulses of tunable duration, from either a self-amplified spontaneous emission or an externally seeded free electron laser. The proposed method also turns out to be a more compact and cheaper solution for electron slice diagnostics than the commonly used radio frequency deflecting cavities and has minimal impact on the machine design.

  19. A model of parametric X-ray radiation for application to diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, G.; Cardarelli, P.; Gambaccini, M.; Marziani, M.; Taibi, A.; Comandini, A.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric X-ray Radiation (PXR) is well known as an intense, tunable and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source. From the very first work of Ter-Mikaelian, who proposed the interaction phenomenon for Parametric X-rays many theoretical and experimental studies have investigated the characteristics of such a novel X-ray source. Within the framework of classical electrodynamics, we have thoroughly studied the physical implications of electrons moving through a medium at relativistic speed and then developed an analytical model of X-ray diffraction based on the PXR phenomenon. The model has been used to obtain information on the characteristics of PXR diffracted beam in terms of X-ray intensity, energy spectrum and angular distribution. Several crystals have been studied both in Bragg and Laue geometry and their relative yield has been compared. Preliminary results on the diagnostic potential of PXR have shown that, at a distance from the crystal which produces a size of the X-ray field useful for an imaging application, the photon yield of PXR is higher than that produced by a conventional X-ray tube, provided that a similar electron current is available.

  20. Multicolor tuning towards single red-emission band of upconversion nanoparticles for tunable optical component and optical/x-ray imaging agents via Ce"3"+ doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Tianmei; Xu, Yaru; Qian, Chao; Liu, Hongrong; Zeng, Songjun; Lu, Wei; Hao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    A simple strategy of Ce"3"+ doping is proposed to realize multicolor tuning and predominant red emission in BaLnF_5:Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ (Ln"3"+ = Gd"3"+, Y"3"+, Yb"3"+) systems. A tunable upconversion (UC) multicolor output from green/yellow to red can be readily achieved in a fixed Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ composition by doping Ce"3"+, providing an effective route for multicolor tuning widely used for various optical components. Moreover, compared with Ce"3"+-free UC nanoparticles (UCNPs), a remarkable enhancement of the red-to-green (R/G) ratio is observed by doping 30% Ce"3"+, arising from the two largely promoted cross-relaxation (CR) processes between Ce"3"+ and Ho"3"+. UCNPs with pure red emission are selected as in vivo UC bioimaging agents, demonstrating the merits of deep penetration depth, the absence of autofluorescence and high contrast in small animal bioimaging. Moreover, such fluorescence imaging nanoprobes can also be used as contrast agents for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray bioimaging by taking advantage of the high K-edge values and x-ray absorption coefficients of Ba"2"+, Gd"3"+, and Ce"3"+ in our designed nanoprobes. Thus, the simultaneous realization of multicolor output, highly enhanced R/G ratio, and predominant red emission makes the Ce"3"+-doped UCNPs very useful for widespread applications in optical components and bioimaging. (paper)

  1. Multicolor tuning towards single red-emission band of upconversion nanoparticles for tunable optical component and optical/x-ray imaging agents via Ce(3+) doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Tianmei; Xu, Yaru; Lu, Wei; Qian, Chao; Liu, Hongrong; Zeng, Songjun; Hao, Jianhua

    2015-09-25

    A simple strategy of Ce(3+) doping is proposed to realize multicolor tuning and predominant red emission in BaLnF5:Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) (Ln(3+) = Gd(3+), Y(3+), Yb(3+)) systems. A tunable upconversion (UC) multicolor output from green/yellow to red can be readily achieved in a fixed Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) composition by doping Ce(3+), providing an effective route for multicolor tuning widely used for various optical components. Moreover, compared with Ce(3+)-free UC nanoparticles (UCNPs), a remarkable enhancement of the red-to-green (R/G) ratio is observed by doping 30% Ce(3+), arising from the two largely promoted cross-relaxation (CR) processes between Ce(3+) and Ho(3+). UCNPs with pure red emission are selected as in vivo UC bioimaging agents, demonstrating the merits of deep penetration depth, the absence of autofluorescence and high contrast in small animal bioimaging. Moreover, such fluorescence imaging nanoprobes can also be used as contrast agents for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray bioimaging by taking advantage of the high K-edge values and x-ray absorption coefficients of Ba(2+), Gd(3+), and Ce(3+) in our designed nanoprobes. Thus, the simultaneous realization of multicolor output, highly enhanced R/G ratio, and predominant red emission makes the Ce(3+)-doped UCNPs very useful for widespread applications in optical components and bioimaging.

  2. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  3. Measurement of the energy distribution of parametric X-ray radiation from a double-crystal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Akira; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Kidokoro, Akio; Sato, Isamu; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Kobayashi, Kouji; Ohshima, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    A parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system was developed at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Applications (LEBRA) at Nihon University; this PXR generator system is a tunable wavelength and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source constructed as one of the advanced applications of the LEBRA 125-MeV electron linear accelerator. The PXR beam which has characteristic of energy distribution. The theoretical values of energy distribution obtained at the output port were calculated to be approximately 300 eV and 2 keV at the central X-ray energies of 7 keV and 20 keV, respectively. In order to investigate the energy distribution, several measurements of the X-ray energy were carried out. The X-ray absorption of known materials and that of thin aluminum has been evaluated based on analyses of images taken using an imaging plate. The X-ray energy was deduced base on the identification of the absorption edges, and the energy distribution was estimated based on measurements using aluminum step method. In addition, an X-ray diffraction method using a perfect silicon crystal was employed, and spectra were measured using a solid state detector (SSD). The results of these experiments agreed with the calculated results. In particular, the well-defined absorption edges in the X-ray images and the typical rocking curves obtained by the measurement of the X-ray diffraction indicated that the distribution has a high-energy resolution

  4. Investigation of fingerprints for small polar molecules by using a tunable monochromatic THz source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqian

    Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been dedicated to the generation and the application of electromagnetic waves in the Terahertz (THz) regime. Among all of the proposed applications, the THz spectroscopy is probably the most mature and promising one. According to the previous reports, the THz spectroscopy has been extensively applied into many analysis fields, including the investigation of vibrational modes for the crystalline solids, the characterization of electron transport in the condense matters and the identification of explosive materials at a standoff distance. More interestingly, since most gas phase chemicals exhibit unique transition peaks in the THz spectra, one could in principle achieve highly accurate molecular fingerprinting and chemical sensing as well. However, all of the practical THz spectroscopy applications were still greatly hampered by the lack of suitable sources and detectors. In this thesis, a unique approach to measure the THz spectrum is developed based on a novel tunable narrowband source. Unlike the previous THz systems, high power THz pulses were generated by the difference frequency generation processes between two collinearly propagated near infrared laser beams. To tune the output THz signal frequency, one can simply adjust one of the incident beam frequencies. Therefore, based on a convenient wavelength tuning scheme, the transmission spectra can be measured for a series of polar gases with either similar or distinct molecular structures. According to the measured spectra, it is found that the obtained transition frequencies, absorption intensities and molecular constants are all in good agreement with the theoretical results tabulated in the molecular spectroscopic databases, such as the HITRAN database. By further analyzing the transition frequencies, it is also discovered that one can confidently identify each polar molecule and differentiate between various isotopic variants based on their characteristic

  5. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Nelson, J.; Holzner, C.; Andrews, J. C.; Pianetta, P.

    2013-12-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented.

  6. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Nelson, J; Andrews, J C; Pianetta, P; Holzner, C

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented. (paper)

  7. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  8. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  9. Higher coherent x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Noboru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2001-01-01

    X-ray lasers generated by an ultra short pulse laser have advantages such as monochromatic, short pulse duration, small beam divergence, high intensity, and coherence. Spatial coherence is most important for applications, we have investigated the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme x-ray laser lasing from Ne-like titanium (31.6 nm), Ne-like silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm). However, the spatial coherence was not so good with this scheme. We have been studying to improve the spatial coherence of the x-ray laser and have proposed to use coherent seed light tuned to the x-ray laser wavelength generated from higher harmonics generation (HHG), which is introduced to the x-ray laser medium (Ne-like titanium, Ni-like silver plasmas). We present about the theoretical study of the coupling efficiency HHG light with x-ray laser medium. (author)

  10. Photon activated therapy (PAT) using monochromatic synchrotron X-rays and iron oxide nanoparticles in a mouse tumor model: feasibility study of PAT for the treatment of superficial malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gi-Hwan; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hong; Kim, Hong-Tae; Park, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2012-10-31

    X-rays are known to interact with metallic nanoparticles, producing photoelectric species as radiosensitizing effects, and have been exploited in vivo mainly with gold nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of sensitizing effect of iron oxide nanoparticles for photon activated therapy. X-rays photon activated therapy (PAT) was studied by treating CT26 tumor cells and CT26 tumor-bearing mice loaded with 13-nm diameter FeO NP, and irradiating them at 7.1 keV near the Fe K-edge using synchrotron x-rays radiation. Survival of cells was determined by MTT assay, and tumor regression assay was performed for in vivo model experiment. The results of PAT treated groups were compared with x-rays alone control groups. A more significant reduction in viability and damage was observed in the FeO NP-treated irradiated cells, compared to the radiation alone group (p X-rays. Since 7.1 keV X-rays is attenuated very sharply in the tissue, FeO NP-PAT may have promise as a potent treatment option for superficial malignancies in the skin, like chest wall recurrence of breast cancer.

  11. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  12. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  14. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  16. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  17. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. The self-seeding scheme with the wake monochromator is extremely compact, and takes almost no cost and time to be implemented. The upgrade proposed in this paper could take place during the commissioning stage of the European XFEL, opening a vast new range of applications from the very beginning of operations.We present feasibility study and examplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  18. Development of online quasimonochromatic X-ray backlighter for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monochromatic X-ray backlighting has been employed with great success in various laser plasma experiments including inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. However, implementation of a monochromatic backlighting system typically requires extremely high quality spherically bent crystals which are difficult to ...

  19. X-ray facility for the ground calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loffredo, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Frontera, F.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the X-ray facility developed for the calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparatus allowed the scanning of the detector geometric area with a pencil beam of desired energy over the major part of the passband of the instrument. The monochromatic...

  20. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, G. T., E-mail: seidler@uw.edu; Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  1. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample

  2. Extension of self-seeding to hard X-rays >10 keV as a way to increase user access at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-11-01

    We propose to use the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator at the European X-ray FEL to produce monochromatic, high-power radiation at 16 keV. Based on start to end simulations we show that the FEL power of the transform-limited pulses can reach about 100 GW by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulator. The combination of high photon energy, high peak power, and very narrow bandwidth opens a vast new range of applications, and includes the possibility to considerably increase the user capacity and fully exploit the high repetition rate of the European XFEL. In fact, dealing with monochromatic hard X-ray radiation one may use crystals as deflectors with minimum beam loss. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed for future study and possible extension of the baseline facility. They can be repeated a number of times to forman almost complete (one meter scale) ring with an angle of 20 degrees between two neighboring lines. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezo-electric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders at synchrotron radiation facilities. It is then possible to distribute monochromatic hard X-rays among 10 independent instruments, thereby enabling 10 users to work in parallel. The unmatched repetition rate of the European XFEL would be therefore fully exploited. (orig.)

  3. Extension of self-seeding to hard X-rays >10 keV as a way to increase user access at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We propose to use the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator at the European X-ray FEL to produce monochromatic, high-power radiation at 16 keV. Based on start to end simulations we show that the FEL power of the transform-limited pulses can reach about 100 GW by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulator. The combination of high photon energy, high peak power, and very narrow bandwidth opens a vast new range of applications, and includes the possibility to considerably increase the user capacity and fully exploit the high repetition rate of the European XFEL. In fact, dealing with monochromatic hard X-ray radiation one may use crystals as deflectors with minimum beam loss. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed for future study and possible extension of the baseline facility. They can be repeated a number of times to forman almost complete (one meter scale) ring with an angle of 20 degrees between two neighboring lines. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezo-electric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders at synchrotron radiation facilities. It is then possible to distribute monochromatic hard X-rays among 10 independent instruments, thereby enabling 10 users to work in parallel. The unmatched repetition rate of the European XFEL would be therefore fully exploited. (orig.)

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  6. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  7. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  10. Multiple station beamline at an undulator x-ray source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Freund, A.K.; Grübel, G.

    1994-01-01

    The undulator X-ray source is an ideal source for many applications: the beam is brilliant, highly collimated in all directions, quasi-monochromatic, pulsed and linearly polarized. Such a precious source can feed several independently operated instruments by utilizing a downstream series of X......-ray transparent monochromator crystals. Diamond in particular is an attractive monochromator as it is rather X-ray transparent and can be fabricated to a high degree of crystal perfection. Moreover, it has a very high heat conductivity and a rather small thermal expansion so the beam X-ray heat load problem...

  11. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  12. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  13. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  14. Achromatic X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Marion

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents first results on the development of achromatic refractive X-ray lenses which can be used for scientific experiments at synchrotron sources. First of all the different requirements for achromatic X-ray lenses have been worked out. There are different types of lenses, one type can be used for monochromatized sources when the energy is scanned while the spot size should be constant. The other type can be used at beamlines providing a broad energy band. By a combination of focusing and defocusing elements we have developed a lens system that strongly reduces the chromatic aberration of a refractive lens in a given energy range. The great challenge in the X-ray case - in contrast to the visible range - the complex refractive index, which is very similar for the possible materials in the X-ray spectrum. For precise studies a numerical code has been developed, which calculates the different rays on their way through the lenses to the detector plane via raytracing. In this numerical code the intensity distribution in the detector plane has been analyzed for a chromatic and the corresponding achromatic system. By optimization routines for the two different fields of applications specific parameter combinations were found. For the experimental verification an achromatic system has been developed, consisting of biconcave SU-8 lenses and biconvex Nickel Fresnel lenses. Their fabrication was based on the LIGA-process, including a further innovative development, namely the fabrication of two different materials on one wafer. In the experiment at the synchrotron source ANKA the energy was varied in a specific energy range in steps of 0.1 keV. The intensity distribution for the different energies was detected at a certain focal length. For the achromatic system a reduction of the chromatic aberration could be clearly shown. Achromatic refractive X-ray lenses, especially for the use at synchrotron sources, have not been developed so far. As a consequence of the

  15. Dosimetry of x-rays from high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Abe, Nobuyuki; Kawanishi, Masaharu

    1980-01-01

    Study on the dosimetry of ionizing radiations, especially of X-rays, emitted from high-temperature plasms has been made. As to the unpolarized Bremsstrahlung, a brief method to estimate electron temperatures with TLD is described and evaluation of average energy and current of the run-away electrons in the turbulent heating Tokamak is made by observing the half-value layer of the emitted X-rays and the total exposure per one shot of the Tokamak discharge. As to the polarized one, it is shown that the anisotropic electron temperature is related to the degree of polarization of the X-rays. Furthermore, reference is made to the possibility of developing such X-ray generators as can emit nearly monochromatic X-rays (characteristic X-rays) or polarized ones arbitrarily. (author)

  16. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  17. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  18. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  20. Wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure imaging by parametric X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Manabu; Sakai, Takeshi; Sato, Isamu; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nogami, Kyoko; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Nakao, Keisuke

    2008-01-01

    The parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system at Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) in Nihon University is a monochromatic and coherent X-ray source with horizontal wavelength dispersion. The energy definition of the X-rays, which depends on the horizontal size of the incident electron beam on the generator target crystal, has been investigated experimentally by measuring the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra on Cu and CuO associated with conventional X-ray absorption imaging technique. The result demonstrated the controllability of the spectrum resolution of XANES by adjusting of the horizontal electron beam size on the target crystal. The XANES spectra were obtained with energy resolution of several eV at the narrowest case, which is in qualitative agreement with the energy definition of the PXR X-rays evaluated from geometrical consideration. The result also suggested that the wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure measurement associated with imaging technique is one of the promising applications of PXR. (author)

  1. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  2. Non-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope: application to real time micro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.

    2000-01-01

    So far, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) micro-imaging has been performed by a 2D positional scan of a sample against a collimated beam. Obtaining information on specific elements in a nondestructive manner is an attractive prospect for many scientific applications. Furthermore, a synchrotron micro-beam can enhance the spatial resolution down to 0.1 μm. However, the total measuring time becomes quite long (a few hours to a half day), since one needs a number of scanning points in order to obtain a high-quality image. It is possible to obtain an x-ray image with 1 M pixels and with 20 μm resolution in a very short time of 20 sec - 3 min using a non-scanning XRF microscope, which is based on completely different concept. In the present report, we discuss the application of this technique to real time micro-imaging. The experiments were carried out at BL-4A, Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. We employed a grazing-incidence arrangement to make primary x-rays illuminate the whole sample surface. We adopted parallel-beam optics and extremely-close-geometry in order to detect x-ray fluorescence with a CCD camera. The selective-excitation capability of tunable monochromatic synchrotron radiation is a feasible method for distinguishing the elements of interest. One can obtain an image of each element by differentiating the images obtained above and below the absorption edges of interest. The growth of metallic dendrites from a solution dropped on a substrate was studied successfully. Several different growth patterns, corresponding to concentration and other conditions for diffusion, were observed as x-ray images. Since the present technique requires only 40 sec for each shot, it is possible to record a growing process through repeated exposures like a movie. The authors would like to thank Prof. A. Iida (Photon Factory) for his valuable comments. (author)

  3. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  4. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  5. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  6. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  7. A compact Compton backscatter X-ray source for mammography and coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Weber, M.E.; Volz, S.K.; Gierman, S.M.; Hayes, K.; Vernon, W.; Goldstein, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective is to generate a large flux of tunable, monochromatic x-rays for use in mammography and coronary angiography. The approach is based on Compton backscattering of an ultraviolet solid-state laser beam against the high-brightness 20-MeV electron beams from a compact linear accelerator. The direct Compton backscatter approach failed to produce a large flux of x-rays due to the low photon flux of the scattering solid-state laser. The authors have modified the design of a compact x-ray source to the new Compton backscattering geometry with use of a regenerative amplifier free-electron laser. They have successfully demonstrated the production of a large flux of infrared photons and a high-brightness electron beam focused in both dimensions for performing Compton backscattering in a regenerative amplifier geometry

  8. A synchrotron-based X-ray exposure station for radiation biology experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.C.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Chang, P.Y.; Rosen, C.J.; Schwarz, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray sources enable radiation biology experiments that are difficult with conventional sources. A synchrotron source can easily deliver a monochromatic, tunable energy, highly collimated X-ray beam of well-calibrated intensity. An exposure station at beamline 10.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been developed which delivers a variable energy (5-20 keV) X-ray fan beam with very sharp edges (10-90% in less than 3 μm). A series of experiments have been done with a four-well slide where a stripe (100 μm widex18 mm long) of cells in each well has been irradiated and the dose varied from well to well. With this facility we have begun a series of experiments to study cells adjacent to irradiated cells and how they respond to the damage of their neighbors. Initial results have demonstrated the advantages of using synchrotron radiation for these experiments

  9. A synchrotron-based X-ray exposure station for radiation biology experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.C. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: acthompson@lbl.gov; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chang, P.Y. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rosen, C.J.; Schwarz, R.I. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    Synchrotron X-ray sources enable radiation biology experiments that are difficult with conventional sources. A synchrotron source can easily deliver a monochromatic, tunable energy, highly collimated X-ray beam of well-calibrated intensity. An exposure station at beamline 10.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been developed which delivers a variable energy (5-20 keV) X-ray fan beam with very sharp edges (10-90% in less than 3 {mu}m). A series of experiments have been done with a four-well slide where a stripe (100 {mu}m widex18 mm long) of cells in each well has been irradiated and the dose varied from well to well. With this facility we have begun a series of experiments to study cells adjacent to irradiated cells and how they respond to the damage of their neighbors. Initial results have demonstrated the advantages of using synchrotron radiation for these experiments.

  10. X-ray and. gamma. -ray sources: a comparison of their characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, A K [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1979-11-01

    A comparison of the various source characteristics, in particular the available fluxes of radiation in the X-ray/..gamma..-ray region from (1) high power rotary anode X-ray generators, (2) radioactive ..gamma..-ray sources and (3) high energy electron storage rings is presented. Some of the specific characteristics and possible applications of synchrotron radiation as a source are discussed in detail, together with problems associated with the monochromatization of the continuous radiation in the X-ray/..gamma..-ray region. The new high energy machines PEP at Stanford, the 8 GeV storage ring CESR at Cornell and the PETRA storage ring in Hamburg, which will soon come into operation provide a spectrum of high intensity radiation reaching well above h..gamma..sub(photon)=100 keV. The possibilities of using ondulators (wigglers), and laser-electron scattering for constructing high repetition rate tunable ..gamma..-ray sources are also discussed. Finally the potentials of using the powerful spontaneous emission of ..gamma..-quanta by relativistic channeled particles are mentioned.

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  13. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  17. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  18. Probing defect driven tunable spontaneous magnetization in paramagnetic Zn{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O epitaxial films by X-ray absorption investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyarthi, P.; Ghosh, S. [Nanostech Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Wang, Y.T.; Zhou, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kumar, P.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Olivi, L. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., s.s. 14 km 163.5, 34194 Basovizza Trieste (Italy); Bürger, D.; Skorupa, I.; Schmidt, H. [Department of Materials for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Srivastava, P., E-mail: pankajs@physics.iitd.ac.in [Nanostech Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-11-15

    In order to address existing unresolved issues related to intrinsic and extrinsic origins of ferromagnetism in Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O based diluted magnetic semiconductors for varying x, the present work aims to investigate the tunable ferromagnetism triggered in paramagnetic Zn{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O films using 500 KeV inert xenon ion irradiation of different fluences. The origin of ferromagnetism in post irradiated Zn{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O films is understood from different densities of bound magnetic polarons (BMPs) formation through correlated spins of tetrahedrally substituted Co{sup 2+} ions and anionic vacancies. The alteration in crystallographic positions of Zn, Co cations, and O anions in the tetrahedral environment as analyzed from Zn and Co K-edgeX-ray absorption and O 1s photoemission is a crucial factor for the stabilization of different density of BMPs. Magnetic field and temperature dependence of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Co L{sub 2,3} edge provide experimental evidence of purely paramagnetic contribution from well localized Co{sup 2+} ions of Co sublattice for paramagnetic Zn{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O film. The paramagnetic Co{sup 2+} ions of Co sublattice persist in irradiated films, which reveal BMPs formation as the origin of ferromagnetism. - Highlights: • Ferromagnetism is triggered and tuned in Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O films by inert ion irradiation. • Ferromagnetism is stabilized from different degree of bound magnetic polarons. • The alteration in crystallographic positions of Zn, Co and O atoms tunes BMPs. • Paramagnetic contribution of the Co sublattice persists in Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O films.

  19. Electron-ion-x-ray spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.H.; Deslattes, R.D.; MacDonald, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a spectrometer system developed for electron, ion, and x-ray spectroscopy of gas-phase atoms and molecules following inner-shell excitation by tunable synchrotron radiation. The spectrometer has been used on beamline X-24A at the National Synchrotron Light Source for excitation-dependent studies of Ar L-shell and K-shell photoexcitation and vacancy decay processes. The instrumentation and experimental methods are discussed, and examples are given of electron spectra and coincidence spectra between electrons and fluorescent x-rays

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  2. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  10. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  17. X-ray laser '' oscillator-amplifier'' experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimkaveg, G.M.; Carter, M.R.; Young, B.K.F.; Walling, R.S.; Osterheld, A.L.; Trebes, J.E.; London, R.A.; Ratowsky, R.P.; Stewart, R.E.; Craxton, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    We present results from experiments directed toward increasing the degree of transverse coherence in x-ray laser beams. We have concentrated on the neon-like yttrium (Z=39) collisionally-pumped x-ray laser as the test system for these studies because of its unique combination of brightness, monochromaticity, and high-reflectivity optics availability. Attempts at improving laser performance using proximate feedback optics failed. Modest success has been found to date in ''double foil'' experiments, involving two x-ray lasers spatially separated by 29 cm and shot sequentially in an ''oscillator-amplifier'' configuration

  18. Limitations of retarded (bisulfite) x-ray film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoering, J.P.; Dittmore, C.

    1979-01-01

    We demonstrate the limitations of using retarded (bisulfite) developer to abate film sensitivity of x-ray films that have been exposed to intense radiation. We compared the measured densities of a large number of Kodak Type-M x-ray film samples exposed to a known fluence of monochromatic x-rays. These film samples were processed in three separate batches of bisulfite developer mixed in the same proportions. We concluded that reproducible film-density information cannot be obtained using different batches of (bisulfite) developer solutions

  19. Optimization and energy spectra of x-ray to be used for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Nobuyuki; Kanamori, Hitoshi

    1979-01-01

    The relations of the spectra of X-ray used for diagnosis to the absorbed dose of patients and X-ray information are now being investigated by a number of investigators. Here the problems and the trends of the investigations at present are described. Advent of semiconductor detectors has improved the accuracy of measuring X-ray spectra very rapidly. However, since the semiconductor detectors themselves utilize X-ray photon absorption, calibration curves must be prepared for obtaining the true X-ray spectra. Though there are methods of theoretically determining X-ray spectra, no definite theoretical formula is found. Thus, the derivation of an empirical equation based on measured data would be the most fundamental problem. Interactions in an object and the change of X-ray spectra are described on the case of monochromatic and continuous X-ray irradiation. As mentioned above, beam hardening occurs when X-ray enters a matter deep, because the interactions between X-ray and the matter depend upon the photon energy. There are a few methods for correcting the variation of CT (computed tomography) number due to beam hardening. However, prior to this, there are two methods of representing continuous X-ray with single energy, and the unification of the methods or a new way of defining X-ray quality is needed. It has been and is always desirable that monochromatic X-ray source becomes to be useable, and various methods are proposed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Tisue, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    A secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer has been built and tested. In this instrument the primary source of x rays is a tungsten-target tube powered by a high-voltage (75 kV), a high-power (3.7 kW) generator from a wavelength spectrometer (G.E. XRD-6). The primary polychromatic x rays irradiate an elemental foil, the secondary source. Its characteristic essentially monochromatic x rays are used to irradiate the sample. Fluorescent x rays from the sample are detected and resolved by a lithium-drifted silicon detector, multichannel-analyzer system. The design of the instrument provides a convenient means for changing the secondary, and hence, the energy of the excitation radiation

  1. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  2. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.R.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has led to a significant increase in activity in many areas of science dealing with the interaction of x-rays with matter. Synchrotron radiation provides intense, linearly polarized, naturally collimated, continuously tunable photon beams, which are used to determine not only the elemental composition of a complex, polyatomic, dilute material but also the chemical form of the elements with improved accuracy. Examples of the application of synchrotron radiation include experiments in synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. New synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobes for elemental analysis in the parts per billion range are under construction at several laboratories. 76 references, 24 figures

  3. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  4. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  5. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  6. Theory of X-ray microcomputed tomography in dental research: application for the caries research

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Seok Park; Kwang-Hak Bae; Juhea Chang; Won-Jun Shon

    2011-01-01

    Caries remains prevalent throughout modern society and is the main disease in the field of dentistry. Although studies of this disease have used diverse methodology, recently, X-ray microtomography has gained popularity as a non-destructive, 3-dimensional (3D) analytical technique, and has several advantages over the conventional methods. According to X-ray source, it is classified as monochromatic or polychromatic with the latter being more widely used due to the high cost of the monochromat...

  7. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  8. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  9. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  10. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  11. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  12. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  13. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  15. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2004-12-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year.

  20. X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year

  1. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  2. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  3. X-ray Microprobe for Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (see unit 1.1) and x-ray excited fluorescence analysis are powerful techniques for the nondestructive measurement of crystal structure and chemical composition. X-ray fluorescence analysis is inherently nondestructive with orders of magnitude lower power deposited for the same detectable limit as with fluorescence excited by charged particle probes (Sparks, 1980). X-ray diffraction analysis is sensitive to crystal structure with orders-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to crystallographic strain than electron probes (Rebonato, et al. 1989). When a small-area x-ray microbeam is used as the probe, chemical composition (Z>14), crystal structure, crystalline texture, and crystalline strain distributions can be determined. These distributions can be studied both at the surface of the sample and deep within the sample (Fig. 1). Current state-of-the-art can achieve an ∼1 mm-D x-ray microprobe and an ∼0.1 mm-D x-ray microprobe has been demonstrated (Bilderback, et al., 1994). Despite their great chemical and crystallographic sensitivities, x-ray microprobe techniques have until recently been restricted by inefficient x-ray focusing optics and weak x-ray sources; x-ray microbeam analysis was largely superseded by electron techniques in the 50's. However, interest in x-ray microprobe techniques has now been revived (Howells, et al., 1983; Ice and Sparks, 1984; Chevallier, et al., 1997; Riekel 1992; Thompson, el al., 1992; and Making and Using... 1997) by the development of efficient x-ray focusing optics and ultra-high intensity synchrotron x-ray sources (Buras and Tazzari, 1984; Shenoy, et al., 1988). These advances have increased the achievable microbeam flux by more than 11 orders of magnitude (Fig. 2) (Ice, 1997); the flux in a tunable 1 mm-D beam on a 'so called' 3rd-generation synchrotron source such as the APS can exceed the flux in a fixed-energy mm2 beam on a conventional source. These advances make x-ray microfluorescence and x-ray

  4. Development of an x-ray fluorescence microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory: Early results: Comparison with data from other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.V.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Gordon, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the detection levels in x-ray fluorescence analysis with a synchrotron storage ring are being achieved experimentally at several laboratories. This paper is deliberately restricted to the state of development of the Brookhaven National Laboratory/University of Chicago instruments. Analyses at the parts per million (ppM) level are being made using white light apertured to 20 μm and an energy dispersive system. This system is particularly useful for elements with Z > 20 in materials dominated by elements with Z < 20. Diffraction causes an interference for crystalline materials. Development of a focusing microprobe for tunable monochromatic x-rays and a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) is delayed by problems in shaping an 8:1 focusing mirror to the required accuracy. Reconnaissance analyses with a wiggler source on the CHESS synchrotron have been made in the K spectrum up to Z = 80

  5. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  6. Prospects for compact high-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray and gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1996-11-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the laser synchrotron source (LSS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power CO 2 laser may be used as prototype LSS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps CO 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 50 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of collimated 4.7 keV (2.6 angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼ 10 19 photons/sec, will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to the e-beam energy. A rational short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to the 10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 5 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps is realized. In the future, exploiting the promising approach of a high-gradient laser wake field accelerator, a compact ''table-top'' LSS of monochromatic gamma radiation may become feasible

  7. Prospects for compact high-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray and gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1997-01-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high- brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the laser synchrotron source (LSS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high- brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10 GW, 100 ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10 ps, 0.5 nC, 50 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of collimated 4.7 keV (2.6 A) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec, will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectra is tunable proportionally to the e- beam energy. A rational short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to the 10 22 photon/sec level, after the ongoing ATF C0 2 laser upgrade to 5 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps is realized. In the future, exploiting the promising approach of a high-gradient laser wake field accelerator, a compact ''table- top'' LSS of monochromatic gamma radiation may become feasible

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  9. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  10. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  12. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  13. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  14. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  15. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  16. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  17. X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucarias, A; Shepherd, J W

    1982-09-08

    An X-ray tube has a tubular envelope with a cathode for directing an electron beam onto a focal spot area of a spaced anode target to generate X-rays. The target is mounted for axial rotation on one end of a rotor disposed in an end portion of the envelope and encircled by a stator of an alternating current induction motor. An annular shield of high permeability magnetic material extends transversely between the electron beam and the stator of the induction motor for shunting stray or fringe electromagnetic fields established by the stator away from the electron beam to avoid consequent lateral deflections of the electron and corresponding lateral movements of the focal spot area.

  18. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  19. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  20. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  1. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  2. Effects of soft x-ray irradiation on cell ultrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, T.W.; Page, A.M.; Stead, A.D.; Foster, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The future of X-ray microscopy lies mainly in its potential for imaging fresh, hydrated biological material at a resolution superior to that of light microscopy. For the image to be accepted as representing the cellular organization of the living cell, it is essential that artifacts are not introduced as a result of the image collection system. One possible source of artifacts is cellular damage resulting from the irradiation of the material with soft X-rays. Cells of the unicellular alga Chlorella have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following exposure to different doses of monochromatic (380eV) soft X-rays. Extreme ultrastructural damage has been detected following doses of 10 3 -10 4 Gy, in particular loss of cellular membranes such as the internal thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. This is discussed in relation to dosage commonly used for imaging by soft X-ray microscopy

  3. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  4. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaya; Akimoto, Tadashi; Aoki, Yohei; Ikeda, Jiro; Sato, Koichi; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Homma, Akira; Sawamura, Teruko; Narita, Masakuni

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources

  5. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, M; Aoki, Y; Ikeda, J; Sato, K; Fujita, F; Homma, A; Sawamura, T; Narita, M

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources.

  6. Development of variable-magnification X-ray Bragg optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Keiichi; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    A novel X-ray Bragg optics is proposed for variable-magnification of an X-ray beam. This X-ray Bragg optics is composed of two magnifiers in a crossed arrangement, and the magnification factor, M, is controlled through the azimuth angle of each magnifier. The basic properties of the X-ray optics such as the magnification factor, image transformation matrix and intrinsic acceptance angle are described based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction. The feasibility of the variable-magnification X-ray Bragg optics was verified at the vertical-wiggler beamline BL-14B of the Photon Factory. For X-ray Bragg magnifiers, Si(220) crystals with an asymmetric angle of 14° were used. The magnification factor was calculated to be tunable between 0.1 and 10.0 at a wavelength of 0.112 nm. At various magnification factors (M ≥ 1.0), X-ray images of a nylon mesh were observed with an air-cooled X-ray CCD camera. Image deformation caused by the optics could be corrected by using a 2 × 2 transformation matrix and bilinear interpolation method. Not only absorption-contrast but also edge-contrast due to Fresnel diffraction was observed in the magnified images.

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  11. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  19. The color of X-rays Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, Enrico Junior

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray fluorescence. The charge transport properties of the sensor are characterized using a high energy beam of charged particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Monochromatic X-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are used to determined the energy response function. These data are used to implement a physics-based CT projection operator that accounts for the transmission of the source spectrum through the sample and detector effects. Based on this projection operator, an iterative spectral CT reconstruction algorithm is developed by extending an Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method. Subsequently, a maximum likelihood based algo...

  20. X-Ray Spectroscopy of Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Montenegro, M.; Pradhan, A. K.; Pitzer, R.

    2009-06-01

    Inner shell transitions, such as 1s-2p, in heavy elements can absorb or produce hard X-rays, and hence are widely used in nanoparticles. Bio-medical research for cancer treatment has been using heavy element nanoparticles, embeded in malignant tumor, for efficient absorption of irradiated X-rays and leading emission of hard X-rays and energetic electrons to kill the surrounding cells. Ejection of a 1s electron during ionization of the element by absorption of a X-ray photon initiates the Auger cascades of emission of photons and electrons. We have investigated gold nanoparticles for the optimal energy range, below the K-edge (1s) ionization threshold, that corresponds to resonant absorption of X-rays with large attenuation coefficients, orders of magnitude higher over the background as well as to that at K-edge threshold. We applied these attenuation coefficients in Monte Carlo simulation to study the intensities of emission of photons and electrons by Auger cascades. The numerical experiments were carried out in a phantom of water cube with a thin layer, 0.1mm/g, of gold nanoparticles 10 cm inside from the surface using the well-known code Geant4. We will present results on photon and electron emission spectra from passing monochromatic X-ray beams at 67 keV, which is the resonant energy for resonant K_{α} lines, at 82 keV, the K-shell ionization threshold, and at 2 MeV where the resonant effect is non-existent. Our findings show a high peak in the gold nanoparticle absorption curve indicating complete absorption of radiation within the gold layer. The photon and electron emission spectra show resonant features. Acknowledgement: Partially supported by a Large Interdisciplinary Grant award of the Ohio State University and NASA APRA program (SNN). The computational work was carried out on the Cray X1 and Itanium 4 cluster at the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus Ohio. "Resonant X-ray Irradiation of High-Z Nanoparticles For Cancer Theranostics" (refereed

  1. Measuring Cavitation with Synchrotron X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel; Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Chris; X-Ray Fuel Spray Group, Energy Systems Division Team

    2012-11-01

    Cavitation plays an important role in the formation of sprays from small nozzles such as those found in fuel injection systems. A sharp-edged inlet from the sac into the nozzle of a diesel fuel injector is shown to inititate a strong sheet-like cavitation along the boundary layer of the nozzle throat, which is difficult to measure and can lead to acoustic damage. To investigate this phenomenon, a diagnostic technique capable of mapping the density field of the nozzle through regions of intense cavitation is required. Available visible-light techniques are limited to qualitative observations of the outer extent of cavitation zones. However, brilliant X-rays from a synchrotron source have negligible refraction and are capable of penetrating the full extent of cavitation zones. We present the early results of a novel application of line-of-sight, time-resolved X-ray radiography on a cavitating model nozzle. Experiments were conducted at Sector 7-BM of the Advanced Photon Source. Density and vapor distribution are measured from the quantitative absorption of monochromatic X-rays. The density field can then be tomographically reconstructed from the projections. The density is then validated against a range of compressible and incompressible numerical simulations. This research was performed at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (DOE-EERE).

  2. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Hip What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  6. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  7. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

  8. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation

  9. Ultrafast laser pump/x-ray probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.; Judd, E.; Schuck, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    In an ongoing project aimed at probing solids using x-rays obtained at the ALS synchrotron with a sub-picosecond time resolution following interactions with a 100 fs laser pulse, the authors have successfully performed pump-probe experiments limited by the temporal duration of ALS-pulse. They observe a drop in the diffraction efficiency following laser heating. They can attribute this to a disordering of the crystal. Studies with higher temporal resolution are required to determine the mechanism. The authors have also incorporated a low-jitter streakcamera as a diagnostic for observing time-dependant x-ray diffraction. The streakcamera triggered by a photoconductive switch was operated at kHz repetition rates. Using UV-pulses, the authors obtain a temporal response of 2 ps when averaging 5000 laser pulses. They demonstrate the ability to detect monochromatized x-ray radiation from a bend-magnet with the streak camera by measuring the pulse duration of a x-ray pulse to 70 ps. In conclusion, the authors show a rapid disordering of an InSb crystal. The resolution was determined by the duration of the ALS pulse. They also demonstrate that they can detect x-ray radiation from a synchrotron source with a temporal resolution of 2ps, by using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera. Their set-up will allow them to pursue laser pump/x-ray probe experiments to monitor structural changes in materials with ultrafast time resolution

  10. Benchtop phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk; Nirgianaki, E.; Che Ismail, E.; Jenneson, P.M.; Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Clinical radiography has traditionally been based on contrast obtained from absorption when X-rays pass through the body. The contrast obtained from traditional radiography can be rather poor, particularly when it comes to soft tissue. A wide range of media of interest in materials science, biology and medicine exhibit very weak absorption contrast, but they nevertheless produce significant phase shifts with X-rays. The use of phase information for imaging purposes is therefore an attractive prospect. Some of the X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods require highly monochromatic plane wave radiation and sophisticated X-ray optics. However, the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging method adapted in this paper is a relatively simple method to implement, essentially requiring only a microfocal X-ray tube and electronic detection. In this paper, we present imaging results obtained from two different benchtop X-ray sources employing the free space propagation method. X-ray phase-contrast imaging provides higher contrast in many samples, including biological tissues that have negligible absorption contrast.

  11. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  12. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  13. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  14. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  15. Human thyroid specimen imaging by fluorescent x-ray computed tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Yu, Quanwen; Yashiro, Toru; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yasuo; Itai, Yuji; Akatsuka, Takao

    1999-09-01

    Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (FXCT) is being developed to detect non-radioactive contrast materials in living specimens. The FXCT system consists of a silicon (111) channel cut monochromator, an x-ray slit and a collimator for fluorescent x ray detection, a scanning table for the target organ and an x-ray detector for fluorescent x-ray and transmission x-ray. To reduce Compton scattering overlapped on the fluorescent K(alpha) line, incident monochromatic x-ray was set at 37 keV. The FXCT clearly imaged a human thyroid gland and iodine content was estimated quantitatively. In a case of hyperthyroidism, the two-dimensional distribution of iodine content was not uniform, and thyroid cancer had a small amount of iodine. FXCT can be used to detect iodine within thyroid gland quantitatively and to delineate its distribution.

  16. X-ray fluorescence microtomography analyzing prostate tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Gabriela R.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the elemental distribution map in reference samples and prostate tissue samples using X-Ray Fluorescence Microtomography (XRFCT) in order to verify concentrations of certain elements correlated with characteristics observed by the transmission microtomography. The experiments were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Facility of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. A quasi-monochromatic beam produced by a multilayer monochromator was used as an incident beam. The transmission CT images were reconstructed using filtered-back-projection algorithm, and the XRFCT images were reconstructed using filtered-back-projection algorithm with absorption corrections. (author)

  17. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  18. X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references

  19. Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebes, J.E.; Mrowka, S.; London, R.A.; Barbee, T.W.; Carter, M.R.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Da Silva, L.B.; Stone, G.F.; Feit, M.D.; Nugent, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial coherence of a neon-like selenium x-ray laser operating at 206 and 210 Angstroems has been measured using a technique based on partially coherent x-ray diffraction. The time integrated spatial coherence of the selenium x-ray laser was determined to be equivalent to that of a quasi-monochromatic spatially incoherent disk source whose diameter is comparable to the line focus of the visible light laser pumping the x-ray laser. The spatial coherence was improved by narrowing the line focus width. 20 refs., 4 figs

  20. Probing deformation substructure by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and dislocation dynamics modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Eve, Sophie; Collins, Steve P

    2010-09-01

    Materials characterization at the nano-scale is motivated by the desire to resolve the structural aspects and deformation behavior at length scales relevant to those mechanisms that define the novel and unusual properties of nano-structured materials. A range of novel techniques has recently become accessible with the help of synchrotron X-ray beams that can be focused down to spot sizes of less than a few microns on the sample. The unique combination of tunability (energy selection), parallelism and brightness of synchrotron X-ray beams allows their use for high resolution diffraction (determination of crystal structure and transformations, analysis of dislocation sub-structures, orientation and texture analysis, strain mapping); small angle X-ray scattering (analysis of nano-scale voids and defects; orientation analysis) and imaging (radiography and tomography). After a brief review of the state-of-the-art capabilities for monochromatic and white beam synchrotron diffraction, we consider the usefulness of these techniques for the task of bridging the gap between experiment and modeling. Namely, we discuss how the experiments can be configured to provide information relevant to the validation and improvement of modeling approaches, and also how the results of various simulations can be post-processed to improve the possibility of (more or less) direct comparison with experiments. Using the example of some recent experiments carried out on beamline 116 at Diamond Light Source near Oxford, we discuss how such experimental results can be interpreted in view and in conjunction with numerical deformation models, particularly those incorporating dislocation effects, e.g., finite-element based pseudo-continuum strain gradient formulations, and discrete dislocation simulations. Post-processing of FE and discrete dislocation simulations is described, illustrating the kind of information that can be extracted from comparisons between modeling and experimental data.

  1. High-resolution imaging of coronary calcifications by intense low-energy fluoroscopic X-ray obtained from synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Tada, J.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Cardiology

    2000-07-01

    In order to obtain an intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from synchrotron radiation (SR) and apply it to detect coronary calcifications, the SR beam was reflected with a silicon crystal to be expanded (150 mm in height and 80 mm in width) and to be monochromatized at an energy level of 37 keV. The X-ray was intermittently irradiated to obtain dynamic imaging of 30 images/s. Images were recorded by a digital fluorography system. The low-energy X-ray from SR sharply visualized calcification of coronary arteries, while conventional X-ray could not visualize coronary calcification. The intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from SR is sensitive, has high-resolution for imaging coronary calcification and may serve as a screening method for coronary artery disease.

  2. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  3. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  4. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  5. Harmonic lasing in X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2012-05-15

    Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed) might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned X-ray FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of X-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned X-ray FEL facilities. In particular, LCLS after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25-30 keV providing multi-gigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV), to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other X-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact X-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy), allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of small-gap in-vacuum devices. Finally, in this paper we discover that in a part of the

  6. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.H.J.; Stuhrmann, H.B.; Vachette, P.; Tardieu, A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation in small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques in biological structural studies is described. The main features of the monochromatic radiation systems and the white radiation systems are considered. The detectors, data acquisition and experimental procedures are briefly described. Experimental results are presented for 1) measurements on dilute solutions and weak scatterers, 2) measurement of conformational transitions, 3) contrast variation experiments, 4) time-resolved measurements and 5) complex contrast variation. (U.K.)

  7. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  8. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  9. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  10. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  11. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  12. Refractive x-ray lens for high pressure diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    A stacked compound refractive x-ray lens was designed to produce a efficiently focused (φ 2 and a peak gain of 12, is well matched to these requirements. It is composed of many plastic chips made by molding, which is allowing many identical chips to be made precisely. Other advantages of this lens include high throughput, simple energy tunability and easy installation. (author)

  13. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  14. Guiding hard x rays with glass polycapillary fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Q.F.; Ponomarev, I.Y.; Kolomitsev, A.I.; Gibson, D.M.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Nachaliel, E.

    1993-01-01

    X rays can be guided through a polycapillary fiber by multiple total reflections from the smooth channel walls of the fiber. Using monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation at energies of 22 and 44 keV, we measured the efficiency of transmission of x rays through polycapillary fibers with channel diameters of about 13 μm. Efficiencies of 57.3% and 54.5% for 22 keV and 44 keV x rays, respectively, were obtained with a 120-mm-long straight polycapillary fiber aligned with the incident beam. These values are close to the open fraction of the fiber, which is about 60%. In addition, transmission efficiency was measured as a function of the tilt angle between the incident beam and the axis of the fiber. We also measured the transmission efficiency as a function of the deflection angle for a 114-mm-long curved polycapillary fiber. The measurements are compared with a ray-tracing simulation

  15. X-ray radiography with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roscoe E.

    2000-01-01

    An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

  16. The X-ray microscopy project at saga SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, M.; Ishiguro, E.; Takemoto, K.; Kihara, H.; Kamijo, N.; Tomimasu, T.; Tsurushima, T.; Takahara, A.; Hara, K.; Chikaura, Y.

    2002-01-01

    A new high resolution X-ray microscopy project has been proposed at Saga synchrotron light source, which is a third generation synchrotron light facility in Japan. Two microscopy beamlines are planned for this project. One is a scanning microscope in the water window region, and the other is a full-field imaging microscope in the multi-keV X-ray energy region. To demonstrate the feasibility of the project, the optical layout of the scanning microscope was designed. The beamline mainly consists of a 3.5 cm periodical undulator, a varied line-spacing plane grating monochromator (600 lines/mm) and an end-station including a zone plate. Thus, the calculated X-ray properties focused on the sample position are as follows: the spot size is ∼ 70 nm, the monochromaticity is ∼2000, and the photon flux is 10 9 ∼ 10 10 photons/sec. (authors)

  17. Diffracted X-ray tracking for monitoring intramolecular motion in individual protein molecules using broad band X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Sasaki, Yuji C. [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohta, Noboru [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hoshisashi, Kentaro; Jae-won, Chang; Tokue, Maki; Matsushita, Yufuku [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Nishijima, Masaki; Inoue, Yoshihisa [Department of Applied Chemistry and Office for University-Industry Collaboration, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yagi, Naoto [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) enables the tilting and twisting motions of single protein molecules to be monitored with micro- to milliradian resolution using a highly brilliant X-ray source with a wide energy bandwidth. We have developed a technique to monitor single molecules using gold nanocrystals attached to individual protein molecules using the BL28B2 beamline at SPring-8. In this paper we present the installation of a single toroidal X-ray mirror at BL28B2 to focus X-rays in an energy range of 10–20 keV (△E/E = 82% for an X-ray with a wide energy bandwidth). With this beamline we tracked diffraction spots from gold nanocrystals over a wide angle range than that using quasi-monochromatic X-rays. Application of the wide angle DXT technique to biological systems enabled us to observe the on-site motions of single protein molecules that have been functionalized in vivo. We further extend the capability of DXT by observing the fractional tilting and twisting motions of inner proteins under various conditions. As a proof of this methodology and to determine instrumental performance the intramolecular motions of a human serum albumin complex with 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was investigated using the BL28B2 beamline. The random tilting and twisting intramolecular motions are shown to be directly linked to the movement of individual protein molecules in the buffer solution.

  18. X-ray lines and self-interacting dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Yann; Toma, Takashi

    We study the correlation between a monochromatic signal from annihilating dark matter and its self-interacting cross section. We apply our argument to a complex scalar dark sector, where the pseudo-scalar plays the role of a warm dark matter candidate while the scalar mediates its interaction with the Standard Model. We combine the recent observation of the cluster Abell 3827 for self-interacting dark matter and the constraints on the annihilation cross section for monochromatic X-ray lines. We also confront our model to a set of recent experimental analyses and find that such an extension can naturally produce a monochromatic keV signal corresponding to recent observations of Perseus or Andromeda, while in the meantime it predicts a self-interacting cross section of the order of [Formula: see text], as recently claimed in the observation of the cluster Abell 3827. We also propose a way to distinguish such models by future direct detection techniques.

  19. X-ray vision of fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    With brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources, microsecond time-resolved synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography have been used to elucidate the detailed three-dimensional structure and dynamics of high-pressure high-speed fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region. The measurement allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in the optically impenetrable region owing to the multiple scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. X-radiographs of the jet-induced shock waves prove that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions and that the quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock waves can also be derived from the most direct measurement. In other situations where extremely axial-asymmetric sprays are encountered, mass deconvolution and cross-sectional fuel distribution models can be computed based on the monochromatic and time-resolved X-radiographic images collected from various rotational orientations of the sprays. Such quantitative analysis reveals the never-before-reported characteristics and most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of highly transient fuel sprays

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopy using a self-seeded soft X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Thomas; Kern, Jan; Kubin, Markus; Ratner, Daniel; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D.; Löchel, Heike; Krzywinski, Jacek; Lutman, Alberto; Ding, Yuantao; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Turner, Joshua J.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Nordlund, Dennis L.; Rehanek, Jens; Weniger, Christian; Firsov, Alexander; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hill, Ethan; Borovik, Andrew; Erko, Alexei; Föhlisch, Alexander; Mitzner, Rolf; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Wernet, Philippe; Bergmann, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Optical Society of America. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enable unprecedented new ways to study the electronic structure and dynamics of transition metal systems. L-edge absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for such studies and the feasibility of this method at XFELs for solutions and solids has been demonstrated. However, the required x-ray bandwidth is an order of magnitude narrower than that of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), and additional monochromatization is needed. Here we compare L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a prototypical transition metal system based on monochromatizing the SASE radiation of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) with a new technique based on self-seeding of LCLS. We demonstrate how L-edge XAS can be performed using the self-seeding scheme without the need of an additional beam line monochromator. We show how the spectral shape and pulse energy depend on the undulator setup and how this affects the x-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  1. Soft x-ray spectro microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campuzano, J.C.; Jennings, G.; Beaulaigue, L.; Rodricks, B.G.; Brizard, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an x-ray photoelectron microscope that provides spatial as well as chemical information on the nature of the sample. Photons from the Aladdin Synchrotron at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Stoughton, WI are monochromatized by an extended-range Grasshopper monochromator covering the range 40 to 1500 eV with energy resolution varying between 10 and 200 MeV. The monochromatized radiation generates photoelectrons in the sample, which are energy-analyzed with a resolving power E|ΔE > 5 x 10 4 and imaged by a multichannel plate array. The visible image is transferred to a computer by a virtual-phase charge-coupled device camera with a dynamic range of 4096:1. Preliminary coarse measurements indicate a spatial resolution of the instrument of better than 1μm, although a limit of 600 Angstrom is possible. The instrument provides chemical shift-resolved images of low-lying core levels in a variety of samples

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  3. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  6. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for ... organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  12. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  13. Novel THz-Frequency Spectrometers by Integrating Widely-Tunable Monochromatic THz Sources and Detectors, or Arrays of Emitters and Detectors, with Photonic Bandgap Crystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zotova, Yuliya

    2004-01-01

    .... Third, we have used our tunable THz source to take a THz picture of an object (proof of principle). Fourth, we have observed up-conversion process, which can be used as a new detection scheme for THz waves at room temperature...

  14. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment

  15. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  16. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  17. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    1996-01-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves

  18. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, A [Rich. Seifert and Co., Analytical X-ray Systems, Ahrensburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves.

  19. Radiation-shielded double crystal X-ray monochromator for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnsley, R.; Morsi, H.W.; Rupprecht, G.; Kaellne, E.

    1989-01-01

    A double crystal X-ray monochromator for absolute wavelength and intensity measurements with very effective shielding of its detector against neutrons and hard X-rays was brought into operation at JET. Fast wavelength scans were taken of impurity line radiation in the wavelength region from about 0.1 nm to 2.3 nm, and monochromatic as well as spectral line scans, for different operational modes of JET. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  20. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  1. Performance of the PRAXyS X-ray polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakiri, W.B., E-mail: wataru.iwakiri@riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Black, J.K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rock Creek Scientific, 1400 East-West Hwy, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Cole, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Enoto, T. [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hayato, A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hill, J.E.; Jahoda, K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kaaret, P. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Kitaguchi, T. [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kubota, M. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 3-1 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan. (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Marlowe, H.; McCurdy, R. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Takeuchi, Y. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 3-1 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan. (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tamagawa, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 3-1 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan. (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    The performance of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) polarimeter for the Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) Small Explorer was evaluated using polarized and unpolarized X-ray sources. The PRAXyS mission will enable exploration of the universe through X-ray polarimetry in the 2–10 keV energy band. We carried out performance tests of the polarimeter at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (BNL-NSLS) and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The polarimeter was tested with linearly polarized, monochromatic X-rays at 11 different energies between 2.5 and 8.0 keV. At maximum sensitivity, the measured modulation factors at 2.7, 4.5 and 8.0 keV are 27%, 43% and 59%, respectively and the measured angle of polarization is consistent with the expected value at all energies. Measurements with a broadband, unpolarized X-ray source placed a limit of less than 1% on false polarization in the PRAXyS polarimeter.

  2. Theory and optical design of x-ray echo spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a space-domain counterpart of neutron spin echo, is a recently proposed inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) technique. X-ray echo spectroscopy relies on imaging IXS spectra and does not require x-ray monochromatization. Due to this, the echo-type IXS spectrometers are broadband, and thus have a potential to simultaneously provide dramatically increased signal strength, reduced measurement times, and higher resolution compared to the traditional narrow-band scanning-type IXS spectrometers. The theory of x-ray echo spectrometers presented earlier [Yu. Shvyd'ko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 080801 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.080801] is developed here further with a focus on questions of practical importance, which could facilitate optical design and assessment of the feasibility and performance of the echo spectrometers. Among others, the following questions are addressed: spectral resolution, refocusing condition, echo spectrometer tolerances, refocusing condition adjustment, effective beam size on the sample, spectral window of imaging and scanning range, impact of the secondary source size on the spectral resolution, angular dispersive optics, focusing and collimating optics, and detector's spatial resolution. Examples of optical designs and characteristics of echo spectrometers with 1-meV and 0.1-meV resolutions are presented.

  3. Performance of the PRAXyS X-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, W. B.; Black, J. K.; Cole, R.; Enoto, T.; Hayato, A.; Hill, J. E.; Jahoda, K.; Kaaret, P.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kubota, M.; Marlowe, H.; McCurdy, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tamagawa, T.

    2016-12-01

    The performance of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) polarimeter for the Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) Small Explorer was evaluated using polarized and unpolarized X-ray sources. The PRAXyS mission will enable exploration of the universe through X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV energy band. We carried out performance tests of the polarimeter at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (BNL-NSLS) and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The polarimeter was tested with linearly polarized, monochromatic X-rays at 11 different energies between 2.5 and 8.0 keV. At maximum sensitivity, the measured modulation factors at 2.7, 4.5 and 8.0 keV are 27%, 43% and 59%, respectively and the measured angle of polarization is consistent with the expected value at all energies. Measurements with a broadband, unpolarized X-ray source placed a limit of less than 1% on false polarization in the PRAXyS polarimeter.

  4. A project of X-ray hardening correction in large ICT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Min; Liu Yinong; Ni Jianping

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a means of polychromatic X-ray beam hardening correction using a standard function to transform the polychromatic projection to monochromatic projection in large Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT). Some parameters were defined to verify the validity of hardening correction in large ICT and optimized. Simulated experiments were used to prove that without prior knowledge of the composition of the scanned object, the correction method using monochromatic reconstruction arithmetic could remove beam hardening artifact greatly. (authors)

  5. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  6. Women and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkley, P A; Stewart, J H

    1976-01-01

    When a woman comes to an X-Ray Department it is usually necessary to know the present stage of her menstrual cycle. X-Rays may have an adverse effect on the embryo, especially in early pregnancy. However, exposure to X-Rays at any stage may be associated with a slightly increased incidence of malignant disease in childhood. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends that in women of child-bearing age (in some cases as young as 11 years), non-urgent diagnostic radiography be confined to the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle: that is, 14 days following the first day of the last menstrual period.

  7. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  11. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  14. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  16. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  19. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  20. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  1. X-ray luminescent glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray luminescent glasses comprising a divalent cation such as an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cations such as pb, cd, or zn, and certain rare earth metaphosphates are suitable as vitreous, x-ray phosphors or x-ray luminescent glass fibers in an x-ray intensifying screen. The glasses have the composition n(Mo X p2o5)((1-y)tb2o3 X yce2o3 X 3p2o5) wherein N is greater than zero but less than or equal to 16, M is an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cation such as pb, cd, or zn, and Y is greater than or equal to zero but less than one

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  4. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  5. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  13. Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Paul G [Computer-Aided Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Isaacs, Eric D [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction uses the structural specificity of x-ray diffraction to probe complex magnetic structures at the length scales relevant to physical phenomena including domain dynamics and phase transitions. Conventional magnetic crystallography techniques such as neutron or x-ray diffraction lack this spatial resolution. The combination of both reciprocal space and real space resolution with a rich magnetic cross section allows new microscopy techniques to be developed and applied to magnetism at the scale of single domains. Potential applications include a wide range of magnetic problems in nanomagnetism, the interaction of strain, polarization and magnetization in complex oxides and spatially resolved studies of magnetic phase transitions. We present the physical basis for x-ray microdiffraction and magnetic scattering processes, review microdiffraction domain imaging techniques in antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials and discuss potential directions for studies. (topical review)

  14. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  15. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  16. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  18. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  19. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.; Miller, R.C.; Nakamura, Nori; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Nishio, Shoji.

    1987-05-01

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60 Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60 Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  20. X-ray imaging diagnostics for the inertial confinement fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Pawley, C.; Sethian, J.; Koch, J.A.; Holland, G.

    2000-01-01

    We report on our continued development of the advanced x-ray plasma diagnostics based on spherically curved crystals. The diagnostics include x-ray spectroscopy with 1-D spatial resolution, 2-D monochromatic self-imaging and back-lighting, and can be extended to the x-ray collimating and 2-D absorption and emission spectroscopy. The system is currently used, but not limited to the diagnostics of the targets ablatively accelerated by the NRL Nike KrF laser. In cooperation with LLNL a comprehensive test of the NIF prototype spherically curved crystal assembly has been performed on the Nova laser. (authors)

  1. Monitoring moisture movements in building materials using x-ray attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Scheffler, Gregor A.; Janssen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    analysis with a composite model consisting of a dry porous material and a thickness of water equivalent to the moisture content of the material. The current formulation of this composite model relies on certain assumptions, including a monochromatic x-ray photon beam source (i.e., x-ray photons of a single....... Implications of this inconsistency are introduced and discussed. This paper presents both an overview of fundamental descriptions of the x-ray attenuation measurement technique and results from a parametric experimental study of various porous construction materials, including calcium silicate board, aerated...

  2. X-ray imaging diagnostics for the inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Obenschain, S.; Pawley, C.; Sethian, J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J. [Naval Research Lab., Space Sciences Div, Washington, DC (United States); Koch, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Holland, G. [SFA, Landover MD (United States)

    2000-07-01

    We report on our continued development of the advanced x-ray plasma diagnostics based on spherically curved crystals. The diagnostics include x-ray spectroscopy with 1-D spatial resolution, 2-D monochromatic self-imaging and back-lighting, and can be extended to the x-ray collimating and 2-D absorption and emission spectroscopy. The system is currently used, but not limited to the diagnostics of the targets ablatively accelerated by the NRL Nike KrF laser. In cooperation with LLNL a comprehensive test of the NIF prototype spherically curved crystal assembly has been performed on the Nova laser. (authors)

  3. An X-ray wave theory for heavily distorted crystals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.; Hashimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction theory is developed of monochromatic waves having spherical wave front, which is applicable to an interpretation of divergent X-ray diffraction images of crystals containing arbitral types of strain field. The theory is divided into two parts. In part I, Takagi's theory is expanded by introducing amplitude and phase correction functions and a new improved representation for the X-ray diffraction theory is given. In part II dispersion surfaces in heavily distorted crystals are discussed, and in the discussion the resonance shift functions are introduced. These formulations can lead to a complete understanding of the extinction phenomena. (author)

  4. Production of X-rays by inverse Compton effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    X-rays and gamma rays of high energy values can be produced by the scattering of low energy photons with high energy electrons, being this a process controlled by the Compton scattering. If a laser beam is used, the x-ray beam inherits the properties of intensity, monochromaticity and collimation from the laser. In this work we analyze the generation of intense x-ray beams of energies between 10 and 100 KeV to be used in a wide range of applications where a high intensity and high degrees of monochromaticity and polarization are important properties to improve image reduce doses and improve radiation treatments. To this purpose we evaluated, using relativistic kinematics the scattered beam properties in terms of the scattering angle. This arrangement is being considered in several worldwide laboratories as an alternative to synchrotron radiation and is referred to as 'table top synchrotron radiation', since it cost of installation is orders of magnitude smaller than a 'synchrotron radiation source'. The radiation beam might exhibit non-linear properties in its interaction with matter, in a similar way as a laser beam and we will investigate how to calibrate and evaluate TLD dosemeters properties, both in low and high intensity fields either mono or polyenergetic in wide spectral energy ranges. (Author)

  5. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  6. High-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-10-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the Laser Synchrotron Light Source (LSLS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSLS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 70 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of well-collimated, up to 9.36-keV (∼ Angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to a variable e-beam energy. A natural short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to a 10 21 -10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 1 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps. The ATF LSLS x-ray beamline, exceeding by orders of magnitude the peak fluxes attained at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray storage ring, may become attractive for certain users, e.g., for biological x-ray microscopy. In addition, a terawatt CO 2 laser will enable harmonic multiplication of the x-ray spectrum via nonlinear Compton scattering

  7. Non-destructive analysis of micro texture and grain boundary character from X-ray diffraction contrast tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, A.; Herbig, M.; Ludwig, W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in synchrotron based X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer interesting new possibilities for mapping 3D grain shapes and crystallographic orientations in different classes of polycrystalline materials. X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) is a monochromatic beam...... imaging technique combining the principles of X-ray micro-tomography and three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD). DCT provides simultaneous access to 3D grain shape, crystallographic orientation and attenuation coefficient distribution at the micrometer length scale. The microtexture...

  8. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    sources that were previously unobtainable within realistic observation times e.g. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Standard photoelectric X-ray polarimeter designs are both quantum efficiency (QE) limited and challenging to calibrate due to diffusion of electron signal as it drifts through the gas. Drifting negative ions decreases diffusion to the thermal limit thereby decoupling sensitivity from drift distance and enabling larger detector areas that can be at the focus of larger diameter mirrors and single reflection concentrator optics. NITPCs also allow the selection of constituent gasses and pressures to be based on the optimization of modulation and QE rather than diffusion properties. This versatility enables a large improvement in sensitivity without driving cost and with only moderate increase to mass and power of the detector and/or instrument. Furthermore, the energy band of NGXP will be tunable to maximize the science return. Following the efforts of this proposal NGXP will be proposed as sounding rocket experiment and as a candidate instrument for future opportunities. The GSFC polarimeter group has demonstrated NITPCs for several detector concepts. This proposal leverages the previous effort and team expertise with goals to establish the NITPC as the baseline for narrow field observations of faint persistent sources and to improve the technology readiness of associated technologies such as stainless steel gas electron multipliers and finer readout pitch.

  9. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2002-01-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites

  10. Determining grain resolved stresses in polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for characterization of the grain resolved (type II) stress states in a polycrystalline sample based on monochromatic X-ray diffraction data. The algorithm is a robust 12-parameter-per-grain fit of the centre-of-mass grain positions, orientations and stress tensors...

  11. X-ray micro-Tomography at the Advanced Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    The X-ray micro-Tomography Facility at the Advanced Light Source has been in operation since 2004. The source is a superconducting bend magnet of critical energy 10.5KeV; photon energy coverage is 8-45 KeV in monochromatic mode, and a filtered white light option yields useful photons up to 50 KeV. A...

  12. Reflectometer end station for synchrotron calibrations of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility flight optics and for spectrometric research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessle, D.E.; Fitch, J.J.; Ingram, R.; Zhang Juda, J.; Blake, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Preparations have been underway to construct and test a facility for grazing incidence reflectance calibrations of flat mirrors at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The purpose is to conduct calibrations on witness flats to the coating process of the flight mirrors for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The x-ray energy range required is 50 eV--12 keV. Three monochromatic beamlines (X8C, X8A, U3A) will provide energy tunability over this entire range. The goal is to calibrate the AXAF flight mirrors with uncertainties approaching 1%. A portable end station with a precision-positioning reflectometer has been developed for this work. We have resolved the vacuum cleanliness requirements to preserve the coating integrity of the flats with the strict grazing-angle certainty requirements placed on the rotational control system of the reflectometer. A precision positioning table permits alignment of the system to the synchrotron beam to within 10 arcsec; the reflectometer's rotational control system can then produce grazing angle accuracy to within less than 2 arcsec, provided that the electron orbit is stable. At 10--12 keV, this degree of angular accuracy is necessary to achieve the calibration accuracy required for AXAF. However the most important energy regions for the synchrotron calibration are in the 2000--3200 eV range, where the M-edge absorption features of the coating element, iridium, appear, and the 300--700 eV range of the Ir N edges. The detail versus energy exhibited in these features cannot be traced adequately without a tunable energy source, which necessitates a synchrotron for this work. We present the mechanical designs, motion control systems, detection and measurement capabilities, and selected procedures for our measurements, as well as reflectance data

  13. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 μm, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40 keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation σ h =(8.6±0.1) μm in the horizontal and σ v =(7.5±0.1) μm in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4 m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σ v =(0.50±0.05) μm in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 μm 2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σ f =(1.2±0.4) μm, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size in vertical direction of σ v =(1.2±0.3)μm and a

  14. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 {mu}m, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40 keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation {sigma}{sub h}=(8.6{+-}0.1) {mu}m in the horizontal and {sigma}{sub v}=(7.5{+-}0.1) {mu}m in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4 m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size {sigma}{sub v}=(0.50{+-}0.05) {mu}m in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 {mu}m{sup 2} provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be {sigma}{sub f}=(1.2{+-}0.4) {mu}m, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size

  15. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T.

    2006-05-01

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450μm, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation σh = (8.6±0.1)μm in the horizontal and σv = (7.5±0.1)μm in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σv = (0.50±0.05)μm in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13×13μm^2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σf = (1.2±0.4)μm, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size in vertical direction of σv = (1.2±0.3)μm and a geometrical

  16. Hard X-ray emission spectroscopy with pink beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Exner, Joerg; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    Valence-band X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) with a ''pink beam'', i.e. a beam with large energy bandwidth produced by a double-multilayer monochromator, is introduced here to overcome the weak count rate of monochromatic beams produced by conventional double-crystal monochromators. Our results demonstrate that - in spite of the large bandwidth in the order of 100 eV - the high spectral resolution of the Johann-type spectrometer is maintained, while the two orders of magnitude higher flux greatly reduces the required counting time. The short working distance Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer and multilayer monochromator is available at ROBL.

  17. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  18. Transmission X-ray mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lairson, B.M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission X-ray mirrors have been made from 400 A to 10 000 A thick soap films and have been shown to have novel properties. Using grazing angles of incidence, low energy X-rays were reflected from the front surface while more energetic X-rays were transmitted through the mirror largely unattenuated. A wide bandpass monochromator was made from a silicon carbide mirror followed by a soap film transmission mirror and operated in the white beam at the cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Bandpasses of ΔE/E=12% to 18% were achieved at 13 keV with peak efficiencies estimated to be between 55% and 75%, respectively. Several wide angle scattering photographs of stretched polyethylene and a phospholipid were obtained in 10 s using an 18% bandpass. (orig.)

  19. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  20. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  1. X-ray of osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Osteoporosis, osteomalcia, fibro-osteoclasia and osteosclerosis are essential reactions to pathologicometabolic processes of the bone. The X-ray film shows precisely which changes have taken place in the bone structure, thus supplying the means for an analysis based on anatomic pathology. These phenomena are discussed in detail, special attention being paid to structural modifications. Attention is also focused on the problems connected with X-ray technology. The value of direct and indirect magnification of the skeleton of the hand for the identification and classification of esteopathies is explained. Phenomena observed in X-ray films, such as enosteal erosion, intracortical longitudinal stripes or tunnelisation, as well as subperiostal absorption, can be of pathognomonic importance for certain osteopathies. (orig.) [de

  2. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  3. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  4. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  5. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  6. Inelastic X-ray scattering activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering requires an energy determination before and after the scattering process together with a technique to vary at least one energy continuously in a controlled way. Sufficiently monochromatic beams can only be produced by Bragg reflection from single crystals. Stationary X-ray monochromators are standard equipment of conventional X-ray generators to select a particular characteristic line. Quite often they are curved to focus on the sample or the detector. Devices with variable Bragg angle have been and are used as analyzers in Compton scattering which is inelastic X-ray scattering with moderate resolution. With the rapidly increasing availability of synchrotron radiation (SR) monochromators and analyzers became more and more sophisticated improving momentum (Q) resolution and only somewhat the energy resolution ΔE which stays in the order of eV. Very high energy resolution can only be obtained with Bragg angles Theta near to 90 0 . This field is the topic of the present paper

  7. An x-ray beamline for the LNLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusatis, C.; Giles, C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper an x-ray optics and high energy-resolution beamline for the XUV ring at LNLS is described. It consists of a monochromator serving a station for x-ray optics and another for high energy-resolution experiments. The constant offset, vacuum compatible double crystal monochromator is to be mounted in a bending magnet or wiggler port and will be located as near as possible of the ring. One rotation movement of both mechanically linked crystals and one short elastic translation of each crystal covers the energy range of 1 to 10 KeV. For θ B ∼ 90 on the first monochromator crystal the monochromatized beam is sent back through the electron ring and is received on the opposite side of the line at the high energy-resolution station. The main instrument at the x-ray optics station will be a triple axis diffractometer. This station, located as far as possible of the ring and, possibly, outside of main hall, will be used for x-ray interferometry, perfect crystal diffractometry, etc

  8. Extinction correction in white X-ray and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyoshi, S.; Yamada, M.; Watanabe, H.

    1980-01-01

    Extinction effects in white-beam X-ray and neutron diffraction are considered. In white-beam diffraction, a small deviation of the wavelength from the Bragg condition Δlambda is a variable which represents the line profile of the diffraction peaks, so that by using the new parameter Δlambda the theory is converted to one in white-beam diffraction. It is shown that for a convex crystal, primary extinction agrees with the results calculated already for monochromatic diffraction. The same relation is shown to hold in secondary extinction. It is concluded that extinction theory derived for monochromatic diffraction is applicable without any modification in white-beam diffraction. (Auth.)

  9. Sample Environment in Experiments using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B

    1984-01-01

    beam experiments with wavelength chosen at will from the continuous spectrum. Another type of insertion device, called undulator produces quasi-monochromatic radiation. The insertion devices enable the tailoring of the emitted S.R. to the requirements of the users and can be treated as the first......Modern electron (positron) storage rings are able to emit very intense X-ray radiation with a continuous spectrum extending to 0.1 A, from bending magnets and insertion devices (wavelength shifters and multipole wigglers). It can be used directly for white beam experiments and/or for monochromatic...... optical element of the beam line. This feature is especially important for experiments with samples in special environment because the latter imposes limitations both on scattering and absorption experiments. However, these limitations can be minimized in each case by finding the best match between...

  10. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  11. Multichannel X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabakhpashev, A

    1980-10-01

    A typical design is discussed of multiwire proportional counters and their characteristic feature is explained, ie., the possibility of showing one or two coordinates of the X-ray quantum absorption site. The advantages of such instruments are listed, such as increased sensitivity of determination, the possibility of recording radiations of a different intensity, the possibility of on-line data processing and of the digital display of results. The fields of application include X-ray structural analysis in solid state physics, crystallography, molecular biology, astronomy, materials testing, and medicine.

  12. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  13. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  14. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  15. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Quantitative x-ray fluorescent analysis using fundamental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A monochromatic source of x-rays for sample excitation permits the use of pure elemental standards and relatively simple calculations to convert the measured fluorescent intensities to an absolute basis of weight per unit weight of sample. Only the mass absorption coefficients of the sample for the exciting and the fluorescent radiation need be determined. Besides the direct measurement of these absorption coefficients in the sample, other techniques are considered which require fewer sample manipulations and measurements. These fundamental parameters methods permit quantitative analysis without recourse to the time-consuming process of preparing nearly identical standards

  17. X-ray topographic method of investigation of phase objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levonyan, L.V.

    2001-01-01

    The intensity distribution of the monochromatized synchrotron radiation transmitting through the phase object and crystal-analyzer in Laue geometry is considered. It is shown that the local angular deviation of the incident radiation caused by the refraction on structural inhomogeneities of the object under investigation is directly transferred to the X-ray topographic image. In the absence of the phase object the latter consists of parallel straight fringes with a slowly decreasing period. The presence of the phase object changes the shape and period of fringes. The influence of the spatial and temporal coherence on the image is discussed. 5 refs

  18. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction using triple-axis spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als-Nielsen, J.

    1980-12-01

    High resolution X-ray diffraction studies of (i) monolayers of the noble gases Kr and Ar physiosorbed on graphite (ii) smectic A fluctuations in the nematic and the smectic A phases of liquid crystals are described. The apparatus used is a triple axis spectrometer situated at the storage ring DORIS at Hasylab, DESY, Hamburg. A monochromatic, well collimated beam is extracted from the synchrotron radiation spectrum by Bragg reflection from perfect Si or Ge crystals. The direction of the beam scattered from the sample is determined by Bragg reflection from a perfect Si or Ge crystal. High intensities even with resolution extending beyond the wavelength of visible light can be obtained. (Auth.)

  19. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  20. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  2. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  3. Theory of X-ray microcomputed tomography in dental research: application for the caries research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seok Park

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains prevalent throughout modern society and is the main disease in the field of dentistry. Although studies of this disease have used diverse methodology, recently, X-ray microtomography has gained popularity as a non-destructive, 3-dimensional (3D analytical technique, and has several advantages over the conventional methods. According to X-ray source, it is classified as monochromatic or polychromatic with the latter being more widely used due to the high cost of the monochromatic source despite some advantages. The determination of mineral density profiles based on changes in X-ray attenuation is the principle of this method and calibration and image processing procedures are needed for the better image and reproducible measurements. Using this tool, 3D reconstruction is also possible and it enables to visualize the internal structures of dental caries. With the advances in the computer technology, more diverse applications are being studied, such automated caries assessment algorithms.

  4. Spectral dependence of point defect production by x rays in RbBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.C.; Heald, S.M.; Jiang, D.; Brewe, D.L.; Kim, K.H.; Stern, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    F-center formation by monochromatic x rays has been studied above and below the bromine and rubidium K-absorption edges in crystals of RbBr. The x-ray beam from a double silicon crystal monochromator on an undulator at the Advanced Photon Source was used to produce these point defects, which were detected by a sensitive laser-induced luminescence method. Experiments were carried out over a wide range of monochromatic x-ray intensity, with emphasis on the nearly linear initial slope of defect formation with exposure. No significant increase in F-center formation efficiency was found upon crossing the bromine K edge, which indicates that additional Auger-cascade mechanisms do not appreciably add to the usual multiple ionization electron-hole recombination processes known to generate point defects. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. Spectroscopic study of site selective DNA damage induced by intense soft X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, K

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of DNA damage induced by direct photon impact, we observed the near edge X-ray absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) of DNA nucleobases using monochromatic synchrotron soft X-rays around nitrogen and oxygen K-shell excitation regions. Each spectrum obtained has unique structure corresponding to pi* excitation of oxygen or nitrogen 1s electron. These aspects open a way of nucleobase-selective photo-excitation in a DNA molecule using high resolution monochromatized soft X-rays. From the analysis of polarization-dependent intensities of the pi* resonance peak, it is clarified that adenine, guanine an uracil form orientated surface structure. Furthermore from the direct measurement of positive ions desorbed from photon irradiated DNA components, it is revealed that the sugar moiety is a fragile site in a DNA molecule. (author)

  6. Synchrotron X-ray imaging applied to solar photovoltaic silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafford, T A; Villanova, J; Plassat, N; Dubois, S; Camel, D

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cell performance is dictated by the material of the cell, its quality and purity, the type, quantity, size and distribution of defects, as well as surface treatments, deposited layers and contacts. A synchrotron offers unique opportunities for a variety of complementary X-ray techniques, given the brilliance, spectrum, energy tunability and potential for (sub-) micron-sized beams. Material properties are revealed within in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces. X-ray Diffraction Imaging (X-ray Topography), Rocking Curve Imaging and Section Topography reveal defects such as dislocations, inclusions, misorientations and strain in the bulk and at surfaces. Simultaneous measurement of micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) and micro-X-ray Beam Induced Current (μ-XBIC) gives direct correlation between impurities and PV performance. Together with techniques such as microscopy and Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) measurements, the correlation between structural properties and photovoltaic performance can be deduced, as well as the relative influence of parameters such as defect type, size, spatial distribution and density (e.g [1]). Measurements may be applied at different stages of solar cell processing in order to follow the evolution of the material and its properties through the manufacturing process. Various grades of silicon are under study, including electronic and metallurgical grades in mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline and mono-like forms. This paper aims to introduce synchrotron imaging to non-specialists, giving example results on selected solar photovoltaic silicon samples.

  7. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  8. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  9. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  10. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  12. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TM 8772 5 Literature reports on BiI3/nylon composites used X-ray sources with a Mo target (Reference 18) or magnesium target (Reference 19). However...1981. Pp. D-155 to D-160. 22. G. Pretzsch, B. Dorschel, and T. Schonmuth. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. EI -21, No.3, June 1986

  13. X-ray system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray system tester for measuring anode voltage, cathode voltage, anode current, filament current and line voltage in an X-ray system has a selector which couples one of these analog signals or one of a plurality of processing control signals entered by an operator from a control panel to a digitizing section selectively in accordance with control signals provided to the selector by a computing section. The digitizing section converts the selected signal into a train of pulses having a frequency proportional to the value of the selected signal. These pulses are counted, the counts being used by the computing section to determine the value of the selected signal. This computed value is stored in a computing memory section of the computing section. The computing section is adapted to store a plurality of the sets of signals produced during a corresponding sequence of operational intervals of the X-ray system and determines a measure of the deviation of any selected one of the stored electrical signals over the sequence of operating intervals. Each signal produced during the sequential operational intervals can be recalled to aid analysis of the operation of the X-ray system. (author)

  14. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  15. X-ray simulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, L.D.; Tollefsrud, P.B.; Woodall, H.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Allred, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Design modifications are discussed for an electron beam accelerator used as a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The primary goal of the program, to obtain a reliable 5 cal/gm exposure capability, can be accomplished with beam compression by an external magnetic guide field. Initial operating characteristics and performance improvements are presented

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  17. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)

  18. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  19. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... CXO is 13.8 metres long and its solar arrays have a wingspan of. 19.5 metres as shown in ... the Universe (for example, coronae of stars, matter ejected from .... The telescope system and the scientific instruments were put through ..... solve the puzzle about the origin of cosmic X-ray background- one of the ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  1. Stellar X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.I.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO

    1988-01-01

    I Review some of the salient accomplishments of X-rap studies of compact objects. Progress in this field has closely followed the improvement of observational methods, particularly in angular resolution and duration of exposure. Luminous compact X-ray sources are accreting neutron stars or black holes. Accreting neutron stars may have characteristic temporal signatures, but the only way to establish that an X-ray source is a black hole is to measure its mass. A rough phenomenological theory is succesful, but the transport of angular momentum in accretion flows is not onderstood. A number of interesting complications have been observed, including precessing accretion discs, X-ray bursts, and the acceleration of jets in SS433. Many puzzles remain unsolved, including the excitation of disc precession, the nature of the enigmatic A- and gamma-ray source Cyg X-3, the mechanism by which slowly spinning accreting neutron stars lose angular momentum, and the superabundance of X-ray sources in globular clusters. 41 refs.; 5 figs

  2. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  3. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  4. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure ... diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part ...

  7. Proton exciting X ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1986-04-01

    The analyzing capability of proton exciting X ray analysis for different elements in organisms was discussed, and dealing with examples of trace element analysis in the human body and animal organisms, such as blood serum, urine, and hair. The sensitivity, accuracy, and capability of multielement analysis were discussed. Its strong points for the trace element analysis in biomedicine were explained

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ...

  10. X-ray absorption holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Lausi, A.; Bussetto, E.; Kub, Jiří; Savoia, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 18 (2002), s. 185503-1 - 185503-3 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray holography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  11. Self-seeding scheme with gas monochromator for narrow-bandwidth soft X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim at reducing the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Bragg transmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. Here we consider a possible extension of this method to the soft X-ray range using a cell filled with resonantly absorbing gas as monochromator. The transmittance spectrum in the gas exhibits an absorbing resonance with narrow bandwidth. Then, similarly to the hard X-ray case, the temporal waveform of the transmitted radiation pulse is characterized by a long monochromatic wake. In fact, the FEL pulse forces the gas atoms to oscillate in a way consistent with a forward-propagating, monochromatic radiation beam. The radiation power within this wake is much larger than the equivalent shot noise power in the electron bunch. Further on, the monochromatic wake of the radiation pulse is combined with the delayed electron bunch and amplified in the second undulator. The proposed setup is extremely simple, and composed of as few as two simple elements. These are the gas cell, to be filled with noble gas, and a short magnetic chicane. The installation of the magnetic chicane does not perturb the undulator focusing system and does not interfere with the baseline mode of operation. In this paper we assess the features of gas monochromator based on the use of He and Ne.We analyze the processes in the monochromator gas cell and outside it, touching upon the performance of the differential pumping system as well. We study the feasibility of using the proposed self-seeding technique to generate narrow bandwidth soft X-ray radiation in the LCLS-II soft X-ray beam line. We present conceptual design, technical implementation and expected performances of the gas monochromator self-seeding scheme. (orig.)

  12. Self-seeding scheme with gas monochromator for narrow-bandwidth soft X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-03-01

    Self-seeding schemes, consisting of two undulators with a monochromator in between, aim at reducing the bandwidth of SASE X-ray FELs. We recently proposed to use a new method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in Bragg transmission geometry for self-seeding in the hard X-ray range. Here we consider a possible extension of this method to the soft X-ray range using a cell filled with resonantly absorbing gas as monochromator. The transmittance spectrum in the gas exhibits an absorbing resonance with narrow bandwidth. Then, similarly to the hard X-ray case, the temporal waveform of the transmitted radiation pulse is characterized by a long monochromatic wake. In fact, the FEL pulse forces the gas atoms to oscillate in a way consistent with a forward-propagating, monochromatic radiation beam. The radiation power within this wake is much larger than the equivalent shot noise power in the electron bunch. Further on, the monochromatic wake of the radiation pulse is combined with the delayed electron bunch and amplified in the second undulator. The proposed setup is extremely simple, and composed of as few as two simple elements. These are the gas cell, to be filled with noble gas, and a short magnetic chicane. The installation of the magnetic chicane does not perturb the undulator focusing system and does not interfere with the baseline mode of operation. In this paper we assess the features of gas monochromator based on the use of He and Ne.We analyze the processes in the monochromator gas cell and outside it, touching upon the performance of the differential pumping system as well. We study the feasibility of using the proposed self-seeding technique to generate narrow bandwidth soft X-ray radiation in the LCLS-II soft X-ray beam line. We present conceptual design, technical implementation and expected performances of the gas monochromator self-seeding scheme. (orig.)

  13. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  14. Adjustment of a low energy, X-rays generator (6 kV - 50 mA). Application to X-rays detectors calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legistre, C.

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this memoir is the calibration of an aluminium photocathode X-rays photoelectric detector, in the spectral range 0,5 keV - 1,5 KeV, with a continuous X-ray source. The detectors's calibration consist to measure the detector's sensitivity versus incident energy. In order to produce monochromatic incident beam on the detector, we used a multilayer mirror whose reflectivity was characterized. The measurements are compared to those realized in an other laboratory. (authors). 36 refs., 61 figs., 13 tabs., 2 photos

  15. Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography to visualize specific material distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Atsunori; Akiba, Masahiro; Uchida, Akira; Kazama, Masahiro; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Akatsuka, Takao; Itai, Yuji

    1997-10-01

    Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (FXCT) is being developed to detect non-radioactive contrast materials in living specimens. The FXCT systems consists of a silicon channel cut monochromator, an x-ray slit and a collimator for detection, a scanning table for the target organ and an x-ray detector for fluorescent x-ray and transmission x-ray. To reduce Compton scattering overlapped on the K(alpha) line, incident monochromatic x-ray was set at 37 keV. At 37 keV Monte Carlo simulation showed almost complete separation between Compton scattering and the K(alpha) line. Actual experiments revealed small contamination of Compton scattering on the K(alpha) line. A clear FXCT image of a phantom was obtained. Using this system the minimal detectable dose of iodine was 30 ng in a volume of 1 mm3, and a linear relationship was demonstrated between photon counts of fluorescent x-rays and the concentration of iodine contrast material. The use of high incident x-ray energy allows an increase in the signal to noise ratio by reducing the Compton scattering on the K(alpha) line.

  16. Progress towards sub-micron hard x-ray imaging using elliptically bent mirrors and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, A.A.; Lamble, G.M.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed an x-ray micro-probe facility utilizing mirror bending techniques that allow white light x-rays (4--12keV) from the Advanced light Source Synchrotron to be focused down to spot sizes of micron spatial dimensions. They have installed a 4 crystal monochromator prior to the micro-focusing mirrors. The monochromator is designed such that it can move out of the way of the input beam, and allows the same micron sized sample to be illuminated with either white or monochromatic radiation. Illumination of the sample with white light allows for elemental mapping and Laue x-ray diffraction, while illumination of the sample with monochromatic light allows for elemental mapping (with reduced background), micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-diffraction. The performance of the system will be described as will some of the initial experiments that cover the various disciplines of Earth, Material and Life Sciences

  17. Progress towards sub-micron hard x-ray imaging using elliptically bent mirrors and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDowell, A.A.; Lamble, G.M.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed an x-ray micro-probe facility utilizing mirror bending techniques that allow white light x-rays (4--12keV) from the Advanced light Source Synchrotron to be focused down to spot sizes of micron spatial dimensions. They have installed a 4 crystal monochromator prior to the micro-focusing mirrors. The monochromator is designed such that it can move out of the way of the input beam, and allows the same micron sized sample to be illuminated with either white or monochromatic radiation. Illumination of the sample with white light allows for elemental mapping and Laue x-ray diffraction, while illumination of the sample with monochromatic light allows for elemental mapping (with reduced background), micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-diffraction. The performance of the system will be described as will some of the initial experiments that cover the various disciplines of Earth, Material and Life Sciences.

  18. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  19. X-ray diagnostic in gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suhe; Wang Dalun; Cui Gaoxian; Wang Mei; Fu Yibei; Zhang Xinwei; Zhang Wushou

    1995-01-01

    X rays were observed when the anomalous phenomenon in the metal loaded with deuterium studied by the gas-discharge method. Therefore the X-ray energy spectra were measured by the absorption method, the specific X-ray approach and the NaI scintillation counter, while X-ray intensity was estimated by using 7 Li thermoluminescent foils. The X-ray average energy measured by the absorption method is 27.6 +- 2.1 keV, which is fitted within the error extent to 26.0 +-2.4 keV monoenergetic X rays measured by the NaI scintillation counter

  20. X-ray cardiovascular examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An X-ray source is mounted in an enclosure for angulating longitudinally about a horizontal axis. An X-ray-permeable, patient-supporting table is mounted on the top of the enclosure for executing lateral and longitudinal movements. An X-ray image-receiving device such as an X-ray image intensifier is mounted above the table on a vertically movable arm which is on a longitudinally movable carriage. Electric control means are provided for angulating the X-ray source and image intensifier synchronously as the image intensifier system is shifted longitudinally or vertically such that the central ray from the X-ray source is kept intensifier

  1. X-ray absorption in characterization of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1982-11-01

    Many plastic or metal coated targets are opaque, so their thickness and thickness uniformity cannot be obtained by optical means. Therefore, we have built and tested a new system using monochromatic X-ray absorption measurements. This system is also able to perform non-destructive measurements of argon fill pressure in glass microballoons. The X-ray source is a diffraction tube with a chromium target and fine focus (0.4 x 0.8 mm 2 ). Since monochromatic calculations are involved in this method, we use electronic discrimination to isolate the chromium Kα line (5.4 keV) from the bremsstrahlung spectrum. The detectors are xenon-filled proportional counters. The system is composed of two beams (10 μm in diameter), one used as a reference and the other as the measurement arm. A PET desk computer is coupled ot the experiment. We achieved a precision better than 10% for gold layers in the range of 0.1 to 1 μm, and better than 20% for argon pressures in the range of 5 - 13 bars

  2. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2000-01-01

    X-ray lasers have been extensively studied around the world since the first laboratory demonstration on the Novette laser at LLNL in 1984 [l]. The characteristic properties of short wavelength, high monochromaticity, collimation and coherence make x-ray lasers useful for various applications. These include demonstrations of biological imaging within the water window, interferometry of laser plasmas and radiography of laser-heated surfaces. One of the critical issues has been the high power pump required to produce the inversion. The power scaling as a function of x-ray laser wavelength follows a -k4 to law. The shortest x-ray laser wavelength of ∼ 35 (angstrom) demonstrated for Ni-like All was at the limit of Nova laser capabilities. By requiring large, high power lasers such as Nova, the shot rate and total number of shots available have limited the rapid development of x-ray lasers and applications. In fact over the last fifteen years the main thrust has been to develop more efficient, higher repetition rate x-ray lasers that can be readily scaled to shorter wavelengths. The recent state of progress in the field can be found in references. The objective of the project was to develop a soft x-ray laser (XRL) pumped by a short pulse laser of a few joules. In effect to demonstrate a robust, worlung tabletop x-ray laser at LLNL for the first time. The transient collisional scheme as proposed by Shlyaptsev et al [8, 9] was the candidate x-ray laser for study. The successful endeavour of any scientific investigation is often based upon prudent early decisions and the choice of this scheme was both sound and fruitful. It had been demonstrated very recently for Ne-like Ti at 326 A using a small tabletop laser [10] but had not yet reached its full potential. We chose this scheme for several reasons: (a) it was a collisional-type x-ray laser which has been historically the most robust; (b) it had the promise of high efficiency and low energy threshold for lasing; (c) the

  3. Multilayer optics for x-ray analysis: design - fabrication - application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietsch, R.; Holz, Th.; Bruegemann, L.

    2002-01-01

    substrate dimensions. Magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation are well established deposition techniques to fabricate X-ray optical multilayers. For specific layer material combinations and tailored thickness profiles, Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) has become an interesting alternative to these predominant technologies. As a result of the accuracy achieved with PLD, gradient multilayers of different material combinations can be deposited both on flat and on pre-curved substrates. For several years, Ni/C- Goebel-Mirrors are well established in X-ray diffraction using Cu Kα-radiation. Intensities of more then 10 9 cps together with a low beam divergence Δφ 1 ) : l(Cu Kβ) > 10 6 are realized with the Twin Goebel-Mirror arrangement (TGM). The TGM arrangement is also available for Mo Kα-radiation. A combination of a graded multilayer mirror for Mo Kα-radiation and a Germanium channel cut monochromator is capable of providing monochromatic Mo Kα 1 - radiation. There are further applications of multilayer optics in the high energy range for synchrotron, medical and astrophysical investigations. In surface analyses like AES and SIMS, these nanometer-multilayers can also be used to study depth resolution effects in depth profiling analysis. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  4. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  5. Smart X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michette, A G; Pfauntsch, S J; Sahraei, S; Shand, M; Morrison, G R; Hart, D; Vojnovic, B; Stevenson, T; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Willingale, R; Feldman, C; Button, T; Zhang, D; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D; Wang, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes reflective adaptive/active optics for applications including studies of biological radiation damage. The optics work on the polycapillary principle, but use arrays of channels in thin silicon. For optimum performance the x-rays should reflect once off a channel wall in each of two successive arrays. This reduces aberrations since then the Abbe sine condition is approximately satisfied. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing the arrays via piezo actuation, providing further aberration reduction and controllable focal length.

  6. Use of silicon microstrip detectors in medical diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabal Rodriguez, Ana Ester

    2004-11-01

    This work presents the development and characterization of a single photon counting system based on silicon microstrip detectors, used in High Energy Physics experiments, and on low noise multichannel readout electronics. The thesis evaluates the feasibility of dual energy X-ray imaging with silicon microstrip detectors to be applied on medical diagnosis. Dual energy mammographic and angiographic experimental tests have been performed using the developed counting systems proto types, properly phantoms and quasi-monochromatic X ray beams, obtained on a compact dichromatic source based on a conventional X-ray tube and a mosaic crystal. A Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of the experimental setup for dual X-ray imaging has also been carried out using MCNP-4C transport code. We obtained good agreement between MCNP results and the experimental data. (Author)

  7. Development of a fluorescent x-ray source for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, F.; Tokumori, K.; Nishimura, K.; Saito, T.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M.; Endo, M.; Naito, H.; Uyama, C.

    1995-02-01

    A fluorescent x-ray source for medical imaging, such as K-edge subtraction angiography and monochromatic x-ray CT, has been developed. Using a 6.5 GeV accumulation ring in Tsukuba, fluorescent x rays, which range from about 30 to 70 keV are generated by irradiating several target materials. Measurements have been made of output intensities and energy spectra for different target angles and extraction angles. The intensities of fluorescent x rays at a 30 mA beam current are on the order of 1-3×106 photons/mm2/s at 30 cm from the local spot where the incident beam is collimated to 1 mm2. A phantom which contains three different contrast media (iodine, barium, gadolinium) was used for the K-edge energy subtraction, and element selective CT images were obtained.

  8. X-ray doppler velocimetry for diagnosis of fluid motion in ICF implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; King, J. A.; Huffman, E.; Freeman, R. R.; Dutra, E. C.; Field, J. E.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hall, G. N.; Harding, E.; Rochau, G. A.; Porter, J. L.; Covington, A. M.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-08-01

    We are developing a novel diagnostic for measurement of bulk fluid motion in materials, that is particularly applicable to very hot, x-ray emitting plasmas in the High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) regime. The X-ray Doppler Velocimetry (XDV) technique relies on monochromatic imaging in multiple x-ray energy bands near the center of an x-ray emission line in a plasma, and utilizes bent imaging crystals. Higher energy bands are preferentially sensitive to plasma moving towards the viewer, while lower energy bands are preferentially sensitive to plasma moving away from the viewer. Combining multiple images in different energy bands allows for a reconstruction of the fluid velocity field integrated along the line of sight. We review the technique, and we discuss progress towards benchmarking the technique with proof-of-principle HEDP experiments.

  9. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  10. X-ray area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nintrakit, N.

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray area monitor is a nuclear electronic device that is essential in radiation protection in high radiation laboratories, e.g. in medical diagnosis using X-rays and in industrial X-radiography. Accidentally the level of X-radiator may arise above the safe permissible level and in such a case the alarm system of the area monitor will work and disconnect the ac power supply form the X-ray unit. Principally the device is a radiation counter using G.M.tube as radiation detector with high voltage supply variable form 200 to 2,000 volts. The maximum count rate of the scaler is 1.5 MHz and the total count is displayed on 4 digit LED's. A time base is used to control the counting time, the frequency multiplier, radiation safety limit, comparator and the radiation hazard warning signal. The reliability of the instrument is further enhanced through the addition of the random correction circuit, and it is applicable both in X- and γ -radiation

  11. The feasibility study on 3-dimensional fluorescent x-ray computed tomography using the pinhole effect for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Zeniya, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    We propose a 3-dimensional fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (CT) pinhole collimator, aimed at providing molecular imaging with quantifiable measures and sub-millimeter spatial resolution. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of this concept and investigate imaging properties such as spatial resolution, contrast resolution and quantifiable measures, by imaging physical phantoms using a preliminary imaging system developed with monochromatic synchrotron x rays constructed at the BLNE-7A experimental line at KEK, Japan.

  12. Cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromator for narrow-bandwidth X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Three different approaches have been proposed so far for production of highly monochromatic X-rays from a baseline XFEL undulator: (i) single-bunch selfseeding scheme with a four crystal monochromator in Bragg reflection geometry; (ii) double-bunch self-seeding scheme with a four-crystal monochromator in Bragg reflection geometry; (iii) single-bunch self-seeding scheme with a wake monochromator. A unique element of the X-ray optical design of the last scheme is the monochromatization of X-rays using a single crystal in Bragg-transmission geometry. A great advantage of this method is that the monochromator introduces no path delay of X-rays. This fact eliminates the need for a long electron beam bypass, or for the creation of two precisely separated, identical electron bunches, as required in the other two self-seeding schemes. In its simplest configuration, the self-seeded XFEL consists of an input undulator and an output undulator separated by a monochromator. In some experimental situations this simplest two-undulator configuration is not optimal. The obvious and technically possible extension is to use a setup with three or more undulators separated by monochromators. This amplification-monochromatization cascade scheme is distinguished, in performance, by a small heat-loading of crystals and a high spectral purity of the output radiation. This paper describes such cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators.We present feasibility study and exemplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  13. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  14. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  15. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  16. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subimal; Purushotham, K.V.; Bose, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  17. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-01-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK μW -1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  18. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig and Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK {mu}W{sup -1} and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  19. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard x-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-10-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK µW-1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%.

  20. New developments in simulating X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterzol, A.; Berthier, J.; Duvauchelle, P.; Babot, D.; Ferrero, C.

    2007-01-01

    A deterministic algorithm simulating phase contrast (PC) x-ray images for complex 3- dimensional (3D) objects is presented. This algorithm has been implemented in a simulation code named VXI (Virtual X-ray Imaging). The physical model chosen to account for PC technique is based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The algorithm consists mainly of two parts. The first one exploits the VXI ray-tracing approach to compute the object transmission function. The second part simulates the PC image due to the wave front distortion introduced by the sample. In the first part, the use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex 3D objects. Differently from the VXI original version, which makes use of an object description via triangular facets, the new code requires a more 'sophisticated' object representation based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). As a first step we produce a spatial high resolution image by using a point and monochromatic source and an ideal detector. To simulate the polychromatic case, the intensity image is integrated over the considered x-ray energy spectrum. Then, in order to account for the system spatial resolution properties, the high spatial resolution image (mono or polychromatic) is convolved with the total point spread function of the imaging system under consideration. The results supplied by the presented algorithm are examined with the help of some relevant examples. (authors)

  1. Development of quantitative x-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, H.W.; Dunsmuir, J.A.; D'Amico, K.L.; Ferguson, S.R.; Flannery, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have developed several x-ray microtomography systems which function as quantitative three dimensional x-ray microscopes. In this paper the authors describe the evolutionary path followed from making the first high resolution experimental microscopes to later generations which can be routinely used for investigating materials. Developing the instrumentation for reliable quantitative x-ray microscopy using synchrotron and laboratory based x-ray sources has led to other imaging modalities for obtaining temporal and spatial two dimensional information

  2. X-ray diagnostics - benefits and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The brochure on benefits and risks of X-ray diagnostics discusses the following issues: X radiation - a pioneering discovery and medical sensation, fundamentals of X radiation, frequency of X-ray examinations in Germany in relation to CT imaging, radiation doses resulting from X-ray diagnostics, benefits of X-ray diagnostics - indication and examples, risks - measures for radiation exposure reductions, avoidance of unnecessary examinations.

  3. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  4. Transient soft X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Murakami, T.; Nagase, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamashita, K.

    1976-01-01

    A rocket observation of cosmic soft X-rays suggests the existence of transient, recurrent soft X-ray sources which are found variable during the flight time of the rocket. Some of the soft X-ray sources thus far reported are considered to be of this time. These sources are listed and their positions are shown. (Auth.)

  5. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source

  6. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  7. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emitting Products and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most x- ...

  8. Automatic weld joint X-ray inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.U.; Linke, D.; Siems, K.D.; Kruse, H.; Schuetze, E.

    1990-01-01

    A gantry mounted robotic x-ray inspection unit has been developed for the series testing of small and medium sized welded components (pipe bends and nozzles). The unit features computer controlled positioning of the x-ray tube and x-ray image amplifier. Image quality classes 2 and even 1 could be achieved without difficulty. (author)

  9. Characteristics of X ray calibration fields for performance test of radiation measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sawahata, Tadahiro; Tohnami, Kohichi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Murayama, Takashi

    1999-02-01

    Performance test and calibration of the radiation measuring instruments for low energy photons are made using the X ray calibration fields which are monochromatically characterized by filtration of continuous X ray spectrum. The X ray calibration field needs to be characterized by some quality conditions such as quality index and homogeneity coefficient. The present report describes quality conditions, spectrum and some characteristics of X ray irradiation fields in the Facility of Radiation Standard of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (FRS-JAERI). Fifty nine X ray qualities with the quality index of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were set for the tube voltages between 10 kV and 350 kV. Estimation of X ray spectrum measured with a Ge detector was made in terms of exposure, ambient dose equivalent and fluence for all the obtained qualities. Practical irradiation field was determined as the dose distribution uniformity is within ±3%. The obtained results improve the quality of X ray calibration fields and calibration accuracy. (author)

  10. Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Ren, B.; Wu, X.Y.; Orion, I.; Zhong, Z.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new, synchrotron-based, x-ray radiography method that uses monochromatic, fan-shaped beams, with an analyser crystal positioned between the subject and the detector. The analyser allows the detection of only those x-rays transmitted by the subject that fall into the acceptance angle (central part of the rocking curve) of the monochromator/analyser system. As shown by Chapman et al , in addition to the x-ray attenuation, the method provides information on the out-of-plane angular deviation of x-rays. New images result in which the image contrast depends on the x-ray index of refraction and on the yield of small-angle scattering, respectively. We implemented DEI in the tomography mode at the National Synchrotron Light Source using 22 keV x-rays, and imaged a cylindrical acrylic phantom that included oil-filled, slanted channels. The resulting 'refraction CT image' shows the pure image of the out-of-plane gradient of the x-ray index of refraction. No image artefacts were present, indicating that the CT projection data were a consistent set. The 'refraction CT image' signal is linear with the gradient of the refractive index, and its value is equal to that expected. The method, at the energy used or higher, has the potential for use in clinical radiography and in industry. (author)

  11. X-ray photographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray photographic system is designed for medical applications. Two detectors are used for surveys in different planes, and produce electrical signals which are supplied to a comparator. The electron beams are examined according to a system of reference time steps. The apparatus includes a light source and a photo-detector and enables a reference signal to be produced against which the detected signals are compared. The beam source is formed from an electron gun, an extractor electrode and an anode; beam then passes through a collimator. (G.C.)

  12. X-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A circular array of cold cathode diode X-ray sources, for radiation imaging applications, such as computed tomography includes electrically conductive cathode plates each of which cooperates with at least two anodes to form at least two diode sources. In one arrangement, two annular cathodes are separated by radially extending, rod-like anodes. Field enhancement blades may be provided on the cathodes. In an alternative arrangement, the cathode plates extend radially and each pair is separated by an anode plate also extending radially. (author)

  13. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossomaier, T.R.J.; Sangway, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It is claimed that stabilization of X-ray intensifying screens against discolouration and hydrolysis of lanthanum or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphors can be achieved by incorporating into the phosphor/binder formulation a compound containing free epoxy groups. Suitable epoxy compounds include gamma glycidoxy trimethoxy silane and dimethyl di(m-glycidoxy methylphenyl) methane. The oxyhalide may be activated by Tb, Tm or Yb and may be mixed with other phosphors. Plasticisers and organo-tin stabilisers for the formulation are given. Many binders are specified, preferably these should not react with the free epoxy groups. (UK)

  14. Protonium X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D

    1999-01-01

    The Lyman and Balmer transitions from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were studied extensively at the low-energy-antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. A first series of experiments $9 was performed with semiconductor and gaseous X-ray detectors. In the last years of LEAR operation using a Bragg crystal spectrometer, strong interaction parameters in the 2p states of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were measured $9 directly. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (39 refs).

  15. X-ray calibration qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Since the recent publication of IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 374 ''Calibration of Dosimeters Used in Radiotheraphy'', there have been a number of queries about the origin of, and the rationale behind, the X-ray qualities recommended for calibration purposes. The simple answer is that these are the qualities derived at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in 1971 for calibration of therapy-level dosimeters and which are still in use for that purpose. As some SSDLs may have difficulties in adopting these exact combinations of kV and filtration. This paper discusses the basic ideas involved, and how to go about deriving a different series of qualities

  16. Spectromicroscope for the PHotoelectron Imaging of Nanostructures with X-rays (SPHINX): performance in biology, medicine and geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazer, B.H.; Girasole, Marco; Wiese, L.M.; Franz, Torsten; De Stasio, G

    2004-05-15

    Several X-ray PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopes (X-PEEMs) exist around the world at this time. We present recent performance and resolution tests of one of them, the Spectromicroscope for PHotoelectron Imaging of Nanostructures with X-rays (SPHINX) X-PEEM, installed at the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center. With this state-of-the-art instrument we demonstrate chemical analysis capabilities on conducting and insulating specimens of diverse interests, and an unprecedented lateral resolution of 10 nm with monochromatic X-rays and 7.2 nm with ultraviolet illumination.

  17. Magnetic X-ray measurements using the elliptical multipole wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, P. A.; Li, Y.; Beno, M. A.; Jennings, G.; Kimball, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The EMW at the BESSRC beam lines at the APS provides high photon flux at high energies with the capability of producing circular polarization on axis. The authors observe a high degree of circularly polarized x-rays at such energies. The polarization and frequency tunability of the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW) is an ideal source for many magnetic measurements from X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) to Compton scattering experiments. They performed Compton scattering measurements to determine the polarization and photon flux at the sample as a function of the deflection parameters K y and K x . They used for their measurements a Si (220) Laue monochromator providing simultaneous photon energies at 50 keV, 100 keV and 150 keV. Magnetic Compton Profiles were determined by either switching the magnet polarity or the photon helicity. The results obtained using Fe(110) single crystals were very similar

  18. Note: A novel method for in situ loading of gases via x-ray induced chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Park, Changyong; Liu, Yu; Galley, Martin; Robinson, John; Bhattacharya, Neelanjan (UNLV); (CIW)

    2011-12-14

    We have developed and demonstrated a novel method to load oxygen in a sealed diamond anvil cell via the x-ray induced decomposition of potassium chlorate. By irradiating a pressurized sample of an oxidizer (KClO{sub 3}) with either monochromatic or white beam x-rays from the Advanced Photon Source at ambient temperature and variable pressure, we succeeded in creating a localized region of molecular oxygen surrounded by unreacted sample which was confirmed via Raman spectroscopy. We anticipate that this technique will be useful in loading even more challenging, difficult-to-load gases such as hydrogen and also to load multiple gases.

  19. Note: A novel method for in situ loading of gases via x-ray induced chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Park, Changyong; Liu, Yu; Galley, Martin; Robinson, John; Bhattacharya, Neelanjan

    2011-10-01

    We have developed and demonstrated a novel method to load oxygen in a sealed diamond anvil cell via the x-ray induced decomposition of potassium chlorate. By irradiating a pressurized sample of an oxidizer (KClO3) with either monochromatic or white beam x-rays from the Advanced Photon Source at ambient temperature and variable pressure, we succeeded in creating a localized region of molecular oxygen surrounded by unreacted sample which was confirmed via Raman spectroscopy. We anticipate that this technique will be useful in loading even more challenging, difficult-to-load gases such as hydrogen and also to load multiple gases.

  20. Improvement of graphite crystal analyzer for light elements on X-ray fluorescence holography measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Naohisa; Hada, Takuma; Kubota, Atsushi; Ebisu, Yoshihiro; Hosokawa, Shinya; Kimura, Koji; Tajiri, Hiroo; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Kouichi

    2018-05-01

    Using a graphite crystal analyzer, focused monochromatic fluorescent X-rays can be obtained on an X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) measurement. To measure the holograms of elements lighter than Ti, we improved a cylindrical-type crystal analyzer and constructed a small C-shaped analyzer. Using the constructed C-shaped analyzer, a Ca Kα hologram of a fluorite single crystal was obtained, from which we reconstructed a clear atomic image. The XFH measurements for the K, Ca, and Sc elements become possible using the presently constructed analyzer.

  1. NIKOLA TESLA AND THE X-RAY

    OpenAIRE

    Rade R. Babic

    2005-01-01

    After professor Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen published his study of an x-ray discovery (Academy Bulletin, Berlin, 08. 11. 1895.), Nikola Tesla published his first study of an x-ray on the 11th of March in 1896. (X-ray, Electrical Review). Until the 11th of August in 1897 he had published ten studies on this subject. All Tesla,s x-ray studies were experimental, which is specific to his work. Studying the nature of the x-ray, he established a new medical branch-radiology. He wrote:” There’s no doubt...

  2. Einstein pictures the x-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartline, B.K.

    1979-01-01

    The second High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-2, Einstein) is revolutionizing x-ray astronomy just as its namesake revolutionized physics. Earlier x-ray observatories, including HEAO-1, were designed to scan the sky for x-ray emitters. With Einstein, the challenge has shifted from discovering x-ray sources to understanding the processes producing the x-rays. But having 500 times the sensitivity of previous detectors, Einstein makes more than its share of discoveries, too. For example, it sees distant quasars and clusters of galaxies that can barely be detected by the largest optical telescopes

  3. Picosecond x-ray streak camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyanov, Yu.S.; Malyutin, A.A.; Richardson, M.C.; Chevokin, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Some initial results of direct measurement of picosecond x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas are presented. A PIM-UMI 93 image converter tube, incorporating an x-ray sensitive photocathode, linear deflection, and three stages of image amplification was used to analyse the x-ray radiation emanating from plasmas produced from solid Ti targets by single high-intensity picosecond laser pulses. From such plasmas, the x-ray emission typically persisted for times of 60psec. However, it is shown that this detection system should be capable of resolving x-ray phenomena of much shorter duration. (author)

  4. Si(Li) X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xianglin; Li Zhiyong; Hong Xiuse

    1990-08-01

    The fabrication technology of the 10∼80 mm 2 Si(Li) X-ray detectors are described and some problems concerning technology and measurement are discussed. The specifications of the detectors are shown as well. The Si(Li) X-ray detector is a kind of low energy X-ray detectors. Owing to very high energy resolution, fine linearity and high detection efficiency in the range of low energy X-rays, it is widely used in the fields of nuclear physics, medicine, geology and environmental protection, etc,. It is also a kernel component for the scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence analysis systems

  5. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer for biological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi; Koyama, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, Akio [Hitachi Ltd., Advanced Research Laboratory, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The potential of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer is discussed comparing with other phase-contrast X-ray imaging methods, and its principle of contrast generation is presented including the case of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The status of current instrumentation is described and perspectives for practical applications are discussed. (author)

  6. Method for spatially modulating X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2015-03-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for spatially modulating X-rays or X-ray pulses using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based X-ray optics. A torsionally-oscillating MEMS micromirror and a method of leveraging the grazing-angle reflection property are provided to modulate X-ray pulses with a high-degree of controllability.

  7. X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect x-ray-drive implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sakabe, Shuji; Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1983-01-01

    X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect X-ray drive pellet implosion for inertial confinement fusion has been numerically analyzed. Attainable X-ray driven ablation pressure has been found to be coupled with X-ray irradiation uniformity. (author)

  8. X-ray diffraction device comprising cooling medium connections provided on the x-ray tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction device comprises a water-cooled X-ray tube which exhibits a line focus as well as, after rotation through 90 DEG , a point focus. Contrary to customary X-ray tubes, the cooling water is not supplied via the housing (12) in which the X-ray tube is mounted, but the cooling water

  9. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Boyle, M.J.; Glaros, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  10. Determination of the metal distribution in tooth fillings in real teeth based on element sensitive X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masschaele, B.; Mondelaers, W.; Cauwels, P.; Jolie, J.; Baechler, S.; Materna, T.

    2000-01-01

    Since a couple of centuries people are using metal tooth-fillings in order to protect their teeth. In the beginning of the 19th century the amalgam or silver fillings were introduced for to first time. Nowadays, dentists mostly use amalgam. These fillings are a mixture of silver, tin and mercury. The mercury which is abundant, about 50%, is dangerous for any living organism. Mercury has a particular affinity for the brain tissue but is also accumulated in the liver, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal track and jawbone. Mercury Basely crosses the placenta and is gathered in the heart, pituitary gland and liver of the fetus. It is been proven that the mercury vaporises and enter enters the body via the lungs. Since a couple of years we apply the element sensitive X-ray tomography technique on heavy elements like uranium or lead. By scanning teeth using photons having two different energies, one just below and one just above the K-edge of the element under investigation, the tomography becomes element sensitive. The experiment has been done at the ESRF, beam line ID15A, with a very intense tunable monochromatic high energy X-ray beam. We made tomographies of different teeth with 20 μm image resolution. The slices were 20 μm apart. The results after reconstruction are three dimensional mercury maps which can tell us something about the possibility of mercury diffusion into the roots of the tooth. From there the mercury could enter the blood stream and end up in the organs. (author)

  11. High-speed X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckers, W.; Oppolzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of lattice defects in semiconductor crystals by conventional X-ray diffraction topography is very time-consuming. Exposure times can be reduced by using high-intensity X-rays and X-ray image intensifiers. The described system comprises a high-power rotating-anode X-ray tube, a remote-controlled X-ray topography camera, and a television system operating with an X-ray sensing VIDICON. System performance is demonstrated with reference to exploratory examples. The exposure time for photographic plates is reduced to 1/20 and for the X-ray TV system (resolution of the order of 30 μm) to 1/100 relative to that required when using a conventional topography system. (orig.) [de

  12. X-ray and gamma radiography devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    When we are using this technique, we also must familiar with the device and instrument that used such as gamma projector, crawler, x-ray tubes and others. So this chapter discussed detailed on device used for radiography work. For the x-ray and gamma, their characteristics are same but the source to produce is a big different. X-ray produced from the machine meanwhile, gamma produce from the source such as Co-60 and IR-192. Both are electromagnetic waves. So, the reader can have some knowledge on what is x-ray tube, discrete x-ray and characteristic x-ray, how the machine works and how to control a machine, what is source for gamma emitter, how to handle the projector and lastly difference between x-ray and gamma. Of course this cannot be with the theory only, so detailed must be learned practically.

  13. Exploring the X-Ray Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Frederick D.; Charles, Philip A.

    1995-11-01

    Exploring the X-Ray Universe describes the view of the stars and galaxies that is obtained through X-ray telescopes. X-rays, which are invisible to human sight, are created in the cores of active galaxies, in cataclysmic stellar explosions, and in streams of gas expelled by the Sun and stars. The window on the heavens used by the X-ray astronomers shows the great drama of cosmic violence on the grandest scale. This account of X-ray astronomy incorporates the latest findings from several observatories operating in space. These include the Einstein Observatory operated by NASA, and the EXOSAT satellite of the European Space Agency. The book covers the entire field, with chapters on stars, supernova remnants, normal and active galaxies, clusters of galaxies, the diffuse X-ray background, and much more. The authors review basic principles, include the necessary historical background, and explain exactly what we know from X-ray observations of the Universe.

  14. Small scale soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; DiCicco, D.S.; Kim, D.; Voorhees, D.; Suckewer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread application of soft x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small scale soft x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers pumped by a Nd laser of energy 6-12J is reported below. Application of an existing soft x-ray laser to x-ray microscopy has begun. A soft x-ray laser of output energy 1-3 mJ at 18,2 nm has been used to record high resolution images of biological specimens. The contact images were recorded on photoresist which was later viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The authors present a composite optical x-ray laser microscope design

  15. Accelerator X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first monograph to cover in-depth the production of brilliant x-ray beams in accelerators, with emphasis on fourth generation designs, such as energy recovery linacs (ERL), fast cycling storage rings, and free electron lasers (FEL). Going beyond existing treatments of the influence of synchroton radiation on accelerator operation, special emphasis is placed on the design of undulator-based beam lines, and the physics of undulator radiation. Starting from the unified treatment of electron and photon beams both as bunches of particles and as waves, the author proceeds to analyse the main components, from electron gun, through linac and arc lattice, to the x-ray beam line. Designs are given for both an ERL and a more conventional storage ring complex, and their anticipated properties are compared in detail. Space charge effects are analysed with emphasis on coherent synchrotron radiation and emittance dilution. Beam diagnostics using synchrotron radiation or laser wire (Compton scattering) are also analysed in detail. Written primarily for general, particle, and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers. (orig.)

  16. Application of X-rays and Synchrotron X Rays to Residual Stress Evaluation Near Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, Anke

    1999-01-01

    A nondestructive residual stress analysis can be performed using diffraction methods. The easiest accessible radiation is characteristic X radiation that has a penetration depth of ∼10 microm suitable for the determination of the residual stresses in near-surface layers. Special techniques have been developed, e.g., with respect to in situ analyses of the stress state in oxide layers and the residual stress analysis in coarse grained zones of steel welds or annealed Ni-base alloys. Depending on the size of the gauge volume, neutron diffraction can provide information at depths of tens of millimetres of steel and many tens of millimetres of Al. An alternative to the use of the characteristic synchrotron radiation is the use of a high-energy polychromatic beam in an energy dispersive arrangement, which gives access to higher penetration depths at still gauge volumes as small as 100 microm x 100 microm x 1 mm in steel rods of 15-mm diameter. The combination of neutrons with conventional X rays and monochromatic and polychromatic synchrotron radiation allows for a comprehensive investigation of the phase composition, the texture, and the residual stresses

  17. Anomalous scattering, transport, and spatial distribution of X-ray fluorescence at the exit of polycapillary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazuritskiy, M. I., E-mail: mazurmik@gmail.com; Lerer, A. M.; Makhno, P. V. [Southern Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The angular distribution of the X-ray intensity at the exit of microchannel plates at grazing incidence of monochromatic radiation on the walls of microcapillaries has been investigated. The angles and energies of the primary radiation quanta at which the synchrotron beam excites X-ray fluorescence propagating inside polycapillary structures have been determined. The angular dependences of the intensity distribution of X-rays transmitted through the microcapillaries have been studied theoretically and experimentally for energies corresponding to the region of anomalous dispersion near the L{sub 2,3} absorption edges of silicon. The propagation of waves in hollow polycapillary waveguides, the excitation of X-ray fluorescence, and the X-ray diffraction at the exit of microchannel plates have been modeled mathematically. The mathematical model takes into account the presence of a transition layer on the microchannel surface.

  18. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, G.W.; DeBoer, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray intensifying screen comprises a support which has a luminescent composition comprising an isotropic phosphor and a polymer having an index of refraction within 0.02 of that of the phosphor over at least 80 percent of its emission spectrum. The support has an index of refraction up to or equal to 0.05 units higher than that of the phosphor and has a reflection optical density of at least 1.7 to light emitted by the phosphor. A preferred luminescent composition comprises Kl:Tl, Rbl:Tl at BaSrFCl:Eu mixed with two monomers such as 1-naphthylmethylmethacrylate, S(1-naphthylmethyl) thioacrylate, 1-bromo-2-naphthylacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate, coated on black anodised Al and polymerised in situ. The ratio of monomers is adjusted to give the desired refractive index. Other phosphors, polymers and supports are specified together with the preparation of the monomers and polymers. (author)

  19. X-ray protective garment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim relates to a protective apron. It incorporates material comprising an array of at least two superposed sheets prepared from a composition comprising a natural or synthetic polymeric material, optionally in combination with a plasticiser, and, as a filler, a material serving as an x-ray absorber, the outer, or the outer two sheets having on their outer surfaces a decorative and/or protective surface covering, for example, a layer of unfilled rubber or plastics material, the array of superposed sheets being bonded together round its edges, there being unbonded areas between the sheets in regions away from the edges. Bonding may be by welding, adhesion or stitching. (U.K.)

  20. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro arc seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed atmospheric absorption

  1. X-ray tomographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray tomographic system consists of a radiation source such as gamma or x radiation which produces a fan-shaped beam. The fan is wide enough to encompass the patient circle. The system further includes means for rotating the radiation source about the patient for less than a full rotation, and detectors for detecting the radiation at positions that surround the patient by 180 0 plus the angle of the fan beam plus the angle between adjacent fan detectors. Attenuation data from the detectors is sorted into detector fans of attenuation data, then processed. The convolved data is back-projected into an image memory and displayed on a video monitor

  2. Acoustooptics of x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakhanov, M.V.; Pustovoyt, V.I.; Radzhabov, R.U.; Khabibullayev, P.K.

    Scattering of x-rays by acoustic phonons in crystals during excitation of a noise phonon flux thermodynamically at equilibrium is analyzed from the standpoint of the dynamic diffraction theory, emphasis being put on the differences with the conventional acoustooptic effect attributable to lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes. The structural peak and the diffusional peak are calculated from known relations for the intensity of scattering in each mode, assuming that the Laue condition is satisfied. Interaction of x-rays and an acoustic wave is considered, the conditions for a diffraction peak being determined by the relations between location of that peak and angular dimensions of the structural peak. Experiments were performed in crystals of photosensitive piezoelectric semiconductors with phonon generation. Rectangular or variable-shape voltage pulses with amplitudes up to 800 V were applied to 6-60 ..mu..m thick CdS crystals at repetition rates up to 800 Hz. The electron concentration was (1.3-4.5) x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ and the electron mobility, according to saturation of the current-voltage characteristics, was differentially in time. The results reveal sharp anisotropy of scattering, evident in the dependence of scattering intensity on the angle of crystal rotation and the resulting lobar scattering pattern. Structural scattering varies exponentially and diffusional scattering varies linearly with increasing amplitude of the applied voltage. According to the dependence of the spectral density of phonon generation on the concentration of charge carriers, the phase of the scattering effect changes upon transition from the structural range to the diffusional range. 8 references, 3 figures.

  3. Harmonic lasing in x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Schneidmiller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned x-ray free electron laser (FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of x-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned x-ray FEL (XFEL facilities. In particular, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25–30 keV providing multigigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow one to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV, to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other x-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact x-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy, allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of

  4. Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Ding Xunliang

    2007-01-01

    A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of the excitation of two X-ray beams were investigated. The instrument enabled highly sensitive three-dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. We confirmed that the X-ray fluorescence intensity from the sample increased by applying the two independent X-ray tubes in confocal configuration. Elemental depth profiling of black wheat was demonstrated with the result that each element in the surface coat of a wheat grain showed unique distribution

  5. Parallel beam microradiography of dental hard tissue using synchrotron radiation and X-ray image magnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, S.; Chow, L.C.; Brown, W.E.; Dobbyn, R.C.; Kuriyama, M.

    1984-01-01

    A novel technique utilizing a highly parallel beam of monochromatic synchrotron radiation combined with X-ray image magnification has been used to obtain microradiographs of caries lesions in relatively thick tooth sections. Preliminary results reveal structural features not previously reported. This technique holds the promise of allowing one to follow the structural changes accompanying the formation, destruction and chemical repair of mineralized tissue in real time. (orig.)

  6. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.F.; Yue, Y.; Poola, R.; Wang, J.

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 μs. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date

  7. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C F; Yue, Y; Poola, R; Wang, J

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 micros. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date.

  8. Sensors for x-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi; Kondo, Ichiro; Nishioka, Yonero; Kameda, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Masaki.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of observing the cosmic X-ray, the cosmic X-ray astronomy satellite (CORSA-b, named ''Hakucho'', Japanese for cygnus,) was launched Feb. 21, 1979 by Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. The primary objectives of the satellite are: to perform panoramic survey of the space for X-ray bursts and to perform the spectral and temporal measurement of X-ray sources. The very soft X-ray sensor for X-ray observation and the horizon sensor for spacecraft attitude sensing were developed by Toshiba Corporation under technical support by University of Tokyo and Nagoya University for ''Hakucho''. The features of these sensors are outlined in this paper. (author)

  9. Handbook of X-Ray Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornack, Günter

    2007-01-01

    This sourcebook is intended as an X-ray data reference for scientists and engineers working in the field of energy or wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry and related fields of basic and applied research, technology, or process and quality controlling. In a concise and informative manner, the most important data connected with the emission of characteristic X-ray lines are tabulated for all elements up to Z = 95 (Americium). This includes X-ray energies, emission rates and widths as well as level characteristics such as binding energies, fluorescence yields, level widths and absorption edges. The tabulated data are characterized and, in most cases, evaluated. Furthermore, all important processes and phenomena connected with the production, emission and detection of characteristic X-rays are discussed. This reference book addresses all researchers and practitioners working with X-ray radiation and fills a gap in the available literature.

  10. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  11. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  12. Asymmetrically cut crystal pair as x-ray magnifier for imaging at high intensity laser facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., 2922 Excelsior Spring Circle, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Seely, J. F. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Curry, J. J.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The potential of an x-ray magnifier prepared from a pair of asymmetrically cut crystals is studied to explore high energy x-ray imaging capabilities at high intensity laser facilities. OMEGA-EP and NIF when irradiating mid and high Z targets can be a source of high-energy x-rays whose production mechanisms and use as backlighters are a subject of active research. This paper studies the properties and potential of existing asymmetric cut crystal pairs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) built in a new enclosure for imaging x-ray sources. The technique of the x-ray magnifier has been described previously. This new approach is aimed to find a design that could be used at laser facilities by magnifying the x-ray source into a screen far away from the target chamber center, with fixed magnification defined by the crystals' lattice spacing and the asymmetry angles. The magnified image is monochromatic and the imaging wavelength is set by crystal asymmetry and incidence angles. First laboratory results are presented and discussed.

  13. Using angular dispersion and anomalous transmission to shape ultramonochromatic x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvyd' ko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav; Shu, Deming; Khachatryan, Ruben [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Optical spectrometers, instruments that work with highly monochromatic light, are commonly rated by the spectral bandwidth, which defines the ability to resolve closely spaced spectral components. Another equally important feature is the spectral contrast, the ability to detect faint objects among these components. Here we demonstrate that a combined effect of angular dispersion (AD) and anomalous transmission (AT) of x rays in Bragg reflection from asymmetrically cut crystals can shape spectral distributions of x rays to profiles with high contrast and small bandwidths. The AD and AT x-ray optics is implemented as a five-reflection, three-crystal arrangement featuring a combination of the above-mentioned attributes so desirable for x-ray monochromators and analyzers: a spectral contrast of {approx_equal} 500, a bandwidth of {approx_equal} 0.46 meV, and a remarkably large angular acceptance of {approx_equal} 107 {mu}rad with 9.1 keV x rays. The new optics can become a foundation for the next-generation inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometers for studies of atomic dynamics.

  14. Arrangement for X-ray shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    X-ray screen unit consisting of a light transmissive carrier onto which scintillation material is deposited, which is able to generate light under the influence of incident X-ray irradiation, characterised in that the X-ray screen comprises a number of sectors, wherein the surface with respect to the incident X-radiation is maintained at an acute angle. (G.C.)

  15. X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An improved real-time x-ray image intensifier tube of the proximity type used for medical x-ray fluoroscopy is described. It is claimed that this intensifier is of sufficient gain and resolution whilst remaining convenient to use and that the design is such that the patient dosage is minimized whilst the x-ray image information content at the scintillator-photocathode screen is maximized. (U.K.)

  16. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed

  17. The Livermore X-ray Laser Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    I will report on the status of x-ray laser development and its applications at Livermore. I will review some of our recent results and comment on where our future research is headed including plans for developing a compact x-ray laser users facility. Finally, I will briefly summarize the results of an X-ray Laser Applications Workshop that was held in San Francisco in January 1992

  18. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  19. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  20. Soft x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the development and of the current state of the art in picosecond soft x-ray streak camera technology. Accomplishments from a number of institutions are discussed. X-ray streak cameras vary from standard visible streak camera designs in the use of an x-ray transmitting window and an x-ray sensitive photocathode. The spectral sensitivity range of these instruments includes portions of the near UV and extends from the subkilovolt x- ray region to several tens of kilovolts. Attendant challenges encountered in the design and use of x-ray streak cameras include the accommodation of high-voltage and vacuum requirements, as well as manipulation of a photocathode structure which is often fragile. The x-ray transmitting window is generally too fragile to withstand atmospheric pressure, necessitating active vacuum pumping and a vacuum line of sight to the x-ray signal source. Because of the difficulty of manipulating x-ray beams with conventional optics, as is done with visible light, the size of the photocathode sensing area, access to the front of the tube, the ability to insert the streak tube into a vacuum chamber and the capability to trigger the sweep with very short internal delay times are issues uniquely relevant to x-ray streak camera use. The physics of electron imaging may place more stringent limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution obtainable with x-ray photocathodes than with the visible counterpart. Other issues which are common to the entire streak camera community also concern the x-ray streak camera users and manufacturers